WorldWideScience

Sample records for warranty

  1. 40 CFR 85.2109 - Inclusion of warranty provisions in owners' manuals and warranty booklets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclusion of warranty provisions in owners' manuals and warranty booklets. 85.2109 Section 85.2109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....2109 Inclusion of warranty provisions in owners' manuals and warranty booklets. (a) A manufacturer...

  2. Warranty cost analysis using alternating quasi-renewal processes with a warranty option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedida, Sarada; Unnissa Munavar, Mubashir; Ranjani, R.

    2012-03-01

    This article analyses a repairable deteriorating system with quasi-renewal operating and repair times during warranty. To establish the importance of non-negligible repair times modelled with quasi-renewal processes in warranty cost analysis, a fixed warranty model is developed and the results are compared with an existing model using expected warranty cost. Sensitivity analysis and graphical illustrations are provided to highlight the effect of various cost parameters on the expected warranty cost by means of three different distributions. In order to examine the cost implications to the customer and manufacturer, an extended warranty model in which a manufacturer offers a warranty option to the customer with two different policies, has been proposed. Based on the long-run average cost per unit time, profit analysis has been carried out for the manufacturer as it is an essential aspect of warranty management. This article emphasises the incorporation of non-negligible 'improved' repair times during warranty.

  3. Allocating outsourced warranty service contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Opp; I. Adan; V.G. Kulkarni; J.M. Swaminathan

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by our interactions with a leading manufacturer of computers, in this paper we consider static allocation as applied to the problem of minimizing the costs of outsourcing warranty services to repair vendors. Under static allocation, a manufacturer assigns each item to one of several contra

  4. Modeling total expenditure on warranty claims

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Abhimanyu

    2010-01-01

    We approximate the distribution of total expenditure of a retail company over warranty claims incurred in a fixed period [0, T], say the following quarter. We consider two kinds of warranty policies, namely, the non-renewing free replacement warranty policy and the non-renewing pro-rata warranty policy. Our approximation holds under modest assumptions on the distribution of the sales process of the warranted item and the nature of arrivals of warranty claims. We propose a method of using historical data to statistically estimate the parameters of the approximate distribution. Our methodology is applied to the warranty claims data from a large car manufacturer for a single car model and model year.

  5. 40 CFR 205.58-1 - Warranty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warranty. 205.58-1 Section 205.58-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.58-1 Warranty. (a) The vehicle...

  6. Research on Probability for Failures in VW Cars During Warranty and Post-Warranty Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Luneckas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the distribution of failures in „Volkswagen“ car during warranty and post-warranty periods. A statistical mathematical model has been developed upon collecting distribution data on car failures. Considering mileage rates, probabilities for a failure in the systems, including suspension and transmission, cooling, electrical, etc., have been determined during warranty and expiration periods. The obtained results of the conducted research have been compared. The reached conclusions have been formulated and summarized.

  7. 48 CFR 245.607-70 - Scrap warranty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scrap warranty. 245.607-70... Contractor Inventory 245.607-70 Scrap warranty. (a) If the contractor sells its inventory as scrap to anyone... 1639, Scrap Warranty. (b) The contracting officer may release the contractor from the terms of...

  8. 48 CFR 245.7310-7 - Scrap warranty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scrap warranty. 245.7310-7... Scrap warranty. The following condition shall be used whenever property, other than production scrap, is offered for sale as scrap: Scrap Warranty The Purchaser represents and warrants that the property will...

  9. 23 CFR 635.413 - Guaranty and warranty clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... include warranty provisions in National Highway System (NHS) construction contracts in accordance with the... procedures regarding the inclusion of warranty provisions in non-NHS Federal-aid contracts. (e) In the case...) of this section. (1) General project warranties may be used on NHS projects, provided: (i) The...

  10. 16 CFR 239.5 - Performance of warranties or guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of warranties or guarantees. 239.5 Section 239.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE ADVERTISING OF WARRANTIES AND GUARANTEES § 239.5 Performance of warranties or guarantees....

  11. 48 CFR 46.706 - Warranty terms and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government for breach of warranty; (3) Specific remedies available to the Government; and (4) Scope and... remedies, such as authorizing the Government to— (A) Retain the defective item and reduce the contract... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.706 Warranty terms and conditions. (a) To...

  12. The Warranty--One Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the first year of a program conducted by two Oregon institutions of higher education that "warranty" their teacher education graduates. The program provides support to graduates and their employers, encourages collaboration between the teacher education program and local schools, makes the teacher education faculty accountable,…

  13. Quality Assurance Program: Beginning Teacher Warranty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.

    This report discusses the Quality Assurance Program at the OSU/WOSC School of Education, a merged school serving Oregon State University and Western Oregon State College. This major reform in teacher education is designed to bring a high level of accountability to teacher education and is called a "Warranty of First-Year Teachers." If,…

  14. Integration of Warranties into an Aircraft Engine Acquisition Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Government contract are (1) to delineate the rights and obligations of the contractor and the Government for defective items and services and (2) to foster ...appropriate and, when they are, a cost-benefit analysis 25 should be done. Since that time, trie Navy has basically treated all warranties as "no- costo ...notion of the *no- costo warranty. Weapon system warranty costs are real. Borne either by the contractor or the government, they represent a substantial

  15. The redesign of a warranty distribution network with recovery processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Ma, N.; Sotirov, R.

    2015-01-01

    A warranty distribution network provides aftersales warranty services to customers and resembles a closed-loop supply chain network with specific challenges for reverse flows management like recovery, repair, and reflow of refurbished products. We present here a nonlinear and nonconvex mixed integer

  16. 40 CFR 85.2117 - Warranty and dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... decertified pursuant to 40 CFR 85.2121, provided that if the part manufacturer resorts to a court of competent... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warranty and dispute resolution. 85... Regulations and Voluntary Aftermarket Part Certification Program § 85.2117 Warranty and dispute resolution....

  17. Last time buy decisions for products sold under warranty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.C.; Iskandar, B.P.

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturers supplying products under warranty need a strategy to deal with failures during the warranty period: repair the product or replace it by a new one, depending on e.g. age and/or usage of the failed product. An (implicit) assumption in virtually all models is that new products to replace

  18. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  19. 48 CFR 252.246-7001 - Warranty of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Remedies. The following remedies shall apply to all breaches of the warranty, whether the Contractor... exceed ten percent of the total contract price. (ii) If the breach of the warranty is with respect to the..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions...

  20. Pricing and Warranty Decisions of Substitutable Products for a Fuzzy Two-Echelon Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yongzhao

    2017-01-01

      This paper considers the optimal decisions of pricing and warranty level for substitutable products in a fuzzy supply chain environment, where the consumer demands, manufacturing costs, and warranty...

  1. 31 CFR 355.6 - What happens if the presenting bank breaches its warranty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... breaches its warranty? 355.6 Section 355.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... GOVERNING FISCAL AGENCY CHECKS § 355.6 What happens if the presenting bank breaches its warranty? If the presenting bank breaches its warranty, the payor Reserve Bank may either return the check to the...

  2. 40 CFR 1033.120 - Emission-related warranty requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all parts of its emission control system, meets two conditions: (1) It is designed, built, and equipped so it conforms at the time of sale to the ultimate purchaser with the requirements of this part... covered. The emission-related warranty covers all components whose failure would increase a locomotive's...

  3. 40 CFR 1042.120 - Emission-related warranty requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including all parts of its emission control system, meets two conditions: (1) It is designed, built, and equipped so it conforms at the time of sale to the ultimate purchaser with the requirements of this part...-related warranty covers all components whose failure would increase an engine's emissions of any regulated...

  4. 48 CFR 52.246-21 - Warranty of Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... remedy at the Contractor's expense any damage to Government-owned or controlled real or personal property...) Alternate I (APR 1984). If the Government specifies in the contract the use of any equipment by brand name... Government on a brand name and model basis, shall not be included in this warranty. In this event,...

  5. 7 CFR 1924.12 - Warranty of development work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... previously unoccupied dwellings or construction under conditional commitments issued to builders and sellers... upon final acceptance of the work by the owner and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103..., for some reason, the warranty insurance policy cannot be issued, the contractor will be required...

  6. 48 CFR 1246.706 - Warranty terms and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... investigation of system failures, providing that the contractor is reimbursed at established rates for fault... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warranty terms and conditions. 1246.706 Section 1246.706 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 40 CFR 89.610 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engine imported pursuant to § 89.605 or § 89.609, ICIs must furnish with each nonroad engine a list of... admission pursuant to § 89.605(a) or § 89.609(b). (b) Warranties. (1) ICIs must submit to the Engine... required by this section prior to importing nonroad engines under this subpart. (2) ICIs must provide...

  8. A Decision Optimization Model for Leased Manufacturing Equipment with Warranty under Forecasting Production/Maintenance Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Zied Hajej; Nidhal Rezg; Ali Gharbi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the expensive production equipment, many manufacturers usually lease production equipment with a warranty period during a finite leasing horizon, rather than purchasing them. The lease contract contains the possibility of obtaining an extended warranty for a given additional cost. In this paper, based on the forecasting production/maintenance optimization problem, we develop a mathematical model to study the lease contract with basic and extended warranty based on win-win relationship ...

  9. Extended Warranty Management in the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    insure” its purchases. This would entail budgeting money to cover repairs rather than paying the premium to suppliers or a third party to cover repairs...for x  y . Future extension can be that the quality is endogenous . We will drop the superscripts or subscripts when not needed. The cost of...additional bargaining power. The timing of the creation of the warranty contract plays a significant role in determining the quality and the cost

  10. Pricing Insurance and Warranties: Ambiguity and Correlated Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, Robin M.; Howard Kunreuther

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a questionnaire study of pricing decisions made by professional actuaries when the probabilities of a loss are either ambiguous or nonambiguous. Theoretical hypotheses derived from the expected utility model were compared with the implications of procedures described by practicing actuaries. Actuaries were asked to act as consultants to a computer manufacturer concerning the price of a warranty. The suggested prices were considerably higher when probabilit...

  11. Warranty of Misinforming as an Option in Product Utilization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Grozdanov Christozov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The following definition of “option” is given in Wikipedia - “In finance, an option is a contract, which gives the buyer (the owner or holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on or before a specified date, depending on the form of the option” (“Option,” n.d.. Option as a risk management (mitigation tool is broadly used in finance and trade. At the same time, it introduces asymmetry in the sense that, probabilistically, it limits the level of losses (e.g., the price of the option and allows for unlimited gains. In the market of sophisticated devices (as smart phones, tablets, etc., where technologies are rapidly advancing, customers usually do not have the experience to use all features of the device at the time of the purchase. Due to the lack of appropriate expertise, the risk of misinforming, leading to not purchasing the “right” device is high, but given enough time to learn the capabilities of the device and map these to the needs and tasks that device will be used for, could provide the client with substantial long term benefits. Warranty of misinforming is a mechanism that provides the client with the opportunity to explore the device and master its features under limited risk of financial losses. Thus, the warranty of misinforming could be considered as an option - the custom-ers buy it (at a fixed cost and may gain (theoretically unlimited benefit by realizing (within the terms of the warranty that the device can be used to solve a variety of problems not envisaged at the time of purchase. In this study we present the idea of treating the warranty of misinforming as an option in finances and provide examples to illustrate our viewpoint.

  12. Improving of performance system of warranty for automotive engineering abroad on the basis of data of rejections analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, I. V.; Habibullin, R. G.; Belyaev, E. I.; Safonov, A. S.; Cheremin, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Article deals with improvement possibility of warranty package fulfillment system of automobile vehicles manufacturer in the foreign markets by application of warranty complete sets preparation technique taking into account climatic features of the countries which influence reliability parameters

  13. FORECASTING AUTOMOBILE WARRANTY PERFORMANCE IN PRESENCE OF ‘MATURING DATA' PHENOMENA USING MULTILAYER PERCEPTRON NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharatendra RAI; Nanua SINGH

    2005-01-01

    Automobile companies that spend billions of dollars annually towards warranty cost, give high priority to warranty reduction programs. Forecasting of automobile warranty performance plays an important role towards these efforts. The forecasting process involves prediction of not only the specific months-in-service (MIS) warranty performance at certain future time, but also at future MIS values. However, 'maturing data' (also called warranty growth) phenomena that causes warranty performance at specific MIS values to change with time, makes such a forecasting task challenging.Although warranty forecasting methods such as log-log plots and dynamic linear models appear in this paper we use an artificial neural network for the forecasting of warranty performance in presence testing errors using response surface methodology. This application shows the effectiveness of neural phenomena.

  14. 75 FR 74620 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Home Warranty Companies' Payments to Real Estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 3500 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Home Warranty Companies' Payments to Real Estate Brokers and Agents Interpretive Rule: Response to Public Comments AGENCY... fees to real estate brokers and agents by home warranty companies. The public was invited to comment on...

  15. 16 CFR 239.2 - Disclosures in warranty or guarantee advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advertising. 239.2 Section 239.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES... advertising. (a) If an advertisement mentions a warranty or guarantee that is offered on the advertised... mentions a warranty or guarantee that is offered on the advertised product, the advertisement...

  16. 48 CFR 46.707 - Pricing aspects of fixed-price incentive contract warranties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing aspects of fixed-price incentive contract warranties. 46.707 Section 46.707 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.707 Pricing aspects...

  17. 48 CFR 552.246-77 - Additional Contract Warranty Provisions for Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Warranty Provisions for Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. 552.246-77 Section 552.246-77 Federal Acquisition... a Noncomplex Nature. As prescribed in 546.710(a), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts that include FAR 52.246-17, Warranty of Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. Additional Contract...

  18. Features of the Organization of Accounting and Tax Accounting and Auditing at Warranty Repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardus Nataliia Yu.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study features of the normative and legal support of accounting and tax accounting at providing operations with warranty repairs comprising the secured in legislation right of consumers to obtain from the companies-producers (sellers products (goods and services of proper quality and cases of occurrence of warranty obligations to customers. To achieve the goal, the following tasks have been solved: the regulatory framework for the organization of warranty service (repair from the point of view of the company-seller and reflection of operations associated with warranty repairs in accounting and tax accounting was studied. The article describes the features of the organization of accounting and tax accounting at warranty repairs based on the legislative and normative documents regulating relations that arise in the organization and implementation of economic activity between business entities and between the entities and other participants of relations in the sphere of economic activity.

  19. Long term warranty and after sales service concept, policies and cost models

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Anisur

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents concepts, policies and cost models for various long-term warranty and maintenance contracts. It offers several numerical examples for estimating costs to both the manufacturer and consumer. Long-term warranties and maintenance contracts are becoming increasingly popular, as these types of aftersales services provide assurance to consumers that they can enjoy long, reliable service, and protect them from defects and the potentially high costs of repairs. Studying long-term warranty and service contracts is important to manufacturers and consumers alike, as offering long-term warranty and maintenance contracts produce additional costs for manufacturers / service providers over the product’s service life. These costs must be factored into the price, or the manufacturer / dealer will incur losses instead of making a profit. On the other hand, the buyer / consumer needs to weigh the cost of maintaining it over its service life and to decide whether or not these policies are worth purchasing....

  20. An Evaluation of the Cost-Effectiveness of Warranty Contracts in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In a bid to ensure cost-effective highway construction practices, highway agencies constantly seek ways to accelerate project design and delivery through implementation of innovative contracting and procurement practices. The concept of warranties, which is one of such promising practices, involves a shift of the burden of construction quality control, product performance and product maintenance from the owner to the contractor. As such, warranty projects are expected to enhance product quali...

  1. JOINT DETERMINATION OF PRICE, WAR RANTY LENGTH AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY FOR NEW PRODUCTS UNDER FREE RENEWAL WARRANTY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyakumar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An optimal business strategy which integrates the decisions, such as pricing, production quantity, and custom er service, in or der to maximize profit is vital for any manufacturing industry. Post sale factors like warranty, spare parts availability, maintenance, service and cost play an important role in the sale of a product. As better warranty signals higher product quality which provides greater assurance to customers, warranty is an important factor in marketing new products. In this paper, a decision model with the price, warranty length and production quantity of a product as decision variables to maximize profit based on the pre-determined product life cycle is presented. The study considers free renewal warranty policy for producers in the static sales market. The expected number of renewals based on the warranty length is derived for lognormally distributed products. The effect of model parameters on the profit is studied.

  2. Pricing and Warranty Level Decisions for New and Remanufactured Short Life-Cycle Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Shu San

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacturing has become more prominent as a recovery process to mitigate the massive disposal of short life-cycle product at its end-of-use. However, remanufactured product is often perceived to be inferior to new product, and it has lower value in consumer’s willingness to pay. To increase the perceived quality of the remanufactured product, manufacturer offers a warranty, since one of the three roles possessed in warranty is being a signal to product reliability. This paper studies the pricing decisions and warranty level decision for new and remanufactured products in a closed-loop supply chain consists of a manufacturer and a retailer. The optimization modeling is performed under Stackelberg game with manufacturer as the leader. We found that higher expansion effectiveness coefficient would increase the supply chain profit. Also, there is an interval of demand’s speed of change, where the total profit would be at its highest. The optimum warranty level can be achieved regardless the initial warranty level set at the beginning of retailer’s optimization. Furthermore, the remanufactured product’s wholesale and retail prices are influenced by the expansion effectiveness coefficient.

  3. Effects of product\\'s warranty on customers\\' preferences: empirical findings on reverse logistics models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Najmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: IT products are now becoming the part of every one's life. Since Pakistan didn't manufacture IT products, so the customers had to purchase the products that are available in the markets. During such purchase, customers not only gave preference to brand or price or both but they also consider its warranty so that they are secured with the post purchase risks. Methods: This study was aimed to identify the impact of the warranty on customers' preferences towards brand and price. A conceptual framework was made on the basis of available literature and then data was collected. It was collected from 298 respondents through survey questionnaire and after applying Factor Analysis, One Way MANOVA was applied on the factors. Results and conclusions: The study found that the product's warranty has a significant impact on preferences towards brand, concern for price and price intentions whereas the impact on willingness to pay was found insignificant. The results conclude that Pakistani customers need a branded IT product on competitive prices, which give more in less along with the warranty so that they can enjoy the same quality of the product for a period of time whereas, they are not willing to pay any additional amount for the product just because of Warranty.

  4. Optimal Overhaul-Replacement Policies for Repairable Machine Sold with Warranty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmaningrum Soemadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with an overhaul-replacement policy for a repairable machine sold with Free Replacement Warranty (FRW. The machine will be used for a finite horizon, T (T <, and evaluated at a fixed interval, s (s< T. At each evaluation point, the buyer considers three alternative decisions i.e. Keep the machine, Overhaul it, or Replace it with a new identical one. An overhaul can reduce the machine age virtually, but not to a point that the machine is as good as new. If the machine fails during the warranty period, it is rectified at no cost to the buyer. Any failure occurring before and after the expiry of the warranty is restored by minimal repair. An overhaul-replacement policy is formulated for such machines by using dynamic programming approach to obtain the buyer’s optimal policy. The results show that a significant rejuvenation effect due to overhaul may extend the length of machine life cycle and delay the replacement decision. In contrast, the warranty stimulates early machine replacement and by then increases the replacement frequencies for a certain range of replacement cost. This demonstrates that to minimize the total ownership cost over T the buyer needs to consider the minimal repair cost reduction due to rejuvenation effect of overhaul as well as the warranty benefit due to replacement. Numerical examples are presented for both illustrating the optimal policy and describing the behavior of the optimal solution.

  5. Legal Effect of Breach of Warranty in Construction Insurance in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arazi Idrus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at analyzing the legal effect of breach of warranty in construction insurance contracts in Malaysia in light of the current developments in The English insurance law. The required data and information were collected from Malaysian and English court decisions dealing with breach of warranties in English marine insurance law from the online Malayan Law Journal published on the LexisNexis online database and from published textbooks related to insurance warranties. This study would help to offer judicial guidance to courts in Peninsular Malaysia on how to resolve the legal dilemma associated with breach of warranty in Malaysian insurance law. It was found out that the effect of breach of a continuing warranty will result in the contract of insurance remaining in existence and the risk is being treated as having incepted at the outset but automatically coming to an end as of the date of the breach. More so, the insurer is being discharged from any future liability, although any liabilities of the insurer before the date of the breach are unaffected.

  6. 76 FR 52596 - Request for Comment Concerning Interpretations of the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act; Rule Governing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... connection with the warranted product, an article or service identified by brand, trade, or corporate name... warranty * * * but for its failure to satisfy the basis of the bargain test is a service contract.'' 16 CFR... Commission determined that certain material facts about product warranties must be disclosed because failure...

  7. After-sales service of engineering industrial assets a reference framework for warranty management

    CERN Document Server

    González-Prida Díaz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the practical implementation of an advanced after-sales management framework devoted to warranty management. The framework is intended for companies producing either standardized or customized products, and such a management tool will facilitate organizational improvement and support innovative decision making processes for technical assistance in after-sales services.  “After–sales Service of Engineering Industrial Assets” comprises a proposal for a warranty management framework, with an account of the different methods that can be used to improve decision making in the different stages of the after-sales service management process, and strategies for strengthening the structure and foundations of the framework. A review of the fundamental issues and current research topics in warranty management and after sales services is also provided, which is exemplified by a case study. This book is intended for postgraduates, researchers and engineers who are interested in aftersales manageme...

  8. A Decision Optimization Model for Leased Manufacturing Equipment with Warranty under Forecasting Production/Maintenance Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Hajej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the expensive production equipment, many manufacturers usually lease production equipment with a warranty period during a finite leasing horizon, rather than purchasing them. The lease contract contains the possibility of obtaining an extended warranty for a given additional cost. In this paper, based on the forecasting production/maintenance optimization problem, we develop a mathematical model to study the lease contract with basic and extended warranty based on win-win relationship between the lessee and the lessor. The influence of the production rates in the equipment degradation consequently on the total cost by each side during the finite leasing horizon is stated in order to determine a theoretical condition under which a compromise-pricing zone exists under different possibilities of maintenance policies.

  9. Optimizing two-dimensional renewable warranty policies for sensor embedded remanufactured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Alqahtani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Remanufactured products, in addition to being environment friendly, are popular with consumers because they can offer the latest technology with lower prices in comparison to brand new products. However, some consumers are hesitant to buy remanufactured products because they are skeptical about the quality of the remanufactured product and thus are unsure of the extent to which the product will render services when compared to a new product. A strategy that remanufacturers may employ to entice customers is to offer warranties on remanufactured products. To that end, this paper studies and scrutinizes the impact of offering renewing warranties on remanufactured products. Specifically, the paper suggests a methodology which simultaneously minimizes the cost incurred by the remanufacturers and maximizes the confidence of the consumers towards buying remanufacturing products. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses discrete-event simulation to optimize the implementation of a two-dimensional renewing warranty policy for remanufactured products. The implementation is illustrated using a specific product recovery system called the Advanced Remanufacturing-To-Order (ARTO system. The experiments used in the study were designed using Taguchi’s Orthogonal Arrays to represent the entire domain of the recovery system so as to observe the system behavior under various experimental conditions. In order to determine the optimum strategy offered by the remanufacturer, various warranty and preventive maintenance scenarios were analyzed using pairwise t-tests along with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey pairwise comparisons tests for every scenario. Findings: The proposed methodology is able to simultaneously minimize the cost incurred by the remanufacturer, optimize the warranty price and period, and optimize the preventive maintenance strategy resulting in increased consumer confidence. Originality/value: This is the first study that

  10. Warranty optimisation based on the prediction of costs to the manufacturer using neural network model and Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, Dragan D.; Popovic, Vladimir M.

    2015-02-01

    Warranty is a powerful marketing tool, but it always involves additional costs to the manufacturer. In order to reduce these costs and make use of warranty's marketing potential, the manufacturer needs to master the techniques for warranty cost prediction according to the reliability characteristics of the product. In this paper a combination free replacement and pro rata warranty policy is analysed as warranty model for one type of light bulbs. Since operating conditions have a great impact on product reliability, they need to be considered in such analysis. A neural network model is used to predict light bulb reliability characteristics based on the data from the tests of light bulbs in various operating conditions. Compared with a linear regression model used in the literature for similar tasks, the neural network model proved to be a more accurate method for such prediction. Reliability parameters obtained in this way are later used in Monte Carlo simulation for the prediction of times to failure needed for warranty cost calculation. The results of the analysis make possible for the manufacturer to choose the optimal warranty policy based on expected product operating conditions. In such a way, the manufacturer can lower the costs and increase the profit.

  11. Optimizing the warranty period by cuckoo meta-heuristic algorithm in heterogeneous customers' population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozitalab, Ali; Asgharizadeh, Ezzatollah

    2013-12-01

    Warranty is now an integral part of each product. Since its length is directly related to the cost of production, it should be set in such a way that it would maximize revenue generation and customers' satisfaction. Furthermore, based on the behavior of customers, it is assumed that increasing the warranty period to earn the trust of more customers leads to more sales until the market is saturated. We should bear in mind that different groups of consumers have different consumption behaviors and that performance of the product has a direct impact on the failure rate over the life of the product. Therefore, the optimum duration for every group is different. In fact, we cannot present different warranty periods for various customer groups. In conclusion, using cuckoo meta-heuristic optimization algorithm, we try to find a common period for the entire population. Results with high convergence offer a term length that will maximize the aforementioned goals simultaneously. The study was tested using real data from Appliance Company. The results indicate a significant increase in sales when the optimization approach was applied; it provides a longer warranty through increased revenue from selling, not only reducing profit margins but also increasing it.

  12. 75 FR 36271 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Home Warranty Companies' Payments to Real Estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 3500 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Home Warranty Companies' Payments to Real Estate Brokers and Agents AGENCY: Office of General Counsel, HUD. ACTION... performed by real estate brokers and agents as additional settlement services in a real estate transaction...

  13. Opportunistic maintenance and adaptation of warranty maintenance tasks for Power Plant equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. McGibney

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a link between opportunistic maintenance literature and warranty analysis of a power plant. A new plant warranty maintenance tasks are observed over a two year period. The main aim is to see how opportunistic maintenance could be incorporated when the warranty period has elapsed. The paper examine the warranty period maintenance task list and propose adequate methods for assessing opportunistic maintenance as a preventive maintenance task in order to ensure reliability and availability of the plant equipment. Statistical approach is used to give an insight to the plant equipment status and a modeling approach is proposed to also assess maintenance information defined by experts in the context of actual operating regimes. This study focuses on the power plant‟s critical equipment. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA is conducted on the power plant Booster Fans. This gives an insight about equipment failure mode patterns and maintenance requirements. A simulation example is presented based in the failure modes results obtained and a graphical display of optimum preventive maintenance schedule cost curves is also presented.

  14. 40 CFR 1048.120 - What emission-related warranty requirements apply to me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchaser that the new nonroad engine, including all parts of its emission-control system, meets two conditions: (1) It is designed, built, and equipped so it conforms at the time of sale to the ultimate... emission-related warranty covers all your components whose failure would increase an engine's emissions of...

  15. 40 CFR 1045.120 - What emission-related warranty requirements apply to me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchaser that the new engine, including all parts of its emission control system, meets two conditions: (1) It is designed, built, and equipped so it conforms at the time of sale to the ultimate purchaser with.... The emission-related warranty covers all components whose failure would increase an engine's emissions...

  16. 40 CFR 1051.120 - What emission-related warranty requirements apply to me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... new engine, including all parts of its emission-control system, meets two conditions: (1) It is designed, built, and equipped so it conforms at the time of sale to the ultimate purchaser with the... emission-related warranty covers all components whose failure would increase an engine's emissions of any...

  17. 48 CFR 227.7103-14 - Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of technical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conformity, acceptance..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7103-14 Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of... requirements of the contract pertaining to the delivery of technical data. (b) Conformity and acceptance....

  18. Determination of production run time and warranty length under system maintenance and trade credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung

    2012-12-01

    Manufacturers offer a warranty period within which they will fix failed products at no cost to customers. Manufacturers also perform system maintenance when a system is in an out-of-control state. Suppliers provide a credit period to settle the payment to manufacturers. This study considers manufacturer's production and warranty decisions for an imperfect production system under system maintenance and trade credit. Specifically, this study uses the economic production quantity to model the decisions under system maintenance and trade credit. These decisions involve how long the production run time and warranty length should be to maximise total profit. This study provides lemmas for the conditions of optimality and develops a theorem and an algorithm for solving the problems described. Numerical examples illustrate the solution procedures and provide a variety of managerial implications. Results show that simultaneously determining production and warranty decisions is superior to only determining production. This study also discusses the effects of the related parameters on manufacturer's decisions and profits. The results of this study are a useful reference for managerial decision-making and administration.

  19. 40 CFR 85.1510 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. 85.1510 Section 85.1510 Protection of Environment..., warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. The provisions of this section are applicable to... for final admission. (d) Fuel economy labeling. (1) The certificate holder shall affix a fuel...

  20. 48 CFR 52.246-17 - Warranty of Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... obligation contained in this contract. (c) Remedies available to the Government. (1) The Contracting Officer... notice of any breach of the warranties specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this clause, the Contracting... REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions...

  1. Extended warranties, maintenance service and lease contracts modeling and analysis for decision-making

    CERN Document Server

    Murthy, D N Prabhakar

    2014-01-01

    Serving to unify the existing literature on extended warranties, maintenance service contracts and lease contracts, this book also presents a unique perspective on the topic focussed on cost analysis and decision-making from the perspectives of the parties involved. Using a game theoretic approach together with mathematical modelling, results are presented in an integrated manner with key topics that require further research highlighted in order to serve as a starting point for researchers (engineers and statisticians) who are interested in doing further work in these areas. Designed to assist practitioners (managers, engineers, applied statisticians) who are involved with extended warranties, maintenance service contracts and lease contracts, the book provides them with the models and techniques needed for proper cost analysis and effective decision-making. The book is also suitable for use as a reference text in industrial engineering, applied statistics, operations research and management.

  2. Theory of two-parameter Markov chain with an application in warranty study

    CERN Document Server

    Calvache, Álvaro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the classical results of Kolmogorov's backward and forward equations to the case of a two-parameter Markov process. These equations relates the infinitesimal transition matrix of the two-parameter Markov process. However, solving these equations is not possible and we require a numerical procedure. In this paper, we give an alternative method by use of double Laplace transform of the transition probability matrix and of the infinitesimal transition matrix of the process. An illustrative example is presented for the method proposed. In this example, we consider a two-parameter warranty model, in which a system can be any of these states: working, failure. We calculate the transition density matrix of these states and also the cost of the warranty for the proposed model.

  3. Navy and Coast Guard Shipbuilding: Navy Should Reconsider Approach to Warranties for Correcting Construction Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    formal claim. Nevertheless, taking into account the cost to administer the guaranty, it cost the government $443,000 ($902,000 paid for the...conditions to share the potential costs associated with the warranty. For FRC 6, the subcontractors are to conduct repairs accounting for about 40...officials have set forth reasons why their historical approach lowers the overall construction cost of the vessel and results in a better deal than

  4. Warranties in Defense Acquisition: The Concept, the Context, and the Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    warranty) without a significant amount of manipulation. 27 . . - WITH W/o KG KG A. NUMBER OF UNITS PURCHASED 1. OPERATIONAL UNITS / / 2. MINIMUN ...fluid when compared to the Governments labor rates which remain generally constant as a function of both wage rates and staffing in the military and...instrument of the welfare of the Federal Government. [36:279] There are provisions governing wage rates, working hours, minority and small business set

  5. Warranties in Weapon System Procurement: An Analysis of Practice and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    warranty usage by DoD drawn from civil commercial codes, court rulings, and claims commission findings. It evolved from the ASPRs through the DARs...parts whose materials and labor costs me less than $50. The contrato is protected against claims when DoD personnel have taken certain improper actions...relieved of his liability. If the systemic defect threshold is breached, a contingent liability ceiling Is sot for the contrato equal to tha thrshoLd

  6. Pricing and inventory policies for Hi-tech products under replacement warranty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Teng, Wei-Guang; Chen, Ruey-Shii; Chou, Wang-Ying

    2014-06-01

    Companies, especially in the Hi-tech (high-technology) industry (such as computer, communication and consumer electronic products), often provide a replacement warranty period for purchased items. In reality, simultaneously determining the price and inventory decisions under warranty policy is an important issue. The objective of this paper is to develop a joint pricing and inventory model for Hi-tech products under replacement warranty policy. In the first model, we consider a Hi-tech product feature in which the selling price is declining in a trend. We determine the optimal inventory level for each period and retail price for the first period while maximising the total profit. In the second model, we further determine the optimal retail price and inventory level for each period in the dynamic demand market. This study develops solution approaches to solve the problems described above. Numerical analysis discusses the influence of system parameters on the company's decisions and behaviours. The results of this study could serve as a reference for business managers or administrators.

  7. Prediction Algorithms and Methods of Registering the Products on Warranty by Using RFID Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Graur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The RFID technology (Radio FrequencyIdentifi - cation is used in the view of data transmission,by means of mobile transponders, known as tags and forreceiving that information, by means of reading devices,known as readers. Radio Frequency Identification (RFIDhas become specific for tracking the items and carryingout solutions of data achieving within the supply chains ofenterprises, factories, trading companies or automationtechnologies. This present paper proposes creation of acomputerized system dedicated to selling companies,manufacturers and service units, with a view of usingproducts’ information and estimating by a predictionalgorithm the return time towards the customers ofchanged or repaired products being on warranty or postwarrantytime.

  8. 48 CFR 227.7203-14 - Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and computer software documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conformity, acceptance... Software Documentation 227.7203-14 Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and computer...) Conformity and acceptance. Solicitations and contracts requiring the delivery of computer software...

  9. 7 CFR 1924.261 - Handling complaints involving dwellings covered by an independent or insured home warranty plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling complaints involving dwellings covered by an independent or insured home warranty plan. 1924.261 Section 1924.261 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... Complaints and Compensation for Construction Defects § 1924.261 Handling complaints involving...

  10. 48 CFR 52.246-19 - Warranty of Systems and Equipment under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Equipment under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria. 52.246-19 Section 52.246-19 Federal... under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria. As prescribed in 46.710(c)(1), the contracting officer may insert a clause substantially as follows: Warranty of Systems and Equipment Under...

  11. Study on Differential Pricing Decisions for the Product with Multiple Warranty under Pro-rata Warranty Policy%按比例保修策略下多保修期差别定价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢震; 王丽颖

    2011-01-01

    保修策略是联系厂商和顾客的一种合同责任,它往往用于促进产品的销售.产品保修期长短与其定价有着紧密的联系.本文在考虑一个厂商采用按比例保修策略及设定多个保修期的基础上,以产品的保修期和价格为决策变量,以厂商收益最大化为目标,研究了产品故障次数成指数分布下最优保修期和价格的组合策略,并通过算例比较了差别定价和单一定价下厂商的收益.最后,通过灵敏度分析,研究了消费者保修期偏移弹性对厂商收益所产生的影响.%Warranty service is a contract between manufacture and consumer, which is usually applied to sales promotion. The price is related to warranty length of product. Considering the reality, based on the consumer utility theory, assuming pro-rata warranty policy and the product failure with Index distribution function, in order to maximum manufacture' s revenue, It studies the differential pricing issues for the product with multiple warranty. It analyzes the optimal combinational strategy with pricing and warranty, and employs optimization theory and method to derive the optimal pricing policy, and verifies the validity of the model through the numerical analysis and analyzes the difference between differential pricing and single pricing. Then it analyzes the impact of the consumer shift flexibility to the benefits of manufacturers.

  12. A 15-year warranty period for asymptomatic individuals without coronary artery calcium: a prospective follow-up of 9715 individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Heo, Ran; Cho, Iksung; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Gransar, Heidi; Truong, Quynh A.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Knapper, Joseph; Kelkar, Anita A.; Sandesara, Pratik; Lin, Fay Y.; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Callister, Tracy Q.; Min, James K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine long-term prognosis of a zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score among asymptomatic individuals and its associated warranty period. Background Emerging evidence supports CAC=0 as a favorable cardiovascular short-to-intermediate term prognostic factor. Methods 9715 individuals undergoing CAC imaging were stratified by age, Framingham risk score (FRS) and Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) categories and followed for a mean of 14.6 (12.9–16.8) years. Cox regression, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification information (NRI) were used to assess all-cause mortality, discrimination and reclassification of CAC=0 compared with FRS and NCEP ATP III, respectively. A warranty period was pre-defined as <1% annual mortality rate. Vascular age was estimated by linear regression. Results Among 4864 individuals with baseline CAC=0 (mean age 52.1±10.8 years; 57.9% male), 229 deaths occurred. The warranty period of CAC=0 was almost 15 years for individuals at low and intermediate risk with no significant differences regarding age and gender. CAC=0 was associated with a vascular age of 1, 10, 20, and 30 years below chronologic age for individuals between 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and ≥80 years, respectively. CAC score was the strongest predictor of death (HR 2.67, 95% CI 2.29–3.11) that enabled discrimination and consistent reclassification beyond FRS (AUC 0.71 vs. 0.64, p<0.001) and NCEP ATP III (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.64, p<0.001). Conclusions CAC=0 confers a 15-year warranty period against mortality among individuals at low-to-intermediate risk, which is unaffected by age or gender. Furthermore, in individuals considered at high-risk by clinical risk scores the presence of CAC=0 confers better survival than in individuals at low-to-intermediate risk but with any CAC. PMID:26189116

  13. OPTIMALITY ISSUES IN A SERIES SYSTEM FROM MANUFACTURER’S PERSPECTIVE CONSIDERING BURN-IN AND WARRANTY PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MoghimiHadji, EHSAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability engineers generally have to deal with systems that consist of some components in series and others in parallel. Reliability of a series system can be calculated by multiplying the reliability of individual elements in that system. Failure rate of many deteriorating systems shows a bathtub shape curve. The aim of this paper is to find the average total cost of a series system, from a manufacturer’s point of view, during the first two phases of its life; considering optimality issues for burn-in and warranty periods. Numerical illustration is provided to show the applicability of the model.

  14. Joint optimisation of price, warranty and recovery planning in remanufacturing of used products under linear and non-linear demand, return and cost functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdian, Seyed Ahmad; Shahanaghi, Kamran; Makui, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    We investigate joint optimisation of remanufacturing, pricing and warranty decision-making for end-of-life products. A novel mathematical-statistical model is proposed where decisions involve pricing of returned used products (cores), degree of their remanufacturing, selling price and the warranty period for the final remanufactured products. The virtual age reliability improvement approach is chosen to model the upgrading of the cores to higher quality levels. We consider price- and warranty-dependent demand, price- and age-dependent return, and age-dependent remanufacturing cost in the model development. Both linear and non-linear forms of these functions are investigated. First, under some restrictive conditions of upgrade level and age distribution of received cores, special cases of the problem, which can be solved using a recently developed non-linear optimisation solver, are presented. We also implement a particle swarm optimisation algorithm for the solution of the original problem when all the restrictive assumptions are dropped. Finally, numerical experiments and sensitivity analysis are presented to address different aspects of the model and the solution approaches.

  15. Implementation of Contract Hybrid Concept in Multi Services Products (Aplication of the Warranty Bank Products/Kafalah in Syariah Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firmansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Product of multi services in sharia banks presented in order to meet the needs of society as well as the development of the era transactions that course in accordance with Islamic principles, then the ownership  in  the syariah products  including  multi  product  in  Islamic banking  services  using  the concept of multi akad therein. This is done so that innovation in Islamic banking products had been developed so that it can be chosen by the public in conducting business transactions. Likewise, the multi-service bank guarantee products in Islamic banking, is a multi product contract, where there is more than one contract. Bank guarantees in Islamic banking is generally called kafalah product because this product is Kafalah main contract, followed by Ijarah contract, wadiah, and qardh. This paper  examines  the  concept  of  multi-contract/contract executed  hybrid  shariah  banking  at  bank product warranty/kafalah

  16. Research on Equipment Extended Warranty Purchase Decision-Making Based on Cost-Effectiveness Analysis%基于费效分析的装备延伸保修购买决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志远; 程中华; 邓立杰

    2016-01-01

    保修机制是部队引入承制方装备维修力量的重要途径,延伸保修对装备的寿命周期费用以及承制方保修费用有很大影响。针对军方延伸保修购买决策问题,在对维修策略分析的基础上,综合考虑装备维修费用和可用度,建立了延伸保修购买决策相关模型,结合装备承制方保修成本及军方装备维修费用———效能分析,得到了在不同价格区间内延伸保修购买决策,并给出了特定条件下存在的双赢延伸保修价格区间,最后通过实例验证了模型的有效性。%Warranty is an important way to introduce manufacture’s maintenance resource into the army,and the extended warranty has significant effect on manufacturer’s warranty cost and equipment’ s Life Cycle Cost (LCC). In order to make a decision for the problem whether purchasing the extended warranty,in this paper a mathematical decision model to obtain the extended warranty purchase decision-making strategy under different price interval based on the analysis of extended warranty policy by balanced the benefit of manufacturer and military is developed. The model also allows looking if there is zone of compromise yielding a win-win relationship with respect to the cost and availability of the product. At last,the model proved to be practical by the case study.

  17. Warranty Cost Analysis for Product Family Based on Fault Tree Mapping%基于故障树映射的产品族保证成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一骝; 刘子先

    2012-01-01

    针对当前制造企业的产品通常以产品族而不是单一产品的形式存在的现实,对现有的基于单一产品的保证成本计算模型进行了改进,并指出产品族保证成本计算取决于配置产品的元件的可靠性.通过逆向搜索的方法,元件可靠性可以根据故障树模型向BOM模型映射得到.作者通过一个笔记本电脑的案例说明文中方法的操作过程,并比较了企业采用FRW和PRW两种策略时保证成本的差异.%Currently, product warranty cost is calculated based on individual products. However, today, warranty is always offered with respect to product family rather than individual products. Thus, new method is necessary for product warranty cost calculation. In this paper, the existing models for individual products are modified to adapt to product family. In the new model, module reliability is defined through the mapping from the fault tree model to the bill of material (BOM) model by using inverse search. The warranty cost calculation for laptop computer is used to show the application of the proposed method. The results are compared with the existing method such as free replacement warranty (FRW) and pro-rata warranty ( PRW). It shows that the proposed method is effective.

  18. Technical seminar on photovoltaic systems. Day 1: Technical fundamentals - quality - performance. Day 2: Legal aspects - financing - taxation - warranties - insurance. Proceedings; Fachseminar Photovoltaik-Anlagen. 1. Tag: Technische Grundlagen - Qualitaet - Ertraege / 2.Tag: Recht - Finanzierung - Steuern - Garantie - Versicherung. Seminarband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The proceedings volume contains the manuscripts of this two-day seminar, during which two different aspects of PV systems were gone into. The first day covered technical fundamentals, quality and performance aspects: (1) Site selection; (2) Plant construction and power supply to the public grid; (3) Technical rules and regulations; (4) Quality assurance; (5) Energy yield. The second day was dedicated to legal and financial aspects, taxation, warranties and insurance: (a) Economically efficient operation of PV systems, reimbursement contracts; (b) Financing and taxation; (c) Insurance problems; (d) Warranty aspects. The manuscripts of the first day are in the form of reproduced overhead slides and four other fulltext contributions. (orig.)

  19. Definição do prazo de garantia de um produto otimizado experimentalmente Definition of the warranty period of an experimentally optimized product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Pizzolato

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo documenta os resultados da aplicação de um método para otimização de aspectos da qualidade e vida útil para posterior definição do prazo de garantia de produtos que não falham, mas degradam até uma condição considerada aceitável. O método de otimização é composto pelas seguintes etapas: i caracterização do problema; ii planejamento e execução dos experimentos; iii modelagem das variáveis de resposta; iv otimização; e v modelagem da vida útil e definição do prazo de garantia. As etapas metodológicas contemplam o uso de QFD (Desdobramento da Função Qualidade, de Projeto de Experimentos, modelos de regressão de ensaios acelerados e modelos de degradação. Para a otimização e determinação do prazo de garantia, é apresentado um procedimento que utiliza uma seqüência de passos em que ferramentas estatísticas, como análise de regressão e modelagem de dados de degradação, são empregadas. Somado a isso, são utilizados procedimentos de avaliação sensorial para avaliar os níveis de degradação das amostras do produto. O método é aplicado em um produto utilizado na criação de animais.This paper discusses the results of the application of a method to optimize the quality characteristics and service life of products that degrade rather than fail in order to determine the warranty period of such products. The optimization method consists of the following steps: i characterization of the problem; ii planning and execution of experiments; iii modeling of response variables; iv optimization; and v modeling of the product's service life and definition of its warranty period. The method involves the joint use of QFD (Quality Function Deployment, Experimental Design, and modeling of accelerated degradation tests through regression analysis. A new procedure is presented to determine and optimize the warranty period of products subject to degradation, based on the sensorial analysis of sample products

  20. Study on Combined Strategy of Free-replace & Pro-rata Warranty for New Photoelectric Equipments%新型光电装备免费及按比例组合保修策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹效; 贾云献; 李欣玥; 胡鹏; 张玮

    2016-01-01

    Though the analysis of new photoelectric equipments failure regularity and the demand of warranty,it is put forward the concept about the combined strategy of the free-replace&pro-rata warranty on the basis of the free warranty strategy in the guarantee period of the equipment. The cost-availability functions and models is founded by the analysis of the combined warranty strategy. Futhermore,the models and functions are used for the warranty of an actual new photoelectric equipment for the proposition of the best strategy and proved the practical applicability,feasibility of the combined strategy.%通过对新型光电装备故障规律和实际保修的需求分析,在原有规定保证期内免费保修策略基础上进行优化,提出免费及按比例保修组合策略概念,建立该策略对应的费用模型及可用度模型,得到费效比函数。同时通过对某新型光电装备保证期内维修保障工作应用组合保修策略开展实例建模,得到最优策略并分析证明提出该组合策略的实用性和可行性。

  1. Influence Study of After-sale Warranty Period on Supply Chain Benefits%售后质保期对供应链效益的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施冰燕; 申开凤

    2016-01-01

    产品售后质保服务已经成为影响供应链收益的重要因素.我们旨在研究二级单渠道供应链下,以质保期为决策变量的最优决策问题.研究将质保期对产品需求量的影响,以及随着产品上市时间推移,质保期对产品需求量影响减弱的情况纳入考虑范围.质保使用免费维修质保策略,并假设产品故障率随时间变化服从威布尔分布.在完整建模的基础上,使用最大化原理,对模型进行求解并进行数值分析,最后对研究结论和未来研究方向进行讨论.研究发现,制造商制定变动质保期时,收益达到最大化.因此,制造商有积极性依据质保期对产品需求量的影响规律分阶段制定质保期.%After-sale quality assurance services of products have been an important factor which has influ-ences on supply chain benefits.We are aimed to study the optimal decisions by taking warranty period as decision variable in the two-stage single channel supply chain.The influences of warranty period on product demands are studied.Besides,the weakened influences of warranty period on product demands over time af-ter the products are in the market are also taken into consideration.Quality assurance uses the strategy of free maintenance and quality assurance by assuming changes of failure rate of products obey Weibull distri-bution over time.Based on a complete model,solutions and numerical analysis on the model are conducted by using maximization principles.At last,this thesis discusses the research conclusion and the future re-search direction.The research finds out that manufactures can formulate variable warranty period to achieve maximized benefits.Therefore,manufactures have motivation to formulate warranty period by stages based on the influence rules of warranty period on product demands.

  2. Health Complaints Associated with Poor Rental Housing Conditions in Arkansas: The Only State Without a Landlord’s Implied Warranty of Habitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bachelder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Arkansas is the only U.S. state that does not have a landlord’s implied warranty of habitability, meaning tenants have a requirement for maintaining their rental properties at certain habitability standards, but landlords are not legally required to contribute to those minimum health and safety standards. This project assessed the possibility that this lack of landlord responsibility affects tenants’ perceived health. Using surveys and interviews, we collected self-reported data on the prevalence and description of problems faced by renters who needed household repairs from their landlords. Of almost 1000 renters, one third of them had experienced a problem with their landlord making needed repairs; and one-quarter of those had a health issue they attributed to their housing conditions. Common issues included problems with plumbing, heating or cooling systems, and pest or rodent control. Reported health problems included elevated stress levels, breathing problems, headaches, high blood pressure and bites or infections. Hispanic respondents and those with less than a high school education were both significantly more likely to report problems with their landlords not making repairs as requested. The data suggest that the lack of landlord requirements may negatively impact the condition of rental properties, and therefore may negatively impact the health of Arkansas renters.

  3. U.S.Implied Warranty System against New Home Defects and its Enlightenment to China%美国住宅缺陷默示担保制度及其对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦珣

    2012-01-01

    The dispute arises from defects of new sale homes is very common around the world.Most countries settle this kind of problems through the system of contract law.In the U.S.,the implied warranty system shows its vitality in handling these disputes.This paper mainly focuses on the implied warranty system under U.S.law against the defects in new homes transaction.By analyzing the key points of the system,such as its development,the basic structure,the liable party,the determining standards and the remedies,this paper opens out the enlightenment from the US.implied warranty system to China.%因住宅质量缺陷引起的纠纷在世界各国均是常见性的问题。因通过交易而获得住宅所有权的依据是不动产买卖合同,所以各国通常以合同法纠纷解决机制处理此类纠纷。美国合同法上的默示担保制度在解决此类纠纷方面显现出了较强的灵活性和旺盛的生命力。本文重点研讨了美国住宅缺陷默示担保责任的形成与发展、基本内容、责任主体、认定标准和救济方式,在与中国相关制度简要比较的基础上提出对我国的启示。

  4. Optimal Decision of Quality and Warranty Length and Its Supply Chain Performance%质量和包修期限的优化决策及其供应链绩效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汉江; 雷慧娟; 赖明勇

    2015-01-01

    The paper, from the perspective of the interaction of upstream and downstream of the supply chain, ap⁃plies the game theory to analyze the impact of warranty length commitment and quality improvement effort in house⁃hold electrical appliance industry on the overall performance of the supply chain and its optimal equilibrium out⁃come. Based on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the impact of quality improvement effort and warranty length on market demand and enterprise cost,the paper builds three related Stackelberg game models respectively, which are supply chain strategic models, and calculates the corresponding optimal level of quality, commitment to warranty length,the price strategy of wholesalers as well as the best pricing strategy of retailers. By comparing the changes of corporate profits in the above three different contexts,the paper gains some suggestions which may con⁃tribute to corporate management decisions.%文章从上下游互动的角度采用博弈论的理论方法分析研究了家电行业中包修期限承诺和质量提升努力对供应链整体绩效的影响及其最优的均衡结果。在质量提升努力和包修期限长短对市场需求和企业成本变化影响的定性定量分析的基础上分别建立了三个彼此相关的供应链策略互动的斯坦克伯格博弈模型,分别求出了制造商决策的最优质量水平、承诺包修期限和批发价格策略,以及零售商的最优价格策略,通过比较上述三种不同情形下企业利润的变化得到了一些可能有助于企业经营管理决策的建议。

  5. Software and System Warranty Issues and Generic Warranty Clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    34 :- ’.-’".,:., ",’., . .’.’ . ’ -.’ -. ., .- . 0;/ .’.. ,; .’ ’.’...’. • . .. . * Phose A - Devekpment Test and Evaluation conducted at a test facility. * Phaie - Devopment Test and

  6. Coordination Strategy When Both Manufacturers and Retailers Provide Extended Warranty Service Simultaneously-In the Context of Product Service Supply Chain%制造商与零售商同时提供延保服务的协调策略--基于产品服务供应链背景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇军

    2016-01-01

    Considering the product service supply chain that is comprised of manufacturers and retailers in which the manufac⁃turers provide base warranties and extended warranty service,retailers provide extended warranty service simultaneously, and the product demand is influenced by the service level. After comparatively analyzing the optimal service level of base war⁃ranties and extended warranty service of product service supply chain under decentralized and centralized decision model ,we incorporate a cost-sharing contract to coordinate the supply chain. The conclusions show that this coordination contract can im⁃prove the service level of base warranties and extended warranty service,increase the supply chain profit to that of centralized decision model,and furtherly coordinate the supply chain. Finally,the influence of correlation coefficient on the manufacturers and the retailers’profit is revealed by the numerical analyses.%针对制造商提供产品的质保服务和延保服务,零售商同时提供产品延保服务,制造商产品需求同时受质保服务和延保服务影响的问题,文章建立了制造商和零售商的利润模型,分析、比较了分散决策和集中决策下制造商的最优质保服务水平、延保服务水平及零售商的最优延保服务水平,提出一种使供应链实现协调的服务成本分担契约。研究表明,成本分担契约能够提高制造商的最优质保服务水平、延保服务水平及零售商的最优延保服务水平,并实现供应链协调。最后通过数值算例分析了服务水平系数及价格系数对供应链最优利润的影响。

  7. 承包人在工程竣工后的瑕疵担保责任研究——基于《法释》[2004]14号第十三条的相关规定%Research on Defect Warranty Liability of the Contractor in the Project after Completion:Based on the Relevant Provisions of"Law Interpretation"[2004] 14th Article Ⅷ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志强

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the defect guarantee system in the civil law system as a theoretical basis,compares and analyzes the three groups concept which include completion acceptance,the defects liability period and the warranty period of the project area. Then,draw the conclusion of the study through the above analysis,in the project without the approval of the use of the employer without authorization,the only exemption is the quality acceptance responsibility of the contractor during performance of the contract,do not relieve the tort liability and warranty liability of the contractor in defect liability and warranty liability period.%以民法中的瑕疵担保制度为理论基础,对工程领域的竣工验收、缺陷责任期与保修期这三组概念予以比较和分析,得出研究结论:工程未经竣工验收发包人擅自使用的情形下,免除的仅仅是承包人在施工合同履行过程中的验收质量责任,并未免除承包人在缺陷责任期和保修期的侵权责任和保修责任.

  8. 40 CFR 85.2111 - Warranty enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Consumer Price Index. The specific regulatory provisions for changing the maximum penalties, published in 40 CFR part 19, reference the applicable U.S. Code citation on which the prohibited action is... the use of any name brand part, component, or system or upon service (other than a component...

  9. MILITARY JURISDICTION: FUNCTIONAL WARRANTY OR IMPUNITY CONDITION?

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas poveda, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    The legal institution of military jurisdiction has been constantly questioned by considering that it has been used to abuse and it has worked as a source of impunity in front of serious human rights violations. Before the discredit of Military Justice, the military jurisdiction has been traditionally restricted, but recently it suffered an amendment that has motivated critics from many sectors, reform which established new Military Justice bodies with functions that overlap their powers toget...

  10. 16 CFR 700.3 - Written warranty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... encourages the disclosure of product information which is not deceptive and which may benefit consumers, and will not construe the Act to impede information disclosure in product advertising or labeling. 1 A...

  11. 论二手船买卖下卖方无负担保证的违反与买方的法律救济%Discussion on Violation of No Burden Warranty of the Seller and the Remedies of the Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志健

    2011-01-01

    买卖合同中,卖方除了对货物负有品质担保义务之外,还负有船舶无负担保证义务。但实践中,被出售的船舶往往存在一些无需登记,买方也很难查找到的各种负担。虽然卖方有义务赔偿买方因发生在交船前的索赔而遭受的损失,但是在买方遇到此类索赔时,可能卖方已经破产,或已宣布清盘,所谓的担保也就成为一纸空文,故买方应注意事前的防范而非事后补救,以保护自己的利益。本文从二手船买卖的特点出发,解析其特点下卖方的无负担保证义务的内容和买方可能面临的风险,以及在卖方违反其义务时买方的法律救济问题。%Business contract,the seller of goods besides undertaking quality guarantee obligations,still have ship no burden warranty obligations.But in practice,being sold ships tend to have the kinds of burden without registration and the buyer is also hard to locate.Although the seller is bound to compensate buyer due to occur in before delivering the ship to claim the losses suffered by the buyer,but in met such claim,the seller may have already declared bankruptcy,liquidation,or the so-called guarantee is old parchment,so the buyer should pay attention to advance prevention rather than remedial,in order to protect their interests.Based on the characteristics of buying and selling second-hand vessel,analyzing its characteristics under the seller's no burden warranty obligations the content and the buyer may face the risk,and in the seller in breach of its obligation by the buyer's legal relief problem.

  12. Law project (no. 1329) adopted by the Senate and authorizing the ratification of the agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of nuclear weapons prohibition in South America and the Caribbeans area (two protocols together); Projet de loi (no. 1329) adopte par le Senat autorisant la ratification de l'accord entre la Republique francaise, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties dans le cadre du traite visant l'interdiction des armes nucleraires en Amerique latine et dans les Caraibes (ensemble deux protocoles)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    The French Senate adopted on January 6, 2004 the project of law which authorizes the ratification of the agreement between France, the European atomic energy community and the IAEA about the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons in South America and in the Caribbean area signed in Vienna (Austria) on March 21, 2000. The text of this treaty is attached to this law. (J.S.)

  13. Law project adopted by the Senate and authorizing the ratification of the additional protocol to the agreement between France, the European atomic energy community and the international atomic energy agency relative to the application of warranties in France; Projet de loi adopte par le Senat autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en Franc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This project of law concerns an additional protocol to the agreement of warranties signed on September 22, 1998 between France, the European atomic energy community and the IAEA. This agreement concerns the declaration of all information relative to the R and D activities linked with the fuel cycle and involving the cooperation with a foreign country non endowed with nuclear weapons. These information include the trade and processing of nuclear and non-nuclear materials and equipments devoted to nuclear reactors (pressure vessels, fuel loading/unloading systems, control rods, force and zirconium tubes, primary coolant pumps, deuterium and heavy water, nuclear-grade graphite), to fuel reprocessing plants, to isotope separation plants (gaseous diffusion, laser enrichment, plasma separation, electromagnetic enrichment), to heavy water and deuterium production plants, and to uranium conversion plants. (J.S.)

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.100-3 - Warranties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activities shall take the following actions when items or services (except for automotive vehicles and... history file for use in future procurements. (b) If the contractor refuses to correct, or fails to replace...

  15. Analysis of Navy Aircraft Engine and Engine Component Warranties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    e. identify warranted items by individual marking and/or a notation :.n the item’s logbook. Marking, as a minimun must include the statement...Cc) Combat damage. or (ii) A labor credit. which shall be fully bur- If the parties disagree as to whether danmo.- dened hourly wage rate at the

  16. Pricing Insurance and Warranties: Ambiguity and Correlated Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    profit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Kunreuther, H. (1987). Problems and issues of environmental liability insurance. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance , 12...324-329. Stone, J. (1973). A theory of capacity and the insurance of catastrophe risks (Part I). Journal of Risk and Insurance , 40, 231-243. Tetlock

  17. Warranty of Misinforming as an Option in Product Utilization Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dimitar Grozdanov Christozov; Stefanka Chukova; Plamen S. Mateev

    2016-01-01

    ...) the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on or before a specified date, depending on the form of the option” (“Option,” n.d...

  18. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the ratification of the agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of nuclear weapons prohibition in South America and the Caribbeans area (two protocols together); Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres sur le projet de loi, adopte par le senat, autorisant la ratification de l'accord entre la Republique francaise, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties dans le cadre du traite visant l'interdiction des armes nucleaires en Amerique latine et dans les Caraibes (ensemble deux protocoles)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report comments the reasons of the signature of the agreement between France, EURATOM and the IAEA for the reinforcement of IAEA's non-proliferation controls in the South America and Caribbean areas (law project no. 1329). The ratification of this agreement will have only few concrete consequences but will contribute to the promotion of non-proliferation and to the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons in South America and in the Caribbean area (signed in Vienna, Austria, on March 21, 2000). The commission of foreign affairs adopted this law project on March 3, 2004. (J.S.)

  19. Midwife Acceptability in Implementation of Labor Warranty Policy in the District Mojokerto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dwi Laksono

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The existence of midwive as the Jampersal main guard so important. Midwive acceptability has become Jampersal issue’s at district level, then the reason is enough to do a policy analysis of Jampersal.It is important to ensure successful implementation in the field, so the aim of improving access to maternal and child health services, as well as further reduction of MMR and IMR can be achieved. This study aimed to analyze the midwifes acceptability to the implementation of Jampersal in Mojokerto regency. Methods: This research is observational study. This study is also the policy analysis research on policy implementation stage.Policy research is classified as an ‘analysis of policy’. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions withthe data obtained from the field actors. Content analysis is done by analyzing the acceptability of thematically based midwives in Mojokerto regency to the Jampersal membership, benefit package, accountability, and the tariff. Result: Research shows that midwives most accept to the Jampersal accountability. It is perceived more easily than other health financing. For the acceptability of the benefit package and the tariff, midwives could still accept although with little objection. For Jampersal membership, most midwives still objected to the Jampersal membership models. Conclution: It needs to be disseminated to a deeper understanding of the meaning and purpose of the Jampersal philosophy. Recommendation: Socialization is also able to explain what the background of every detail measures taken, including what makes the midwife objected.

  20. The Guarantee Contract as a Typical Warranty Business in Brazilian Civil Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Siebeneichler de Andrade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the guarantee contract, which is one of the most important forms of legal assurance business. It is one of the most widely used businesses in Brazilian negotiating practice. In this sense, considering the fact that Brazilian Private Law has gone through a renovation, by virtue of legislation such as the Civil Code of 2002 and the Consumer Protection Code, which welcomed the principle of good faith and social function of the contract, it is necessary to examine this important contract and check if it’s discipline is appropriate to the new contractual principles.

  1. 40 CFR 1039.120 - What emission-related warranty requirements apply to me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchaser that the new nonroad engine, including all parts of its emission-control system, meets two conditions: (1) It is designed, built, and equipped so it conforms at the time of sale to the ultimate... all components whose failure would increase an engine's emissions of any regulated pollutant...

  2. 76 FR 33166 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ...-alone note under the table. 252.211-7003(a), Item Identification and Valuation--the definition of... benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, distributive.... * * * * * (5)(i) In addition to 252.211-7003, Item Identification and Valuation, which is prescribed in...

  3. 75 FR 52917 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Companies (ATIS-0322000) Number), European Health Industry Business Communication Council (EHIBCC) and Health Industry Business Communication Council (HIBCC), as indicated in the Register of Issuing Agency..., and Related Service Companies (ATIS- 0322000) Number), European Health Industry Business Communication...

  4. 46 CFR 308.3 - Applications for insurance; warranties; supporting documents; payment of binder fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Orders T-1 and T-2 (44 CFR parts 401, 402, and 403), or any modifications thereof so long as they... approved service; and that no controlling interest in the vessel shall be transferred by a subsequent sale... approved service and that any change in flag or service will be reported in advance to the...

  5. Warranty-Guarantee Application Guidelines for Air Force Ground Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    maximum contrac-tor ihil t fo.i providing loaner or c-) nsI .nc~ r sr arc m ’ir:Jer tll M~TPE Zira C : rVisin. For no Y’TEE ,uorit r:" 1i Z 7 i t i on~r t...ET TOO HT:IH FOP riCUlLE:.O~F’Gr’jIC I -, ’’ -z-;- ICriTI14I I I"I- -CFlIFI-ITE FPL CE FULL FPTE- 1 6 :4 FFP0 = P:.1 P:. TD C +. Fli FT C.T3f-,1𔃺...8217Th2 PRINJT 10:54.FPPO i02054 05.W4 FOPRMAFT ’T .- "ORGAINIC F4L:E FUILL PATE=’" -F5. 1)A36r1 PRINT flr. :ETCO. :ETI:’ td A, 7i Ar1 ) FORW’T $YZ TEM 1

  6. Warranties of Albanian criminal law for children protection from “pornography”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Menkshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the Analysis of current Albanian Criminal Law regarding criminal acts of pornography. This paper will analyze Albanian Criminal Law, under the perspective of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, to reflect the alignment of criminal law with Convention, as a minimum guarantee to be provided by the States. Another element of this paper is the approach of criminal law in the context of the defence of children from pornography with judicial practice. In this way the effectiveness of Criminal Law, on prevention and protection of society, family and especially children, from pornography will be identified. This paper considers the judicial practice in other European countries, but also from the United States and other countries on other continents, as a source of the definition of pornography and its application. This analysis is conducted through the prism of Criminological and criminal policy, to identify the current state of the Albanian legislation to protect minors from pornography, challenges and its prospects, both in legislative and practical terms.

  7. 48 CFR 52.246-18 - Warranty of Supplies of a Complex Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in this contract. (c) Remedies available to the Government. (1) In the event of a breach of the... contract price. (3) The Contracting Officer shall notify the Contractor in writing of any breach of the... written recommendation within __ as to the corrective action required to remedy the breach. After...

  8. The blind man in a dark room with an elephant : estimating O and M costs post warranty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chant, A. [Ortech International, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Operating and maintenance (O and M) costs are the direct costs affecting turbine operations, and are a measure of the operating efficiency of a wind power facility. A combined shortfall in production and an unplanned increase in O and M costs can produce a negative rate of return. Studies have shown that many wind power facilities overestimate their revenue by approximately 10 percent due to inaccuracies in energy output forecasts, grid curtailment issues, and mechanical failures. In order to accurately forecast O and M costs, operators must consider routine and planned maintenance, preventative maintenance, and unplanned and access maintenance activities. Reductions in scheduled maintenance can lead to higher unplanned and reactive maintenance costs. This PowerPoint presentation outlined the potential savings and expenses involved in the maintenance of a wind power plant. The high cost of reactive maintenance costs were compared with the costs associated with scheduled and planned maintenance. Gross savings for a typical wind power plant were estimated at $212,711 per year. Net lifetime savings over a 20-year period were estimated at $25,807,000. The current status of the O and M servicing market was reviewed, and the potential effects of larger and unproven new wind turbines were discussed. tabs., figs.

  9. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: rigid compliance to dose-volume constraints as a warranty of acceptable toxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Frederico R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report the toxicity after intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for patients with localized prostate cancer, as a sole treatment or after radical prostatectomy. Methods Between August 2001 and December 2003, 132 patients with prostate cancer were treated with IMRT and 125 were evaluable to acute and late toxicity analysis, after a minimum follow-up time of one year. Clinical and treatment data, including normal tissue dose-volume histogram (DVH constraints, were reviewed. Gastro-intestinal (GI and genito-urinary (GU signs and symptoms were evaluated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG toxicity scales. Median prescribed dose was 76 Gy. Median follow-up time was of 26.1 months. Results From the 125 patients, 73 (58.4% presented acute Grade 1 or Grade 2 GI and 97 (77.2% presented acute Grade 1 or Grade 2 GU toxicity. Grade 3 GI acute toxicity occurred in only 2 patients (1.6% and Grade 3 GU acute toxicity in only 3 patients (2.4%. Regarding Grade 1 and 2 late toxicity, 26 patients (20.8% and 21 patients (16.8% presented GI and GU toxicity, respectively. Grade 2 GI late toxicity occurred in 6 patients (4.8% and Grade 2 GU late toxicity in 4 patients (3.2%. None patient presented any Grade 3 or higher late toxicity. Non-conformity to DVH constraints occurred in only 11.2% of treatment plans. On univariate analysis, no significant risk factor was identified for Grade 2 GI late toxicity, but mean dose delivered to the PTV was associated to higher Grade 2 GU late toxicity (p = 0.042. Conclusion IMRT is a well tolerable technique for routine treatment of localized prostate cancer, with short and medium-term acceptable toxicity profiles. According to the data presented here, rigid compliance to DHV constraints might prevent higher incidences of normal tissue complication.

  10. Warranties of Albanian criminal law for children protection from “indecency offences” and the Albanian judicial practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Menkshi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on criminal acts of child sexual abuse (sexual offenses. In particular, will be analyzed the category of obscenity as a crime (lat. luksuri. This work will be analyzed under the perspective of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, to reflect the alignment of Albanian criminal law with the Convention, as a minimum guarantee to be provided by the States. Special attention will be paid to the analysis of the criminal legislation, particularly to the offense luksuri, to see its adaptation in the Albanian transition period. There will be special attention to Albanian judicial practice in relation to sexual harassment/obscenity. These will be used to identify the needs of the Albanian legislation, because legislation must not only be written, but must above all be applied.

  11. "超长保修":难言涉嫌不正当竞争%Hard to Say That "Super-long Warranty" is Suspected of Unfair Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江南

    2006-01-01

    @@ 日前,福田汽车在全国启动了"全程无忧"服务促销行动,其核心是为用户提供"20万公里以上的超长保修".具体方案是:从2006年6月15日起3个月内,凡购买其旗下欧曼、奥铃、风景、萨普等品牌产品,将享受多达39种的关键零部件20万km保修,还送全免费保养1次.

  12. Cost Analysis of Pro Rata and Free Warranty Policies%按比例和免费保修策略下费用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾积身

    2004-01-01

    本文研究了单部件组成系统的保修策略,提出了一种新的按比例保修和免费保修策略,在假定故障部件不能"修复如新"的条件下,利用几何过程分别考察了顾客和商家关于产品的长期远行平均费用,并给出了它们的明显表达式.

  13. 汽车“三包”保护制度涵摄范围之修正%On the Scope Modification of Vehicle Warranty Regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖慧

    2016-01-01

    “家用汽车”是《家用汽车产品修理、更换、退货责任规定》的受护主体,是此部立法新设概念,该立法对其内涵厘定采取正面界定目的论之模式,即为生活消费需要而购买和使用的乘用车。但此概念使用与界定方式既与汽车行业通用标准相背离,又存在是否“家用”难以判定之困。为避免矛盾与冲突,《家用汽车产品修理、更换、退货责任规定》应采取消极定义模式,摒弃习惯性称谓。这样既能做到与汽车行业标准相协调,又可避免法规实施中可能出现的争议与障碍。%Household vehicles are the subjects Provisions on the Liability for the Repair,Replacement and Return of Household Automotive Products aims to protect.As a new concept in the law,household vehicles are positively defined as the cars purchased and used for the purpose of living consumption.However,the concept usage and definition doesn’t meet the automobile industry common standards,and it is difficult to define “household needs”. To avoid such contradictions and conflicts,it is better to choose the negative definition model and abandon the customary appellations in the provisions by which to accord with the automobile industry common standards and avoid the controversy and obstacles in law implementation.

  14. Desigualdade de gênero: sobre garantias e responsabilidades sociais de homens e mulheres Gender inequality: on warranties and social responsibilities of men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Viana Teixeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aborda-se a desigualdade de gênero, situando-a no contexto problemático geral da avaliação da igualdade no seio de sociedades contemporâneas, que, embora plurais, adotam concepções éticas com certo grau de homogeneidade, influenciadas pela cultura e pelo modo de vida capitalistas. esse contexto ético sugere o âmbito das atividades produtoras de valor econômico como espaço privilegiado para a atribuição de valor social à conduta individual e a avaliação da igualdade. Propõe-se a possibilidade de ampliação desses espaços de julgamento ético, com ênfase na consideração do âmbito das atividades voltadas ao cuidado com o ambiente doméstico. essa mudança de enfoque revela que as origens profundas das desigualdades materiais entre homens e mulheres estão além da mera discriminação motivada arbitrariamente pelo gênero. Alcançam estruturas sociais pelas quais as sociedades capitalistas moldaram a atividade humana, tanto no mercado como na família. Aborda-se o papel que a ciência jurídica pode desempenhar, em uma ordem democrática, na revisão de parâmetros ético-jurídicos, atualizando o significado do valor fundamental da igualdade em vista dos anseios e das necessidades dos indivíduos.It deals with gender inequality, located it in the context of the evaluation problem of equality within contemporary societies that, although pluralistic, adopt ethical views with some degree of homogeneity, influenced by capitalist culture and way of life. This context suggests the ethical framework of the activities producing economic value as a privileged space for the allocation of social value to individual conduct and evaluation of equality. It is proposed the possibility of expanding these spaces of ethical judgment, with emphasis on consideration of activities related to care of the home environment. This shift in focus shows that the origins of the profound material inequalities between men and women are beyond mere arbitrary discrimination motivated by gender. achieve social structures in which capitalist societies shaped the human activity, both in the market and within the family. Discusses the role that jurisprudence in a democratic order can play in the review of ethical and legal parameters, updating the meaning of the fundamental value of equality in view of the wishes and needs of individuals.

  15. 76 FR 176 - Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... experience, solutions, engineering, supply chain, research, and product development services for personal...), Customer Warranty, Emerging Business, Supply Chain, Volume Operations, Worldwide Sales, and Americas Region... Group--Desktop (Fort Collins only), Customer Warranty, Emerging Business, Supply Chain,...

  16. 48 CFR 246.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 246.710 Contract clauses. (1) Use a... Construction (Germany), instead of the clause at FAR 52.246-21, Warranty of Construction, in solicitations and... Germany....

  17. Wingspread Conference on Quality Assurance in Teacher Education (Racine, Michigan, May 11-13, 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D., Ed.; Schalock, H. Del, Ed.

    A small group of influential educators participated in a Wingspread Conference to discuss the topic of teacher warranty programs. While each of the warranty programs described at Wingspread was distinctive, there were a number of features that all seemed to have in common: (1) teacher warranty programs are a form of quality assurance for…

  18. STRATEGI PERBAIKAN - PENGGANTIAN BERDASARKAN UMUR PRODUK UNTUK GARANSI SATU DIMENSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ika Rinawati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available When the manufacturer selling products with warranties, it causes additional costs (called warranty costs toservice any claims under warranty. Reducing warranty costs is an issue of great interest to manufactures. Thethree ways to reduce warranty costs i.e. improving product reliability, use of preventive maintenance andwarranty servicing strategy.This research deals with a warranty servicing strategy for items sold with a one dimensional warranty where theperiod offered is relatively long. For instance, a computer warranted for three years. For repairable productssold with free repairable warranty (FRW, the manufacturer has the option of either repairing or replacing thefailed item with a new one.In the strategy studied, the decision of repairing or replacing the failed item under warranty is based on its ageat failure. Under the strategy, for failures with age being greater than or equal to threshold parameter will berectified by replacement and all other failures under warranty will be repaired. This strategy is characterized bya threshold parameter which minimizes the expected warranty cost. The optimal parameter is sought by usingnumerical computation. Some numerical examples are given for the purposes of illustration.

  19. Garantias em serviços: da promessa à recuperação Garantía en los servicios: la promesa para la recuperación Warranties in services: from promise to recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Damian Nunes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A garantia de serviços é um tema pouco explorado nas publicações científicas, sendo que grande parte do que está disponível como conhecimento gerado a partir de investigações empírico-científicas é relacionado com a qualidade e satisfação dos clientes de serviços e não com o processo de garantia propriamente dito. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa é verificar a importância atribuída por clientes do município de Florianópolis às garantias oferecidas por organizações de serviços. A pesquisa se caracteriza por ser exploratória de caráter quantitativo e do tipo survey. A amostra foi composta por 400 consumidores da cidade, sendo o instrumento de coleta de dados um questionário estruturado e não disfarçado. Foi utilizada estatística descritiva com aplicação de cross-tables com testes de qui-quadrado.Os principais resultados mostram o fato de que vários clientes consideram decisiva a garantia na hora de adquirir um serviço, bem como o reconhecimento da importância da postura da empresa diante de uma falha no serviço. Conclui-se com o estudo que a garantia exerce papel fundamental na prestação de serviços e que os consumidores a consideram um diferencial competitivo.La seguridad del serviço es un tema poco explorado en las publicaciones científicas, y gran parte de lo que está disponible como el conocimiento generado por la investigación científica empírica tiene que ver con la calidad y satisfacción de los clientes de los servicios y no con el proceso de garantizar la adecuada , dijo. Así, el objetivo de esta investigación es examinar la importancia atribuida por los clientes en Florianópolis las garantías ofrecidas por las organizaciones de servicios. La investigación se caracteriza por el estudio exploratorio de carácter cuantitativo, de tipo. La muestra consistió en 400 consumidores de la ciudad, y el instrumento de recolección de datos y una no disimulada estructurado. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva con la aplicación de tablas cruzadas con los resultados principales de Chi-quadrado.Os muestran el hecho de que muchos clientes consideran fundamentales para garantizar la compra de un servicio, así como el reconocimiento de la importancia de la posición de la empresa antes una deficiencia en el servicio. Concluye con la seguridad de que el estudio tiene un papel primordial en la prestación de servicios y que los consumidores lo consideran una ventaja competitiva.The security service is a relatively unexplored subject in scientific publications, and much of what is available as knowledge generated from empirical scientific research is related to quality and customer satisfaction of services and not with the process of ensuring proper said. The objective of this research is to verify the importance attached by clients from the Florianópolis the guarantees offered by service organizations. The research is characterized as exploratory in nature and quantitative survey-type. The sample consisted of 400 consumers in the city, being the instrument of data collection a structured, undisguised. Descriptive statistics was used with the application of cross-tables with chi-quadrado.Os main results show the fact that many customers consider critical to ensure that your purchase of service as well as recognition of the importance of the company's position before a service failure. It concludes with the study that the security has a primary role in providing services and that consumers consider it a competitive edge.

  20. 75 FR 29155 - Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... information, such as where the product was purchased, price paid, model, serial number, date of manufacture... considered as verification including sales, promotion, marketing or warranty activities or...

  1. The Influence external signals on perceived quality and purchase intention products of high involvement (case study: Laptop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHSEN NAZARI

    2014-09-01

    Data analysis has been done by use of SMARTPLS software. A questionnaire was collected data. The results showed the price, brand, freinds, ranked brand, previous experience, warranty and ingredients can affect the laptop perceived quality. Also, price, brand, country of origin, friends, previous experience, ranked brand and warranty influence the intention to buy a laptop

  2. The Courts, the Agencies and the Advertiser: Does the Spirit Really Give Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenstine, Marian L.; Kean, Lynn

    This paper provides an analysis and review of recent court cases in which advertising was a major factor in determinations as to whether a breach of warranty or a false advertising claim existed. Special attention is given both to implied and to expressed warranty. When possible, discussion is structured to provide definitional or rule-making…

  3. 78 FR 51381 - Early Warning Reporting, Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... accounted for in the EWR regulatory scheme. Therefore, as the automotive industry begins to introduce and... and Description of the Risk Associated With the Safety Defect or Noncompliance with FMVSS ii. As to... claims paid by the manufacturer pursuant to a warranty program (in the tire industry these are warranty...

  4. 78 FR 43763 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... warranty, thereby reducing the cost impact on affected individuals. We do not control warranty coverage for... inclusive. We revised paragraph (i)(3) in this final rule to include text similar to that proposed by Boeing... the longeron extension fitting had been redesigned at line number 1097. Boeing suggested that the text...

  5. 78 FR 48407 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Quality Assurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... remedies shall apply to all breaches of the warranty, whether the Contractor notifies the Contracting...) Remedies. The following remedies shall apply to all breaches of the warranty, whether the Contractor.... The Contractor agrees to notify the Contracting Officer in writing immediately of any breach of...

  6. Teaching about Consumer Law: Activities for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1989-01-01

    Reiterating that students have become a potent market force, explains how teachers can introduce the concept of consumer law. Gives three examples of hypothetical situations in which contracts, warranties, and ethics are discussed. (GG)

  7. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fraud, Waste, Abuse or Mismanagement Whistleblower Protection OIG Audits and Evaluations OIG Investigations OIG Reading Room Notice ... Fora Litigation Status Report Magnuson-Moss Warranty Public Audit Filings Rotational Health Warnings Webb-Pomerene Act Filings ...

  8. 78 FR 36776 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance... an information collection request (ICR), ``Emission Control System Performance Warranty Regulations and Voluntary Aftermarket Part Certification Program (Renewal)'' (EPA ICR No. 0116.10, OMB Control...

  9. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Report Magnuson-Moss Warranty Public Audit Filings Rotational Health Warnings Webb-Pomerene Act Filings Studies Remedy Study ... or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos More Videos Scam-O- ...

  10. Insider Threat Study: Illicit Cyber Activity Involving Fraud in the U.S. Financial Services Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    MATTER INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR PURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILITY , EXCLUSIVITY, OR RESULTS OBTAINED FROM USE OF THE MATERIAL...worker/supervisor conflict, violence, harassment, poor performance, poor hygiene , etc. Violation History security violations, resource misuse

  11. 78 FR 39776 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... April 23, 2012. Company, L.P., Warranty Department, Purchase Order Team. 82,726 Campbell Soup Supply Sacramento, CA........ May 9, 2012. Company, L.L.C., Campbell Soup Company. 82,730 Baxter Healthcare of PR...

  12. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Report Magnuson-Moss Warranty Public Audit Filings Rotational Health Warnings Webb-Pomerene Act Filings Studies Remedy Study ... or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos More Videos Fraud Affects ...

  13. HIV-related symptoms and management in HIV and antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-01-03

    Jan 3, 2014 ... warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, ... A total of 735 consecutive patients (29.8% male and 70.2% female) who attended three ...... Never married/widowed/separated/divorced vs. married or cohabiting.

  14. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Congressional Relations Office of Equal Employment and Workplace Inclusion Office of International Affairs Office of the ... Report Magnuson-Moss Warranty Public Audit Filings Rotational Health Warnings Webb-Pomerene Act Filings Studies Remedy Study ...

  15. 24 CFR 234.1 - Cross-reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES CONDOMINIUM... new construction. 203.14Builders' warranty. 203.18aSolar energy system. 203.18cOne-time or...

  16. Teaching about Consumer Law: Activities for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1989-01-01

    Reiterating that students have become a potent market force, explains how teachers can introduce the concept of consumer law. Gives three examples of hypothetical situations in which contracts, warranties, and ethics are discussed. (GG)

  17. 76 FR 6614 - Notice of a Regional Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... the potential life expectancy of the project resulting in a twenty year warranty program. The design... jobs. The Drinking Water Unit has reviewed this waiver request and has determined that the...

  18. The Phase of Illness Paradigm: A Checklist Centric Model to Improve Patient Care in the Burn Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    care. J Trauma. [In Press] 34. Pamplin J, et al. A daily checklist can change intensive care unit hand hygiene culture. Crit Care Med. 2010;38(12... hygiene culture. Crit. Care Med. 2010;38(12): 525 • Pamplin JC, et al. Phases-of-illness paradigm: better communication, better outcomes. Critical...WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTABILITY , FITNESS FOR

  19. Systems 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    sausage making ” inherent in the years of examining what are essentially hidden group-level phenomena, concealed in unspoken narratives, hero stories...MATERIAL IS FURNISHED ON AN “AS-IS” BASIS. STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MAKES NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, AS TO ANY...STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH RESPECT TO FREEDOM FROM PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT

  20. Ways to Finance Investments within the Local Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Daniela TEŞU (PĂSCULESCU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to disclose several ways to finance investments within the local public administration. The study has revealed that the investments in local public administration may be made by establishing public-private partnerships, attracting and using grant funds and using loans to finance public services and investments in local infrastructure with governments’ warranties or local authorities’ warranties. This study provides a realistic background for finding solutions to the problems encountered by the local public administration in order not only to surmount the economic crisis, but to upturn the international investments in Romanian infrastructure.

  1. Rule 10b-5 and Reasonable Reliance: Why Courts Should Abandon Focus on Non-Reliance Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Altman

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In a typical privately negotiated merger or acquisition, the parties involved will be engaged in months of negotiations prior to the closing of their deal. Over the course of such, many projections, agreements, documents, oral representations and warranties (hereinafter “information” will undoubtedly be exchanged by both sides. In the final purchase agreement, a seller typically lists detailed representations and warranties about its business, and includes a proviso that the buyer is not relying on any other information. Inclusion of this “non-reliance clause” (hereinafter “NRC” is intended to restrict a buyer’s ability to bring a fraud claim under Rule 10b-5.

  2. Risk of Misinforming and Message Customization in Customer Related Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Grozdanov Christozov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses applications of the measures of the risk of misinforming and the role of the warranty of misinforming in the context of the informing component of Customer Related Management (CRM issues. This study consists of two parts. Firstly, we propose an approach for customers’ grouping based on their attitude toward assessing product's properties and their expertise on the terminology/domain of the seller’s message describing the product. Also we discuss what the most appropriate personal/group warranty is for each of these group/clusters.

  3. 40 CFR 86.094-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements under § 86.094-23(c) Element of design means any control system (i.e., computer software... equipment to automotive technicians. Intermediate Temperature Cold Testing means testing done pursuant to... the manufacturer's basic mechanical warranty period for the engine family. ...

  4. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an exception is granted by the Administrator or designee of the Farmers Home Administration or its... consultants with suitable experience, training and professional competence in the design and construction of.... Such assurance shall remain in full force and effect through any warranty period. Companies providing...

  5. 75 FR 62718 - Disclosure for Asset-Backed Securities Required by Section 943 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... 15Ga-1 3. Disclosures Required by Proposed Rule 15Ga-1 4. Proposed Form ABS-15G 5. Offshore Sales of.... Request for Comment VII. Consideration of Burden on Competition and Promotion of Efficiency, Competition...-compliant asset. The effectiveness of the contractual provisions related to representations and warranties...

  6. 27 CFR 53.174 - Determination of price readjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... warranty as to quality or service, and all or a part of the purchase price is repaid to the vendee or... at that time in a lower sale price. For example, a price readjustment will be considered to have been... rise to a price readjustment within the meaning of this section. (3) Loss or damage in transit. If...

  7. Logistics Dictionary (51)%物流小辞典(51)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫道

    2004-01-01

    六流(Six Flows);价值主能(Proposal of Value);蚀价保证(Price-loss Warranties);陷阱产品定价(Trap Ping Product Pricing);推销原则(Promotion Principle);中间商市场(Middleman Market)。

  8. 40 CFR 85.2207 - On-board diagnostics test standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-board diagnostics test standards... Warranty Short Tests § 85.2207 On-board diagnostics test standards. (a) (b) A vehicle shall fail the on-board diagnostics test if it is a 1996 or newer vehicle and the vehicle connector is missing, has...

  9. Energy, institutions and development: rightfulness and institutional conditions of a spreading of renewable energies in developing countries. The example of power generation for networks; Rapport de stage et memoire de DESS. Energie, institutions et developpement: legitimite et conditions institutionnelles d'une diffusion des energies renouvelables dans les pays en voie de developpement. L'exemple de l'electricite en reseau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, M

    2004-07-01

    This study treats of the rightfulness of the promotion of renewable energy sources in a developing country like Brazil. It examines the economical and financial barriers to get over and the mechanisms necessary to be implemented to sustain the investment in renewable energy sources: institutional security, regulatory and administrative stability, long-term warranty, consistency between actions, transparency, credibility etc. (J.S.)

  10. Example book; Miro V3.0: fiche de cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnat, Ph.; Treimany, C.; Gouedard, C.; Morice, O

    1998-06-01

    This document presents some examples which were used for debugging the code. It seemed useful to write these examples onto a book to be sure the code would not regret; to give warranties for the code`s functionality; to propose some examples to illustrate the possibilities and the limits of Miro. (author) 26 refs.

  11. 76 FR 66128 - CFMOTO Powersports, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... granted. CFMOTO also stated that CHG has corrected the problem that caused these errors so that they will... requirements for the location, operation, identification, and illumination of motorcycle controls and displays... lack of a potential safety problem. \\4\\ We note no such consumer complaints, warranty claims...

  12. Nonoperating Failure Rates for Avionics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL MITDK-1B RA7324 LC.76.1 OPERATING NONOPERATING DUIAION DUTY CYCLE METHOD METHOD FAILURES SAILURES ANALYSIS IMO)I OP NERO NOP NOP AOP AAOP A...Reliability and Maintainability Sym- posium, Wash., DC, January 1975. 21. Balaban, H.S. , Guidelines for Application of Warranties to Air Force

  13. 75 FR 12715 - Notice of Intent To Request Public Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Information and Records 2016 312 Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule 2017 410 Deceptive Advertising as... during 2010: (1) Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule, 16 CFR 424. Agency Contact... CFR 444; the Guides for the Advertising of Warranties and Guarantees, 16 CFR 239; and...

  14. 12 CFR 615.5201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... item is multiplied to obtain a credit equivalent before placing the item in a risk-weight category... credit risk of an asset or off-balance sheet credit exposure to another party (the protection provider... risk in the assets transferred or loans serviced. (2) Credit-enhancing representations and warranties...

  15. 12 CFR 229.51 - General provisions governing substitute checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... which a bank has provided the warranties described in § 229.52 is the legal equivalent of an original... indorsements applied by parties that previously handled the check in any form (including the original check, a substitute check, or another paper or electronic representation of such original check or substitute...

  16. 40 CFR 85.2122 - Emission-critical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emissions Control System Performance Warranty...) Electrical circuit resistance (D) Electrical switching temperature (iii) For the purpose of this paragraph... degrees of rotation per degree of temperature change of the thermostatic coil. (H) “Index or Index Mark...

  17. 40 CFR 85.2220 - Preconditioned two speed idle test-EPA 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preconditioned two speed idle test-EPA... Warranty Short Tests § 85.2220 Preconditioned two speed idle test—EPA 91. (a) General requirements—(1... between 2200 and 2800 rpm. If the engine speed falls below 2200 rpm or exceeds 2800 rpm for more than two...

  18. 26 CFR 1.199-1 - Income attributable to domestic production activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Under X's method of accounting, X recognizes warranty revenue when received. Using historical data, X... (DPGR) (as defined in § 1.199-3) over the sum of— (1) The cost of goods sold (CGS) that is allocable to... purposes; the time, burden, and cost of using alternative methods; and whether the taxpayer applies...

  19. 16 CFR 239.1 - Purpose and scope of the guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Advertising of Warranties and Guarantees are intended to help advertisers avoid unfair or deceptive practices... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope of the guides. 239.1 Section 239.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR...

  20. 16 CFR 239.4 - “Lifetime” and similar representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âLifetimeâ and similar representations. 239.4 Section 239.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE ADVERTISING OF WARRANTIES AND GUARANTEES § 239.4 “Lifetime” and similar representations. If...

  1. 40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards? 1054.107 Section 1054.107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... product warranty statements and marketing materials regarding engine life, in making this...

  2. Abuse of Customer Premise Equipment and Recommended Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-07

    hazard to the Internet. The poor digital hygiene of these devices (relatively few in the scope of the Internet) threatens the general enjoyment of...WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR PURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILITY , EXCLUSIVITY, OR RESULTS OBTAINED FROM USE OF THE MATERIAL. CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY DOES NOT

  3. Tritherapy (Spinalon)-Elicited Spinal Locomotor Network Activation: Phase I-IIa Clinical Trial in Spinal Cord-Injured Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    OF LAW, AND SOUTHERN RESEARCH SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY , FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT...January 1995 COMIDIC INC. (Nurse placement agency), Montreal, Quebec,Canada Assistant Nurse Personal help ( hygiene and comfort) inhospitals and

  4. Cloud Service Provider Methods for Managing Insider Threats: Analysis Phase 2, Expanded Analysis and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, AS TO ANY MATTER INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR PURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILITY , EXCLUSIVITY, OR...reasons, well‐operated cloud computing facilities can exhibit better security hygiene than conventional data centers. However, the centralization of

  5. 40 CFR 85.2204 - Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks. 85.2204 Section 85.2204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty...

  6. 40 CFR 85.2203 - Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty vehicles. 85.2203 Section 85.2203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty...

  7. Homeland Security Department: FY2007 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-05

    Explosive Detection Systems; ETD: Explosive Trace Detection equipment; IT: Information Technology; FFDO: Federal Flight Deck Officer program; TWIC...willing to place back under warranty should be refurbished. The committee, however, emphasized that it does not believe that explosive trace detection (ETD

  8. End-of-Life Inventory Decisions for Consumer Electronics Service Parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pourakbar (Morteza); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a consumer electronics (CE) manufacturer’s problem of controlling the inventory of spare parts in the final phase of the service life cycle. The final phase starts when the part production is terminated and continues until the last service contract or warranty period expires.

  9. End-of-Life Inventory Decisions of Service Parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pourakbar (Morteza)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWith the spurt of technology and innovation the life cycles of parts and products have become shorter and service parts enter their final phases earlier. Final phase of a typical service part starts once the part production is ceased and ends when the last service or warranty contract

  10. 77 FR 48427 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... procurement will allow the work to be performed during a heavy maintenance check for all FedEx airplanes. We... product. Where the service information lists required parts costs that are covered under warranty, we have... between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities...

  11. Motorcycle Mechanic: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 4912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Enterprise and Advanced Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The graduate of the Motorcycle Mechanic apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) repair and maintain motorcycles and ATVs which are powered with internal combustion engines; (2) comprehend work orders, technical bulletins and estimates, and relate the information to the job at hand; (3) interpret warranty policy…

  12. 7 CFR 1924.265 - Eligibility for compensation for construction defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standards in effect at the time the loan was approved or the conditional commitment was issued, or (iv) The... pay for repairs; (ii) To compensate the owner for repairs; (iii) To pay emergency living or other... obligation of the contractor to correct the defect(s) under a contractor's warranty must have expired, or...

  13. Journal for Juridical Science - Vol 27, No 2 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C.R.M. Dlamini. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jjs.v27i2. ... Consumer's reliance on warranties: a comparative study of the United States of America and South Africa. A.A. Okharedia ... Egorassisme as verswarende faktor by straftoemeting: case note.

  14. Evaluation of Rapid-Setting Concretes for Airfield Spall Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    is advisable to use the material within 6 months (check expiration dates on containers). "-..- , ..- ... " TOXICITY INFORMATION . .-,!,,. Acute oral ...out NE NO7 ESTABLISHED However. no warranty ai expresed o impld regard i the accuracy of isutie no rUsPftaiblitty for injury to vehicls Or thrd paapb

  15. 24 CFR 1710.12 - Intrastate exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements of the longer period. (4) The lot being sold is free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and... 180 days, a warranty deed (or its equivalent under local law), which at the time of delivery is free... action, usually in the form of an election based upon one vote per lot. (vi) Reservations contained...

  16. Hot water from the sun: a consumer guide to solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Beth

    2005-02-15

    The following topics are discussed: how solar water heaters work, making good use of the sun, estimating costs and savings, choosing the right dealer/installer, choosing the right system, warranties and contracts, getting a good installation, and living with your solar energy system. The appendices discuss system performance and durability, and provide sources of additional information on solar energy and its applications. (MHR)

  17. Quality Improvement: Does the Air Force Systems Command Practice What It Preaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quality .......... 57 42 Contractor Using a Total Quality Management Approach .... ................. .60 43 Contractor Using Employee Motivation Techniques...warranties, finn-fixed-price contracts, top management involve- ment, contract requirements, employee motivation techniques, and good business practices...quality to a great extent (fig. 8). Forty-five percent (45%) oft he program directors and QA personnel indicate contractors are using employee motivation to

  18. 48 CFR 46.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Equipment under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, in solicitations and contracts when performance specifications or design are of major importance; a fixed-price supply, service, or research and... clause at 52.246-19, Warranty of Systems and Equipment under Performance Specifications or...

  19. 48 CFR 2446.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, whenever it is in the Government's interest. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clauses. 2446.710... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 2446.710 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The contracting...

  20. 40 CFR 90.1101 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 90.1101 Section 90.1101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Warranty and Maintenance Instructions § 90.1101...

  1. La carga de la prueba en la garantía legal

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Espín, Pascual

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la carga de la prueba en la garantía legal pasados 6 meses desde la adquisición del producto. This article analyzes the burden of proof in legal warranty 6 months after purchasing the product

  2. Police punishment and the infrapolitics of (online) anti-police protest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Diarmaid Harkin recently called for a theory of police punishment and its public acceptance. He stated that police violence is ‘provided with a warranty of approval and encouragement from larger, aggregate, deeply held emotions and sensibilities’. We lend our support to his demand for a penal theory

  3. 75 FR 27580 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Protection, implement future corporate compliance plans, offer an Extended Emission-Related Warranty and Repair Reimbursement Program free to consumers, and offset the alleged illegal emissions through various programs. The Department of Justice will receive for a period of thirty (30) days from the date of...

  4. New Ideas for Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    The Oregon State University/Western Oregon State College School of Education has introduced a "warranty" for its graduates' performance. Concurrent improvements in the existing program include more rigorous admission screening and student evaluation, expanded field experiences and academic requirements, and partnerships with other…

  5. What Drives Variation in Contracts: Economics or Lawyers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, C.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We study whether contracts are primarily instruments to mitigate economic problems between contracting parties or also reflect the styles of legal advisors. We analyze this question by exploiting access to 151 proprietary acquisition contracts. Focusing on warranties and covenants—two sets of key

  6. SEI Innovation Center Report: Cyber Intelligence Tradecraft Project: Summary of Key Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR PURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILITY , EXCLUSIVITY, OR RESULTS OBTAINED FROM USE OF THE MATERIAL. CARNEGIE MELLON...providers, legal, and retail . These organizations range in size from one employee to global organizations with hundreds of thousands of network users

  7. 16 CFR 239.3 - “Satisfaction Guarantees” and similar representations in advertising; disclosure in advertising...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âSatisfaction Guaranteesâ and similar... GUIDES FOR THE ADVERTISING OF WARRANTIES AND GUARANTEES § 239.3 “Satisfaction Guarantees” and similar representations in advertising; disclosure in advertising that mentions “satisfaction guarantees” or...

  8. Phasor Measurement Unit and Phasor Data Concentrator test with Real Time Digital Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diakos, Konstantinos; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2014-01-01

    network to a more reliable, secure and economic operation. The implementation of these devices though, demands the warranty of a secure operation and high-accuracy performance. This paper describes the procedure of establishing a PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit)–PDC (Phasor Data Concentrator) platform...

  9. 39 CFR 762.28 - Release of original disbursement postal money orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of original disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.28 Release of original disbursement...

  10. Automated Manufacturing of High Efficiency Modules: Final Subcontract Technical Status Report, 21 March 2005 - 31 August 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.; Jester, T.; Bunea, G.

    2008-02-01

    SunPower Corp. describes its research to develop low-cost, next-generation SunPower modules with 30-year warranties and at least 50% higher energy production per area relative to today's typical multicrystalline Si modules.

  11. 76 FR 3182 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... warranties in the market for asset-backed securities. Item 2: The Commission will consider whether to adopt... requires an issuer of asset-backed securities (ABS) to perform a review of the assets underlying the ABS... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  12. Automotive Service Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 0912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The graduate of the Automotive Service Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) repair, maintain and overhaul or modify a motor vehicle; (2) comprehend work orders, technical bulletins and estimates, and relate the information to the job at hand; (3) interpret warranty policy in terms of service…

  13. Additional protocol between France, EURATOM and IAEA. 2001-2002 ordinary session. Project of law authorizing the ratification of the additional protocol to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the application of warranties in France; Protocole additionnel entre la France, Euratom et l'AIEA. Session ordinaire de 2001-2002. Projet de loi autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This additional protocol to the agreement between France, EURATOM and the IAEA aims at reinforcing the nuclear weapons non-proliferation regime. This protocol widens the field of competences of the IAEA with the supply of new information relative to: the civil nuclear cooperation between France and countries having no nuclear weapons in the domain of fuel cycle; the regular inspection of French nuclear facilities; the trade (import and export) of medium- or high-level radioactive wastes containing plutonium, highly enriched uranium or {sup 233}U, and the trade of some non-nuclear equipments or materials with countries having no nuclear weapons. The protocol defines also some practical dispositions relative to the delays and periodicity of controls, to the transmission of data, to the appointment of IAEA inspectors and their access to the facilities and sites considered. The list of the activities and equipments covered by the protocol are given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  14. Features Performance Indicators and Quality Engineering and Maintenance and Cold Storage Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyakova Yu. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of efficiency and quality indicators of engineering and technical maintenance of storage and refrigeration facilities. The concept of engineering and maintenance of such systems is explained; it includes design, installation and commissioning of refrigeration, ventilation and air-conditioning, as well as warranty, post-warranty, preventative and advisory services. General definition of the quality index applied to the quality of the service process and definition of the complex index of the quality of services are clarified. Individual indicators of quality engineering and technical services are described. The article defines the dependence of integral complex index of quality, efficiency, maintenance costs on specific parties to a contract for the provision of engineering and technical services. The concept of weighting factors of such costs are introduced.

  15. Evaluation of corrosion fatigue and life prediction of lower arm for automotive suspension component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Sang; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2017-01-01

    Lower arm is one of the suspension components of automobile. It is suffered from driving vibration and corrosive environment, namely corrosion fatigue. In this study, corrosion fatigue property of lower arm was investigated, and a modified model based on Palmgren-Miner rule was developed to predict the lifetimes of corrosion fatigue. The corrosion fatigue life of lower arm was about 1/6 times shorter than fatigue life. Based on the results of corrosion fatigue tests and meteorological data in Seoul and Halifax, the corrosion fatigue life of lower arm was predicted. The satisfaction of 10-year and 300,000 km warranty was dominated by the climate of automobile driving. This prediction indicates that the weather condition or driving condition influences the life of automotive parts. Therefore, to determine the warranty of automotive parts, the driving condition has to be carefully considered.

  16. The potential for liability in the use and misuse of veterinary vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, D

    2001-05-01

    The lack of specific rules regarding the use of animal vaccines by veterinarians leaves them vulnerable to legal action for negligence or breach of warranty. A veterinarian's liability may depend on the answers to the questions asked previously in this article. The answers ultimately depend on the specific circumstances of the case. Although no one can ensure that he or she is never going to be sued, veterinarians can go a long way in defending themselves against these kinds of allegations by conforming to the standards of practice as they apply to the care and use of vaccines; by adhering closely to the doctrines of informed consent; and by not providing undue warranty to the vaccine product he or she sells.

  17. Archive of Digital Chirp Sub-bottom profile data collected during USGS cruise 09CCT01 offshore of Sabine Pass and Galveston, Texas, March 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Flocks, James G.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.; Sanford, Jordan M.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    This Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.

  18. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  19. Minnesota agri-power project. Quarterly report, January--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baloun, J.

    1997-04-01

    This project involves the growing of trial quantities of alfalfa for gasification pilot plant tests and the use of by-products of alfalfa plants as animal feeds for beef and dairy cattle and turkeys. The various tasks under this project are described. Tasks are: design; review and confirm feedstock supply plan; performance guarantees and warranties; sales contracts; site plan construction and environmental permits report; environmental monitoring plan; and project management, engineering, and administration.

  20. System Design and Installation for RS600 Programmable Control System for Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This document contains the installation, operation and maintenance manual, the system design drawings, installation drawings and the system design data brochure. It provides detailed information necessary for the building/ purchase and installation of the RS600 Programmable Control System for solar heating, combined heating and cooling and/ or hot water systems. Included are such item as general specifications, user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, parts lists, drawings, diagrams, wiring lists and warranty assistance.

  1. Cloud computing technologies: perspectives and challengesof business model application in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail A. Bashirov

    2013-01-01

    Ñloud computing is treated by most of the experts as one of the main trends of information technologies development for forthcoming years. In present article we focus on general overview of the main aspects of cloud computing services legal regime in Russia. Such aspects include, inter alia, intellectual property and contract law matters, taxation issues, execution of the agreements, warranties and representations under cloud computing agreements and personal data regulations

  2. Relating Business Goals to Architecturally Significant Requirements for Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance.‖ Academy of Management Review 4, 4: 497-505, 1979. [ Carroll 1991] Carroll , A. B. ―The Pyramid of Corporate... Limited , 2007. ISSN 1087-857. [Chesbrough 2003] Chesbrough, H. & Rosenbloom, R. S . ―The Role of the Business Model in Capturing Value from...AS TO ANY MATTER INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR PURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILITY, EXCLUSIVITY, OR RESULTS OBTAINED FROM USE OF THE

  3. Supply of equipment and components, materials of dedicated commercial grade, other services; Suministro de equipos y respuestos. Materiales de grado comercial dedicados. Otros servicios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdices, D.; Perez Medina, E.

    2014-10-01

    The following article describes the course of action of Tecnatom as Procurement Agent and Manufacturing Manager for the supply materials, equipment and components for the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. We have devoted a special mention to the supply of dedicated commercial grade items (CGI), bringing together the services of Manufacturing Manager, Engineering service and testing facilities, simplifying the control of the supply chain with total warranty. (Author)

  4. Study of Injection Process Capability in Production of Plastic Boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Lestyánszka Škůrková Katarína; Kudičová Jozefína

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring the process capability currently means the warranty that produced products will be in accordance with requirements, both on the company‘s as well as customer‘s side. This study focuses on the statistical control of injection process capability in serial production in a company focusing on products for healthcare. The injection process is evaluated by control charts, specifically by control chart for average and range ( x̄ , R). As the results showed, based on the chart for average an...

  5. Estado de la archivística en América Latina 2000-2009. Perspectivas teóricas y aproximaciones conceptuales

    OpenAIRE

    Marín-Agudelo, Sebastián-Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    In late years, Archival Science in Latin America has been characterized by major changes related basically with its scientific and professional evolution. Changes due to the paradigm of archives as places for document concentration and memory reconstruction, citizen warranties, governmental accountability, total quality administrative trends and information management. All of these using Information Communication Technologies in archives on a current basis. This paper presents the main perspe...

  6. The Application and Security of EDI in Electronic Commerce%EDI在电子商务中的应用与安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李煜; 刘景森

    2001-01-01

    分析了EDI技术在B to B电子商务中的应用,研究了开放式EDI安全问题的解决方案,探讨了EDI应用与安全中的法律保障问题.%The application of EDI in electronic commerce is analyzed. The security solution of open EDI is studied. The juristic warranty of EDI is discussed.

  7. Evaluation of Galvanized and Galvalume/Paint Duplex Coating Systems for Steel Building Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    more than 40 years (cf. web site for the Sustainable Building Sourcebook). Some literature sources suggest that Galvalume® may outperform galvanizing...by gloss and color retention (cf. web sites for: RSI, CBS, Sustainable Building Sourcebook). Manufacturers typically offer 20- to 30-year warranties...Paint Failures by Prohesion,” Journal of Oil and Color Chemists Association, vol 62, No. 4 (1970). Web Sites Sustainable Building Sourcebook

  8. On-board Feature Extraction for Clutch Slippage Deviation Detection

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Construction equipment companies continuously upgrade their products to meetcustomer demands, staying competitive with market challenges as well as improving sales and profits. With increased complexities in heavy duty machines today, up-time is considered an important aspect of the construction equipment business because it reduces warranty and service cost, while increasing sales and overall customer satisfaction. Therefore, a substantial amount of research is directed towards the developme...

  9. Statistical Process Control Techniques for the Telecommunications Systems Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    when Ford compared its transmissions with those made by Mazda for the same automobile. Ford found that the rework, scrap, warranty nad production costs...within specification limits, the Mazda transmissions 60 demonstrated no variability whatsoever from target values. The Mazda transmissions were built...desired. 66 Components of Quality Costs Prevention Costs Internal Failure Costs *Product research and design *Net cost of scrap *Quality engineering *Net

  10. 摩托车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum light body using high-quality die-casting technology;An application of Gumbel's bivariate exponential distribution in estimation of warranty cost of motor cycles;Analysis of disk brake squeal using substructure synthesis method;Analysis ofmotorscooter ride comfort;Anti-dive front suspension mechanism design for scooter motorcycles;Application and future issue of magnesium parts for motorcycles;Application of a simple mechanical phasing mechanism for independent adjustment of valves in a pushrod engine;……

  11. Heat Exchanger Cleaning in Support of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) - Mechanical Subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    1) zero - has not shifted; (2) stability - meter reading not erratic; (3) membrane - not damaged; and (4) electrolyte - adequate amounts, not...be inspected for damage to membranes, electrolyte, zero, and stability and corrected as required. 2. Flow zeroes on tubes must be checked and...alleged to be defect,"e and Ihe -ntallaton 20 mesh Vw or 30 mesh !.) and have EPDM 0-ring or use threeot NO WARRANTI’ IS INCLUDED AGAINST ANY EXPENSE

  12. Photovoltaic Reliability Group activities in USA and Brazil (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Cruz, Leila R. O.

    2015-09-01

    Recently prices of photovoltaic (PV) systems have been reduced considerably and may continue to be reduced making them attractive. If these systems provide electricity over the stipulated warranty period, it would be possible attain socket parity within the next few years. Current photovoltaic module qualifications tests help in minimizing infant mortality but do not guarantee useful lifetime over the warranty period. The PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) is trying to formulate accelerated tests that will be useful towards achieving the ultimate goal of assuring useful lifetime over the warranty period as well as to assure manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, assuring the manufacturing quality may require 24/7 presence. Alternatively, collecting data on the performance of fielded systems would assist in assuring manufacturing quality. Here PV systems installed by home-owners and small businesses can constitute as an important untapped source of data. The volunteer group, PV - Reliable, Safe and Sustainable Quality! (PVRessQ!) is providing valuable service to small PV system owners. Photovoltaic Reliability Group (PVRG) is initiating activities in USA and Brazil to assist home owners and small businesses in monitoring photovoltaic (PV) module performance and enforcing warranty. It will work in collaboration with small PV system owners, consumer protection agencies. Brazil is endowed with excellent solar irradiance making it attractive for installation of PV systems. Participating owners of small PV systems would instruct inverter manufacturers to copy the daily e-mails to PVRG and as necessary, will authorize the PVRG to carry out review of PV systems. The presentation will consist of overall activities of PVRG in USA and Brazil.

  13. The Effect of Product Country of Origin: An Empirical Study Using Conjoint Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kowsar, Ali Mohammad; Ishii, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    This article extends cue utilization theory with the help of the idea of cue diagnosticity. Themain objective of this study is to evaluate the strength of country of origin (COO) effect asa high scope cue during consumer choice decision for personal computers. Two conjointanalyses were done on the data collected by a questionnaire survey of 65 respondents. Fromthe data we found that the influence of the cues, like-price, brand name, country of origin,product character and warranty, on the bra...

  14. Consumer Protection in Colombian Housing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Villalba Cuéllar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to highline the fundamental aspects of the legal framework of protection to consumers according to the traditional rules of private law. The context is the Colombian housing industry. To fulfill its objective, the author will review the regulation in order to identify the main features of this area of protection as duty of information, misleading advertising, the warranty liability, unfair terms and product liability.

  15. An Exploration of Issues Related to Future Space Logisticians

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    personnel as government engineering, manufactoring and assurance representatives. 11. Require warranties or use significant on-orbit incentives. 12...would assist on-orbit maintenance include; paperless technical data, and robotics , to assist tachnicians performing on-orbit maintenance (28:41). The...be required to shuttle back and forth between the space station and the satellites. The 18 .. ... .. potential for robotic servicing of these

  16. Insider Threat Attributes and Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR PURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILITY , EXCLUSIVITY, OR RESULTS OBTAINED FROM USE OF THE MATERIAL. CARNEGIE MELLON...previously employed as a network engineer at a retail organization. The organization used USB VPN tokens for remote access, and before the insider was...routing numbers for 639 current and former victim organization employees and more than 534 lottery retailers . The insider left the organization for a

  17. Wireless Emergency Alerts: New York City Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    STATUTORY, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY , FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR FREEDOM FROM INFRINGEMENT. IN NO...and retail materials included with WEA-capable mo- bile phones. So we expect that between these two activities, the public has a sufficient amount of...start at the point of sale; retailers should talk to customers about WEA when they buy their phones. They should know that the WEA message will in

  18. Performance of an Ice-in-Tank Diurnal ice Storage Cooling System at Fort Stewart, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    DAY tamb. indoo 1 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 29 69 60 473 640 972 369 616 1824 363 0 2.79 3.56 1.26 0.99 30 91 s0 649 647 926 367...a warranty covering not only the quality of the equipment, but also the workmanship of the system assembly. Elimination of multiple equipment

  19. Formulación de una propuesta de arquitectura empresarial en base al marco de referencia de Togaf, para la concesión de créditos en el Banco Nacional de Fomento – Casa matriz

    OpenAIRE

    Gaibor Naranjo, Walter Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This document is a proposal of Enterprise Architecture based on TOGAF framework in order to grant credits from Banco Nacional de Fomento in which a roadmap and a project portfolio are presented so they are aligned to the strategy. There are some bottlenecks in the Business Domain referring to credit factories in Quito and Guayaquil (where all documents and warranty documents from customers are analyzed before granting a credit) so that the proposal is to decentralize it into the other seven z...

  20. MICROSTRUCTURE AND FRACTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF DAMAGE REASONS OF COGWHEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kocúrová

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of the damaged cogwheel, which was used as the drive wheel (pinion in the steering gear box of the construction machine. The degradation of the cogwheel arose during the warranty period, after seven months of using of the construction machine. The experimental analysis revealed that the cause of the degradation of the cogwheel was due to high mechanical stress in the operating conditions of construction machine.

  1. MICROSTRUCTURE AND FRACTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF DAMAGE REASONS OF COGWHEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kocúrová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of the damaged cogwheel, which was used as the drive wheel (pinion in the steering gear box of the construction machine. The degradation of the cogwheel arose during the warranty period, after seven months of using of the construction machine. The experimental analysis revealed that the cause of the degradation of the cogwheel was due to high mechanical stress in the operating conditions of construction machine.

  2. 新产品定价决策的影响因素分析%Analysis Factors Influencing Pricing Decision of New Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋紫艳; 赵军

    2015-01-01

    The sales of new product depend on two important factors: one is the engineering variables with pro-duction characteristics, such as the level of reliability; the other one is the market factors, such as price and warranty policy.A higher reliability results in a higher manufacturing cost and higher sale price.Consumers are willing to gain a higher reliability only if the price may be higher.They often judge the level of products reliabili-ty by the information of warranty policy, in order to decide whether to buy or not.Manufacturer increases demand by establishing better warranty strategy, but at the same time bears additional costs.Therefore, with price as the exogenous variable, the paper proposes a model to determine the optimal product reliability and warranty strate-gies which are decision variables, for the maximum benefit.Moreover, when the sensitivity parameters of the dif-ferent variables change, the model will discuss the regulation of the optimal warranties strategy and product relia-bility.Finally, the example analyses the basic characteristics of the revenue function.The conclusion shows that consumers always judge the reliability level of products from the signal of warranty policy , which is significant for selling new products.%新产品的成功销售取决于两个重要的因素:一是具有生产特性的工程变量,比如产品的可靠性水平;一是具有市场特征的影响因素,比如价格和保障机制。为了实现收益,制造商必须认真审视价格、产品可靠性和保障机制的选择。因此,本文将价格作为外生变量,将保障机制与可靠性作为决策变量,建立了以最大化为目标的收益模型,分析可靠性与保障机制的最优策略。另外,探讨当不同变量的敏感性参数发生变化时,最优保障机制与产品可靠性的变化规律。最后,通过算例分析收益函数的基本特性,结论显示消费者总是从产品保障机制的信号

  3. Structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades : SE 265 Final Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkley, W. C.(Walter C.); Jacobs, Laura D.; Rutherford, A. C.(Amanda C.); Puckett, Anthony

    2006-03-23

    ACME Wind Turbine Corporation has contacted our dynamic analysis firm regarding structural health monitoring of their wind turbine blades. ACME has had several failures in previous years. Examples are shown in Figure 1. These failures have resulted in economic loss for the company due to down time of the turbines (lost revenue) and repair costs. Blade failures can occur in several modes, which may depend on the type of construction and load history. Cracking and delamination are some typical modes of blade failure. ACME warranties its turbines and wishes to decrease the number of blade failures they have to repair and replace. The company wishes to implement a real time structural health monitoring system in order to better understand when blade replacement is necessary. Because of warranty costs incurred to date, ACME is interested in either changing the warranty period for the blades in question or predicting imminent failure before it occurs. ACME's current practice is to increase the number of physical inspections when blades are approaching the end of their fatigue lives. Implementation of an in situ monitoring system would eliminate or greatly reduce the need for such physical inspections. Another benefit of such a monitoring system is that the life of any given component could be extended since real conditions would be monitored. The SHM system designed for ACME must be able to operate while the wind turbine is in service. This means that wireless communication options will likely be implemented. Because blade failures occur due to cyclic stresses in the blade material, the sensing system will focus on monitoring strain at various points.

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERIALITY IN AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORARU MARIA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization the need of information becomes more and more important. The information dominate the economical life of entities, the access to information being an absolute necessary condition for the business success. The auditors issue a kind of warranty certificate concerning the information contained in the financial or non/financial statements. The work makes a study of the determination method of materiality, of its importance in the audit process, it presents the relationship that exists between the materiality and the audit risk.

  5. Advanced Models and Controls for Prediction and Extension of Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-01

    Predictive models of capacity and power fade must consider a multiplicity of degradation modes experienced by Li-ion batteries in the automotive environment. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must presently be absorbed by overdesign and excess warranty costs. To reduce these costs and extend life, degradation models are under development that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. The lifetime models provide engineering feedback for cell, pack and system designs and are being incorporated into real-time control strategies.

  6. Control Technology for Depainting Operations: Estimation of Life-Cycle Costs of Controlling Methylene Chloride in Aircraft-Depainting Operations Versus Alternative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    contained in this MSDS is based on information bolioved (o b« accurate «I Ihij dato Eldorado Cnemirm Cu . Inc mokus nu ouurnntou or warranty c In...Force Base FL 32403-5323 NOTICES This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither...manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may in any way be related thereto. This technical report has been reviewed by the Public Affairs Office

  7. Bioproducts to Enable Biofuels Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Andrea [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Leong, G. Jeremy [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Fitzgerald, Nichole [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a public workshop sponsored by DOE/EERE in Westminster, Colorado, on July 16, 2015. The views and opinions of the workshop attendees, as summarized in this document, do not necessarily reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof, nor do their employees make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assume any liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represent that its use would not infringe upon privately owned rights.

  8. Eletroweak Form Factors in the Light-Front for Spin-1 Particles

    CERN Document Server

    de Melo, J P B C; 10.1007/s00601-011-0295-9

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of the light-front valence wave function to the electromagnetic current of spin-1 composite particles is not enough to warranty the proper transformation of the current under rotations. The naive derivation of the plus component of the current in the Drell-Yan-West frame within an analytical and covariant model of the vertex leads to the violation of the rotational symmetry. Computing the form-factors in a quasi Drell-Yan-West frame $q^+\\rightarrow 0$, we were able to separate out in an analytical form the contributions from Z-diagrams or zero modes using the instant-form cartesian polarization basis.

  9. eReceipt Service adoption – Case S Group’s retails

    OpenAIRE

    Kukko, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    S Group deployed the new electronical receipt service(eReceipt service) on the 5th of Sep-tember 2016. The eReceipt service has two services, eReceipt archive and paperless service. eReceipt paperless service requires the S-Etukortti Visa type of card and the eReceipt archive service only requires the S-Etukortti cash type of card. S Group’s eReceipt service is one of those digital services that the customers have been waiting for. S Group has offered electronical warranty receipts from t...

  10. Solar energy legal bibliography. Final report. [160 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, D.; Euser, B.; Joyce, C.; Morgan, G. H.; Laitos, J. G.; Adams, A.

    1979-03-01

    The Solar Energy Legal Bibliography is a compilation of approximately 160 solar publications abstracted for their legal and policy content (through October 1978). Emphasis is on legal barriers and incentives to solar energy development. Abstracts are arranged under the following categories: Antitrust, Biomass, Building Codes, Consumer Protection, Environmental Aspects, Federal Legislation and Programs, Financing/Insurance, International Law, Labor, Land Use (Covenants, Easements, Nuisance, Zoning), Local Legislation and Programs, Ocean Energy, Patents and Licenses, Photovoltaics, Solar Access Rights, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Standards, State Legislation and Programs, Tax Law, Tort Liability, Utilities, Warranties, Wind Resources, and General Solar Law.

  11. The positioning of Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion in the market for new electric power plants; Posicionamiento de Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion en el mercado de las nuevas centrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnica, E.; Cubain, B.; Chimeno, M. A.; Ortego, A.

    2009-07-01

    IBERDROLA Ingeneria y Contruccion carrying out a wide plant of activities oriented to position the company in the emerging marketplace of new nuclear power plants whose expectation for the next years is highly promising. Obviously, the plan is focused in their technicians, which include people that are very knowledgeable and others younger, both strongly committed with the managerial project. During the las years, the gained experience in nuclear projects, together with other successfully generation projects (combined cycles gas turbine and renewable) allow warranty the success in the challenge of building new nuclear power plants for the next years. (Author)

  12. Measure Guideline. Transitioning From Three-Coat Stucco to One-Coat Stucco With EPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Davis, G. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rapport, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This measure guideline has been developed to help builders transition from using a traditional three-coat stucco wall-cladding system to a one-coat stucco wall-cladding system with expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulated sheathing. The one-coat system maintains the look of a traditional stucco system but uses only a base layer and a finish coat over EPS insulation that achieves higher levels of energy efficiency. Potential risks associated with the installation of a one-coat stucco system are addressed in terms of design, installation, and warranty concerns such as cracking and delamination, along with mitigation strategies to reduce these risks.

  13. [The social significance of medical arbitration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares-Queralt, Salvador; Arévalo-Vargas, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The physician-patient relationship has been modified with the participation of other professionals that work on health services, the family and the community; as well as by scientific and technical developmental and the empowering of the citizens. The objective of the medical arbitration is to assure the patient general rights and to the professional of health. The model utilized for arbitration in our country is a reconciliation kind and the mediator quality is a warranty for the conciliation, the recommendation or the emission of an opinion judgment.

  14. COUNTRY-OF-ORIGIN EFFECTS ON PURCHASING DOMESTIC PRODUCTS: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana-Denisa STOENESCU; Gabriela CĂPĂȚÎNĂ

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that ethnocentric consumers are more willing to purchase a domestic product. Furthermore, country-of-origin has a direct impact on consumers’ decision to buy a product in such a manner that a positive country image can substitute other missing qualities of the product. On the other hand, a strong brand is not expected to compensate for a negative country-of-origin perception. Many brands rely on their home country as a warranty for quality and prestige, in order to g...

  15. Solar industry advertising guidelines. Task III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostetler, J.S.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to acquaint SEIA members with basic principles of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) law related to advertising and sales representations in order to assist SEIA members in insuring that their advertising is fair and accurate when assessed against FTC standards, thereby avoiding potentially costly FTC action. The following are discussed: the nature of advertising, when is an advertisement deceptive, advertising of product certification and testing results, substantiation for advertising claims, advertising of tax credits, warranty advertising, potential liabilities under the FTC Act, and recommendations for avoiding FTC action. (MHR)

  16. Mid-opening of balancing equipments, simplistic or clever?; Reglage a mi-ouverture des organes d'equilibrage, simpliste ou astucieux?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, G.

    2002-09-01

    Even if in some particular cases, the half-shutting of all balancing equipments of a hot water space heating installation can lead to a more or less satisfactory result in terms of thermo-hydraulic equilibrium, the method is in fact illusory in most cases. This method offers no warranty of result, and does not cope in general with the adjustment requirements of heat emitters. This article numerically demonstrates the inappropriateness of this method using a simplified model of a space heating loop comprising 4 identical heaters. (J.S.)

  17. The Meanings of “Made in Romania” among the Romanian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Mihail BARBU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I studied the meanings of made in Romania concept among the Romanian consumers. The methodology required that respondents were interviewed about their attitudes. The results show that made in Romania has a negative connotation, and that made in Germany and made in USA are better appreciated. Still, made in Romania has obtained a better score than made in China. There are perspectives for the improvement of the meanings of made in Romania, the intentions of respondents being a guarantee. The people working in Romania obtained a better score than the results of their work, a warranty for future improvements of made in Romania appreciation.

  18. The nuclear energy and the others sources; La energia nuclear y el resto de las fuentes: el tema de la seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, E.

    2008-07-01

    Safety is the priority in the nuclear industry actions. For the design and during the construction or the exploitation, including the decommissioning, the fundamental objective is not to produce any damage to the people or the environment. In the same way, the radioactive waste management technologies give the right solution to treatment and storage of them. The Regulatory Organisations of each country warranties with its vigilance the safety objectives. A network of international organisation, public and private, support the experiences exchange, the normative harmonisation and the management, searching the excellence and best practices. (Author)

  19. Post-mining safety implementations and environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites in Limousin. 2006 status (and perspectives 2007); Mises en securite en apres-mine et aspects environnementaux des anciens sites miniers en Limousin. Bilan 2006 (et perspectives 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document summarizes the actions carried out in 2006 at some French abandoned mine sites: 1 - safety implementations and risks abatement in the framework of post-mining actions: coal mines of Ahun (23) and Argentat (19), antimony mines of Biard (87); 2 - remedial actions at the tin/tungsten mine of Puy-les-Vignes (87) and at the gold mine of Chatelet (23); 3 - 2007 post-mining perspectives; 4 - environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites: gold mines of Chatelet (23), Cheni and Bourneix (87), uranium mines of Haute-Vienne (expertise, control of effluents, financial warranties about tailings storage sites maintenance). (J.S.)

  20. Concentrated solar power - Testing of process heat collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzzi, A.

    2008-07-01

    This set of presentation slides was presented by the Swiss Solar Testing Institute SPF at the University of Applied Sciences in Rapperswil, Switzerland at a conference on concentrating solar power systems held at the Swiss Centre for Electronics and Microtechnology in Neuchatel in 2008. The slides illustrate the activities of the SPF and the challenges placed by the lack in part of dedicated standards. Performance testing and warranty issues are discussed, as are funding and the capacity of testing facilities. Also, the development of modelling skills and associated tools is examined.

  1. Wind Turbine Gearbox Failure Modes - A Brief (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; McDade, M.; Errichello, R.

    2011-10-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes are not always meeting 20-year design life. Premature failure of gearboxes increases cost of energy, turbine downtime, unplanned maintenance, gearbox replacement and rebuild, and increased warranty reserves. The problem is widespread, affects most Original Equipment Manufacturers, and is not caused by manufacturing practices. There is a need to improve gearbox reliability and reduce turbine downtime. The topics of this presentation are: GRC (Gearbox Reliability Collaborative) technical approach; Gearbox failure database; Recorded incidents summary; Top failure modes for bearings; Top failure modes for gears; GRC test gearbox; Bearing nomenclature; Test history; Real damage; Gear sets; Bearings; Observations; and Summary. 5 refs.

  2. THE RIGHT TO AN INDEPENDENT COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIN-GHEORGHE GAVRILESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The independence of the court is essential of state of rule, to maintain the stability in juridical intercourse, for the existence of a constitutional democracy achieved through a warranty of the necessary objectivity for the steady and legal settlement of the causes deducted to the trial and the achievement of a fair trial. The article emphasizes the main international juridical tools in which independence of justice is reflected, achieving an examination of judicial practice of European instance as well as an analysis of this principle as it is regulated by Romanian justice.

  3. Evaluation of Mass Filtered, Time Dilated, Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    converting units such that m is in units of u, E is in units of keV, B is in units of Gauss , and X is in units of m, yields an expression for ttotal in...PUQPO~F. tiC:.ARTI lTV. lNTFr:RATTON ()R: NON· INFRlNGEM!:NT AND All SUCH WARRANTIES ARE HEREBY EXCLUDED BY W! LEY AND WAIVED BY YOU. 6. \\’liLEY shall...hereifl) f orm the entire agreement between you and W£ LEY concerning this lkensing transaction anj ( in the absence of fraud) supe1’Sedes all prior

  4. A DATA WAREHOUSE DESIGN FOR THE DETECTION OF FRAUD IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN BY USING THE BENFORD'S LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Kraus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large data volumes and the inability to analyse them enables fraudulent activities to go unnoticed in supply chain management processes such as procurement, warehouse management and inventory management. This fraud increases the cost of the supply chain management and a fraud detection mechanism is necessary to reduce the risk of fraud in this business area. This study was carried out in order to develop a data warehouse design that supports forensic analytics by using the Benford’s law in order to detect fraud. The approach relies on a generic and re-usable store procedure for data analytics. The data warehouse was tested with two datasets collected from an operational supply chain database from the inventory management and warranty claims processes. The results of the research showed that the supply chain data analyzed obeys to Benford’s theory and that parameterized stored procedures with Dynamic SQL provide an excellent tool to analyze data in the supply chain for possible fraud detection. The implications of the results of the study are that the Benford’s law can be used to detect fraud in the supply chain with the help of parameterized stored procedures and a data ware house, this can ease the workload of the fraud analyst in the supply chain function. Although the research only used data from the inventory management and warranty claim processes, the proposed store procedures can be extended to any process in the supply chain making the results generalizable to the supply chain management process.

  5. Law of contracts in Lex Baiuvariorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nótári Tamás

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to analyze the contractual provisions of Lex Baiuvariorum, the written Bavarian Volksrecht3 created between 737 and 743. As part of that, first, it will examine the required formalities of entering into a contract, documentary evidence and testimony (I., then the issues of invalidity (II., implied warranty and buying stolen things (III., regulation of contractual safeguards (IV., finally, other contracts touched upon in the code (V.. Concerning sedes materiae it should be stated in advance that provisions regarding exchange of goods can be found primarily in two titles of the code: title eleven (De venditionibus and title nine (De furto-the latter sets out the rules on selling stolen things, i.e., implied warranty claims, which pay regard to the relation between the person who has been robbed and the person who buys the thing in good faith, on the one hand, and between seller and buyer, on the other. 4 Certain provisions, for example, regarding prohibition to sell things in action can be found in title fifteen (De commendatis et commodatis.

  6. The legislation of nuclear disposal. Text booklet with an introduction; Das Recht der Atomentsorgung. Textsammlung mit Einfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeddinck, Ulrich (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    The book on the legislation of nuclear waste disposal covers the following issues: Part A: Introduction in the site selection law. Part B: Set of regulations: Constitutional law of the Federal Republic of Germany (extract), Guideline 2011/70 EURATOM on the responsible and safe disposal of spent fuel elements, common agreement on the safety of spent fuel treatment and on the safety of radioactive waste conditioning, law on search and selection of final repository site for heat generating radioactive wastes (site selection law), law on the civil use of nuclear energy and the protection against its hazards (Atomic Law AtG), federal mining act (BBergG), law on environmental impact assessment (UVPG), Law on supplementary regulations and legal remedies in environmental matters according EU guideline 2003/35EG, law on the construction of a Federal authority for nuclear disposal (BfkEEG), regulation on the protection against ionizing radiation hazards (Strahlenschutzverordnung), regulation on the transport of radioactive wastes or spent fuel elements. Regulation on the commissioning processes of facilities according paragraph 7 Atomic law, regulation on the definition of a development freeze for site protection for a final disposal, regulation on the warranty of nuclear safety and radiation protection, implementing rule for the nuclear safety warranty, regulation on the advance financing for the construction of Federal facilities for safeguarding and final disposal of radioactive wastes. Cost regulation for the Atomic Law.

  7. No 2555. Law project authorizing the approval of the agreement between the governments of the French Republic, of the Federal Republic of Germany, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and of the Netherlands Kingdom, relative to the cooperation in the domain of centrifugation technology; No 2555. Projet de loi autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre les gouvernements de la Republique Francaise, de la Republique Federale d'Allemagne, du Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du nord et du Royaume des Pays-Bas, relatif a la cooperation dans le domaine de la technologie de la centrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Cardiff agreement, signed on July 12, 2005 between France, Germany, UK and the Netherlands, aims at allowing Areva company (France) and the Urenco consortium (Germany, UK, the Netherlands) to set up a cooperation in order for Urenco to share its uranium ultracentrifugation technology with Areva. This industrial agreement between two European champions of uranium enrichment opens up the way to a European cooperation of prime importance for the preservation of the energy security of European countries. This agreement is conformable with all security warranties of the international right. This document is the text of the law project authorizing the approval of the inter-governmental agreement in favor of the cooperation between Areva and Urenco in the domain of ultracentrifugation. The text of the agreement is given, it defines the field of application of the agreement, announces the creation of a four-parties committee, and recalls the different commitments of the four governments: pacific use of the technology, application of international warranties, physical protection, protection of classified information, property rights etc. (J.S.)

  8. Aplicación del fideicomiso en Uruguay. Protección de derechos de acreedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Garmendia Vázquez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The banking crisis of 2002 and the problems in the uruguayan capital market since 1998 ascribe importance to the theme of creditor´s rights protection. In adittion, the present context determines the necessity to develop diverse financial instruments to banking credit. It is in this framework that the Fideicomiso Law is approved in October 2003. Thus, the present article analizes the situation of creditor´s rights protection, an important element for an adequate utilization of Fideicomiso in Uruguay. We review the three elements that it includes: the normative precepts, the institutions that dictate and control them, and the efficiency of the Warranty´s System. The conclusion is that there are no particular problems with the precepts or with the efficiency of the Warranty´s System, a situation that is different with the institution that dictates and controls the normativity related to Fideicomiso, that is, the Central Bank of Uruguay.

  9. 最适化逆向运筹服务产能配置%Optimizing Service Capacity Allocation in Reverse Logistics Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖明癸

    2012-01-01

    逆向运筹的规划与管理对产业的营运绩效有着相当显著的重要性.文章旨在建立服务策略与成本分析数学模式,在最小化整体服务成本的考虑下,设计最适化区域策略伙伴的选定与服务产能配置,由于前后不同等级服务点的选定会彼此牵制服务成本,影响最终整体成本.因此,以非线性规划求解服务策略分析问题,范例说明在设定服务点选择与无产能限制条件下,最大与最小整体服务成本为5.54%及3.11%销售额,相差近78.1%,约2.43%销售额,严重影响公司最后营运绩效与公司竞争力.后续研究可依本文数学模式,加入不同产业特性与限制条件,或增加环境冲击与客户满意度成本考虑,找出最适化不同服务等级服务点选定与产能配置.%The strategy and management of reverse logistics significantly affects business performance. A mathematical model is presented here to optimize service strategy for third-party logistics partners (3PLs) selection and capacity allocation in balance of the consideration of customer satisfaction and total warranty claims. This service strategy analysis is a nonlinear programming problem owing to each service level warranty claims will depend on previous and following service level arrangement. Example shows the gap of warranty claim may up to 2. 43% of revenues, 78. 1% difference between optimal solution 3. 11% and worst scenario 5. 54% of revenues. It seriously impacts overall business performance and company competitiveness. To add extra service cost element into the presented mathematical model here, environment impact or customer satisfaction, is interesting for research following based on different industrial constraints, trying to optimize 3PLs location and capacity allocation.

  10. Summit documents; Documents du sommet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers three declarations about the non-proliferation of massive destruction weapons, made by the G8 organization participants during their last summit held in Evian (France): declaration about the enforcement and respect of the non-proliferation measures implemented by the IAEA and by the conventions for chemical and biological weapons; declaration about the protection of radioactive sources against diversion (regulatory control, inventory, control of sources export etc..); warranty about the security of radioactive sources (G8 approach, sustain of the IAEA action, sustain to the most vulnerable states, control mechanisms, political commitment of states, implementation of the recommendations of the international conference about the security and safety of radiation sources, held in Vienna (Austria) on March 2003. (J.S.)

  11. The Cost of Bank Credit Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cosmina Petre (Niţă,

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the credit is a conventional financing method used by any company, this tool is by far a very significant issue. The range ofcredits, that a bank provides, and the current policy customize this tool in order to meet the typical financing needs of the enterprises that demands it.Considering the risks, the bank takes the charge of by placing credits, the “eligibility” terms of enterprises that can get such financing being verystrict. Restrictions concerning the accepted degree of liability, the accomplished level of performance or available warranties may represent real“barriers” for many companies. Of all “barriers”, the high cost of some financing tools is a good case in point. In order to have a clearer picture ofwhat this financing source is for an enterprise, I have carried out a cost analysis of these financing tools, the medium and long term credit cost andthe short term credit cost.

  12. Structural optimization of an asymmetric automotive brake disc with cooling channels to avoid squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas; Spelsberg-Korspeter, Gottfried; Hagedorn, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Brake squeal is still a major issue in the automotive industry due to comfort complaints of passengers and resulting high warranty costs. Many measures to avoid squeal have been discussed in the engineering community reaching from purely passive measures like the increase of damping, e.g. by the application of shims, to the active or semiactive suppression of squeal. While active measures can be effective but are elaborate and therefore more expensive, passive measure are less complex in most cases. This leads to the necessity to develop passive, economic and robust measures to avoid squeal. Asymmetry of the brake rotor has been proposed to achieve this goal and the resulting split of all double eigenfrequencies of the brake rotor has lately been shown to stabilize the system.

  13. Solar thermal and natural gas: an efficient complementarity; Solaire thermique et gaz naturel: une complementarite performante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes the content of a conference-debate organized by Cegibat, the information service of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, about the complementarity between natural gas and solar thermal energies, in particular for the production of domestic hot water: 1 - the market of solar thermal energy in France (development, energy efficiency, different technical solutions, financial help, questions and answers with the public); 2 - the 'Dolce Vita' solar offer for individual houses (customers expectations, available techniques, fitter's testimony, questions and answers with the public); 3 - presentation of a combines solar system: the direct solar floor; 4 - the domestic solar hot water offer 'Dolce Vita'; 5 -testimonies; 6 - results warranty; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  14. Transoral Robotic Surgery: Step-by-Step Radical Tonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Granell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS radical tonsillectomy is an emerging minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of cancer of the tonsil. The detailed surgical technique and claims for its reproducibility have been previously published. Case Presentation. We present a patient with a T2N2bM0 epidermoid carcinoma of the tonsil to illustrate step by step the surgical procedure for TORS radical tonsillectomy. Neck dissection and TORS were staged. No surgical reconstruction of the defect was required. No tracheostomy was necessary. The patient could eat without any feeding tube and was on full oral diet on the fifth postoperative day. Discussion. The transoral approach offers the benefits of minimally invasive surgery to patients with cancer of the tonsil. The excellent exposure and high precision provided by robotic instrumentation allow the surgeon to closely follow and accomplish the surgical steps, which is the best warranty for safety and effectiveness.

  15. Project of law, adopted by the Senate after urgency declaration, relative to the energy markets and to the energy public utilities; Projet de loi adopte par le Senat apres declaration d'urgence relatif aux marches energetiques et au service public de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This project of law treats of: 1 - the right of access to natural gas distribution networks (transit contracts, eligible clients and market opening, acknowledged suppliers, diversification of supplies, denial of contract, derogations); 2 - the transparency and regulation of the natural gas sector (prices and commercial conditions, transport and storage informations, organisation of the regulation authority); 3 - the natural gas public utility (organisation, obligations, supplies warranty and security, national observatory); 4 - the natural gas transport and distribution (network management, expertises and controls, maintenance); 5 - the underground storage (mining law, storage concession, exploitation); 6 - the controls and sanctions; 7 - the dispositions relative to the electric public utility (costs, taxes and contributions, overruns, regulation authority). (J.S.)

  16. Final Report Appendices. Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Jane S. [Research Into Action, NMR Group, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    2012-12-28

    This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, usefulness, or any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, re commendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof.

  17. Methodological guidelines to assist women victims of violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Magda López Angulo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Women abuse is an obstacle to achieve equality, development, peace and social inclusion. This is a violation of human rights limiting their personal freedom and annulling their main warranties as their right to have security, integrity and even life. In the 90´ it has been identified as a health problem due to its frequency and severity, its magnitude and influence in health recovery. With the objective of supporting the decrease of this invisible plague from a Public Health perspective, we considered timely and pertinent to adjust a format of Methodological Guidelines aimed at setting rules and unifying procedures, including the complexity and implications of violence, based on the needs of each part.

  18. Petroleum royalties: influence in the municipalities of Espirito Santo, Brazil; Royalties do petroleo: influencia nos municipios capixabas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Carolino, Jaqueline; Zanete, Roberta Rasseli

    2008-07-01

    The article has for objective to demonstrate the positive and negative impacts of the exploration of petroleum in the Municipal districts, giving emphasis to the destination of the resources obtained by the referred royalties in those federal entities. It is known that the economical activities linked directly to the industry of the petroleum are temporary. The announcement of the perspective of current economical activities of the implantation of that industry creates the expectation of generation of offer of abundant labor. The phenomenon raises migratory demographic pressure uncontrollable on the production areas and neighbors. The migration generates overloads of public services and lack of community equipment, already insufficient to assist to the existent demands. Besides, it happens environmental degradation and the consequent reduction of the tourist activities in the municipal districts that stand out for their natural beauties. The Municipal districts assume an obligation the new, urgent and unexpected investments, stopping destining resources to the productive diversification for warranty of the future generations. (author)

  19. Decision making model for lifecycle assessment of lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle - A case study for smart electric bus project in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Sabai; Chang, Yoon Seok

    2014-03-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is part of our everyday life. There are many automobiles invented today that operates by Li-ion batteries. The issue with batteries is that they lose capacity and reliability over time as they are charged and discharged. This paper introduces a lifecycle assessment system for Li-ion EV battery considering the condition of each battery which helps decision making. The proposed research concerns not only for the ad-hoc condition but also regular condition of the Li-ion EV battery. We apply the Markov Decision Process (MDP) with selected policies for the measurement of each stage probability. The result shows that we could monitor product aging status with the proposed algorithm. It also shows that the calculated product life span was longer than the general warranty time period.

  20. Computing the scattering properties of participating media using Lorenz-Mie theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    This source code implements Lorenz-Mie theory using the formulas presented in the SIGGRAPH 2007 paper: J. R. Frisvad, N. J. Christensen, and H. W. Jensen: "Computing the Scattering Properties of Participating Media Using Lorenz-Mie Theory". Copyright (c) ACM 2007. This is the author's version...... of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in the Proceedings DVD of SIGGRAPH 2007. The ACM copyright covers publication of the code in whole or in part in any and all forms of media. Permission is granted to anyone...... to use this code as software for any purpose, including commercial applications. However, the software is provided 'as-is' without any warranty....

  1. Usability Evaluation of Variability Modeling by means of Common Variability Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Echeverria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Common Variability Language (CVL is a recent proposal for OMG's upcoming Variability Modeling standard. CVL models variability in terms of Model Fragments.  Usability is a widely-recognized quality criterion essential to warranty the successful use of tools that put these ideas in practice. Facing the need of evaluating the usability of CVL modeling tools, this paper presents a Usability Evaluation of CVL applied to a Modeling Tool for firmware code of Induction Hobs. This evaluation addresses the configuration, scoping and visualization facets. The evaluation involved the end users of the tool whom are engineers of our Induction Hob industrial partner. Effectiveness and efficiency results indicate that model configuration in terms of model fragment substitutions is intuitive enough but both scoping and visualization require improved tool support. Results also enabled us to identify a list of usability problems which may contribute to alleviate scoping and visualization issues in CVL.

  2. The responsibilities of the in-plant environmental protection officer under civil law and under criminal law. Zivilrechtliche und strafrechtliche Verantwortung des Betriebsbeauftragten fuer Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salje, P.

    1993-11-20

    The scope of responsibilities of the in-plant environmental protection officer covers a wide range of tasks: Water protection, waste management, control of emissions for air pollution abatement, emergency preparedness, radiological protection. What are the consequences for the EP officer in case of neglect This is the topic of the contribution, discussed from the viewpoint of criminal law and private law. The criminal liability of the EP officer results from the EP officer committing an offence either by wilful act or by neglect, it, in the latter case, the officer is in a warranty position. Under private law, the EP officer is subject to third party liability within the framework defined by Paragraph 823 BGB. There is no possibility for him to claim restriction of liability refering to the enhanced risks involved in his job. Hence a sound professional indemnity insurance is recommendable. (orig.)

  3. Introduction to quality and reliability engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Renyan

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in quality and reliability engineering from a product life cycle standpoint. Topics in reliability include reliability models, life data analysis and modeling, design for reliability and accelerated life testing, while topics in quality include design for quality, acceptance sampling and supplier selection, statistical process control, production tests such as screening and burn-in, warranty and maintenance. The book provides comprehensive insights into two closely related subjects, and includes a wealth of examples and problems to enhance reader comprehension and link theory and practice. All numerical examples can be easily solved using Microsoft Excel. The book is intended for senior undergraduate and post-graduate students in related engineering and management programs such as mechanical engineering, manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering and engineering management programs, as well as for researchers and engineers in the quality and reliability fields. D...

  4. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  5. Pengaruh Strategi Inovasi terhadap Kinerja Operasional Perusahaan Manufaktur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Rita

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the effect of innovation strategy towards operational performance of manufacturing companies in Sulawesi. Dimensions of innovation strategy are leadership orientation, process innovation, product innovation, and implementation of innovation. Operational performance is measured by using productivity, volume of production defect, warranty claims cost, quality cost, and full on time delivery to consumers. Data collecting was conducted through questionnares, which consisted of 63 respondents. Data is processed with multiple regressions. Results of this research indicate direct significant effect among the dimensions of innovation strategy to the operational performance of manufacturing companies. But not all of them have an effect on operational performance of the manufacturing company. Process innovation, product innovation, and implementation of innovation give significant effect to the operational performance. Leadership orientation does not give significant effect to the operational performance of the manufacturing companies in Sulawesi. 

  6. Diagnóstico de inovação no setor da indústria de reparos de automóveis usando o característico de inovação setorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Lúcia De Andrade Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil the fleet of automobiles grows at an average rate of 5% per year. Companies in the automobile repairs industry have been establishing new strategies promoted by dealers, such as extending the periods of warranty and introducing equipment with proprietary technology, thereby hurting the market of mechanics workshops operating outside the accredited network of automakers. These workshops have a small business profile, which poses various difficulties within the structure of the organizations, making it difficult for them to keep up with developments of the sector. This research proposes using the characteristic of sectoral innovation (CSI to identify which dimensions must have priority resources allocated to them to allow leveraging innovation that can improve the competitiveness of these companies. Based on the CSI, a survey was conducted on a sample of 150 companies, in which priority actions and levels of internal competition were identified.

  7. Scientists have lost the North. Reflections on global warming; Les scientifiques ont perdu le Nord. Reflexions sur le rechauffement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galam, S

    2008-07-01

    A huge difference exists between a scientific proof and a scientific theory. This is the case with global warming. No honest scientist can prove that mankind is the only responsible of it. The possibility of a natural cause to the observed disturbances is much more worrying, considering that with our present day knowledge, no determining element allows to identify its origin and there exist no warranty that we can face up to it. The author considers that in this affair, scientists have become gurus and their opinions are considered as absolute truths. Science is now decreed and not proven, information has become propaganda and the real risk of global warming is in its social impact. On this point it is effectively urgent to act.

  8. Web Services-Enhanced Agile Modeling and Integrating Business Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Belouadha, Fatima-Zahra; Roudiès, Ounsa

    2012-01-01

    In a global business context with continuous changes, the enterprises have to enhance their operational efficiency, to react more quickly, to ensure the flexibility of their business processes, and to build new collaboration pathways with external partners. To achieve this goal, they must use e-business methods, mechanisms and techniques while capitalizing on the potential of new information and communication technologies. In this context, we propose a standards, model and Web services-based approach for modeling and integrating agile enterprise business processes. The purpose is to benefit from Web services characteristics to enhance the processes design and realize their dynamic integration. The choice of focusing on Web services is essentially justified by their broad adoption by enterprises as well as their capability to warranty interoperability between both intra and inter-enterprises systems. Thereby, we propose in this chapter a metamodel for describing business processes, and discuss their dynamic in...

  9. The Exception of Non-performance and its Role in Debt Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Căzănel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Debt assignments have the effect of assigning a new creditor in the legal position of the creditorassignor, i.e. the right to claim, with all its accessories and warranties, in the same legalconditions, enforceable against all exceptions of the assignor, even the personal ones. Thus, theassignee is entitled to invoke the exception of breach of contract/non-performance, where the ratioof obligations originally derived from a mutually binding contract and the contractual partnerrefuses to fulfill the performance that was required. Invocation of exceptio non adimpleticontractus does not result in termination of the legal relationship of obligations, but only to itssuspension as a means to compel the debtor to fulfill the obligation assumed.

  10. Study of Injection Process Capability in Production of Plastic Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková Katarína

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the process capability currently means the warranty that produced products will be in accordance with requirements, both on the company‘s as well as customer‘s side. This study focuses on the statistical control of injection process capability in serial production in a company focusing on products for healthcare. The injection process is evaluated by control charts, specifically by control chart for average and range ( x̄ , R. As the results showed, based on the chart for average and range, we are able to say that the injection process is under statistical control. The requirement for process capability was met; the indices of process capability Cp and Cpk are higher than the determined value 1.33. The normality of measured values was verified by histogram. The obtained values are: Cp = 1.85 and Cpk = 1.82. Therefore, we may consider the process as capable.

  11. UPWIND Metrology, Deliverable D 1A2.1, List of measurement Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    as convincing field tests have not confirmed the actual improvement, the industry will not invest much to change the turbine design. This is an example that clarifies why the development of wind energy is hindered by metrology problems (measurement problems). Other examples are in the fields of: - Warranty...... activity. The problem is especially relevant for the following areas: Production related - Power performance testing especially in wind farms - Testing of turbine improvements in the order of several percent - Testing of aerodynamic codes - Testing of turbine response to effects such as turbulence...... and shear Load related - Mechanical load measurements in farms aimed at verification of aero elastic codes. (blade root moments, yaw moments, tower foot moments etc.) Wind related - Measurement of wake effects and wind resources inside wind farms - Measurements of inter farm effects (regarding velocity...

  12. Resolving Radiological Waste Classification and Release Issues Using Material Process Information and Simple Measurements and Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochel, R.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of the author expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

  13. Classification and Prioritization of Strategic Plans in Balanced Score Card (BSC Model by Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment and Zero-One Goal Programming (ZOGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi pourmostafa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to continuous changes in organizational environment, there is no warranty for long term survival in the market. Currently, those organizations can succeed that are agile and able to rapidly respond to environmental requirements. In this research a model has been proposed for applying proper strategies for achieving long term organizational success. The proposed model is an integration of Balanced Score Card (BSC approach, Fuzzy Quality Function Development (FQFD and Zero-One Goal Programming (ZOGP. In fact by BSC, appropriate strategic plans can be designed and prioritized by FQFD. Then, based on multiple objectives and existing problem constraints, feasible strategic plans are identified by ZOGP. Findings imply that decision making techniques can be well utilized in designing BSC through a structured methodology make improvement in all aspects and have a positive influence on organization's performance in long term .   Keywords : B alanced Score Card , Fuzzy Quality Function Development, Zero-One Goal Programming, Strategic plans

  14. UPWIND 1A2 Metrology. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eecen, P.J.; Wagenaar, J.W.; Stefanatos, N.

    The UpWind project is a European research project that focuses on the necessary up-scaling of wind energy in 2020. Among the problems that hinder the development of wind energy are measurement problems. For example: to experimentally confirm a theoretical improvement in energy production of a few...... percent of a new design by field experiments is very hard to almost impossible. As long as convincing field tests have not confirmed the actual improvement, the industry will not invest much to change the turbine design. This is an example that clarifies why the development of wind energy is hindered...... by metrology problems (measurement problems). Other examples are in the fields of: • Warranty performance measurements • Improvement of aerodynamic codes • Assessment of wind resources In general terms the uncertainties of the testing techniques and methods are typically much higher than the requirements...

  15. Measure Guideline: Transitioning from Three-Coat Stucco to One-Coat Stucco with EPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.; Davis, G.; Rapport, A.

    2012-04-01

    This Measure Guideline has been developed to help builders transition from using a traditional three-coat stucco wall-cladding system to a one-coat stucco wall-cladding system with expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulated sheathing. The three-coat system uses a base layer, a fill layer, and a finish layer. The one-coat system maintains the look of a traditional stucco system but uses only a base layer and a finish coat over EPS insulation that achieves higher levels of energy efficiency. Potential risks associated with the installation of a one-coat stucco system are addressed in terms of design, installation, and warranty concerns such as cracking and delamination, along with mitigation strategies to reduce these risks.

  16. Criteria for the evaluation of a dilute decontamination demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Divine, J.R.; Hoenes, G.R.; Munson, L.F.; Card, C.J.

    1981-12-01

    This document provides the prerequisite technical information required to evaluate and/or develop a project to demonstrate the dilute chemical decontamination of the primary coolant system of light water reactors. The document focuses on five key areas: the basis for establishing programmatic prerequisites and the key decision points that are required for proposal evaluation and/or RFP (Request for Proposal) issuance; a technical review of the state-of-the-art to identify the potential impacts of a reactor's primary-system decontamination on typical BWR and PWR plants; a discussion of the licensing, recertification, fuel warranty, and institutional considerations and processes; a preliminary identification and development of the selection criteria for the reactor and the decontamination process; and a preliminary identification of further research and development that might be required.

  17. LOS DEFENSORES DEL PUEBLO AUTONÓMICOS TRAS LA REFORMA DE LOS ESTATUTOS DE AUTONOMÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ruiz-Rico Ruiz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the regulation on the autonomous-community ombudsmaninstitutions introduced by the recently approved statutes of autonomy.The article focuses the analysis on three dimensions of the ombudsman: itscompetences, its institutional status and its relations with other institutionsof the autonomous communities. In this sense, it states that the new statuteshave sought to establish a clear normative definition about the scope andefficiency of the ombudsman as an institution for the protection of rights.On this subject, the article explores the new normative parameters on whichthe different ombudsmen will have to base their activity, in particular a seriesof rights for citizens (mostly social rights included for the first time insome of the recently approved statutes of autonomy. The article finally concludesthat to efficiently warranty the protection of these rights is one ofthe major challenges the autonomous-community ombudsmen will have toface.

  18. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Dunbabin, P.;

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard forwind turbine power performance testing....... The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project itdescribes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised...... standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support offundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle...

  19. Report made on behalf of the commission of economical affairs, of environment and of territory about the proposal of law (no. 2011) from M. Jean-Pierre Kucheida creating a universal energy covering for underprivileged people; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur la proposition de loi (no. 2011) de M. Jean-Pierre Kucheida, creant une couverture energetique universelle pour les personnes defavorisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Each year, tenths of thousands of underprivileged French people are deprived of the most elementary comfort which is the access to electric power or gas, because they can no longer pay their energy bill. The aim of the proposal of law from M. J.P. Kucheida is to establish a universal energy covering and to organize its financing by the national solidarity fund. This report recalls, first, the legal background of the necessity of an effective warranty of energy supply and, then, demonstrates the necessity of the re-establishment of a financing system based on the national solidarity in particular in the context of a progressive privatization of energy utilities. Finally, the proceedings of the examination of the proposal by the commission are reported. (J.S.)

  20. A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

  1. Tips for maintaining sterilization in your orthodontic work station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Panchali; Jyothikiran, H

    2014-01-01

    Sterilization and disinfection have been a matter of concern amongst dental health care workers since long. Delicate materials, electrical parts, orthodontic pliers, orthodontic wire cutters, are to be treated according to the manufacturer's instructions to safe guard the life of the instrument as well as to claim warranty for any damage incurred. Sterilization procedures used in Orthodontics should be simple but effective and of relatively short duration so that there is a readily available supply of sterile instruments and materials. The procedure should not cause any appreciable damage to dental instruments and other materials. An attempt has been made through this article, to provide information concerning methods and means of disinfection and sterilization of orthodontic clinics, instruments, materials and also waste disposal which can be adopted in private clinics as well as in hospital set ups.

  2. The place of light water reactors in national programs: Situation and perspectives in the Usa; La place des reacteurs a eau legere dans les programmes nationaux: Situation et perspectives aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kechemair, D.; Ethvignop, Th. [CEA Saclay, Relations Internationales, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Figuet, J. [Ambassade de France a Washington (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This series of slides presents the today's US policy concerning nuclear power. Nuclear energy is no longer a priority for the Obama Government contrary to renewable energies. The renaissance of nuclear power relies on an efficient nuclear industry in the US, on an offensive diplomacy for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the world and on a favourable US public opinion. Incentive federal measures have been taken. 4 main ideas can be highlighted: 1) the construction of only a few new reactors in a preliminary phase, 2) the efficient support to the loan warranty program for new constructions keeps on, 3) the phaseout of the Yucca Mountain site is unlikely to hinder the nuclear renaissance but new long-term solutions have to be found for the management of spent fuels, 4) fuel recycling has to be studied. (A.C.)

  3. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and national development about the proposals of law: (no.418) from M. Richard Mallie, about various dispositions relative to miners rights and mines, (no.489) from M. Michel Sordi, about various dispositions relative to mines; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur les propositions de loi: (no.418) de M. Richard Mallie, portant diverses dispositions relatives aux droits des mineurs et aux mines, (no.489) de M. Michel Sordi, portant diverses dispositions relatives aux mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This report concerns two proposals of law which have a common concern: warranting the rights of the miners and retired miners after the disappearing of the national association of retired miners management (ANGR), the members of which are the three companies of Charbonnages de France group (French national coal board), today undergoing a progressive shut-down. In this report, it is proposed to merge the contributions of both proposals with the creation of a new national agency for the warranty of the perenniality of miners' rights. It proposes also some necessary adaptations of the structures of Charbonnages de France group and some dispositions aiming at modernizing the French mining law and ensuring the exploitation of solid mineral fuels after the disappearing of the group. (J.S.)

  4. Exploration on the Experimental Implementation of Residential Engineering Quality Insurance in Hunan Province%湖南省试点推行住宅工程质量保险的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉辉

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing the status and problems of Quality Management System and Warranty system at present,this paper explores the feasibility and necessity of introducing insurance about project quality assurance mechanisms in Residential Engineering Quality Management System ,and proposes recommendations of the pilot implementation.%通过分析当前工程质量管理体系及保修制度现状及问题,探索湖南省工程质量保证机制在住宅工程质量管理体系中引入保险制度的可行性和必要性,并提出试点推行实施建议。

  5. The use of supernatural entities in moral conversations as a cultural-psychological attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tófalvy, Tamás; Viciana, Hugo

    2009-06-01

    Social behavior in most human societies is characterized by the following of moral rules explicitly justified by religious belief systems. These systems constitute the diverse domain of human sacred values. Supernatural entities as founders or warranty of moral principles may be seen as a form of "conversation stoppers," considerations that can be dropped into a moral decision process in order to prevent endlessly reconsidering and endlessly asking for further justification. In this article we offer a general naturalistic framework toward answering the question of why supernatural entities are so attractive in moral argumentation. We present an explanatory model based on the phenomena of multiple channels of moral reasoning, the suspension of epistemic vigilance, and relevance assumptions through the attractiveness of the sacred, moral dumbfounding, and the expression of social coalitionary commitment. Thus, in light of much of current cognitive theory, sacred values make sense as basins in the evolutionary landscape of human morality.

  6. Consumer Preferences for Selection of Solar Home Systems in Urban Areas of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Gohar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumer preferences can lay foundation for determining key product attributes essential for the success of a product in the market, enabling the manufacturers optimally allocate resources towards imparting these critical attributes. However identification of consumer preferences especially for new products is a challenging task. This research investigated the consumer preference factors for solar home systems in Rawalpindi/Islamabad (Pakistan; applying MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making approach, AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process survey and analysis method is used for prioritization of the factors and comparison of decision alternatives. Fourteen factors grouped into five categories are selected. It has been found that the manufacturers have to emphasize on performance and functional attributes of these systems at this stage, the cost factors are comparatively lower in importance. Make and warranty, Environmental and Physical features are also lesser important to the early adopters.

  7. Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river; Renouvellement de la concession de la chute hydro-electrique de Kembs sur le Rhin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, P.; Defoug, H.; Petit, D

    2000-07-15

    In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

  8. An optimal policy for a single-vendor and a single-buyer integrated system with setup cost reduction and process-quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hui; Zhou, Xideng

    2014-05-01

    The single-vendor single-buyer integrated production inventory system has been an object of study for a long time, but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing setup cost reduction and process-quality improvement for an integrated inventory system in which the products are sold with free minimal repair warranty. The purpose of this article is to minimise the integrated cost by optimising simultaneously the number of shipments and the shipment quantity, the setup cost, and the process quality. An efficient algorithm procedure is proposed for determining the optimal decision variables. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the results of the proposed models graphically. Sensitivity analysis of the model with respect to key parameters of the system is carried out. The paper shows that the proposed integrated model can result in significant savings in the integrated cost.

  9. Buying a laser - Tips and pearls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev J Aurangabadkar

    2014-01-01

    Meticulous planning of the type of machine, specifications, financial aspects, maintenance and warranties is important.It is wise to sign a contract or agreement between the buyer and seller before purchase of a laser which covers key aspects of installation, after sales service and maintenance of the machine.Adequate training is essential; understanding laser physics and laser-tissue interaction goes a long way in getting the best out of the machine.The credibility of the dealer and company should be ascertained in order to be assured of after-sales service.Buying used machines, sharing of equipment to offset high initial investments is a good option but even more care is required to ensure proper functioning and maintenance.

  10. A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

  11. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Dunbabin, P.; Antoniou, I.; Frandsen, S.; Klug, H.; Albers, A.; Lee, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing. The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project it describes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support of fundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle anemometry, multi-variate regression analysis and density normalisation. (au)

  12. FIDUCIARY CONTRACT - A SHORT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina PARASCHIV

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study aims to highlight the novelty brought by the institution of fiduciary contract regulated by the New Civil Code. Design/methodology/approach – Using comparison method, the study empirically examines the institution of the fiduciary contract, the impact of this law institution on the business environment, the conditions of validity of this contract and its effects. Findings – The study demonstrates that the Fiducia is a progressive institution, a legal warranty instrument and a good business opportunity, but which is not widely used. Practical implications/originality/value – Taking into account that the Fiducia is a major innovation especially in banking practice, it is necessary to harmonize the regulations of the New Civil Code with other special regulations, to prevent negative interactions that Fiducia may have with insolvency law, banking law or corporate law.

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility Within the Smartphone Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mach, Pascal; Atlason, Reynir Smari; Gerstlberger, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The smartphone industry is a venue of high competition as devices come closer in terms of functionality and design. Attracting potential customers by offering maximum capacity, extended warranty or great functionality is not sufficient by current standards. Moreover, manufacturers of smartphones...... portray commitments to the economy, society and to the environment, especially with in the public media. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) influences most processes within firms, also the product development. This research handles five smartphone manufacturers and their performance within the economic......, environmental and social area. CSR reports are assessed by using a proven methodology by Morhardt, Baird, & Freeman, based on the G4 Global Sustainability Guidelines. Results show that smartphone manufacturers tend to focus mostly on the environmental sphere within CSR, where Microsoft scored the highest of all...

  14. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, Barbara C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buhrmann, Jan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  15. A Review of Pathogen Detection Technologies with Respect to BioWatch Relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, Crystal [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slezak, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-02

    This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes.

  16. MFP scanner diagnostics using a self-printed target to measure the modulation transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weibao; Bauer, Peter; Wagner, Jerry; Allebach, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    In the current market, reduction of warranty costs is an important avenue for improving profitability by manufacturers of printer products. Our goal is to develop an autonomous capability for diagnosis of printer and scanner caused defects with mid-range laser multifunction printers (MFPs), so as to reduce warranty costs. If the scanner unit of the MFP is not performing according to specification, this issue needs to be diagnosed. If there is a print quality issue, this can be diagnosed by printing a special test page that is resident in the firmware of the MFP unit, and then scanning it. However, the reliability of this process will be compromised if the scanner unit is defective. Thus, for both scanner and printer image quality issues, it is important to be able to properly evaluate the scanner performance. In this paper, we consider evaluation of the scanner performance by measuring its modulation transfer function (MTF). The MTF is a fundamental tool for assessing the performance of imaging systems. Several ways have been proposed to measure the MTF, all of which require a special target, for example a slanted-edge target. It is unacceptably expensive to ship every MFP with such a standard target, and to expect that the customer can keep track of it. To reduce this cost, in this paper, we develop new approach to this task. It is based on a self-printed slanted-edge target. Then, we propose algorithms to improve the results using a self-printed slanted-edge target. Finally, we present experimental results for MTF measurement using self-printed targets and compare them to the results obtained with standard targets.

  17. Desempenho dos arranjos institucionais e minimização dos custos de transação: transações entre produtores e fecularias de mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Vilpoux

    2011-06-01

    transactions between producers and processing units. The analysis of 37 factories has allowed the evaluation of transaction costs and the performance of adopted governance systems, calculated from the ability to stabilize raw material supply. The governance systems were classified into six groups, from spot market to vertical integration, depending on the level of warranty offered in the delivery of raw material. Despite the identification of asset specificity and transaction risk, cassava starch companies prefer market transaction, a governance system identified as less efficient. The low efficiency of institutions increase transaction costs of contractual governances, which can explain the preference for the market. Contractual agreements with intermediaries and strong warranties are more efficient, but with high transaction costs. These results indicate two ways to improve the competitiveness of the cassava starch industry: (1 improvement in market efficiency, system with lower transaction costs, (2 reduction of transaction costs for governance systems with more warranties, which might generates more efficient systems. While neither of the two solutions is adopted, Brazilian cassava starch industry continues to adopt low transaction costs, but with weak efficiency.

  18. Bedrock Geologic Map of New Hampshire, a Digital Representation of Lyons and Others 1997 Map and Ancillary Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Derek S.; Lyons, John B.; Wittkop, Chad A.; Dicken, Connie L.

    2006-01-01

    The New Hampshire Geological Survey collects data and performs research on the land, mineral, and water resources of the State, and disseminates the findings of such research to the public through maps, reports, and other publications. The Bedrock Geologic Map of New Hampshire, by John B. Lyons, Wallace A. Bothner, Robert H. Moench, and James B. Thompson, was published in paper format by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1997. The online version of this CD contains digital datasets of the State map that are intended to assist the professional geologist, land-use planners, water resource professionals, and engineers and to inform the interested layperson. In addition to the bedrock geology, the datasets include geopolitical and hydrologic information, such as political boundaries, quadrangle boundaries, hydrologic units, and water-well data. A more thorough explanation for each of these datasets may be found in the accompanying metadata files. The data are spatially referenced and may be used in a geographic information system (GIS). ArcExplorer, the Environmental Systems Research Institute's (ESRI) free GIS data viewer, is available at http://www.esri.com/software/arcexplorer. ArcExplorer provides basic functions that are needed to harness the power and versatility of the spatial datasets. Additional information on the viewer and other ESRI products may be found on the ArcExplorer website. Although extensive review and revisions of the data have been performed by the USGS and the New Hampshire Geological Survey, these data represent interpretations made by professional geologists using the best available data, and are intended to provide general geologic information. Use of these data at scales larger than 1:250,000 will not provide greater accuracy. The data are not intended to replace site-specific or specific-use investigations. The U.S. Geological Survey, New Hampshire Geological Survey, and State of New Hampshire make no representation or warranty

  19. Pengaruh Sikap Konsumen terhadap Marketing Mix Hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Chandra Kirana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yogyakarta has been known as the city of tourism for the many culture and heritage in this region. The city of Heritage attached to it, has an impact on people’s behavior in the consumption of products or services. A demand for good tourism on the products service has encouraged the growth of industries that promote values. Hospitality, an industry engaged in social services, is growing rapidly in Yogyakarta. The industry deals with hospitality services and management of socio-religious events, such as weddings. Based on the data obtained, people of Yogyakarta are very sensitive to the appropriate product warranties. This study used descriptive statistics of Likert shari’i scale, a modified Likert scale. Data were analyzed using Fishbein formulation. The results of the above studies indicate that the overall consumers’ attitude towards hospitality marketing mix in Yogyakarta is positive with the value of Ao: + 5.1601. On the other hand, the score of partial assessments of hospitality marketing mix in Yogyakarta are as follows; product assessment Ao = +1.047025, price Ao =0.58305, location Ao = +0.980075, promotion Ao = +0.3479.

  20. Google apps for virtual learning communities development: strengthening english language skills in an university environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Intriago

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This action research project aims to strengthen English language reading comprehension and speaking skills in college students through the use of Google Apps and Literature Circles (LCs in virtual communities for learning. Method: The study involved 70 students at a public university in Ecuador. The educational intervention lasted a semester, included the implementation of LCs virtually and in person with a phase of independent reading and another for the discussion. 14 learning communities were organized and students assumed specific roles in order to warranty equality participation. The “Google Apps” were chosen for their ease of access. To monitor the progress of learning English, a pretest and a posttest were applied using the Preliminary English Test (PET by Cambridge University, whose validity and reliability are amply recognized internationally. Results: It showed an improvement of the reading comprehension and speaking skills in English Language in the participants group, who went from A1 to B2 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL at the end of the process. Conclusion: it is confirmed that the use of “Google Apps” aided in the building of virtual learning communities to support the second language acquisition process (L2 in the university context.

  1. Analysis of a group of clinical and social processing to caregivers of patients with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Giorgi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, according to recent data, the over 65 are about 20% of the population, while those over 80 are as many as 3 million (Istat, 2011. Over 600 thousand people are affected by Alzheimer's disease, the most common of the dementias. This pandemic is concerned, more or less directly, the majority of Italian families. A territorial service which wants to approach to families in difficulty must be organized on professional performances of experts and operators, whose diversity of competence is warranty for taking charge and for overcoming of the detected uneasiness. In this sense, the elaboration group for family members (caregivers that we present, offers the chance to receive and give sense to the effort due to the emotional implications that the disease of the elderly person involves. The work, presented here, has been designed and built by a perspective groupanalityc subjectual (Lo Verso, Di Blasi, 2011. It has set itself the goal of helping families to cope with the implications emotional / affective related to the topics of death and loss. The group device well it is combined with these clinical needs because it provided support and processing of emotional and cognitive experiences, has put in network information, has enabled the sharing of specific experiences. Through rigorous qualitative methodology, are therefore presented the outcomes of the group experience. Keywords:dementia, caregivers, group

  2. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  3. Project finance in Campos Basin; O 'Project Finance' na auto-suficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Almeida, Albino Lopes; Mendonca, Roberto Wagner [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present conquest of the self-sufficiency is a result of 3 decades of investments that started with the discovery of the well 1-RJS-9A in 1974. The second leap was the discovery of giant fields in the 1980 including Marlim (1984) and Albacora (1985) among others. This first two conquests were basically technical and were recognized by the OTC in 1991 and 2000. The third leap was the utilization of project finance structures. We examine the role of project finance in the main projects developed by the PETROBRAS E and P - Exploration and Production - segment in the Campos Basin region. These projects allowed PB to invest more than US$ 6 billion dollars in a five year interval increasing production in 12 oil fields by 75% in a 7 years interval which later enabled PB to be self-sufficient in oil production. The financial structures of Albacora, Barracuda, EVM and Marlim are shown and discussed in various aspects which including structure, schedule, conditionalities, warranties, management of the SPEs and relationship with international agencies. Considering the present quest of developing Tupi and Jupiter which might represent investments around US$ 80 billion and it's impacts to the PETROBRAS capital structure and risk this might be a useful discussion. (author)

  4. Color Maintenance of LEDs in Laboratory and Field Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Tuttle, Ralph; Rosenfeld, Scott M.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2013-09-30

    Synopsis: To date, consideration for parametric failure of LED products has largely been focused on lumen maintenance. However, color shift is a cause of early failure for some products, and is especially important to consider in certain applications, like museums, where visual appearance is critical. Example data collected by the GATEWAY program for LED lamps installed in museums shows that many have changed color beyond a reasonable tolerance well before their rated lifetime was reached, necessitating replacement. Similar data collected by the CALiPER program between 2008 and 2010 reveals that many early products shifted beyond acceptable tolerances in as little as a few thousand hours. In contrast, data from the L Prize program illustrates that commercially available LED products can have exemplary color stability that is unmatched by traditional light sources. Beyond presenting data from the aforementioned DOE programs, this report discusses the metrics used for communicating color shift—namely MacAdam ellipses and Δu'v'—as well as providing guidance for end users on how to monitor color shift and what to look for in manufacturer warranties. Also included are descriptions of the physical changes that have been documented as leading to color shift in some example types of LED packages. As with complete products, the data presented herein for LED packages shows that a wide variety of products are available; in order for specifiers and consumers to make educated choices, more detailed and standardized information should be made available.

  5. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery reliability must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. Complicating matters, Li-ion batteries can experience several path dependent degradation trajectories dependent on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must be absorbed by overdesign and warranty costs. Degradation models are needed that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. Models should also provide engineering feedback for next generation battery designs. This presentation reviews both multi-dimensional physical models and simpler, lumped surrogate models of battery electrochemical and mechanical degradation. Models are compared with cell- and pack-level aging data from commercial Li-ion chemistries. The analysis elucidates the relative importance of electrochemical and mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms in real-world operating environments. Opportunities for extending the lifetime of commercial battery systems are explored.

  6. Conflictos en torno a la compra y venta de esclavos en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pita Pico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se centra en el análisis de los conflictos que giraron en torno a las operaciones de compra de esclavos en el nororiente neogranadino durante el siglo XVIII. Legalizaciones aplazadas, ventas desautorizadas, pagos pendientes, esclavos hipotecados y confusiones sobre el estado real del esclavo comercializado fueron situaciones que desataron enconadas disputas y pleitos judiciales que terminaron algunas veces con la declaratoria de redhibitoria, es decir, la anulación del contrato de venta y la devolución del esclavo. En vista de estos antecedentes, y con un ánimo preventivo, los negociantes se aseguraron de fijar en las escrituras de compraventa ciertas garantías o aclaraciones para no verse involucrados en tales litigios. This paper focuses on the analysis of the conflicts that revolved around the buying of slaves in northeast New Granada during the 18th century. Deferred legalization, unauthorized sales, pending payments, mortgaged slaves, confu-sion about the real state of the slave traded, were situations that triggered bitter disputes and lawsuits ended sometimes with the declaration of rescission, that is, the cancellation of the contract of sale and the return of the slave. Given this background, traders were careful to place certain warranties or clarifications into the deed of sale to avoid being involved in such litigation.

  7. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  8. Report made on behalf of the commission of economical affairs, of environment and territory about the project of energy trend law (no. 1586); Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi (no. 1586), d'orientation sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poignant, S.

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the comments made by the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the project of energy trend law. This law aims at defining in its first article the goals and trends of the French energy policy, and then at completing the existing energy dispositions in order to more efficiently implement these trends. The goals of the French energy plan are: the guarantee of supplies security, the environment protection, the warranty of energy prices competitiveness, and the energy access to the whole French people. These goals imply to keep up the nuclear option with the construction of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) and to develop the renewable energies. The first title of the law is devoted to the mastery of energy demand and foresee the implementation of a system of energy saving certificates, the reinforcement of the thermal building codes law, and a better information of consumers. The second title aims at promoting the development of renewable energy sources. Finally, the third title aims at better warranting the equilibrium of power networks and the quality of power supplies. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions about the law project while the second part makes a detailed analysis of each article with the proposals of modifications made by the commission. (J.S.)

  9. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL-FIRED POWER PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon R. Glicksman; Michael Louge; Hesham F. Younis; Richard Tan; Mathew Hyre; Mark Torpey

    2003-11-24

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor an agency thereof, nor any of the their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, A combined-cycle High Performance Power System (HIPPS) capable of overall cycle efficiencies approaching 50% has been proposed and designed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). A pyrolyzer in the first stage of the HIPPS process converts a coal feedstock into fuel gas and char at an elevated pressure of 1.4 Map. (206 psia) and elevated temperature of 930 C (1700 F). The generated char serves as the feedstock for a Pulverized Coal (PC) boiler operating at atmospheric pressure, and the fuel gas is directly fired in a gas turbine. The hydrodynamic behavior of the pyrolyzer strongly influences the quality of both the fuel gas and the generated char, the energy split between the gas turbine and the steam turbine, and hence the overall efficiency of the system. By utilizing a simplified set of scaling parameters (Glicksman et al.,1993), a 4/7th labscale cold model of the pyrolyzer operating at ambient temperature and pressure was constructed and tested. The scaling parameters matched include solid to gas density ratio, Froude number, length to diameter ratio; dimensionless superficial gas velocity and solid recycle rate, particle sphericity and particle size distribution (PSD).

  10. The use of electronic health records in Spanish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marca, Guillem; Perez, Angel; Blanco-Garcia, Martin German; Miravalles, Elena; Soley, Pere; Ortiga, Berta

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the level of adoption of electronic health records in Spanish hospitals and to identify potential barriers and facilitators to this process. We used an observational cross-sectional design. The survey was conducted between September and December 2011, using an electronic questionnaire distributed through email. We obtained a 30% response rate from the 214 hospitals contacted, all belonging to the Spanish National Health Service. The level of adoption of electronic health records in Spanish hospitals was found to be high: 39.1% of hospitals surveyed had a comprehensive EHR system while a basic system was functioning in 32.8% of the cases. However, in 2011 one third of the hospitals did not have a basic electronic health record system, although some have since implemented electronic functionalities, particularly those related to clinical documentation and patient administration. Respondents cited the acquisition and implementation costs as the main barriers to implementation. Facilitators for EHR implementation were: the possibility to hire technical support, both during and post implementation; security certification warranty; and objective third-party evaluations of EHR products. In conclusion, the number of hospitals that have electronic health records is in general high, being relatively higher in medium-sized hospitals.

  11. CONTRACTUL DE ASIGURARE DE VIAŢĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pusca

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The Life Insurance delineates de facto that specific contract through which the insurer, if given a warranty premium, relegates himself to the underwriter to pay off a stipulated sum to the benefit of the latter, the discharge of this commitment depending on the life of the insured. Individual insurance bonds do cover those perils liable to act upon the very person of the insured, and aim at the life (i.e. life insurance contracts or else the somatic integrity (accident and health insurance covenants of the warrantee. They are characterized by the lump drafting of the guaranteed, contract – stipulated pre – chartered amounts. Life insurance agreements are elaborate, as combining an insurance operation aiming at the eventuality of a risk occurrence, and an investment deal circumscribed by the capitalization process. The solicitor (i.e. the contractor is literally the partaker bound to the insurer via the commitment to pay the insurance premiums. The appellant ought to possess the juridical capacity to contract, in terms of being either a physical or a legal person. The insured participator is the individual pertained to by the underwritten risk. The insurance beneficiary is the physical or the legal person applied for to benefit by the insurance contract. The unfolding of the insurance contract depends on the life of the insured partaker, a clear – cut distinction being easily operated among the following covenant types: insurance in case of survival; decease insurance; commingled insurance; ancillary insurance.

  12. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of overhead travelling cranes for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply, installation and commissioning of seven overhead travelling cranes for the LHC. Following a market survey carried out among 100 firms in seventeen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2707/ST/LHC) was sent on 21 February 2001 to 15 firms and two consortia consisting of two firms and three firms respectively in ten Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received eight tenders from eight firms in six Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm BRUNNHUBER (DE), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply, installation and commissioning of seven overhead travelling cranes for a total amount of 3 069 910 euros (4 733 801 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, with options for one additional overhead travelling crane and auxiliary equipment, a spare parts package and an extended warranty for an additional amount of 663 110 euros (1 022 516 Swiss francs), not subje...

  13. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC Lithium-Ion 18,650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV manufacturers are employing cylindrical format cells in the construction of the vehicles’ battery systems. There is evidence to suggest that both the academic and industrial communities have evaluated cell degradation due to vibration and other forms of mechanical loading. The primary motivation is often the need to satisfy the minimum requirements for safety certification. However, there is limited research that quantifies the durability of the battery and in particular, how the cells will be affected by vibration that is representative of a typical automotive service life (e.g., 100,000 miles. This paper presents a study to determine the durability of commercially available 18,650 cells and quantifies both the electrical and mechanical vibration-induced degradation through measuring changes in cell capacity, impedance and natural frequency. The impact of the cell state of charge (SOC and in-pack orientation is also evaluated. Experimental results are presented which clearly show that the performance of 18,650 cells can be affected by vibration profiles which are representative of a typical vehicle life. Consequently, it is recommended that EV manufacturers undertake vibration testing, as part of their technology selection and development activities to enhance the quality of EVs and to minimize the risk of in-service warranty claims.

  14. A computational model for reliability calculation of steam generators from defects in its tubes; Um modelo computacional para o calculo da confiabilidade de geradores de vapor a partir de defeitos em seus tubos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Paulo C.M.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    Nowadays, probability approaches are employed for calculating the reliability of steam generators as a function of defects in their tubes without any deterministic association with warranty assurance. Unfortunately, probability models produce large failure values, as opposed to the recommendation of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, that is, failure probabilities must be as small as possible In this paper, we propose the association of the deterministic methodology with the probabilistic one. At first, the failure probability evaluation of steam generators follows a probabilistic methodology: to find the failure probability, critical cracks - obtained from Monte Carlo simulations - are limited to have length's in the interval defined by their lower value and the plugging limit one, so as to obtain a failure probability of at most 1%. The distribution employed for modeling the observed (measured) cracks considers the same interval. Any length outside the mentioned interval is not considered for the probability evaluation: it is approached by the deterministic model. The deterministic approach is to plug the tube when any anomalous crack is detected in it. Such a crack is an observed one placed in the third region on the plot of the logarithmic time derivative of crack lengths versus the mode I stress intensity factor, while for normal cracks the plugging of tubes occurs in the second region of that plot - if they are dangerous, of course, considering their random evolution. A methodology for identifying anomalous cracks is also presented. (author)

  15. Identifying and Prioritizing Effective Factors on Classifying A Private Bank Customers by Delphi Technique and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khayatmoghadam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry development and presence of different financial institutions cause to increase competition in customer and their capitals attraction so that there are about 28 banks and many credit and financial institutions from which 6 banks are public and 22 banks are private. Among them, public banks have a more appropriate situation than private banks with regard to governmental relations and support and due to geographical expansion and longer history. But due to lack of above conditions; private banks try to attract customers with regarding science areas to remedy this situation. Therefore, in this study we are decided to review banking customers from a different viewpoint. For this reason, we initially obtained ideal indications from banking viewpoint in two-story of uses and resources customers using experts and Delphi technique application which based on this, indicators such as account workflow, account average, lack of returned cheque, etc and in uses section, the amount of facility received, the amount of received warranties, etc, were determined. Then, using a Hierarchical Analysis (AHP method and experts opinions through software Expert Choice11, priority of these criteria were determined and weight of each index was determined. It should be noted that statistical population of bank experts associated with this study were queue and staff. Also obtained results can be used as input for customer grouping in line with CRM techniques implementation.

  16. TRANSPARANSI PELAYANAN PAJAK KENDARAAN BERMOTOR DI KABUPATEN GOWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusmiati Rusmiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the process of the motor vehicle tax services in Gowa. This research uses quantitative and qualitative descriptive approach and collection techniques by observation, interviews and questionnaires. The results showed indicators of motor vehicle tax transparency of services such as: Disclosure of the service process is not done transparently; information service procedures have not done well; Ease of obtaining information through cooperation with mass media have not done well. As a result the quality of service of the Motor Vehicle Tax (PKB is evidenced by: reliability SAMSAT employees in serving the community is enough to satisfy the public; SAMSAT employee responsiveness in serving the public still lacks respond; Warranty SAMSAT employees in serving the community is pretty good; and Empathy SAMSAT employees to serve the public good enough   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan proses pelayanan pajak kendaraan bermotor di Kabupaten Gowa. Jenis penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif kuantitatif dan kualitatif dan teknik pengumpulan dengan cara observasi, wawancara dan kuesioner. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan indikator transparansi pelayanan pajak kendaraaan bermotor antara lain: keterbukaan proses pelayanan yaitu belum dilakukan dengan transparan; prosedur pelayanan informasi belum dilakukan dengan baik; kemudahan memperoleh informasi melalui kerjasama dengan media massa belum dilakukan dengan baik. Alhasil kualitas pelayanan Pajak Kendaraan Bermotor (PKB yaitu tercermin dari: kehandalan pegawai Samsat dalam melayani masyarakat sudah cukup memuaskan masyarakat; daya tanggap pegawai Samsat dalam melayani masyarakat masih kurang merespon; Jaminan pegawai Samsat dalam melayani masyarakat sudah cukup bagus; dan empati pegawai Samsat dalam melayani masyarakat sudah cukup baik.

  17. Optimization of low-NO{sub x} overfire air systems to improve boiler performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.E.; Shiomoto, G.H.; Quartucy [Fossil Energy Research Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Overfire air (OFA) is a common post-retrofit NO{sub x} control measure that can adversely impact coal-fired utility boiler performance if not properly implemented. Some utilities have experienced a significant increase in fly ash carbon content, difficulty in maintaining efficient operating O{sub 2} levels, and changes in furnace heat absorption as the result of installing OFA systems. Although staged combustion conditions and coal properties have often been cited as reasons for increased fly ash carbon content and LOI, the importance of optimizing OFA system performance during post-retrofit commissioning and warranty testing has not been adequately recognized. This paper outlines combustion diagnostic and analysis techniques that have been successfully used to evaluate OFA mixing, penetration and combustion uniformity on typical coal-fired utility boilers. Field test data is provided illustrating the results of combustion diagnostic testing on several units where the distribution of air flow to the OFA ports was not well balanced or the OFA penetration and mixing, were not sufficient to achieve uniform combustion. The paper includes a discussion of instrumentation used to adjust OFA parameters to optimize both NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. OFA tuning at one 250 MW tangentially-fired unit reduced the O{sub 2} level where CO emissions were first encountered from 4.25 percent O{sub 2} to less than three percent O{sub 2} at the economizer exit.

  18. Planning factors for developing an enterprise-wide picture archiving and communication system maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, S; Romlein, J; Chacko, A K; Wider, R

    2000-05-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) maintenance on an individual site basis has historically been a complex and costly challenge. With the advent of enterprise-wide PACS projects such as the Virtual Radiology Environment (VRE) project, the challenge of a maintenance program with even more complexities has presented itself. The approach of the project management team for the VRE project is not one of reactive maintenance, but one of highly proactive planning and negotiations, in hopes of capitalizing on the economies of scale of an enterprise-wide PACS maintenance program. A proactive maintenance program is one aspect of life-cycle management. As with any capital acquisition, life-cycle management may be used to manage the specific project aspects related to PACS. The purpose of an enterprise-wide warranty and maintenance life-cycle management approach is to maintain PACS at its maximum operational efficiency and utilization levels through a flexible, shared, yet symbiotic relationship between local, regional, and vendor resources. These goals include providing maximum operational performance levels on a local, regional, and enterprise basis, while maintaining acceptable costs and resource utilization levels. This goal must be achieved without negatively impacting point of care activities, regardless of changes to the clinical business environment.

  19. A review of the gastroprotective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniadka, Raghavendra; Saldanha, Elroy; Sunita, Venkatesh; Palatty, Princy L; Fayad, Raja; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2013-06-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger is an important kitchen spice and also possess a myriad health benefits. The rhizomes have been used since antiquity in the various traditional systems of medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases, catarrh, nervous diseases, gingivitis, toothache, asthma, stroke and diabetes. Ginger is also used as home remedy and is of immense value in treating various gastric ailments like constipation, dyspepsia, belching, bloating, gastritis, epigastric discomfort, gastric ulcerations, indigestion, nausea and vomiting and scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal uses. Ginger is also shown to be effective in preventing gastric ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs like indomethacin, aspirin], reserpine, ethanol, stress (hypothermic and swimming), acetic acid and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric ulcerations in laboratory animals. Various preclinical and clinical studies have also shown ginger to possess anti-emetic effects against different emetogenic stimuli. However, conflicting reports especially in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and motion sickness prevent us from drawing any firm conclusion on its effectiveness as a broad spectrum anti-emetic. Ginger has been shown to possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant; inhibition of lipid peroxidation and that these properties might have contributed to the observed gastroprotective effects. This review summarizes the various gastroprotective effects of ginger and also emphasizes on aspects that warranty future research to establish its activity and utility as a gastroprotective agent in humans.

  20. COUNTRY-OF-ORIGIN EFFECTS ON PURCHASING DOMESTIC PRODUCTS: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Denisa STOENESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that ethnocentric consumers are more willing to purchase a domestic product. Furthermore, country-of-origin has a direct impact on consumers’ decision to buy a product in such a manner that a positive country image can substitute other missing qualities of the product. On the other hand, a strong brand is not expected to compensate for a negative country-of-origin perception. Many brands rely on their home country as a warranty for quality and prestige, in order to gain consumers’ interest and attention. This paper examines the moderating role of variables such as perceived quality, ethnocentrism and familiarity in determining a consumer to buy a domestic product. Through exploratory research, this study aims to investigate to what extent Romania, as country-of-origin for its local products, influences consumers’ decision making process. The major contributions of the study consist of identifying the elements that play a role in consumers’ product evaluation based on the country-of-origin and to improve the understanding of country image effects on the buying intention.

  1. Kansas State University: DOE/KEURP Site Operator Program. Year 4, fourth quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Kansas State University, in support of a DOE and Kansas Electric Utilities Research Program subject contract, continues to test, evaluate, demonstrate, and develop electric vehicle and infrastructure technology. K-State is operating two Soleq EVcort vehicles. During this reporting period both vehicles were brought back to full operational status after warranty service was completed by Soleq. Vehicle failures occurred due to three unrelated battery cable failures in addition to the replacement of one battery. Both vehicles are being operated on a routine basis. K-State, along with York Technical College, has established a relationship with Troy Design and Manufacturing (TDM) Redford, Michigan. K-State has ordered no less than four Ford Ranger electric trucks from TDM. K-State is involved in the steering committee that is monitoring and refining information to direct the design and testing of these new technology vehicles. TDM should become the first automotive manufacturer certified by one of the Big Three under their Quality Vehicle Manufacturer program. Kansas State University and the Kansas Electric Utility Research Program look forward to working with TDM on their new EV program.

  2. The Effect of the Negotiator's Social Power as a Function of the Counterpart's Emotional Reactions in a Computer Mediated Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Hareli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A negotiator’s own power and their counterpart’s emotional reaction to the negotiation both influence the outcome of negotiations. The present research addressed the question of their relative importance. On one hand, social power should be potent regardless of the other’s emotions. On the other hand, the counterpart’s emotional reactions inform about the ongoing state of the negotiation, and as such are more diagnostic than the more distal power cue. In a simulated computer mediated negotiation, 248 participants assumed the role of a vendor of computerized avionics test equipment and their objective was to negotiate the price, the warranty period, and the number of software updates that the buyer will receive free of charge. Participants negotiated the sale after being primed with either high or low power or not primed at all (control condition. They received information that their counterpart was either happy or angry or emotionally neutral. The findings showed that even though power was an important factor at the start of negotiations, the informative value of emotion information took precedence over time. This implies that emotional information may erase any advantage that counterparts have in a negotiation thanks to their higher social power.

  3. Research on time structure characteristic of gas concentration sequence in the working face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li-wen; SONG Yi; SHI Shi-liang; LI Xi-bin

    2011-01-01

    In the procedure of coal industry production,the losses of the persons and economy caused by the gas explosion accidents are most serious,therefore,prevention and control of the gas explosion accident of the coal mines is an important issue needed to be solved urgently in the safety production work of our coal mines.The characteristic of time structure variation index characteristic was analyzed about gas concentration sequence of three measure points in the NO.II1024 working face.It was found that the value of time variation about three measure points was mostly 1<δ≤ 1.5,and gas emission presented consistently strong-clustering state twice,and the value of time variation presented continuous variation state in the active stage of gas concentration.Complex characteristics of the value indicated gas emission was continuously variable in time or space and presented the complex nonlinear characteristics.So the characteristic about gas emission system was correctly depicted and analyzed to gas emission system according to the relation of its state variation and essential of nonlinear system.The result also provided reliable warranty for its continued nonlinear research on gas emission.

  4. SMART empirical approaches for predicting field performance of PV modules from results of reliability tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardikar, Kedar Y.; Liu, Bill J. J.; Bheemreddy, Venkata

    2016-09-01

    Gaining an understanding of degradation mechanisms and their characterization are critical in developing relevant accelerated tests to ensure PV module performance warranty over a typical lifetime of 25 years. As newer technologies are adapted for PV, including new PV cell technologies, new packaging materials, and newer product designs, the availability of field data over extended periods of time for product performance assessment cannot be expected within the typical timeframe for business decisions. In this work, to enable product design decisions and product performance assessment for PV modules utilizing newer technologies, Simulation and Mechanism based Accelerated Reliability Testing (SMART) methodology and empirical approaches to predict field performance from accelerated test results are presented. The method is demonstrated for field life assessment of flexible PV modules based on degradation mechanisms observed in two accelerated tests, namely, Damp Heat and Thermal Cycling. The method is based on design of accelerated testing scheme with the intent to develop relevant acceleration factor models. The acceleration factor model is validated by extensive reliability testing under different conditions going beyond the established certification standards. Once the acceleration factor model is validated for the test matrix a modeling scheme is developed to predict field performance from results of accelerated testing for particular failure modes of interest. Further refinement of the model can continue as more field data becomes available. While the demonstration of the method in this work is for thin film flexible PV modules, the framework and methodology can be adapted to other PV products.

  5. Statistical data analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules deployed in hot and humid climate of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, Shirish A.; Kaul, Ashwani; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Current accelerated tests of photovoltaic (PV) modules mostly prevent infant mortality but cannot duplicate changes occurring in the field nor can predict useful lifetime. Therefore, monitoring of field-deployed PV modules was undertaken at FSEC with goals to assess their performance in hot and humid climate under high voltage operation and to correlate the PV performance with the meteorological parameters. This paper presents performance analysis of U.S. Company manufactured thin film a-Si:H PV modules that are encapsulated using flexible front sheets and framed to be outdoor tested. Statistical data analysis of PV parameters along with meteorological parameters, monitored continuously, is carried out on regular basis with PVUSA type regression analysis. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of module arrays that are obtained periodically complement the continuous data monitoring. Moreover, effect of high voltage bias and ambient parameters on leakage current in PV modules on individual modules is studied. Any degradation occurring during initial 18 months could not be assessed due to data acquisition and hurricane problems. No significant degradation was observed in the performance of PV modules during the subsequent 30-months. It is planned to continue this study for a prolonged period so as to serve as basis for their long-term warranties.

  6. Financing the Commerce – Creating Capacities and Diversifying the Offer within the National Financial Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Stefana CIBOTARIU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania has always aimed for creating a friendly financial sector for the exporters,which has to be able to contribute to an increased national competitiveness. In order to have a relevant strategic answer for this sector, the main objectives, such as increasingthe budget resources to finance the exports and activities that have been carried out for these, the easier access to credits for the export, structured dialogue and a better communication and cooperation between banks, insurance companies and exporters orincreased management ability of the risk have to be carried out within strategic sectors. The Romanian vision on financing the Romanian exports is represented by the contribution for an increased national competitiveness. The globalization process of theworld economy has strengthened the competition of the international trade, especially on diversifying the financial facilities and payments. Within this context, successful promotion of the Romanian exports has depended not only on quality, price, delivery conditions and warranties, but also on a competitive financial offer, in order to credit the importers.

  7. Hearing of Mr. Francois Roussely, President of EdF; Audition de M. Francois Roussely, President d'EdF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussely, F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of the hearing of F. Roussely, President of Electricite de France (EdF), at the commission of economic affairs of the French house of commons, about the advisability of the construction of the EPR (European pressurized reactor) demonstration plant and about its possible financing by EdF. In a first part, F. Roussely recalls the European context of deregulation of energy markets and its impact of the French electric power industry (opening of the French market, industrial and social actions of EdF, need of a new generation of nuclear reactor, preservation of EdF's energy mix, warranty of public utility, un-bundling between energy trade and distribution, EdF's turnover and profitability, EdF's foreign daughter companies). In a second part, F. Roussely answers a series of questions asked by the different members of the commission concerning the different points presented in the first part. (J.S.)

  8. Design, construction and conditions of the application of unreinforced concrete final lining in conventionally driven tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltýnek, Jan; Hořejší, Jiří; Mařík, Libor; Růžička, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    The way to an economic design in the final lining in conventionally driven tunnels lies in structural analysing based on the actually encountered geotechnical conditions. Regarding reinforced concrete structures, many standards and regulations applicable to designing and building structures and taking them over by the client before their commissioning and before the end of the warranty period respectively exist in the Czech Republic. If the local conditions allow it, it is possible to design the final lining as an unreinforced concrete structure. In such a case it is necessary to take the differences into consideration in the structural design and in the possibilities of the lining behaviour and to set criteria for taking over the lining allowing for its use. Setting too stringent criteria for cracking can lead to an increase in the contract price, either because of the necessity for reinforcing the lining or because of the fact that the contractor reduces the risk by incorporating the assumed cost of repairs into the total cost. The paper describes basic differences in the approach to reinforced concrete and unreinforced concrete linings, the possibilities of limiting formation of cracks by means of the concrete mix design, by selection of the technological procedure of the work and the method of curing after stripping. The text contains a comparison of criteria for assessing the surface of an unreinforced concrete lining with criteria in foreign regulations.

  9. Monitoring internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines; Monitoracao da corrosao interna em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Ana C.V.; Silva, Djalma R.; Pimenta, Gutemberg S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Barbosa, Andrea F.F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    For susceptibilities to the corrosion of the pipelines and equipment made in carbon steel and used by the natural gas, it makes be necessary to identify the acting corrosive agents and monitoring them along time, controlling failures for internal corrosion. Also, of that process it origins the black powder (solid particles) that can not commit the structural integrity of the equipment, but it can also bring the company other implications very serious, like quality of the sold product, as well as stops due to blockages and wastes for erosion of the equipment. The monitoring methodology and control of the corrosion in field consisted of the use of corrosion test equipment, chemical characterization of samples of black powder and liquids and analysis of the operational data of processes and plants. Like this, it was identified for the gas pipeline in analysis the most responsible parameters for the corrosive action of the fluid, establishing a controlling methodology and operational actions to maintain the corrosion rates at safe levels and structural warranty of the same. (author)

  10. Control of vegetable pests in Benin - Farmers' preferences for eco-friendly nets as an alternative to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidogbéna, Faustin; Adégbidi, Anselme; Tossou, Rigobert; Assogba-Komlan, Françoise; Ngouajio, Mathieu; Martin, Thibaut; Simon, Serge; Parrot, Laurent; Zander, Kerstin K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if eco-friendly nets (EFNs) are a viable and acceptable alternative to extremely high levels of insecticide use in vegetable production. Using a choice experiment, we found that vegetable producing farmers in Benin preferred all of the characteristics of EFNs except the higher labor requirements. The nets had been distributed in a trial phase for free but in the long run farmers would need to purchase the EFNs. The break-even point for investing in nets was found to vary with the lifespan of EFNs, their purchase price and potential health benefits from avoiding large quantities of insecticides. To break even the nets need to be used for at least two production cycles. To overcome risk-averse farmer's reluctance to adopt EFNs we propose a credit and warranty scheme along with the purchase of the nets. The study's findings can guide the implementation of EFNs in other African countries as part of integrated pest management with global benefits for the environment and human health.

  11. THE MARKETING SERVICES ON THE FURNITURE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu MEGHIŞAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of furniture has seen profound changes leading to accelerations of the dynamics of the competition environment, these changes being influenced, among other things, by the diversification of offer comprising new services. Today it seems essential to consider the distribution of furniture as an “industry that creates utility”. Indeed, the consumer is analyzed not only as a function of product characteristics, but as a set of utilities and advantages that distributions propose in their strategies of associated services. The services appear, in the same time, as variables which are applied by the distributor in his strategy to differentiate themselves and as utilities associated to the product, utilities which the consumer - as “problem-solver” - integrates in his decision making process. The consumer buys not just a simple product (furniture, but a global product which includes a sum of jointed attributes and utilities (proximity, product line, point of sale concept, information, warranty, etc.. This paper analyzes the services offer from the distribution of furniture as a method to solve the problems of furniture buyer. From this perspective the paper takes into consideration the various profiles of buying behavior, makes a critical analysis of the structure of services involved, defines a new structure of services based on the phases of buying behavior process.

  12. Squeal noise in simple numerical brake models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-09-01

    Since the early 1920s, automotive disc brake squeal has caused warranty issues and customer dissatisfaction. Despite a good deal of progress achieved, predicting brake squeal propensity is as difficult as ever as not all mechanisms and interactions are known owing to their highly fugitive complex nature. In recent years, research has been focused on the prediction of unstable vibration modes by the complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) for the mode-coupling type of instability. There has been very limited consideration given to the calculation of the acoustic radiation properties due to friction contact between a pad and a rotor. Recent analyses using a forced response analysis with harmonic contact pressure excitation indicates negative dissipated energy at some pad eigenfrequencies predicted to be stable by the CEA. A transient nonlinear time domain analysis with no external excitation indicates that squeal could develop at these eigenfrequencies. Here, the acoustic radiation characteristics of those pad modes are determined by analysing the acoustic power levels and radiation efficiencies of simplified brake models in the form of a pad rubbing on a plate or on a disc using the acoustic boundary element method based on velocities extracted from the forced response analysis. Results show that unstable pad modes trigger unstable disc vibrations resulting in instantaneous mode squeal similar to those observed experimentally. Changes in the radiation efficiency with pressure variations are smaller than those with friction coefficient variations and are caused by the phase difference of the velocities out-of-plane vibration between the pad and the disc.

  13. Evaluation of the mechanisms of damage to flexible ureteroscopes and suggestions for ureteroscope preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Sooriakumaran; R. Kaba; H. O. Andrews; N. P. N. Buchholz

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the causes and costs of flexible ureteroscope damage, and to develop recommendations to limit damage. Methods: The authors analysed repair figures and possible causes of damage to 35 instruments sent for repair to a leading UK supplier over a 1-year period, and calculated cost figures for maintenance of the instruments as opposed to repair and replacement costs. Results: All damages were handling-induced and therefore did not fall under the manufacturer's warranty: 28 % were damaged by misfiring of the laser inside the instrument; 72 %, mainly crushing and stripping of the ureteroscope shaft tube, were likely to have occurred during out-of-surgery handling, washing and disinfection. Seventeen (4 %) instruments were not repaired and consequently taken out of service due to the extensive costs involved. Eighteen (51%) ureteroscopes were repaired at an average cost of 10 833 USD. Conclusion: Damages to flexible ureteroscopes bear considerable costs. Most damages occur during handling between surgical procedures.Thorough adherence to handling procedures, and courses for theater staff and surgeons on handling flexible instruments may help to reduce these damages and prove a cost-saving investment. The authors provide a list of recommended procedural measures that may help to prevent such damages.

  14. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seungbum; Gallagher, Kevin G.

    2015-11-01

    Low-cost energy storage systems are required to support extensive deployment of intermittent renewable energy on the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries have potential advantages to meet the stringent cost target for grid applications as compared to more traditional batteries based on an enclosed architecture. However, the manufacturing process and therefore potential high-volume production price of redox flow batteries is largely unquantified. We present a comprehensive assessment of a prospective production process for aqueous all vanadium flow battery and nonaqueous lithium polysulfide flow battery. The estimated investment and variable costs are translated to fixed expenses, profit, and warranty as a function of production volume. When compared to lithium-ion batteries, redox flow batteries are estimated to exhibit lower costs of manufacture, here calculated as the unit price less materials costs, owing to their simpler reactor (cell) design, lower required area, and thus simpler manufacturing process. Redox flow batteries are also projected to achieve the majority of manufacturing scale benefits at lower production volumes as compared to lithium-ion. However, this advantage is offset due to the dramatically lower present production volume of flow batteries compared to competitive technologies such as lithium-ion.

  15. Pure cerium dioxide preparation for use as spectrochemical standard and analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Carlos A. da S.; Abrao, Alcidio; Rocha, Soraya M.R. da; Vasconcellos, Mari E. de; Seneda, Jose A.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G. de O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: cqueiroz@ipen.br; Pedreira, Walter R.; Boaventura, Geraldo R. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias; Pimentel, Marcio M. [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: walter.pedreira@fundacentro.gov.br

    2005-11-15

    several years, IPEN/CNEN-SP has been working in the separation of the Rare Earth (RE) elements. A simple and economic procedure for the purification of technical grade cerium concentrate is described. The highly pure cerium dioxide is designed to be used as spectrochemical standard. It is obtained by association of the fractional precipitation technique, in the system RECl{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}OH/ Air/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, to enrich the cerium up to 90% and then it is upgraded by ion exchange technique to 99.99% CeO{sub 2}. The quality control warranty was accomplished by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and neutron activation analysis. The collected values for the accompanying Rare Earth elements in a CeO{sub 2} sample are the following (ppm): La(36), Pr(19), Nd(161), Sm(11), Eu(5.3), Gd(113), Tb(89), Dy(2), Ho(0.05), Er(1), Tm(<0.05), Yb(11), Lu(19) and Y(2.1), respectively. The purity of this cerium oxide is comparable to the international spectrographic standards. (author)

  16. Pengaruh Atribut Produk Tabungan Terhadap Loyalitas Nasabah (Studi pada Bank XYZ KCP Antapani Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Septiani Limbong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - Bank XYZ KCP Antapani Bandung from 2010 through 2012 had climbed down the number of customers . In 2010 the number of customers of Bank XYZ totaled 794 people , in 2011 dropped to 727 people , and in 2012 had increased back up to 844 people . The rise and fall of the number of clients showing low levels of customer loyalty in the bank . Customer loyalty will form one of the products offered . Product attributes are product elements that are considered important in the purchase decision .The purpose of this study is to determine how much product attributes that exist in Bank XYZ KCP Antapani Bandung affect the level of client loyalty .This research method using descriptive and verification object of study is the effect of variable X ( product attributes to Y ( customer loyalty were studied . The data of the research was obtained by observing spreading out the questionnairewith Likert scale and used descriptive and verificative method. Wherever,regressionequationobtainedis Y = 2,660 + 0,171X.Additionallyhypothesisresultsshowsavingsproduct attributevariableshavea positiveand significantimpacton customer loyalty. This is indicated by the results of the test score correlation and regression test and t-test reject Ho. Positive and significant influence does it mean if a product attribute factors include product quality, product features, product design, brand, warranty, price, increasing the quality of it will be followed by an increase in customer loyalty. Keyword : product attributes, customer loyalty.

  17. New approaches to improving the energy efficiency of households through governmental regulation; Neue Ansaetze zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz in Haushalten durch staatliche Regulierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuebben, Felix

    2010-07-01

    Sustainability, beside security of supply and promotion of competition, is rightly defined as one of the primary goals of energy policy in Germany and the European Union. One central challenge thus lies in covering the continuously growing demand for energy in the long term while at the same time living up to the principles and exigencies of sustainability. The necessity of using existing energy resources more efficiently is of elementary importance here. The present publication focuses on the question as to what regulatory instruments the state has at its disposal to induce households to use energy more efficiently. It specifically inquires by what well-aimed measures the demand for efficient household appliances might be stimulated and use of energy in households thus reduced. It is shown that aside from classical fiscal instruments such as taxes and subsidies an increase in demand for energy-efficient household appliances might also be achieved, amongst other means, by extending statutory warranty periods. To this end the author describes in stages the design of a model by which different purchase decision situations can be represented as realistically as possible. This provides households with an instrument for basing their purchase decisions on rational cost considerations. Moreover, it enables the state to review instruments for their efficiency and effectiveness and to gain information on the effects of its measures on households' purchase decisions.

  18. Longevity Tests of High-Sensitivity BD-PND Bubble Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radev, R; Carlberg, E

    2002-07-09

    Medium- and very-high-sensitivity neutron bubble dosimeters (BD-PNDs) made by Bubble Technology Industries (BTI) were used to study the life span of such dosimeters in a standard setup with a {sup 252}Cf source. Although data on the longevity of bubble dosimeters with low and medium sensitivity exist, such data for dosimeters with high and very high sensitivity are not readily available. The manufacturer guarantees optimum dosimeter performance for 3 months after receipt. However, it is important to know the change in the dosimeters' characteristics with time, especially after the first 3 months. The long-term performance of four sets of very high sensitivity and one set of medium-sensitivity bubble dosimeters was examined for periods of up to 13 months. During that time, the detectors were exposed and reset more than 20 times. Although departures from initial detection sensitivity were observed in several cases, the detectors indicated a significantly longer life span than stated in the manufacturer's warranty. In addition, the change in the number of bubbles and in evaluated neutron dose as a function of the time from the end of exposure until the dosimeters were read was investigated.

  19. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FINANCING FARMS WITH PERSONAL EQUITY IN THE OPINION OF INDIVIDUAL FARMERS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mądra-Sawicka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to present the role and significance of financing with equity capital on individual farms in Poland. The research was carried out with the use of an interviewer questionnaire on a group of 100 farmers running individual farms as well as keeping the agricultural accounts in the FADN system. The research was conducted in the Mazowsze. Limitation of financing of the operational and investment activity only to the equity capital, in the opinion of farmers, contributes to less dynamic development of agricultural production due to a lack of sufficient equity resources for the purchase of machines and devices. The farmers included no requirements concerning warranties and guarantees in the situation of financing with a loan as the most significant advantages of financing with equity capital. Most farmers allocated the saved financial surplus to current or planned investments, assessing such financial strategy as the average level of risk. Such approach to self-financing of the activity was assessed by farmers as average in the context of the effectiveness of using equity capital.

  20. Lifetime Prediction for Degradation of Solar Mirrors using Step-Stress Accelerated Testing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Kennedy, C.; Gray, M.; Jones, W.

    2011-09-01

    This research is to illustrate the use of statistical inference techniques in order to quantify the uncertainty surrounding reliability estimates in a step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) scenario. SSADT can be used when a researcher is faced with a resource-constrained environment, e.g., limits on chamber time or on the number of units to test. We apply the SSADT methodology to a degradation experiment involving concentrated solar power (CSP) mirrors and compare the results to a more traditional multiple accelerated testing paradigm. Specifically, our work includes: (1) designing a durability testing plan for solar mirrors (3M's new improved silvered acrylic "Solar Reflector Film (SFM) 1100") through the ultra-accelerated weathering system (UAWS), (2) defining degradation paths of optical performance based on the SSADT model which is accelerated by high UV-radiant exposure, and (3) developing service lifetime prediction models for solar mirrors using advanced statistical inference. We use the method of least squares to estimate the model parameters and this serves as the basis for the statistical inference in SSADT. Several quantities of interest can be estimated from this procedure, e.g., mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) and warranty time. The methods allow for the estimation of quantities that may be of interest to the domain scientists.

  1. Relationship between religious identity and social capital in kashan the kashan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ganji

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   This research study and examination of relationship between religious identity and social capital in kashan people in 1387 year.the population of kashan city is 162136 in 1385 year. The sample size based on Cockran formula is 384. The significant are: survey research.data and information for the census community has been collected based on the questioner.and the questionnaire by suitable structures Reliability (based on kronbaghs coefficient of Alfa After examining the theory for the mentioned topic and collecting data and information , The results of statistical methods are:the religion identity that is composition 0f attachment ,warranty and religious dimensions has much results in the kashan society for example :to guide way people life,to procreate position approach to aftertime and corroborate sprite and expectation moral to better aftertime ,to answered for deep and fundamental questions for human in the life ,to procreate, integeration and empathetic sense in society (that are social capital evidence. So in this research, the mount of collective appearance and social capital will increase by increasing religious identity in religious and warrant dimension.

  2. Acquisition Pricing and Inventory Decisions on Dual-Source Spare-Part System with Final Production and Remanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The life spans of durable goods are longer than their warranty periods. To satisfy the service demand of spare parts and keep the market competition advantage, enterprises have to maintain the longer inventory planning of spare parts. However, how to obtain a valid number of spare parts is difficult for those enterprises. In this paper, we consider a spare-part inventory problem, where the inventory can be replenished by two ways including the final production order and the remanufacturing way. Especially for the remanufacturing way, we consider the acquisition management problem of used products concerning an acquisition pricing decision. In a multiperiod setting, we formulate the problem into a dynamic optimization problem, where the system decisions include the final production order and acquisition price of used products at each period. By stochastic dynamic programming, we obtain the optimal policy of the acquisition pricing at each period and give the optimal policy structure of the optimization problem at the first period. Then, a recursion algorithm is designed to calculate the optimal decisions and the critical points in the policy. Finally, the numerical analyses show the effects of demand information and customer’s sensitive degree on the related decisions and the optimal cost.

  3. Mobile Phone and Internet Consumers Rights Compliance in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorela Iacovoiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the extent to which rights of mobile phone and internet consumers are respected by the most important operators in Romania, namely Orange, Vodafone and Cosmote, in the context of accelerated technological changes on a highly competitive market. The research is focused on the analysis of regulations and contractual grievance procedures, number, distribution and motivation of consumer complaints, administrative quality indicators of data services and main consumer complaints. Among the documents under analysis we can mention contractual agreements, applicable procedures, as well as relevant empirical data provided by NAPC, NAMRC, economic operators and a site for online complaints, namely ReclamatieOnline.ro. The analyses emphasize that consumer complaints are mainly due to problems arising from contracts with service providers, billing services and defects of electronic terminals under warranty. The main cause for all this is the insufficient information users are provided with and, therefore, consumers’ decreased ability in the decision making process involved in the purchase of mobile technology and internet services. To better inform consumers, at the end of the study we propose a series of measures that could be adopted by mobile and internet service providers and regulatory, supervision and control institutions, as well as future directions of research in the field.

  4. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.

    2008-11-15

    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  5. Basic theory on surface measurement uncertainty of 3D imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldin, J. Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging systems are now widely available, but standards, best practices and comparative data have started to appear only in the last 10 years or so. The need for standards is mainly driven by users and product developers who are concerned with 1) the applicability of a given system to the task at hand (fit-for-purpose), 2) the ability to fairly compare across instruments, 3) instrument warranty issues, 4) costs savings through 3D imaging. The evaluation and characterization of 3D imaging sensors and algorithms require the definition of metric performance. The performance of a system is usually evaluated using quality parameters such as spatial resolution/uncertainty/accuracy and complexity. These are quality parameters that most people in the field can agree upon. The difficulty arises from defining a common terminology and procedures to quantitatively evaluate them though metrology and standards definitions. This paper reviews the basic principles of 3D imaging systems. Optical triangulation and time delay (timeof- flight) measurement systems were selected to explain the theoretical and experimental strands adopted in this paper. The intrinsic uncertainty of optical distance measurement techniques, the parameterization of a 3D surface and systematic errors are covered. Experimental results on a number of scanners (Surphaser®, HDS6000®, Callidus CPW 8000®, ShapeGrabber® 102) support the theoretical descriptions.

  6. Constructal optimization for geometry of cavity by taking entransy dissipation minimization as objective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The entransy dissipation extremum principle provides new warranty and criterion for optimization of heat transfer.For two cases(body with heat generation and body heated externally)of a solid conducting wall with an open cavity,a dimensionless equivalent thermal resistance based on entransy dissipation definition was taken as the optimization objective to optimize the model constructal ge- ometry.Numerical results validated the necessity and feasibility of the presented method.Comparisons of the numerical results based on minimization of dimensionless maximum thermal resistance and minimization of dimensionless equivalent thermal resistance,respectively,showed that there was no obvious difference between the two results when the volume fractionΦoccupied by cavity was small, but the difference between the two results increased with the increases ofΦand the body aspect ratio H/L for any model.The optimal cavities for bodies heated externally were more slender than those for bodies with heat generation.Heat origin had obvious effect on the global performance of heat transfer. The entransy dissipation of body heated externally increased 2―3 times than that of body with heat generation,indicating that the global performance of heat transfer weakened.The method presented herein provides some guidelines for some relevant thermal design problems.

  7. APPLICATION OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS TO IMPROVE OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VESSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Abacharaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the results of analytical and experimental research of authors under the decision of problems of increase of service life of components of ships (propellers details of their machines and mechanisms (axis, fingers, hydraulic pumps, cylinder liners of diesel enginessubject to intensive cavitation erosion and wear.A new option cavitation resistance, including structural, physical, mechanical, electrochemical properties of materials and coatings. The novelty criterion is that when using it creates the possibility of a priori determination of the composition and structure kavitatsionnogo material coverage for specific components of ships, the details of their machines and mechanisms. The advantage of the new parameter cavitation resistance of the authors in the fact that it allows you to calculate the period (resource warranty details in the conditions of influence of cavitation. This is a pioneer in the world practice. On the basis of new theoretical positions of the authors developed compositions diffusion and plasma kavitatsionnogo coatings.

  8. Floating Production Unit FPU P53: logistic and modules installation; Logistica e instalacao dos modulos da Unidade Flutuante de Producao FPU P53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arantes, Joao Durval [UTC Engenharia S.A., SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work intends to show a 'case' of success, namely the model of management and the strategy, applied in the logistics and installation of the P53 modules. The criteria, which took QUIP to contract, in Brazil and abroad, technology companies, to supply integrated modules, including engineering, procurement, construction and warranty of performance, are shown. Establishment, at the initial phase of the Project, of the discipline 'constructibility', with the attribution to interact with the engineering design and construction of the modules under QUIP's responsibility, modules supplied by PETROBRAS and mainly, with the site of Naval Conversion in Singapore. Establishment of the discipline 'Marinharia', to act together with 'constructibility' to overcome the difficulties and restrictions of Porto de Rio Grande, such as the following: the width of the sailing channel, interferences of commercial port, availability of mooring pier, relationship with port pilotage and authorities of the Fifth Naval District of Brazilian Navy. The challenges were the maneuvers with 2 crane barges for modules installation, in front the P-53, a VLCC ship and maneuvers the barges, involved at the time of installation of the modules. And, finally, to show the proceeding applied in the physical interfaces of installation of the modules, such as: interferences, supports of the modules, stools in the ship, guides and bumpers. Dimensional control, simulations and extensive planning were the tools of success. (author)

  9. Intact skin and not stripped skin is crucial for the safety and efficacy of peanut epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondoulet Lucie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT on intact skin with an epicutaneous delivery system has already been used in preclinical and clinical studies. In epicutaneous vaccination and immunotherapy, the stripping of skin before application of the allergen is suggested to facilitate the passage of allergen through immune cells. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the immunological response induced by EPIT performed on intact and stripped skin in a mouse model of peanut allergy. Methods After oral sensitization with peanut and cholera toxin, BALB/c mice were epicutaneously treated using an epicutaneous delivery system (Viaskin® (DBV Technologies, Paris applied either on intact skin or on stripped skin. Following EPIT, mice received an exclusive oral peanut regimen, aimed at triggering esophageal and jejunal lesions. We assessed eosinophil infiltration by histology, mRNA expression in the esophagus, antibody levels and peripheral T-cell response. Results EPIT on intact skin significantly reduced Th2 immunological response (IgE response and splenocyte secretion of Th2 cytokines as well as esophageal eosinophilia (2.7 ± 0.9, compared to Sham 19.9 ± 1.5, p  Conclusions Epicutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy needs the integrity of superficial layers of the stratum corneum to warranty safety of treatment and to induce a tolerogenic profile of the immune response.

  10. STUDENT SATISFACTION, RESULTANT OF MARKETING ORIENTATION OF UNIVERSITY UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina DINESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present a relevant aspect of marketing approach of the activities carried by universities, respectively knowing, understanding and satisfying students’ needs, the main consumer category of the university product, in the conditions of current market of high education institutions. The universities are put in the position to find solutions to the problems caused by the stakeholders’ characteristics and by the existing competition on the educational market. The approach of marketing orientation in the university implies adapting the educational and scientific research step to create for the institution a brand image as a warranty of its sustainability on a competitive market by considering the needs and expectations of students. The conclusion is that there is a wide specialized literature that shows models that allow an adequate quantification of the students’ satisfaction as a resultant of concerning the insurance of high education quality by using univeristy marketing tools. Starting from the specialized literature, in the work was handled the quantification of the students’ satisfaction that have completed Bachelor and Master cycle in order to improve the activity of the university

  11. PACS 2000: quality control using the task allocation chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gary S.; Romlein, John R.; Lyche, David K.; Richardson, Ronald R., Jr.

    2000-05-01

    Medical imaging's technological evolution in the next century will continue to include Picture Archive and Communication Systems (PACS) and teleradiology. It is difficult to predict radiology's future in the new millennium with both computed radiography and direct digital capture competing as the primary image acquisition methods for routine radiography. Changes in Computed Axial Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) continue to amaze the healthcare community. No matter how the acquisition, display, and archive functions change, Quality Control (QC) of the radiographic imaging chain will remain an important step in the imaging process. The Task Allocation Chart (TAC) is a tool that can be used in a medical facility's QC process to indicate the testing responsibilities of the image stakeholders and the medical informatics department. The TAC shows a grid of equipment to be serviced, tasks to be performed, and the organization assigned to perform each task. Additionally, skills, tasks, time, and references for each task can be provided. QC of the PACS must be stressed as a primary element of a PACS' implementation. The TAC can be used to clarify responsibilities during warranty and paid maintenance periods. Establishing a TAC a part of a PACS implementation has a positive affect on patient care and clinical acceptance.

  12. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  13. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the ``best-case`` results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author`s experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  14. National dispatching. The national centre of system exploitation (CNES); Le dispatching national. Le centre national d`exploitation du systeme (CNES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In order to adapt its production means to consumption, Electricite de France (EdF) company has created the national centre of system exploitation (CNES) which ensures at any time the transport of electricity and the equilibrium between production and consumption in the best conditions of safety, quality and economy. The national dispatching centre and the 7 regional dispatching centres aim at supplying electricity to 30 millions of clients at the best price, using the most economical production means and with a warranty of safety. In order to face the different consumption profiles and to optimize its operating costs, EdF has developed regulation tools which are: the diversity of its production units, special tariff incentives and interconnection of its network with others from foreign countries. This press dossier presents the activities of the CNES: missions (arbitrator and driving role, clients), the estimated management of needs (forecasting, short and middle range analysis, daily adjustment, hazards, seasonal variations), the real time management of production (dispatching centres, network safety and equilibrium, prevention, safety margin, reaction delay of power plants, crisis schemes and remedies), best cost scheduling and adjustment of production means (use of the variability of production units, hydraulics), tariff incentives and advantages of interconnected networks (European competitiveness, development of exports, spot market). (J.S.)

  15. Gestión autonómica de energía y fallos en clústeres de computadores

    CERN Document Server

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Entrialgo Castaño, Joaquín

    Power consumption on big clusters is an important component of the operation cost of the data center, in particular, it increases the total cost of ownership (TCO). In this way, the implementation and usage of power optimization algorithms is crucial for an economic-wise management of the data center. The power manager introduced in this work is based on a dynamic provisioning algorithm autonomically managed that reduces human interactions and makes the system able to run using less energy and respond to errors automatically, as well. In addition, fault tolerance on big data centers is essential for the optimization of its usage and the warranty the coherence and consistency of the data al the process made on that data center. In a cluster whose nodes are dynamically provisioned, and which its topology is managed by a load balancing element, it is possible to take advantage of this feature to replace nodes with issues when free nodes are available. This work presents a fault tolerance system that integrates w...

  16. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1991). Volume 48

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1991-09-01

    This report was prepared as an account of work conducted by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics and sponsored by New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the University of Rochester, the U.S. Department of Energy, and other agencies. Neither the above-named sponsors, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed. or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, mark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof or any other sponsor. Results reported in the LLE Review should not be taken as necessarily final results as they represent active research. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of any of the above sponsoring entities.

  17. Scratch Cell Test: A Simple, Cost Effective Screening Tool to Evaluate Self-Healing in Anti-Corrosion Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Amitha; Somaiah, Durga; Megha; Poddar, Mitalee

    2014-09-01

    A quick and simple scratch cell set up to evaluate the self-healing of an hybrid sol-gel (ormosil) coating was fabricated. This methacrylate-based anti-corrosion coating was applied on the aerospace aluminium alloy AA2024-T3, and cured at room temperature. This technique of evaluation requires minimum instrumentation. The inhibitors cerium nitrate, benzotriazole and 8-hydroxy quinoline (8-HQ) were used in the study. The self-healing ability of the inhibitors decreased in the following order: 8-HQ, BTZ and Ce. 8-HQ showed the highest self-healing ability and was comparable to the commercial hexavalent chromium conversion coating—Alodine. Spectroscopic analysis of the electrolyte and EDX of the coatings indicated the movement of the inhibitor from the coating to the site of damage, thereby effecting self-healing. It was observed that an increased inhibitor concentration in the coatings did not accelerate the healing process. Inhibitor release was slower in the coatings doped with inhibitor-loaded nano-containers, when compared to inhibitor-spiked coatings. This property of controlled release is desirable in self-healing coatings. Electro impedance studies further confirmed self-healing efficiency of the coatings. The scratch cell study reported here is the first of its kind with the ormosil under study on AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy. The results are encouraging and warranty a quick and simple qualitative screening of the self-healing potential of the inhibitors with minimum instrumentation.

  18. (Discontinuity in studies of students with disabilities in the path of elementary education to high school: an initial analysis of microdata MEC/INEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ceretta Moreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to discussions of public policy for special education, especially in regard to pupils with disabilities enrolled in high school. Therefore, it was spoken out about the legal achievements denoting the warranty and obligation of this step teaching in basic education and its vicissitudes in the context of educational inclusion. Following the assessment of microdata from the School Census, which considers the total enrollment, and specifically of the students with disabilities, presented the five groups that were organized for the analysis of data for the years 2007, 2008 and 2010. Being that it was decided to record enrollment of students with: blindness, low vision, deafness, hearing impairment, deafblindness, physical disability, mental disability, Down syndrome and multiple disabilities (terminology used by MEC / Inep. It was concluded that there was markedly greater decrease in enrollment of students with disabilities in relation to total enrollments in basic education, revealing how much access and retention of these students in high school, the last step of basic education, are still neglected and lack of research, evaluation and monitoring. The discontinuation of study of this portion of the population reveals that we are still far from ensuring the right to education for all and state that the state-owned engagement is essential for this to occur.

  19. Evaluation of legal liability for technological risks in view of requirements for peaceful coexistence and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvoort, Henk

    2011-06-01

    Legal liability for risk-generating technological activities is evaluated in view of requirements that are necessary for peaceful human coexistence and progress in order to show possibilities for improvement. The requirements imply, given that political decision making about the activities proceeds on the basis of majority rule, that legal liability should be unconditional (absolute, strict) and unlimited (full). We analyze actual liability in international law for various risk-generating technological activities, to conclude that nowhere is the standard of unconditional and unlimited liability fully met. Apart from that there are enormous differences. Although significant international liability legislation is in place for some risk-generating technological activities, legislation is virtually absent for others. We discuss fundamental possibilities and limitations of liability and private insurance to secure credible and ethically sound risk assessment and risk management practices. The limitations stem from problems of establishing a causal link between an activity and a harm; compensating irreparable harm; financial warranty; moral hazard in insurance and in organizations; and discounting future damage to present value. As our requirements call for prior agreement among all who are subjected to the risks of an activity about the settlement of these difficult problems, precautionary ex ante regulation of risk-generating activities may be a more attractive option, either combined with liability stipulations or not. However, if ex ante regulation is not based on the consent of all subjected to the risks, it remains that the basis of liability in the law should be unconditional and unlimited liability.

  20. THE IMPACT OF ORIGIN ON CREATING A CULT BRAND: THE CASE OF APPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Daniela N. CONSTANTIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the concept of a cult brand for a more accurate understanding of the extreme loyalty that consumers show towards specific brands. The article focuses on the brand Apple and it explores the elements for which it is considered a cult brand and the impact of its origin on sustaining its cult appeal. Based on the fact that many brands rely on emotional characteristics to obtain consumers’ interest and attention, the country responsible for their conception is usually a warranty for quality and respect, features transferred to consumers. Through an exploratory research, based on investigation of secondary information as a data collection method, the research focuses on Apple's corporate mythology, its brand name, its geographical provenance and also the community surrounding it. The results of the study revealed that brand origin had a major role in creating the image that Apple sustained in the last decades, the conclusion reinforced the idea that on a solid foundation can be built a complex structure.

  1. [Documentation of good distribution practice of medicines and its implementation in Lithuanian drug distribution companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draksiene, Gailute; Petkevicius, Henrikas; Radziūnas, Raimondas

    2003-01-01

    Good Distribution Practice of medicinal products for human use is a quality warranty system, which includes requirements for purchase, receiving, storage and export of drugs, intended human consumption. A drug is a specific product and its mishandling is dangerous to human health and life. Therefore it is necessary to strictly control the movement of the drug from the producer to the consumer so that poor quality drugs do not have access to the market. Good Distribution Practice rules set the general requirements for good wholesale distribution practice of drugs, intended for human consumption. In order for company to meet the specified requirements, the drug distribution company must have all suitable and necessary premises, machinery, equipment, the required number of employees and specified documentation. The preparation of the Good Distribution Practice documentation is one of the most important and complex aspects when implementing the Good Distribution Practice in the companies. The article deals with the analysis of results obtained during the research of drug distribution companies in Lithuania. The research revealed that drug distribution companies put emphasis on the equipment of storage premises. Less attention is being paid to the preparation of the documents of Good Distribution Practice. The article thus presents the analysis of Good Distribution Practice documents prepared by the drug distribution companies.

  2. Methodology and systems to ensure reliable thin-film PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Jon; Varde, Uday; Konson, Alla; Walters, Mike; Kotarba, Chad, III; Kraft, Tim; Guha, Subhendu

    2008-08-01

    The reliability of Uni-Solar triple-junction amorphous silicon thin-film PV modules is very important to their success in an increasingly competitive PV market. Modules must show useful operating lifetimes on the order of 20 to 30 years, and although module efficiency is very important, the total energy a module will produce is largely dependent on its operating lifetime. Thus, it is essential to evaluate module reliability in order to estimate module lifetime and establish customer warranty periods. While real world outdoor exposure testing is necessary and important, it is essential that accelerated environmental test methods are utilized to provide more rapid feedback regarding failure modes, design flaws and degradation mechanisms. The following paper gives an overview of the methodology used to ensure long-term reliability of Uni-Solar flexible thin-film modules. The applied test methods are primarily based upon accepted industry test standards such as IEC-61646, UL-1703, and ASTM. The design, screening, and qualification process to ensure the robustness of new designs is described as well as subsequent module validation testing and manufacturing process control. Test methods important for flexible module laminates are briefly discussed and examples of reliability tests are given. Upon successful design validation and certification, the quality and reliability of manufactured modules is maintained through supplier and product quality assurance programs.

  3. Model Penentuan Ukuran Batch Produksi dan Bufferstock untuk Sistem Produksi Mengalami Penurunan Kinerja dengan Mempertimbangkan Perubahan Order Awal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D Wangsa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model that involves information the preliminary order. At first, the manufacturer provides the preliminary order for the coming week (five days varies from day to day and is received on Friday. Change in the preliminary order for a given day is announced one day before and this is viewed as it occurs randomly. Moreover, production systems experience performance degradation (deterioration. Status of the production process shifts from in control to out of control that is identified by the last inspection. Inspection is done by sampling. At the time of the status of out of control the probability of producing non-conforming system component that is charged to the restoration cost and warranty costs.This paper is looking for a solution for determining the production batch size and the buffer stock to reduce total cost. The decision variables are production run period (T and buffer factor (m. Having obtained the variables T and m, then the variable production batch size (QT and the buffer stock (BT can be determined sequentially. Heuristic methods used are Silver-Meal (SM and Least Unit Cost (LUC to obtain a solution for each model. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the models. From the numerical results, it appears that LUC method is better than SM method.

  4. EPC 总承包管理模式在风电项目中的应用%Application of EPC Contracting Management Mode in Wind Power Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As one project management mode, EPC contracting is increasingly applied in various fields.In this paper, application of EPC contracting management mode in the whole process of one wind power project construction is described.It wholly covers design, construc-tion till warranty period.The practice demonstrates that application of EPC contracting management mode is feasible and successful in the wind power project construction .%“EPC总承包”作为一种工程项目管理模式,已在越来越多的行业得到应用。文章阐述了“EPC总承包”项目管理在某风力发电整个工程项目实施过程中的应用,贯穿于工程设计、工程施工直至建成投产保修的全过程。实践证明,“EPC总承包”管理模式在风电工程中的应用是切实可行的、是成功的。

  5. Millennium regional PACS management: strategies for successful implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Brad; Romlein, John R.; Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin

    2000-05-01

    With the advent of the new Millennium, Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS) technology has matured to levels sufficient to support open systems based, regional implementations. This shifts the site-centric PACS paradigm into broader scale, impacting facilities, workflow, business plans and ultimately patient care on a regional basis. Prudent and effective management of a regional implementation is critical to overall project success based upon a number of competing influences fundamental to the PACS including network infrastructure, clinical workflow, acquisition modalities, planning documentation, site preparation, acceptance testing, project communication, interface integration issues, etc. Risk mitigation is possible by understanding and managing the interrelationships of these influences through a phased approach with embedded management controls. The overall phases of regional implementation are not unlike site-centric implementations, consisting of Discovery, Planning, Preparation, Installation; Acceptance and Warranty/Maintenance; however, details which manifest over time are what provide significant management challenges. When balanced using a culturally reinforced policy of open, frequent and hands-on communication, regional PACS projects can be successfully implemented maintaining budget, schedule and scope thresholds.

  6. Automatic Monitoring of Criteria Pollutants and Meteorological Parameters in Boundary Sites of Mexico City under QA/QC Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, A.; Ramos, R.; Sánchez, A.; Retama, A.; Fentanes, O.; Muñoz, R.; Mar, B.; Ruiz, L. G.; Torres, R.; Torres, A.; Martínez, J.

    2007-05-01

    MILAGRO, an extensive air quality monitoring campaign, was conducted in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during March 2006, in order to assess the air pollutants transport and their influence at regional and global scales. In support of this campaign a number of criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters measurements were conducted in boundary sites of the MCMA in order to determine the surface conditions in these transition sites. The boundary sites were selected based on results from previous studies, information provided systematically by the Mexico City Ambient Air Monitoring Network (Sistema de Monitoreo Atmosférico, SIMAT), pollutants trends and meteorological and climatic factors that participate in the dispersion and transport under different ventilation scenarios. Seven mobile units and two fixed stations were deployed for the continuous determination of criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters. In order to warranty the pollutants concentrations measurements' quality and comparability, calibrations and verifications were implemented at the designated monitoring sites. Data had been analyzed with statistical tools and comparisons were made against nearby SIMAT stations. Several interesting conclusions were achieved.

  7. Hydrogeochemical Facies of Hot Springs Water in Jebel Mara Mountain, Darfur, Western Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami H. Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeochemical assessment have been carried out to study the concentration ofNa+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-,SO42-, HCO3-, and other parameters like temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC, total hardness(T.H and total dissolved solid (TDS in ten hot springs water samples of some parts of Jebel Mara Mountain, Western Sudan. The results of water analysis revealed the average values of pH,electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and total hardness, 9.46, 428 µS/cm, 667.2 mg/l and 102 mg/l respectively. The pH, TDS and EC variations confirmed light-salty nature of groundwater. It is also apparent from the results that, average concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium,magnesium, chloride, sulphate,and bicarbonate ions were 43.6, 16.4, 53.7, 44, 37.5, 26.2, 428.5 mg/l, respectively. Chloride ion concentration ranged from (30 to 46 mg/l, sulphate ion concentration ranged from (10 to 40mg/l and carbonate concentration measured ranged from (215 to 800 mg/l.The results were found to be above the recommended values given by W.H.O., 1984 and warranty further recommended studies for the best improvement and utilization of springs water.

  8. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  9. Infrared thermography for CFRP inspection: computational model and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Henrique C.; Zhang, Hai; Morioka, Karen; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; López, Fernando; Maldague, Xavier P. V.; Tarpani, José R.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared Thermography (IRT) is a well-known Non-destructive Testing (NDT) technique. In the last decades, it has been widely applied in several fields including inspection of composite materials (CM), specially the fiber-reinforced polymer matrix ones. Consequently, it is important to develop and improve efficient NDT techniques to inspect and assess the quality of CM parts in order to warranty airworthiness and, at the same time, reduce costs of airline companies. In this paper, active IRT is used to inspect carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) at laminate with artificial inserts (built-in sample) placed on different layers prior to the manufacture. Two optical active IRT are used. The first is pulsed thermography (PT) which is the most widely utilized IRT technique. The second is a line-scan thermography (LST) technique: a dynamic technique, which can be employed for the inspection of materials by heating a component, line-by-line, while acquiring a series of thermograms with an infrared camera. It is especially suitable for inspection of large parts as well as complex shaped parts. A computational model developed using COMSOL Multiphysics® was used in order to simulate the inspections. Sequences obtained from PT and LST were processed using principal component thermography (PCT) for comparison. Results showed that it is possible to detect insertions of different sizes at different depths using both PT and LST IRT techniques.

  10. BUILDING A BANKING UNION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION – A SOLUTION TO THE FINANCIAL CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica (ŞAGUNA FIGHIROAE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 highlighted the need for a deeper integration of the banking system, as a warranty to support long-term financial stability. It was argued that the grounds of the crisis lie also in an uncoordinated national response to the failure of banks, in a fragmentation of the Single Market in lending and funding and, therefore, a better regulation and supervision of the financial sector can ensure financial stability and growth in the European Union. In order to restore the proper functioning of the internal market and to avoid future crisis, the European Commission launched a set of initiatives, in order to assure a safer and sounder financial sector for the single market; are included here: stronger prudential requirements for banks, improved depositor protection and rules for managing failing banks and a single rulebook for all the 28 Member States of the European Union. The single rule book is the step towards the Banking Union sits. The banking union consists of three pillars: a Single Supervisory Mechanism, a Single Resolution Mechanism and a joint deposit-insurance scheme. As on 4 November 2014 the European Central Bank assumed responsibility for euro area banking supervision, the Banking Union is still under construction. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyse the process of building a Banking Union in Europe. Therefore, the objectives of my paper are to explore the steps to fulfilling a real integration of the European banking system, as a solution to the financial crisis.

  11. Module Technology: Current Practice and Issues (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2010-10-05

    PV modules must provide mechanical support for the cells, protect the world from the voltages inside, protect the cells, diodes and interconnects from the weather outside, couple as much light as possible into the PV cells and minimize the temperature increase of the cells. The package must continue to serve these functions for at least 25 years as that is the typical module warranty period today. Furthermore the package must do all this for as low a cost as possible since the key to large scale PV growth is a reduction in cost while retaining excellent module reliability and durability. This paper will review current module construction practices for both crystalline silicon and thin film PV with emphasis on explaining why the present designs and materials have been selected. Possible long term issues with today's designs and materials will be discussed. Several proposed solutions to these issues will be presented, highlighting the research efforts that will be necessary in order to verify that they can cost effectively solve the identified issues.

  12. Return of vitrified wastes from France to Japan; Retour des residus vitrifies de France au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The radioactive wastes resulting from the burnup of nuclear fuels in nuclear reactors represent 3 to 5% of the spent fuel. These wastes cannot be reused nor recycled and thus are vitrified after reprocessing. Japanese power companies have signed contracts with Cogema in France and BNFL in the UK for the reprocessing of their spent fuels. Then, the ultimate reprocessed wastes are sent back to Japan for storage. This information dossier takes stock of different questions relative to the transport of the vitrified wastes from France to Japan: why France sends back containers of vitrified wastes to Japan? What is a vitrified wastes container made of? How containers are transported? What is the regulatory frame applicable to these transports? Which safety measures are taken during transport? Which physical protection is applied? Which temporary storage facilities are used before and after transportation? How is performed the ultimate storage of wastes in Japan? Which quality and safety warranties are taken? Which emergency plans and exercises are provided? What are the applicable civil liability regimes? And what kind of information is given to the public about these transports. Some general information about energy and nuclear power worldwide, energy and environment, radioactivity, BNFL, Cogema and ORC is given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  13. Determination of the lead-acid battery's dynamic response using Butler-Volmer equation for advanced battery management systems in automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Budde-Meiwes, Heide; Kowal, Julia; Sarfert, Christel; Schoch, Eberhard; Königsmann, Martin; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Micro-hybrid vehicles (μH) are currently starting to dominate the European market and seize constantly growing share of other leading markets in the world. On the one hand, the additional functionality of μH reduces the CO2 emissions and improves the fuel economy, but, on the other hand, the additional stress imposed on the lead-acid battery reduces significantly its expected service life in comparison to conventional vehicles. Because of that μH require highly accurate battery state detection solutions. They are necessary to ensure the vehicle reliability requirements, prolong service life and reduce warranty costs. This paper presents an electrical model based on Butler-Volmer equation. The main novelty of the presented approach is its ability to predict accurately dynamic response of a battery considering a wide range of discharge current rates, state-of-charges and temperatures. Presented approach is fully implementable and adaptable in state-of-the-art low-cost platforms. Additionally, shown results indicate that it is applicable as a supporting tool for state-of-charge and state-of-health estimation and scalable for the different battery technologies and sizes. Validation using both static pulses and dynamic driving profile resulted in average absolute error of 124 mV regarding cranking current rate of 800 A respectively.

  14. Quick opening closure: a brazilian design to pig launching and receiving vessels; Tampa de abertura rapida: um projeto brasileiro para lancadores e recebedores de pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Antonio T. [ASCA Equipamentos Industriais Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Originally designed to use at launcher and receiver pig traps on offshore, area, the quick opening closure, presented at this work, it has technical features that assure a singular performance. The safety is assured by the 'vent bleed screw' that stop the blockage mechanism in closed position until it to be totally removed. A limited pressure bleed, give a warning that there is pressure in the vessel. The height quality of the door and external ring grinding surfaces added to the circular block segments system mechanism give a same pressure all over the o'ring surface. This assure the leak proof warranty. The open an close Asca system composed by circular blocks segments more the push pull mechanism actuated by the same davit-screw that lift the door, provide a quick, safety and ease operation. The care at the design and the manufacture quality of the parts prevent grip rings and the door opening operation failure. (author)

  15. Mouse for Computer Control from the Joystick of the Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Becoming autonomous is one of the biggest challenges for many people with disabilities. Increasing their autonomy usually involves the use of a wheelchair and any kind of digital assistant, such as a computer or a tablet, to communicate, to work or even for leisure. In such a situation, those people are obliged to use two different human interfaces to move a pointer and to drive the wheelchair. A joystick is the most common option to control a wheelchair. On the other hand, there are many different adapted interfaces to emulate the use of a mouse. This paper presents a system, BJoy Ring mouse, which captures the motion of the joystick on a wheelchair. The captured signal is used to move the cursor or the pointer of any digital device including an USB port. This system avoids any mechanical or electronic change in the joystick to keep its original safety and warranty. Communication between the device and the computer (or any other digital assistant uses the USB protocol, although it could be easily improved to a Bluetooth wireless connection. Validation tests with real users proved this system to be useful aid for people with motor disabilities.

  16. Wind turbines in your environment? Wind turbines and economic aspects; Des eoliennes dans votre environnement? Eoliennes et aspects economiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The wind energy industry has demonstrated its maturity and technical reliability. Because it will play an increasing role on the power generation market, the question of the cost and profitability of the wind energy has become of prime importance. Two main traps must be avoided: the first should be to deny the present and future economical interest of wind energy because of its supplementary cost with respect to conventional power generation techniques. The second trap should be to underestimate the economical progresses that wind energy must carry on to ensure its large scale development. Therefore, some advantageous pricing and regulatory conditions are necessary to allow the development of this emerging energy source. This document presents: the cost of a wind power project (initial investment, financial incentives); the profitability of a project (cost of a kWh of wind power origin, retail price, warranty of power supply capacity, indirect environmental costs, value of decentralized production); economical interest of wind power (energy efficiency, employment, financial advantages for the local economy); and who are the investors. (J.S.)

  17. Quality control of 5mg diazepam suppositories manipulated in the city of Campos Goytacazes – RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida Venturi Canzian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diazepam suppositories are widely used by children and elderly, and require close attention to quality control because it is a controlled prescription drug. The objective of the study was to analyze diazepam suppositories manipulated in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, to verify if they are within the required quality standards, and offer safety and efficiency to patients. We analyzed samples of 5mg diazepam suppositories acquired in five randomly selected pharmacies, identified as Pharmacy A, Pharmacy B, Pharmacy C, Pharmacy D, and Pharmacy E. We ran tests on average weight, organoleptic control, hardness, melting point, and dissolution. Data was analyzed and compared with the requirements of the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. This analysis was made over a table in Excel. We conclude that only C Pharmacy was approved in all tests, and this is the only laboratory that has analyzed the quality of the product warranty. Laboratories A, B, D and E have been approved in some tests, and failed one or more tests. To ensure quality control, suppositories needed to pass in all tests, which was not the case of these labs. Therefore, we recommended the following procedures to the investigated laboratories: changes in packaging, greater precision in handling, quality control prior to dispensing the product, and efficient pharmaceutical care service.

  18. A new look at OEM (original equipment manufacturer) service agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, S; David, G

    1995-01-01

    Next to personnel services, equipment maintenance is the second largest budgetary expense in large radiology departments. Because they are under constant pressure to contain costs, radiology administrators spend considerable time negotiating the best service at the lowest cost. Today, administrators have several options for imaging equipment maintenance: equipment maintenance insurance, in-house engineering, and various arrangements with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and independent service organizations (ISOs). In response to increased competition, OEMs have become more price-competitive with ISOs and have expanded their service menu and equipment maintenance insurance programs. OEM service menu options include: full service, tiered pricing, labor only, planned maintenance, full service with deductible, shared maintenance and extended warranty. Any type of service arrangement can be customized according to equipment age and sophistication, redundancy, income-producing potential, criticality of downtime and the strength and depth of the service organization. Even when vendor maintenance contracts are more expensive than purchasing service on a time-and-materials basis, they allow customers to budget accurately for the service of covered equipment. The authors' institution gets the best results for the best price from a judicious mix of maintenance options. Wise customers will explore many options before choosing a service agreement.

  19. Nonparametric Fine Tuning of Mixtures: Application to Non-Life Insurance Claims Distribution Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardet, Laure; Patilea, Valentin

    When pricing a specific insurance premium, actuary needs to evaluate the claims cost distribution for the warranty. Traditional actuarial methods use parametric specifications to model claims distribution, like lognormal, Weibull and Pareto laws. Mixtures of such distributions allow to improve the flexibility of the parametric approach and seem to be quite well-adapted to capture the skewness, the long tails as well as the unobserved heterogeneity among the claims. In this paper, instead of looking for a finely tuned mixture with many components, we choose a parsimonious mixture modeling, typically a two or three-component mixture. Next, we use the mixture cumulative distribution function (CDF) to transform data into the unit interval where we apply a beta-kernel smoothing procedure. A bandwidth rule adapted to our methodology is proposed. Finally, the beta-kernel density estimate is back-transformed to recover an estimate of the original claims density. The beta-kernel smoothing provides an automatic fine-tuning of the parsimonious mixture and thus avoids inference in more complex mixture models with many parameters. We investigate the empirical performance of the new method in the estimation of the quantiles with simulated nonnegative data and the quantiles of the individual claims distribution in a non-life insurance application.

  20. 退货、减少价款的定性与定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建远

    2012-01-01

    退货,为中间状态的措施,应视其演变、发展的结果,据实确定为合同解除、代物清偿或合同更改。减少价款,若作为损害赔偿的一种特殊形态,属于违约责任的方式;若否,则非违约责任的方式,而是物的瑕疵担保的方式。%Returning of goods is a remedial measure, the nature of which should be determined as dissolution of contract, delivery of substitute goods or modification of contract in accordance with its evolution and development. Reduction of price should be considered as a form of liability for breach of contract or a form of warranty against defects in things depending on whether or not it is a special way of compensating for losses.

  1. New Perspectives on Imperial Examination Guarantee of Song Dynasty%宋代科举担保新论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘本栋

    2015-01-01

    宋代士人参加科举考试之前必须有保官或者保人为其相关情况做担保。应举者需要被担保的内容主要有籍贯、才学、品行、服纪、职业、年龄、举数等信息,具有担保资格的主要有一起参加考试的应举者、官员、书铺等。担保者必须严格审核应举者信息的真实性,确保其具备应举资格,如果考生出现违制行为,他们则要受到处罚。%The scholars of Song Dynasty were required to be guaranteed before sitting for an imperial examination. The guarantee included the origin of household registration, talent and learning, characters, mourning practice, occupation, age and numbers of the exams he/she has taken. People who has such a Guarantee are the other examinees, local officials, school officers, etc. They must strictly review the information of the examinees to ensure the authenticity and the qualification of on the part of the examinees. The guarantors will be punished in case of a breach of warranty on the part of guarantees.

  2. Water Security Toolkit User Manual Version 1.2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Hart, David; Hart, William Eugene; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Haxton, Terranna; Murray, Regan; Janke, Robert; Taxon, Thomas; Laird, Carl; Seth, Arpan; Hackebeil, Gabriel; McGee, Shawn; Mann, Angelica

    2014-08-01

    YAML MIT License runpy2 Python Software Foundation License setuptools Python Software Foundation License / Zope Public License six MIT License TinyXML zlib License unittest2 BSD License Utilib Revised BSD License virtualenv MIT License Vol Common Public License vpykit Revised BSD License Additionally, some precompiled WST binary distributions might bundle other third-party executables files: Coliny Revised BSD License (part of Acro project) Dakota GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.2.1 PICO Revised BSD License (part of Acro project) i Revised BSD License Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. * Neither the name of Sandia National Laboratories nor Sandia Corporation nor the names of its con- tributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IM- PLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL SANDIA CORPORATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUD- ING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE

  3. The role of marketing researches in machine-building enterprise management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Nianko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is a synthesis of theoretical approaches to the nature of marketing system, development organizational directions of improvement of marketing researches at agricultural machine-building enterprise, disclosing specifics of marketing researches in modern conditions. The results of the analysis. Achievement of high results, inaccuracies and errors conditioned by removal at application of marketing researches process can be achieved by introducing to the process of the additional stage – estimations of accordance to the requirements. Marketing system is a complex, holistic system, and its primary component is marketing researches. They allow tracking changes in environmental factors and ensuring optimal establishing links between producers of goods and their consumers. Place of marketing researches in the marketing system of machine-building enterprises is determined by specific of products market segmentation (geographical principle, price principle, principle of psychographic, behavioral principle, principle of quality characteristics of products, principle of service, positioning of products and their technical and economic characteristics (productivity, reliability, longevity. A necessity for forming effectively operating complex of marketing researches is development of communication constituent, that consists in an exchange of collected information with the market of sale (by target audience, collaboration of machine-building enterprises with commodity producers in relation to study of demand, in the sphere of warranty and post-warranty maintenance of products; with research establishments; taking part in specialized exhibitions, further collaboration of producer with consumer. Database made on the basis of marketing researches will serve as basis for creation of the marketing informative system at the enterprises of machine-building. Further monitoring of market, and also marketing secret

  4. Using Electric Vehicles to Meet Balancing Requirements Associated with Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-07-31

    Many states are deploying renewable generation sources at a significant rate to meet renewable portfolio standards. As part of this drive to meet renewable generation levels, significant additions of wind generation are planned. Due to the highly variable nature of wind generation, significant energy imbalances on the power system can be created and need to be handled. This report examines the impact on the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP) region for a 2019 expected wind scenario. One method for mitigating these imbalances is to utilize plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) or battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as assets to the grid. PHEVs and BEVs have the potential to meet this demand through both charging and discharging strategies. This report explores the usage of two different charging schemes: V2GHalf and V2GFull. In V2GHalf, PHEV/BEV charging is varied to absorb the additional imbalance from the wind generation, but never feeds power back into the grid. This scenario is highly desirable to automotive manufacturers, who harbor great concerns about battery warranty if vehicle-to-grid discharging is allowed. The second strategy, V2GFull, varies not only the charging of the vehicle battery, but also can vary the discharging of the battery back into the power grid. This scenario is currently less desirable to automotive manufacturers, but provides an additional resource benefit to PHEV/BEVs in meeting the additional imbalance imposed by wind. Key findings in the report relate to the PHEV/BEV population required to meet the additional imbalance when comparing V2GHalf to V2GFull populations, and when comparing home-only-charging and work-and-home-charging scenarios. Utilizing V2GFull strategies over V2GHalf resulted in a nearly 33% reduction in the number of vehicles required. This reduction indicates fewer vehicles are needed to meet the unhandled energy, but they would utilize discharging of the vehicle battery into the grid. This practice currently results in the

  5. HSAPS market analysis project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloeckner, Ronny; Aaberg, Rolf Jarle

    2006-12-15

    The H-SAPS (Hydrogen Stand-Alone Power System) project, an EU project within the ALTENER programme in the period 2002-2004, was initiated to determine the potential for the introduction of environmentally benign hydrogen technology in what is believed to be a near-term market, namely stand-alone power systems (SAPS). The objective of the project was to examine the technological, political, social and economical factors affecting the emergence of hydrogen technology in the stand-alone power system market today and in the future. The scope of the project was limited to small and medium sized stand-alone power systems, up to a few hundred kilowatts (kW) power rating and based on renewable energy as the primary energy source. The work was divided into five phases: (1) Inception, (2) Data collection and analysis, (3) Market analysis and barrier removal, (4) Dissemination, and (5) Final report. Separate reports were written on these topics, and later summarised this final report. The H-SAPS-project identified the following critical technical barriers (in prioritized order): (1) High costs of both electrolyser and fuel cell solutions, (2) Short lifetime warranties and little lifetime experience for PEM electrolysers and PEM fuel cells, (3) Low energy efficiency of the hydrogen energy system (critical for small systems), and (4) The need to develop easy-to-use and energy efficient gas and electricity control systems. One of the main conclusions from the project is that there is a need to focus on interim solutions, based on conventional energy technologies (e.g., internal combustion engines instead of fuel cells), in order for H-SAPS to compete in the near-term SAPS-market (author) (ml)

  6. Cleaning of parts for new manufacturing and parts rebuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jeff

    1994-06-01

    Parts cleaning is the largest single expense, and the most time consuming activity, in rebuilding and new manufacturing. On average, 25% to 40% of the total labor and overhead burden is spent on cleaning. EPA and OSHA pressures add to the burden by making some methods and chemicals obsolete. Some of the processes and chemicals in current use will be curtailed and or outlawed in the future. How can a shops and industries make long term decisions or capital investments in cleaning and process improvements when the government keeps changing its rules? At the MART Corporation in Saint Louis, Missouri, we manufacture a line of cabinet-style batch cleaning machines known as Power Washers. Twenty years ago MART invented and patented the Power Washer process, a cleaning method that recycles wash solution and blasts contaminates as they are washed off the more heavily contaminated parts. Since the initial invention MART has continued to R&D the washing process and develop ancillary systems that comply with EPA and OSHA regulations. For applications involving new industrial parts or items requiring specification cleaned surfaces. MART provides filtration and solution conditioning systems, part drying operations, and triple rinsing. Units are available in stainless steel or higher alloys. We are not alone in the washer manufacturing business. You have many choices of cleaning solutions (no pun intended) which will perform in your operations and yield good results. As a manufacturer, we are interested in your success with our equipment. We have all heard the horror stories of companies having selected inappropriate cleaning systems and or processes which then brought the company to its knees, production wise. Assembly, appearance, warranty, and performance shortcomings of finished products can often be directly related to the cleaning process and its shortcomings.

  7. Investigation, Pollution Mapping and Simulative Leakage Health Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Groundwater from a Typical Brownfield, Middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Wenchu; Liu, Chaoyang; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-07-13

    Heavy metal and metalloid (Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, As and Hg) concentrations in groundwater from 19 typical sites throughout a typical brownfield were detected. Mean concentrations of toxic metals in groundwater decreased in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Hg > As. Concentration of Cr(6+) in groundwater was detected to further study chromium contamination. Cr(6+) and Cd in groundwater were recommended as the priority pollutants because they were generally 1399-fold and 12-foldgreater than permissible limits, respectively. Owing to the fact that a waterproof curtain (WPC) in the brownfield is about to pass the warranty period, a steady two-dimensional water quality model and health risk assessment were applied to simulate and evaluate adverse effects of Cr(6 +) and Cd on the water quality of Xiangjiang River and the drinking-water intake of Wangcheng Waterworks. The results indicated that when groundwater in the brownfield leaked with valid curtain prevention, the water quality in Xiangjiang River and drinking-water intake downstream were temporarily unaffected. However, if there was no curtain prevention, groundwater leakage would have adverse impact on water quality of Xiangjiang River. Under the requirements of Class III surface water quality, the pollution belt for Cr(6+) was 7500 m and 200 m for Cd. The non-carcinogenic risk of toxic metals in Xiangjiang River exceeded the threshold in a limited area, but did not threaten Wangcheng Waterworks. By contrast, the carcinogenic risk area for adults was at a transverse distance of 200 m and a longitudinal distance of 18,000 m, which was close to the Wangcheng Waterworks (23,000 m). Therefore, it was essential to reconstruct the WPC in the brownfield for preventing pollution diffusion.

  8. On the potential of uncertainty analysis for prediction of brake squeal propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Oberst, Sebastian; Lai, Joseph C. S.

    2016-09-01

    Brake squeal is a source of significant warranty-related claims for automotive manufacturers because it is annoying and is often perceived by customers as a safety concern. A brake squeal analysis is complex due to changing environmental and operating conditions, high sensitivity to manufacturing and assembly tolerances as well as the not so well understood role of nonlinearities. Although brake squeal is essentially a nonlinear problem, the standard analysis tool in industry is the linear complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) which may under-predict or over-predict the number of unstable vibration modes. A nonlinear instability analysis is more predictive than CEA but is still computationally too expensive to be used routinely in industry for a full brake finite element model. Also, although the net work analysis of a linearised brake system has shown potential in predicting the origin of brake squeal, it has not been extensively used. In this study, the net work of an analytical viscously damped self-excited 4-dof friction oscillator with cubic contact force nonlinearity is compared with the instability prediction using the CEA and a nonlinear instability analysis. Results show that both the net work analysis and CEA under-predict the instability because of their inability to detect the sub-critical Hopf bifurcation. Then, the uncertainty analysis is applied to examine if it can improve instability prediction of a nonlinear system using linear methods and its limitations. By applying a variance-based global sensitivity analysis to parameters of the oscillator, suitable candidates for an uncertainty analysis are identified. Results of uncertainty analyses by applying polynomial chaos expansions to net work and CEA correlate well with those of the nonlinear analysis, hence demonstrating the potential of an uncertainty analysis in improving the prediction of brake squeal propensity using a linear method.

  9. ESTADO ACTUAL DE LA POBLACION VICTIMA DE DESPLAZAMEINTO FORZADO EN CUANTO AL ENFOQUE DIFERENCIAL DE SU ATENCIÓN, EL DERECHO A LA INTEGRIDAD, LA SUBSISTENCIA MINIMA Y AL INGRESO ECONOMICO.(CURRENT STATUS OF THE POPULATION VICTIM OF FORCED DISPLACEMENT AS FOR ITS DIFFERENTIAL APPROACH OF ITS ATTENTION, THE RIGHT TO INTEGRITY, THE MINIMUM SUSTENANCE AND THE ECONOMIC INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Esteban Monsalve Rojas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo recoge algunos aspectos de la investigación que sobre el Goce Efectivo de Derechos (Informe GED elaborara el Observatorio Departamental de Desplazamiento Forzado de Antioquia en 2011. En esta entrega, la tercera de una serie de cuatro, se recogen algunos contenidos, metodologías de la medición, diseño de indicadores y resultados que arrojara el informe GED. En particular, en este aparte se exponen aspectos relativos a la atención de la población víctima del desplazamiento en términos del respeto a su integridad y las garantías para obtener un tratamiento acorde al enfoque diferencial. Así mismo, se tratan los diseños y resultados de la medición de los indicadores sociales sobre garantías de subsistencia mínima y alcance de la cobertura de ingresos económicos y educación en la población de estudio.Abstract:The following article contains some aspects of the research that about the effective enjoyment of rights (EER report developed by the State Observatory of Forced Displacement in Antioquia in 2011. In this installment, the third in a series of four, the measurement methodologies, the design of indicators, and the results which the EER report will produce, are included. In particular, in this supplement, aspects relating to the care of the victims of displacement in terms of respect for their integrity and guarantees to obtain a treatment according to the differential approach. It also shows the design and the results of the measurement of the social indicators about the warranty of minimum sustenance and the scope of the coverage of the economic income and education, in the population under study.

  10. Injuria inhalatoria en pacientes quemados: Revisión Inhalation injury in burned patient: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CESAR PEDREROS P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cada año casi tres mil personas sufren quemaduras en Chile. En la población adulta se estima que este número se incrementará en los próximos años. En este grupo, cerca del 40% de las quemaduras graves se asocian a injuria inhalatoria. la injuria inhalatoria aumenta significativamente la mortalidad en los pacientes quemados. la prevalencia, fisiopatologia, cuadro clínico, manejo y pronóstico de esta patología no han sido incorporados en los estudios de pregrado de las escuelas de medicina y son temas desconocidos para la mayoría de los médicos. En el contexto de la próxima incorporación de este tipo de dolencias en el plan de garantías explícitas en la salud chilena hemos realizado una actualización del temaEvery year almost three thousand people get burned in Chile. In this group, about 40% of the critical burned patients also suffer inhalation injury. This number is expected to grow bigger among the adult population in the next few years. Inhalation injury significantly increases mortality in burned patients. The prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of this pathology have not been incorporated in the undergraduate curses of Chilean medical schools. Therefore, this subject is pooly known by most of our physicians. Because this disease will be included in the explicit warranties health plan of the public health care system in Chile, we decide to write this review about this pathological condition

  11. Report on the analysis of field data relating to the reliability of solar hot water systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-07-01

    Utilities are overseeing the installations of thousand of solar hot water (SHW) systems. Utility planners have begun to ask for quantitative measures of the expected lifetimes of these systems so that they can properly forecast their loads. This report, which augments a 2009 reliability analysis effort by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), addresses this need. Additional reliability data have been collected, added to the existing database, and analyzed. The results are presented. Additionally, formal reliability theory is described, including the bathtub curve, which is the most common model to characterize the lifetime reliability character of systems, and for predicting failures in the field. Reliability theory is used to assess the SNL reliability database. This assessment shows that the database is heavily weighted with data that describe the reliability of SHW systems early in their lives, during the warranty period. But it contains few measured data to describe the ends of SHW systems lives. End-of-life data are the most critical ones to define sufficiently the reliability of SHW systems in order to answer the questions that the utilities pose. Several ideas are presented for collecting the required data, including photometric analysis of aerial photographs of installed collectors, statistical and neural network analysis of energy bills from solar homes, and the development of simple algorithms to allow conventional SHW controllers to announce system failures and record the details of the event, similar to how aircraft black box recorders perform. Some information is also presented about public expectations for the longevity of a SHW system, information that is useful in developing reliability goals.

  12. ANALISIS MANAJEMEN RISIKO PRODUK KAFALAH (STUDI PADA BANK MUAMALAT INDONESIA BANDA ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satria Munawir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kafalah is a guarantee of a guarantor, either in the form of self assurance and treasure to the second party in relation to the rights and obligations of both parties that the other party. In banking sector, implementation of the concept is well known as a bank guarantee, which is a guarantee in the form of paper issued by the bank which resulted in the obligation to pay to the party receiving the collateral if the guaranteed party breach the contract. This article aims to study the implementaion of kafalah product at BMI Banda Aceh including strategies in preventing risks related the products. It also examines the implementation of kafalah from an Islamic perspective. In finding the answer, this article employes qualitative approach. Data was collected through field research and library research which was then analized using descriptive analysis method. The results show that the product kafalah undertaken by BMI Branch of Banda Aceh is a form of insurance that includes guaranteed tender, performance bonds, warranties advance, and guarantee maintenance with a deposit of 100% cash collateral to the insurance value is small and a deposit of 60% of fixed asset plus 40% cash collateral for eprtanggungan whose value is greater than the value of the desired assurance customers. Moreover, the client or the insured must enter into cooperation agreements with project leaders to work on a particular project. Tips management undertaken by BMI Branch Banda is analyzing the customer or contractor using character analysis and collateral is more dominant than the overall analysis of 5C, because the BMI-related risks faced by the provision of guarantees / kafalah is credit risk and reputation risk. From the Islamic perspective, the implementation of kafalah has complied with Islamic jurisprudence. Keywords: Analysis, Risk Management, Kafalah, Bank Muamalat Indonesia

  13. Income generation in the supply chain of acai in the design of electric energy supply in isolated communities in the municipality of Manacapuru, AM; Geracao de renda na cadeia produtiva do acai em projeto de abastecimento de energia eletrica em comunidades isoladas no Municipio de Manacapuru-AM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacellar, Atlas A.; Souza, Rubem C.R.; Xavier, Diogo J.C.; Seye, Omar; Bacellar, Atlas A.; Santos, Eyde C.S.; Freitas, Katriana T. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Email: abacellar@ufam.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    Efforts endeavored by the State aiming to universalize the electricity use in Brazil, PRODEEM and Programa Luz Para Todos are examples of it, had have as result high insolvency or interruption. The aim of this work is to analyze the potentialities of increasing incomes in communities at the city of Manacapuru - AM, assisted by the research project 'Model of electric power Businesses in Isolated Communities at the Amazon region'- NERAM, under the responsibility of CDEAM of Federal University of Amazonas - UFAM, starting from acai supply chain. The strategy is to implement an industry of acai's pulps with the objectives of adding value to the fruit and to use the pits as biomass to generate power. Cooperative as a legal model of enterprise was adopted in order to be responsible for the industry with the participation of the families that work with the fruit and the community in general. The cooperative plant idealized was based on the report of a socioeconomic research applied at the communities. Three methods were used to analyze the investment: Uniform Annual Value Equivalent, Liquid Present Value and Ratio of Internal Return. The results demonstrated the enterprise's viability since obeying the following premises: 50 tons of minimum production of acai per month; R$ 2.50 as a minimum pulp's sale price; and 0.60 kg of pulp for 1 kg of fruit as minimum productivity, which will create nine new puts of work, warranty of acai's fruit sale, income's increasing for the cooperative and incentive to catch the fruit. (author)

  14. Sokol Blosser Barrel Aging Cellar : green roofs and LEED{sup TM} buildings in the rural context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cravens, L.L. [Sera Architects Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    2004-07-01

    An earth covered structure that stores 900 barrels of wine at the Sokol Blosser Winery located in Yamhill Valley, southeast of Portland, Oregon was presented. The owner's decision to build as sustainably as possible when constructing the barrel aging cellar was reinforced by their involvement in the Oregon Natural Step Network, a non-profit organization that promotes sustainability principles in any endeavor. The sustainable project design solution led by SERA Architects met the winery's requirements for an underground structure capable of storing 900 barrels of wine in three chambers; natural daylight throughout; control over the temperature and humidity; natural ventilation; the use of sustainable materials, and minimal materials; use of local products; preserving the maximum existing open area; and, minimizing construction demolition and waste. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) criteria for the green building rating system was used to measure the green construction practices. The many benefits of burying the building were identified, namely the cooling system was eliminated, which reduced the cost of the mechanical system, reduced the major draw for energy, and eliminated any use of ozone depleting refrigerants. The roof's waterproofing system was provided by Tremco. Combined with a non-engineered earth cover the manufacturer provided a warranty of 20 years but predicted a 60 year life for the roof. The Roof sandwich structure from top down was described in detail and illustrations were presented. The final calculations indicate a $750 annual energy savings above a traditional space. 6 figs.

  15. Understanding Trends in Wind Turbine Prices Over the Past Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-10-26

    Taking a bottom-up approach, this report examines seven primary drivers of wind turbine prices in the United States, with the goal of estimating the degree to which each contributed to the doubling in turbine prices from 2002 through 2008, as well as the subsequent decline in prices through 2010 (our analysis does not extend into 2011 because several of these drivers are best gauged on a full-year basis due to seasonality issues). The first four of these drivers can be considered, at least to some degree, endogenous influences – i.e., those that are largely within the control of the wind industry – and include changes in: 1) Labor costs, which have historically risen during times of tight turbine supply; 2) Warranty provisions, which reflect technology performance and reliability, and are most often capitalized in turbine prices; 3) Turbine manufacturer profitability, which can impact turbine prices independently of costs; and 4) Turbine design, which for the purpose of this analysis is principally manifested through increased turbine size. The other three drivers analyzed in this study can be considered exogenous influences, in that they can impact wind turbine costs but fall mostly outside of the direct control of the wind industry. These exogenous drivers include changes in: 5) Raw materials prices, which affect the cost of inputs to the manufacturing process; 6) Energy prices, which impact the cost of manufacturing and transporting turbines; and 7) Foreign exchange rates, which can impact the dollar amount paid for turbines and components imported into the United States.

  16. Do the chaotic features of gait change in Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbaz, Yashar; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Jafari, Ayyoob; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2012-08-21

    Some previous studies have focused on chaotic properties of Parkinson's disease (PD). It seems that considering PD from dynamical systems perspective is a relevant method that may lead to better understanding of the disease. There is some ambiguity about chaotic nature in PD symptoms and normal behaviour. Some studies claim that normal gait has somehow a chaotic behaviour and disturbed gait in PD has decreased chaotic nature. However, it is worth noting that the basis of this idea is the difference of fractal behaviour in gait of normal and PD patients, which is concluded from Long Range Correlation (LRC) indices. Our primary calculations show that a large number of normal persons and patients have similar LRC. It seems that chaotic studies on PD need a different view. Because of short time recording of symptoms, accurate calculation of chaotic features is tough. On the other hand, long time recording of symptoms is experimentally difficult. In this research, we have first designed a physiologically plausible model for normal and PD gait. Then, after validating the model with neural network classifier, we used the model for extracting long time simulation of stride in normal and PD persons. These long time simulations were then used for calculating the chaotic features of gait. According to change of phase space behaviour and alteration of three largest lyapunov exponents, it was observed that simulated normal persons act as chaotic systems in stride production, but simulated PD does not have chaotic dynamics and is stochastic. Based on our results, it may be claimed that normal gait has chaotic nature which is disturbed in PD state. Surely, long time real recordings from gait signal in normal persons and PD patients are necessary to warranty this hypothesis.

  17. Examination of an optical transmittance test for photovoltaic encapsulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David C.; Bengoechea, Jaione; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Köhl, Michael; Powell, Nick E.; Smith, Michael E.; White, Michael D.; Wilson, Helen Rose; Wohlgemuth, John H.

    2013-09-01

    The optical transmittance of encapsulation materials is a key characteristic for their use in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Changes in transmittance with time in the field affect module performance, which may impact product warranties. Transmittance is important in product development, module manufacturing, and field power production (both immediate and long-term). Therefore, an international standard (IEC 62788-1-4) has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the optical performance of PV encapsulation materials. Existing standards, such as ASTM E903, are general and more appropriately applied to concentrated solar power than to PV. Starting from the optical transmittance measurement, the solar-weighted transmittance of photon irradiance, yellowness index (which may be used in aging studies to assess durability), and ultraviolet (UV) cut-off wavelength may all be determined using the proposed standard. The details of the proposed test are described. The results of a round-robin experiment (for five materials) conducted at seven laboratories to validate the test procedure using representative materials are also presented. For example, the Encapsulation Group actively explored the measurement requirements (wavelength range and resolution), the requirements for the spectrophotometer (including the integrating sphere and instrument accessories, such as a depolarizer), specimen requirements (choice of glass-superstrate and -substrate), and data analysis (relative to the light that may be used in the PV application). The round-robin experiment identified both intra- and inter-laboratory instrument precision and bias for five encapsulation materials (encompassing a range of transmittance and haze-formation characteristics).

  18. Legal aspects of sinkhole development and flooding in karst terranes: 1. Review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, James F.

    1986-03-01

    Structures built within the area of influence of a sinkhole can be affected by collapse, subsidence, or flooding. Unanticipated property losses may be involved, and litigation commonly ensues. Insurance compensation for damages that result from sinkhole collapse or subsidence in a karst terrane are covered by statute only in Florida and by voluntary agreement of companies operating in Tennessee Liability or insurance compensation for damages resulting from sinkhole flooding is not specifically covered by any state or federal statute. Regulations of the National Flood Insurance Program have been interpreted to allow coverage by this program for homes affected by sinkhole flooding in Bowling Green, Kentucky In the present article, case law, legal concepts of groundwater and surface water, liability, and law review articles relevant to sinkhole litigation are summarized The rationales of plaintiffs and defendants are reviewed Liability for damages have been based on allegations of negligence, breach of various water law doctrines, trespass, nuisance, loss of support, breach of contract, and implied warranty of habitability Defenses against these allegations have been based on the merits of each of them and on caveat emptor Several alternative rationales for claiming liability for losses incurred because of sinkhole development or flooding are proposed and discussed. The little-known Henderson v Wade Sand and Gravel is highly recommended as an alternative leading case that clearly and justifiably gives protection to adjacent landowners, and ties liability for damages caused by groundwater pumpage to nuisance law and related interference with property rights. Several little-known litigated cases of sinkhole development in response to groundwater pumpage will be summarized in a second article at a later date. Concepts of liability are evolving It can be expected that the professional geologist or engineer will have an increasing number of claims made against him or her

  19. Estimation of the operational reliability determined with Weibull modulus based on the abrasive wear in a cylinder-piston ring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of the study was to determine methodology for estimation of the operational reliability based on the statistical results of abrasive wear testing.Design/methodology/approach: For research, a traditional tribological system, i.e. a friction pair of the AlSi17CuNiMg silumin in contact with the spheroidal graphite cast iron of EN-GJN-200 grade, was chosen. Conditions of dry friction were assumed. This system was chosen based on mechanical cooperation between the cylinder (silumin and piston rings (spheroidal graphite cast iron in conventional internal combustion piston engines with spark ignition.Findings: Using material parameters of the cylinder and piston rings, nominal losses qualifying the cylinder for repair and the maximum weight losses that can be smothered were determined. Based on the theoretical number of engine revolutions to repair and stress acting on the cylinder bearing surface, the maximum distance that the motor vehicle can travel before the seizure of the cylinder occurs was calculated. These results were the basis for statistical analysis carried out with the Weibull modulus, the end result of which was the estimation of material reliability (the survival probability of tribological system and the determination of a pre-operation warranty period of the tribological system.Research limitations/implications: The analysis of Weibull distribution modulus will estimate the reliability of a tribological cylinder-ring system enabled the determination of an approximate theoretical time of the combustion engine failure-free running.Originality/value: The results are valuable statistical data and methodology proposed in this paper can be used to determine a theoretical life time of the combustion engine.

  20. QUALITY, OBSOLESCENCE AND UNSUSTAINABLE INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Kurz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the negative side effects of the consumer society and the increasing number of consumer goods available to the average household is the intransparency of product quality, especially product lifetime. There are many examples on failing products and premature obsolescence. Often this phenomenon is related to companies’ profit maximization strategies (planned obsolescence and consumer protection policy is mobilized to stop this type of exploitation. The paper applies micro-economic analysis to discuss the problem of optimal product quality (e.g. lifetime in terms of cost-benefit-analysis and under imperfect information (based on Akerlof’s lemon problem. Given consumers’ actual willingness to pay there is an optimal quality which is lower than the technically possible. If the innovation perspective (Schumpeter’s “creative destruction” is added to the analysis, increasing global competition and speed of product innovation are identified as core drivers for shorter product lifecycles and tend to be the actual limiting factor of product lifetime (economic vs. technical obsolescence. Even if the goals of sustainable development are included in the analysis, this does not provide an unambiguous argument for long-life products as new products tend to be more eco-efficient. A broader discussion on optimal quality (lifetime of products is necessary, based on holistic life-cycle assessment of alternative product quality options. And finally: The tendency of increasing aftersales disappointment of consumers’ expectations and conflicts with sustainable development goals need to be addressed in a more general debate on (limits of consumerism. Minor changes in the laws for protecting consumers (e.g. longer warranty will not do the job.

  1. Insurance, Public Assistance, and Household Flood Risk Reduction: A Comparative Study of Austria, England, and Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanger, Susanne; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Surminski, Swenja; Nenciu-Posner, Cristina; Lorant, Anna; Ionescu, Radu; Patt, Anthony

    2017-08-17

    In light of increasing losses from floods, many researchers and policymakers are looking for ways to encourage flood risk reduction among communities, business, and households. In this study, we investigate risk-reduction behavior at the household level in three European Union Member States with fundamentally different insurance and compensation schemes. We try to understand if and how insurance and public assistance influence private risk-reduction behavior. Data were collected using a telephone survey (n = 1,849) of household decisionmakers in flood-prone areas. We show that insurance overall is positively associated with private risk-reduction behavior. Warranties, premium discounts, and information provision with respect to risk reduction may be an explanation for this positive relationship in the case of structural measures. Public incentives for risk-reduction measures by means of financial and in-kind support, and particularly through the provision of information, are also associated with enhancing risk reduction. In this study, public compensation is not negatively associated with private risk-reduction behavior. This does not disprove such a relationship, but the negative effect may be mitigated by factors related to respondents' capacity to implement measures or social norms that were not included in the analysis. The data suggest that large-scale flood protection infrastructure creates a sense of security that is associated with a lower level of preparedness. Across the board there is ample room to improve both public and private policies to provide effective incentives for household-level risk reduction. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Ergonomic Factor and Safety Design in Beverage Packaging%基于人机因素的饮料包装安全性设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎英; 王建民

    2012-01-01

    针对饮料包装使用过程中的安全隐患,分析了饮料包装设计中的人体尺寸因素、动作因素和感知因素等,探讨了饮料包装视觉和触觉的导向安全设计、使用过程中的动作安全设计和可重复使用的安全设计方式,即在设计时应充分把握人机因素中的视触觉感知作用,明确地将操作信息在包装开启使用前传递给消费者,并保证在整个使用过程中消费者操作动作的便利性及安全性,同时还应考虑饮料在保质期内能安全存放,在开封后可再次密封及再次安全开启使用,以满足消费者再次使用的要求。%Aimed at the security problems, some factors in the handling process of beverage packaging are analyzed such as human body size factors, action factors and perception factors, which are useful in exploring the visual and tactile oriented security design of beverage packaging. Actions in the process of using and re-using security are also studied. The design should ensure the convenience and safety for consumers in the entire process. The operating information should be acknowledged before opening the package, drinks should be safely stored within the warranty period, the opened package can be sealed and opened again, in order to meet the requirements of consumers' need.

  3. Activities of the task group 8 on thin film PV module reliability (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being used increasingly to provide renewable energy to schools, residences, small businesses and utilities. At this time, the home owners and small businesses have considerable difficulty in detecting module and/or system degradation and especially enforcing warranty. It needs to be noted that IEC 61215-1 (test req.), -2 (test proc.) and -1-1 (c-Si) are forecasted to be circulated end of Feb 2016 and only editorial changes would be possible. 61215 series does include thin film technologies and would be replacing 61646. Moreover, IEC 61215-1, section 7.2 power output and electric circuitry does contain significant changes to acceptance criteria regarding rated label values, particularly rated power. Even though it is believed that consensus could be achieved within IEC TC82 WG2, some of the smaller players that do not participate actively in IEC TC82 - may not be surprised and must be informed. The other tech specific parts 61215-1-2 (CdTe), -1-3 (a-Si, µc-Si) and -1-4 (CIS, CIGS) are out for comments. The IEC closing date was January 29, 2016. The additions alternative damp heat (DH) test proposed Solar Frontier is being reviewed. In the past, only 600 V systems were permitted in the grid-connected residential and commercial systems in the US. The US commercial systems can now use higher voltage (1,000-1500V) in order to reduce BOS component costs. It is believed that there would not be any problems. The Task Group 8 is collecting data on higher voltage systems.

  4. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  5. THE HERITAGE GROUP BIOCULTURAL GUARD AS A GUARANTEE OF RESILIENCE IN SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS OF THE PEOPLE IN THE STATE OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Patrick-Encina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The international canon in charge of recognising the heritage of indigenous peoples over the last decade has been structured by three converging arena: the entrepreneurship, the academic and the legal ones. Efforts from First Nations to insert themselves in decision-making processes have been fruitful, since they have achieved to establish a special committee to discuss Article 8j of the CBD. However, as years of negotiation pass by, incertitude regarding viability of the agreements has increased, due to the fact that peoples are not adequately preparing themselves to take advantage of the warranties provided. It has been proven that, when traditional practices for the protection of biocultural heritage are maintained within, resilience of the socio-ecological system is bigger, allowing for a better response to different crises, while preventing risks upon integrity and identity. The problem is that additional factors such as local climate change, have reduced availability of water, fauna and flora in situ, as well as of basic food crops and cash. This affects the capacity of peoples to maintain such protection practices, hence jeopardising a sustainable adaptive response. The model of Intercultural Universities obliges the practice of a dialogic research, which is also participatory and co-responsible, in order to detect weaknesses of socio-ecological systems and design strategies to deal with problems. This will ensure internal resilience. The major challenge faced by the Intercultural University of Mexico State is to work with the Mexican Institute of Industrial Property in order to register aspects of peoples‟ heritage in a collective way.

  6. CALIDAD DE LA EMPLEABILIDAD EN UNIVERSITARIOS CON DISCAPACIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Galiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Employment of disabled graduates by the University of Valencia (UV is analyzed, in order to diagnose, visualize and promote integration resources and practices by universities, corporations, and others. Participants were 217 students with disabilities who were randomly selected by stratified sampling with proportional allocation based on genre and type of disability. Results showed graduated men with disabilities were significant older than women. Participants’ age introduced even more differences: self-employers and Administration’s employees were significantly older than the rest of participants. Differences between participants were also found depending on the kind of disability, in receiving disability allowances, and people with visual and psychic disabilities perceived more disability allowances than people with physic, multiple, organic, or hearing disabilities. In every most of the functional areas, employees stated that their job was related with their university studies. Data from 2010, related to general employability of the UV graduated, reported that about 70% of university graduated who were working, were employed in areas related with their university studies. With current study, and with the warranty that offer both the kind of sampling and the statistics techniques, it is conclude that graduated with disabilities’ employability does not differ from the rest of university students’ employability, even though it requires a bigger effort of information and awareness, both for the employers and for the employees. A first step would be the enhancing of the coordination between administrations, corporations, and universities rectors and social councils, to create a university monitoring and observatory center for everyone’s employability.

  7. Restoring of offshore wind farm sites. Lillgrund Pilot Project; Aaterstaellande av havsbaserad vindkraft. Lillgrund Pilot Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumle Wikander, Jhenny (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This report focuses on the legal aspects of decommissioning and restoring of offshore wind farm sites, as part of an extensive report on the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm Pilot Project. For this analysis, all permit conditions of the granted permits for the offshore wind parks in Sweden have been collected and studied. According to the Swedish Environmental code 'the validity of a permit, approval or exemption may be made subject to the requirement that the person who intends to pursue the activity must furnish a security for the costs of after-treatment and any other restoration measures that may be necessary as a result. The state, municipalities, county councils and associations of municipalities shall not be required to furnish a security. If there is cause to assume that the security furnished is no longer sufficient, the authority which is considering the application for a permit, approval or exemption may require an additional security to be furnished'. The permits show that different types of securities are being used, with bank warranties and securities being the most common. Securities are either fixed and furnished prior to start of construction or start of operations, or they are obtained gradually over the life of the project. Among the twelve permits studied, a gradual tendency to use a combination of the two alternatives can bee seen. The conditions governing when an offshore wind farm is to be discontinued and which parts need to be partly or fully removed from the site are obviously of future importance. The issue has been addressed to different degrees in the permits, some to a clear legal extent, while others are more general. The Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm was secured for 60 million SEK. The extent to which the park is to be decommissioned and the site to be restored is decided by the county administrative board once production is terminated

  8. Six sigma quality for fuel manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbani, M.D.; Onderwater, T. [GE Canada, Fuel Manufacturing Plant, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    It is widely recognized that operational performance in product manufacturing is largely determined by understanding and maintaining process capability. By definition, Six Sigma is a statistical unit of measure reflecting process capability that yields less' than 6.8 defects per million product produced. Statistically, this translates into obtaining a long term manufacturing process capability of {+-} 4.5 standard deviations aboutthe mean within specification limits. The heart of the Six Sigma program developed by the Six Sigma Academy is what we refer to as the Breakthrough Strategy. This rigorous analytical methodology is the driving force in obtaining world class performance of Six Sigma. The methodology applies statistical and practical tools in resolving a problem or improving a product or process. The application of Six Sigma focuses on attacking process input variables (independent) rather than the output variables. Focusing on these independent variables (temperature, power, force, etc.) and the variation in the end product they create, enables us to get to the root of the problem rather than react to the symptoms of the problem. In this manner we prevent defects from occurring rather than inspecting and monitoring the product. Why the need for such an ambitious program? It is estimated that the cost of failure (rework, scrap, warranties, etc.) can be as high as 15% of sales for companies typically operating at 3-4 sigma. In achieving Six Sigma, costs of failure are typically less than 5%. The thought of reducing business costs while achieving the recognition of being our customer's premier choice provides enormous incentive to reach such status. (author)

  9. Music Inspired by Astronomy: A Selected Listing for the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2008-11-01

    Part of the aim of the International Year of Astronomy is to show the connections between astronomy and other areas of human culture. Such connections are easily found in music, where astronomical ideas have found a wide range of expression. This is not a comprehensive listing, but a sampling of some of the pieces that are available on CD's, and that may be of particular interest to educators and astronomy enthusiasts. To qualify for the list, a piece (or the composer's vision for it) has to include some real science and not just an astronomical term in the title or in a few lyrics. For example, we do not list The Planets, by Gustav Holst, since it treats the astrological view of the planets. And we regret that Philip Glass' opera Galileo is not available on CD and therefore cannot be listed. Nor do we include the thousands of popular songs that use the moon or the stars for an easy rhyme or a quick romantic image. And, while many jazz pieces have astronomy in the title, it is often hard to know just how the piece and the astronomy go together; so we've sadly omitted jazz too. For those with old-fashioned ears, like the author, we note that no warranty is made that all these pieces are easy to listen to, but each takes some key idea from astronomy and makes music out of it. A more comprehensive discussion can be found in my article in Astronomy Education Review: http://aer.noao.edu/cgi-bin/article.pl?id=193

  10. 闭环供应链的再制造补贴政策比较研究%A Comparative Study on Remanufacturing Subsidies of Closed-loop Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巍; 赵阳

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes a game model which consists of two manufacturers, one is the traditional manufacturers that produce the new product; the other is the remanufacturer that produces the remanufactured products. Assuming that both of the manufacturers provide warranty services and advertising for their products, and the two kinds of products are of the same price. The paper studies the government subsidies considering service and recycling rate, and analyzes the impact of subsidies on traditional remanufacturer’s service level and output as well as profits. Based on the numerical simulation, this paper provides advice and suggestions for the government’s policy-related subsidies.%论文建立了包含制造商和再制造商的博弈模型,两个制造商都为他们的产品提供包括保修和广告在内的服务;在两种产品具有相同销售价格的假设条件下,通过研究政府对再制造品的服务谁以及原产品利用率进行补贴这两种情况,分析补贴政策对新产品和再制造品的服务水平、产量以及利润的影响,并用数值仿真对其进行数量方面的证实,从而为政府出台相关补贴政策提供意见和建议。

  11. 专利权瑕疵的类型及其法律责任——基于合同法的视角%Types of Patent Defects and Legal Liabilities -Based on China Contract Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 刘宏光

    2012-01-01

    Patent defects is an important type of flaw, the introduction of the concept of warranty liability for defects of patent links contract law and patent law and also reflects the interaction between civil law and intellectual property law in- depth. In practice, patent defects mostly occur in the sales contracts and the technology transfer contracts. In perspective of contract law, the remedies for patent defects include suspending payment, Implementa- tion of performance, reduction in price, termination of contract, claims for remuneration damages and so on.%专利权瑕疵是一类重要的权利瑕疵。在专利法学中引入专利权瑕疵担保责任的概念,沟通了合同法与专利法,是民法与知识产权法之间深层互动的重要体现。实务中专利权瑕疵主要发生在以买卖合同为代表的有体物交易合同和以专利转让合同及专利实施许可合同为代表的权利交易合同中。在合同法的视角下,专利权瑕疵的救济方式主要包括中止支付价金、继续履行减价、解除合同以及请求损害赔偿等。

  12. Selectivity and limitations of carbon sorption tubes for capturing siloxanes in biogas during field sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Surita, Sharon C

    2016-06-01

    Siloxane levels in biogas can jeopardize the warranties of the engines used at the biogas to energy facilities. The chemical structure of siloxanes consists of silicon and oxygen atoms, alternating in position, with hydrocarbon groups attached to the silicon side chain. Siloxanes can be either in cyclic (D) or linear (L) configuration and referred with a letter corresponding to their structure followed by a number corresponding to the number of silicon atoms present. When siloxanes are burned, the hydrocarbon fraction is lost and silicon is converted to silicates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of activated carbon gas samplers for quantitative analysis of siloxanes in biogas samples. Biogas samples were collected from a landfill and an anaerobic digester using multiple carbon sorbent tubes assembled in series. One set of samples was collected for 30min (sampling 6-L gas), and the second set was collected for 60min (sampling 12-L gas). Carbon particles were thermally desorbed and analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that biogas sampling using a single tube would not adequately capture octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6). Even with 4 tubes were used in series, D5 was not captured effectively. The single sorbent tube sampling method was adequate only for capturing trimethylsilanol (TMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (L2). Affinity of siloxanes for activated carbon decreased with increasing molecular weight. Using multiple carbon sorbent tubes in series can be an appropriate method for developing a standard procedure for determining siloxane levels for low molecular weight siloxanes (up to D3). Appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures should be developed for adequately quantifying the levels of the higher molecular weight siloxanes in biogas with sorbent tubes

  13. Examination of an Optical Transmittance Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Bengoechea, J.; Bokria, J. G.; Kohl, M.; Powell, N. E.; Smith, M. E.; White, M. D.; Wilson, H. R.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    The optical transmittance of encapsulation materials is a key characteristic for their use in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Changes in transmittance with time in the field affect module performance, which may impact product warranties. Transmittance is important in product development, module manufacturing, and field power production (both immediate and long-term). Therefore, an international standard (IEC 62788-1-4) has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the optical performance of PV encapsulation materials. Existing standards, such as ASTM E903, are general and more appropriately applied to concentrated solar power than to PV. Starting from the optical transmittance measurement, the solar-weighted transmittance of photon irradiance, yellowness index (which may be used in aging studies to assess durability), and ultraviolet (UV) cut-off wavelength may all be determined using the proposed standard. The details of the proposed test are described. The results of a round-robin experiment (for five materials) conducted at seven laboratories to validate the test procedure using representative materials are also presented. For example, the Encapsulation Group actively explored the measurement requirements (wavelength range and resolution), the requirements for the spectrophotometer (including the integrating sphere and instrument accessories, such as a depolarizer), specimen requirements (choice of glass-superstrate and -substrate), and data analysis (relative to the light that may be used in the PV application). The round-robin experiment identified both intra- and inter-laboratory instrument precision and bias for five encapsulation materials (encompassing a range of transmittance and haze-formation characteristics).

  14. 提高医疗设备售后服务质量对策的探讨%Study on Solutions to Improve the Medical Equipment After-Sales Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁苏娟; 许锋; 田金; 蒋昌松

    2013-01-01

    Excellent after-sales service contributes signiifcantly to good running condition of medical equipment which has been working as an essential tool in clinical diagnosis and treatment. It has become a matter of the utmost urgency for the department of medical engineering to explore the solutions to strengthen the management of medical equipment after-sales service. With the method of fishbone diagram analysis, this paper studies the indexes of evaluation of medical equipment after-sales service and analyzes some main factors including the operation rate, service response and maintenance efifciency, service price and training for engineers in the hospital. Moreover, this paper provides a quantitative basis for deciding the rationalization of warranty purchasing. As a consequence, the operation rate of medical equipment can get increased and management of medical equipment after-sales service is standardized.%医疗设备作为临床诊断治疗的重要工具,其良好的运行状态离不开完善的售后服务支持,如何加强医疗设备的售后服务管理已成为医院医学工程部门亟需解决的问题。本文通过鱼骨图分析法,探索医疗设备售后服务的评价指标,并对开机率、服务响应与维修效率、服务价格、对医院工程师的培训等主要影响因素进行剖析,有针对性地提出购置保修合理化量化判断依据,以达到提高医疗设备开机率,规范医疗设备售后服务管理的目的。

  15. Effect of Coriandrum sativum hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil on acetic acid- induced acute colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of Coriandrum sativum on acetic acid-inducedcolitis in rats. C. sativum (Coriander has long been used in Iranian traditional medicine and its use as an anti-inflammatory agent is still common in some herbal formulations.  Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2ml acetic acid 4% in fasted male Wistar rats. Treatment was carried out using three increasing doses of extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg and essential oil (0.25, 0.5, 1 ml/kg of coriander started 2 h before colitis induction and continued for a five-day period. Colon biopsies were taken for weighting, macroscopic scoring of injured tissue, histopathological examination and measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO activity.  Results: Colon weight was decreased in the groups treated with extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg and essential oil (0.5 ml/kg compared to the control group. Regarding MPO levels, ulcer severity and area as well as the total colitis index, same results indicating meaningful alleviation of colitis was achieved after treatment with oral extract and essential oil.  Conclusion: Since the present experiment was made by oral fractions of coriander thus the resulting effects could be due to both the absorption of the active ingredients and/or the effect of non-absorbable materials on colitis after reaching the colon. In this regard, we propose more toxicological and clinical experiments to warranty its beneficial application in human inflammatory bowel diseases.

  16. Methodological guidelines to assist women victims of violence. Guía metodológica para la asistencia a mujeres víctimas de violencia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Magda López Angulo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Women abuse is an obstacle to achieve equality, development, peace and social inclusion. This is a violation of human rights limiting their personal freedom and annulling their main warranties as their right to have security, integrity and even life. In the 90´ it has been identified as a health problem due to its frequency and severity, its magnitude and influence in health recovery. With the objective of supporting the decrease of this invisible plague from a Public Health perspective, we considered timely and pertinent to adjust a format of Methodological Guidelines aimed at setting rules and unifying procedures, including the complexity and implications of violence, based on the needs of each part.

    La violencia hacia la mujer es un obstáculo para el logro de la igualdad, la equidad, el desarrollo, la paz y la participación social. Es una violación de los derechos humanos que limita su libertad personal, nulifica las garantías fundamentales como el derecho a la seguridad, a la integridad e incluso a la vida. Sus raíces son multifactoriales, las componen una diversidad de variables que debemos conocer para comprenderlas y analizarlas. Es multicausal y sus repercusiones son sociales e individuales por lo que su abordaje debe ser multidisciplinar e intersectorial. Es multidimensional por lo que su respuesta debe ser global, sistémica y holística desde la prevención, asistencia y protección hasta su recuperación.

  17. Estado de la archivística en América Latina 2000-2009: Perspectivas teóricas y aproximaciones conceptuales State of the art of Archival Science in Latin America 2000-2009: Theoretical perspectives and conceptual approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Alejandro Marín Agudelo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La archivística en América Latina en los últimos años ha estado caracterizada por importantes transformaciones y permanencias, que tienen que ver esencialmente con su evolución científica y profesional. Cambios que se deben a la consigna de los archivos como lugares de concentración y reconstrucción de la memoria, las garantías ciudadanas, el control de la esfera pública, las tendencias administrativas de calidad total y la gestión de la información. Al mismo tiempo, el uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en las tareas diarias de los archivos. Se presentan las principales perspectivas y tendencias teóricas, reflejadas en la producción científica sobre estos aspectos en la última década, como una manera contribuir a la construcción de un marco teórico y a la definición de líneas de investigación en el área. Utilizando la metodología de investigación documental del estado del arte.In late years, Archival Science in Latin America has been characterized by major changes related basically with its scientific and professional evolution. Changes due to the paradigm of archives as places for document concentration and memory reconstruction, citizen warranties, governmental accountability, total quality administrative trends and information management. All of these using Information Communication Technologies in archives on a current basis. This paper presents the main perspectives and theoretical trends reflected in the last decade in scientific publications about these issues as a way to contribute to build a theoretical framework and to define research lines in the field. The methodology of documentary research of state of the art is used.

  18. The impact of core length on prostate cancer diagnosis during a standard 14-core prostate biopsy scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Atti, Lucio; Ippolito, Carmelo

    2016-11-18

    Even if many studies in the literature purposed to evaluate the improvement of the prostate biopsy (PBx), few studies assessed the diagnostic value of core length in PBx. In this study, we evaluated the length of needle cores sampled during transrectal PBx (TRUSBx) and its impact on cancer diagnosis in a standard 14-core scheme. Medical records of 573 patients who underwent an initial TRUSBx with 14-cores scheme for suspicious prostate cancer (PCa) at our Department were reviewed. The PBx procedure and pathological evaluation were standardized. Cores lengths were compared in patients with versus without cancer, and were divided into group A and B, respectively. Statistical analysis was done to define an acceptable cut-off for biopsy length. The mean age of the entire cohort was 62.1 ± 7.2 years, while median total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume were 4.2 ng/ml and 44.7 ml, respectively. PCa was showed in 33.3% of patients. Mean core length in group A versus B was 11.9 ± 3.9 versus 11.1 ± 3.2 mm (p = 0.016). Thus, core lengths were significantly longer in patients with cancer. There were no statistically significant differences when we considered the whole length of cores sampled from the right lobe (p = 0.58) and left lobe (p = 0.34). The cancer detection rates in cores may be increased by core length in PCa patients during a TRUSBx. Our results suggest a core length of greater than 11.8 mm as a cut-off for quality warranty.

  19. Defect evolution and pore collapse in crystalline energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Nathan R.; Winter, Nicholas W.; Reaugh, John E.

    2009-04-01

    This work examines the use of crystal based continuum mechanics in the context of dynamic loading. In particular, we examine model forms and simulations which are relevant to pore collapse in crystalline energetic materials. Strain localization and the associated generation of heat are important for the initiation of chemical reactions in this context. The crystal mechanics based model serves as a convenient testbed for the interactions among wave motion, slip kinetics, defect generation kinetics and physical length scale. After calibration to available molecular dynamics and single crystal gas gun data for HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), the model is used to predict behaviors for the collapse of pores under various conditions. Implications for experimental observations are discussed. This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes.

  20. Examination of an Optical Transmittance Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Bengoechea, J.; Bokria, J.; Kohl, M.; Powell, N. E.; Smith, M. E.; White, M. D.; Wilson, H. R.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    The optical transmittance of encapsulation materials is a key characteristic for their use in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Changes in transmittance with time in the field affect module performance, which may impact product warranties. Transmittance is important in product development, module manufacturing, and field power production (both immediate and long-term). Therefore, an international standard (IEC 62788-1-4) has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the optical performance of PV encapsulation materials. Existing standards, such as ASTM E903, are general and more appropriately applied to concentrated solar power than to PV. Starting from the optical transmittance measurement, the solar-weighted transmittance of photon irradiance, yellowness index (which may be used in aging studies to assess durability), and ultraviolet (UV) cut-off wavelength may all be determined using the proposed standard. The details of the proposed test are described. The results of a round-robin experiment (for five materials) conducted at seven laboratories to validate the test procedure using representative materials are also presented. For example, the Encapsulation Group actively explored the measurement requirements (wavelength range and resolution), the requirements for the spectrophotometer (including the integrating sphere and instrument accessories, such as a depolarizer), specimen requirements (choice of glass-superstrate and -substrate), and data analysis (relative to the light that may be used in the PV application). The round-robin experiment identified both intra- and inter-laboratory instrument precision and bias for five encapsulation materials (encompassing a range of transmittance and haze-formation characteristics).

  1. The Mechanisms of Pharmacological Preconditioning of the Brain and the Comparative Efficacy of the Drugs — Direct- and Indirect-Acting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Inhibitors: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Likhvantsev

    2012-01-01

    chloride. The data warranties further studies to reveal the clinical significance of dalargin, sevofluran and lithium for preconditioning to protect the brain. Key words: lithium, dalargin, sevofluran, preconditioning, brain.

  2. Use of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and analysis of demand: an analysis for predictions in the energy segment; O emprego do SIG (Sistema de Informacoes Geograficas) e a analise de demanda: um ensaio para previsoes no segmento de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Jorge Henrique de [Petroleo Brasileiro SA. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Gas e Energia

    2008-07-01

    The energy assumed a preponderant paper to the current societies because it became the number spine of both economic and social activities developed. Technological advances and the economic and social development of the nations, was based on the transformation and use of natural resources in products and services. Such transformation if gave more of accented form from the Industrial Revolution where the substitution of activities until then carried through by the man, for the job of machines, transformed the way of life and the behavior of the society. Particularly the projection of demand of energy send to the following duality: the problem should be evaluated in a wide way, in other words, considering the whole range of component variables of the decision process for generation and allocation of the energy supply; however, in a local way regarding with the search of models that optimize of the energy potentials and the consequent search of value added market. Historically the forecast of the energy demand uses the GDP mainly. It is presupposed that the association of such variables to the areas that these act, or polygons that delimit them, it happens in a homogeneous way and that the limits of such areas constitute an identified change of behavior. However, this premise is false, because such polygons are defined for operational and / or politician criteria not having warranty that such distributions are really homogeneous. As solution, the development and use of decision support systems based on GIS (Geographic Information System) technology has been along the last years a powerful modeling and simulation tool. The objective of this paper is to introduce the application of techniques of spatial analysis in the activity of projection, activity that is inherent to the forecast energy demand, to mitigate the future developments of scientific models and applications associates. (author)

  3. A mesma fé e o mesmo empenho em suas missões científicas e civilizadoras: os museus brasileiros e argentinos do século XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margaret Lopes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traça paralelos entre os museus brasileiros e argentinos de História Natural na segunda metade do século XIX aborda os intercâmbios científicos estabelecidos. Os diretores de museus brasileiros e argentinos partilharam uma mesma fé inabalável nas ciências que entendiam como a garantia do progresso, e dedicaram-se ao que consideravam suas missões científicas e civilizadoras. Enfatizando ora seus vínculos com as ciências geológicas, ora com as ciências biológicas, ora com os estudos arqueológicos e antropológicos, alguns dos diretores dos museus latino-americanos do período foram indubitavelmente os responsáveis pela institucionalização de disciplinas na América Latina, tais como a Arqueologia, a Antropologia e a Paleontologia.This paper draws a parallel between Brazilian and Argentinian Museums of Natural History in the second half of the 19th century and deals with the scientific interchanges established between them. The directors of Brazilian and Argentinian Museums shared the same unshakable faith in science that they considered the warranty of progress and dedicate themselves to what they considered their scientific and civilizing missions. Emphasising in one moment geological sciences, in other archeological and anthropologial studies, some of the directors of Latin American Museums were undoubtly responsible for the institutionalization of disciplines in Latin American, such as Archeology, Anthropology and Paleontology.

  4. 浅谈新会计制度谨慎性原则的应用%The Applications of the Cautious Principle in the New Accounting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福梅

    2014-01-01

    It is required in the cautious principle of the new accounting system that under uncertain conditions, enterprises should keep cautious while carrying out accounting recognition, measurement, and reporting. Assets or income should not be overestimated;and liabilities and expenses should not be underestimated. Applications of cautious principle are mainly reflected on the following points: possible impairment of asset is prepared to be withdrawn by the asset depreciation; account receivable is prepared to be withdrawn by bad debt; inventory valuation is calculated by last-in first-out method when the prices rise, accelerated depreciation method of fixed assets, anticipation liabilities for possible warranty of goods that have been sold, and so on.%新会计制度的谨慎性原则要求企业在存在不确定因素的情况下,对交易或者事项进行会计确认、计量和报告时应保持必要的谨慎,不应高估资产或者收益、不得低估负债或者成本费用。谨慎性原则的应用主要体现在:对可能发生的资产减值计提资产减值准备、应收账款计提坏账准备、在物价上涨时存货计价的后进先出法、固定资产的加速折旧法以及对售出商品可能发生的保修义务确认预计负债等。

  5. Examination of an optical transmittance test for photovoltaic encapsulation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Bengoechea, Jaione; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Köhl, Michael; Powell, Nick E.; Smith, Michael E.; White, Michael D.; Wilson, Helen Rose; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Lynn, Kevin W.

    2013-09-24

    The optical transmittance of encapsulation materials is a key characteristic for their use in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Changes in transmittance with time in the field affect module performance, which may impact product warranties. Transmittance is important in product development, module manufacturing, and field power production (both immediate and long-term). Therefore, an international standard (IEC 62788-1-4) has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the optical performance of PV encapsulation materials. Existing standards, such as ASTM E903, are general and more appropriately applied to concentrated solar power than to PV. Starting from the optical transmittance measurement, the solar-weighted transmittance of photon irradiance, yellowness index (which may be used in aging studies to assess durability), and ultraviolet (UV) cut-off wavelength may all be determined using the proposed standard. The details of the proposed test are described. The results of a round-robin experiment (for five materials) conducted at seven laboratories to validate the test procedure using representative materials are also presented. For example, the Encapsulation Group actively explored the measurement requirements (wavelength range and resolution), the requirements for the spectrophotometer (including the integrating sphere and instrument accessories, such as a depolarizer), specimen requirements (choice of glass-superstrate and -substrate), and data analysis (relative to the light that may be used in the PV application). The round-robin experiment identified both intra- and inter-laboratory instrument precision and bias for five encapsulation materials (encompassing a range of transmittance and haze-formation characteristics).

  6. 信息内容呈现对消费者在线信任的影响——以C2C网上商店为例%Information Content Display and Trust of C2C Online Store

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖以臣

    2012-01-01

    C2C online stores on Taobao. Taobao has the largest market share of network of C2C online store in China. The information of online C2C store came from three channels - network of the C2C online store, website of the C2C online store and consumers of the C2C online store. The article divided all information of the C2Conline store into three parts, which were the information about facts, the information about credentials and the information about warranties. The information about facts contains the basic information of products. The information about credentials provides consumers the products reliability and risk. The information about warranties informs consumers the level of guarantee of the acquisition. Consumers have different demands on different products. The article categorized all the online products into search, experience and credence according to the knowledge of the special features of the products by consumers. The search category is for the consumers understanding the quality and usage of products. Consumers can confirm the product quality based on the specifications of the product before purchasing. The experience category has the following two properties : ( 1 ) Product information can be obtained without direct engagement ; (2) Higher cost and more difficulty than the search category. The experience category cannot allow any evaluation of the product quality before usage. The credence category cannot be testified by common consumers, only experts in the area can provide their trust. For example, medical services. The article used books, cosmetics and health products as examples of the search category, the experience category and the credence category respectively. The article also made up brand names to avoid the effect of brand names on consumers. A website was created mimicking Taobao to collect data for the research. There were nine online stores, and 202 college students (126 male and 76 female) were invited to run three

  7. Identifying and prioritizing customer requirements from tractor production by QFD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Taghizadeh

    2017-05-01

    and theoretical bases of this study have been collected with research paper tab and the research data has been collected through four researcher-made questionnaires and interview tools. The questionnaire Type 1, used for determining the most important demands and needs of customers based on five choices Likert scale. The questionnaire Type 2 was for gathering data requirements to hierarchical AHP method, and the questionnaire Type 3 was for doing some evaluation about organization's present situation related with competitor's situation based on customer's demands and needs; and the questionnaire Type 4 had been implemented for finding technical requirement weights respect to customer's demands and needs. The reliability of the type 1, 3 and 4 questionnaires determined by Chronbach's Alpha method; after gathering required data for mentioned statistical test, these questionnaires' reliability rates are obtained: 0.768, 0.784 and 0.793, respectively. As well as, the validity of the questionnaires has been examined with content validity method. In this research, for analyzing the gathered data, while taking into account the different stages of QFD method, t- student statistical test was used for identifing the needs and demands of customers, and AHP was used for determining the priority of needs and demands of customers. Results and Discussion The results of one sample t-test for identifying the customer’s most important demands and needs showed that the factors such as: producing low price tractor, the quality of used auto-parts, sustainability and long-lasting the final production (production life and durability, comfort and peace during work, creating operator cabin, easy access to spare components, the amount of fuel consumption, warranty and maintenance, easy access to official repair stations, technical experts and suitable auto-parts, fast respond of brake system during braking and smooth moving identified the important demands and needs of customers. The results

  8. Texts of presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, G.; Vidolov, K.; Dufour-Fallot, B.; Dewarrat, Th.; Rose, T.; Favatier, A.; Gazeley, D.; Pujol, T.; Worner, D.; Van de Wel, E.; Revaz, J.M.; Clerfayt, G.; Creedy, A.; Moisan, F.; Geissler, M.; Isbell, P.; Macaluso, M.; Litzka, V.; Gillis, W.; Jarvis, I.; Gorg, M.; Bebie, B.

    2004-07-01

    Implementing a sustainable local energy policy involves a long term reflection on the general interest, energy efficiency, distributed generation and environmental protection. Providing services on a market involves looking for activities that are profitable, if possible in the 'short-term'. The aim of this conference is to analyse the possibility of reconciling these apparently contradictory requirements and how this can be achieved. This conference brings together the best specialists from European municipalities as well as important partners for local authorities (energy agencies, service companies, institutions, etc.) in order to discuss the public-private partnerships concerning the various functions that municipalities may perform in the energy field as consumers and customers, planners and organizers of urban space and rousers as regards inhabitants and economic players of their areas. This document contains the summaries of the following presentations: 1 - Performance contracting: Bulgarian municipalities use private capital for energy efficiency improvement (K. VIDOLOV, Varna (BG)), Contracting experiences in Swiss municipalities: consistent energy policy thanks to the Energy-city label (B. DUFOUR-FALLOT and T. DEWARRAT (CH)), Experience of contracting in the domestic sector (T. ROSE (GB)); 2 - Public procurement: Multicolor electricity (A. FAVATIER (CH)), Tendering for new green electricity capacity (D. GAZELEY (GB)), The Barcelona solar thermal ordinance (T. PUJOL (ES)); 3 - Urban planning and schemes: Influencing energy issues through urban planning (D. WOERNER (DE)), Tendering for the supply of energy infrastructure (E. VAN DE WEL (NL)), Concessions and public utility warranty (J.M. REVAZ (CH)); 4 - Certificate schemes: the market of green certificates in Wallonia region in a liberalized power market (G. CLERFAYT (BE)), The Carbon Neutral{sup R} project: a voluntary certification scheme with opportunity for implementation in other European

  9. The fragile environments of inexpensive CD4+ T-cell enumeration in the least developed countries: strategies for accessible support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Christoph H

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of affordable antiretroviral treatment (ART), flow cytometry has ventured out of the exclusive realms of First World research to the resource-strapped clinical environment of developing countries (DCs). Flow cytometric instrumentation for ART has become more cost-efficient, thanks to simplified, yet accurate protocols and smart technologies. These positive developments have, however, not taken shape without problems, as health care in DCs remains weak due to chronic underfunding of their primary health systems. In addition, the multiplicity of donors has created parallel infrastructures that are difficult to manage and may undermine the responsibilities of public services. Hence, there is a prevailing lack of attention to maintenance, support, and human resource development. Not uncommonly, the procurement of high-value equipment is guided by nontechnical interests with mixed results. As conventional service contracts are unpopular, the sustainability of equipment is under serious threat after warranty periods, with environmental factors such as dust and unreliable power supplies being well-known culprits. Reagent supplies and servicing constitute further challenges, where a combination of short reagent shelf life, cold-box shipping, huge distances across poor infrastructures, rigid accounting procedures, and erratic customs requirements cause significant delays and extra costs. Although excellent, highly trained or trainable local staff is available, it is frequently diverted by brain drain from the government sector to privately funded hospitals, research facilities, and overseas postings. Despite these challenges, corporate service management has commonly remained loyal to its roots in the developed world.A number of propositions address the current situation: "Reagent-rental" agreements represent an attractive alternative to service contracts, while smart instrument design has started to make inroads into more robust device concepts. To avoid

  10. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Paul A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gallagher, Kevin G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bloom, Ira D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dees, Dennis W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publicly available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publicly peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on

  11. ROMANIA’S FACTS ABOUT INTERNAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogar Cristian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The malfunctioning of internal control system of European Social Fund (ESF financed interventions may prejudice the sound financial management principle. Incorporating COSO principles in the beneficiary’s internal control systems may provide some warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002. This study aims to explore some facts in actual internal control environment, as a base for future improvements of Romanian ESF beneficiary’s internal control systems ESF financed interventions covers a large range of costs for implementing labor market related services. But supporting costs according to the sound financial management principle calls for best value for money in real and legal operations. Without some specifics from the donor or a mutual accepted best practice model, most of the ESF beneficiaries are reporting their efforts to actual researches and specialized literature regarding internal control system implementation in services. This study was realized in April 2012 by applying an investigation instrument, an on-line questionnaire collecting both opinions and factual data as well to a number of 962 members of a practice community for ESF interventions implementation. This technique was used to test hypotheses regarding the premises existence for a future improvement of the existing internal control system model. 100 members of this community: managers, accountants, auditors financial responsible and other team members answered anonymously, revealing a real concern for internal control, providing as well a different side image for this. Analyzing all stakeholder answers, we may consider that our hypothesis is correct and there is a real need for internal control environment improvements. This study is a part of a larger research “New models of the accounting and internal control systems of ESF financed interventions in Romania”, addressing a qualitative

  12. 服务保证设计要素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雨申; 梁云

    2011-01-01

    服务保证是产品保证在服务领域内的扩展与延伸。自上世纪80年代以来,学者们对服务保证的概念、设计要素、基本类型等进行了深入研究。本文回顾了国内外学者对服务保证概念的界定,并对服务保证类型和服务保证设计要素进行了系统的梳理,结果发现:服务保证的概念基本趋于一致;服务保证的基本类型及保证范围获得了学者们的基本认可,但对不同类型服务保证设计要素研究不足,对补偿措施及调用过程也缺乏深入分析。本文对未来的研究趋势进行了展望。%Service guarantee is the product warranties expansion and extension in the service area.Since the 80s of last century,the scholars have conducted in-depth research on the concepts of service assurance,design elements,and the basic types and so on.This paper reviews the definitions of concepts of service guarantee made by the scholaors at home and abroad,and systematically cards the types of service assurance and the design elements of service guarantee. The results show that the concepts of services guarantee basically tend to be identical,and the basic types of service quarantee and the scope of service quarantee have basically been accepted the scholars,but the research on the design elements of different types of service qurantee is insufficient,and the research on compensation measures and calling procedure is also superficial.The paper anticipates the research trend in the future.

  13. Por uma carta dos bens fundamentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Ferrajoli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo questiona a possibilidade de a estipulação dos direitos fundamentais, e suas obrigações e proibições correspondentes, ser suficiente para garantir adequadamente as necessidades e os interesses vitais, em especial aqueles de interesse coletivo. São bens fundamentais aqueles cujo acesso é garantido a todos e a cada um, visto que são objetos dos direitos fundamentais subtraídos à lógica do mercado. A garantia de novos bens como bens fundamentais exige uma decisão política civilizatória de submeter ao direito as relações de mercado. Assim, às cartas e convenções internacionais e constitucionais de direitos fundamentais deveriam ser acrescentadas Cartas Constitucionais e Cartas Internacionais de bens fundamentais. Daí a necessidade de uma nova dimensão do constitucionalismo garantista: a longo prazo, além de global, para além da lógica individualista dos direitos e da miopia, e do estreito localismo da política das democracias nacionais.AbstractThis article addresses the question of whether the stipulation of fundamental rights and obligations and prohibitions related to them is sufficient to properly ensure the needs and vital interests, especially those from collective interest. Fundamental goods are those whose access is guaranteed to each and every one since they are the object of fundamental rights, excluded from the logic of the market. The warranty for new goods and basic goods in the bottom of civilization requires a political decision to submit the right market relations. Thus, to the international charters and conventions and fundamental constitutional rights should be added Charters and international charter of basic goods. Hence the need for a new dimension of the constitutionally guaranteed: a constitutionally guaranteed in the long term, and global, apart from the individualistic logic of rights and shortsightedness and narrow localism policy of national democracies.

  14. Development of milk beverages with saffron%含藏红花乳饮品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁艳; 石丹; 王艳萍

    2016-01-01

    With milk and saffron powder as the main raw material, combined with a reasonable stabilizer, a unique fla-vor, nutrient-rich saffron milk drinks were prepared. The main points of the production process and operation of saffron milk drinks and various stabilizer components influence on product stability were studied, and ultimately determined the raw milk content of 70%, saffron powder added amount of 5.5% ,compounded stabilizer formula monostearoylphos-phatidylcholine triglyceride 0.04%, sucrose fatty acid ester 0.06%, xanthan gum 0.15%, carrageenan 0.20%, homogeniz-ing pressure was 25 MPa, sterilization temperature 140℃, sterilization time 4 s. Under this condition, the product ob-tained full delicate taste, aroma, within the warranty period with good stability.%以牛奶和藏红花粉末为主要原料,辅以合理的稳定剂进行试验研究,配制出风味独特、营养丰富的藏红花乳饮品。主要研究了藏红花乳饮品的生产工艺流程和操作要点,以及不同稳定剂配比对产品稳定性的影响,最终确定原料奶含量70%,藏红花粉末添加量5.5%,复配稳定剂配方为单硬脂酸甘油酯0.04%、蔗糖脂肪酸酯0.06%、黄原胶0.15%、卡拉胶0.20%,均质压力25 MPa,灭菌温度140℃,灭菌时间4s。此工艺条件下制得的产品口感细腻饱满、香气浓郁,在保质期内具有良好的稳定性。

  15. A new approach for supply chain risk management: Mapping SCOR into Bayesian network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Abolghasemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Increase of costs and complexities in organizations beside the increase of uncertainty and risks have led the managers to use the risk management in order to decrease risk taking and deviation from goals. SCRM has a close relationship with supply chain performance. During the years different methods have been used by researchers in order to manage supply chain risk but most of them are either qualitative or quantitative. Supply chain operation reference (SCOR is a standard model for SCP evaluation which have uncertainty in its metrics. In This paper by combining qualitative and quantitative metrics of SCOR, supply chain performance will be measured by Bayesian Networks. Design/methodology/approach: First qualitative assessment will be done by recognizing uncertain metrics of SCOR model and then by quantifying them, supply chain performance will be measured by Bayesian Networks (BNs and supply chain operations reference (SCOR in which making decision on uncertain variables will be done by predictive and diagnostic capabilities. Findings: After applying the proposed method in one of the biggest automotive companies in Iran, we identified key factors of supply chain performance based on SCOR model through predictive and diagnostic capability of Bayesian Networks. After sensitivity analysis, we find out that ‘Total cost’ and its criteria that include costs of labors, warranty, transportation and inventory have the widest range and most effect on supply chain performance. So, managers should take their importance into account for decision making. We can make decisions simply by running model in different situations. Research limitations/implications: A more precise model consisted of numerous factors but it is difficult and sometimes impossible to solve big models, if we insert all of them in a Bayesian model. We have adopted real world characteristics with our software and method abilities. On the other hand, fewer data exist for some

  16. [Alternative imporisonment measures in the penal legislation of the Socialist Republic of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanctis, S; Sclafani, F

    1976-01-01

    On April 19th, 1969 the People's Poland Parliament adopted a new penal legislation consisting of a Penal Code, a Code of Criminal Procedure and an executory Penal Code, which all came into force January 1st, 1970. The distinctive peculiarity of the above mentioned Codes, as the Authors have pointed out, is that they conform to the recent political, social and economic democratization of Poland and to the structure and dynamics of delinquency in this country. In examining the measures concerning educational rehabilitation provided for by the penal law in question, the Authors have started discussing questions like restriction on personal freedom, conditional suspension of criminal procedings, supervision of the convict who has been given the benefice of conditional suspension of the execution of sentence or of conditional release and supervision of the recidivist as well as points related to warranty and postjail care. Though these measures show some similarity to those provided for by bourgeois penal legislations, they result from a quite anthithetic ideology according to which punishment has to perform a double function of defence of working-class achievements as well as of an effective rehabilitation of the convict. A detailed analysis of the theoretical premises and of the actual carrying out of these measures shows, the Authors say, that though they represent only a further stage in the development of socio-juridical progress, they are put in conformity with the criminal policy's trends and the politico-ideological contents of a socialist government. They testify therefore an actual effort to make social rehabilitation of the convict possible in that they prevent the exertion of all negative psycho-pathogenic influences of jail environment on the convict, especially in case of slight crimes. The ultimate importance of these measures is that they can be considered an articulate attempt to promote actual social rehabilitation of the convict and therefore they are

  17. 复发性流产患者免疫治疗的护理%Nursing care of patients receiving immunotherapy for recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍洁华; 魏丽芳; 林维新; 谭雪; 萧丽新; 叶文静

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore nursing methods for patients receiving immunotherapy for recurrent spontaneous abortion(RSA). Methods Totally, 183 patients diagnosed as RSA were given immunotherapy. Before the therapy, the blood donors were all set, and patients' mental state was kept stable. During the therapy, nurses injected lymphocytes suspension correctly and monitored the skin raise at the injection site, and strengthened care of local skin as well as health education, etc. Results Blocking antibodies were positive or weakly positive in 137 cases after one round of treatment, 46 received 2-4 rounds of treatment and 38 cases blocking antibodies turned positive. The total positive rate was 95. 62%. Of the 183 cases, 124 cases had successful conception. Conclusion Immunotherapy has a high success rate in treating RSA. Furthermore, systematic standard medical care combined with psychological care is the warranty of success.%目的 探讨复发性流产患者免疫治疗的护理方法.方法 对183例复发性流产患者予以免疫治疗,同时做好免疫治疗前供血者准备、患者准备及患者心理护理,正确注射淋巴细胞悬浊液并监测皮丘,加强注射局部皮肤的护理及健康教育等.结果 免疫治疗1个疗程后,137例封闭抗体为阳性或弱阳性,其余46例再予加强治疗2~4次,38例转为阳性,总转阳率为95.62%,其中124例妊娠成功.结论 复发性流产患者免疫治疗成功率高,进行系统、规范的医疗护理,结合心理护理是复发性流产患者免疫治疗成功的保证.

  18. RİSKİN İZLENMESİ VE RAPORLANMASI AÇISINDAN CİRO MUHASEBESİNE ULUSLARARASI FİNANSAL RAPORLAMA STANDARTLARI PENCERESİNDEN BAKIŞ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep ÖKTEM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available THE VIEW POINT OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS REPORTING AND TRACKING OF RISKAbstract: In Turkey accounting applications, when the cheque endorsed, the accountants’ records this transaction like the receivables is collected, the credit is paid. This method due to a problem about reporting misstatement of financial activities. As a result, information asymmetry was created, because the risks derived from the can not include financial reports.The economic reality in the endorsement transaction is the cheque endorsing means a warranty promise for the receivables and credits. In the context of IAS/IFRS/TMS/TFRS, to reporting the risks derived from the endorsement transaction, it is recommended that these accounts (Giving Guaranty, Providing Guaranty are useful fort his reasons. Keywords: UFRS, TFRS, Risk, Endorsement, Accounting, Financial Reporting.RİSKİN İZLENMESİ VE RAPORLANMASI AÇISINDAN CİRO MUHASEBESİNE ULUSLARARASI FİNANSAL RAPORLAMA STANDARTLARI PENCERESİNDEN BAKIŞÖzet: Ticari hayatta çek ciro edildiğinde borcun ödenmiş olması ve çek alındığında alacağın tahsil edildiği kabulünden hareket eden muhasebe kayıtları yapılmaktadır. Bu kayıtlarda şirketlerin ciro işleminden doğan ciranta yükümlülükleri ihmal edilmektedir. Bu durum ise ciro işleminden doğan risklerin finansal tablolarda raporlanamaması sonucunu doğurmakta ve finansal tablo kullanıcılarına yanlış/eksik raporlama yapılarak bilgi asitmerisi yaratılmaktadır.IAS/IFRS/TMS/TFRS bağlamında raporlama yapabilmek için ciro işlemlerindeki esas ekonomik gerçeğin alacak veya borç için teminat alma veya verme olduğundan hareket edilerek “Verilen Teminatlar Hesabı” ve “Alınan Teminatlar Hesabı” kullanılması önerilmektedir.

  19. Resultados reguladores en Cuba con el esquema OMS de certificación de la calidad Regulating results attained in Cuba by using the WHO's quality certification scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Aurora Sánchez González

    2008-08-01

    to one of the scheme certificates stand out. It is concluded that the application of the scheme by the Centre for Drug Quality Control for the import and export of drugs has allowed to achieve a higher level in the regulating and control actions and in the rigor of the evaluation of import products, a better level of transparency and of regulating culture and an increase of the confidence in the Cuban products that are exported and in their quality warranty.

  20. 食品防腐剂的应用现状、问题及对策%Current application, problems and countermeasures of food preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杉; 揭琴丰; 邱伟华

    2011-01-01

    As a kind of food additive, food preservative can inhibit microbial growth, avoid food spoilage within the warranty period and prolong the conservancy period of food. Therefore, it has been widely used in the food industry. With the economic and social development, food safety issues are pay more attention, especially for the application of food preservative in food process. To protect the security and development of food preservative, various forces should work together to play their positive role. Here, classification and application foreground of the food preservative were described chiefly. Additionally, the current and main problems during the practical using of food preservative were analyzed and the corresponding strategies were put forward in this paper.%食品防腐剂作为食品添加剂的一个类别,可以抑制微生物的生长,从而保证食品在保质期内不发生腐败变质,并延长食品的保存期,其在食品工业中已被广泛应用.随着经济与社会的发展,食品安全问题越来越突出,尤其是对食品加工中使用食品添加剂的安全性问题,其中食品防腐剂是引起食品安全性问题的主要食品添加剂之一.为保障食品防腐剂能得到正确的使用与发展,多方面力量应共同努力,发挥各自的积极作用.本文主要介绍了食品防腐剂的分类及使用前景,并就其目前在实际使用中存在的主要问题提出了相应的对策.

  1. APPLICABILITY OF FS-ALL-METAL SELF-LOCK NUTS FOR RAILWAY ROLLING STOCK OF 1520 MM GAUGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Кreis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of key requirements for rolling stock of next generation is essential increase of warranty period or running between maintenance depots and in periods between programming repair works. This will lead to a reduction of costs to maintenance and repair during service life of rolling stock. In this regard, the industry aspires to use (during construction, repairs, modernization of rolling stock a modern screw joints in structures for fixing parts. These screw joints could provide a high reliability under the action of vibration load. FS-hexagon all-metal self-lock nuts of multiple use, Flaig + Hommel GmbH company meets these requirements. Therefore, there is the need to consider the results of tests to confirm the reliability of FS-nuts in the new environment. Methodology. Test complex of developed programs and methods was carried out on railway rolling stock for functional demonstration of screw joints with FS-nuts. These tests include: 1 proof test and locking moment test as specified in ISO 2320 under normal climatic conditions and after low temperatures impact; 2 running test for rolling stock, secured the most load condition and according to supervised operation of next generation cars on the railway. Findings. Results of the tests testify that FS-all-metal self-lock nuts meet the requirements of international standards and confirm the reliability of the next generation rolling stock during its operation on the railway of 1520 mm gauge. Namely, locking moment and tightening torque is maintained in screw joints both on spring-suspended and unspring parts of freight car bogies by the action of vibration load under multiple use of FS-nuts. Originality. The developed software and methods was improved by conducting additional tests after exposure of screw joints with FS-nuts to low temperatures, as well as by control operations for assessing the condition of screw joints with FS-nuts, in the conditions of controlled operation of rolling

  2. 基于随机森林的公路隧道运营缺失数据插补方法%Random Forest Based Operational Missing Data Imputation for Highway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱超; 陈建勋; 罗彦斌; 代亮

    2016-01-01

    Real-time & completely accessing and deeply mining of tunnel operational data such as environment state and traffic status is a foundation work to improve emergency response capacity and realize safety early warning. An imputation method is proposed based on Random Forest algorithm. Missing data set is separated according to missing features. Random Forest regression model is built to iteratively impute after the determination of stopping criterion. The optimal combination of decision tree numbers and variables numbers randomly sampled at each split in Random Forest are identified by taking the minimum normalized root mean square error as objective function. Imputation results on highway tunnel operational missing data indicate that the method provides significantly higher precision and better robustness than KNN, SVD, MICE, PPCA, reducing normalized root mean square error by at least 25%. Moreover, the imputation efficiency is improved significantly by using parallel computation. It covers the shortage of slow imputation speed and provides a warranty of effectiveness and timeliness in missing data imputation.%对隧道内环境、交通状态等各类运营数据的实时、完整获取并深入挖掘,是提高应急处置能力、实现运营安全预警的基础。提出一种基于随机森林的缺失数据插补方法,根据缺失特征对缺失数据集进行分割;建立随机森林回归模型进行迭代插补并确定迭代终止条件;以标准均方根误差最小确定了随机森林中决策树的数量和分裂节点随机抽取变量数的最优组合。对公路隧道运营缺失数据集插补结果表明:本方法插补精度高、鲁棒性好,与KNN、SVD、MICE和PPCA等插补方法相比,标准均方根误差降低25%以上;利用并行运算大幅度提高了插补效率,弥补了插补速度慢的缺陷,保证了插补的有效性和时效性。

  3. Technical Feasibility Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting on the Golden Gate Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2012-09-01

    example, it would be preferable in terms of performance to simply replace existing luminaires (some of which may already be nearing end of life) with fully-integrated LED or CMH luminaires rather than replacing internal components. Among other benefits, this would allow reputable manufacturers to offer standard warranties for their products. Similarly, the amber lenses might be reformulated such that they do not render white light sources in a greenish cast, thereby allowing the use of off-the-shelf LED or CMH products. Last, it should be noted that the existing amber-lensed shoeboxes bear no daytime resemblance to the LPS luminaires originally used to light the roadway.

  4. Análise dos efeitos das incertezas nas estimativas de tempos de falha de produtos via ensaios acelerados Uncertainty effect analysis on time to failure estimates through accelerated life tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia de Oliveira Papa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As empresas do setor industrial têm hoje o desafio de lançar rapidamente produtos mantendo, entretanto, sua confiabilidade em níveis progressivamente crescentes. O método mais usual para reunir informações sobre a confiabilidade de novos produtos é o ensaio acelerado (ALT, de onde o fabricante reúne informações sobre a vida e sobre os prazos de garantia. Um ALT requer a submissão do produto a condições de estresse para coletar seus tempos de falha, e para isso é necessário um experimento que materialize cargas de estresse nominalmente definidas. Entretanto, cargas de estresse experimentais estão sempre sujeitas a incertezas que influenciam os resultados do ensaio e a informação sobre a confiabilidade. Aqui se investiga a influência das incertezas experimentais sobre estimativas de vida de relés eletromagnéticos, obtidas usando ATLs. Os resultados mostram que, sem uma análise adequada dos dados, os efeitos das incertezas podem ser relevantes mesmo quando o teste é executado em condições adequadas de chão-de-fábrica, o que conseqüentemente influencia as estimativas de tempo de vida dos produtos.Industrial firms face today the challenge to launch new products in shorter times keeping however their reliability in increasing higher levels. The most used method for gathering reliability information for new products is the accelerated life test (ALT, from which the manufacturer can derive information about the product's life and then its warranty period. ALT requires submitting the product to stress conditions and acquiring its time to failure, for which it is necessary to set up experiments where the stress loads are physically and nominally defined. However, experimental stress loads are always subjected to uncertainties that influence the tests results and so the product's reliability. This paper investigates the influences of experimental uncertainties in life estimates of electromagnetic relays, obtained through ALTs

  5. Potential Benefits of Commissioning California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matson, Nance; Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-01-01

    Commissioning California's houses can result in better performing systems and houses. In turn, this will result in more efficient use of energy, carbon emission reductions, and improved occupant comfort. In particular, commissioning houses can save a significant amount of HVAC-related energy (15 to 30% in existing houses, 10 to 20% in new conventional houses, and up to 8% in advanced energy efficiency houses). The process that we considered includes corrective measures that could be implemented together during construction or during a single site visit (e.g., air tightening, duct sealing, and refrigerant and air handler airflow corrections in a new or existing house). Taking advantage of additional, more complex opportunities (e.g., installing new windows in an existing house, replacing the heating and air conditioning system in a new or existing house) can result in additional HVAC-related energy savings (60 to 75% in existing houses, and 50 to 60% in new conventional houses). The commissioning-related system and house performance improvements and energy savings translate to additional benefits throughout California and beyond. By applying commissioning principles to their work, the building community (builders and contractors) benefit from reduced callbacks and lower warranty costs. HERS raters and inspectors will have access to an expanded market sector. As the commissioning process rectifies construction defects and code problems, building code officials benefit from better compliance with codes. The utilities benefit from reduced peak demand, which can translate into lower energy acquisition costs. As houses perform closer to expectations, governmental bodies (e.g., the California Energy Commission and the Air Resources Board) benefit from greater assurance that actual energy consumption and carbon emissions are closer to the levels mandated in codes and standards, resulting in better achievement of state energy conservation and environmental goals

  6. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  7. DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION IN MOLASSES YEAST (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AND FISH MEAL PROTEIN AS INGREDIENTS FOR FRESHWATER FISH RATIONS DETERMINAÇÃO DA COMPOSIÇÃO EM AMINOÁCIDOS DAS PROTEÍNAS DA LEVEDURA DE ÁLCOOL (Saccharomyces cerevisiae SECA E DA FARINHA DE PEIXE COMO INGREDIENTES PARA RAÇÕES DE PEIXES DE ÁGUA DOCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Machado Cantisani Pádua

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The possible use of microbial biomass to replace part of the fishmeal in fish diets could be considered an innovate solution. A quantitative determination of the content of aminoacids was made in two protein sources: molasses yeast (S. cerevisiae and fish meal. The chemical score and essential aminoacid index were calculated as a parameter correlated to biological value. The high lysine, threonine and tryptophan content of the protein in the molasses yeast must be emphasized. It reaches an order of magnitude superior to that in fish meal. Further researches, especially in relation to protein digestibility and possible toxicity or antinutritional components in the molasses yeast, are certainly a warranty to access the nutritive value of yeast product for fresh water fishes before the acceptable dietary level of these products can be recommended.

    KEY-WORDS: Molasses yeast; protein; fish; diets.

    Determinaram-se a composição e a qualidade protéica da levedura seca de destilaria alcoólica (S. cerevisiae, comparando-a com a farinha de peixe (FP. Utilizaram-se o escore químico (EQ e o índice de aminoácidos essenciais (IAAE. Estes quocientes indicam, em relação à proteína do ovo, a ordem dos aminoácidos limitantes, estimando assim o valor biológico protéico. Observaram-se elevados índices de lisina (EQ = 120, treonina (EQ = 110 e triptofano (EQ = 100 na levedura, recomendando-se seu balanceamento com cereais deficientes nestes aminoácidos. A proteína da levedura superou a da FP nestes índices de qualidade e satisfez o padrão internacional de qualidade e as exigências em aminoácidos estimados para a carpa e o pacu. Posteriores ensaios acerca de desempenho produtivo, de digestibilidade e de efeitos metabólicos com peixes fornecerão importantes

  8. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdainne, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  9. Failure and Degradation Modes of PV modules in a Hot Dry Climate: Results after 4 and 12 years of field exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, Jaya krishna

    This study evaluates two photovoltaic (PV) power plants based on electrical performance measurements, diode checks, visual inspections and infrared scanning. The purpose of this study is to measure degradation rates of performance parameters (Pmax, Isc, Voc, Vmax, Imax and FF) and to identify the failure modes in a "hot-dry desert" climatic condition along with quantitative determination of safety failure rates and reliability failure rates. The data obtained from this study can be used by module manufacturers in determining the warranty limits of their modules and also by banks, investors, project developers and users in determining appropriate financing or decommissioning models. In addition, the data obtained in this study will be helpful in selecting appropriate accelerated stress tests which would replicate the field failures for the new modules and would predict the lifetime for new PV modules. The study was conducted at two, single axis tracking monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) power plants, Site 3 and Site 4c of Salt River Project (SRP). The Site 3 power plant is located in Glendale, Arizona and the Site 4c power plant is located in Mesa, Arizona both considered a "hot-dry" field condition. The Site 3 power plant has 2,352 modules (named as Model-G) which was rated at 250 kW DC output. The mean and median degradation of these 12 years old modules are 0.95%/year and 0.96%/year, respectively. The major cause of degradation found in Site 3 is due to high series resistance (potentially due to solder-bond thermo-mechanical fatigue) and the failure mode is ribbon-ribbon solder bond failure/breakage. The Site 4c power plant has 1,280 modules (named as Model-H) which provide 243 kW DC output. The mean and median degradation of these 4 years old modules are 0.96%/year and 1%/year, respectively. At Site 4c, practically, none of the module failures are observed. The average soiling loss is 6.9% in Site 3 and 5.5% in Site 4c. The difference in soiling level is attributed

  10. 欧洲甜樱桃研究进展及开发利用前景%Research Progress of Prunus avium and the Development Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰士波

    2012-01-01

    在汲取国内外相关研究成果及学术观点的基础上,详细阐述了欧洲甜樱桃的生物学和生态学特性、起源及地理分布,探讨了果实所含营养成分及其营养和医疗保健价值;分析了存量资源的保存现状、优良品种及砧木选育的研究进展;指出了资源开发利用过程中存在的不足,展望了欧洲甜樱桃系列产品综合开发和创新利用的广阔前景。旨在实现欧洲甜樱桃无公害、标准化栽培及资源的可持续利用,为推动功能性饮品、保健品及药品的产业化发展,提供理论依据和科技支撑。%This paper expounded systematically the biological and ecological characteristics of Prunus avium L.,and its the origin and geographic distribution on the basis of generalized the research production and science paper of P.avium at home and abroad in the recently years.We discussed the nutrition ingredient of P.avium and its nutrition and health function,analyzed the status quo of germplasm resources conservation,utilization and estimate,and the progress of variety breeding study.We pointed out the insufficiencies in exploitation and utilization,and expected the bright future for the development of series production of P.avium The aim was to carry out nuisanceless,standardization planting and sustainable utilization of P.avium resources,provided theory warranty and support of science and technology for promoted the industrialization development of functionality beverage,health products and material medica of P.avium.

  11. Superiority, Confusion and Countermeasures to DCD WeChat Ethical Review%DCD微信伦理审查的优越性、困惑与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰; 陈桂淑; 余少鸿; 赵永恒; 李超; 张瑞宏; 张鸿青; 蒋文虎

    2016-01-01

    开展DCD微信伦理审查有其必要性、优越性,但也存在问题与困惑,如微信审查时间紧急有限,微信审查讨论不够充分甚至难以开展,审查方式有限,审查意见的真实性难以把握,审查资料的保密性存在隐患,审查质量的保证,微信会议内容存档存在困难等。对此,提出如下对策:尽可能给予伦理审查时间上的保证,由主审委员发起审查讨论交流,将审查资料尽可能上传至微信群,伦理委员实名发言与表达意见,确保资料保密和隐私保护,加强器官移植伦理委员培训交流,提高委员审查素质和道德修养,将微信会议资料存档。%DCD WeChat ethical review had its necessity and superiority but problems and confusion as well. For instance, WeChat review time was urgent and limited;WeChat review discussed insufficiently even hard to car-ry out;the methods of WeChat review were limited;the authenticity of audit opinion was difficult to grasp;the re-view data privacy existed hidden danger;the review quality was difficult to guarantee;WeChat conference content file archive was difficult, and so on. As to this, the author put forward the following countermeasures:giving war-ranty on the ethical review time as far as possible;initiating the committee review by the referee and uploading the review information to WeChat group, then ethical reviewers expressing their opinions in real names to ensure data confidentiality and privacy protection; strengthening the ethics committee education for organ transplantation; im-proving the quality of the review committee members and moral cultivation;archiving the WeChat conference infor-mation.

  12. Examining Observation of Professional Ethics Principles by Shiraz Namazi Hospital Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1 Solmaz Behrooz,

    2016-04-01

    Namazi hospital. On the other hand, it should be noticed that this awareness doesn’t mean suitable performance of physicians in this field and awareness of service receivers about their rights could be warranty of implementing the profession principles. The findings of the performed interviews with organ transplantation ward showed that the most important topic in organ transplantation issue is the matter of prioritizing the transplantation receiver patients.

  13. Goellner v. Butler, 6 January 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    In the case of Goellner vs. Butler, heard in the US Court of Appeals, the plaintiff brought an action against the defendants for negligent insertion of an IUD, which allegedly resulted in her infertility. The Court held that the action was time-barred because the cause of action accrued on the date that the patient was informed of pelvic infection and the erosion of the cervix, but the plaintiff had brought the action more than 10 years after this date, when she learned she was infertile. In 1988, similar rulings were made in cases in Minnesota and Illinois. Other courts held the following in IUD cases: 1) a jury could consider a manufacturer's reasonable conduct in developing unavoidably unsafe but desirable products as well as its unreasonable conduct in not developing an IUD which was as safe as possible; 2) a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning linking IUDs to the incidence of pelvic inflammation is admissible as evidence even though the IUD was implanted four months before the effective date of the warning because the regulation containing the warning was adopted one month before the IUD was inserted; and 3) the strict liability, negligence, and breach of warranty claims of states are not specifically preempted by federal laws in the form of warning and design requirements set by the FDA. In addition, courts in Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, and Arkansas held that the manufacturers of IUDs had provided sufficient warning to patients in materials provided to prescribing physicians. The Court in Arkansas also held that the exception to the strict liability rule for unavoidably unsafe products which could not be made safe for their intended and ordinary use insulated the manufacturer from liability in design defect cases. In a case relating to the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera, the District Court of Appeals of Florida held that a plaintiff could not be found contributorily negligent for undergoing a hysterectomy to control bleeding without

  14. MORPHOMETRICS OF TWO DIMENSIONS ON SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM EGG%日本血吸虫虫卵的二维数据测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭善友; 黎辉; 等

    2001-01-01

    目的 设计人门静脉内日本血吸虫虫卵过滤器孔眼的大小。 方法 采用图像分析仪测量虫卵的周长、面积、长径、短径、等效直径、圆球度。依据长径、短径数据算出虫卵的体积和均值。 结果 长径最大值84.55 μm,最小值39.19 μm;短径最大值57.22 μm,最小值23.2 μm。体积最大值131 039 μm3,最小值14 423 μm3。 结论 长径99%范围内的最小值45.49 μm,短径99%范围内的最小值27.43 μm,体积99%范围内的最小值17 817.59 μm3。本研究结果为设计人门静脉内日本血吸虫虫卵过滤器孔眼的大小提供了科学依据。%Objective To design the hole size of a filter for Schistosoma japonicum egg in human portal vein, measuring relative data of the eggs is needed. Methods The eggs were gotten form the rabbits infected with schistosomiasis japonicum. The perimeter, area, long diameter, short diameter, eguivalent diameter and sphere grade of each egg were measured by image analyser, then the volume of eggs and its average were worked out according to the long diameter and short diameter. Results Long diameter maximum is 84.55 μm, its minimum is 39.19 μm, short diameter max is 57.22 μm, its minimum is 23.2 μm, volume maximum is 131 039 μm3 and the minimum is 14 423 μm3. Conclusion Minimum in 99% range of the long diameter is 45.49 μm, minimum is 99% range of the short diameter is 27.43 μm, minimum in 99% range of the volume is 17 817.59 μm3. The results supplied scientific warranty for designing the hole size of the filter.

  15. Využití scoring modelu při hodnocení dodavatelů v průmyslových podnicích v ČR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Benediktová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of scoring model in the assessment of suppliers in manufacturing companies. It is based on the authors´ own survey in which it was investigated whether the frequency of scoring model preference varies in companies operating in the automotive industry and in companies operating in other industries. In the next phase of research, it was investigated whether the companies that utilize the scoring model, use only the model itself or complement it with other methods, or with graphical representations. Scoring model is a method of assessing suppliers according to certain predetermined criteria which may also be attached different weight according to the needs of assessing companies. When using this model, each potential supplier assesses itselves based on the predetermined common criteria (the most commonly used are price, quality, payment, warranty and service, discount options, reliability and the quickness of deliveries. The total score is obtained by weighted sum approach. The advantage of the model is its relatively low time consumption. The research aiming to check the use of scoring model as a method of supplier assessment was based on a semi-structured questionnaire which was distributed among 250 manufacturing companies. Thereafter, 100 completed questionnaires were returned and the analysis was made. The results are discussed in the article. Based on the investigation, which was then statistically evaluated, it was found that, in the Czech Republic, scoring model is rarely used method of supplier assessment. Only 9% of manufacturing companies of the surveyed group used this method. However, the survey failed to detect a significant difference between companies operating in the automotive industry and in other industries. It was also found that companies using the scoring model as a sole method of supplier assessment slightly prevailed in comparison to companies combining the scoring model with other methods

  16. Customer’s expectations in Iranian exclusive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to investigate customers' expectations, needs and their problems in an exclusive industry in terms of their satisfaction. The results of the analysis. Due to the development of technology in different fields and also the development of careers and increase of competitors, the concept of customers' satisfaction has changed to a necessity for the organizations and survival of their careers. With the help of consecutive evaluation of customer's satisfaction and their needs analysis in the current competitive environment, organizations aim to attract market to their organizations. Basically these evaluations are all implemented systematically and the final results of these reports will be utilized for setting future goals, planning and process improvement in different units of companies. In the current competitive world and basing on organization needs and also their physical situation with reference to the culture of selected city, country or organization, it should be mentioned that different types of models have formed for the evaluation of customers' satisfaction. In this research, different types of models for the evaluation of customers' satisfaction have been studied and compared. Finally, European model has been selected for the evaluation of customers' satisfaction in the industry. This model was first localized and then implemented. The final results were investigated for three one-year period and ultimate changes were considered. In this research, variables such as product quality, service quality, warranty service quality, financial service quality, and value, relationship with customers, perceived image, and loyalty were all studied. For data collection of this descriptive research, we used field method. All the customers were considered. This study has collected data with the help of closed and open questionnaires. Closed questionnaire for the collection of customer's opinions about the

  17. ISCC Kuraymat Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakmann, G.

    2006-07-01

    The New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) of Egypt intends to implement an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant, ISCC Kuraymat, to be located about 95 km south of Cairo, on the eastern side of the river Nile, at a northern latitude of 29{sup o} 16' and an eastern longitude of 31{sup o} 15'. The complete ISCC Project shall be implemented in three (3) contract lots: One (1) Contract Lot for Solar Island as EPC cum OandM contract for engineering, procurement, construction, testing, commissioning and five (5) years operation and maintenance; (Two contracts will be used for this Lot (Solar Island), one for EPC and one for the OandM part of the Lot.) The Solar Island shall consist of a parabolic trough solar field capable to generate about 110 MW (thermal) of solar heat at a temperature of 393{sup o}C, the related IandC and control room and the heat transfer fluid (HTF) system up to the HTF inlet and outlet flanges of the Solar Heat Exchanger(s). The Contractor for Solar Island shall guarantee the supply of solar heat to the Solar Heat Exchanger(s) as a function of normal direct solar irradiation (DNI) and of solar position. One (1) Contract for Combined Cycle Island as EPC contract for engineering, procurement, construction, testing and commissioning and extended two (2) year warranty period. The Combined Cycle Island shall consist of one (1) or two (2) gas turbine(s) with ISO rating of about 80 MWe (total), one (1) or two (2) heat recovery steam generator(s) (HRSG), one (1) steam turbine of about 70 MWe, solar heat exchanger(s) capable to absorb about 110 MW (thermal) of solar heat plus all associated balance of plant equipment. The Contractor(s) for Combined Cycle Island shall guarantee the supply of electricity and the heat rate as a function of ambient temperature and as a function of solar heat supply from the Solar Island. One (1) Contract for Combined Cycle Island as OandM contract for five (5) year operation and maintenance. (Author)

  18. A CONCEPTUAL PERSPECTIVE REGARDING PRODUCT LIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPESCU

    2010-01-01

    : organisation, education, new revision of the products, initial revision of the products, periodical control of production, warranties control, warning of the contracts, complaints and claims, revocation plan, subrogation, risk criteria, standards, services control, reparation, etc. All these elements are described according to their own characteristics, as well as to the specific situation from the USA economy. There have also been outlined some characteristics of these elements which could allow for a product liability prevention program in other countries. That is why these elements have an important role in the economy of this material and underline once again the theoretical and practical importance of the studied problem.

  19. A parameterization of nuclear track profiles in CR-39 detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azooz, A. A.; Al-Nia'emi, S. H.; Al-Jubbori, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    In this work, the empirical parameterization describing the alpha particles’ track depth in CR-39 detectors is extended to describe longitudinal track profiles against etching time for protons and alpha particles. MATLAB based software is developed for this purpose. The software calculates and plots the depth, diameter, range, residual range, saturation time, and etch rate versus etching time. The software predictions are compared with other experimental data and with results of calculations using the original software, TRACK_TEST, developed for alpha track calculations. The software related to this work is freely downloadable and performs calculations for protons in addition to alpha particles. Program summary Program title: CR39 Catalog identifier: AENA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENA_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Copyright (c) 2011, Aasim Azooz Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution This software is provided by the copyright holders and contributors “as is” and any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed. In no event shall the copyright owner or contributors be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to, procurement of substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and

  20. Análise acústica em brinquedos ruidosos Acoustics analysis of the noisy toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Linhares Taxini

    2012-01-01

    Inmetro and 10 without the seal with the use of digital sound level meter in an acoustically treated room, and the sound analysis was performed using the Praat program. RESULTS: toys placed at 2.5 cm from the equipment with the seal of the Inmetro had an intensity ranging from 61.50 to 91.55 dB (A and from 69.75 to 95.05 dB (C, positioned at 25 cm ranged from 58.3 to 79.85 dB (A and from 62.50 to 83.65 dB (C. The results of the toys without warranty stamps placed at 2.5 cm ranged from 67.45 to 94.30 dB (A and 65.4 to 99.50 dB (C and the distance of 25 cm recorded from 61. 30 to 87.45 dB (A and 63.75 to 97.60 dB (C, so that the findings demonstrated that there are noisy toys that go beyond the values recommended by the current legislation in both groups, with and without warranty stamps . CONCLUSION: the toys without the seal of Inmetro showed intensities values significantly higher than the other group, offering more risk to the children’s hearing health.

  1. MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Randall

    2014-07-03

    renovated in 1998, but the existing roof had not been designed to carry a large load. Due to this fact, a complete roofing and structural analysis had to be performed to match the available roof loading to the existing and/or new solar PV technology, and BIPV was considered an excellent solution for this structure with the roof weight limitations. The solar BIPV system on the large roof area was estimated to provide about 25% of the total facility load with an average of 52,560 kWh per month. In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. SFPUC and consultants evaluated the structural capability of the facility roof, with recommendations for improvements necessary to accommodate the solar PV system and determine the suitable size of the system in kilowatts. The electrical room and switchgear were evaluated for any improvements necessary and to identify any constraints that might impede the installation of necessary inverters, transformers or meters. 2. Development of a design-build Request for Proposal (RFP) to identify the specifications for the solar PV system, and to include SFPUC technical specifications, equipment warranties and performance warranties. Due to potential labor issues in the local solar industry, SFPUC adjusted the terms of the RFP to more clearly define scope of work between electricians, roofers and laborers. 3. Design phase of project included electrical design drawings, calculations and other construction documents to support three submittals: 50% (preliminary design), 90% (detailed design) and 100% (Department of Building Inspection permit approved). 4. Installation of solar photovoltaic panels, completion of conduit and wiring work, connection of inverters, isolation switches, meters and Data Acquisition System by Contractor (Department of Public Works). 5. Commissioning of system, including all necessary tests to make the PV system fully functional and operational at its rated capacity of 100 kW (DC

  2. Desenvolvimento de prótese auditiva digital para atendimento da Portaria nº 587 (APAC do Ministério da Saúde: Health Department Development of a digital hearing aid to meet the Brazilian Government's Ordinance 587 (APAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pires Penteado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento das disacusias sensório-neurais está balizado no uso de próteses auditivas, conhecidas como aparelhos auditivos ou aparelhos de amplificação sonora individuais. As próteses auditivas adquiridas pelo Governo Brasileiro para a condução de políticas públicas têm como uma de suas características a utilização de componentes dedicados, o que traz benefícios, mas que encarece a aquisição e pode inviabilizar os serviços de reparo após o término da garantia do fabricante. OBJETIVO: Desenvolver próteses auditivas digitais no desenho retroauricular, construídas a partir de componentes padronizados oriundos da própria cadeia de suprimentos dos fabricantes de próteses auditivas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Identificar a cadeia de suprimentos destes fabricantes, solicitar amostras e montar próteses auditivas em laboratório. RESULTADOS: As próteses auditivas desenvolvidas apresentaram recursos eletroacústicos não inferiores àquelas adquiridas pelo Governo, sendo adicionalmente atestadas pela mesma norma técnica internacional de referência. CONCLUSÃO: É possível desenvolver próteses auditivas digitais no desenho retroauricular montados a partir de componentes padronizados da cadeia de suprimentos dos fabricantes de próteses auditivas. Suas vantagens residem no baixo custo operacional - aquisição (com vantagens para o Governo e de manutenção (com vantagens para o paciente.The treatment of sensorineural hearing loss is based on hearing aids, also known as individual sound amplification devices. The hearing aids purchased by the Brazilian Government, aiming at fulfilling public policies, are based on dedicated components, which bring about benefits, but also render them expensive and may impair repair services after manufacture's warranty expires. AIM: to design digital behind-the-ear hearing aids built from standardized components coming from the very supply chain of these manufacturers

  3. Políticas de saúde e crise do Estado de Bem-Estar: repercussões e possibilidades para o Sistema Único de Saúde Health policies and crisis of the Welfare State: repercussions and possibilities for the Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel Gomes Maia Pires

    2006-08-01

    political conflicts during the elaboration of the 1988 Constitution, in the economic crisis that has characterized the lost decade and in the decreasing role of the State as development motor. The article is a theoretical study, and has as premise the fact that the world economical trans nationalized scenario, with consequent flexible social warranties imposed by financial capital in the welfare States, has structural repercussions for developing countries , like Brazil, putting at risk the implementation of the principles and guidelines of SUS. It aims to: a - To analyze the resignation of social policies in capitalism and the sketching of the crisis of the Welfare State ; b - To put in context of the health policy in Brazil the current transformations of the capitalism and redefinition of the role of the State , analyzing the repercussions for the implementation of SUS; c - And to point possibilities for the facing of the problems regarding the implementation of SUS through the health care policy (handling of help-power for the (re construction of the autonomy of subjects. Face the ambiguities of a system of health that aims equity, in a conjuncture dictated by market forces, the proposal is to strengthen the democratic control of the civil society on the implementation of public policies.

  4. High-Temperature High-Power Packaging Techniques for HEV Traction Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, F.D.; Elshabini, A.

    2006-11-30

    A key issue associated with the wider adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV) and plug in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) is the implementation of the power electronic systems that are required in these products [1]. To date, many consumers find the adoption of these technologies problematic based on a financial analysis of the initial cost versus the savings available from reduced fuel consumption. Therefore, one of the primary industry goals is the reduction in the price of these vehicles relative to the cost of traditional gasoline powered vehicles. Part of this cost reduction must come through optimization of the power electronics required by these vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of the systems must be optimized in order to provide the greatest range possible. For some drivers, any reduction in the range associated with a potential HEV or PHEV solution in comparison to a gasoline powered vehicle represents a significant barrier to adoption and the efficiency of the power electronics plays an important role in this range. Likewise, high efficiencies are also important since lost power further complicates the thermal management of these systems. Reliability is also an important concern since most drivers have a high level of comfort with gasoline powered vehicles and are somewhat reluctant to switch to a less proven technology. Reliability problems in the power electronics or associated components could not only cause a high warranty cost to the manufacturer, but may also taint these technologies in the consumer's eyes. A larger vehicle offering in HEVs is another important consideration from a power electronics point of view. A larger vehicle will need more horsepower, or a larger rated drive. In some ways this will be more difficult to implement from a cost and size point of view. Both the packaging of these modules and the thermal management of these systems at competitive price points create significant challenges. One way in which significant

  5. Efeito do hipoclorito de sódio sobre a microbiota de abacaxi 'Pérola' minimamente processado Effect of sodium hypochlorite on the microflora of fresh-cut 'Pérola' pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimara Rogéria Antoniolli

    2005-04-01

    liquid in excess was drained and the slices were placed in polyethylene terephtalate packages and stored at 4 ± 1ºC during 16 days. Microbiological analyses were made every 3 days for mesophile aerobic, mold and yeast counts, and total and fecal coliforms determination. Total and fecal coliforms were not detected in the treatments during 16 days of cold storage. The intact fruit disinfection (200mg.L-1 associated with sanitization of pineapple slices with 20mg.L-1 of chlorine solution provided smaller microbial population, showing that these operations are essential in order to get fresh-cut vegetables with sanity warranty to the consumer.

  6. Cuidado domiciliar intensivo: uma possível realidade do Sistema Único de Saúde? ¿Cuidado domiciliar intensivo: una posible realidad del Sistema Único de Salud? Intensive home-based care: is it a possible reality for the public health system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane da Costa Lima

    2004-12-01

    , what kind of assistance is given and what is the equipment maintenance and warranty like - and at examining how the subject of this study obtained this service, that is, how the service reached him/her and how long it usually takes to do so. The results show that the paths to get life support are full of obstacles and that this path in search of home-based care through the SUS dynamics involves bureaucracy, professionals, and equipment that often make it difficult for the population to have access to public health services.

  7. Multiscale verification of water fluxes and states over Pan European river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, Luis; Rakovec, Oldrich; Schaefer, David; Kumar, Rohini; Cuntz, Matthias; Mai, Juliane; Craven, John

    2014-05-01

    Developing the ability to predict the movement of water at regional scales with a spatial resolution from 1 to 5 km is one of grand challenges in land surface modelling. Coping with this grand challenge implies that land surface models (LSM) should be able to make reliable predictions across locations and/or scales other than those used for parameter estimation. Validating LSM only against integral basin response such as streamflow is a necessary but not a sufficient condition to warranty the appropriate partitioning of incoming precipitation and radiation into different water budget components. Extensive in-situ observations of state variables (e.g., soil moisture), on the contrary, are not feasible at regional scales. Remote sensing has been considered as the solution for this dilemma because they constitute a cost-effective source of information and provide a valuable insight about the spatio-temporal patterns of state variables. Their main disadvantage is their large uncertainty. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM 5.0 http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=31389) is used in this study to estimate uncalibrated water fluxes and states and then to investigate which are the effects of conditioning this model with freely available multiple-scale data sets. The main characteristic of mHM is the treatment of the sub-grid variability of input variables and model parameters which clearly distinguishes this model from existing precipitation-runoff models or land surface models. It uses a Multiscale Parameter Regionalization (MPR) to account for the sub-grid variability and to avoid systematic re-calibration. Another key characteristic of mHM is that it can simultaneously estimate fluxes in nested-scales and/or in multiple basins keeping its global parameters (i.e., regionalization coefficients) unaltered across scales and basins. These key characteristics of the model would allow to assimilate disparate sources of information such as satellite data, streamflow gauging stations

  8. Prioridades estratégicas em serviços de pós-venda de uma empresa de manufatura de base tecnológica Strategic prioritization in after-sales services in a manufacturing technology center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Afonso Sellitto

    2011-01-01

    of the company. The company's importance and performance in terms of competition structure were investigated. It was found that the repair of parts on the bench or in the shop has more performance than importance, and it is overvalued by the company's management. It was also found that accelerated tests, design and warranty reliability, and employment of information systems in new business prospecting and customer relationship are undervalued and should receive more financial support with a reformulation of after-sales service strategy. Other factors seemed to be balanced: the results of evaluated performance were similar to those of the attributed importance. Further research will address the company's retailers that adopt after sale strategies.

  9. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P. A.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the

  10. Model-Data Fusion and Adaptive Sensing for Large Scale Systems: Applications to Atmospheric Release Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madankan, Reza

    All across the world, toxic material clouds are emitted from sources, such as industrial plants, vehicular traffic, and volcanic eruptions can contain chemical, biological or radiological material. With the growing fear of natural, accidental or deliberate release of toxic agents, there is tremendous interest in precise source characterization and generating accurate hazard maps of toxic material dispersion for appropriate disaster management. In this dissertation, an end-to-end framework has been developed for probabilistic source characterization and forecasting of atmospheric release incidents. The proposed methodology consists of three major components which are combined together to perform the task of source characterization and forecasting. These components include Uncertainty Quantification, Optimal Information Collection, and Data Assimilation. Precise approximation of prior statistics is crucial to ensure performance of the source characterization process. In this work, an efficient quadrature based method has been utilized for quantification of uncertainty in plume dispersion models that are subject to uncertain source parameters. In addition, a fast and accurate approach is utilized for the approximation of probabilistic hazard maps, based on combination of polynomial chaos theory and the method of quadrature points. Besides precise quantification of uncertainty, having useful measurement data is also highly important to warranty accurate source parameter estimation. The performance of source characterization is highly affected by applied sensor orientation for data observation. Hence, a general framework has been developed for the optimal allocation of data observation sensors, to improve performance of the source characterization process. The key goal of this framework is to optimally locate a set of mobile sensors such that measurement of textit{better} data is guaranteed. This is achieved by maximizing the mutual information between model predictions

  11. 影响高校体育课凝聚力的实证研究——以游泳课为例%The empirical study upon the influence of cohesion in university P.E.—swimming class as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    渠扬

    2012-01-01

      The cohesive force is to make groups together in the important factors, it is also the national prosperity and progress of the favorable university the warranty, it to improve university students' social interaction skills and strengthen college students' psychological health level is an important and positive significance. This paper use group cohesion questionnaire of six swimming class class in class before and after the measured respectively, and the results are the test analysis. Eventually the P.E. teaching more rich, make students more positive to join in P.E., have better social adaptation ability, can better into the work groups, also to enhance university students' psychological health cohesion and provides the basis. Measuring results show that: the cohesion of the college students' level is very poor, becoming the innovation of the teaching method to solve. In the group cohesion and present significant difference between, and the control group after group cohesion before class the difference was not significant, the control group and the group before class cohesion no difference, and the control group and the group after class cohesion have significant differences. In the universities sports education should pay attention to in the different characteristics of physical education project, using innovative and flexible teaching methods.%  凝聚力是使团体凝聚在一起的重要因素,也是国家繁荣和高校进步的有利保证,它对提高大学生的社会交往能力,加强大学生心理健康水平都有重要的积极意义。本文利用群体凝聚力问卷对6个游泳课的班级在课前、课后分别进行测量,并对结果进行了检验分析。最终使体育课的教学更丰富,使学生更积极地加入到体育课中,加强学生的社会适应能力,更好地融入到工作的团体中,也为提高大学生的凝聚力和心理健康提供依据。测量结果表明:大学生的凝聚力水平

  12. O embasamento dos direitos humanos e sua relação com os direitos fundamentais a partir do diálogo garantista com a teoria da reinvenção dos direitos humanos The basis of human rights and its relation to fundamental rights from the dialogue of garantista theory with reinvention theory of human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Urquhart Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objeto a reflexão sobre o fundamento dos direitos humanos e sua indissociável relação com os direitos fundamentais, no âmbito do estado de direito contemporâneo. Para tanto, procuraremos estabelecer possíveis convergências teóricas entre Joaquín Herrera Flores e Luigi Ferrajoli. A análise dos direitos fundamentais, a partir da teoria garantista, e dos direitos humanos, com base da teoria crítica da reinvenção, é tanto um desafio teórico quanto prático do século 21. Isto, em virtude da necessidade da investigação de seus fundamentos teóricos e possibilidades de efetivação na dialética da práxis da vida em sociedade, para que as conquistas históricas de direitos não sejam reduzidas à mera retórica hegemônico-conservadora de uma ordem global fundada na desigualdade e exploração. Percebe-se, então, que o constitucionalismo e os direitos não importam em conquistas, mas em programas normativos a serem buscados diariamente, tal como a democracia e a paz. Nesse sentido, situa-se a importância do estudo dos direitos, estejam eles em normativas nacionais ou internacionais, bem como situá-lo sem sua transitoriedade e constante construção, em suma, em sua historicidade, para serem efetivamente garantidos.The object of this essay is the reflection about the foundation of the human rights and their inseparable relation with the fundamental rights, in the contemporary state of right sphere. For both, it seeks to establish possible theoretical convergences between Joaquín Herrera Flores and Luigi Ferrajoli. The fundamental rights analysis, from the warranty theory; and the human rights analysis, based on the critical theory of reinvention, are both a theoretical, as much as a practical 21st century challenge. This is due to the need of researching their theoretical foundation and possibilities of implementation in the praxis' dialectic in life in society, so that the historical achievements of rights

  13. Molybdenum-99 Isotope Production Preparation at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, S.D.; Longley, S.W.; McDonald, M.J.; Parma, E.J.; Vernon, M.E.

    1998-10-07

    `Q&c M. J. McDonald, S. D. Carson, S. W. Longley, E. J. Parma, M. E. Vern `~ I@ .,., Sandia National Laboratories*, P. .0. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM, 8 W? 1$ tl?;:q `f. (3 . 8 /'~ Abstract This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored byanagency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. loading on the Cintichem targets. These tests were designed to gain process knowledge prior to processing an irradiated target. The chemical separation tests were performed in a fime hood During cold testing, several tests were performed on individual components of the process to complete, a series of `hot' tests was designed to process irradiated targets. These were designed to optimize the process, identify problems prior to processing higher inventory targets, and to the shielded containment box (SCB). Table 1 is a summary of the tests performed prior to the Test Target Power Post irradiation Total inventory 99M0 inventory (kW)/ Irradiation decay (hrs) (TBq*) /decay (TBq)/decay Time (hrs) inventory (TBq) inventory(TBq) in the processing boxes as color comparisons. Product quality control testing was conducted for all the tests and the results were compared to The production process generates a high activity

  14. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolástico Aguiar González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic

  15. Knowledge Engineering Approach to the Geotectonic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichny, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    resources, sessions and conferences are entitled like "Geochemical signatures of postcollisional magmas" thus assuming that the concept of collision (i) has been proven to reflect the reality and (ii) surely has something to do with geochemistry of rocks; tectonic terminology becomes a ubiquitous language with no warranty of its correctness and appropriateness to the case. These issues fall into the scope of the field defined as reasoning research in the geosciences (Pshenichny, 2002; 2003). One of its main tools is knowledge engineering (Feigenbaum, 1984). As has been suggested by Anokhin and Longhinos (2013), knowledge engineering, especially its dynamic part being rapidly evolving now, may offer remedies to handle the abovementioned problems. The following solutions will be reported: • Development of an integrated geotectonic context and language shared by the community that follow contrasting geotectonic views; making concepts more or less inter-hypothesis; studying the "anatomy and physiology" of geotectonic hypotheses and fixing the points of concordance, compatibility and disagreement, computation of logical probabilities of the views given a number of hypotheses (Pshenichny, 2004); • Constructing the ontologies, conceptual graphs and event bushes for data acquisition to impartially define the semantics of data and data provenance in geology; • Building the ensembles of event bushes for related domains of geological knowledge (petrology, volcanology, sedimentology and others) to track the actual influence of geotectonic concepts and views on the geo-knowledge. Following these lines of research would create a better environment for flourishing of scientific thought in geology and makes it more efficient and operative in responding to its traditional tasks (impartial geological mapping, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, geological education and knowledge transfer) and challenges of nowadays such as natural hazard assessment, sustainable regional development

  16. Multi Media Dry Imager and printer: Codonics Medical Disc Publisher: Virtua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Tual

    2007-08-01

    revolutionary Sunrise Express Warranty (or 'swap' service provides greater uptime and a lower total cost than traditional on-site service plans."nMedical disc publisher: Virtua "nThe Codonics Virtua XR Medical Disc Publisher is the world's fastest medical disc recording system. With unprecedented speed, it records over 60 CDs or 30 DVDs an hour. Virtua XR is specifically designed for today's high-volume imaging applications such as breast MR, PET/CT, MRI and CTA. It is the only CD/DVD recorder that keeps up with today's multi-modality environments where imaging systems can send tens of thousands of images an hour. Setting the standard for medical disc recording systems, customized discs are recorded and ready to leave with the patient without any interruption in workflow. "nAll Virtua models feature a compact design that includes an advanced processor for receiving and managing studies, a robotic disc recorder and printer, and a world-class touch screen interface. The built-in printer produces brilliant, full-color disc labels that can be easily created by the customer or through Codonics exclusive label design service. Not only is Virtua the fastest, most compact, and user-friendly system on the market, it also happens to be the most affordable. You'll wonder how you ever got along without it. "nCodonics goal is to provide the medical industry with faster, more versatile and economical imaging solutions than ever before, keeping pace with the demands of tomorrow. Our unique perspective on imaging has been brought to life through our innovative product line - "We bring the future into focus."

  17. Accurate numerical forward model for optimal retracking of SIRAL2 SAR echoes over open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalippou, L.; Demeestere, F.

    2011-12-01

    The SAR mode of SIRAL-2 on board Cryosat-2 has been designed to measure primarily sea-ice and continental ice (Wingham et al. 2005). In 2005, K. Raney (KR, 2005) pointed out the improvements brought by SAR altimeter for open ocean. KR results were mostly based on 'rule of thumb' considerations on speckle noise reduction due to the higher PRF and to speckle decorrelation after SAR processing. In 2007, Phalippou and Enjolras (PE,2007) provided the theoretical background for optimal retracking of SAR echoes over ocean with a focus on the forward modelling of the power-waveforms. The accuracies of geophysical parameters (range, significant wave heights, and backscattering coefficient) retrieved from SAR altimeter data were derived accounting for SAR echo shape and speckle noise accurate modelling. The step forward to optimal retracking using numerical forward model (NFM) was also pointed out. NFM of the power waveform avoids analytical approximation, a warranty to minimise the geophysical dependent biases in the retrieval. NFM have been used for many years, in operational meteorology in particular, for retrieving temperature and humidity profiles from IR and microwave radiometers as the radiative transfer function is complex (Eyre, 1989). So far this technique was not used in the field of ocean conventional altimetry as analytical models (e.g. Brown's model for instance) were found to give sufficient accuracy. However, although NFM seems desirable even for conventional nadir altimetry, it becomes inevitable if one wish to process SAR altimeter data as the transfer function is too complex to be approximated by a simple analytical function. This was clearly demonstrated in PE 2007. The paper describes the background to SAR data retracking over open ocean. Since PE 2007 improvements have been brought to the forward model and it is shown that the altimeter on-ground and in flight characterisation (e.g antenna pattern range impulse response, azimuth impulse response

  18. 23. Symposium photovoltaic solar energy; 23. Symposium Photovoltaische Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    of solar lighting systems with LED (N. Pfanner); (19) 40 years of development of photovoltaics in Germany (W. Roth); (20) The long way to a popular power plant (D. Koenemann); (21) Is Switzerland on the way to the champions league of photovoltaics after introduction of a cost efficient reimbursement? (T. Nordmann); (22) Qualification of specialists - Training to photovoltaics engineer and photovoltaics planner (T. Becker); (23) Tasks for an interdisciplinary instruction in mathematics (K. Brinkmann); (24) Energy meteorology - an outline using photovoltaic as an example (D. Heinemann); (25) Diffuse relations at the irradiation? About the input data for prognosis of revenues (C. Reise); (26) Dynamical expandable simulation of photovoltaic systems with DESIRE (V. Quaschning); (27) Modelling of voltage dependences of the degree of efficiency of inverters (H. Schmidt); (28) Building.integrated photovoltaic components (T. Fellenberg); (29) Five steps to a building-integrated photovoltaics (I. Eisenschmidt); (30) With building integrated photovoltaics in a daylight optimized passive house to energy autonomy (R.P. Miloni); (31) 100 % Renewable energy (H. Lehmann); (32) Total quality assurance as an instrument for optimization of profit of photovoltaics projects - An added value for producers, planners and investors (K. Kreissler); (33) A solar plant pass with inspection certificate as a new instrument forquality insurance for handicraft and customer (G. Stryi-Hipp); (34) Reduction of risks and quality assurance: Liability and warranty at photovoltaic plants (S. Flaig); (35) Weathering of photovoltaic modules inside and outside (M. Koehl), (C.Ferrara); (36) Operating costs and maintenance costs of photovoltaic plants (S. Stettler); (37) multifunctional photovoltaic products - strategy for new products with high potential of cost reduction (C. Bendel); (38) Electricity storage systems in networks with a high amount of renewable energy (D.U. Sauer); (39) Active regulation of

  19. Free and Open Source Software for land degradation vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrenda, Vito; Calamita, Giuseppe; Coluzzi, Rosa; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Lanfredi, Maria Teresa; Perrone, Angela; Ragosta, Maria; Simoniello, Tiziana

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays the role of FOSS software in scientific research is becoming increasingly important. Besides the important issues of reduced costs for licences, legality and security there are many other reasons that make FOSS software attractive. Firstly, making the code opened is a warranty of quality permitting to thousands of developers around the world to check the code and fix bugs rather than rely on vendors claims. FOSS communities are usually enthusiastic about helping other users for solving problems and expand or customize software (flexibility). Most important for this study, the interoperability allows to combine the user-friendly QGIS with the powerful GRASS-GIS and the richness of statistical methods of R in order to process remote sensing data and to perform geo-statistical analysis in one only environment. This study is focused on the land degradation (i.e. the reduction in the capacity of the land to provide ecosystem goods and services and assure its functions) and in particular on the estimation of the vulnerability levels in order to suggest appropriate policy actions to reduce/halt land degradation impacts, using the above mentioned software. The area investigated is the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) where large natural areas are mixed with anthropized areas. To identify different levels of vulnerability we adopted the Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) model, based on the combination of indicators related to soil, climate, vegetation and anthropic stress. Such indicators were estimated by using the following data-sources: - Basilicata Region Geoportal to assess soil vulnerability; - DESERTNET2 project to evaluate potential vegetation vulnerability and climate vulnerability; - NDVI-MODIS satellite time series (2000-2010) with 250m resolution, available as 16-day composite from the NASA LP DAAC to characterize the dynamic component of vegetation; - Agricultural Census data 2010, Corine Land Cover 2006 and morphological information to assess

  20. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.

    2010-04-15

    The power curve of a wind turbine is the primary characteristic of the machine as it is the basis of the warranty for it power production. The current IEC standard for power performance measurement only requires the measurement of the wind speed at hub height and the air density to characterise the wind field in front of the turbine. However, with the growing size of the turbine rotors during the last years, the effect of the variations of the wind speed within the swept rotor area, and therefore of the power output, cannot be ignored any longer. Primary effects on the power performance are from the vertical wind shear and the turbulence intensity. The work presented in this thesis consists of the description and the investigation of a simple method to account for the wind speed shear in the power performance measurement. Ignoring this effect was shown to result in a power curve dependant on the shear condition, therefore on the season and the site. It was then proposed to use an equivalent wind speed accounting for the whole speed profile in front of the turbine. The method was first tested with aerodynamic simulations of a multi-megawatt wind turbine which demonstrated the decrease of the scatter in the power curve. A power curve defined in terms of this equivalent wind speed would be less dependant on the shear than the standard power curve. The equivalent wind speed method was then experimentally validated with lidar measurements. Two equivalent wind speed definitions were considered both resulting in the reduction of the scatter in the power curve. As a lidar wind profiler can measure the wind speed at several heights within the rotor span, the wind speed profile is described with more accuracy than with the power law model. The equivalent wind speed derived from measurements, including at least one measurement above hub height, resulted in a smaller scatter in the power curve than the equivalent wind speed derived from profiles extrapolated from measurements

  1. High-Temperature High-Power Packaging Techniques for HEV Traction Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, F.D.; Elshabini, A.

    2006-11-30

    A key issue associated with the wider adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV) and plug in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) is the implementation of the power electronic systems that are required in these products [1]. To date, many consumers find the adoption of these technologies problematic based on a financial analysis of the initial cost versus the savings available from reduced fuel consumption. Therefore, one of the primary industry goals is the reduction in the price of these vehicles relative to the cost of traditional gasoline powered vehicles. Part of this cost reduction must come through optimization of the power electronics required by these vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of the systems must be optimized in order to provide the greatest range possible. For some drivers, any reduction in the range associated with a potential HEV or PHEV solution in comparison to a gasoline powered vehicle represents a significant barrier to adoption and the efficiency of the power electronics plays an important role in this range. Likewise, high efficiencies are also important since lost power further complicates the thermal management of these systems. Reliability is also an important concern since most drivers have a high level of comfort with gasoline powered vehicles and are somewhat reluctant to switch to a less proven technology. Reliability problems in the power electronics or associated components could not only cause a high warranty cost to the manufacturer, but may also taint these technologies in the consumer's eyes. A larger vehicle offering in HEVs is another important consideration from a power electronics point of view. A larger vehicle will need more horsepower, or a larger rated drive. In some ways this will be more difficult to implement from a cost and size point of view. Both the packaging of these modules and the thermal management of these systems at competitive price points create significant challenges. One way in which significant

  2. Alcohols/Ethers as Oxygenates in Diesel Fuel: Properties of Blended Fuels and Evaluation of Practiacl Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.; Aakko, P. [TEC Trans Energy Consulting Ltd (Finland); Niemi, S.; Paanu, T. [Turku Polytechnic (Finland); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    is also of importance. So far, no engine manufacturers have indicated they will extend warranty coverage to their equipment when operating with E-diesel. They believe there are simply too many unanswered questions as well as the potential for liability exposure due to the increased flammability range of E-diesel. The reports on field tests with oxygenated diesel fuels are rather scarce, especially reports on recent tests. There are, however, some reports available on engine tests and tests with trucks, buses and even off-road equipment. Most of the available test results identified fuel economy and cost as the only appreciable differences between E-diesel and conventional diesel fuel. Most emissions tests with heavy-duty engines confirm the effect of a substantial reduction in PM when running with E-diesel. The typical range for PM reduction is 20 -- 40 %. Most studies also report reduced NOx emissions. Earlier, there were a lot of activities with E-diesel in Sweden. For the time being, California and Brazil are leading the development of E-diesel.

  3. 租赁标的瑕疵与合同救济

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩世远

    2011-01-01

    租赁标的使用存在公法限制,构成瑕疵;其救济路径除依瑕疵担保主张违约责任之外,尚有依意思表示存在瑕疵(重大误解或者欺诈)主张撤销合同的可能;两种救济路径可由当事人选择。由于权利瑕疵与物的瑕疵在我国法中的构成要件及法律后果均有差异,故对于两类瑕疵进行区分,仍有实际需要。中国合同法在统合瑕疵担保与违约责任的道路上,仍有必要百尺竿头、更进一步。权利瑕疵与物的瑕疵在此处的区分,并无"标准答案";我国实务以标的物受公法限制为一种物的瑕疵,值得赞同。检验通知义务属于不真正义务,检验期间属于除斥期间。瑕疵担保义务属于主给付义务的内容,在其违反具有重大性而使合同目的无法实现场合,可以发生解除权。减价责任的适用通常因当事人行使减价权而引出,惟亦不妨裁判者不经当事人主张而适用减价责任。减价责任虽系物的瑕疵场合的法律后果,在权利瑕疵场合,亦有类推适用的余地。%The use of leased object has been restricted by public law,which constitutes the defect in leased object.Besides the remedy for breach of the contract,another possible remedy is to request the court or arbitral tribunal to modify or revoke the contract,either on significant misconception or on fraud.Both remedies are optional for the contractual parties.Under the Chinese law,both the constitutive requirements and legal consequence of the defect in title and the defect in object are different,so it is necessary to distinguish them in both theory and practice.Moreover,Chinese contract law should unify and improve warranty liability against defects and liability for breach of contract.It is approvable that the restriction by public law on the use of a leased object is treated as a defect in object.The duty of inspection and notification by the lessee is a kind of obligenheit,and the period for inspection

  4. Water Security Toolkit User Manual Version 1.2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Hart, David; Hart, William Eugene; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Haxton, Terranna; Murray, Regan; Janke, Robert; Taxon, Thomas; Laird, Carl; Seth, Arpan; Hackebeil, Gabriel; McGee, Shawn; Mann, Angelica

    2014-08-01

    YAML MIT License runpy2 Python Software Foundation License setuptools Python Software Foundation License / Zope Public License six MIT License TinyXML zlib License unittest2 BSD License Utilib Revised BSD License virtualenv MIT License Vol Common Public License vpykit Revised BSD License Additionally, some precompiled WST binary distributions might bundle other third-party executables files: Coliny Revised BSD License (part of Acro project) Dakota GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.2.1 PICO Revised BSD License (part of Acro project) i Revised BSD License Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. * Neither the name of Sandia National Laboratories nor Sandia Corporation nor the names of its con- tributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IM- PLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL SANDIA CORPORATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUD- ING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE

  5. 科学经营,持续改良,巴西桉树领先的法宝——巴西桉树人工林高产经营考察报告%Scientific Management and Continuely Improving Breeding,the Magic Key of Leading Brazilian Eucalypt Plantation in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少雄; 刘杰锋

    2012-01-01

    s to the current level of 40 m3·hm-2·a-1 and becoming the most advanced eucalypt management level in the world.The forestry companies paid special attention to tree breeding programs to constantly produce new hybrids and clones.The current eucalypt hybrid used by forestry companies is Eucalyptus grandis×E.urophylla,only 5~8 clones are used each company but more clones are stored up.The works for tillage must be minimised to constantly improve the growth,logging residue must be kept in the field otherwise N、 P、 K and Ca will be respectively lost 4%、13%、31% and 5% five years later,the pattern of site quality can be influenced.Breaking soil must be minimised for site preparation,deep tillage method was used in flat areas but mechanic minitype tools were used in hilly areas.Mechanization or minitype mechanization are the only route which eucalypt management must be passed.Odontotermes formosanus and weeds are harmful to eucalypt growth,and must be under control.Coppice is one of the main methods for eucalypt regrowth,less operations and costs,decreasing growth 16% but increasing profit 21% while harvesting at age of 7 years comparing with restablishment.It is typical silvicultural pattern of mosaic structure of eucalypt mixing with secondary forest in Brazil,especially around river,roads,the border of block and forest roads to protect the environment,isolate plant diseases and insect pests,beautify zoology and fire prevention.To complete all the works of planting,application of fertilizer and harvesting with high-quality it is the basic warranty to safeguard,respect and increase the terms of employment for labor forces.

  6. Food-borne disease related behavior analysis of family food providers in the floating population of Hangzhou city%流动人口食源性疾病相关行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄利明; 刘辉; 陈树昶; 王妮; 沈利明; 盛金芳; 朱晓霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study food-borne disease related behavior of the floating population in Hangzhou city. Methods A questionnaire on food-borne disease related behaviors was formulated based on Delphi method. A family-based retrospective investigation was conducted by unified trained investigators to analyze the frequency of food-borne disease related behaviors of family food providers during the past month in several floating-population centers of Hangzhou city. The investigation was conducted among 150 adults of every survey spot quarterly during a one-year period. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results According to all 1 781 valid recovery questionnaires, 82.42%subjects had a family income less than 50 000 yuan per year and 87.42%of them had junior-middle-school or lower levels of education. The proportions of subjects who always cleaned kitchen tools, covered the garbage can and kept house out of flies, roaches and mice were 42.50%, 55.87% and 61.09%, respectively. The proportions of subjects who always purchased intact packaged food and food under warranty were 39.70%and 52.33%, respectively. The proportions of subjects who always used tapped water, cleaned hands before food processing, cooked eggsand other foods till well-done were 66.03%, 51.94%, 53.62%, 35.99% and 32.62%, respectively. The proportions of subjects who always stored food in containers with cover and for no more than 3 days in freezer were 20.89%and 30.88%, respectively. The frequencies of food-borne disease related behaviors mentioned above were significantly higher among migrants who originated from urban areas, received education above junior-middle-school and had a family income no less than 50 000 yuan/y than the others (P<0.05). Conclusion In order to correct the risky behaviors during food consuming, processing and storage, targeted intervention is necessary among family food providers of floating population families.%目的:了解流动人口食源性疾病相关行为。

  7. Principio constitucional del debido proceso en la administración de justicia y su integración con el bloque de constitucionalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Pérez Restrepo

    2011-01-01

    force of the adversarial system, the Constitution, it opens the doors to the block to make more effective Constitutional rights and guarantees in the social state of law, which indicates that contribute not only to the interpretation, scope and application the constitutional right but determined the functional existence of procedural rules and in turn this ordinance, is required to fulfill the constitutional guarantees, especially in exercise regulatory power of the punitive power of the state, mainly through the great guiding principle inspiration of this article, Due Process.Due process, fundamental right under Article 29 of the Constitution, updates constitutional guarantees, which are responsible for prevailing human dignity before any other allocation that is granted to state their principles being protected; because a process can not fulfill its mission of recognizing the rights enshrined in the substantive law, but has been developed to conform to such warranties as a reality rather than a simple statement.For the development of this article I will refer to due judicial process and that this aspect is the most feel vulnerable citizens in their legal task, especially its application with the entry into force of the constitutional for the administration of justice as a tool for overcome the chaos that is occurring in the administration of justice and not cause a divorce between the provisions of current regulations for the effectiveness of due process and reality.Key words:Block of constitutionality, Due Process, Rule of Law, Human Dignity.

  8. Incentive safety-reward analysis for enterprises based on the game theory%企业安全激励机制的博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪承子; 谢贤平; 李锦峰

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to introduces a safety incentive reward method developed by its authors from the perspective of safety management and control based on the game theory. For our research goal, we nave first of all to introduce briefly the definition of incentive , and, then, the concept and the applicability of the game theory. In order to prevent hazardous accidents and achieve production safety in the enterprises, needless to say, advanced technology and management methods are to be introduced to and tightly implemented for the research, however, this doesn' t seem enough. As a matter of fact, human factors should be put into the forefront and prominent positions . Then, what is the purpose to use the game theory and how to apply it to the safety incentive mechanism will be the central topic of this paper. It is the theory that can contribute to the successful management and safety warranty for enterprise production. Safety incentive is actually considered to be closely related to the entrusted production management and the reward-and award incentive interactive safety control system. Enterprise is by nature a consignor, with em-ployees being agents. It is the enterprise who entrusts employees for safety production. Based on the theory of entrust and agent, two game models are initiated between the incentive relationship of enterprise and the staff: the first is the static game model of safety incentive with supervision mechanism; and the second is die dynamic game model, joining the safety incentive with the reward mechanism for the competitive winners. Two models are then compared and analyzed to prove the feasibility of models with supervision and competition mechanism. The supervision and competition as the management means can help to improve the incentive efficiency remarkably, thus turning to be the influential factors for safety production and resulting in Nash equilibrium and formulating the equilibrium status quo. To this end, we have also put forward

  9. Avoiding and identifying errors in health technology assessment models: qualitative study and methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, J; Tappenden, P; Rawdin, A; Johnson, M; Kaltenthaler, E; Paisley, S; Papaioannou, D; Shippam, A

    2010-05-01

    , stepping through skeleton models with experts, ensuring transparency in reporting, adopting standard housekeeping techniques, and ensuring that those parties involved in the model development process have sufficient and relevant training. Clarity and mutual understanding were identified as key issues. However, their current implementation is not framed within an overall strategy for structuring complex problems. Some of the questioning may have biased interviewees responses but as all interviewees were represented in the analysis no rebalancing of the report was deemed necessary. A potential weakness of the literature review was its focus on spreadsheet and program development rather than specifically on model development. It should also be noted that the identified literature concerning programming errors was very narrow despite broad searches being undertaken. Published definitions of overall model validity comprising conceptual model validation, verification of the computer model, and operational validity of the use of the model in addressing the real-world problem are consistent with the views expressed by the HTA community and are therefore recommended as the basis for further discussions of model credibility. Such discussions should focus on risks, including errors of implementation, errors in matters of judgement and violations. Discussions of modelling risks should reflect the potentially complex network of cognitive breakdowns that lead to errors in models and existing research on the cognitive basis of human error should be included in an examination of modelling errors. There is a need to develop a better understanding of the skills requirements for the development, operation and use of HTA models. Interaction between modeller and client in developing mutual understanding of a model establishes that model's significance and its warranty. This highlights that model credibility is the central concern of decision-makers using models so it is crucial that the

  10. Minimum standard guidelines of care on requirements for setting up a laser room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhepe Niteen

    2009-08-01

    low humidity and dust free environment for longer life of machines. Patient chair: A dental/cosmetic chair with adjustable task light is a suitable option for patient positioning. The chair should have the option to tilt head down or ′syncope position′ to facilitate resuscitation of a patient in vaso-vagal shock. Maintenance: Annual maintenance contract (AMC is essential after warranty period is over and is essential for insurance purposes. Mobile Laser Unit: Mobile laser units are of relevance in the Indian context to render laser facility available in smaller towns. A laser with fiber optic delivery system can be made mobile after consultation with supplier. However a laser with an articulated arm delivery cannot be made mobile. Proper packing with shock absorbing material is necessary during transportation. The area where lasers are to be moved to and operated should have appropriate facilities as mentioned above. Records: Patient′s health declaration questionnaires, laser register are essential records. Digital photography before and at regular intervals after procedure is an essential record. Detailed informed consent in patients language for each procedure explaining nature of procedure, anesthesia used, and machine used, post operative down time should be signed by patient. Drugs, anesthesia and sterilization: An electrocautery machine to control bleeding, equipments for airway maintenance, other instruments for emergency resuscitation and an emergency drug tray are essential. Standard sterilization practices are adopted. For most of laser procedures topical anesthesia is sufficient. Safe laser use: Protocols of safe laser use to avoid burns or eye damage to patients or operator are adopted. Reflective surfaces like mirrors, reflective jewelleries are not allowed in laser room. Machine should always be on standby mode when not in direct use. It should be used by authorized operator only. Eye protection: Goggles of sufficient optical density (OD intended

  11. European Wind Farm Project Costs History and Projections 2008 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-10-15

    over which developers and financiers will be most focused over the development process. The concept of a power station for which the fuel is entirely free is attractive. However, this advantage is balanced by the variability of the wind which, to the uninitiated, may make an investment in such a scheme appear highly risky. In order to assess the energy production of a wind farm over the project life, it is necessary to determine accurately the long-term mean wind speed at a potential site. The prediction of energy production of a wind farm is dependent on many inputs for which the uncertainties can be objectively defined. This area therefore lends itself to a statistical assessment of the risks associated with a project. The wind analyst will review the uncertainties associated with the assessment and will obtain a 'standard deviation' for the analysis that can be applied to the central estimate. Based upon GH experience, where appropriate wind measurements have been made and diligently analysed and wind turbines with a good track record are used, it is likely that the 10-year 90% exceeding level (P90) for the wind farm production will be of the order of 10% to 15% below the central estimate (P50) of energy production for the wind farm. It is typical for an Operation and Management contract to be let to the turbine supplier for the duration of the defects liability period. Where the initial warranty period is only 2 years in term, the service period may extend to 5 years and cover unscheduled maintenance (repair) as well as routine servicing. Project Life Modern wind turbines are typically designed to be suitable for use within a specific envelope of climatic conditions over a 20 year design life. This lifetime assumption is generally supported by independent certification by a classification society such as Germanischer Lloyd or Det Norske Veritas, which has the primary purpose of ensuring that a design is compliant with specific safety requirements. Despite

  12. Métodos de extração para quantificação de cobre disponível em fertilizantes Extraction methods for quantification of available copper in fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Ribeiro Bastos

    2007-04-01

    powder p.a., copper oxide 40 Ind., CuSO4.5H2O p.a., chalcopyrite ore, copper powder p.a. and copper oxide p.a., and they were used in the following extraction procedures: total Cu content and soluble Cu contents in water, citric acid at 20 g L-1, neutral ammonium citrate (1 + 9 and DTPA at 0.005 mol L-1. The Cu solubility in the latter three extractors was assessed after shaking the sample for one hour and boiling it for 5 minutes. Alongside, growth and Cu uptake by rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cultivated in an orthic Quartzpsamment, fertilized with the different Cu sources at rates of 0.0, 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 mg dm-3 of Cu, were evaluated in a greenhouse. The fertilizers differed in soluble Cu as well as the total Cu content. All tested sources were efficient in supplying Cu to plants, although higher doses were necessary when the sources containing chalcopyrite and copper oxide 40 Ind. were used, since these sources resulted in lower amounts of plant-available Cu. A residual effect of Cu was observed in the soil for all sources after the second rice cultivation. In view of the differences of the sources regarding Cu solubility and agronomic efficiency, the use of a second warranty control is suggested to determine the Cu content besides that of the total content. The extraction procedure using neutral ammonium citrate (1 + 9 at 1:100, with boiling for 5 min, proved adequate for the determination of the available Cu content in fertilizers.

  13. Research on safety guarantee system for chemical industrial parks%化工园区安全保障体系探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国华; 贾梅生; 黄庭枫

    2013-01-01

    This paper is inclined to introduce and synthesize some new ideas and research results about safety control and secure engineering technology in running chemical industrial parks.As is well known,chemical industrial parks involve more safety and security problems for their own particular nature.Yet,there is still shortage of a systematic framework and comprehensive measures to ensure their regular production practice.To meet the actual need,we would like to bring forward a set of safety production and management warranty including three strategies.The first one deals with a set of inherent safety-ensuring strategies through eliminating or getting rid of likely hazards to prevent likely accidents.In our suggested framework,the inherent safety strategy is supposed to include three key techniques,i.e.optimized layout of management goals,idealistic chain of their industrial products and safety and security controlling power.As a rule,the operating goals should be oriented to guide the stage of designing a new chemical industrial park or the stage of introducing a new chemical plant to a well managed chemical park so that the park is always in a position to keep on its successful production and implement the most effective measures for accident prevention.The second strategy of the framework is to make sure successful risk control with the so-called four key techniques thoroughly carried out,i.e.identifying and recognizing hidden hazards,analyzing and controlling Domino effect accidents,early-warning and always aware of community emergencies.The said risk control strategy should be oriented to decrease the accident frequency or alleviating the accident detrimental influence.PDCA is needed for this strategy to heighten the safety control rate of the chemical industrial parks.And,now,the last strategy is to establish necessary institutions and cuhivate safety culture.There exists a vast need for the chemical industrial parks to ask for the managers and workers to display

  14. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers

  15. European Wind Farm Project Costs History and Projections 2008 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-10-15

    over which developers and financiers will be most focused over the development process. The concept of a power station for which the fuel is entirely free is attractive. However, this advantage is balanced by the variability of the wind which, to the uninitiated, may make an investment in such a scheme appear highly risky. In order to assess the energy production of a wind farm over the project life, it is necessary to determine accurately the long-term mean wind speed at a potential site. The prediction of energy production of a wind farm is dependent on many inputs for which the uncertainties can be objectively defined. This area therefore lends itself to a statistical assessment of the risks associated with a project. The wind analyst will review the uncertainties associated with the assessment and will obtain a 'standard deviation' for the analysis that can be applied to the central estimate. Based upon GH experience, where appropriate wind measurements have been made and diligently analysed and wind turbines with a good track record are used, it is likely that the 10-year 90% exceeding level (P90) for the wind farm production will be of the order of 10% to 15% below the central estimate (P50) of energy production for the wind farm. It is typical for an Operation and Management contract to be let to the turbine supplier for the duration of the defects liability period. Where the initial warranty period is only 2 years in term, the service period may extend to 5 years and cover unscheduled maintenance (repair) as well as routine servicing. Project Life Modern wind turbines are typically designed to be suitable for use within a specific envelope of climatic conditions over a 20 year design life. This lifetime assumption is generally supported by independent certification by a classification society such as Germanischer Lloyd or Det Norske Veritas, which has the primary purpose of ensuring that a design is compliant with specific safety requirements. Despite

  16. Future fuel and technology portfolio in the power plant engineering. Contributions; Kuenftiges Brennstoff- und Technologieportfolio in der Kraftwerkstechnik. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    ) High pressure axial flow fans for modern coal power stations (V. Cyrus); (37) Adaptation of milling plants to varied qualities of fuel - Increase in performance of the milling plants MPS 180 in GK Kiel by means of exchange of wing classifier against lamellae classifiers (A. Boehme); (38) Gas turbine technology for IGCC application (K. Payrhuber); (39) Increase of the efficiency of steam generators by means of a selective boiler cleaning - An innovative approach based on dynamic software algorithms and direct measurement methods (M. Frach); (40) Procedures for the evaluation of the potential of approach formation of coals from power plants and warranty of a plant protecting firing (U.-S. Altmann); (41) Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage-sludge and saw-dust (T. Kupka); (42) Research in the focus of the underground storage of CO{sub 2} (J. Froebel); (43) Anenergetic consideration of liquefaction and preconcentration of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of a hard coal-fired oxyfuel process (M. Klostermann); (44) Limits of the insurability (M. Haerig); (45) Storage of compressed air - A possibility for an enhanced use of wind power (R. Kretschmer); (45) Isobaric GuD compressed air storage station with heat stores (R. Leithner); (46) Compressed air storage plants as an option for a grid integration of renewable energy sources: A comparison of concepts (I. Tuschy); (47) AA-CAES - Chances and challenges of the adiabatic storage of compressed air as an instrument of equalisation in thew network (R. Marquardt).

  17. Signaling of quality on services La señalización de la calidad en los servicios A sinalização da qualidade nos serviços

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Isabel Koetz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to expand the knowledge that has been developed on signaling of quality for the services sector. In order to do that, past studies about signaling of quality through the marketing mix are analyzed considering the specificities of the services sector, identifying differences and similarities with the reasoning of the quality signals emission and outlining propositions for future research. The analysis has showed that the logic underlying signaling may be valid for the services, if the marketing mix has been revised and adapted to the specificities of this sector. Thus, in this study, signaling mechanisms related to advertising, price, brand management and warranties has been analyzed under the services perspective. Besides this, a new signaling tool, exclusive for this context, is proposed: the servicescape, which comprehends investments in the physical and social environments. It is concluded that this research field is useful and encompasses the development of new and important research, which would bring advantages for both consumers and high quality companies.El objetivo de este ensayo teórico es ampliar el conocimiento que se ha desarrollado sobre la señalización de la calidad en el sector de servicios. Con este fin, se examinan los principales estudios realizados hasta ahora sobre señalización de la calidad a través de las variables de marketing a la luz de las especificidades del sector de servicios, identificando divergencias y puntos en común relacionados con la lógica de la emisión de las señales de calidad y delineando propuestas para futuras investigaciones. El análisis mostró que la lógica subyacente a la señalización puede ser válida para los servicios desde que las variables de marketing sean revisadas y adaptadas a las especificidades de ese sector. Así, en este estudio, los mecanismos de señalización relacionados con la publicidad, los precios, la gestión de marca y las garantías son

  18. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2013-12-01

    themselves, the price of equipment for service and maintenance, the costs of initial training of a number of personnel and distribution costs. When assets are new and introduced gradually in phases within the warranty period, the costs of asset maintaining and upgrading are not significant at that period. During this period, the main costs are the costs of personnel and training. Maintenance costs increase over time, and at the half of the life cycle there are special investments in the development and modernization of equipment, as well as in testing the reliability of individual elements, etc.. Due to years of use, the operating costs of assets grow until the expiration of their life cycle, when there is a possibility of selling them and achieving certain profit. When looking at how the dynamics of individual costs affect the overall cost of assets in their life cycle, it is evident that most of the percentage of costs are the costs of asset operating and maintaining - about 66%. The costs of testing and training follow with 16%, 12% is attributed to personnel costs, 6% to training costs, etc.. CONTRIBUTION TO THE OPTIMIZATION OF FUNDS ALLOCATED TO AME PROCUREMENT In order to provide the necessary funds when they are needed and at optimal cost, it is necessary to carry out adequate strategic, managerial, operational and administrative activities. Strategic actions in defense systems, in this sense, include: planning and development of procurement organization and infrastructure, determination of the best use of expertise and procurement resources, identification of the working standards to be achieved, and the establishment of control and reporting mechanisms. Control activities are the identification of modes for the best satisfaction of perceived needs, planning and coordination in procurement, training and staff development as well as acquisition performance  measurement. Operational activities are demanding specifications, examining options of research of the supply