WorldWideScience

Sample records for warrants police operations

  1. The Police Executive and Governance: Adapting Police Leadership to an Increase in Oversight and Accountability in Police Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ellis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a democracy, it is generally understood that the police serve at the will of the people and are accountable through police governance. This usually consists of elected and/or appointed officials whose primary legal authority is to set policy and appoint the police leaders whom they hold accountable for ensuring that effective policing operations are carried out. It is widely held in common law jurisdictions that the governing body is limited in their role and cannot get involved in “operational policing issues.” In June 2010, the G20 world leaders’ conference was held in Toronto, Canada. The events surrounding the police actions during this conference caused a great deal of concern and led the Toronto Police Services Board, who are the governing authority for the Toronto Police Service, to commission a review to look at their own role. The findings in relation to “board” involvement in the operational side of policing challenged a long held belief regarding the limited role of governance in police operations. These findings will be examined in relation to the lack of board expertise and the challenges faced by police leaders to adapt and develop their attitudes, skills and abilities to respond to any expansion of governance authority.

  2. [Risk factors in police activities: operational criticism in surveillance programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprani, Fabrizio; Moroni, Maria; Conte, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The planning of specific health surveillance programs for police officers is extremely complex due to difficulty in predictability and variety of occupational hazards. Even in the case of conventional occupational risk factors clearly identified by current regulations, particular working conditions may require specific assessment to effectively identify and quantify the risk of occupational exposure. An extensive program of health surveillance, aimed at promoting overall health and effectiveness of the operators, would be really desirable, in order to help better address a number of risks that cannot be easily predicted. The progressive increase in the average age of the working population and the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases, may also suggest the need for health surveillance procedures designed to verify continued unqualified suitability to police service, providing for the identification of diversified suitability profiles in relation to age and state of health: accordingly, in regard to our field of interest, there is a close link between medico-legal eligibility and occupational medicine.

  3. Village Stability Operations and the Afghan Local Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    52 JSOU Report 14-7 three to four months during the warm months, when the enemy resistance was strongest, and two to three months during the colder...not always trustworthy . More often than not, the lack of pay was the result of the failure of ALP commanders or police chiefs to submit the proper

  4. The Integrated National Police in Philippine Counterinsurgency Operations -- The Great Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Controlling Office) I5. SECURITY CLASS. (of title report) Unclassified/ ISa. OECL ASSI FICATION/ DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE - 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of...34 2. *The Integrated National Police In Retrospect, The C/INP Journal_1 July-August 1983. 4. Kit G. Machado , "Politics and Dispute-Processing In the...Association, 1972. 4. Hutchinson, S., "The Police Role In Counter-Insurgency Operations," RUSI Journal, 1969. S. Machado , Kit 0., "Politics and Dispute

  5. The influence of operational and organizational stressors on the well-being of municipal police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Ilaria; Argentero, P

    2013-01-01

    Helping professions are at a high risk of developing occupational stress that can cause negative effects at individual and organizational levels. This article attempts to examine the presence of operational and organizational stressors as potential predictors of burnout and psychosomatic symptoms among municipal police officers. A cross-sectional study of municipal police officers working in a town in Northern Italy was conducted. A self-report questionnaire was administered to all the officers serving the population of this town (N = 88). Regression analyses revealed that organizational stressors affected emotional exhaustion and cynicism, whereas operational stressors were associated with psychosomatic symptoms. These findings suggest that operational and organizational stressors can affect the level of psychosomatic well-being of municipal police officers, but at the same time reveal the existence of their specific effects on the outcome variables. In this perspective, individual psychological support and group interventions should be carried out not only to deal with traumatic events but also to manage chronic stressors. This is one of the first studies in Italy investigating municipal police officers' well-being as potentially related to specific job stressors. Nevertheless, our results are based on police officers employed by the municipality of a single town; it would be therefore useful to extend the research to larger samples.

  6. Evaluation of the operational efficiency of pacifying police units in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rosa Dias de Jesus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pacification Police Unit (UPP is a new model for public security and policing, aimed at ensuring local security and, above all, reduce, or even, extinguish violent crime linked to drug trafficking, and approach people and police. The purpose of this article is measuring the operational efficiency of all UPPs installed in the state of Rio de Janeiro by the beginning of 2011 by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. For this, it was used the CCR model – input-oriented – developed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes, which allows an objective assessment of the overall efficiency, identifying the sources of inefficiencies and the needed targets to achieve the efficiency in each UPP. The results converge to a reduction of the amount of policemen in all communities out of the efficiency frontier.

  7. Police and higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Hallenberg, K.; Cockcroft, TW

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the relationship between police and higher education is not a new phenomenon. However, in the UK, co-operation between police and the academy has been slow to develop, particularly when compared to the United States and Europe. Nevertheless, a number of police-university partnerships and a variety of courses from Foundation to Masters level aimed at current and aspiring police officers has mushroomed over the last decade, illustrating a recent formalisation of the police-academia ...

  8. Grohnde. Documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 19.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977; Grohnde. Dokumentation der Polizeieinsaetze anlaesslich der Demonstration gegen das Kernkraftwerk Grohnde am 19.03.1977 und der Raeumung des besetzten Kuehlturmgelaendes am 23.08.1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 16.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977 covers the following issues: involved action forces: police Niedersachsen, police Nordrhein-Westfalen, police Schleswig-Holstein, police Bremen and the Bundesgrenzschutz; concept of the police operation, provisions (lodging and board) for the police, operating resources, details of the operation sequence; post-processing of the operation; the Grohnde trials.

  9. Talking the Talk: Developing a Student Centered Approach for Teaching Communication Skills for Operational Policing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Davies

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly complex police - citizen situations in which the novice police officer may be placed demand that police training environments continually assess their education programs to ensure that such programs are contemporary and meet the expectations of stakeholders. One challenge facing recruit raining is the need to prepare the novice police officer to communicate effectively in often stressful and complicated situations. Police educators must develop learning strategies which provide opportunity for students to build their capacity to be effective communicators through autonomous, student - centered learning experiences. The communications teaching and learning opportunities within the Associate Degree in Policing Practice for New South Wales Police Force (NSWPF recruits is no exception. This paper discusses the changes that have occurred to the delivery of communication training to NSWPF recruits over the past 15 years. It considers the merits of incorporating authentic teaching strategies and learner assessment processes into the delivery of communication education and of creating experiential learning experiences that support autonomous, self-regulated learners. In particular, it discusses the use of role plays (verbal communication trials to provide a unique and authentic learning experience for students and to assess their verbal and non-verbal communication skills in a simulated policing environment.

  10. The European Arrest Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana Balan-Rusu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper it is generally examined the institution of the European arrest warrant according to the latest changes and additions through the adoption of a new European legislative act. The paper is a continuation of research in the area of judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the European Union. It may be useful to the judicial bodies with the responsibilities of issuing and executing a specific European arrest warrant and to academics and students in law schools. The research results, the essential contribution, the originality consist of the general examination of the institution, the critical remarks and proposals for amending and completing certain provisions insufficiently clear.

  11. The European arrest warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđić Vojislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper portrays the new European Union extradition system, established by the Framework Decision on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States of 2002. In the introductory remarks, the author explains the formation and development of the traditional extradition procedure, depicts relevant legal sources, and points to its flaws, which boil down to tardiness and inefficiency. The main author's standpoint is that the European arrest warrant is based on mutual trust in the member-states' legal systems, and that it depoliticizes the extradition procedure by transforming interstate cooperation into cooperation between member - states' law enforcement authorities. On these grounds, the author determines the nature of this new legal institute, that introduces radical changes into the paradigm of the classical extradition, and explains its main features as well as the scope of application. Further on, the paper explores the conditions for issuance of the European arrest warrant, which are proscribed by negative formulations - as absolute and relative obstacles for extradition. Finally, the author explains the standardized formal elements of the European arrest warrant content, which should make its application easier and more expeditious.

  12. Extending the Thin Blue Line: Constabulary Police Development in Phase Zero Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-16

    February, 2010), B-13-14. 105Ibid, B-14. 31 parent IBCT or HBCT for human resources as well as quartermaster support, as the individual platoon is...military stopped rendering aid to police before South Vietnam fell to Communists. This Communist control was synonymous with the type of authoritarian ...constabulary force was analogous to the composition of a tradition cavalry outfit with the troop as the primary maneuver unit. Each parent regiment

  13. Operation Exodus: The Massacre of 44 Philippine Police Commandos In Mamasapano Clash

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    documents, including maps and interviews, and media coverage. These sources of information essential for this case study are related to the methods of...the Philippine navy, has presented his personal view through social media about the Mamasapano incident (Mangosing, 2016). The news media have cited...44 PHILIPPINE POLICE COMMANDOS IN MAMASAPANO CLASH by Gilbert G. Villareal, Jr. September 2016 Thesis Advisor: William P. Fox Co-Advisor

  14. Combat Policing: The Application of Selected Law Enforcement Techniques to Enhance Infantry Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    from the soda cans filled with plastic explosives he encountered in February 2004, during the early months of the insurgency. The IEDs of December...scratches on bullet fragments found by both Marines and surgeons , and iris scans obtained at checkpoints are all elements of intelligence data which can...Police in War: Fighting Insurgency, Terrorism and Violent Crime. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., 2010. Blaine, Barney B. “ Mexican Drug

  15. Field quantification of physical exposures of police officers in vehicle operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Colin D; Callaghan, Jack P; Dickerson, Clark R

    2011-01-01

    Mobile police officers perform many of their daily duties in their vehicles. Combined workspace inflexibility and prolonged driving create potential musculoskeletal injury risks. Limited research exists that quantitatively describes postural and load exposures associated with mobile police work. The purpose of this study was to characterize officer activity during a typical workday and identify opportunities for ergonomic intervention. Digital video of traffic officers (N = 10) was used to classify postures according to work activity. Cumulative time in 10 activities was calculated, and a time-history of driver activity documented. Most (55.5 ± 13.4%) time was out of the vehicle, and 22.3 ± 10.5% was spent in single-arm driving. On paper documentation and mobile data terminal use were identified as in-car activities that may benefit from targeted interventions. The primary contribution of this study is characterization of daily mobile police activity and the identification of possible intervention strategies to mitigate physical exposure levels.

  16. 警检配合与侦查监督%Co-operation between the Police and the Procurator and the Investigation Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周标龙

    2012-01-01

    The Criminal Procedure Law of China stipulates that the police and the procurator should co-operate with each other and that the procurator supervises the investigating activities by the police. However there exists contradiction between the "co- operation" and the "supervision".. if the co-operation between the police and the procurator is strengthened, the function of su- pervision to the investigative power will be weakened; if the supervision to the investigative power is strengthened, the co-oper- ation between the police and the procurator will not work well. We ought to design a mode of relationship between the police and the procurator that the police and the procurator co-operate with each other intensely in order to complete the mission of crime control. At the same , it's necessary to strengthen the checking mechanism to the investigation power of the police.%我国刑事诉讼法规定公安机关与检察机关应当互相配合,同时规定检察机关对公安机关侦查活动进行监督。然而,警检配合与侦查监督具有矛盾性:加强警检配合会削弱侦查监督;加强侦查监督则会使警检难以相互配合。我国应以提高对犯罪的有效追诉为目标构建相互配合与协作的警检关系。同时,应当完善侦查权制约机制以防止侦查权的滥用。

  17. Evaluation of an educational policing strategy to reduce alcohol-related crime associated with licensed premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Shelley C; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke; Francis, J Lynn; Freund, Megan

    2012-02-01

    Licensed premises are associated with a considerable level of alcohol-related harm. This study examined the effectiveness of an educational policing strategy, implemented as routine policing practice, to reduce the number of patrons of licensed premises involved in police-recorded incidents of violence, disorder and motor vehicle crashes. The educational policing strategy targeted on-licensed premises registered as operating in 2003. The strategy was delivered by police and was overseen by the research team. The intervention was conducted in 21 non-metropolitan New South Wales Police Force commands. On the basis of routinely collected and recorded police data, premises received one of three levels of police response on three separate occasions from December 2002 to July 2003. The police responses were letters, incident reports, covert audits and feedback meetings. The rate of patrons who had last consumed alcohol on licensed premises before being involved in police-recorded incidents decreased from 1.24 per premises in the 4-month baseline period to 1.11 in the 4-month follow-up period (p=0.08). There was a significant reduction, from 7.08 to 5.65 patrons (p=0.03), in such a rate for high-risk premises that received the most intensive police response. High-risk premises also recorded a significant reduction in the rate of intoxicated patrons involved in such incidents, from 5.50 to 4.40 (p=0.05). The findings suggest a potential benefit of an educational policing strategy in reducing alcohol-related harm associated with licensed premises. Further implementation of this strategy concurrent with rigorous evaluation is warranted.

  18. Protesting police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom; Karpiak, Kevin; Garriott, William

    2016-01-01

    We offer an anthropological response to criminologists’ call for a penal theory of police, with a specific focus on the public condonation of police punishment. We support such a penal theory but criticize the criminologist’s explanation of the relative quiescence of “the public” in the face of poli

  19. Concepts of multifaceted social support in operational work in the lives of South African Police Service members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masefako A. Gumani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The extensive role that social support plays in the lives of South African Police Service (SAPS members outside of the expected work networks of professionals and colleagues should be further studied to reflect on the benefits received when handling the stressful and traumatic effects of operational work.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to describe the concepts of multifaceted social support network systems as perceived by SAPS members in the context of the Vhembe District (South Africa in assisting them to deal with the effects of their operational work.Motivation for the study: There is still a call in social research to focus on the influence of different functions and sources of social support.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive phenomenological research design was used, and 20 SAPS participants were selected through purposive sampling. Unstructured,face-to-face interviews, field notes, telephone follow-ups and diaries were used to collect data which was subsequently analysed through phenomenological explication.Main findings: The results show that social support is not a linear process but is multifaceted,depending on specific operational settings. Furthermore, the social support network system identified is informed by the values of communal living in the Vhembe District as well as in the operational context in which the SAPS members work.Practical/managerial implications: The SAPS should help initiate and involve, during the debriefing of operational members, types and functions of social support that are dependent on organisational and community contexts.Contribution/value-add: This study makes a meaningful contribution to understanding that social support in the SAPS operational context is different from other contexts.

  20. Memory and the operational witness: Police officer recall of firearms encounters as a function of active response role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Lorraine; Blocksidge, David; Gabbert, Fiona; Sauer, James D; Lewinski, William; Mirashi, Arta; Atuk, Emel

    2016-02-01

    Investigations after critical events often depend on accurate and detailed recall accounts from operational witnesses (e.g., law enforcement officers, military personnel, and emergency responders). However, the challenging, and often stressful, nature of such events, together with the cognitive demands imposed on operational witnesses as a function of their active role, may impair subsequent recall. We compared the recall performance of operational active witnesses with that of nonoperational observer witnesses for a challenging simulated scenario involving an armed perpetrator. Seventy-six police officers participated in pairs. In each pair, 1 officer (active witness) was armed and instructed to respond to the scenario as they would in an operational setting, while the other (observer witness) was instructed to simply observe the scenario. All officers then completed free reports and responded to closed questions. Active witnesses showed a pattern of heart rate activity consistent with an increased stress response during the event, and subsequently reported significantly fewer correct details about the critical phase of the scenario. The level of stress experienced during the scenario mediated the effect of officer role on memory performance. Across the sample, almost one-fifth of officers reported that the perpetrator had pointed a weapon at them although the weapon had remained in the waistband of the perpetrator's trousers throughout the critical phase of the encounter. These findings highlight the need for investigator awareness of both the impact of operational involvement and stress-related effects on memory for ostensibly salient details, and reflect the importance of careful and ethical information elicitation techniques. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. [The reprocessing of medical products: from regulatory polices to operational practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eliana Auxiliadora Magalhães; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2011-12-01

    The number of technological resources used in health care interventions is growing and continually expanding with the introduction of new products and articles. Problems associated with the reutilization of medical products, both reusable and of single use, affect policies and related technical-operational, economic, political, ethical, legal, and environmental matters. This study aims to contextualize the regulatory systems of medical products, and analyze the subsequent operational implications for Brazilian hospital practices. The article consists of a bibliographic review, carried out without time and language restriction, utilizing the Web of Science, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs databases, with the support of specific descriptors. This study uses the contextualization of regulatory plans for medical products across the world and in Brazil and the existing condition of standardization of the reprocessing of these products as the assessment sources with which to analyze the operational implications for these practices in Brazilian hospitals.

  2. Biometrics and Policing: A Protocol for Multichannel Sensor Data Collection and Exploratory Analysis of Contextualized Psychophysiological Response During Law Enforcement Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Brian; Ortiz, Alexa M; Hegarty-Craver, Meghan; Gilchrist, Kristin H; Ridenour, Ty A

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress experienced by law enforcement officers is often extreme and is in many ways unique among professions. Although past research on officer stress is informative, it is limited, and most studies measure stress using self-report questionnaires or observational studies that have limited generalizability. We know of no research studies that have attempted to track direct physiological stress responses in high fidelity, especially within an operational police setting. The outcome of this project will have an impact on both practitioners and policing researchers. To do so, we will establish a capacity to obtain complex, multisensor data; process complex datasets; and establish the methods needed to conduct idiopathic clinical trials on behavioral interventions in similar contexts. Objective The objective of this pilot study is to demonstrate the practicality and utility of wrist-worn biometric sensor-based research in a law enforcement agency. Methods We will use nonprobability convenience-based sampling to recruit 2-3 participants from the police department in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Results Data collection was conducted in 2016. We will analyze data in early 2017 and disseminate our results via peer reviewed publications in late 2017. Conclusions We developed the Biometrics & Policing Demonstration project to provide a proof of concept on collecting biometric data in a law enforcement setting. This effort will enable us to (1) address the regulatory approvals needed to collect data, including human participant considerations, (2) demonstrate the ability to use biometric tracking technology in a policing setting, (3) link biometric data to law enforcement data, and (4) explore project results for law enforcement policy and training. PMID:28314707

  3. Biometrics and Policing: A Protocol for Multichannel Sensor Data Collection and Exploratory Analysis of Contextualized Psychophysiological Response During Law Enforcement Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Robert D; Taniguchi, Travis; Aagaard, Brian; Ortiz, Alexa M; Hegarty-Craver, Meghan; Gilchrist, Kristin H; Ridenour, Ty A

    2017-03-17

    Stress experienced by law enforcement officers is often extreme and is in many ways unique among professions. Although past research on officer stress is informative, it is limited, and most studies measure stress using self-report questionnaires or observational studies that have limited generalizability. We know of no research studies that have attempted to track direct physiological stress responses in high fidelity, especially within an operational police setting. The outcome of this project will have an impact on both practitioners and policing researchers. To do so, we will establish a capacity to obtain complex, multisensor data; process complex datasets; and establish the methods needed to conduct idiopathic clinical trials on behavioral interventions in similar contexts. The objective of this pilot study is to demonstrate the practicality and utility of wrist-worn biometric sensor-based research in a law enforcement agency. We will use nonprobability convenience-based sampling to recruit 2-3 participants from the police department in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Data collection was conducted in 2016. We will analyze data in early 2017 and disseminate our results via peer reviewed publications in late 2017. We developed the Biometrics & Policing Demonstration project to provide a proof of concept on collecting biometric data in a law enforcement setting. This effort will enable us to (1) address the regulatory approvals needed to collect data, including human participant considerations, (2) demonstrate the ability to use biometric tracking technology in a policing setting, (3) link biometric data to law enforcement data, and (4) explore project results for law enforcement policy and training.

  4. Policing Transgender People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Police policy documents often articulate strategies and approaches that police organizations want to implement in their efforts to break down barriers with minority groups. However, most police policy documents are written for police audiences and not for members of the public. Police policy documents serve as a reflection of the aspirations of the agency and not necessarily the practice of the officers. Differential policing has been a salient experience for members of transgender communities because, as individuals who express gender in ways that deviate from the norm, they have experienced numerous documented cases of police mismanaged practice. In Australia, achieving police reform in the area of policing of diverse community groups has been difficult as new initiatives implemented to educate police officers about diverse groups such as transgender communities are scarce. My study sought to analyze a police policy document to assess how one police agency’s policy aspires to shape police contact/experiences with transgender people and how this document might shape intergroup identity differences between transgender people and the police. It is argued that the policy document will negatively affect police perceptions of transgender people and may enhance adverse perceptions of intergroup difference between police and transgender people. I also argue that using this document to achieve police reform in the area of policing of transgender people will be problematic as the policy document lacks substantial procedural guidelines regarding interaction with transgender people and may not favorably constrain discretionary police power.

  5. 25 CFR 11.1001 - Warrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1001 Warrant. The children's court may issue a warrant directing that a minor be taken into custody if the court finds there is probable cause to believe the minor committed...

  6. Designing Multidimensional Policing Strategy And Organization: Towards A Synthesis Of Professional And Community Police Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suve Priit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse professional police and community policing in view of professionalism, strategy and structures. We aim to find ways for synthesizing these models that are usually seen as incompatible. Unlike many earlier studies of police organizations or strategies, we view strategies in the organization at the corporate, functional and operational levels, and argue that by combining them with functional and divisional principles of structuring, it is possible to place professional strategy at the core of policing, while using the community policing strategy mainly as a component part of the strategy in the framework of divisional organization. This way it is possible to avoid the risk of alienating police from the community and to ensure the successful implementation of corporate strategy through providing professional police units that perform the narrow functions, with quick and adequate information from the community.

  7. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  8. Policing Football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  9. War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Hannah L F

    2015-01-01

    War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.

  10. Researchers Study Police Brutality against Hispanics and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    1993-01-01

    Research on police brutality against ethnic groups is increasing, particularly in Latino communities. Findings suggest a pattern of abuse, often without evidence of a crime and without appropriate review of police action. It is suggested that abuse will abate only when police departments operate openly and undergo public scrutiny. (MSE)

  11. Combating Terrorism Within Local Policing Through Crime Reduction: Using Real-Time, Situational Awareness Within a Distributed Common Operating Picture to Combat all Crime and Terrorism V2I2SION Process and SAFECOP Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    System ATM Automated Teller Machine AKA Also Known As COP Common Operating Picture CompStat Computer Statistics CAD Computer Aided Dispatch...to today in Tampa, Florida and quote the current police chief, Jane Castor, who commonly says to the community, “There are over 340,000 of you

  12. Royal Commissions into Policing: Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Beckley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.

  13. 'Good Order and Police'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of police ordinances and police authorities in the early modern period has traditionally been seen as a way to discipline society in order to increase the power of the absolutist state. However, recent investigations of early modern policing in German and French regions show...... that ‘good order and police’ was in demand by the subjects and also adapted to local needs. Inspired by this research this article investigates the enforcement of police ordinances in the market towns of Aalborg and Sæby and the country district of Børglum-Jerslev. The results show that policing remained...... focused on local needs even after the creation of a royal police office in 1682. Policing mainly concerned the welfare and privileges of burghers in market towns until the introduction of a country police in 1791, when agrarian reforms began to erode the patriarchal order in the countryside. As a new way...

  14. Police Training in El Salvador: Challenges and Opportunities in Promoting the Community Police Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Carolina Arévalo Herrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Peace Accords emphasized creating a new police force that would be diametrically opposite to previous security forces. This change would have to be expressed symbolically, and from the onset it would have to underscore the fact that the main weapon of the police would be intelligence. From its foundation to June 2011, a total of 30,344 people have graduated from the Academy. Currently, in the process of training new police with greater quality, and modernizing the entire police force, it faces the difficult challenge of adopting the Community Police philosophy to empower this model for action, promoting a new relationship between community and law enforcement, and between managers and operational personnel in the agency. Nevertheless,police training is not enough if there are no significantchanges in the organizational climate and culture within the law enforcement agency.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1390

  15. Police in political life

    OpenAIRE

    Kešetović, Želimir

    2012-01-01

    In the paper author is are discussing on the general level relations between the police and politics and the most important factors that determine the nature of this relations. He describes the way the politics directly or indirectly interfere and influence police work, and also how the police influence politics and interfere political processes, emphasizing the principle of political neutrality of the police and pointing out the problems in fulfillment of this principle. The position of the ...

  16. Analysis towards Effective Policing in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    director operation, training, communications, and the mobile police. The Directorate of Administration was composed of an administration unit headed by an assistant inspector general (AIG), and budget and personnel ..... welfare activities.

  17. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people’s beliefs about a neighbourhood’s social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared people’s perceptions of social capital and fear of crime in disordered and ordered neighbourhoods, either with a police presence or no police presence. In all studies, neighbourhood disorder lowered perceptions of social capital, resulting in a higher fear of crime. Police presence or absence had no significant effect. The pervasive effects of disorder above other environmental cues are discussed.

  18. Evolution of worker policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-06-21

    Workers in insect societies are sometimes observed to kill male eggs of other workers, a phenomenon known as worker policing. We perform a mathematical analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of policing. We investigate the selective forces behind policing for both dominant and recessive mutations for different numbers of matings of the queen. The traditional, relatedness-based argument suggests that policing evolves if the queen mates with more than two males, but does not evolve if the queen mates with a single male. We derive precise conditions for the invasion and stability of policing alleles. We find that the relatedness-based argument is not robust with respect to small changes in colony efficiency caused by policing. We also calculate evolutionarily singular strategies and determine when they are evolutionarily stable. We use a population genetics approach that applies to dominant or recessive mutations of any effect size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The accuracy of auditors' and layered voice Analysis (LVA) operators' judgments of truth and deception during police questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Frank; McCloughan, Jamie; Weatherman, Dan; Slowik, Stanley

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if auditors could identify truthful and deceptive persons in a sample (n = 74) of audio recordings used to assess the effectiveness of layered voice analysis (LVA). The LVA employs an automated algorithm to detect deception, but it was not effective here. There were 31 truthful and 43 deceptive persons in the sample and two LVA operators averaged 48% correct decisions on truth-tellers and 25% on deceivers. Subsequent to the LVA analysis the recordings were audited by three interviewers, each independently rendering a decision of truthful or deceptive and indicating their confidence. Auditors' judgments averaged 68% correct decisions on truth-tellers and 71% on deceivers. Auditors' detection rates, generally, exceeded chance and there was significantly (p < 0.05) greater confidence on correct than incorrect judgments of deceivers but not on truth-tellers. These results suggest that the success reported for LVA analysis may be due to operator's judgment.

  20. Police Leadership and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Beckley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Book Review -- Police Leadership and Management by Margaret Mitchell and John Casey (editors, Federation Press, Sydney, 2007, 290 pages, ISBN 9781862876491, Reviewed by Alan Beckley

  1. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  2. Police and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  3. Policing Metropolitan America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Elinor; And Others

    This study concerns police services delivery in small-to-medium sized metropolitan areas. It addresses three broad issues: the producers of police services, agency cooperation and service delivery, and agency size and service delivery. Each issue is treated in a separate chapter and includes a discussion of several related questions. The 80…

  4. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inex

  5. Drug policing in four Danish police districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houborg, Esben; Kammersgaard, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael Mulbjerg

    2016-01-01

    studies show ambiguous results. Criminal records do not indicate that particular people are singled out. Interviews with police officers indicate that appearance of persons and non-offending behavior can play a role in suspicion formation and legal action. The ambiguity of the results can be seen...

  6. Pittsburgh Police Incident Blotter

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Police blotter information is a listing of arrests that are documented very shortly after an arrest occurs but does not include investigative, intelligence, nor...

  7. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  8. Pittsburgh Police Arrest Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...

  9. Pharmacy inspections: constitutional without a warrant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsmeier, L M

    1979-01-01

    The implications of the 1978 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Marshall vs. Barlow's, Inc., regarding warrantless inspections of pharmacies are discussed. Reviewed are the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, related U.S. Supreme Court decisions (Camera vs. Municipal Court and See vs. City of Seattle), new "probable cause" standards, and exceptions to the requirement of warrants for inspections. The effect of the Barlow's case with specific reference to FDA, DEA and state board of pharmacy inspections is discussed. Although the Barlow's case has provided further case law in the area of administrative inspections, each case still requires individual resolution. DEA inspections are well delineated by statute and regulation. Under the "licensing exceptions," warrantless pharmacy inspections by the FDA and by boards of pharmacy are probably permissible.

  10. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  11. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  12. Predictors of Police Suicide Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Further inquiry into processes that lead to suicide in the police occupation is necessary. Suicide ideation in police officers and possible correlates associated with such ideation is explored in this paper. The focus was on psychologically traumatic police work experiences, the development of posttraumatic stress (PTSD) in officers, and the…

  13. Total Warrant Officer System (TWOS). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-30

    Aviation Center ( ) ... ................... . CbMrAndant, US Army Aviation LogisticsSchool (A2SQ-PN) ....................... 3 Omandant , us m Chemical...Sanborn, Frederick S. CW2 AG ADP Operations Simms, Gary N. CW2 AG Admin. Officer Wirth, Barry 0. CW2 AG USAR Representative Newman, David E. SFC 75Z

  14. Norwegian police students' attitudes towards armament

    OpenAIRE

    Fekjær, Silje Bringsrud; Strype, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Whether the police should routinely carry firearms is an ongoing debate in Norway. Although the police can carry weapons under special circumstances, the normal situation for the police in Norway is to store firearms in sealed cases in the police cars until armament orders are given by the police chief. In the present study, we examine attitudes towards routine police armament among Norwegian police students. First, we investigate the distribution of these attitudes among the students, and th...

  15. 我国警察执法权益保护机制探析--运行实效与制度完善%On the Operation Effectiveness of Rights Protection Mechanism of Police Law Enforcement and Its System Perfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国强

    2014-01-01

    自2000年以来,学界和实务界关于警察执法权益保护的讨论逐渐增多。总体而言,我国以法律法规等规范性文件为基础,以警务督察制度为核心的内部保护机制和以社会建设为中心的外部保护环境已逐步建立和形成。但是这一机制尚存诸多不足。立足于对这些制度的运行实效分析和运行环境评估,辨析其利弊,进行有针对性的改进和改善乃当务之急。%Since 2000 , the discussion on rights and interests protection of police law enforcement in the aca-demic circle and the practical circle has gradually increased .Generally speaking , the external protection mecha-nism is gradually established on the basis of normative documents of the laws and regulations .Its core is the social construction internal mechanism of policing supervision system , and the center is the social construction .But there are many problems in these systems .This paper tries to analyze the operation effectiveness of the current systems and assess the operation surroundings with the aim of looking for further improvement .

  16. Leadership methods in contemporary police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leadership skills and experience in leadership have a special significance for every police force at every level of the organization. Legal daily tasks performed every day by the police, the different ways used in the performance of specific legal tasks assigned and, without doubt, the way of the leadership of the police services in the process of taking these measures, affect often the police to be not rare in the focus of criticism. This is done especially by the part of society known as uncooperative with the police. Ensuring good leadership in the police is a must for a civilized society; it is an assurance to protect the freedoms and rights of every individual, the stability and security of society as a whole. Education and schooling of police leaders is undoubtedly an important component for providing good leadership to the police. The same service for every citizen and social group should characterize the daily work of every police leader. Police undoubtedly belongs to all people and not of any political party. Therefore, each leader must have the imagination for dynamic developments within the police and society in general. The participation of leaders in various police actions would be an incentive for workers and other commanding staff. Leadership from office is a poison to sound relations in the unit (James, 1960, 261. A tool that helps the leader in his/her work, especially in the realization of the objectives set by him/herself - is how he/she supervises or controls the results of the police organization.

  17. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  18. Street policing, injecting drug use and harm reduction in a Russian city: a qualitative study of police perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Sarang, Anya; Vlasov, Alexander; Mikhailova, Larissa; Monaghan, Geoff

    2006-09-01

    We undertook a qualitative exploration of police perspectives on injecting drug use and needle and syringe access among injecting drug users (IDUs) in a Russian city which has witnessed explosive spread of HIV associated with drug injecting. Twenty-seven in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in May 2002 with police officers of varying rank who reported having regular contact with IDUs. All interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, translated and coded thematically. Accounts upheld an approach to policing which emphasised high street-based visibility and close surveillance of IDUs. IDUs were depicted as 'potential criminals' warranting a 'pre-emptive' approach to the prevention of drug-related crime. Street policing was described as a means of maintaining close surveillance leading to the official registration of persons suspected or proven to be users of illicit drugs. Such registration enabled further ongoing surveillance, including through stop and search procedures. While aware of drug users' reluctance to carry injecting equipment linked to their fears of detention or arrest, accounts suggested that the confiscation of previously used injecting equipment can constitute evidence in relation to drugs possession charges and that discovery of clean injecting equipment may be sufficient to raise suspicion and/or further investigation, including through stop and search or questioning. Our findings suggest an uneasy relationship between street policing and needle and syringe access, whereby policing strategies can undermine an HIV prevention ethos promoting needle and syringe accessibility among IDUs. We conclude that facilitating partnerships between policing agencies and HIV prevention initiatives are a critical feature of creating environments conducive for risk reduction.

  19. Relationship Between the Police Educational Formation System and Public Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Beu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The harmonization between the Albanian police education system and the EuropeanFramework and in particular with the Bologna System is a must of nowadays and for thepolice organization itself. In this context, the police organization needs to be upgradeespecially in the upper level but it can’t be understood without an adequate educationalsystem. Currently, the challenges of the police education system face some obstacles offormation type which lead to a lack in the police education to achieve university levels.This will return into a boomerang for the forthcoming generations which are beingprepared to be police staff, due to the lack of relevant university education. Based on thecurrent education model, a police officer recruit has the opportunity to joint policeorganization after the high school (18 years old, and his education level is destined to benot upgraded in any way in order to reach university levels. It seems that Albania has somuch need to an escalation process when it comes to the police education system that itcan accept a missing formation which could lead to real problems in the near future. Thistype of model could function in the basic operational level but it is destined tomalfunction in the upper level of leadership. In this contexts it is needed a paralleluniversity education level associated to the police education formation in order toupgrade the police leadership. Currently, there is no experience of cooperation betweenuniversities and police formation institution in this regard. In Europe and other countriesof the Region the main goal is the unification of curricula in order to have some commoncore curricula and in this manner to improve the mutual exchange of students and cadetsfrom one to another institution and from one to another country. This is absolutelyachievable also in police education and formation framework. A more effectivecooperation and exchange process of students among police academies and

  20. Police enforcement and traffic safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Wesemann, P.

    1988-01-01

    Research has clearly shown that police-enforcement can improve road safety, and it can be questioned whether the police organisation is prepared and able to give priority to preventive control in stead of repression. Dutch police officers aim primarily at catching offenders, not deterring them. Further, many policymakers and citizens prefer other solutions for this type of problems. An opponent remark is presented by J. Dilling.

  1. Leadership methods in contemporary police

    OpenAIRE

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-01-01

    Leadership skills and experience in leadership have a special significance for every police force at every level of the organization. Legal daily tasks performed every day by the police, the different ways used in the performance of specific legal tasks assigned and, without doubt, the way of the leadership of the police services in the process of taking these measures, affect often the police to be not rare in the focus of criticism. This is done especially by the part of society known as un...

  2. Leadership methods in contemporary police

    OpenAIRE

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-01-01

    Leadership skills and experience in leadership have a special significance for every police force at every level of the organization. Legal daily tasks performed every day by the police, the different ways used in the performance of specific legal tasks assigned and, without doubt, the way of the leadership of the police services in the process of taking these measures, affect often the police to be not rare in the focus of criticism. This is done especially by the part of society known as un...

  3. A Development Model for Foreign Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    automated fingerprint identification system. And lastly, it sought to provide training to Malian and other regional police on countering money laundering and...international policies” (Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development 2005, 2). Consisting of Australia , Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech...reliable or significant funding support plan for the PNTL until 2004, when Australia committed AU$40 million over four years (Hood 2006). Another

  4. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip;

    2016-01-01

    observations between March 6th and May 9th 2016. The report provides a detailed, comprehensive, in depth and powerful review of the nature of the safety and security problems being confronted by Swedish top flight football and in so doing provides some critical analysis of existing practices, as well...... of evidence gathering in order to analyse, identify and develop good practice in the management of crowds attending Swedish Professional Football matches. This is the first full report from the second phase of the ENABLE project with a specific focus on policing and stewarding on the basis of five field...

  5. Preparation of Police Fitness Instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingwood, Thomas R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Concern about the declining level of physical fitness of police officers has led the Bureau of Training of the Kentucky Department of Justice and the Department of Physical Education at Eastern Kentucky University to implement a training course for police instructors. (LH)

  6. On Teaching Material Development of Police English for Police College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌晓靖

    2013-01-01

    English plays an important role in foreign police affairs. To well master the language has become a must for policemen. While, police English teaching materials haven’t been divorced from ordinary academic education, without its own police educa⁃tion characteristics. It has been far behind the real need, which can’t adapt to the new situation. Ideas of the development of teaching material have been proposed: to be practical; to highlight the vocational characteristics; to increase the real situation, to pay attention to cross-cultural communication and to form stereoscopic and individual teaching material system.

  7. POLICE OFFICE MODEL IMPROVEMENT FOR SECURITY OF SWARM ROBOTIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on aspects of information security for group of mobile robotic systems with swarm intellect. The ways for hidden attacks realization by the opposing party on swarm algorithm are discussed. We have fulfilled numerical modeling of potentially destructive information influence on the ant shortest path algorithm. We have demonstrated the consequences of attacks on the ant algorithm with different concentration in a swarm of subversive robots. Approaches are suggested for information security mechanisms in swarm robotic systems, based on the principles of centralized security management for mobile agents. We have developed the method of forming a self-organizing information security management system for robotic agents in swarm groups implementing POM (Police Office Model – a security model based on police offices, to provide information security in multi-agent systems. The method is based on the usage of police station network in the graph nodes, which have functions of identification and authentication of agents, identifying subversive robots by both their formal characteristics and their behavior in the swarm. We have suggested a list of software and hardware components for police stations, consisting of: communication channels between the robots in police office, nodes register, a database of robotic agents, a database of encryption and decryption module. We have suggested the variants of logic for the mechanism of information security in swarm systems with different temporary diagrams of data communication between police stations. We present comparative analysis of implementation of protected swarm systems depending on the functioning logic of police offices, integrated in swarm system. It is shown that the security model saves the ability to operate in noisy environments, when the duration of the interference is comparable to the time necessary for the agent to overcome the path between police stations.

  8. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  9. The approach adopted by police enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    It is indicated how police enforcement can be effectively implemented. Police enforcement is linked to other measures in order to achieve safe behaviour. Police enforcement represents an important instrument in the stimulation of safe behaviour. Police enforcement has a bearing on how road users eva

  10. Police Response to Family Abduction Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass, Peggy S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines role of police in responding to family abduction episodes using data from a national survey. Addresses questions concerning frequency of police involvement, how abductions to which police respond differ from those to which they don't, actions taken by police, and the effects of their actions on episode outcomes. (LKS)

  11. Some Remarks on Bonjour on Warrant, Proper Function, and Defeasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin P. Ruloff

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of counterexamples have recently been leveled against Alvin Plantinga's Proper Functionalism, counterexamples aimed at showing that Plantinga's theory fads to provide sufficient conditions for warrant — that elusive epistemic property which together with true belief yields knowledge Among these counterexamples, Laurence Bonjour s is perhaps the most formidable and, if successful, shows that Proper Functionalism is simply too weak to serve as an acceptable theory of warrant In this paper, I argue that, contrary to initial appearances, BonJour's counterexample is not successful More exactly, I argue that, once it is recognized that a defeasibility constraint is deeply embedded within Plantinga's proper function condition for warrant — a constraint which says, in effect, that a belief B is warranted for an agent S only of S does not possess any defeaters against B — BonJour's counterexample to Proper Functionalism can be handled quite straightforwardly

  12. Promotional and Non-Stereotypical Policing Roles: Are Women Opting Out?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an appearance that women are uninterested in applying for positions in specialist areas of policing such as tactical operations, traffic and highway patrol, and counterterrorism. It cannot be assumed however that the low numbers of women is indicative of a lack of interest or will to be involved in these areas as there may be unidentified structural impediments preventing them from gaining access to these jobs. This paper critically discusses the issues relevant to women’s involvement in specialist policing roles and what can be done by police leaders to encourage greater employment of women in specialist policing roles.

  13. Policing the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.

  14. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2013-05-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these tests (excluding

  15. Security During Nigeria’s 2015 National Elections: What Should We Expect From the Police?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Progressives Congress CID Criminal Investigation Division DFID Department for International Development FCT Federal Capital Territory IGP Inspector-General...states, the chairman of the Police Service Commission (PSC), and the inspector-general of police ( IGP ...training; and planning, research, and statistics. The IGP (Figure 3) sits at Force Headquarters as well, using it as his operational and

  16. Police Encounters with People with Intellectual Disability: Prevalence, Characteristics and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, M.; Thomas, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the experiences and perceptions of operational members of Victoria Police in relation to their contacts with people with intellectual disability (ID). Key interests for exploration included how frequently and in what context police reported coming into contact with people with ID, how they made this…

  17. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  18. Policing Diversity: Examining Police Resistance to Training Reforms for Transgender People in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Using field notes collected from participant observation of Australian police officers training to work with the transgender community, the current research builds on previous work examining social identity theory (Tajfel, 2010) to explain how one training program implemented to educate police about transgender people challenges police culture. This research determines that police culture, training procedures, and stereotypes of gender are equally influential on police perceptions of all transgender people. Overall, the results indicate that negative police perceptions toward police training reforms strengthen in-group identity of police, and negative out-group perceptions of transgender people.

  19. Examining Literary Warrant in Ancient Chinese Book Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chen Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the application of literary warrant—a key principle in modern classification theory—in traditional Chinese bibliographic classifications for the purpose of improving the understanding of classification theory in the Chinese tradition. The concept of literary warrant is first briefly discussed. Next, the author analyzes a number of selected book classification systems from premodern China to determine whether literary warrant is a factor in their design and how it is applied. This paper concludes with a summary of the findings. [Article content in Chinese

  20. The enforcement of cooperation by policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A; Gardner, Andy

    2010-07-01

    Policing is regarded as an important mechanism for maintaining cooperation in human and animal social groups. A simple model providing a theoretical overview of the coevolution of policing and cooperation has been analyzed by Frank (1995, 1996b, 2003, 2009), and this suggests that policing will evolve to fully suppress cheating within social groups when relatedness is low. Here, we relax some of the assumptions made by Frank, and investigate the consequences for policing and cooperation. First, we address the implicit assumption that the individual cost of investment into policing is reduced when selfishness dominates. We find that relaxing this assumption leads to policing being favored only at intermediate relatedness. Second, we address the assumption that policing fully recovers the loss of fitness incurred by the group owing to selfishness. We find that relaxing this assumption prohibits the evolution of full policing. Finally, we consider the impact of demography on the coevolution of policing and cooperation, in particular the role for kin competition to disfavor the evolution of policing, using both a heuristic "open" model and a "closed" island model. We find that large groups and increased kin competition disfavor policing, and that policing is maintained more readily than it invades. Policing may be harder to evolve than previously thought.

  1. An exploration of job stress and health in the Norwegian police service: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeberg Øivind

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Police work is regarded as a high-stress occupation, but so far, no nationwide study has explored the associations between work stress and health. Aims To explore physical and mental health among Norwegian police and associations to job stress. Comparisons were made with a nationwide sample of Norwegian physicians and the general Norwegian population. Methods Comprehensive nationwide questionnaire survey of 3,272 Norwegian police at all hierarchical levels, including the Norwegian Police Stress Survey with two factors (serious operational tasks and work injuries, the Job Stress Survey with two factors (job pressure and lack of support, the Basic Character Inventory, the Subjective Health Complaint questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Paykel's Suicidal Feelings in the General Population. Results The frequency of job pressure and lack of support was mainly associated to physical and mental health problems. Females showed higher means on anxiety symptoms than males (4.2, SD 2.9 and 3.7, SD 2.9, respectively; p Conclusion This is the first nationwide study to explore job stress and physical and mental health in police. The results indicate that Norwegian police have high levels of musculoskeletal health problems mainly associated to the frequency of job pressure and lack of support. However, also frequent exposure to work injuries was associated to health problems. This may indicate that daily routine work as well as police operational duties must be taken into consideration in assessing job stress and police health.

  2. A Training Method to Improve Police Use of Force Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P. Andersen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Police safety and use of force decisions during critical incidents are an ongoing source of concern for both police practitioners and the public. Prior research in the area of police performance reveals that psychological and physiological stress responses during critical incidents can shape the outcome of the incident, either positively or negatively. The goal of this study was to test a training method to improve use of force decision making among police. This randomized controlled pilot study consisted of training officers to apply techniques to enhance psychological and physiological control during stressful critical incidents. Of a pool of 80 police officers, potential participants were invited based on equivalent age, years of experience, physiological characteristics (i.e., body mass index [BMI] and cardiovascular reactivity, and expertise. Results revealed that the intervention group displayed significantly better physiological control, situational awareness, and overall performance, and made a greater number of correct use of force decisions than officers in the control group (all ps < .01. The relevant improvements in use of force decision-making found in this pilot study indicate that this training method warrants further investigation. Improved use of force decision making directly translates into potential lifesaving decisions for police and the civilians they are working with.

  3. Global Policing and the Case of Kim Dotcom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Palmer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In early 2012, 76 heavily armed police conducted a raid on a house in Auckland, New Zealand. The targets were Kim Dotcom, a German national with a NZ residency visa, and several colleagues affiliated with Megaupload, an online subscription-based peer-to-peer (P2P file sharing facility. The alleged offences involved facilitating unlawful file sharing and United States federal criminal copyright violations. Following the raid, several court cases provide valuable insights into emerging ‘global policing’ practices (Bowling and Sheptycki 2012 based on communications between sovereign enforcement agencies.  This article uses these cases to explore the growth of ‘extraterritorial’ police powers that operate ‘across borders’ (Nadelmann 1993 as part of several broader transformations of global policing in the digital age.

  4. External Police Oversight in Mexico: Experiences, Challenges, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Guzmán Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After nearly 20 years of ‘reformist’ measures, the police in Mexico continues to be an ineffective, unreliable, and ‘far from citizen’ institution. The efforts made so far have faded amongst political interests and agendas; multidimensional frameworks out-dated at both conceptual and interagency levels; short-sighted competition for resources; evaluation and performance monitors that are handicapped by bureaucratic inaction; and weak transparency and accountability that perpetuate the opacity in which the police operate. In this context, the agenda of external police oversight is still at a rudimentary stage. However, there are several initiatives that have managed to push the issue to the frontier of new knowledge and promising practices. This paper outlines the experiences and challenges of—as well as the lessons learned by—the Institute for Security and Democracy (Insyde A.C., one of the most recognised think tanks in Mexico.

  5. POLICE ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM IN ENGLAND AND WALES

    OpenAIRE

    Balcıoğlu, Ercan; Pala, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    This article provides the reader with a literature review with the aim of finding out about the origin and system of police accountability in England and Wales. It is hoped that the article will help to identify some important conceptual considerations that ought to betaken into account by any professional and responsible police departments seeking to embrace accountability in its policing procedures.This article explores the sensitive issue of police accountability to civilian oversight bodi...

  6. Using Warrants As a Window to Epistemic Framing

    CERN Document Server

    Bing, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Mathematics can serve many functions in physics. It can provide a computational system, reflect a physical idea, conveniently encode a rule, and so forth. A physics student thus has many different options for using mathematics in his physics problem solving. We present a short example from the problem solving work of upper level physics students and use it to illustrate the epistemic framing process: framing because these students are focusing on a subset of their total math knowledge, epistemic because their choice of subset relates to what they see (at that particular time) as the nature of the math knowledge in play. We illustrate how looking for the warrants students use, the often unspoken reasons they think their evidence supports their mathematical claims, serves as a window to their epistemic framing. These warrants provide a powerful, concise piece of evidence of their epistemic framing.

  7. Social evolution: policing without genetic conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2013-03-04

    Insect societies have evolved ways of policing selfish behaviour that arises due to genetic conflicts within the colony. A new case of policing in an ant where colony members are genetically identical highlights the role of colony economics for policing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oversight of the Liberian National Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Capetown , 2005. 3 Open Society Foundation for South Africa, Strengthening Police Oversight in South Africa, 2005. African Experience 7 The national...Berg, Police Accountability in Southern Africa Commonwealth Countries, Cape Town, South Africa: Institute of Crimi- nology, University of Capetown ...Institute of Criminology, University of Capetown , 2005. ———, Police Accountability in Southern Africa Commonwealth Countries, Cape Town, South Africa

  9. A Bibliography on Police and Community Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Martin G., Comp.

    A reflection of concerns of social scientists and of those involved in law enforcement, this extensive bibliography on police and community relations covers general material (including historical reviews); problems and approaches in police administration; the police image and community relations; the impact of the civil rights movement and civil…

  10. Police Brutality--the New Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Ruben; Martinez, Douglas R.

    1978-01-01

    Recently, incidents of police abuse against Hispanics have increased so rapidly that the phenomenon has been called an epidemic. Of special concern to Hispanic leaders is the lack of Federal intervention in these police brutality cases. A list of 56 documented cases involving police brutality against Hispanics is included. (Author/NQ)

  11. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  12. Mentoring First Year Police Constables: Police Mentors' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Mark A.; McKenzie, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Mentoring as a tool for the support and development of novices in many organisations has been considered a putative success. Nevertheless, the literature reveals a paucity of reporting of the mentoring strategies used within the policing profession within Australia. This paper aims to focus on what mentoring is and how it is deployed from…

  13. At the Heart of Policing: Emotional labor among police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R. van Gelderen (Benjamin R.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDuring my work as a police officer, I encountered many emotional demanding situations in which my colleagues and I often seemed to act unfelt emotions or suppressed emotions that would better not be displayed at that particular moment. For instance, during my first weeks of duty I wonder

  14. At the Heart of Policing: Emotional labor among police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R. van Gelderen (Benjamin R.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDuring my work as a police officer, I encountered many emotional demanding situations in which my colleagues and I often seemed to act unfelt emotions or suppressed emotions that would better not be displayed at that particular moment. For instance, during my first weeks of duty I

  15. The European integration in criminal field the European arrest warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri Marco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with some thesis in connection with the European arrest warrant experience, what will be an interesting test for many EU countries. It affects prerogatives always reserved to state-power and main expression of national sovereignty. Anyway, bringing up to the theoretical elaboration of the so-called "third pillar", it needs to set them in action, and verify if European states are really willing to create a common juridical space putting apart claims and prejudices. Most of appraisals addressed to European arrest warrant seem to repudiate just the principle of mutual confidence in respective judiciary systems, principle the new form of cooperation is based on. Briefly, they assert a decision issued by another Member State wouldn't assure all guarantees as own juridical system. Reform would surely have been more effective and consistent if, before creating a common procedure substantial rules were set. European arrest warrant was born in order to replace the long and complex extradition system with a quick and effective tool, fit for contrasting new forms of criminality, that are able to profit boundary openings in order to escape justice.

  16. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Allison L; Haas, Ingrid J

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.

  17. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Louise Skinner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community. In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.

  18. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Allison L.; Haas, Ingrid J.

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform. PMID:27462294

  19. Police enforcement and driving speed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Speed limits are violated frequently in the Netherlands. As speed is an important factor in road crashes, the surveillance of driving speeds is one of the spearheads in the policy plans of the Dutch police. Different methods of speed enforcement have proved to be effective in reducing speed and cras

  20. Alleviating Stress In Police Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Neely

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Policestress has been examined in many studies, many of which have focused upon thedevelopment of prevention and treatment programs for the police officers(Maslach, 1982; Maslach & Jackson, 1979; Mitchell, 1983; Mitchell &Everly, 1993. The trend of combating stress began with the police agenciesusing employee assistance programs, funding conferences, conducting research,and establishing prevention programs, but the fact remains that the health ofpolice officers and their families becomes a large concern as most officerstend not use free counseling due to concerns regarding confidentiality and thecompetence of the counselors. An example of one program is the New JerseyCOP-2-COP confidential hotline for police officers and their families (Ussery& Waters, 2006. COP-2-COP was a volunteer program and its usefulness wasseen post-September 11, 2001, in its response to the needs of the survivors ofthe World Trade Center disaster and also after the New Orleans disaster in theCritical Incident Stress Debriefing process after Hurricane Katrina.  Police stress can have a bad influence onpolice performance and can cause many problems such as poor job performance,increased accidents, sleep disturbances, marital discord, domestic violence,posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide, alcohol and other drugabuse, ulcers and other digestive disorders, respiratory ailments, andcardiovascular disease.

  1. Police reporting and professional help seeking for child crime victims: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, D; Wolak, J; Berliner, L

    2001-02-01

    Most crimes with child victims are not reported to police, nor do child victims access other professional victim services, despite evidence that these yield positive outcomes. This article develops a conceptual framework about the barriers to such access: (a) the reluctance to define the crime episodes or their consequences as serious, criminal, harmful, or warranting intervention; (b) the extra authorities, including parents and schools, who mediate between victims and police or services; (c) developmental issues, such as concerns about autonomy; (d) attitudinal and emotional obstacles; and (e) time and expense factors. This article suggests the need for initiatives to stimulate reporting and help seeking, such as more publicity about the seriousness of juvenile victimization, more justice-system involvement with schools, more child and family friendly police services, and an emphasis on attractive outcomes such as justice and empowerment.

  2. Suicide in police--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, E; Berg, A M; Ekeberg, A O

    2001-01-01

    Police officers are commonly referred to as a high-risk group for suicide. So far no comprehensive review has been published about epidemiologic studies among police. This article systematically explores the worldwide literature on suicide in police. None of the recent nationwide studies show elevated suicide rates among police. Other studies show inconsistent results. Conclusively, it is not documented that there is an elevated suicide rate in police. A particular problem in previous research has been methodological shortcomings. There is need for further systematic research, and this review points out some strategies of research.

  3. Judicial Cooperation Based On a European Evidence Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Laura Pamfil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of a better judicial cooperation between European Union Member States is aconstant preoccupation of the Council of Europe, taking into consideration that the European Union has setitself the objective of maintaining and developing an area of freedom, security and justice. The achievementof this objective is only possible if among EU Member States there is a high level of confidence and a mutualrecognition of the decisions issued by the competent judicial authorities. The European arrest warrant was thefirst concrete measure in the field of criminal law implementing the principle of mutual recognition which theEuropean Council referred to as cornerstone of judicial cooperation. It was followed by other measuresdesigned to create the legal framework of the judicial cooperation; some of these measures concerns the fightagainst corruption, terrorism, cross-border criminality, racism and xenophobia while others are applicable inany case, such as the order of freezing the property and the evidence. On 18 December 2008, a newinstrument was created in order to improve the judicial cooperation between the Member States: the Europeanevidence warrant. Its purpose is to assure the obtaining of the objects, documents and data which may be usedas evidence in proceedings in criminal matters in issuing State, from another Member State. So, the aim ofthis Framework Decision is to complete the provision of the Decision on the execution of orders freezingproperty and evidence which is not talking about the transfer of the evidence after the freezing.Romania, like the other European Union Member States must transpose the provision of this Decision in thenational law by 19 January 2011. That is why we would like to analyse the procedures and the safeguardsprovided by this Decision and to show the way we see the European evidence warrant settled in ourlegislation.

  4. "Just Being Mean to Somebody Isn't a Police Matter": Police Perspectives on Policing Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…

  5. "Just Being Mean to Somebody Isn't a Police Matter": Police Perspectives on Policing Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…

  6. Diversity Policing–Policing Diversity: Performing Ethnicity in Police and Private-Security Work in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Hansen Löfstrand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon two separate studies on policing in Sweden, both investigating “ethnic diversity” as a discourse and a practice in the performance of policing functions: one interview study with minority police officers from a county police authority and one ethnographic study of private security officers. To examine how “diversity policing” and the “policing of diversity” are performed by policing actors, their strategic reliance on an ethnically diverse workforce is examined. The official discourse in both contexts stressed “diversity policing” as a valuable resource for the effective execution of policing tasks and the legitimation of policing functions. There was, however, also another, more unofficial discourse on ethnicity that heavily influenced the policing agents’ day-to-day work. The resulting practice of “policing diversity” involved situated activities on the ground through which “foreign elements” in the population were policed using ethnicized stereotypes. Diversity in the policing workforce promoted the practice of ethnic matching, which, ironically, in turn perpetuated stereotypical thinking about Swedish “others”. A conceptual framework is developed for understanding the policing strategies involved and the disjuncture found between the widely accepted rationalities for recruiting an ethnically diverse workforce and the realities for that workforce’s effective deployment at the street level.

  7. Understanding Community Policing as an Innovation: Patterns of Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Melissa Schaefer

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, community policing was viewed by many as a radical innovation in the field of policing, with the vast majority of police agencies reporting to have adopted the approach. Despite its overwhelming popularity, most police agencies did not adopt the central elements of community policing. This study examines patterns of…

  8. Understanding Community Policing as an Innovation: Patterns of Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Melissa Schaefer

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, community policing was viewed by many as a radical innovation in the field of policing, with the vast majority of police agencies reporting to have adopted the approach. Despite its overwhelming popularity, most police agencies did not adopt the central elements of community policing. This study examines patterns of…

  9. The effects of education on police officer job satisfaction: The case of Turkish National Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Balcı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been an assumed relationship between police officer job satisfaction and education for many decades. There is small number of quantitative research to demonstrate the relationship between education and police officer job satisfaction. This study examines to what extent education is related to job satisfaction facets, including police officers’ satisfaction with colleagues, supervisors, promotions and work. The population of this study consisted of police officers of all ranks from various departments of the Turkish National Police (TNP. This study specifically addresses the question of intrinsic job satisfaction and education for police officers. These findings should add to management literature on job satisfaction and provide some of the first findings of this type for a police population, because there are already some studies in general on the relationship between education and job satisfaction which are mentioned in the literature review. This study also contributes to the body of literature that exists on police officer satisfaction and education.

  10. The effects of education on police officer job satisfaction: The case of Turkish National Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Balcı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been an assumed relationship between police officer job satisfaction and education for many decades. There is small number of quantitative research to demonstrate the relationship between education and police officer job satisfaction. This study examines to what extent education is related to job satisfaction facets, including police officers��� satisfaction with colleagues, supervisors, promotions and work. The population of this study consisted of police officers of all ranks from various departments of the Turkish National Police (TNP. This study specifically addresses the question of intrinsic job satisfaction and education for police officers. These findings should add to management literature on job satisfaction and provide some of the first findings of this type for a police population, because there are already some studies in general on the relationship between education and job satisfaction which are mentioned in the literature review. This study also contributes to the body of literature that exists on police officer satisfaction and education.

  11. Organizing Police Expeditionary Capacities: Insights into a Wicked Problem Territory with Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Unlike much peacekeeping jargon , executive policing is a fairly precise concept. It refers to the power and practice of law enforcement by...response.36 In addition, border control and counterterrorism tasks and activities (e.g., French GIGN and Spanish GAR) provide gendarmerie-type...commands, and they are seen as an ideal interface between police and military forces in peace support operations.39 For example, the Spanish Guardia Civil

  12. Prevalence of bruxism and emotional stress and the association between them in Brazilian police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Lúcia de Almeida Carvalho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of bruxism and emotional stress in Brazilian police officers, due to exposure to stressful situations, and to assess the relationship between the type of work done by a police officer and the presence of bruxism and emotional stress. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Military Police of the State of São Paulo, Campinas, SP, Brazil. The final sample included 394 male police officers (mean age = 35.5 years. Bruxism was diagnosed by the presence of aligned dental wear facets associated with the presence of one of the following signs or symptoms: self-report of tooth-grinding, painful sensitivity of the masseter and temporal muscles, discomfort in the jaw musculature upon waking. The Stress Symptoms Inventory (SSI was applied to evaluate emotional stress. The type of work done by the police was classified as organizational or operational, the latter being assumed as the more stressful since it exposes the police officer to life risk. The results showed a prevalence of bruxism of 50.2% and a prevalence of emotional stress of 45.7%. The Chi-square test indicated an association between stress and bruxism (P < .05. No significant association was found between emotional stress and type of work (P = .382 or between bruxism and work activity (P = .611. It could be concluded that emotional stress was associated with bruxism, independently of the type of work done by police officers.

  13. Relationship Between the Police Formation System and Public Security ISSN: 2239-5938 Educational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Beu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The harmonization between the Albanian police education system and the EuropeanFramework and in particular with the Bologna System is a must of nowadays and for thepolice organization itself. In this context, the police organization needs to be upgradeespecially in the upper level but it can’t be understood without an adequate educationalsystem. Currently, the challenges of the police education system face some obstacles offormation type which lead to a lack in the police education to achieve university levels.This will return into a boomerang for the forthcoming generations which are beingprepared to be police staff, due to the lack of relevant university education. Based on thecurrent education model, a police officer recruit has the opportunity to joint policeorganization after the high school (18 years old, and his education level is destined to benot upgraded in any way in order to reach university levels. It seems that Albania has somuch need to an escalation process when it comes to the police education system that itcan accept a missing formation which could lead to real problems in the near future. Thistype of model could function in the basic operational level but it is destined tomalfunction in the upper level of leadership. In this contexts it is needed a paralleluniversity education level associated to the police education formation in order toupgrade the police leadership. Currently, there is no experience of cooperation betweenuniversities and police formation institution in this regard. In Europe and other countriesof the Region the main goal is the unification of curricula in order to have some commoncore curricula and in this manner to improve the mutual exchange of students and cadetsfrom one to another institution and from one to another country. This is absolutelyachievable also in police education and formation framework. A more effectivecooperation and exchange process of students among police academies and

  14. The effects of education on police officer job satisfaction: The case of Turkish National Police

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Balcı

    2011-01-01

    There has been an assumed relationship between police officer job satisfaction and education for many decades. There is small number of quantitative research to demonstrate the relationship between education and police officer job satisfaction. This study examines to what extent education is related to job satisfaction facets, including police officers’ satisfaction with colleagues, supervisors, promotions and work. The population of this study consisted of police officers of all ranks ...

  15. Informing police, why, when, where and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul K Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of burn victims involve trauma in suspicious situation. There is inherent responsibility of all citizens, to report incidences of unexplainable nature to the police. Responsibility of a doctor is an extension of the general duty of a citizen. There are some norms, followed by doctor fraternity and the police, which actually are the guiding factors to maintain channel of information between the law enforcing agencies and the doctor. Alternate procedures of informing police are also enlisted.

  16. Police suicide research: conflict and consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M

    2008-01-01

    Despite new frontiers in suicide research over the past ten years, police suicide remains a difficult, persistent, and controversial problem. Controversy appears to focus on the accuracy and validity of police suicide rates, but other controversies exist as well. This is likely due to studies that are methodologically flawed, incomplete, or specific to limited geographic areas. The objective of this paper is to review issues related to both conflicts and consensus on police suicide.

  17. A New Paradigm for the Iraq Police: Applying Community-Oriented Policing to Iraqi Police Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    institutions to deliver services, advance the rule of law, and nurture civil society.‖ 11 The explanation of how COP actually works is covered in...signature on the Magna- Carta in 1215 granted certain rights to the people, which cleared the way for the 1285 Statute of Winchester. The statute revised...their fear regardless of the actual in crime rate. 26 Police departments worked on involving the community with a series of programs during the mid

  18. Why Community Oriented Policing Has Failed and the Rise of Policing through Practical Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Eric S.

    2008-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Justice (www.usdoj.gov), Community Policing is defined as: "The focus on crime and social disorder through the delivery of police services that includes aspects of traditional law enforcement, as well as prevention, problem-solving, community engagement, and partnerships. The community policing model balances…

  19. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing through Education for Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-01-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce…

  20. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  1. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  2. The Principle of Proportionality and the European Arrest Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Haggenmüller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Arrest Warrant (EAW is a grossly coercive instrument that was designed for the persecution of serious cross-border crimes. In recent years, however, Member States have increasingly reported cases in which EAWs have not been issued for serious, but rather for harmless and minor offences. This article analyses the reasons behind the disproportionate use of the EAW and outlines measures to alleviate the problem. Thereby, it claims that in current debates different categories of disproportionate use of EAWs are often lumped together, and only concentrate on the introduction of a (binding proportionality test, failing to consider other alternative legislative solutions regarding minor crimes, such as the introduction of new comparable and effective alternative measures. These, however, are considered to be crucial for an alleviation of disproportionate warrants. La orden de detención europea (ODE es un instrumento extremadamente coercitivo que fue diseñado para la persecución de delitos transfronterizos graves. En años recientes, sin embargo, los Estados miembro han notificado cada vez más casos en los que la ODE no se debía a delitos serios, sino a casos menores e inofensivos.. En este artículo se analizan las razones que hay detrás del uso desproporcionado de la orden de detención europea y propone medidas para paliar el problema. De esta manera, se defiende que el debate actual, frecuentemente agrupan diferentes categorías de uso desproporcionado de la ODE, y sólo se concentran en la introducción de un test de proporcionalidad (vinculante, sin tener en cuenta otras soluciones legislativas alternativas, en lo que respecta a delitos menores, como la introducción de nuevas medidas alternativas, comparables y eficaces. Sin embargo, se considera que estas medidas son cruciales para reducir las órdenes de arresto desproporcionadas. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200874

  3. Perception of police on discrimination in Serbia - results of the survey on the attitudes of public order and traffic police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekavica Radomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the results of the research on the attitudes of the public order and traffic police officers in seven regional police departments in Serbia - Belgrade, Novi Sad, Subotica, Novi Sad, Niš, Kragujevac and Zaječar. The subject of the research is the analysis of the police attitudes on discrimination, recognition of its essence, the scope of vulnerability of particular social groups and recognition of the hate speech. Also, the subject of the research is: determination of relationship with measures which should improve the position of vulnerable groups and the relationship with the institutions in terms of their responsibility for the appearance of discrimination and its impact on the reduction, then the personal experience of discrimination and analysis of attitudes regarding certain claims of stereotypical character. The results of this research are given in the comparative analysis with the results of the research on the attitudes of members of the criminal police conducted in 2014, so we have indication of perception of discrimination by the police in all three key operating police areas. In regard to some issues, a comparative analysis of the results from the survey of citizens’ attitudes towards discrimination conducted in 2013 by CESID is provided. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Kriminalitet u Srbiji i instrumenti državne reakcije

  4. U.S. Army Military Police Professionalization -- Relevancy Beyond 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    was developed during a period of lower operational tempo in the Army which allowed MP companies more flexibility to cross- pollinate training with...formed in 2000 in an effort to increase the professionalism of federal law enforcement training. A task force of key training leaders from principal ...Credentialing - Local/Regional Policing partnerships that capitalizes on cross pollinating best practices (LEPs, ICITAP, NIJ, etc.) - Emphasize knowledge

  5. ASPECTS REGARDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EUROPEAN ARREST WARRANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin, MARINESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Treaty of Amsterdam stipulated the fact that the European Union must maintain and develop an area of freedom, security and justice, freedom assuming the existence of a common judicial area in which European citizens are able to seek justice in any of the member state same as in their own country. This goal aims to eliminate the possibility that criminals exploit the differences between the legal systems of the member states, imposing that the judgments are recognized and enforced abroad without the formalities laid down by the classical conventions on international judicial assistance. The Council Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA of 13 June 2002 on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States, materialized the decision taken in Tampere, following that between EU Member States to be replace the formal extradition procedure of the people who evade the execution of a sentence of imprisonment imposed by a judgment of conviction became final, with a simplified surrender procedure..

  6. Linking community policing activities with social disorganization theory: Examples from Turkish National Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Odabaşı

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Police departments in Turkey utilize community policing philosophy in an effort to create a social bond between police and the citizens they serve. Although Turkish National Police has a centralized organizational structure, the way community policing is implemented is not the same at every police department. Most police departments use project designs as means to create community policing programs. This study suggests implementing a community policing program by using social disorganization theory (SDT as a theoretical framework. According to SDT, one of the major predictors of social control in a community is the level of control by the community over adolescent groups. It is argued that uncontrolled teenagers often turn into gang groups and display delinquent behaviors. Therefore, the community’s ability to supervise its teenagers is a way to stop the creation of gangs and delinquent behaviors. In explaining the linkage between social disorganization theory and different types of community policing implementations, Mardin Police Department’s project “Ideallerimizdeki yarinlar” is offered as a case study. This project enables young individuals to understand and value the importance of community involvement and hard work in creating a better future both for them and for their families.

  7. La policía administrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alejandro Olano García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor recoge los aspectos más relevantes de la doctrina relacionadas con la policía administrativa y desarrolla el concepto de orden público, sus elementos, los bienes protegidos por la policía administrativa, los medios coercitivos y la distinción entre poder, función y actividad policiales.

  8. Police performing and training under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Nieuwenhuys, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we will present our work with police officers. First, Oudejans (2008) found that reality based practice under pressure helps in preventing degradation of handgun shooting performance under pressure for police officers. The experimental group practiced handgun shooting under pre

  9. The Professions, the Police, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Gordon

    In presenting a forecast of the emergence of the police profession using a sociological approach based on societal processes and relations, both the discussion of professionalization of the police in the bourgeois literature and a more general discussion of the professions by Talcott Parsons, taken as the foremost structural-functional theorist of…

  10. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682-83 the Danish king a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population...

  11. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Mührmann-Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.

  12. Proactive Policing by Post and Community Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famega, Christine N.

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected through social observations of 188 police officer shifts, the current research examines the time allocated to proactive and reactive activities by traditional and community police officers to assess (a) the extent to which post officers engage in proactive activities, (b) whether these activities differ from the (proactive)…

  13. Community policing in Kakuma camp, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanno Brankamp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Community policing has become a popular way of promoting local ownership of security in refugee camps in Kenya and more widely, but it can also fall victim to its ambivalent position at the intersection of refugee communities and state policing.

  14. Cheating in the Classroom: Beyond Policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Regrettably, cheating is widespread on all levels of our educational system. Effective monitoring and judicial review processes that ensure that students who cheat are subjected to appropriate disciplinary action are essential. However, policing is not enough. We must go beyond policing to change the culture of the classroom in ways that…

  15. Policing organized crime : a new direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Frederik E.; Bruinsma, Gerben J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Recent criminological research in the Netherlands underscores the fact that organized crime is embedded in society and the overall picture makes it clear that police emphasis on a crime fighting model of the police, based solely on criminal law will not be entirely effective. Therefore, the Twente p

  16. Does Twitter Increase Perceived Police Legitimacy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Meijer, Albert J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2015-01-01

    Social media use has become increasingly popular among police forces. The literature suggests that social media use can increase perceived police legitimacy by enabling transparency and participation. Employing data from a large and representative survey of Dutch citizens (N = 4,492), this article t

  17. Police enforcement of drinking driving laws.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuur, W.L.G. & Gundy, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    This survey of Dutch police officers was designed to investigate their opinions, expectations and experiences with the enforcement of drinking driving laws. Although many studies have been done on the subject of drinking driving, and police enforcement is a familiar measure against this problem, les

  18. La policía administrativa

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Alejandro Olano García

    2010-01-01

    El autor recoge los aspectos más relevantes de la doctrina relacionadas con la policía administrativa y desarrolla el concepto de orden público, sus elementos, los bienes protegidos por la policía administrativa, los medios coercitivos y la distinción entre poder, función y actividad policiales.

  19. Occupational Stress among Nigerian Police Officers: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    ... of Psychology. University of Nicosia, Cyprus ... Police officers who experienced stress took to alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and religiousity to ... effects of these coping strategies on the wellbeing, and performance of police officers and also .... development and even their academic and social life. ..... young adults.

  20. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…

  1. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the...... police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682-83 the Danish king a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population...... of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced...

  2. [Criminal psychology in Franco's police].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael; Zubieta, Eva

    2013-02-01

    Francisco J. de Echalecu (1897-1957) was a Spanish psychiatrist who held important positions, such as Psychology Professor at the Academia General de Policía and Neuropsychiatrist at the Dirección General de Seguridad. This work provides a brief biography of Echalecu and analyzes the transcriptions of his classes on Criminal Psychology of 1942, his Criminal Psychology from 1947 as well as his involvement in the case of the torture of Communist leader Heriberto Quiñones. We describe his project of a totalitarian Psychology and his proposal of social intervention, including eugenic methodologies as well as forced reclusion for those labeled as asocial. The adaptation in Spain of the totalitarian psychological project to the new international reality after the Second World War is also described. In Spain a "final solution" for criminals and political dissidents has been prepared, which was inspired by the Nazi criminal policies and promoted by Dr. Echalecu from Spain's higher police body, the DGS. This project was frustrated by the German defeat in the world war and the only thing left from the original project was the arbitrary application of the Ley de Vagos y Maleantes [an antivagrancy law] to those individuals labeled as "asocial".

  3. Beacon of Hope? Lessons Learned from Efforts to Reduce Civilian Deaths from Police Shootings in an Australian State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saligari, Jessica; Evans, Richard

    2016-04-01

    In the 1990s, the police service in Victoria, Australia, faced a crisis of community confidence due to a spate of civilian deaths from police shootings. In that decade, twice as many civilians died at the hands of the police in Victoria than in every other Australian state combined. Most of those killed were mentally ill and affected by drugs and alcohol, and were rarely a serious threat except to themselves. The problem was also almost entirely an urban phenomenon. Shootings in rural communities, where mentally ill people were more likely to be personally known to local police, were (and remain) almost unknown. The large number of fatalities was recognised as a serious threat to public confidence, and Victoria Police introduced a ground-breaking training programme, Operation Beacon. Operating procedures and weapons training were fundamentally changed, to focus on de-escalation of conflict and avoiding or minimising police use of force. In the short term, Operation Beacon was successful. Shooting incidents were dramatically reduced. However, during the first decade of the new century, the number of civilians being killed again increased. This article examines Operation Beacon, both as a successful model for reducing civilian deaths at the hand of police and as a cautionary tale for police reform. We argue that the lessons of Operation Beacon have been gradually forgotten and that old habits and attitudes resurfaced. Fatal shootings of mentally ill civilians can be prevented, but if success is to be other than temporary, the Beacon philosophy must be continually reemphasised by police management.

  4. The Injury Profile of an Australian Specialist Policing Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Brianna; Aisbett, Brad; Silk, Aaron

    2016-03-25

    This study investigated the injuries sustained by an Australian specialist police division. Injury records spanning four-years were analyzed. The role being performed when the injury occurred, injury cause, body part injured, and injury-related costs were quantified. The percentage of personnel injured multiple times was documented. One hundred and thirty eight personnel reported injuries, 58 of these on multiple occasions. This resulted in 229 injuries and 76 claims being raised. Half of the injuries occurred during operational policing tasks, however training activities accounted for >30% of injuries. The most common injury was strain/sprain, and upper body injuries were 2.5-times more common than lower-body or torso injuries. 1107 shifts were lost, and injuries cost the organization $487,159 (Australian Dollars) over the four-year period. The injury costs (both financial and in manpower) may prompt policy makers to review the current training and post-injury rehabilitation protocols.

  5. Aviation Warrant Officer Program and Enlisted Aviator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    Advanced Courses Hours Instructional Segement Purose 4 Enlisted Personnel Procedures for enlisted person- Management nel classification, assignment...way that will provide "aircraft qualified" aviators to operational units. The units would then conduct unit training to support whatever geographic

  6. Adaptive reproduction schedule as a cause of worker policing in social hymenoptera: a dynamic game analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary theories predict conflicts over sex allocation, male parentage, and reproductive allocation in hymenopteran societies. However, no theory to date has considered the evolution when a colony faces these three conflicts simultaneously. We tackled this issue by developing a dynamic game model, focusing especially on worker policing. Whereas a Nash equilibrium predicts male parentage patterns that are basically the same as those of relatedness-based worker-policing theory (queen multiple mating impedes worker reproduction), we also show the potential for worker policing under queen single mating. Worker policing will depend on the stage of colony growth that is caused by interaction with reproductive allocation conflict or a trade-off between current and future reproduction. Male production at an early stage greatly hinders the growth of the work force and undermines future inclusive fitness of colony members, leading to worker policing at the ergonomic stage. This new mechanism can explain much broader ranges of existing worker-policing behavior than that predicted from relatedness. Predictions differ in many respects from those of models assuming operation of only one or two of the three conflicts, suggesting the importance of interactions among conflicts.

  7. Youth crime and preventive policing in post-war Scotland (c.1945-71).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartie, Angela; Jackson, Louise A

    2011-01-01

    This article explores debates concerning the methods and styles used by the police service in its dealings with children and young people in post-war Scotland (in comparison with England). Study of the implementation of Police Juvenile Liaison Schemes is used to consider shifting points of tension as well as cooperation between the police and other occupational groups engaged in work at the nexus of youth justice-welfare. Whilst often characterized as contradictory tendencies, the article demonstrates that a social welfare ethic and a criminal justice ethic were coexistent within the rhetoric and practice of policing, but that they operated in a state of flux. It also argues that styles of policing were subject to change, particularly as the use of discretionary and informal methods was increasingly challenged, as physical violence was increasingly seen as an outmoded recourse for the institutions of criminal justice, and as the policing of youth was increasingly politicized. The post-war period can be characterized in terms of greater levels of public scrutiny, the formalization of processes previously undertaken through informal or semi-formal mechanisms, and attempts (not always successful) to systematize procedures nationally in terms of the Scottish state.

  8. Intelligence Operations Manual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Andrade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This Manual was an important document for the development of intelligence units in El Salvador´s police. It is a guiding document for intelligence operations where relevant aspects on overall information management are detailed.

  9. Modelling intelligence-led policing to identify its potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengst-Bruggeling, M. den; Graaf, H.A.L.M. de; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van

    2014-01-01

    lntelligence-led policing is a concept of policing that has been applied throughout the world. Despite some encouraging reports, the effect of intelligence-led policing is largely unknown. This paper presents a method with which it is possible to identify intelligence-led policing's potential to

  10. FTO Views on the Community Policing Skills of Probationary Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    Community policing is an approach to policing that goes beyond responding to emergency calls and incorporates the needs of specific communities into the entire fabric of the police force. The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) has made changes at the level of training to proactively create a more professional and community-oriented police…

  11. Dutch "COP": developing community policing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punch, Maurice; Vijver, van der Kees; Zoomer, Olga

    2002-01-01

    Dutch policing has followed the three generations of community policing identified elsewhere. The paper outlines the three waves, arguing that progressive Dutch society has influenced policing styles, giving Dutch policing a strong social orientation. The material draws on action research projects f

  12. Modelling intelligence-led policing to identify its potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengst-Bruggeling, M. den; Graaf, H.A.L.M. de; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van

    2014-01-01

    lntelligence-led policing is a concept of policing that has been applied throughout the world. Despite some encouraging reports, the effect of intelligence-led policing is largely unknown. This paper presents a method with which it is possible to identify intelligence-led policing's potential to inc

  13. Gubernamentalidad y poder de policía: la articulación de un modelo de policiamiento dual en Buenos Aires, 2004-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Lis Rios

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the emergence and operation of the Urban Guard (in portugueses, GU of Buenos Aires, (2004 and 2007, as a police communitary resulting of the reorganization of local government autonomy. This process resulted in a dual model of policing in the city, represented by GU in contraposition to the national security forces, more centralist and verticalized. This paper investigates the implications of GU in the dispute for police authority in the city and a particular historical way of security building: citizen safety. This duality represents a possible compromise between national interests and those of the city. The paper concludes with reflections on the crisis of this dual model, the redefinition of the security problem and the demands of a local "own police". It indicates that it is in the duality of security that an Urban Guard is understood, as a proximity policing that complements but does not replace the old police.

  14. [Aerobic fitness in police officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, E M; Imbriani, M; Criffò, A; Tronconi, E

    1996-01-01

    According to act n. 626, individual assessment of fitness and absence of contraindications for carrying on a job is fundamental. We considered a group of 44 Urban Police officers (36 males, 8 females), age 39.7 +/- 9.1, whose principal job requirement is a good energetic and motor availability, for a fitness evaluation through a submaximal treadmill test, with subsequent steps of 6 minutes. During the test, physiological variables (VO2, VE, QR through a metabograph, Hr trough an Ec-monitor and Pa through a manual sphygmomanometer) and subjective evaluations of fatigue and dyspnea were monitored. Studying the individual variables trend it was possible to identify the critical metabolic level that was easily tolerated by each individual. This level, an average of 6.8 MET corresponding to a heavy activity, is an endurance predictor and can be utilized in subsequent controls.

  15. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing Through Education for Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-05-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce teaching/learning modules on law and policing for use in Citizenship Education classrooms. This paper examines the commonly-held teacher perception of policing as a controversial issue and the reasons why these perceptions exist. It takes into consideration the opinion that it is time for schools to begin work on policing, and investigates the implications for practice.

  16. The indonesia’s Police Reform Police in the Reform Era New Institutionalism Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police refor...

  17. The Importance of Police Performance as a Determinant of Satisfaction with Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Larsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Citizen satisfaction with police performance is an important concern of public managers because police performance is central to citizens and accounts for a large share of urban budgets. Also, there is substantial disagreement in the literature regarding determents of citizen satisfaction. Approach: Logistic regression was used to investigate the results of three public opinion surveys, conducted biannually, to identify determinants of citizen satisfaction with police. Results: The explanatory power of the models was indicated by concordance of over .80. The findings indicated that satisfaction was largely determined by citizen perception of police behaviors. Four variables reflecting perceptions of police performance were particularly important: Response time to a crime in progress, visibility on the street, the quality of the relationship between the police and community and police efforts to reduce crime, indicating a chi square significance of Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings suggested that public officials could improve citizen satisfaction by focusing on specific aspects of police behavior. Training programs should be oriented accordingly. Further research regarding how citizens interpret certain words, gestures, postures, or other behaviors by police promises to enhance satisfaction.

  18. POLICE BODY CAMERAS: SEEING MAY BE BELIEVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Otu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While the concept of body-mounted cameras (BMC worn by police officers is a controversial issue, it is not new. Since in the early-2000s, police departments across the United States, England, Brazil, and Australia have been implementing wearable cameras. Like all devices used in policing, body-mounted cameras can create a sense of increased power, but also additional responsibilities for both the agencies and individual officers. This paper examines the public debate regarding body-mounted cameras. The conclusions drawn show that while these devices can provide information about incidents relating to police–citizen encounters, and can deter citizen and police misbehavior, these devices can also violate a citizen’s privacy rights. This paper outlines several ramifications for practice as well as implications for policy.

  19. the Public Order Police Unit in Durban

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sign of deepening social inequality, weak states, and a lack of 'social glue'. Consequently ... all these reasons, it is important to engage directly with police Workers ..... are to occur in Africa, whose states he believes are corrupt and have a.

  20. Controlling police (excessive force: The American case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Gül

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of police abuse of power, particularly police use of excessive force. Since the misuse of force by police is considered a problem, some entity must discover a way to control and prevent the illegal use of coercive power. Unlike most of the previous studies on the use of excessive force, this study uses a path analysis. However, not all the findings are consistent with the prior studies and hypotheses. In general, findings indicate that training may be a useful tool in terms of decreasing the use of excessive force, thereby reducing civilians’ injuries and citizens’ complaints. The results show that ethics training in the academy is significantly related to the use of excessive force. Further, it was found that community-oriented policing training in the academy was associated with the citizens’ complaints. A national (secondary data, collected from the law enforcement agencies in the United States are used to explore the research questions.

  1. Police reform from the bottom up

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    confronting institutional change in public police agencies. It is an .... management and the role and function of unions in different ... employee perceptions and attitudes (Steinheider ... of expectations' whilst the 'sources of resistance' emanate ...

  2. Sensemaking and organising in the policing of high risk situations : Focusing the Swedish Police National Counter-Terrorist Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Rantatalo, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Specialised policing of critical incidents has previously been underexplored within scholarly research. Simultaneously, this type of policing has been recognised as a highly complex endeavour which hinges on an organisationalability to make sense of uncertainty and external contingencies. To build knowledge on the subject of specialised policing, the present thesis aims to explore processes of sensemaking and organising in the work context of specialised police units dedicated to the policing...

  3. Adaptation of warrant price with Black Scholes model and historical volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Khairu Azlan Abd; Idris, Mohd Fazril Izhar Mohd; Saian, Rizauddin; Daud, Wan Suhana Wan

    2015-05-01

    This project discusses about pricing warrant in Malaysia. The Black Scholes model with non-dividend approach and linear interpolation technique was applied in pricing the call warrant. Three call warrants that are listed in Bursa Malaysia were selected randomly from UiTM's datastream. The finding claims that the volatility for each call warrants are different to each other. We have used the historical volatility which will describes the price movement by which an underlying share is expected to fluctuate within a period. The Black Scholes model price that was obtained by the model will be compared with the actual market price. Mispricing the call warrants will contribute to under or over valuation price. Other variables like interest rate, time to maturity date, exercise price and underlying stock price are involves in pricing call warrants as well as measuring the moneyness of call warrants.

  4. Helping the police with their inquiries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Anthony J.

    1995-09-01

    The UK Home Office has held a long term interest in facial recognition. Work has concentrated upon providing the UK police with facilities to improve the use that can be made of the memory of victims and witnesses rather than automatically matching images. During the 1970s a psychological coding scheme and a search method were developed by Aberdeen University and Home Office. This has been incorporated into systems for searching prisoner photographs both experimentally and operationally. The coding scheme has also been incorporated in a facial likeness composition system. The Home Office is currenly implementing a national criminal record system (Phoenix) and work has been conducted to define and demonstrate standards for image enabled terminals for this application. Users have been consulted to establish suitable picture quality for the purpose, and a study of compression methods is in hand. Recently there has been increased use made by UK courts of expert testimony based upon the measurement of facial images. We are currently working with a group of practitioners to examine and improve the quality of such evidence and to develop a national standard.

  5. 21st Century Strategies for Policing Protest: What Major Cities’ Responses to the Occupy Movement Tell U.S. about the Future of Police Response to Public Protest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Police Department DHS Department of Homeland Security FOIA Freedom of Information Act EOC Emergency Operations Center ESV Electric stand-up... advantageous place for the city and the police department. 20 “Portland ‘Occupy’ Protest One of Largest Events in Nation,” King 5, October 6, 2011, http...worked to communicate the law to the protesters as well as what was considered acceptable protest behavior. Officers on foot, horseback, bicycle

  6. The Hidden Advantage in Shoot/Don’t Shoot Simulation Exercises for Police Recruit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Davies

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.

  7. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Police Officers in Turkish National Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Idris

    2011-01-01

    A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…

  8. Policing for Conflict Zones: What Have Local Policing Groups Taught Us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Baker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The police are invariably severely reduced or even cease to be active in times of conflict. Policing as an activity, however, persists, with local groups taking up the role of maintaining order and combating crime. Such local policing is very diverse in its practices and in the nature of its links with the state. Using examples of local policing practices in four sub-Saharan conflicts, this article considers different patterns of harnessing local capacity to provide policing services. The patterns range from authorities utilising existing local policing providers or initiating new local responses, to local non-government organisations [NGOs] seeking to fill policing gaps left by the state, or long-established local provision continuing unchanged. Each response, whether one of cooperation, delegation, neglect or abandonment, is evaluated for its effectiveness, and lessons to be learned from their practices are offered. Together the four case studies suggest new pathways to achieving police effectiveness and reform in challenging conflict environments.

  9. Legal Advice in Police Custody: From Europe to a Local Police Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ogorodova (Anna); T. Spronken (Taru)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In October 2013, the European Union adopted a Directive, which guarantees, inter alia, the right of access to a lawyer to suspects of criminal offences from the outset of police custody and during police interrogation. However, adoption of the relevant legislation is no

  10. The indonesia’s Police Reform Police in the Reform Era New Institutionalism Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHMAD NURMAND

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.

  11. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Police Officers in Turkish National Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Idris

    2011-01-01

    A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…

  12. Community Policing in South-West Nigeria: Finding a Nexus between the Police and the People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusegun, Omowunmi J.

    2016-01-01

    The joint efforts of the police and the communities in south-west Nigeria to tackle the alarming rates of crime in various societies has over the year been adopted as a strategic way of curbing crime in Nigeria. This paper examines the divergent views of community policing in south-west Nigeria. The paper is empirical in nature though related…

  13. Police punishment and the infrapolitics of (online) anti-police protest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Diarmaid Harkin recently called for a theory of police punishment and its public acceptance. He stated that police violence is ‘provided with a warranty of approval and encouragement from larger, aggregate, deeply held emotions and sensibilities’. We lend our support to his demand for a penal theory

  14. Doing Gender within the Police Doing Gender Within the Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Nienhaus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Bei dieser überarbeiteten soziologischen Dissertation der Universität Bielefeld handelt es sich um eine klar gegliederte, theoretisch fundierte Untersuchung der (Bayerischen Polizei, ihrer Leitbilder, Arbeitspraktiken, Auseinandersetzungen und deren Veränderungen durch die sprunghaft angestiegenen Zahlen von Frauen. Sie reiht sich in mittlerweile vielfältige deutsch- und englischsprachige Publikationen ein. In der Auseinandersetzung mit geschichtswissenschaftlichen Darstellungen zum Thema (Kapitel 2.2.1 werden leider viele offensichtliche Fehler und unhaltbare Klischees verbreitet. Auch die jeweils „Relevanzen“ genannten Kapitelzusammenfassungen sind nicht, was dieser Begriff vermuten lässt. Eine leichte Straffung, die Streichung modischer Begriffe (wie „Diskursstränge“, „faktische Ent-Vergeschlechtlichung“, „Variabilität von Egalität und Differenz“ und „Thematisierung, De-Thematisierung und Re-Thematisierung“ sowie unsinniger Ausführungen (wie S. 73 Ende des Absatzes 3.1 hätten der Veröffentlichung gut getan.This volume, a revised sociological dissertation for the University of Bielefeld, is a clearly constructed and theoretically sound examination of the (Bavarian police, their inspirations, work practices, conflicts, and changes due to the sudden rise of women in the force. It finds its rightful place among the now numerous publications on the subject in both German and English. Unfortunately, however, the historical presentation of the theme (chapter 2.2.1 displays many errors and perpetuates clichés. In addition, the chapter summaries—entitled “relevancies"—are not that which they profess to be. The publication would have been well served by slight reductions and by deleting popular terms (for example “discourse strands,” “factual de-gendering”, “variability of equality and difference”, and “thematizing, de-thematizing, and re-thematizing” as well as useless explanations (such as at the

  15. Role of female police officer and her challenges within the police organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the most developed countries, the opinion prevailed that the police profession is only a profession for men. This opinion is an already outdated practice. Interest in women’s emancipation has been a phenomenon to which many countries and organizations with influence in the world were committed. Attention to engage women in public life in society exists even nowadays, growing even more. Employment of women in different professions and the results shown by them have increased the interest of involvement of members of this gender in every sphere of social life. The study of this issue that has to do with engagement, namely employment of women in the police, will be shown in this paper as follows: Background of women employed in the police; Emancipated and non-emancipated women in the police; Attitude towards female police officers.

  16. Nightlife Partnership Policing: (Dis)trust Building Between Bouncers and the Police in the War on Gangs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Søgaard, Thomas; Houborg, Esben; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the research on trust in policing by examining how private security actors (bouncers) experience the police as a partner in informal policing networks emerging as part of the ‘war on bikers and gangs’ in the Danish nightlife. While much international research about...... partnership policing has employed a police perspective and a top-down approach, thus emphasizing organizational ties between policing bodies, this article uses a bottom-up, interactional approach, with a focus on bouncers’ everyday experiences and understandings of partnerships with the police. Our findings...... show that the formation of informal police-bouncer networks has significantly increased the degree of police influence in private nightlife environments such as bars and nightclubs. Our findings also indicate that inter-agency trust building is crucial to the collaborative willingness and capability...

  17. Occupational colour vision requirements for police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Jennifer; Chisholm, Catharine M

    2008-11-01

    Inclusion of public service professions in the UK Disability Discrimination Act in 2004 prompted a review of occupational colour vision requirements for police officers. Changes in the regulations which existed prior to 2003 were proposed. The aim of this study was to obtain the views of serving police officers in Northern Ireland on the importance of good colour discrimination in everyday police work and on the recruitment regulations for patrol constables introduced in 2003 in mainland UK. These views were obtained by means of a questionnaire and informal discussions. More than 65% of police officers who responded to the questionnaire considered that good colour vision was very important for effective policing. Fewer than 2% considered that colour vision was unimportant. Experienced police officers agreed that the employment of colour-deficient patrol constables, as permitted in the new regulations, would lead to reduced efficiency and organisational difficulties at the local level. A number of everyday activities were described which showed the need for accurate colour discrimination. The change in recruitment policy and the lack of clarity in the new regulations show inadequate appreciation of the needs of the occupation, of different types of colour vision anomalies and of the diagnostic function of colour vision tests. Failure to provide guidance on appropriate colour vision tests, examination procedures and counselling services is likely to result in inconsistent employment policies in different police forces. It is recommended that the colour vision standard in place prior to 2003 is reinstated at the recruitment stage. The Ishihara test should be used for screening, and colour-deficient applicants further examined with the Farnsworth D15 test as a replacement for the City University Test 2nd edition.

  18. Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jonathan; Bradford, Ben

    2009-09-01

    Public confidence in policing is receiving increasing attention from UK social scientists and policy-makers. The criminal justice system relies on legitimacy and consent to an extent unlike other public services: public support is vital if the police and other criminal justice agencies are to function both effectively and in accordance with democratic norms. Yet we know little about the forms of social perception that stand prior to public confidence and police legitimacy. Drawing on data from the 2003/2004 British Crime Survey and the 2006/2007 London Metropolitan Police Safer Neighbourhoods Survey, this paper suggests that people think about their local police in ways less to do with the risk of victimization (instrumental concerns about personal safety) and more to do with judgments of social cohesion and moral consensus (expressive concerns about neighbourhood stability, cohesion and loss of collective authority). Across England and Wales the police may not primarily be seen as providers of a narrow sense of personal security, held responsible for crime and safety. Instead the police may stand as symbolic 'moral guardians' of social stability and order, held responsible for community values and informal social controls. We also present evidence that public confidence in the London Metropolitan Police Service expresses broader social anxieties about long-term social change. We finish our paper with some thoughts on a sociological analysis of the cultural place of policing: confidence (and perhaps ultimately the legitimacy of the police) might just be wrapped up in broader public concerns about social order and moral consensus.

  19. 28 CFR 92.2 - Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.2... Director has approved a Police Corps plan, and (4) Who is killed in the course of performing policing...

  20. Alcohol and tobacco consumption among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek R; Devine, Sue; Leggat, Peter A; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2005-01-01

    Police occupy an important position within the community as both enforcers of the law and as role models for appropriate behavior. Despite this interesting juxtaposition, research has shown that they may consume alcohol and tobacco at rates higher than the general population. A significant causal factor is occupational stress, and the fact that police are regularly exposed to stressors beyond the range of normal human experiences. Given this ongoing and unavoidable relationship, the recognition and control of stress is paramount within law enforcement. Because police stressors are usually multi-faceted, health promotion interventions should focus on stress-reduction at both the institutional and individual level. Examples of health promotion strategies may include reducing overtime, carefully organizing shift rosters, streamlining administrative processes and allowing rest breaks for those on the night-shift. Interventions which focus on the individual are also important, because excess alcohol and tobacco consumption levels often relate to individual stress-coping mechanisms. Programs to help recognize and prevent excess alcohol and tobacco consumption may be worthwhile, as too, counseling, interpersonal support and critical incident debriefing. Promoting non-drinking and non-smoking stress-reduction activities where police can socialize and de-brief with their colleagues may be beneficial. Encouraging social events at sports clubs and gymnasiums has also been suggested. In order to achieve these goals however, governments will need to place a greater emphasis on the occupational health of police officers and the law enforcement agencies in which they work.

  1. Police investigations: discretion denied yet undeniably exercised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belur, J.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D.; Daruwalla, N.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V.

    2014-01-01

    Police investigations involve determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so what type of crime, who has committed it and whether there is the evidence to charge the perpetrators. Drawing on fieldwork in Delhi and Mumbai, this paper explores how police investigations unfolded in the specific context of women’s deaths by burning in India. In particular, it focuses on the use of discretion despite its denial by those exercising it. In India, there are distinctive statutes relating to women’s suspicious deaths, reflecting the widespread expectation that the bride’s family will pay a dowry to the groom’s family and the tensions to which this may on occasion give rise in the early years of a marriage. Often, there are conflicting claims influencing how the woman’s death is classified. These in turn affect police investigation. The nature and direction of police discretion in investigating women’s deaths by burning reflect in part the unique nature of the legislation and the particular sensitivities in relation to these types of death. They also highlight processes that are liable to be at work in any crime investigation. It was found that police officers exercised unacknowledged discretion at seven specific points in the investigative process, with potentially significant consequences for the achievement of just outcomes: first response, recording the victim’s ‘dying declaration’, inquest, registering of the ‘First Information Report’, collecting evidence, arrest and framing of the charges. PMID:26376482

  2. On Integration of police and procurator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zonghui

    2006-01-01

    In order to reform and improve the relationship between the police and the procurator,it has been asserted for many years that the system of integrating the police and the procurator,under which the procuratorate leads the police,should be established in China.However,it still has not been resolved.For ages it has been ignored that integrating the police and procurator in foreign countries is essentially based on the separation of powers and the litigious idea on doctrine of function and power.This system is not conformed with the primary purpose of the criminal justice system reform in China,which will result in misunderstanding the idea and ignoring the specialty of the political and law systems.Therefore,if the abuse is discovered only in the system of integrating the police and procurator,the outlet will never be found.The point is that,the reform should depend upon the change and the discrimination of the ideology.By only cloning the system of other countries,the inner relations won't be seen.

  3. Factors affecting trust in police in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Çakar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement administrators generally evaluate their performance using statistics related to crime control. These statistics are important indicators for measuring performance, but it is also crucial to measure of public opinions toward the police. This study examines the determinants of public trust in the police. Using data from the European Social Survey (ESS Round 4, for the analysis, a total sample of 2,416 persons is selected from respondents from Turkey. The study provides a snapshot of citizens’ perceptions toward law enforcement. Overall, the results of this study regarding the demographic variables, including age, gender, marital status, and education, were consistent with previous research and proved to be significantly related to trust in the police. Surprisingly, perceived victimization failed to show a significant relationship. However, important predictors included perceived fear of crime and trust in the political system, which had significant impacts on public trust in the police. Especially, fear of crime was a significant predictor of satisfaction with police. Effective crime control and lowering crime rates are considered the core functions of law enforcement by citizens. Therefore, perceived effectiveness in fighting crime can lower individual fear of crime and thus increase satisfaction with law enforcement.

  4. The New Transparency: Police Violence in the Context of Ubiquitous Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brucato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Media and surveillance scholars often comment on the purported empowering quality of transparency, which they expect participatory media to promote. From its Enlightenment origins, transparency is related to accountability and legitimacy: its increase is believed to promote these. It has earned a position as an unassailed, prime normative value in contemporary liberal and social democracies. Though still valued, transparency is undergoing change in an era of ubiquitous surveillance. Publics still anticipate governmental and corporate self-disclosure and for such entities to operate visibly; but increasingly, deliberate and incidental surveillance by a range of sources, both institutional and informal, documents the activities of such authorities. More often, civilians participate in producing or amplifying transparency. This article explores this new transparency through a study of U.S. police, focusing on the discourse of police accountability activists and cop watchers to describe how their work adapts traditional notions of transparency. Recognizing the resilience of the police institution despite the new visibility of its violence, the article challenges the presumption that increased transparency will promote institutional reform or crisis. It concludes with a critical comment on prominent expectations that promoting the visibility of police can protect publics and ensure police accountability. This conclusion has implications for other forms of the new transparency, including whistleblowing (e.g., Edward Snowden and leaking (e.g., WikiLeaks.

  5. Corruption and the Architecture of Paramilitary Bureaucracies: Comparing the American and the Russian Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymaliev Ivan, М.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite institutional change, corrupt networks have been tremendously successful enterprises at the expense of the public good; returning and evolving with new elements. For public sector corruption to prosper, bureaucracies must possess certain structural characteristics which facilitate criminal behavior. Although public organizations have been largely studied, it is less clear how their structure creates opportunities for deviance. Given the understudied field of paramilitary bureaucracies and the deleterious consequences of corruption for socioeconomic development and (international security, we seek to understand: “How and why does the structure of police organizations facilitate corruption?” To address this question, we draw upon organizational, covert networks, and organized crime theories, and test them using a conditional uniform graph test on a dataset that includes the formal hierarchical structures of the modern police forces in Russia and the United States. We show that despite operating in largely different institutional regimes, the Moscow and the Los Angeles police department exhibit similar structural characteristics. Police bureaucracies’ structures are efficient in performing complex tasks, but are highly conducive to concealment, creating numerous temptations and opportunities for corruption. Lastly, we show that police organizations are scale-free networks which makes them extremely vulnerable to corruptive pressures.

  6. The New Transparency: Police Violence in the Context of Ubiquitous Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brucato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Media and surveillance scholars often comment on the purported empowering quality of transparency, which they expect participatory media to promote. From its Enlightenment origins, transparency is related to accountability and legitimacy: its increase is believed to promote these. It has earned a position as an unassailed, prime normative value in contemporary liberal and social democracies. Though still valued, transparency is undergoing change in an era of ubiquitous surveillance. Publics still anticipate governmental and corporate self-disclosure and for such entities to operate visibly; but increasingly, deliberate and incidental surveillance by a range of sources, both institutional and informal, documents the activities of such authorities. More often, civilians participate in producing or amplifying transparency. This article explores this new transparency through a study of U.S. police, focusing on the discourse of police accountability activists and cop watchers to describe how their work adapts traditional notions of transparency. Recognizing the resilience of the police institution despite the new visibility of its violence, the article challenges the presumption that increased transparency will promote institutional reform or crisis. It concludes with a critical comment on prominent expectations that promoting the visibility of police can protect publics and ensure police accountability. This conclusion has implications for other forms of the new transparency, including whistleblowing (e.g., Edward Snowden and leaking (e.g., WikiLeaks.

  7. Singing the same tune? International continuities and discontinuities in how police talk about using force

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article focuses on a research project conducted in six jurisdictions: England, The Netherlands, Germany, Australia, Venezuela, and Brazil. These societies are very different ethnically, socially, politically, economically, historically and have wildly different levels of crime. Their policing arrangements also differ significantly: how they are organised; how their officers are equipped and trained; what routine operating procedures they employ; whether they are armed...

  8. Transnational Police Networks and the Fight Against Communism in Germany and Denmark, 1933-1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    This article explores the co-operative efforts of the German and Danish police in the surveillance of German Communists who sought refuge in Denmark duing the 1930s. Because of the escalating and violent confrontation levels during World War II, postwar accounts have to a considerable extent rega...

  9. 78 FR 18425 - Proposed Information Collection VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... qualification and suitability to be hired as a VA police officer. Affected Public: State, Local, or Tribal... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Request AGENCY: Office of Operations, Security, and Preparedness, Department of Veterans Affairs....

  10. Factors associated with excited delirium deaths in police custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D L

    1998-11-01

    Increasingly, police respond to confrontations in which the individual demonstrates violent and combative behavior as a result of drug-induced delirium. From medical, legal, and police documents, 61 cases of excited delirium decedents in police custody between 1988 and 1997 are analyzed. In all of the cases, the person fought with and was restrained by police; the person was more likely to die at the scene of the incident or during police transport; and the police were likely to be responding to a disturbance call. In a number of cases, survival time was less than 1 hour. In a majority of cases, acute cocaine toxicity and physical restraint in police custody were contributory to death. The literature is reviewed, analyses of case circumstances are provided, and recommendations for medicolegal investigators and police personnel are discussed.

  11. The Regulation of Health Requirements for Police and Current Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramazan Akçan; Mahmut Şerif Yıldırım; Aykut Lale; Abdurrahman İsak; Mehmet Cavlak; Aysun Balseven Odabaşı; Ali Rıza Tümer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Forensic medicine specialists might prepare reports about health conditions of candidates for Police Organization or assessment of organization's staff based on The Regulation of Health Requirements for Police...

  12. 8 CFR 287.3 - Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant. 287.3 Section 287.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.3 Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant...

  13. 17 CFR 270.10f-2 - Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... securities by a registered investment company pursuant to the exercise of warrants or rights to subscribe to... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exercise of warrants or rights... AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.10f-2...

  14. EU Citizenship and European Arrest Warrant: The Same Rights for All?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marguery, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    In the case Wolzenburg, the principle of non-discrimination of European Union citizens is applied to the European arrest warrant. The implementation of the European arrest warrant by the Member States cannot escape a control of proportional- ity made by the Court. Member States may impose a period o

  15. 21 CFR 1316.07 - Requirement for administrative inspection warrant; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; exceptions. 1316.07 Section 1316.07 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... administrative inspection warrant; exceptions. In all cases where an inspection is contemplated, an administrative inspection warrant is required pursuant to section 510 of the Act (21 U.S.C. 880), except...

  16. 28 CFR 2.46 - Execution of warrant and service of summons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.46 Execution of warrant and service of summons. (a) Any officer of any Federal correctional... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Execution of warrant and service...

  17. The Blue Planet: Informal International Police Networks and National Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    equivalent, border and immigration police, customs police, coastal and river police, military police, inspectors general, gendarmerie, tax and revenue...Embassy in Bogota concerning the location of the camp run by Edgar Navarro, a FARC commander believed to have been involved in the kidnapping. Th e...of over 300 (oft en notorious) American fugitives from overseas. He has served multi-year tours in Bogota , Colombia; Istanbul, Turkey; and most

  18. Perspectives on the police profession : an international investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Bayerl, P. Saskia; Horton, Kate E.; Jacobs, Gabriele; Rogiest, Sofie; Reguli, Zdenko; Gruschinske, Mario; Costanzo, Pietro; Stojanovski, Trpe; Vonas, Gabriel; Gasco, Mila; Elliott, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to clarify the diversity of professional perspectives on police culture in an international context. Design/methodology/approach In a first step the authors developed a standardized instrument of 45 occupational features for comparative analysis of police professional views. This set was inductively created from 3,441 descriptors of the police profession from a highly diverse sample of 166 police officers across eight European countries. Using th...

  19. Exploration and Practice of the Construction of Shanghai Citizen Police Academy%上海公民警校建设的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范立华

    2011-01-01

    West countries have made significant results in the construction of citizen police academies. Analyzed from the perspective of social environment, police - citizen relationship and police work, the construction of citizen - police academy is determined by certain social background. Considering the real needs of Shanghai police work and the construction of policecitizen relationship and based on the system and existing resources of police education and training, Shanghai is the first city to establish the Shanghai citizen police academy among the police counterparts in China. After one year's operation of the citizen police academy and by various ways and channels to propagate it, the citizen police academy has played its unique role in promoting the harmonious development of police- citizen relationship and accumulated some experience in practice.%公民警校建设在西方国家已经取得了显著的成效,从社会环境、警民关系、公安工作等角度来分析,创建上海公民警校是由特定的时代背景所决定的。上海结合自身公安工作和警民关系建设的现实需要,依托现有公安教育训练体系和资源,在全国公安系统中首次成立了上海公民警校。通过一年多来的规模办学和多形式、多渠道的宣传,公民警校在推进和谐警民关系建设方面发挥了独特作用,并积累了一定的实践经验。

  20. Recommandations from the Geneva Police Department

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has informed CERN that the recommendations of the Geneva Police Department relating to the prevention of crime are available on the Internet at the following URL: http://www.geneve.ch/police/prevention/. On another prevention-related matter, the Mission has sent a communiqué regarding theft committed by bogus policemen in Geneva. This communiqué can be consulted in the 'Miscellanea' section of the Relations with the Host States Service's website. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  1. Proposition on the theory of policing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Jobard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article revient sur les débats que Jean-Paul Brodeur avait développés durant au moins deux décennies autour de la place de la force dans la définition et la théorie de la police. L’auteur expose d’abord le projet théorique de The Policing Web, son dernier ouvrage, et la place qu’occupe dans celui-ci « l’illégalisme policier », qui constitue la pierre fondatrice de la théorie de la police avancée par Jean-Paul Brodeur. Il esquisse ensuite une approche sociologique de cet illégalisme policier, en montrant pour quelles raisons la méthode retenue par Jean-Paul Brodeur ne pouvait être qualifiée de sociologique, avant de formuler une « théorie sociologique de la police », fondée sur la notion de souveraineté. L’emploi de cette notion le conduit à préciser son acception, avant de formuler une proposition de « théorie politique de la police ».This article revisits several arguments that Jean-Paul Brodeur developed for at least two decades on the role of the use of force in the definition and a general theory of policing. The author examines the theoretical project that characterizes The Policing Web, his last book, and assesses where “legal lawlessness”, the touchstone of the theory of policing put forward in the book, fits. He then outlines a sociological approach of legal lawlessness, considering that Jean-Paul Brodeur’s chosen method could not be considered a sociological one. At that point, a “sociological theory of policing” will emerge, based on the concept of sovereignty. After having clearly defined this concept’s accepted meaning, a “political theory of policing” is formulated.

  2. Assessing Ethical Governance in a Policing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anona Armstrong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Governance describes the processes by which organisations are directed, controlled and held to account. It encompasses authority, accountability, stewardship, leadership, the direction and control exercised in the organisation. This paper argues that the shape of policing has changed in recent years; the service is more innovative and less risk averse than ever before. In this environment, governance structures are needed that support the complexities of the change in police roles and functions and assessment of corporate performance must include criteria such as ethical values and codes of conduct.

  3. Police Districts, reno police patrol districts, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Police Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'reno police...

  4. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  5. A New Campus Police Agency: A Florida Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Campus policing is a geographically focused police practice and the epitome of community oriented policing. Campus law enforcement agencies deal not only with a racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse population, they also deal with populations that change dramatically every year. While some campuses are enclaves unto themselves, many are…

  6. Proactive policing and equal treatment of ethnic-minority youths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Jorgen S.; Saharso, Sawitri

    2015-01-01

    Proactive policing aims at suppressing delinquency at an early stage. In the Netherlands, it is applied, inter alia, to youths and youth groups to prevent them from slipping off into delinquent behaviour and crime. Proactive policing implies that police officers keep in touch with local youths and

  7. Illicit Drugs, Policing and the Evidence-Based Policy Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari

    2013-01-01

    The mantra of evidence-based policy (EBP) suggests that endeavours to implement evidence-based policing will produce better outcomes. However there is dissonance between the rhetoric of EBP and the actuality of policing policy. This disjuncture is critically analysed using the case study of illicit drugs policing. The dissonance may be ameliorated…

  8. Campus Community Policing: It All Started with Us...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gary J.; March, Noel C.

    2008-01-01

    The first police in the United States to embrace the kind of community-focused policing that "modern" law enforcement embraces, and which was extolled by Sir Robert Peel in 1826, were the New Haven, Connecticut police officers hired by Yale University in 1894 to patrol and keep order on campus. Why did Yale not simply rely on the New…

  9. Neighborhood Context and Police Vigor: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, James J.; Wu, Yuning; Sun, Ivan Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a partial test of Klinger's ecological theory of police behavior using hierarchical linear modeling on 1,677 suspects who had encounters with police within 24 beats. The current study used data from four sources originally collected by the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), including systematic social observation,…

  10. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  11. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  12. 非致命性武器在联合国维和警察防暴行动中的应用及发展趋势%The Application of Non -Lethal Weapons in the Anti -riot Operations of Peacekeeping Police and It' s Developmental Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晋军; 张太果

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development oi modem teennology, ul~ ~u more important. This paper summarizes the related concepts of non - lethal weapons and peaeekeeping anti - riot op- erations, sums up the application status of the non - lethal weapons in peacekeeping anti - riot operations and forecasts the future development trend of non - lethal weapons. It points out that riot police should utilize the incapacitating weapons which will make the combatants lose their fighting capacities.%随着现代科学技术的迅猛发展,非致命性武器在联合国维和防暴行动中的作用越来越重要。鉴于非致命性武器在维和防暴行动中的应用现状,展望了非致命性武器在未来的发展趋势,并提出在今后的维和防暴行动中应着重使用使人员丧失战斗力的失能性武器。

  13. Police Stations - POLICE_STATIONS_MHMP_IN: Police Station Facilities in Indiana, derived from Essential Facilities Data of the Multi-Hazard Mitigation Planning Data (The Polis Center, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — POLICE_STATIONS_MHMP_IN.SHP is a point shapefile that shows police station facilities in Indiana. POLICE_STATIONS_MHMP_IN.SHP was derived from the shapefile named...

  14. Effects of Profile, Religiosity and Job Attitude on the Job Performance of the Philippine National Police: The Case of Bulacan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo D.C. Inasoria

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Philippine National Police in the Province of Bulacan continuously update and enrich themselves to ensure peace and order in the province by reviewing the police operational procedures. Reform programs take place and seek to address the ills of society and the root causes of insurgency. Dynamic program actions are further reinforced by activities and projects towards capability building. Various programs had been develop in order to uplift the moral status of the police. But despite of these undertakings, there are still police officers who engage themselves in corruption and unethical practices. Hence, this research tries to look into a way to understand the relationship between the profile, religiosity, job attitude and job performance of the Philippine National Police in the Province of Bulacan. The respondents of this study consist ofthree hundred and ten (310 Police Non-Commissioned Officers (PNCO assigned in twenty-one (21 Municipal Police Stations,three (3 City Police Stations, the Provincial Head Quarter and provincial Public Safety Company.Using a descriptive-correlation survey method, the researcher believes to find the link between and among the variables. The findings of the study proved that there is a correlation in the profiles, level of religiosity and job attitude of the respondents to job performance Conclusion and recommendation are also presented in the paper.

  15. Policía, conducta y control : el caso de la policía de Guadalajara, México

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Alvarado, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Mexican police organizations made it evident that they were incapable of handling public security and had unprecedented levels of corruption and police-related crimes. To face these cases of police incompetence and misconduct, reforms to the law enforcement system were designed and

  16. Nightlife partnership policing: (Dis)trust building between bouncers and the police in the war on gangs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Houborg, Esben; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the research on trust in policing by examining how private security actors (bouncers) experience the police as a partner in informal policing networks emerging as part of the ‘war on bikers and gangs’ in Danish nightlife. While much international research about...

  17. Policía Local como Policía Judicial. Intervenciones relevantes en el proceso penal

    OpenAIRE

    Velayos Martínez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Ponencia comparativa de las funciones más habituales de la práctica forense en que la Policía Local actúa en funciones de Policía Judicial. Ponencia presentada en el curso "La reforma del Código Penal", Ayuntamiento de Alicante, Policía Local, 17-18 diciembre 2012. Ayuntamiento de Alicante

  18. The Costs of Policing: Psychosocial Capital and Mental Health Outcomes in a Nigeria Police Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka; Balogun, Shyngle K

    2015-10-14

    This study examined the influence of psychosocial capital (psychological and workplace social capital) on mental health outcomes among 340 police personnel in Nigeria. Data were collected via anonymously completed questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling, and the results revealed that in the context of stress and traumatic stress, resilience p police organization pay attention to how psychological capital influence the development of psychopathology or resilience and how such issues can be addressed through psychological training in the workplace.

  19. Performance culture in the UK police forces, a case study of Kent Police.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, C

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a case study of the management of performance in Kent Police. The method used was to conduct semi-structured interviews with a small number of serving members of Kent Police. The techniques used were based on an Interpretive Phenomenological Assessment pioneered by Jonathan A Smith, Paul Flowers and Michael Larkin. During the literature review many sources were used including current management journals, text books, government publications and websites.

  20. Now & Then: Roger Whitmore, Police Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sue; Michalowicz, Karen Dee

    1995-01-01

    Discusses police officers' use of mathematics when reconstructing an accident scene; and the history of algebra, including al-Khwarizmi's works on the theory of equations, the Rhind Papyrus, a Chinese and an Indian manuscript on systems of linear and quadratic equations, and Diophantus'"syncopated algebra." (10 references) (EK)

  1. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  2. Policing in Sofia. From centralisation to decentralisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.; Petrov, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, which is embedded in the special issue of the Journal which focuses on the comparative research project ‘Policing European Metropolises’, the general aim is to provide an answer to the research question: ‘Are underlying Anglo-American assumptions regarding trends towards plural poli

  3. Critical moments in police-citizen reconciliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, Sara; Adang, Otto M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interaction of police and citizen representatives during critical moments in reconciliation processes through a relational model. Design/methodology/approach - Based on 26 in-depth interviews with key actors in three different cases of media-sali

  4. Belize: Reflections on Police Training and Professionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barrachina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article looks to analyze the preparation process the Belizean police force goes through with the objective of training the officers for duty. It also has the purpose of detailing the entrails the officers have to confront in their way up the corporate ladder as they develop into a professional police officer. Seen from a regional objectivity, Belize has been singled out to be in the center of numerous regional and hemispherical security problems; it is facing several of the same security challenges as its neighbors and explains the use of armed forces at the service of the public safety and the necessity to upgrade their law enforcement tactics and practices. The country also participates in many several mutual support instruments designed to assist and receive preparation and instruction from other nation’s police bodies. An example of that international aid came in a report from 2008 entitled "Review of the Belize Department" written by a Jamaican consultant in which the Police Plan elaborated in 2006 was analyzed and critiqued pointed out the strong and weak points of that project.

  5. Performing Ruhe: Police, Prevention, and the Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazardzig, J.; Bank, R.K.; Kobialka, M.

    2015-01-01

    At the dawn of the nineteenth century, under the influence of that new historical actor the masses, the supervision and surveillance of theatre in the German-speaking world was turned over to the institution that already possessed a certain biopolitical expertise: the police.1 To understand why thea

  6. Influencing speeding behaviour through preventative police enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of speed on road safety and how to influence speeding behaviour. The results that can be achieved through police enforcement combined with information campaigns are discussed with reference to projects carried out in the Netherlands. The cost implications are

  7. Campus Police Benefit by Automating Training Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Making sure law enforcement officers are current with their professional training has always been a top priority of police departments whether they must protect a city or a college campus. However, as training has expanded with many new certification categories, tracking all of these for each officer has grown more complex. This has prompted many…

  8. Language style matching and police interrogation outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Beth H.; Taylor, Paul J.; Snook, Brent; Conchie, Stacey M.; Bennell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the coordination of interrogator and suspects’ verbal behavior in interrogations. Sixty-four police interrogations were examined at the aggregate and utterance level using a measure of verbal mimicry known as Language Style Matching. Analyses revealed an interaction between co

  9. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  10. Police organizational stress: the impact of negative discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that the police organization is considered a difficult work stressor by officers. Of stress factors stemming from the police organization, excessive or unfair discipline rates high among rank and file officers. The police organization may be considered a punishment centered bureaucracy, where emphasis is placed on what is wrong and not on proper or laudatory behavior Although discipline is essential in critical occupations such as police work, it is important that such discipline be properly administered in order to avoid stress and feelings of organizational abandonment. This paper provides a general overview of present police organizational discipline prescriptions, and an example of an alternative positive-based discipline program.

  11. The Cannabis Infringement Notice scheme in Western Australia: a review of policy, police and judicial perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Adam; Hawks, David

    2005-07-01

    Western Australia (WA) became the fourth Australian jurisdiction to adopt a 'prohibition with civil penalties scheme' for minor cannabis offences when its Cannabis Infringement Notice (CIN) scheme became law on 22 March 2004. This study examined the attitudes and practices of policy makers, members of the law enforcement and magistracy and other judicial sectors involved in enforcing the new scheme, and their views as to its likely impact on the drug market. As part of the pre--post evaluation of the legislative reforms a sample of 30 police, other criminal justice personnel and policy makers have been qualitatively interviewed. Data were collected both at the pre-implementation stage (March and June 2003) and shortly after the Act became operational (mid-June 2004). The Western Australia Police Service's implementation of the CIN scheme has been extremely professional. However, these early results suggest that while the CIN scheme has been designed to take into account problems with similar schemes elsewhere in Australia, possible problems include: some operational police being unsure about the operation of the scheme; expected savings in police resources will probably be reduced by procedures which require offenders to be taken back to the station rather than issue notices on the spot as intended by the scheme's architects; probable net widening; problems with exercise of police discretion to issue a CIN; and public misunderstanding of the scheme. In the early months of the scheme understanding of the new laws among both police and members of the public was far from perfect. For the system to achieve the outcomes intended by legislators, it is essential that levels of understanding improve. Media and other campaigns to inform the public that cannabis cultivation and use remain illegal, and to warn about risks associated with cannabis use, should be extended. As it will be at least 18 months before the scheme is operationally settled in, the media and others

  12. 环境警察权的构成要素%On the Component Factors of Environmental Police Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕中诚

    2014-01-01

    In the macrostructure of environmental police power , the main elements of it are the power subject, power content and it's operating rules.The power subject of Environmental police power is the environmental police organs and it's environmental police, the structural establishment of it's organs and the personnel quality of it's police have a greater impaction on it's actual operation. The content of environmental police power should not be too much, they should be limited to the enforcement of environmental laws, including the enforcement of environmental criminal law ,the enforcement of environmental administrative law and the rights of environmental supervision and management. The operation of environmental police power must follow the principle of legality, the principle of limited, the public welfare principle, the process principle and the responsibility principle.%在环境警察权的宏观结构中,权力主体、权力内容及其运行规则是主要的构成要素。环境警察权的权力主体是环境警察机关及其所属的环境警察,其机构设置及人员素质会对环境警察权的实际运行产生较大影响。环境警察权的权力内容不宜过多,应仅限于环境执法,主要包括环境刑事执法权、环境行政执法权和环境监督管理权。而环境警察权的行使则必须遵循法定性原则、有限性原则、公益性原则、程序性原则和责任性原则。

  13. Chronic Trauma Effects on Personality Traits in Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh Wills, Jennifer; Schuldberg, David

    2016-04-01

    The impact of cumulative occupational exposure to traumatic events (TEs), posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and work environment stress on personality traits over time was examined in 38 police officers from an urban agency. California Psychological Inventory (CPI) personality trait scores from prehire evaluations were compared with follow-up CPI scores to test whether exposure to traumatic events was correlated with changes in traits from baseline to 5-10 years later. Measures of occupational TEs, PTS symptoms, and police work environment stress were administered. Mean trait scores declined on all CPI traits analyzed in the study. Trait change was evaluated using the Reliable Change Index; change in participants' scores unlikely to occur by chance ranged from 11% to 63% in the traits examined. All participants reported substantial TE exposure. PTS symptoms were correlated with steeper decline in 4 of 5 traits, with effect sizes ranging from r =  -.47 to r = -.67. Scores on measures of job-related TEs were negatively correlated with only one CPI trait (empathy) at T2 (r = -.31), and were unrelated to slope of trait change. Work environment stress was significantly related to gender, with female officers reporting higher levels of operational (r = .45) and organizational (r = .54) stress.

  14. EU Citizenship and European Arrest Warrant: The Same Rights for All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Marguery

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the case Wolzenburg, the principle of non-discrimination of European Union citizens is applied to the European arrest warrant. The implementation of the European arrest warrant by the Member States cannot escape a control of proportional- ity made by the Court. Member States may impose a period of residence of five years to foreign Europeans citizens in order for them to rely on an optional ground for non-execution of a European arrest warrant (Article 4(6 of the Framework Deci- sion on the European arrest warrant. Home nationals are not obliged to comply with a residence requirement. It is possible for Member States to justify an exception to the principle of non-discrimination of European citizens with a legitimate inter- est. The chances of social reintegration of a person convicted constitute such an interest. The national measure resulting in a difference of treatment must be proportional to that interest.

  15. Normative warrant in diagnostic criteria: the case of DSM-IV-TR personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, John Z; Fulford, Bill

    2006-04-01

    This article focuses on the kinds of evaluative judgments made when applying DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria within the diagnostic interview between clinician and patient. The authors name these kinds of value judgments in diagnosis "normative warrant" because they involve one or more justifications (warrants) for standard-bearing (normative) elements involved in applying diagnostic criteria to actual patients. Seven types of normative warrant judgments are described (Type 1, Semantic-Phenomenal Matching; Type 2, Solicitation Choice; Type 3, Sociocultural Context; Type 4, Performance-Context Matching; Type 5, Deviance Threshold; Type 6, Threshold Characterization; Type 7, Disvalue characterization) and the typology is illustrated by applying it to various DSM-IV-TR personality disorder criteria. A research and clinical understanding of normative warrant may well contribute to the refinement of criteria sets as well as the refinement of the clinical use of criteria sets.

  16. The Recruitment and Retention of the 180A: The Special Forces Warrant Officer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    choose to transition; and (2) the lack of upward mobility through the senior wanant officer ranks. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Special Forces warrant officer...transition; and (2) the lack of upward mobility through the senior warrant officer ranks. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF...37  B.  INITIATE A SERB FOR OVER STRENGTH CW5 GRADE PLATE ...37  C.  REDUCE PERCEIVED STIGMA OF THE NCO CORPS ......................38  D

  17. The Graduate Education of Warrant Officers by AMSP Provides Benefits to the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    Corps in 1988. International officers began attending in 1998. In 2010, the Army allowed matriculation of the first three warrant officers into AMSP...something of an expert in the topic of study. A good graduate program also teaches advanced skills in such areas as problem solving, mathematics , writing...to mathematics , writing, oral presentations, and technology.51 These subjects taught at the graduate level amplify the warrant officer’s experience

  18. Cultural warrant as a justification in knowledge organization systems: A critical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Barité

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory analysis of the "cultural warrant" concept is made with the objective of determining related future research areas. First, the generic notion of "warrant" is reviewed as it has been considered by Knowledge Organization. Different kinds of warrants proposed to legitimate the inclusion of terminology in knowledge organization systems are described. A critical analysis of the "culture" concept is carried out as well as the way in which the various anthropological, sociological and political point of views come together in its epistemological construction. The treatment of the cultural warrant in the relevant literature is reviewed and discussed. Its contribution to the construction of cultural identities through differentiation elements in the interpretation and life experience is valued.The relationship between cultural warrant and local culture is developed in-depth. The insertion of the ethical factor through of the cultural warrant is weighted in the development of classification schemes as well as the classification and indexing processes. The need to explore in greater detail the methodological alternatives which can be based upon this integrative and democratizing conception in the Knowledge Organization field is established among other conclusions

  19. The Potential Use of Legitimate Force for the Preservation of Order: Defining the Inherent Role of Public Police Through Policing Functions that cannot be Carried out by Private Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Arnež

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the UK, private policing institutions have been rapidly increasing since the 1980s, so the lines between public- and private police have been blurred. This paper explores whether there is a policing function that is inherent in public police and if so, why it occupies this position. It integrates Rousseau’s social contract theory, Bittner’s definition of police functions, Brodeur’s reasoning on force and Loader and Walker’s concept of ‘policing as public good’ to argue that the potential use of legitimate force for the preservation of order is the function intrinsic to public police. It shows why it cannot and should not be carried out by private police and outlines how it depends on police legitimacy. It concludes with an abstract rethinking of public-state-police relations to determine that this function remains in the realm of public policing.

  20. Burnout, vigour, big five personality traits and social support in a sample of police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit J. Louw

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Burnout occurs as a result of prolonged job stress, which is a phenomenon prevalent amongst police officers in South Africa. Whilst some suffer from burnout, others elude the pathological effects of burnout and execute their duties vigorously under the same circumstances. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to obtain an understanding of a police officer’s need to reduce the effects of prolonged stressors and to utilise personal and social sources to mitigate the effects of negative stressors. Motivation for the study: Burnout causes negative health consequences for police officers. Those who are affected reflect withdrawal behaviour through operational disruption or lower productivity in the work context. Research design, approach and method: The research has a non-experimental design in the quantitative tradition with a cross-sectional data-collection method. The availability sample (N = 505 included participants from different demographic backgrounds. A survey was used to measure all constructs at a single point in time. Main findings: Neuroticism and a lack of family support predicted burnout whilst conscientiousness and emotional stability predicted vigour. This was followed by significant other, which predicted physical strength, friend support which predicted emotional energy and family support which predicted cognitive liveliness. Practical/managerial implications: The study provides markers for selection purposes and calls on police management to be aware of the value of social support in the prevention of burnout whilst encouraging supervisor support in operational designs. Contribution/value-add: The study adds to the body of knowledge on the role of personality and social support in burnout and vigour in police officers.

  1. Burnout, vigour, big five personality traits and social support in a sample of police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit J. Louw

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Burnout occurs as a result of prolonged job stress, which is a phenomenon prevalent amongst police officers in South Africa. Whilst some suffer from burnout, others elude the pathological effects of burnout and execute their duties vigorously under the same circumstances.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to obtain an understanding of a police officer’s need to reduce the effects of prolonged stressors and to utilise personal and social sources to mitigate the effects of negative stressors.Motivation for the study: Burnout causes negative health consequences for police officers. Those who are affected reflect withdrawal behaviour through operational disruption or lower productivity in the work context. Research design, approach and method: The research has a non-experimental design in the quantitative tradition with a cross-sectional data-collection method. The availability sample (N = 505 included participants from different demographic backgrounds. A survey was used to measure all constructs at a single point in time.Main findings: Neuroticism and a lack of family support predicted burnout whilst conscientiousness and emotional stability predicted vigour. This was followed by significant other, which predicted physical strength, friend support which predicted emotional energy and family support which predicted cognitive liveliness.Practical/managerial implications: The study provides markers for selection purposes and calls on police management to be aware of the value of social support in the prevention of burnout whilst encouraging supervisor support in operational designs.Contribution/value-add: The study adds to the body of knowledge on the role of personality and social support in burnout and vigour in police officers.

  2. Police corruption and the national security challenge in Nigeria: a study of Rivers State Police Command

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngboawaji Daniel Nte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to make a modest attempt to examine the linkage between police corruption and national security in such a developing country like Nigeria. In doing this, the study selected Rivers State - a key state in the Niger Delta for specific analysis. The study employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative research approach to get an in-depth insight into the problem under study. A sample size of 200 was selected, while a 4-Likert questionnaire was administered to the selected respondents. The study found out that police corruption in Nigeria is structural as part of the wider web of corruption in Nigeria. It also showed that poor working conditions/ poverty are aggravating factors of police corruption in Nigeria. Furthermore, poor recruitment policies also contribute to police corruption. More so, the study found out that there is an inverse relationship between police corruption and national security in Nigeria. Finally, on the basis of these findings, the study offered useful recommendations that could help stem this social problem.

  3. ADMINISTRATIVE POLICE ISSUES AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana VULPAȘU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Administrative police, fundamental form of public administration, which aims to ensure public order and the protection of human rights, through prevention, knows no uniform conceptualization in the European states. However, it appears in various forms in national systems and is sustained and strengthened by EU policies whose objectives aim at the establishment of an area of freedom, security and justice with respect for fundamental rights and the different legal systems and traditions of the Member States and to ensure a high level of security through measures of preventing crime, racism and xenophobia. This article aims to show how the concept of administrative police is reflected in the European Union, the complementary and coordinating role of the latter, and the need for a uniform legal framework in European national systems which can allow the shaping of a European model.

  4. "It's Their Word against Mine": Young People's Attitudes to the Police Complaints Procedure in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Katy; Hamilton, Jennifer; Jarman, Neil

    2005-01-01

    One of the central aims of the police reform process in Northern Ireland has been to increase the legitimacy of the policing structures and police officers amongst those who are served and policed by the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). To meet this aim, structures have been created to ensure that the PSNI is accountable to all sections…

  5. Corporate Governance in Policing: Standards and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Francis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold: one is to canvass some issues relating to corporate governance for police work, particularly to emphasise the importance of expressing appropriate values. The second point is to illustrate that suggestion by providing examples of strategic governance issues of importance for police functioning: these latter points derive from the principles of corporate governance, and from the behavioural sciences. The conclusion is drawn that as policing is a constantly evolving process and organisation that can and should learn from recent developments. The paper also argues that the values expressed in a Code of Ethics are vital to efficient and moral functioning, and invests the principles of governance with both meaning and a means of judging the worth of such principles. The concept of paradoxical cause is mentioned in outline. It is designed to alert practitioners to issues which may be counterproductive in implementation. Five moderate suggestions are itemised and documented which are: the importance of the formal rules for meetings; using the strategies proposed by master strategists; the importance of having an ethical infrastructure; in discussions and debates the importance of separating issues from personality; and the setting of key performance indicators for assessing success.

  6. Death during police interrogation: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasijević Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cases of sudden and unexpected deaths of criminal suspects in presence of police always have special forensic medical approach. Often, such deaths are preceded by a state of extreme psychophysical activity (excitated delirium of suspects, when they may injure themselves. Police attempts to prevent that can inevitably lead to struggle. Immediately after the struggle ends (but also during a struggle, they abruptly become unresponsive, and develop cardiopulmonary arrest and death. Presence of drugs significantly intensifies the harmful effect of such state and leads to death. Case outline. We present a case of death of a young man brought into custody during police interrogation. Autopsy showed injuries and presence of MDMA, with suspicion that death was preceded by the state of excitated delirium. After thorough analysis of the case (complete autopsy, toxicological screening, microscopic survey of all organs, circumstances of death etc., our conclusion is that death was related to drug consumption - ecstasy. Concentration of ecstasy found in kidneys is the minimum concentration possible that could lead to heart malfunction and death. Conclusion. Our opinion is that there are no medical data by which we could determine if, and in what dosage, undesirable effects of ecstasy were enhanced by the circumstances of the case. .

  7. Perception of police on discrimination in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekavica Radomir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyses results deriving from the research on the attitudes of criminal investigation officers in five police departments in Serbia: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Novi Pazar, Subotica and Vranje. The case studies examined the attitudes of members of criminal investigation police and their perception(s of discrimination towards vulnerable groups. The study aimed to determine the level of animosity exhibited in speech, to analyse socio-ethnic distance, to observe reactions towards measures designed to improve the situation of vulnerable groups, to consider the relationship among institutions regarding their responsibility for the occurrence of discrimination and its impact on the reduction of it, to discuss personal experiences of discrimination and to analyse attitudes regarding certain claims of a stereotypical character. Moreover, the paper also presents a comparative analysis of similar surveys on the perception of citizens towards discrimination that have thus far been conducted in Serbia. The results demonstrated that the police in Serbia did not exhibit a particularly discriminatory attitude towards citizens. It is important to note that the most prominent socio-ethnic distances were exhibited in relation to Roma and members of the LGBT community.

  8. Nurse-police coalition: improves safety in acute psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Diane E; Harris, Frank N; de Nesnera, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Although police officers protect and secure the safety of citizens everywhere, nurses are the primary guardians of patient safety within the treatment milieu. At New Hampshire Hospital, both nurses and police officers share ownership of this responsibility, depending on the needs that arise specific to each profession. Psychiatric nurses take pride in their ability to de-escalate agitated and potentially aggressive patients; however, times arise when the best efforts of nurses fail, or when a situation requires intervention from police officers. Nurses and police officers at New Hampshire Hospital have worked together for many years to develop a trusting, respectful alliance. This coalition has resulted in a safe, clear, orderly process for transfer of authority from nurses to police during violent, clinically unmanageable psychiatric emergencies. Nurses and police officers work collaboratively toward the common goal of ensuring safety for patients and staff, while also acknowledging the unique strengths of each profession.

  9. Police liaison and section 136: comparison of two different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Oliver; Dye, Stephen; Obeng-Asare, Franklin; Nguyen, Nam; Wright, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Aims and method Two police liaison and section 136 schemes were developed alongside police services at different sites within the same NHS trust. In one, a mental health nurse worked with frontline police attending incidents related to mental health. The other involved nurses providing advice from the police control room. Section 136 detentions were measured over two 6-month periods (6 months apart) before and after practice change. Data analysed included total numbers of section 136 assessments, outcomes following subsequent assessment, and relevant diagnostic and demographic factors. Association of any change in section 136 total numbers and proportion subsequently admitted was investigated in both sites. Results The model involving a nurse alongside frontline police showed significant reduction in section 136 numbers (38%, P section 136 detention but showed a non-significant (P = 0.16) decrease in subsequent admission. Clinical implications Mental health nurses working alongside frontline police officers can help improve section 136 numbers and outcomes.

  10. Remembrance of Things Past: Somali Roads to Police Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Hills

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Police reform is thought to require a police force to break with its past. This is notably so in the aftermath of conflict or regime change. In practice, however, most police forces are selectively reconstituted, and their development is influenced as much by legacy issues as by international standards filtered through local norms. This article uses the experience of Somalia’s three regional police forces to reconsider the relationship between past and present projects to build police authority and capacity, and what this says about institutional memory in the absence of documentation. In Somalia, as in other clan or tribal-based societies, police development is influenced by a blend of security levels, political imperatives, pragmatism, international resources and memories of past practices, with group experience playing a more significant role than institutional memory. The only identifiable general principle is the need for political settlements and tactical flexibility – that is, for stability.

  11. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the ...

  12. Policing and Islamophobia in Germany: The Role of Workplace Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Mescher

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study starts from a recognition that the German police have a significant potential to promote integration in contemporary multiethnic Germany. It employs three measures of Islamophobic attitudes and contact quality amongst a sample of 727 German police officers, and relates these to measures of job satisfaction, political affiliation, individual responsibility, and recognition. The data reveal Islamophobia to be significantly linked to these variables. Detailed analyses indicate that the respondents’ experience of policing may produce levels of dissatisfaction that impacts upon their outgroup attitudes. The implications of this for initiatives to promote police-Muslim relations are explored.

  13. Intelligent Emergency Response System for Police Vehicles in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganeshan, Ishan; Memon, Nasrullah

    2015-01-01

    . Based on this crime mapping, the administrator assigns patrol schedules for different police vehicles throughout the day. The proposed system would make it very easy for people to call for the help, and the police authorities to know the locations of the callers and identify crime hot spots...... time by the police vehicles. In the proposed system, the administrator can view the performance of all the police vehicles at any time through a web portal. The system used traditional data mining algorithms in order to analyze crimes in different areas of a city and at different times of the day...

  14. ESP NEEDS ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC ORDER POLICE OFFICERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Gökhan Ulum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With this study, 105 public order police officers in the national police forces were surveyed in order to assess their needs when using English on the job. In other words, this study aimed at examining the needs, functions and problems of 105 police officers serving at the department of public order. The findings from the questionnaire with open ended questions displayed that, (1 speaking and listening are the most important skills, (2 four language skills are moderately difficult, (3 there are motivational factors important to learn English, and (4 the functional use of English is important for the public order police officers. Recommendations and pedagogical implications were suggested.

  15. 75 FR 14183 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Policing Services (COPS) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of..., Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 1100 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington...

  16. 75 FR 30061 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Policing Services (COPS) has submitted the following information collection request to the Office of... Community Oriented Policing Services, 1100 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20530. Written comments and...

  17. 75 FR 75697 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Revision of a... Oriented Policing Services (COPS), has submitted the following information collection request to the Office..., please contact Ashley Hoornstra, Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services...

  18. Singing the same tune? International continuities and discontinuities in how police talk about using force

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Trabalho completo: acesso restrito, p.111–138 This article focuses on a research project conducted in six jurisdictions: England, The Netherlands, Germany, Australia, Venezuela, and Brazil. These societies are very different ethnically, socially, politically, economically, historically and have wildly different levels of crime. Their policing arrangements also differ significantly: how they are organised; how their officers are equipped and trained; what routine operating proce...

  19. Policing in Afghanistan-Reform that Respects Tradition: Need for a Strategic Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    118. 35 Nathan Hodge , “Army Researchers: Why the Kandahar Offensive Could Backfire,” Danger Room (16 April 2010), www.wired.com/dangerroom/2010/04...can win the war and lose the battle at home.38 Nick Grono, the Deputy President for Operations of the International Crisis Group, Brussels, has also...graduates re- 40 Nick Grono, “Policing in Conflict Studies – Lessons from Afghanistan,” International

  20. Building Host-Nation Police Forces: Principles for Strategic Military Planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    relatives and brought them to Republic of Srpska territory.62 While the transfer of the suburbs was underway, IFOR monitored the developing...controlled areas, and 12,000 in the Republic of Srpska . 65. The police forces operated under the control of their respective political leadership. With the...arrival of IFOR and the IPTF, the Bosniacs reduced their forces. However, the Republic of Srpska did not. In February 1997, the Bosniacs and Croats

  1. Resilience Training Program Reduces Physiological and Psychological Stress in Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that police work is among the most stressful occupations in the world and officers typically suffer a variety of physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects and symptoms. Officers operating under severe or chronic stress are likely to be at greater risk of error, accidents, and overreactions that can compromise their performance, jeopardize public safety, and pose significant liability costs to the organization. Therefore, this study explored the nature and degree of physiological activation typically experienced of officers on the job and the impact of the Coherence Advantage resilience and performance enhancement training on a group of police officers from Santa Clara County, California. Areas assessed included vitality, emotional well-being, stress coping and interpersonal skills, work performance, workplace effectiveness and climate, family relationships, and physiological recalibration following acute stressors. Physiological measurements were obtained to determine the real-time cardiovascular impact of acutely stressful situations encountered in highly realistic simulated police calls used in police training and to identify officers at increased risk of future health challenges. The resilience-building training improved officers' capacity to recognize and self-regulate their responses to stressors in both work and personal contexts. Officers experienced reductions in stress, negative emotions, depression, and increased peacefulness and vitality as compared to a control group. Improvements in family relationships, more effective communication and cooperation within work teams, and enhanced work performance also were noted. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements taken during simulated police call scenarios showed that acutely stressful circumstances typically encountered on the job result in a tremendous degree of physiological activation, from which it takes a considerable amount of time to recover. Autonomic nervous system

  2. Resilience Training Program Reduces Physiological and Psychological Stress in Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraty, Rollin; Atkinson, Mike

    2012-11-01

    Research suggests that police work is among the most stressful occupations in the world and officers typically suffer a variety of physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects and symptoms. Officers operating under severe or chronic stress are likely to be at greater risk of error, accidents, and overreactions that can compromise their performance, jeopardize public safety, and pose significant liability costs to the organization. Therefore, this study explored the nature and degree of physiological activation typically experienced of officers on the job and the impact of the Coherence Advantage resilience and performance enhancement training on a group of police officers from Santa Clara County, California. Areas assessed included vitality, emotional well-being, stress coping and interpersonal skills, work performance, workplace effectiveness and climate, family relationships, and physiological recalibration following acute stressors. Physiological measurements were obtained to determine the real-time cardiovascular impact of acutely stressful situations encountered in highly realistic simulated police calls used in police training and to identify officers at increased risk of future health challenges. The resilience-building training improved officers' capacity to recognize and self-regulate their responses to stressors in both work and personal contexts. Officers experienced reductions in stress, negative emotions, depression, and increased peacefulness and vitality as compared to a control group. Improvements in family relationships, more effective communication and cooperation within work teams, and enhanced work performance also were noted. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements taken during simulated police call scenarios showed that acutely stressful circumstances typically encountered on the job result in a tremendous degree of physiological activation, from which it takes a considerable amount of time to recover. Autonomic nervous system

  3. Relationship between the police and crime victims: An analysis of the process and the level of satisfaction with police work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klisarić Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this study was to investigate the level of satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. The aim of this research was to examine whether the police treat all victims of crime equally responsibly, or whether there is a significant difference in the satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. On an occasional sample of 150 examinees, we analyzed the level of satisfaction of crime victims in relation to the expectations of the police regarding the reported criminal offenses and then the level of satisfaction towards different aspects of work and conduct of the police, such as reporting crime to the police, environmental conditions of interview and human compassion/empathy of police officers. The results indicate a significant difference in the satisfaction of specified aspects of police work among different categories of victims. Most dissatisfaction was expressed by members of the LGBT community and convicted persons when they appear in the role of victims. The research makes recommendations for improving the quality of the work and behavior of the police towards victims of crime.

  4. Two Decades of Estonian Police and the (Irrelevance of Police Models for the Development of Safety Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Suve

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Police models are designed to improve safety in society. Although Estonia has not deliberately used any (combination of police models for developing its policies of safety and its police reforms since the country regained independence, its safety has improved considerably during the last couple of decades. The scholarly discussions about police models are overwhelmingly about the possible effects of different models on safety management and about their application to particular countries. However, countries like Estonia with no consistent conceptions of police have received little attention in academic literature. We aim to fill this gap by analysing the developments of the Estonian police in its philosophical, strategic, tactical and organisational dimensions over the period between 1991 and 2013. The analysed materials include the official police development plans, legislation, statutes, training programs and statistics about the police. Our analysis shows that although safety in Estonia has improved considerably, developments of the Estonian police are characterised by internal discrepancies and inconsistencies. In view of this, we put forth some hypotheses for further studies regarding policy development in a situation where policy is not explicitly stated or where organisational reforms are seen not as “simple” or “complex” problems, but as “wicked” problems.

  5. 41 CFR 301-11.300 - When is actual expense reimbursement warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is actual expense reimbursement warranted? 301-11.300 Section 301-11.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... meals are procured at a prearranged place such as a hotel where a meeting, conference or training...

  6. 28 CFR 2.44 - Summons to appear or warrant for retaking of parolee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of parolee. 2.44 Section 2.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.44 Summons to appear or warrant for retaking of parolee. (a) If a parolee is...

  7. 28 CFR 2.47 - Warrant placed as a detainer and dispositional review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dispositional review. 2.47 Section 2.47 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.47 Warrant placed as a detainer and dispositional review. (a) When a parolee is...

  8. Policing and COIN Operations: Lessons Learned, Strategies, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    medieval time when our religion was attacked and we are persecuted. Thousands of women, children, pilgrims, had gathered here on June 3 for Gurupurab...are here in black and white, or the path to answers begins within these pages, this monograph establishes an attempt to document lessons learned in...violent crimes that had plagued South Los Angeles for decades. According to the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Community Oriented

  9. Community Policing and D.A.R.E.: A Practitioner's Perspective. BJA Bulletin. Community Policing Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, David L.

    Community policing and Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) are evolving initiatives that can respond to changing social problems and demands. However, many of the challenges faced by both programs arise out of the fundamentals of human nature. Among the greatest barriers to overcome are: (1) the resistance to change that affects law…

  10. Pricing equity warrants with a promised lowest price in Merton's jump-diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weilin; Zhang, Xili

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the empirical evidence of jumps in the dynamics of firm behavior, this paper considers the problem of pricing equity warrants in the presence of a promised lowest price when the price of the underlying asset follows the Merton's jump-diffusion process. Using the Martingale approach, we propose a valuation model of equity warrants based on the firm value, its volatility, and parameters of the jump component, which are not directly observable. To implement our pricing model empirically, this paper also provides a promising estimation method for obtaining these desired variables based on observable data, such as stock prices and the book value of total liability. We conduct an empirical study to ascertain the performance of our proposed model using the data of Changdian warrant collected from 25 May 2006 (the listing date) to 29 January 2007 (the expiration date). Furthermore, the comparison of traditional models (such as the Black-Scholes model, the Noreen-Wolfson model, the Lauterbach-Schultz model, and the Ukhov model) with our model is presented. From the empirical study, we can see that the mean absolute error of our pricing model is 16.75%. By contrast, the Black-Scholes model, the Noreen-Wolfson model, the Lauterbach-Schultz model, and the Ukhov model applied to the same warrant produce mean absolute errors of 92.24%, 45.38%, 87.34%, 76.12%, respectively. Thus both the dilution effect and the jump feature cannot be ignored in determining the valuation of equity warrants.

  11. Temperament vs. chronic fatigue in police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stępka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. Material and methods: We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Results: The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. Conclusions: The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. Med Pr 2015;66(6:793–801

  12. 培养公安院校学员依法使用警械武器能力研究%On Building the Police College Students’ Capability of Legally Manipulating Police Apparatuses and Weapons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮泽来; 魏毅

    2014-01-01

    通过对公安院校学员依法使用警械武器能力现状的研究,发现我国公安院校学员操作警械武器的能力提升较大,但是依法使用警械武器的能力明显落后于操作能力的训练。通过咨询专家、文献整理和与一线民警交流,发现提高公安院校学员依法准确、快速的认知反应能力显得十分重要。现实执法环境复杂多变,提高学员依法使用警械武器能力,可以有效避免出现各种因不规范操作而出现的失误。%By researching the current situation of police college students’ capability of legally manipulating police apparatuses and weapons, this paper finds out that the operational capability of police apparatuses and weapons improve greatly, but the legal utilization noticeably lags behind. By consulting experts, referring to literature review and interviewing front-line police, this article concludes that it is significant to strengthen students’ accurate and rapid cognitive response ability according to the law. To improve police college students’ capability of legally manipulating police apparatuses and weapons can effectively avoid all kinds of mistakes because of non-standard operation under the complex and changeable real law enforcement environment.

  13. Stress Management in the Police Work

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria-Liliana-Amelia Purda-Nicoară (Netotea-Suciu); Maria Roxana Dorobantu

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization estimates, stress is one of the risk factors most frequently affecting human health, along with obesity, alcoholism, drugs and smoking, and the suicide due to work-related stress will be the main cause of death in 2025 (Turc, 2006). Given this, and the that the profession of police officer has been ranked in the top ten most stressful jobs the U.S. (by The American Institute of Stress) and categorized as one of the most stressful occupations in the w...

  14. EURO2008 - practical information from the police

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Geneva cantonal police have set up a toll-free telephone line to deal with questions and requests from the public as rapidly and simply as possible. The number is 0800 800 844, and the line will be open from 8 a.m. to 2 a.m. every day from 2 June to 30 June 2008. 0800 800 844 Detailed security recommendations for the individual matches will be posted at http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite_en.asp

  15. EURO2008 - Informations utiles de la police

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    (English version next week) Durant le mois de juin, afin de garantir une proximité maximale, la Police cantonale genevoise répond à toutes les questions et sollicitations avec un numéro de téléphone vert gratuit du 2 au 30 juin 2008, de 08h00 à 02h00 au 0800 800 844 Vous trouverez toutes les informations utiles concernant la sécurité, match par match, sur le site http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite.asp

  16. Twilight policing: private security and violence in urban South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diphoorn, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    South Africa boasts the largest private security sector in the entire world, reflecting deep anxieties about violence, security, and governance. Twilight Policing is an ethnographic study of the daily policing practices of armed response officers—a specific type of private security officer—and their

  17. Is ‘real’ Police Work masculinely Gendered?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Fekjær, Silje Bringsrud; Møberg, Rasmus Juul

    characteristics into account? The data in this paper are part of the quantitative research project ‘Recruitment, Education and Careers in the Police: A European Longitudinal Study’ (RECPOL) . The project has a longitudinal research design, following police recruits over time by regularly surveys...

  18. 25 IMAGE OF THE NIGERIA POLICE AS PORTRAYED IN GEORGIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Alex C Asigbo

    In practice, many members of the Nigeria. Police are ... Key words: image, Night Duty, Nigeria police, drama ... Many African communities and/or countries have a number ... same vein, Nwabueze (2011), names the creative writer the referee ... that were 'acted' in front of audiences in a theatron (Australian .... T-o-o m-u-c-h.

  19. Fostering Student Police Officers' Creativity in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Aleksejeva, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The modern issues of global developmental trends require contemporary police officers to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of human safety in the constantly changing environment. Education provides student police officers with the appropriate skills and competences for innovation based on creativity.…

  20. Reproductive conflict in bumblebees and the evolution of worker policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Lorenzo R S; Miller, Sophie D L; Faria, Christiana M A; Almond, Edd J; Huggins, Tim J; Jordan, William C; Bourke, Andrew F G

    2012-12-01

    Worker policing (mutual repression of reproduction) in the eusocial Hymenoptera represents a leading example of how coercion can facilitate cooperation. The occurrence of worker policing in "primitively" eusocial species with low mating frequencies, which lack relatedness differences conducive to policing, suggests that separate factors may underlie the origin and maintenance of worker policing. We tested this hypothesis by investigating conflict over male parentage in the primitively eusocial, monandrous bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. Using observations, experiments, and microsatellite genotyping, we found that: (a) worker- but not queen-laid male eggs are nearly all eaten (by queens, reproductive, and nonreproductive workers) soon after being laid, so accounting for low observed frequencies of larval and adult worker-produced males; (b) queen- and worker-laid male eggs have equal viabilities; (c) workers discriminate between queen- and worker-laid eggs using cues on eggs and egg cells that almost certainly originate from queens. The cooccurrence in B. terrestris of these three key elements of "classical" worker policing as found in the highly eusocial, polyandrous honeybees provides novel support for the hypothesis that worker policing can originate in the absence of relatedness differences maintaining it. Worker policing in B. terrestris almost certainly arose via reproductive competition among workers, that is, as "selfish" policing. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Can Racially Unbiased Police Perpetuate Long-Run Discrimination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunzel, H.; Marcoul, P.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a stylized dynamic model of highway policing in which a non-racist police officer is given incentives to arrest criminals, but faces a per stop cost of stop which increases when the racial mix of the persons he stops di.ers from the racial mix of the population.We define the fair jail

  2. Social Behaviour in Police Interviews: Relating Data to Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn; Linssen, Johannes Maria; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Theune, Mariet; Wapperom, Sjoerd; Broekema, Chris; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vincze, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a corpus of enacted police interviews to get insight into the social behaviour of interviewees and police officers in this setting. We (exhaustively) collected the terms used to describe the interactions in those interviews. Through factor analysis, we showed that the theories

  3. The Quality of Police Education: An AACJC Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James R.; Rasmussen, Howard M.

    These two symposium presentations are endorsed by the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges in response to the book, "The Quality of Police Education," which was prepared by the Police Foundation with support from the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. Specifically, the papers refute allegations made in the book in…

  4. The Optimal Dispatch of Traffic and Patrol Police Service Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Quan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to present a minmax programming model for the optimal dispatch of Traffic and Patrol Police Service Platforms with single traffic congestion. The objective is to minimize the longest time of the dispatch for Traffic and Patrol Police Service Platforms. Some numerical experiments are carried out, and the optimal project is given.

  5. Hill Street Blues Post Conflict: Host Nation Police Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    completely new police recruits would need to be trained and fielded.”129 - Ms. Adrienne Lauzon One must first understand Iraq that prior to the...And The State Border Service, 2004, 6. 128Ibid. 129Ms. Adrienne Lauzon, Local Security, Policing, and Counterinsurgency: Lessons From Iraq (Norfolk

  6. "Policing Schools" Strategies: A Review of the Evaluation Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosino, Anthony; Guckenburg, Sarah; Fronius, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools experience a wide range of crime and disorder, victimizing students and staff, and undermining attempts to create a safe and orderly environment for student learning. Police have long established programs with schools, but there has been no systematic review of evaluations of these programs, outside of police-led prevention…

  7. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions are in the organized police... a member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms “police officer” and “firefighter” do not include...

  8. Teens and police officers learn leadership skills in summer camps

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2006-01-01

    This summer, rising 10th graders and police officers from all over the state will learn leadership skills in two separate programs on the Virginia Tech campus sponsored by the Virginia Police Chiefs Foundation and organized by the Pamplin College of Business. Both programs start on Sunday, June 17.

  9. 77 FR 74546 - Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of... police are in the national security interest of the United States. This Determination shall...

  10. Dialogic Reverberations: Police, Domestic Abuse, and the Discontinuance of Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…

  11. A job-related fitness test for the Dutch police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, M.; Bakker, R. H.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The variety of tasks that characterize police work highlights the importance of being in good physical condition. Aims To take a first step at standardizing the administration of a job-related test to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of the core tasks of police wo

  12. Trust in the Police: Argentina and Mexico in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sergio Bergman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the relationship between the evaluation of police performance and citizen trust in the police. Using data from similar victimization surveys for the city of Buenos Aires and for Mexico City we test several logistic regression models. We find that the perception of police performance emerges as the most relevant factor in accounting for variation in levels of trust in both cases. These results imply that, even in contexts of high criminality and low institutional trust, the police can do a lot to earn the trust of citizens and engage them in a virtuous cycle, whereby citizens provide information useful to crime prevention thus increasing trust in the police.

  13. A Qualitative Examination of Police Officers' Perception of Football Supporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Several studies stress the importance of thorough knowledge of supporter culture in order to assess the actual level of risk at football matches thereby ensuring a balanced approach by the police in order to avoid conflict situations. This study examines how Danish police officers perceive...... and categorise football supporters on the basis of a field-based observational study and a qualitative interview study undertaken at the East Jutland Police department in Denmark in the period 2008–2009. The main findings show a general lack of knowledge of supporter culture as well as scepticism towards...... engaging in dialogue with football supporters. As a consequence of these findings, the East Jutland Police department initiated an educational programme on dialogue policing in 2010. The programme has been successfully evaluated and is now implemented on a national basis....

  14. Does Size Matter? Short and Tall Officers Policing the Streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of physical characteristics is rarely addressed in the literature on professional competence and authority. In police work it is almost taken for granted that height is advantageous in police work, despite a lack of research on the topic. This study examines how height may affect police inter-actions with the public and how short and tall men and women experience the importance of their height in patrol work. Results show that being tall was perceived as beneficial in patrol work. Furthermore, the authority of short police officers is challenged more often by the public, and short female police may have a particular focus on verbal communication. Tallness will probably be perceived as beneficial in fields in which physical conflicts arises.

  15. The crime prevention value of hot spots policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Anthony A

    2006-08-01

    This paper reviews the available research evidence on the effectiveness of hot spots policing programs in reducing crime and disorder. The research identified five randomized controlled experiments and four non-equivalent control group quasi-experiments evaluating the effects of hot spots policing interventions on crime. Seven of nine selected evaluations reported noteworthy crime and disorder reductions. Meta-analyses of the randomized experiments revealed statistically significant mean effect sizes favoring hot spots policing interventions in reducing citizen calls for service in treatment places relative to control places. When immediate spatial displacement was measured, it was very limited and unintended crime prevention benefits were associated with the hot spots policing programs. The results of this review suggest that hot spots policing is an effective crime prevention strategy.

  16. Bugetary Perspective on Police Force: A Case Study on Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš PINTERIČ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The author explores some of the generally overlooked roles of police force in contemporary world. The last decade was strongly marked by a need for increased safety, and police forces were strongly motivated to change the security paradigm. However, a connection between police and security can be seen as well, through the budget, where the activity of the police is measured using the amount of revenues obtained from fees and fines. In the case of the Slovenian security situation and fine revenues, police has both the main role in providing a certain level of national internal security and an important budgetary role by providing 1% of the Slovenian budgetary revenues that are sufficient to cover the expenses of approximately 15 main institutions belonging to the political system.

  17. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  18. When Colour Matters: Policing and Hate Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Wigerfelt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.

  19. When Colour Matters: Policing and Hate Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Wigerfelt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.

  20. A clean bill of health? The efficacy of an NHS commissioned outsourced police custody healthcare service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viggiani, Nick

    2013-08-01

    Police custody healthcare services for detainees in the UK are most commonly outsourced to independent healthcare providers who employ custody nurses and forensic physicians to deliver forensic healthcare services. A pilot was introduced in 2008 by the Department of Health to explore the efficacy of commissioning custody healthcare via the NHS, in the wake of the 2005-2006 shift of prison healthcare to the NHS. The objective was to improve quality and accountability through NHS commissioning and the introduction of NHS governance to the management and delivery of custody healthcare. This article discusses key themes that arose from the project evaluation, which focused on the commissioning relationship between the police, the NHS commissioner and the private healthcare provider. The evaluation observed an evolving relationship between the police, the local NHS and the front-line nurses, which was complicated by the quite distinctive professional values and ideologies operating, with their contrasting organisational imperatives and discordant values and principles. A key challenge for commissioners is to develop synergy between operational and strategically located stakeholders so that they can work effectively towards common goals. Government policy appears to remain focused on creating safe, supportive and humane custody environments that balance criminal justice and health imperatives and support the rights and needs of detainees, victims, professionals and the public. This remains an ambitious agenda and presents a major challenge for new criminal justice health partnerships.

  1. Policing and risk of overdose mortality in urban neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Nandi, Arijit; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Tardiff, Kenneth J; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Background Accidental drug overdose is a major cause of mortality among drug users. Fears of police arrest may deter witnesses of drug overdose from calling for medical help and may be a determinant of drug overdose mortality. To our knowledge, no studies have empirically assessed the relation between levels of policing and drug overdose mortality. We hypothesized that levels of police activity, congruent with fears of police arrest, are positively associated with drug overdose mortality. Methods We assembled cross-sectional time-series data for 74 New York City (NYC) police precincts over the period 1990–1999 using data collected from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of NYC, the NYC Police Department, and the US Census Bureau. Misdemeanor arrest rate—reflecting police activity—was our primary independent variable of interest, and overdose rate our primary dependent variable of interest. Results The mean overdose rate per 100,000 among police precincts in NYC between 1990 and 1999 was 10.8 (standard deviation = 10.0). In a Bayesian hierarchical model that included random spatial and temporal effects and a space-time interaction, the misdemeanor arrest rate per 1,000 was associated with higher overdose mortality (posterior median = 0.003, 95% Credible Interval = 0.001, 0.005) after adjustment for overall drug use in the precinct and demographic characteristics. Conclusions Levels of police activity in a precinct are associated with accidental drug overdose mortality. Future research should examine aspects of police-community interactions that contribute to higher overdose mortality. PMID:20727684

  2. Bouncers, Policing and the (Invisibility of Ethnicity in Nightlife Security Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Friis Søgaard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reproduction of ethnified urban spaces and inequalities in an ostensibly cosmopolitan city. It does so by means of a case study of bouncers’ policing practices in the nightlife of the Danish city, Aarhus. In recent years, a substantial body of research has explored the regulatory practices of bouncers operating in the urban night-time economy. This article contributes to the study of nightlife policing by paying special attention to the ethnic governance of bouncers. More specifically, the article investigates how ethnicity is produced in bouncers’ administration of nightlife accessibility; how inclusion and exclusion are negotiated in encounters between bouncers and ethnic minority youth; and how bouncers struggle to avoid allegations of discrimination and to uphold notions of colorblind good governance, while ethnified notions of troublesome individuals continue to inform bouncers’ production of nightlife safety.

  3. Bouncers, Policing and the (Invisibility of Ethnicity in Nightlife Security Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Friis Søgaard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reproduction of ethnified urban spaces and inequalities in an ostensibly cosmopolitan city. It does so by means of a case study of bouncers’ policing practices in the nightlife of the Danish city, Aarhus. In recent years, a substantial body of research has explored the regulatory practices of bouncers operating in the urban night-time economy. This article contributes to the study of nightlife policing by paying special attention to the ethnic governance of bouncers. More specifically, the article investigates how ethnicity is produced in bouncers’ administration of nightlife accessibility; how inclusion and exclusion are negotiated in encounters between bouncers and ethnic minority youth; and how bouncers struggle to avoid allegations of discrimination and to uphold notions of colorblind good governance, while ethnified notions of troublesome individuals continue to inform bouncers’ production of nightlife safety.

  4. Developing a Peace Course in Police Studies: How a Culture of Peace Can Enhance Police Legitimacy in a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James Russell

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects my experiences developing a course within the Criminal Justice Technology Associates of Science degree program at Valencia College that fuses topics unique to peace and police studies. The key challenge in developing this course was in confronting the paradox of the police as instruments of both peace and conflict. In dealing…

  5. The Impact of Perceptions of Ethical Leadership Styles on Perceptions of Police Integrity Violations: The Case of Diyarbakir Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Timur

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main areas: first, the study evaluates whether the ethical leadership style of a direct supervisor has an impact on the police officers' perception of the integrity violations; second, the study scrutinizes whether police officers' moral judgment of integrity violations makes a difference in the amount of such violations. The…

  6. Measuring Perceived Procedural Justice and Coercion among Persons with Mental Illness in Police Encounters: The Police Contact Experience Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…

  7. The Role of Police Officers in Elementary and Secondary Schools: Implications for Police-School Social Work Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, George T.

    2007-01-01

    Collaborations between law enforcement agencies and elementary and secondary schools focus on the provision of education to students, the safety and security of school property, and public relations efforts aimed at changing youths' attitudes toward the police both inside and outside of schools. The use of police officers in school settings…

  8. The Impact of Perceptions of Ethical Leadership Styles on Perceptions of Police Integrity Violations: The Case of Diyarbakir Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Timur

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main areas: first, the study evaluates whether the ethical leadership style of a direct supervisor has an impact on the police officers' perception of the integrity violations; second, the study scrutinizes whether police officers' moral judgment of integrity violations makes a difference in the amount of such…

  9. Measuring Perceived Procedural Justice and Coercion among Persons with Mental Illness in Police Encounters: The Police Contact Experience Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…

  10. Respecting Human Rights during the Execution of the European Arrest Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine a topic in the field of European law, which is of particular interest, beingalways a novel subject, that is the protection and human rights within the complex activity of executing theEuropean arrest warrant by the judicial authorities of each Member State. The paper continues previousresearch materialized in some in studies and articles published in national or international specialized journalsor proceedings. The examination of the European arrest warrant institution has led to some conclusions,which ultimately need to certify the completion of some provisions, notably the ones regarding the mutualrecognition and increase of efficiency. The work can be useful both for practitioners and theorists in the field,the essential contribution consisting of the examination and the expressed critical opinions, which may lead tothe amendment and completion of the European legislative act.

  11. The Progression of Cholelithiasis to Gallstone Ileus: Do Large Gallstones Warrant Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael H; Mullen, Matthew G; Friel, Charles M

    2016-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, classically occurring in patients with recurrent cholecystitis. The incidence of biliary enteric fistula and gallstone ileus in patients with large, asymptomatic gallstones is not known. We report a case of gallstone ileus, which occurred in the setting of a large, asymptomatic gallstone. This case suggests that large gallstones may warrant cholecystectomy, even in asymptomatic patients.

  12. Analyzing problem solving using math in physics: Epistemological framing via warrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Bing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing expertise in physics entails learning to use mathematics effectively and efficiently as applied to the context of physical situations. Doing so involves coordinating a variety of concepts and skills including mathematical processing, computation, blending ancillary information with the math, and reading out physical implications from the math and vice versa. From videotaped observations of intermediate level students solving problems in groups, we note that students often “get stuck” using a limited group of skills or reasoning and fail to notice that a different set of tools (which they possess and know how to use effectively could quickly and easily solve their problem. We refer to a student’s perception or judgment of the kind of knowledge that is appropriate to bring to bear in a particular situation as epistemological framing. Although epistemological framing is often unstated (and even unconscious, in group problem-solving situations students sometimes get into disagreements about how to progress. During these disagreements, they bring forth reasons or warrants in support of their point of view. For the context of mathematics use in physics problem solving, we present a system for classifying physics students’ warrants and analyze a case study. This warrant analysis provides a general widely applicable technique for identifying students’ epistemological framings.

  13. Punitive policing and associated substance use risks among HIV-positive people in Russia who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Bridden, Carly; Blokhina, Elena; Walley, Alexander Y; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Drug law enforcement is part of the HIV risk environment among people who inject drugs (PWID). Punitive policing practices such as extrajudicial arrests for needle possession and police planting of drugs have been described anecdotally in Russia, but these experiences and their associations with risky drug behaviours have not been quantified. This study aims to quantify the burden of extrajudicial police arrests among a cohort of HIV-positive PWID in Russia and to explore its links to drug-related health outcomes. In a cross-sectional study of 582 HIV-positive people with lifetime injection drug use (IDU) in St. Petersburg, Russia, we estimated the prevalence of self-reported extrajudicial police arrests. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate associations between arrests and the following outcomes: overdose, recent IDU and receptive needle sharing. This cohort's mean age was 29.8 years, 60.8% were male; 75.3% reported non-fatal drug overdose, 50.3% recent IDU and 47.3% receptive needle sharing. Extrajudicial arrests were reported by more than half (60.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.5-64.5) and were associated with higher odds of non-fatal drug overdose (AOR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02-2.25) but not with recent IDU (AOR 1.17, arrests were associated with receptive needle sharing (AOR 1.84, 95% CI: 1.09-3.09). Extrajudicial police arrests were common among this cohort of Russian HIV-positive PWID and associated with non-fatal overdose and, among those with recent IDU, receptive needle sharing. As a part of the HIV risk environment of PWIDs, these practices might contribute to HIV transmission and overdose mortality. Further research is needed to relate these findings to the operational environment of law enforcement and to better understand how police interventions among PWIDs can improve the HIV risk environment.

  14. Crisis averted: How consumers experienced a police and clinical early response (PACER) unit responding to a mental health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Eloisa; Lee, Stuart; Gallagher, Angela; Peterson, Violeta; James, Jo; Warren, Narelle; Henderson, Kathryn; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Cornelius, Luke; Deveny, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    When mental health crisis situations in the community are poorly handled, it can result in physical and emotional injuries. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the experiences and opinions of consumers about the way police and mental health services worked together, specifically via the Alfred Police and Clinical Early Response (A-PACER) model, to assist people experiencing a mental health crisis. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 mental health consumers who had direct contact with the A-PACER team between June 2013 and March 2015. The study highlighted that people who encountered the A-PACER team generally valued and saw the benefit of a joint police-mental health clinician team response to a mental health crisis situation in the community. In understanding what worked well in how the A-PACER team operated, consumers perspectives can be summarized into five themes: communication and de-escalation, persistence of the A-PACER team, providing a quick response and working well under pressure, handover of information, and A-PACER helped consumers achieve a preferred outcome. All consumers acknowledged the complementary roles of the police officer and mental health clinician, and described the A-PACER team's supportive approach as critical in gaining their trust, engagement and in de-escalating the crises. Further education and training for police officers on how to respond to people with a mental illness, increased provision of follow-up support to promote rehabilitation and prevent future crises, and measures to reduce public scrutiny for the consumer when police responded, were proposed opportunities for improvement.

  15. Unmasking the health problems faced by the police personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Jahnavi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the health problems of the police personnel under Vijayawada police commisionerate 2. To make the health check ups regular and 3. To make the physical fitness programme mandatory for them.Study design: cross sectional study Methodology: Health check up was done for 617 police personnel from 12.11.09 to 4.12.09. In the morning hours, a group of junior doctors, paramedical staff and technicians visited the police dispensary to do the general check up, take blood samples and ECG. The following afternoon a group of specialists visited to check the same patients along with their reports to make the final diagnosis. Results: Out of 617 police personnel 259 (42% were overweight/obese, lack of physical activity was found in 397 (64% of them, alcohol consumption was present in 148 (24% and smoking in 136 (22% of the police personnel. Diabetes was diagnosed in 229 (37% and hypertension in 203 (33%. Anemia was detected in 154 (25%, visual abnormalities in 59 (10%, lipid abnormalities in 185 (30%, liver function test abnormalities in 31 (5%, ECG abnormalities in 25 (4%, renal function abnormalities in 6 (1%. Conclusion: A Physical fitness Schedule along with Stress alleviation techniques to be made mandatory for the police personnel to keep them physically and mentally fit, to perform critical job functions, to alleviate stress, and to improve their quality of life. Routine health checkups should be done to detect lurking dangers.

  16. [Risk and (in)security in the police mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Adorno, Sérgio

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces a discussion on the history and use of the concepts of risk and security applied to the police officer's mission. The text is developed in an essay format that shows how both terms developed under the constitution of modern industrial societies. The authors begin with the assumption that the organizational structure of the police in various parts of the world retains the same logic since they were created during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and that this format is in crisis: whether it is because the concept of risk and current management thereof has now become much broader; or because the concept of security has also deepened and broadened, fleeing from the scope of the police institution. The crisis of the police apparatus is an international issue and the authors point to the case of the French police. Reverting to the thoughts of important authors in the sociological area, the authors resume the debate on some issues that they consider urgent: reformulation of the breadth of the concepts of risk and security to understand the police mission; enhancement of the police inside and outside corporations; review of the weight of the hierarchical rigidity or inflexibility on careers in a plural and flexible society.

  17. Ideal Police Oversight and Review: The Next Piece of the Community Policing Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ceiling for budgets was set at $1.5 million, twice the initial criterion, allowing six boards to be researched further. Thus, boards from Oakland...Common Sense about Police Review, 260. 80 “Office of Civil Rights and Wage Enforcement / Civilian Review Board / Civilian Board FAQs,” City of...Civil Rights and Wage Enforcement,” City of Baltimore. 85 Hunt, request for information response. 29 activities of the oversight entity, they

  18. Role of female police officer and her challenges within the police organization

    OpenAIRE

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-01-01

    In the most developed countries, the opinion prevailed that the police profession is only a profession for men. This opinion is an already outdated practice. Interest in women’s emancipation has been a phenomenon to which many countries and organizations with influence in the world were committed. Attention to engage women in public life in society exists even nowadays, growing even more. Employment of women in different professions and the results shown by them have increased the interest of...

  19. Role of female police officer and her challenges within the police organization

    OpenAIRE

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-01-01

    In the most developed countries, the opinion prevailed that the police profession is only a profession for men. This opinion is an already outdated practice. Interest in women’s emancipation has been a phenomenon to which many countries and organizations with influence in the world were committed. Attention to engage women in public life in society exists even nowadays, growing even more. Employment of women in different professions and the results shown by them have increased the interest of...

  20. Becoming a Learning Organization: The Espoused Values of Police Managers from Two Norwegian Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filstad, Cathrine; Gottschalk, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which espoused values among police managers in the Norwegian police force are compatible with those of a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was developed and administered to police managers in two police districts in Norway. A set of values was…

  1. Twenty-First Century Police Training: Recruits' Problem-Solving Skills Following Scenario-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lee R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse requirements of 21st-century police work and the increasing emphasis on community-policing philosophy, the Los Angeles Police Department has implemented changes within its academy curricula and methods of instruction, including the use of adult-learning concepts, a community policing problem-solving model known as…

  2. Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…

  3. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E,...

  4. Expanding Police Educators' Understanding of Teaching, Are They as Learner-Centred as They Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipton, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Police educators, that is, police and non-police teachers involved in recruit education and training, have traditionally suffered from a lack of organisational focus on developing their teaching and learning practices. The New South Wales (NSW) Police College, which is currently implementing Problem Based Learning (PBL), has begun to take a more…

  5. New Concepts in Modern Policing – Criminal Personality Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan TASU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of criminal profiling is widely accepted. As an investigative tool, this method of crime scene approach may provide useful information in serious crimes management, including homicide, rape, arson or burglary. Based on crime scene data and personality theories, rofiling may be seen as a deductive inferring process which can help police officers to apprehend a serial offender. Although in most modern police agencies the use of criminal profiling is mandatory, Romanian police has his first step in it. This article will provide the general principles of the method.

  6. Public confidence in the police : the impact of verbal encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Rønneberg, Kari

    2012-01-01

    The main part of ordinary police work consists of patrolling and answering calls, which means that most police officers are in a daily and direct contact with members of the public. During such encounters, especially if they take place by means of a telephone, language not only provides an important means to solve problems and exert social control, but it also helps to build relations, as well as to inspire confidence and trust. In this way, the communication process between police and the pu...

  7. Evaluating the police service quality for handling traffic crash reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2017-01-01

    -based survey on the basis of the SERVQUAL approach to detecting strengths, opportunities and threats with crash reporting to the police at a strategic level. Transportation stakeholders (e.g. researchers, authorities, consultants, NGO representatives, suppliers) with an interest in traffic safety in Denmark....../value This study advances the knowledge about police service quality with a novel expert-based decision support tool based on SERVQUAL, MCDA and LCA, demonstrates its applicability in countries with a high-police service, and opportunities and barriers for increasing the crash reporting rate....

  8. Young people and the formation of attitudes towards the police

    OpenAIRE

    Sindall, K; McCarthy, D J; Brunton-Smith, I.

    2016-01-01

    Much is now known about public trust and confidence in the police, especially regarding the important role of procedural justice in police–citizen engagements. However, less is known about perceptions of the police amongst young people and how their views are formed. We use survey data from more than 1500 young people aged 10–15 years whose parents were also interviewed in the Crime Survey for England and Wales (2010–12) to explore the extent that children’s views of the police correspond wit...

  9. Cross-cultural Training of Danish Police Officers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Lorenzen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    . The empirical data for this case emanates from the collaboration between the Greenlandic and Danish police in 2015. Every summer, a group of Danish officers are sent to Greenland to assist the police force while local officers are on summer holidays. The case centers on a one-week course in January of 2015...... that is provided to the selected group of Danish officers going to Greenland the following summer. The main focus is kept on how a group of leaders from the Greenlandic police, with Danish and Greenlandic backgrounds, present the upcoming experience and work to the Danish officers, as well as the officers...

  10. The European Arrest Warrant According to the Latest Changes and Additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a dysfunction detected during the surrender of a pursued person under the European Convention on Extradition, the European Union instituted a new procedure that is the European arrestwarrant. Because initially the provisions of the Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA did not provide clear legal rules regarding which procedure to follow if the wanted person was not present at the trial, this situation was observed also by the European Court of Human Rights, it was amended and supplemented accordinglyby adopting the Framework Decision 2009/299/JAI. The evaluation of the provisions of both acts highlights the existence of some incomplete legal rules, which in time they will cause some dysfunctions regarding the issuing and the enforcement of a European arrest warrant. We also consider modifying and expanding thelegal rules relating to mandatory and optional reasons for the refusal of enforcement of a European arrest warrant, and the inclusion of educational deprivation of liberty measures in the category of the reasons that justify the request of the execution of a European arrest warrant. The originality of the work results from the analysis of the recent changes of the European legislative framework document and the critical opinions expressed about some stipulations, which in our opinion are incomplete. The paper can be useful not only for the Romanian legislator, but also for the European one, from the perspective of modifying the concerned legalacts and also the doctrine. It has a major importance in this domain for ensuring an area of freedom, security and justice in the European Union.

  11. Improving police response to persons with mental illness: a multi-level conceptualization of CIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C; Morabito, Melissa Schaefer; Draine, Jeffrey; Ottati, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The large numbers of people with mental illness in jails and prisons has fueled policy concern in all domains of the justice system. This includes police practice, where initial decisions to involve persons in the justice system or divert them to mental health services are made. One approach to focus police response in these situations is the implementation of Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT). The CIT model is being implemented widely, with over 400 programs currently operating. While the limited evidence on CIT effectiveness is promising, research on CIT is limited in scope and conceptualization-much of it focusing on officer characteristics and training. In this paper we review the literature on CIT and present a conceptual model of police response to persons with mental illness that accounts for officer, organizational, mental health system and community level factors likely to influence implementation and effectiveness of CIT and other approaches. By moving our conceptualizations and research in this area to new levels of specificity, we may contribute more to effectiveness research on these interventions.

  12. Standard of Proof Required to Issue an Arrest Warrant for Genocide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Carnero Rojo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available At the time of writing this case note, the case against Omar Al Bashir is the only genocide case before the InternationalCriminal Court. So far, the main legal question concerns whether the existence of reasonable grounds to believe that a personhas committed a crime of genocide within the jurisdiction of the Court must be the only reasonable conclusion to be drawnfrom the evidence presented by the Prosecutor for an arrest warrant to be issued against the suspect of such crime.

  13. Influence of leadership factors on the work engagement of uniformed police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Žužman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question (RQ: Are any statistically significant correlations between the factors in the management of the police and the degree of engagement between uniformed police officers. Purpose: The aim of this master’s thesis is to examine the influence of leadership factors on the work engagement of uniformed police officers in the analysed police stations, as well as to provide recommendations for improvement. Methodology: A quantitative survey was conducted among 932 uniformed police officers from all 22 police stations of the Police Directorate Ljubljana. Results: No positive correlation was found between elements of police station leadership and the level of work engagement of uniformed police officers. A positive correlation was identified between the level of work engagement of uniformed police officers and length of service. There was no positive correlation between leadership factors and the police officers’ posts. Organization: The findings will be of practical use to police station managers of Police Directorate Ljubljana in planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. They can also serve as a foundation for other researchers to conduct further research on the subject with the help of additional data. Originality: Based on the survey data, we identify and clarify the factors keeping on Police stations and factors engagement uniformed police officers at police stations. We have gained new knowledge that cannot be read in the domestic and foreign literature, with which we have contributed to the upgrading of existing knowledge. Limitation: The survey was carried out between uniformed police officers at police stations in the area of the Ljubljana Police Directorate, and the results from the study cannot be generalized to all Police stations in Slovenia.

  14. Community-Oriented Counterterrorism: Incorporating National Homeland Security Mandates into the Local Community Policing Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    attempting to win over the hearts and minds of the community will simply not work in combating terrorism because a terrorist cannot be won over.77...the heart of community policing and community policing simply cannot exist absent these partnerships.144 Agency representatives were asked if... PINE BLUFF POLICE DEPARTMENT AR 50100 LITTLE ROCK POLICE DEPARTMENT AR 50100 NORTH LITTLE ROCK POLICE DEPARTMENT AZ 60100 SIERRA VISTA DEPARTMENT

  15. Execution of the European Arrest Warrant by the Romanian Judicial Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented development of criminality at the social and economical levels, the tendency toglobalize some categories of crimes, of maximum gravity, as terrorism, armament traffic, drug traffic orhuman traffic, have determined the world states to undertake specific measures to prevent, combat and finallyreduce it. The first and most important measure taken by the Europe’s Council, regarding the intensificationof judicial cooperation in criminal matters was the adoption of the European Convention on extradition, inParis on 13 December 1957, completed by the two Additional Protocols in Strasbourg, on 15 October 1975and 17 March 1978. In this context, the release of the Council’s Framework Decision on 13 June 2002 on theEuropean arrest warrant and the procedures of delivery among the member states (2002/584/JAI representeda natural decision, with the purpose of contributing at ensuring a free, secure and just European space. TheEuropean arrest warrant is a judicial decision through which a competent judicial authority of a EuropeanUnion member state solicits the arrest and delivery by another member state, in order to proceed to theprosecution, trial or execution of a penalty or safety measure that is privative of freedom.

  16. Pamplin program helps build leadership skills among police officers

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-nine law enforcement officers from across Virginia will be graduating on Sept. 23 from a Pamplin College of Business program on leadership skills, developed in partnership with the Virginia Police Chiefs Foundation.

  17. Internal Affairs Sector: Towards a new Law on Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Nenad P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By establishing the Inspector General's Service within the Department of Public Safety in 2001, Serbia became one of the countries that have institutionalized internal control of the police. By the adoption of the Law on Police in 2005, the name of the Service was renamed in the Internal Affairs Sector. Ten years of work of the Internal Affairs Sector revealed the existence of certain problems because of a inadequate and not complete legal framework. That was, among other, the reason for initiating the adoption of the new Law on Police. This paper presents solutions of the Draft Law on Police, in part related to the work of the Sector. The Draft contains some new solutions that could improve the efficiency of the Sector, but some doubts and uncertainties still remain, that will also be explained in this paper.

  18. Police interviews of sexual assault reporters: do attitudes matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sexual assault is underreported in the United States. Survivors are often reluctant to make police reports for various reasons; one is fear of revictimization by criminal justice professionals. Conversely, police officers often lack skills for interviewing crime victims. Posttraumatic stress reactions among victims can exacerbate the problem. Although some victims prefer female interviewers, it is not known whether they are more skilled. A sample of 429 police officers completed a written survey testing their rape myth acceptance and knowledge of how to interview rape reporters. A significant relationship between rape myth acceptance and interviewing skill was discovered. Although officer gender was related to interviewing skill, the effect was mediated by rape myth acceptance. Specific officer behaviors related to high rape myth acceptance were identified. Implications for selection of police to conduct victim interviews were discussed.

  19. Policing, Community Fragmentation, and Public Health: Observations from Baltimore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marisela B

    2016-04-01

    Studies show that policing, when violent, and community fragmentation have a negative impact on health outcomes. This current study investigates the connection of policing and community fragmentation and public health. Using an embedded case study analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 African-American female and male residents, ages 21-64 years of various neighborhoods of high arrest rates and health and socioeconomic depravation in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore residents' perceptions of policing, stress, community fragmentation, and solutions are presented. Analysis of the perceptions of these factors suggests that violent policing increases community fragmentation and is a public health threat. Approaches to address this public health threat are discussed.

  20. Aggressive policing and the mental health of young urban men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Amanda; Fagan, Jeffrey; Tyler, Tom; Link, Bruce G

    2014-12-01

    We surveyed young men on their experiences of police encounters and subsequent mental health. Between September 2012 and March 2013, we conducted a population-based telephone survey of 1261 young men aged 18 to 26 years in New York City. Respondents reported how many times they were approached by New York Police Department officers, what these encounters entailed, any trauma they attributed to the stops, and their overall anxiety. We analyzed data using cross-sectional regressions. Participants who reported more police contact also reported more trauma and anxiety symptoms, associations tied to how many stops they reported, the intrusiveness of the encounters, and their perceptions of police fairness. The intensity of respondent experiences and their associated health risks raise serious concerns, suggesting a need to reevaluate officer interactions with the public. Less invasive tactics are needed for suspects who may display mental health symptoms and to reduce any psychological harms to individuals stopped.

  1. A mathematical model of the London riots and their policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Toby P; Fry, Hannah M; Wilson, Alan G; Bishop, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, several areas of London experienced episodes of large-scale disorder, comprising looting, rioting and violence. Much subsequent discourse has questioned the adequacy of the police response, in terms of the resources available and strategies used. In this article, we present a mathematical model of the spatial development of the disorder, which can be used to examine the effect of varying policing arrangements. The model is capable of simulating the general emergent patterns of the events and focusses on three fundamental aspects: the apparently-contagious nature of participation; the distances travelled to riot locations; and the deterrent effect of policing. We demonstrate that the spatial configuration of London places some areas at naturally higher risk than others, highlighting the importance of spatial considerations when planning for such events. We also investigate the consequences of varying police numbers and reaction time, which has the potential to guide policy in this area.

  2. Police lie detection accuracy: the effect of lie scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Maureen; Frank, Mark G; Hurley, Carolyn M; Tiwana, Jaspreet

    2009-12-01

    Although most people are not better than chance in detecting deception, some groups of police professionals have demonstrated significant lie detection accuracy. One reason for this difference may be that the types of lies police are asked to judge in scientific experiments often do not represent the types of lies they see in their profession. Across 23 studies, involving 31 different police groups in eight countries, police officers tested with lie detection scenarios using high stakes lies (i.e., the lie was personally involving and/or resulted in substantial rewards or punishments for the liar) were significantly more accurate than law enforcement officials tested with low stakes lies. Face validity and construct validity of various lie scenarios are differentiated.

  3. Is met Predictive Policing de heilige graal gevonden?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, S.K.; Vries, A. de

    2016-01-01

    Het politiewerk gaat ingrijpend veranderen door de invoering van Predictive Policing. Door verfijnde algoritmen los te laten op big data over eerdere incidenten – en die hoeveelheid gegevens neemt alleen maar toe – kan de politie straks misdaden voorspellen.

  4. Police Stations, policestations, Published in 2005, Carbon County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Police Stations dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'policestations'. Data by this publisher are often...

  5. A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris; Ratnieks, Francis

    2002-09-01

    In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.

  6. Police as contributors to Healthy Communities: Aiken, South Carolina.

    OpenAIRE

    Frommer, P; Papouchado, K

    2000-01-01

    In Aiken, South Carolina, community policing has led to numerous innovative programs that have contributed to a healthy community. The MOMS and COPS (Managing Our Maternity System with Community Oriented Policing System) program has played a significant part in the county's 50% decrease in infant mortality since 1989 and contributed to Aiken's designation as an All-America City in 1997. Other programs include a mentoring program for at-risk teen girls; instant crime reporting with donated cel...

  7. Simulation Combined Approach to Police Patrol Services Staffing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hanjing; Tako, Antuela; Lisa M. Jackson; Liu, Jiyin

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the squeeze on public service expenditure, staffing is an important issue for service systems, which are required to maintain or even improve their service levels in order to meet general public demand. This paper considers Police Patrol Service Systems (PPSSs) where staffing issues are extremely serious and important because they have an impact on service costs, quality and public-safety. Police patrol service systems are of particularly interest because the demand for service e...

  8. Trauma Care Training for National Police Nurses in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiano, Andrés M.; Sánchez, Álvaro I.; Guyette, Francis; Puyana, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In response to a requirement for advanced trauma care nurses to provide combat tactical medical support, the antinarcotics arm of the Colombian National Police (CNP) requested the Colombian National Prehospital Care Association to develop a Combat Tactical Medicine Course (MEDTAC course). Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of this course in imparting knowledge and skills to the students. Methods We trained 374 combat nurses using the novel MEDTAC course. We evaluated students using pre-and postcourse performance with a 45-question examination. Field simulations and live tissue exercises were evaluated by instructors using a Likert scale with possible choices of 1 to 4. Interval estimation of proportions was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Differences in didactic test scores were assessed using a t-test at 0.05 level of statistical significance. Results Between March 2006 and July 2007, 374 combat nursing students of the CNP were trained. The difference between examination scores before and after the didactic part of the course was statistically significant (p combat nurses serving in the CNP. MEDTAC represents a customized approach for military trauma care training in Colombia. This course is an example of specialized training available for groups that operate in austere environments with limited resources. PMID:19947877

  9. Can Local Police and Sheriff’s Departments Provide a Higher Degree of Homeland Security Coordination and Collaboration Through Consolidation of Police Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    resources and consolidate in ways that would provide the most 21 effective police services at the most cost efficient price ( Katzenbach , 1967...According to John Bryson (2004) in his book, Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations, achieving successful collaboration becomes more...document, Twin Cities Police Department, Larkspur, CA. Katzenbach , N. (1967), Task force report-the police, U.S.task force on the police, the

  10. Honeybee workers use cues other than egg viability for policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2005-01-01

    Worker policing, wherein social insect workers prevent their sisters from reproducing by eating worker-laid eggs, is recognized as a textbook example of kin selection in action. However, the evolutionary basis of policing was recently challenged in a study that suggested that police-workers remove worker-laid eggs not because rearing workers' sons reduces worker fitness, but merely because worker-laid eggs have low viability. Here, we refute Pirk et al.'s conclusions. First, we confirm earlier work that showed equal viability of eggs laid by queens and workers. Second, a statistical analysis of the data of Pirk et al. reveals that their own data do not support the conclusion that worker-laid eggs are policed merely because of their low viability. Third, we present data that unequivocally show that police-workers cannot discriminate between dead and live eggs. Hence, our study seriously weakens the challenge to the kin-selected basis of policing in honeybees. PMID:17148146

  11. Enforcement of reproductive synchrony via policing in a clonal ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teseo, Serafino; Kronauer, Daniel J C; Jaisson, Pierre; Châline, Nicolas

    2013-02-18

    In insect societies, worker policing controls genetic conflicts between individuals and increases colony efficiency. However, disentangling relatedness from colony-level effects is usually impossible. We studied policing in the parthenogenetic ant Cerapachys biroi, where genetic conflicts are absent due to clonality and reproduction is synchronized through stereotyped colony cycles. We show that larval cues regulate the cycles by suppressing ovarian activity and that individuals that fail to respond to these cues are policed and executed by their nestmates. These individuals are genetically identical to other colony members, confirming the absence of intracolonial genetic conflicts. At the same time, they bear distinct cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, which could serve as proximate recognition cues for policing. Policing in C. biroi keeps uncontrolled reproduction at bay and thereby maintains the colony-level phenotype. This study shows that policing can enforce adaptive colony-level phenotypes in societies with minimal or no potential genetic conflicts. In analogy to immunosurveillance on cancer cells in genetically homogeneous multicellular organisms, colony efficiency is improved via the control of individuals that do not respond properly to regulatory signals and compromise the functioning of the higher-level unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Policing effectiveness depends on relatedness and group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bartosz; Brunner, Elisabeth; Heinze, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    Cohesion of social groups requires the suppression of individual selfishness. Indeed, worker egg laying in insect societies is usually suppressed or punished through aggression and egg removal. The effectiveness of such "policing" is expected to increase with decreasing relatedness, as inclusive fitness of group members is more strongly affected by selfish worker reproduction when group members are less closely related to each other. As inclusive fitness is also influenced by the costs and benefits of helping, the effectiveness of policing should decrease with increasing colony size, because the costs for the whole colony from selfish worker reproduction are proportionally reduced in large groups. Here, we show that policing effectiveness in colonies of the ant Temnothorax unifasciatus is low in large groups and high in small groups when relatedness is high. When we experimentally decreased the relatedness in groups, the policing effectiveness reached the same high level as in small, highly related groups, irrespective of group size. Therefore, our results indicate that policing effectiveness is simultaneously shaped by relatedness and group size, that is, an ecological factor. This may have major implications for testing policing across species of animals.

  13. [The identity of civil police officers and successive mirroring studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Romeu; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the perceptions of civil police officers regarding their professional identity, the institution they belong to and their opinion concerning the image society has of their performance. The data are derived from a survey focused on their work and health conditions, using a questionnaire, interviews and focus groups including managers, sheriffs and officers. The relative frequency and average return for answers about working conditions, professional fulfillment and life quality improvement after joining the institution were then determined. Qualitative questions were selected about the officers' opinion of how society perceives the civil police and what it is to be a police officer in the area under study using sense interpretation method analysis. The results point to a negative image that the police officers believe society has about them, which reaffirms the bad image associated with the profession. Rejecting this negative identity, they try to distinguish the differences between the civil police and the military police officers. The conclusion is that action is required to improve working conditions and develop channels of dialogue with the community and promote health campaigns.

  14. Perceived fitness protects against stress-based mental health impairments among police officers who report good sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Kellmann, Micheal; Elliot, Catherine; Hartmann, Tim; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a cognitive stress-moderation model that posits that the harmful effects of chronic stress are decreased in police officers who perceive high levels of physical fitness. It also determined whether the stress-buffering effect of perceived fitness is influenced by officers' self-reported sleep. A total of 460 police officers (n=116 females, n=344 males, mean age: M=40.7; SD=9.7) rated their physical fitness and completed a battery of self-report stress, mental health, and sleep questionnaires. Three-way analyses of covariance were performed to examine whether officers' self-reported mental health status depends on the interaction between stress, perceived fitness and sleep. Highly stressed officers perceived lower mental health and fitness and were overrepresented in the group of poor sleepers. Officers with high fitness self-reports revealed increased mental health and reported good sleep. In contrast, poor sleepers scored lower on the mental health index. High stress was more closely related to low mental health among poor sleepers. Most importantly, perceived fitness revealed a stress-buffering effect, but only among officers who reported good sleep. High perceived fitness and good sleep operate as stress resilience resources among police officers. The findings suggest that multimodal programs including stress management, sleep hygiene and fitness training are essential components of workplace health promotion in the police force.

  15. Effective State, Local, and Tribal Police Intelligence: The New York City Police Department’s Intelligence Enterprise -- A Smart Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Arab Emirates; Singapore, Malaysia , Toronto and Montreal, Canada; and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In addition, ILU and other units of NYPD have...visited or had short postings to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Afghanistan; Bali, Indonesia; Germany; Kuwait; Malaysia ; Pakistan; Singapore; Beslan, Russia...police had little or no control over. Notwithstanding, NYPD has a penchant for maverick policing and reform. 85 In 1970, New York Mayor John V

  16. Childhood obesity in Australia remains a widespread health concern that warrants population-wide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Timothy P; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; Steinbeck, Kate S; Storlien, Leonard H; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Colagiuri, Stephen; Caterson, Ian D

    2009-02-02

    Recent reports have suggested that the problem of childhood and adolescent obesity has been exaggerated in Australia, and that community-wide obesity prevention initiatives are not warranted; we argue that this is not an accurate reflection of the situation. Available data indicate that obesity affects 6%-8% of Australian schoolchildren, and that the proportion has continued to increase in recent years. Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with a wide range of immediate health concerns, as well as increasing the risk of disease in adulthood. Some weight-related health problems are also found in overweight children. A range of strategies, including whole-of-community obesity prevention programs, will be required to tackle this problem. Concerns about disordered eating in children and adolescents should not preclude appropriate action on childhood obesity.

  17. Digital Watermarking Method Warranting the Lower Limit of Image Quality of Watermarked Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Motoi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a digital watermarking method warranting the lower limit of the image quality of watermarked images. The proposed method controls the degradation of a watermarked image by using a lower limit image. The lower limit image means the image of the worst quality that users can permit. The proposed method accepts any lower limit image and does not require it at extraction. Therefore lower limit images can be decided flexibly. In this paper, we introduce 2-dimensional human visual MTF model as an example of obtaining lower limit images. Also we use JPEG-compressed images of quality 75% and 50% as lower limit images. We investigate the performance of the proposed method by experiments. Moreover we compare the proposed method using three types of lower limit images with the existing method in view of the tradeoff between PSNR and the robustness against JPEG compression.

  18. The Issuance and Transmission of a European Arrest Warrant by the Romanian Judicial Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The European arrest warrant is the most important form of judicial cooperation in penal matters within the European Union, which is based on the mutual recognition of criminal judgments. The Europeanlegislative act that governs the institution is the Framework Decision no. 2002/584/JHA of 13 July 2002 on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States, amended and supplemented by the Council Framework Decision of 2009/299/JAI February 26, 2009. Although the first piece of the European legislative act has been transposed into our legislation by the Law no. 302/2004 on international judicial cooperation in criminal matters, with subsequent amendments, the modifying normativeact has not been transposed into national law. The research conducted on the depositions of special law and of the European legislative act, and especially on their implications in the internal and European judiciary practice, demonstrates the existence of some incomplete stipulations, secures the workability of the issuing,transmission and identification, pursuing and handing over the persons wanted by the Romanian judicial authorities in the Member States. A very special situation which is determined by the omission of national and EU legislator, in order to include the category of the persons submitted to the handing over and the minors against whom it was applied an educational and a deprivation of liberty measure, a situation which leads directly to the non execution of such sanctions of the minors. The originality of the work consists of the critical observation and also the proposals of lege ferenda which covers both the Romanian special law and also the European legislative act. At the same time the critical observations are useful not only for Romanian legislator who intends to supplement and modify the special law, but also for our doctrine.

  19. Unreliable patient identification warrants ABO typing at admission to check existing records before transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera-Tourenc, V; Lassale, B; Chiaroni, J; Dettori, I

    2015-06-01

    This study describes patient identification errors leading to transfusional near-misses in blood issued by the Alps Mediterranean French Blood Establishment (EFSAM) to Marseille Public Hospitals (APHM) over an 18-month period. The EFSAM consolidates 14 blood banks in southeast France. It supplies 149 hospitals and maintains a centralized database on ABO types used at all area hospitals. As an added precaution against incompatible transfusion, the APHM requires ABO testing at each admission regardless of whether the patient has an ABO record. The study goal was to determine if admission testing was warranted. Discrepancies between ABO type determined by admission testing and records in the centralized database were investigated. The root cause for each discrepancy was classified as specimen collection or patient admission error. Causes of patient admission events were further subclassified as namesake (name similarity) or impersonation (identity fraud). The incidence of ABO discrepancies was 1:2334 including a 1:3329 incidence of patient admission events. Impersonation was the main cause of identity events accounting for 90.3% of cases. The APHM's ABO control policy prevented 19 incompatible transfusions. In relation to the 48,593 packed red cell units transfused, this would have corresponded to a risk of 1:2526. Collecting and storing ABO typing results in a centralized database is an essential public health tool. It allows crosschecking of current test results with past records and avoids redundant testing. However, as patient identification remains unreliable, ABO typing at each admission is still warranted to prevent transfusion errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Community Policing in Latin America: Lessons from Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus-Michael Müller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Community policing programmes are widely perceived and promoted as an important solution for the pressing problems of insecurity in contemporary Latin American cities, and for improving citizen-police relationships. By drawing on the results of empirical fieldwork conducted in Mexico City, the article presents a critical analysis of the local community policing effort. The article demonstrates that this policing effort is overly determined by a local context, characterized by clientelism, political factionalism and police corruption, which therefore renders its contribution to a sustainable improvement of local accountability and police legitimacy unlikely. Against this background the article calls for more empirical studies on this topic and a greater sensitivity for the embeddedness of policing programmes within a wider political context.    Resumen: Colaboración ciudadana en América Latina: Lecciones de Ciudad de México  Los programas de colaboración ciudadana son ampliamente percibidos y presentados como una importante solución para los apremiantes problemas de inseguridad en las ciudades latinoamericanas de hoy, y para mejorar las relaciones entre la ciudadanía y la policía. Basándonos en los resultados de trabajo de campo realizado en Ciudad de México, en el presente artículo se ofrece un análisis crítico del programa local de policía comunitaria y se demuestra que está excesivamente determinado por un contexto local caracterizado por el clientelismo, las lealtades políticas y la corrupción policial. Por eso, el aporte del programa a un mejoramiento sustentable de la rendición de cuentas local y de legitimidad policial es improbable. Contra este telón de fondo, en el artículo se demandan más estudios empíricos sobre el tema y una mayor sensibilidad para la integración de los programas de policía comunitaria dentro de un contexto político más amplio.

  1. POLICE ACTION WITH THE USE OF PPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kh. Indreev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern conditions of development of society for the professional level of police officers demanding, in this regard, a special role is given to a competent, mobile and professional staff of internal affairs units serving in extreme conditions, with a high degree of risk. Undoubtedly, mental stability and competent organization performing professional tasks is given a lot of attention, as well as professional-applied physical training of the data. Professional - important qualities may be defined as a special ability personnel, certain functional systems that implement the individual processes of the individual activity. Awareness of the chosen profession is to gain insight into their chosen profession, to merge it into a coherent whole, the profession becomes a part of himself, he brings satisfaction and does not appear a single gram of doubts about the correctness, once the selection. It is in this case the activity of the employee becomes interesting, effective and quality, helping to transfer its complexity. All this makes this quality is not just professionally important and fundamental, underlying the entire STC system, causing constantly improve, expand their horizons and erudition, improve professional skills and to develop border areas of expertise. Without the awareness of and interest in their profession all other professional qualities are not working. Wrong choice of profession turns the inner tragedy and internal conflict, the loss of irreplaceable time and resource worst thing - understanding irretrievably lost part of life, strength and energy. And not everyone can correct or adjust once the admitted mistake and start all over again.

  2. Exploring the meaning of trauma in the South African Police Service: A systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marna Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study explores individual stories of trauma and their dissonance with the official, dominant discourse on trauma in the South African Police Service (SAPS from a systems psychodynamic perspective.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was, firstly, to explore how trauma experienced by South African Police Service members is constructed or ‘talked about’ and made sense of. Questions and issues that are considered relevant to the primary purpose are: which aspects of the working environment do members consider to be the most stressful, traumatic and difficult to cope with, and what is the effect of the change and transition processes on members’ working experiences?Motivation for the study: The authors set out to explore the role of systems psychodynamics in the experience of trauma and stress in the SAPS.Research design, approach and method: Through this qualitative, explorative, social phenomenological study, contributing circumstances and processes are included as additional discourses in an attempt to deepen understanding. The epistemology viewpoint of the study is found in the social constructionism and the data comprise 15 essays by members of the SAPS, all of which have been analysed from the perspective of systems psychodynamics.Main findings: Although the effect of trauma on police officers can never be negated, the way in which they deal with trauma seems to be different from what was initially believed. Further, their experience of stress is not solely the result of traumatic experiences but rather the result of traumatic experiences and systems psychodynamics operating within their organisation – which includes both organisational stressors or dynamics and transformation dynamics.Practical/managerial implications: The history of psychological trauma indicates that constructions of traumatic stress are strongly related to cultural, social and political circumstances. Current psychoanalytic thinking

  3. Bouncers, policing and the (in)visibility of ethnicity in Danish nightlife governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2014-01-01

    of nightlife accessibility; how inclusion and exclusion are negotiated in encounters between bouncers and ethnic minority youth; and how bouncers struggle to avoid allegations of discrimination and to uphold notions of colorblind good gov-ernance, while ethnified notions of troublesome individuals continue...... the regulatory practices of bouncers operating in the urban night-time economy. This article contributes to the study of nightlife policing by paying special attention to the ethnic gov-ernance of bouncers. More specifically, the article investigates how ethnicity is produced in bouncers’ administration...... to inform bouncers’ production of nightlife safety....

  4. Policing drug users in Russia: risk, fear, and structural violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas; Page, Kimberly

    2010-05-01

    We undertook qualitative interviews with 209 injecting drug users (IDUs) (primarily heroin) in three Russian cities: Moscow, Barnaul, and Volgograd. We explored IDU's accounts of HIV and health risk. Policing practices and how these violate health and self, emerged as a primary theme. Findings show that policing practices violate health and rights directly, but also indirectly, through the reproduction of social suffering. Extrajudicial policing practices produce fear and terror in the day-to-day lives of drug injectors, and ranged from the mundane (arrest without legal justification; the planting of evidence to expedite arrest or detainment; and the extortion of money or drugs for police gain) to the extreme (physical violence as a means of facilitating "confession" and as an act of "moral" punishment without legal cause or rationale; the use of methods of "torture"; and rape). We identify the concept of police bespredel-living with the sense that there are "no limits" to police power-as a key to perpetuating fear and terror, internalized stigma, and a sense of fatalist risk acceptance. Police besprediel is analyzed as a form of structural violence, contributing to "oppression illness." Yet, we also identify cases of resistance to such oppression, characterized by strategies to preserve dignity and hope. We identify hope for change as a resource of risk reduction as well as escape, if only temporarily, from the pervasiveness of social suffering. Future drug use(r)-related policies, and the state responses they sponsor, should set out to promote public health while protecting human rights, hope, and dignity.

  5. The Effects of Local Police Surges on Crime and Arrests in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John; Fagan, Jeffrey; Geller, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The New York Police Department (NYPD) under Operation Impact deployed extra police officers to high crime areas designated as impact zones. Officers were encouraged to conduct investigative stops in these areas. City officials credited the program as one of the leading causes of New York City's low crime rate. We tested the effects of Operation Impact on reported crimes and arrests from 2004 to 2012 using a difference-in-differences approach. We used Poisson regression models to compare differences in crime and arrest counts before and after census block groups were designated as impact zones compared to census block groups in the same NYPD precincts but outside impact zones. Impact zones were significantly associated with reductions in total reported crimes, assaults, burglaries, drug violations, misdemeanor crimes, felony property crimes, robberies, and felony violent crimes. Impact zones were significantly associated with increases in total reported arrests, arrests for burglary, arrests for weapons, arrests for misdemeanor crimes, and arrests for property felony crimes. Impact zones were also significantly associated with increases in investigative stops for suspected crimes, but only the increase in stops made based on probable cause indicators of criminal behaviors were associated with crime reductions. The largest increase in investigative stops in impact zones was based on indicators of suspicious behavior that had no measurable effect on crime. The findings suggest that saturating high crime blocks with police helped reduce crime in New York City, but that the bulk of the investigative stops did not play an important role in the crime reductions. The findings indicate that crime reduction can be achieved with more focused investigative stops.

  6. The Effects of Local Police Surges on Crime and Arrests in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John; Fagan, Jeffrey; Geller, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The New York Police Department (NYPD) under Operation Impact deployed extra police officers to high crime areas designated as impact zones. Officers were encouraged to conduct investigative stops in these areas. City officials credited the program as one of the leading causes of New York City’s low crime rate. We tested the effects of Operation Impact on reported crimes and arrests from 2004 to 2012 using a difference-in-differences approach. We used Poisson regression models to compare differences in crime and arrest counts before and after census block groups were designated as impact zones compared to census block groups in the same NYPD precincts but outside impact zones. Impact zones were significantly associated with reductions in total reported crimes, assaults, burglaries, drug violations, misdemeanor crimes, felony property crimes, robberies, and felony violent crimes. Impact zones were significantly associated with increases in total reported arrests, arrests for burglary, arrests for weapons, arrests for misdemeanor crimes, and arrests for property felony crimes. Impact zones were also significantly associated with increases in investigative stops for suspected crimes, but only the increase in stops made based on probable cause indicators of criminal behaviors were associated with crime reductions. The largest increase in investigative stops in impact zones was based on indicators of suspicious behavior that had no measurable effect on crime. The findings suggest that saturating high crime blocks with police helped reduce crime in New York City, but that the bulk of the investigative stops did not play an important role in the crime reductions. The findings indicate that crime reduction can be achieved with more focused investigative stops. PMID:27310252

  7. Law enforcement duties and sudden cardiac death among police officers in United States: case distribution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Vasileia; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Sato, Sho; Dahabreh, Issa J; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-11-18

    To assess the association between risk of sudden cardiac death and stressful law enforcement duties compared with routine/non-emergency duties. Case distribution study (case series with survey information on referent exposures). United States law enforcement. Summaries of deaths of over 4500 US police officers provided by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund and the Officer Down Memorial Page from 1984 to 2010. Observed and expected sudden cardiac death counts and relative risks for sudden cardiac death events during specific strenuous duties versus routine/non-emergency activities. Independent estimates of the proportion of time that police officers spend across various law enforcement duties obtained from surveys of police chiefs and front line officers. Impact of varying exposure assessments, covariates, and missing cases in sensitivity and stability analyses. 441 sudden cardiac deaths were observed during the study period. Sudden cardiac death was associated with restraints/altercations (25%, n=108), physical training (20%, n=88), pursuits of suspects (12%, n=53), medical/rescue operations (8%, n=34), routine duties (23%, n=101), and other activities (11%, n=57). Compared with routine/non-emergency activities, the risk of sudden cardiac death was 34-69 times higher during restraints/altercations, 32-51 times higher during pursuits, 20-23 times higher during physical training, and 6-9 times higher during medical/rescue operations. Results were robust to all sensitivity and stability analyses. Stressful law enforcement duties are associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death that is markedly higher than the risk during routine/non-emergency duties. Restraints/altercations and pursuits are associated with the greatest risk. Our findings have public health implications and suggest that primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention efforts are needed among law enforcement officers. © Varvarigou et al 2014.

  8. AN ARRANGED MARRIAGE: POLICE - MEDIA CONFLICT & COLLABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrismas, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Media and police professionals are bound together in interdependent, and often tense, working relationships. For different purposes both professions need to work effectively together while simultaneously retaining independence from each other. These complex inter-reliant relationships create unique challenges that often call for improvement. This essay examines whether relationships between interdependent professional organizations can be improved through a collaborative problem-solving intervention, based on the interactive methods of facilitated dialogue and appreciative inquiry. The article describes a case study of a large Canadian police agency working with local media outlets to improve their working relationship. It highlights the importance of conflict analysis followed by effective change management strategies in implementation of collaborative solutions that meet everyone’s needs. This case study illustrates dynamics that generalize to organizations that have strong organizational cultures and are highly independent and simultaneously required to work together. Some examples of such organizations are military, prison guards, scholars, medical professionals, social workers, teachers, lawyers and most government agenciesLes médias et les corps policiers sont à la fois interreliés et interdépendants, et leur collaboration est souvent tendue. Dans divers objectifs, ils doivent travailler efficacement ensemble tout en maintenant leur propre autonomie. Ces relations complexes donnent lieu à des difficultés auxquelles il faut remédier. Cet essai porte sur les améliorations pouvant être apportées dans les relations entre deux organisations professionnelles interdépendants par l’entremise d’une intervention visant à résoudre les problèmes fondée sur des méthodes interactives de facilitation du dialogue et d’interrogation appréciative. Cet article décrit un cas où une grande agence policière canadienne a collabor

  9. Specialization in policing behaviour among workers in the ant Pachycondyla inversa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zweden, Jelle S; Fürst, Matthias A; Heinze, Jürgen; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2007-06-07

    Most animal societies are non-clonal and thus subject to conflicts. In social insects, conflict over male production can be resolved by worker policing, i.e. eating of worker-laid eggs (WLE) or aggression towards reproductive workers. All workers in a colony have an interest in policing behaviour being expressed, but there can be asymmetries among workers in performing the actual behaviour. Here, we show that workers of the ant Pachycondyla inversa specialize in policing behaviour. In two types of behavioural assays, workers developed their ovaries and laid eggs. In the first experiment, reproductive workers were introduced into queenright colonies. In the second experiment, WLE were introduced. By observing which individuals policed, we found that aggressive policing was highly skewed among workers that had opportunity to police, and that a similar tendency occurred in egg policing. None of the policing workers had active ovaries, so that policing did not incur a direct selfish benefit to the policer. This suggests that policing is subject to polyethism, just like other tasks in the colony. We discuss several hypotheses on the possible causes of this skew in policing tasks. This is the first non-primate example of specialization in policing tasks without direct selfish interests.

  10. Work stress in aging police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Lin, Susan; Li, Xianbin

    2002-02-01

    Data are sparse regarding the impact of psychosocial work stress on the health and well-being of aging workers, even for employees working in high-stress occupations, such as law enforcement. To improve our understanding of this issue in older workers, we assessed and characterized work stress, coping strategies, and stress-related health outcomes in a sample of police officers aged 50 years and older (n = 105). The most important risk factors associated with officers' perceived work stress were maladaptive coping behaviors (e.g., excessive drinking or problem gambling) (odds ratio [OR], 4.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 11.6) and exposure to critical incidents (e.g., shootings) (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.71 to 8.65). In turn, perceived work stress was significantly associated with anxiety (OR, 6.84; 95% CI, 2.81 to 16.65), depression (OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 3.81 to 22.54), somatization (OR, 5.74; 95% CI, 2.47 to 13.33), posttraumatic stress symptoms (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.29 to 6.47), symptoms of "burnout" (OR, 5.93; 95% CI, 2.54 to 13.86), chronic back pain (OR, = 3.55; 95% CI, 1.57 to 8.06), alcohol abuse (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.45 to 7.22), and inappropriately aggressive behavior (OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 1.34 to 11.88). These data suggest that older workers in high-stress jobs may be at increased risk for work stress-related health problems, especially if they rely on risky health behaviors to cope with stress. Given the size of the rapidly aging US workforce and the likelihood that many are employed in high-stress jobs, interventions are urgently needed to address this emerging public health issue.

  11. Quality-of-life policing Do offenders get the message?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D; Taylor, Angela; Eterno, John

    2003-01-01

    In the 1990s, the New York City Police Department expanded its focus on reducing behaviors that detract from the overall quality of life (QOL) in the city. Many have credited this effort for the decline in the city's overall crime rate. They often cite the fixing broken windows argument, which maintains that reducing disorder sets off a chain of events leading to less crime. However, systematic research has not yet documented this chain of events. Looks at one of the first linkages, whether QOL policing sends a message to offenders not to engage in disorderly behaviors in public locales. The project interviewed 539 New York City arrestees in 1999. Almost all of them were aware that police were targeting various disorderly behaviors. Among those that engaged in disorderly behaviors, about half reported that they had stopped or cut back in the past six months. They reported a police presence was the most important factor behind their behavioral changes. These findings support the idea that QOL policing has a deterrent effect.

  12. How to Improve Interactions between Police and the Mentally Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I; Silverstone, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law-enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic "hands-on" scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioral change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.

  13. Mainstreaming gender in the police: the Maharashtra experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, S

    1998-11-01

    This study reviewed the history of sex segregation in the police forces of Maharashtra state, India, and policy interventions since 1994 to reverse the trends; it also describes the process of improving gender equity in the policy department as part of a gender aim to control violence against women. Police jobs are allocated based on gender. Passage of the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act was not implemented fully within police departments. In fact, the Police Force actively worked to keep itself outside the purview of the Act. Supervisors maintained the attitude that women were unsuitable for police work. Women were suspected of lacking in career commitments and were limited to only a small number within the force. These attitudes restricted women's entry, deployment, and promotions. The Government of Maharashtra has been pressured by district level women's groups to secure women's rights and to change the social environment that supports violence against women. The efforts uncovered violence unreported due to social pressure. It was thought that women's greater presence in policy departments would encourage women to report domestic crimes. The policemen disliked the interference of women. Since women were recruited for specific duties, the result was low self-esteem, frustration due to lack of promotions, sexual harassment, ostracism, and reduced job expectations. In 1993, officers received gender-sensitizing training. The training at the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex focused on rules, practices, access to resources, and formal and informal inclusions and exclusions.

  14. How to improve interactions between police and the mentally ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen eKrameddine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic hands-on scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioural change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.

  15. Sitting duck or scaredy-cat? Effects of shot execution strategy on anxiety and police officers' shooting performance under high threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, A.; Weber, J.; Hoeve, R. van der; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Law enforcement may require police officers to inhibit intuitive responses to high threat and thereby affect their emotional reaction and operational effectiveness. Upon this premise, the current study reports two experiments which compare the impact of two relevant shot execution

  16. POLICE INTERACTIONS WITH THE MENTALLY ILL: THE ROLE OF PROCEDURAL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana B. Kara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Police encounters with mentally ill individuals that involve the use of force by police are relatively infrequent, but sometimes quite volatile. Deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill, poorly funded and fragmented community treatment alternatives, plus increasingly restrictive civil commitment criteria have led to increased contacts with the police. Police need to exercise restraint when using force against individuals suffering from a mental disorder. There is a clear need for specialized crisis intervention police training for dealing with the mentally ill. Procedural justice theory offers a promising approach to improving police-citizen interactions. According to this framework, the fairness with which an individual is treated during an encounter by an authority figure, such as the police, can affect the perceived legitimacy of these interactions and any disposition that flows from them. This is particularly important regarding interactions between the police and those suffering from a mental disorder.

  17. Post G20: The Challenge of Change, Implementing Evidence-based Public Order Policing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoggert, James; Stott, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 ‘riots’, public order policing tactics in England and Wales have once again been brought into question. Yet, the riots came two years since police regulatory authorities in the UK called for fundamental reforms to the policing of public order. Questions are raised about why...... the change called for appears to have been so slow and what can be done to assist reform. This paper suggests that developing an evidence-based policing approach within the field of public order policing to inform police decision-making would provide the answers. By doing so, the paper addresses some...... of the possible barriers to implementing evidence-based policing in public order and calls for police academic partnership to overcome these to make ‘change’ an ongoing reality....

  18. Current Trends in Local Policing Provision in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Krulík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the current trends of national police forces as they increasingly often pull back from their positions, and the consequences which many municipal councils in the Czech Republic are now facing. In the last couple of years, some municipalities chose relatively unconventional ways to deal with increased levels of crime and other forms of antisocial behaviour on their territories. This created space – for example – for signing public agreements with other municipalities, hiring private security companies to perform the role of municipal police or various forms of sponsoring the Police of the Czech Republic.

  19. The interiorization of Brazilian violence, policing, and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Steeves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian homicide rates are among the highest in the world, inclusive of actual war zones. However, the character of Brazil's violence is changing. Recent analyses highlight a trend of dispersion of violence such that homicide rates in urban areas, traditionally the most violent places, have stagnated and declined while smaller cities and rural areas experienced a marked increase. An incipient explanation is that this trend is related to greater economic dynamism in the smaller cities, unaccompanied by increased policing. This article's empirical analysis uses locational Hoover indexes to express the dispersions of violence and economic activity, and also generates a proxy to measure the geographic concentration of police forces. Using panel data across all 26 states from 1995 to 2011, we find evidence of a correlation between dispersion of violence and GDP to less urban areas, and ambiguous results regarding police concentration.

  20. Resultados operacionales de la Policía Nacional, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervyn Norza Céspedes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento presenta la descripción estadística de los logros operativos de la Policía Nacional en el año 2010, los cuales se ajustan a las estrategias gubernamentales e institucionales encaminadas al despliegue efectivo de acciones preventivas, disuasivas y de control. Asimismo, contiene los aspectos relevantes de la principal estrategia operativa de la Policía Nacional, denominada Plan Nacional de Vigilancia por Cuadrantes, y los alcances del control social formal ejercido por la Policía sobre los delincuentes y la delincuencia; además, pasa por una revisión de los postulados teóricos y empíricos, tanto del control social como de las características de los victimarios, la impunidad y las herramientas para combatir el delito.

  1. Sex and monstrosity. A genealogy of the sexual police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón Fernández de Rota Irimia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay outlines different forms of Western sexual police from the Seventeen Century to the present. The genealogy will approach the problem from the point of view of hermaphroditism and transvestism. By “sexual police” I mean the determinations, forms, norms and ethos that defines sex through times, as well as the categories of which it is composed, and what is permitted and is possible to do, see and say through these sexual categories. This essay, pays special attention to the fears and its embodiment in some paradigmatic figures. In particular, it analyzes the historical meaning of sexual “monstrosity”, key to understand the different polices, including the own sexual police of gender feminism.

  2. La généalogie de la police

    OpenAIRE

    L'Heuillet, Hélène

    2003-01-01

    S'interroger sur la généalogie de la police peut paraître étrange. C'est en effet une généalogie de la politique que l'analyse de la police semble d'abord rendre possible. Si, en effet, on entend par « généalogie » la méthode inventée par Nietzsche, qui consiste à tenter de regarder les phénomènes « par en dessous », c'est-à-dire à soupçonner que la cruauté, la méchanceté et la laideur constituent le ressort souterrain des valeurs de la morale, alors la police paraît bien la face grimaçante d...

  3. Co-responding Police-Mental Health Programs: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G K; Cusi, A; Kirst, M; O'Campo, P; Nakhost, A; Stergiopoulos, V

    2015-09-01

    Co-responding police-mental health programs are increasingly used to respond to 'Emotionally Disturbed Persons' in the community; however, there is limited understanding of program effectiveness and the mechanisms that promote program success. The academic and gray literature on co-responding police-mental health programs was reviewed. This review synthesized evidence of outcomes along seven dimensions, and the available evidence was further reviewed to identify potential mechanisms of program success. Co-responding police-mental health programs were found to have strong linkages with community services and reduce pressure on the justice system, but there is limited evidence on other impacts. The relevance of these findings for practitioners and the major challenges of this program model are discussed, and future research directions are identified.

  4. Police peer support programs: current knowledge and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauwiler, Peggy; Barocas, Briana; Mills, Linda G

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the current empirical research and literature on peer assistance programs, peer support, and peer-facilitated interventions for police officers. A literature search was conducted to identify studies on police, peer support, and peer assistance programs. Studies were examined in terms of the following criteria: description of data collection methods, findings, study limitations, implications for police, workplace assistance, and peer support. Articles on peer support in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center rescue and recovery efforts were also reviewed. The research studies reviewed in this article do not evaluate peer program effectiveness from the perspective of those officers receiving peer services. To better serve this invaluable population, efforts must be made to incorporate their views. Information is also needed on the effectiveness of peer assistance programs and peer-driven crisis intervention models. Finally, research is needed that specifically examines the effectiveness of programs that utilize trained peers in partnership with professional mental health practitioners.

  5. AN ANALYSIS ON VIOLENCE AND SUICIDE AMONG POLICE OFFICERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURDA-NICOARĂ (NETOTEA-SUCIU VALERIA-LILIANA-AMELIA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption and intensive computerization have generated an increasing interest in the production process and increased productivity at the expense of the human factor and its performance, and the progressive brutalization of occupations and organizations has become one of the most important sources of suffering at the workplace. Worrying mutations suffered by society are also reflected, of course, in individuals working for the police. For these reasons, it is necessary that being a policeman should be further examined in all its dimensions. The objective of this paper is to present some difficulties met by police officers, their behavior and their feelings, the sources of stress, pain or discomfort in the workplace so that these issues can be taken into account to improve the work climate, the professional practices in the field, and to prevent the negative impact these may have on police organizations.

  6. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    Police agencies devote vast resources to minimising the time that it takes them to attend the scene of a crime. Despite this, the long-standing consensus is that police response time has no meaningful effect on the likelihood of catching offenders. We revisit this question using a uniquely rich...... preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.6 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of detection. A faster response time also decreases the number of days that it takes for the police to detect a crime, conditional on eventual detection. We find stronger effects for thefts than...... for violent offenses, although the effects are large for every type of crime. We identify the higher likelihood that a suspect will be named by a victim or witness as an important mechanism though which response time makes a difference....

  7. Police interviewing and interrogation: a self-report survey of police practices and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, Saul M; Leo, Richard A; Meissner, Christian A; Richman, Kimberly D; Colwell, Lori H; Leach, Amy-May; La Fon, Dana

    2007-08-01

    By questionnaire, 631 police investigators reported on their interrogation beliefs and practices-the first such survey ever conducted. Overall, participants estimated that they were 77% accurate at truth and lie detection, that 81% of suspects waive Miranda rights, that the mean length of interrogation is 1.6 hours, and that they elicit self-incriminating statements from 68% of suspects, 4.78% from innocents. Overall, 81% felt that interrogations should be recorded. As for self-reported usage of various interrogation tactics, the most common were to physically isolate suspects, identify contradictions in suspects' accounts, establish rapport, confront suspects with evidence of their guilt, and appeal to self-interests. Results were discussed for their consistency with prior research, policy implications, and methodological shortcomings.

  8. 公安传播论%Police Communication Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭耀春

    2013-01-01

    The police communication belongs to the category of government communication. The characteristics of police communication are the combination of politics and news, authenticity and effectiveness, popularity and policy. The main body of police communication has the features of administration, timeliness and popularity. The police communication includes the types of individual communication, group communication, organization communication and public communication. Its agents are police signs, traditional publicity and public communication, of which the audience are the public and police, the fundamental methods are both informative mode and persuasive mode.%“公安传播”主要属于政府传播的范畴。公安传播的基本特征为政治性与新闻性、真实性与时效性、广泛性与政策性。公安传播主体具有行政管理性、实时性和广泛性。公安传播包括人际传播、群体传播、组织传播和大众传播等各种类型,公安传播的媒介主要为警方标识、传统宣传载体和大众传播媒介,其受众为社会公众和公安机关民警,其基本传播模式为告知传播模式与劝服传播模式。

  9. [Greater success by cooperation between claim review experts and the police].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, P; Milbradt, H; Schyma, C

    1999-12-01

    The examination of claims settlement in life assurance usually begins when police investigation is finished. During the acute phase of police investigation there is very rarely contact between the police and the life insurance company concerned. The advantages of early cooperation are demonstrated by two case reports. Immediate communication during the first four days after death initially helps the police investigators; later the life insurance company profits from the accelerated examination of the insured event.

  10. Role of the police in linking individuals experiencing mental health crises with mental health services

    OpenAIRE

    van den Brink Rob HS; Broer Jan; Tholen Alfons J; Winthorst Wim H; Visser Ellen; Wiersma Durk

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing contact. Methods Police records were searched for calls regarding individuals with acute mental health needs and police handling of these calls. Mental healthcare contact data were retrieved from ...

  11. Expectations of and satisfaction with the South African Police Service in the Rustenburg area / Ebenhaezer Kleyn

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Ebenhaezer

    2002-01-01

    Little quantitative research has been published on expectations of and satisfaction with the South African Police Service (SAPS) from the perspective of both the public and the police. Furthermore, scientific information is also needed about how police members perceive their own jobs and services to their clients, namely the public. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the expectations and satisfaction of the community and the police as well as the congruen...

  12. On Optimization of Police Intelligence Process under Big Data Environment%论大数据环境下公安情报流程的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭知辉

    2016-01-01

    [目的/意义]公安情报流程是对公安情报工作进行科学规范的结果。大数据环境下,建立合理的、契合大数据发展趋势的公安情报流程,可以确保公安情报工作的有序、高效运行。[方法/过程]分析公安情报流程的形成过程及发展现状,梳理公安情报流程中存在的问题,探讨大数据环境下公安情报流程的发展与变革。[结果/结论]研究发现,融入大数据的内容、方法和技术,可以优化公安情报流程:突出情报用户的先导作用与核心地位,确保公安情报流程的高效运行,促进公安情报流程参与各方的交流互动,推动一体化公安情报流程体系建设,促使公安情报流程准确反映外部环境的动态变化。%Purpose/Significance] Police intelligence process is the result of police intelligence work scientifically standardized, and es-tablishing a reasonable police intelligence process adapted to big data development trends can ensure an orderly and efficient police intelli-gence work. [ Method/Process] This paper analyzes the formation and development status of police intelligence process, reviews the problems existing in the process, and discusses the development of the process under the environment of big data. [ Result/Conclusion] By integrating the contents, methods and technologies of big data into the police intelligence process, optimization of the process can be a-chieved with fulfilling the diversified goals built in the process:to outstand the leadership and core position of intelligence users, to ensure the efficient operation of police intelligence processes, to promote extensive interaction of all parties of the process, to push forward the construction of an integrated system of police intelligence process, and to urge police intelligence process to accurately reflect the dynamic changes in the external environment.

  13. Police actions with regard to cyberbullying: the Belgian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandebosch, Heidi; Beirens, Luc; D'Haese, Wim; Wegge, Denis; Pabian, Sara

    2012-11-01

    Research shows that cyberbullying is a common phenomenon amongst youngsters, with potentially severe negative effects. Besides students, parents, schools, and Internet Service Providers, the police have been identified as an important actor in approaches against cyberbullying. Departing from the situation in Belgium, this article describes how the police can: help to prevent cyberbullying, by informing students, parents, and schools about the issue; play a role in the detection of cyberbullying, for instance, by creating online reporting systems (apart from the offline channels) and finally, assist in handling existing cyberbullying cases, by identifying perpetrators and helping victims.

  14. La Policía y el Ministerio Público

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César González Sandoval

    2000-01-01

    Las nuevas funciones asignadas por ley al Ministerio Público son una necesidad dentro del marco global de modernización del Sistema de Justicia Penal Nicaragüense ya que, en el nuevo proceso penal, la Policía continuará cumpliendo con las atribuciones y funciones establecidas tanto en la Constitución Política como en la Ley No. 228 (Ley de la Policía Nacional). Pero una nueva ley buena y necesaria, además de ser obedecida, necesita legitimidad social que la haga viable en su aplicación, s...

  15. Secretly Recording the Police: The Confluence of Communication, Culture, and Technology in the Public Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Zachary A.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile communication technologies have changed the way that police do their job. Since the Rodney King beating outside of Los Angeles in 1991, literally thousands of police brutality videos have surfaced on the internet that document perceived acts of violence carried out against seemingly defenseless perpetrators. Police organizations throughout…

  16. Extrinsic Motivation as Correlates of Work Attitude of the Nigerian Police Force: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igun, Sylvester Nosakhare

    2008-01-01

    The study examined Extrinsic motivation as correlates of work attitude of the Nigeria Police Force and its implications for counselling. 300 Police personnel were selected by random sampling technique from six departments that make up police force Headquarters, Abuja. The personnel were selected from each department using simple sampling…

  17. 78 FR 66953 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Revision of a... ACTION: 60-Day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of Community Oriented Policing Services... Ouellette, Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 145 N Street NE...

  18. "The Regular Routine": Proactive Policing and Adolescent Development among Young, Poor Black Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several decades, proactive policing, in which departments use data on reported crimes to determine where local police officers will target their surveillance, has increased police contact with residents in certain neighborhoods. Drawing on field research conducted over a three-year period (2007-2010) among adult and adolescent…

  19. Ten Years after Patten: Young People and Policing in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jonny; Jarman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of existing literature, this article documents young people's experiences of policing during the period of political transition and extensive reform of the structures of policing in Northern Ireland since the publication of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (The Patten Report) in 1999. The…

  20. 78 FR 40175 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Police-Led...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Oriented Policing Services (COPS) will be submitting the following information collection request to the... Ouellette, Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 145 N Street NE... Oriented Policing Services (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to respond, as well as a brief...

  1. Should You Turn Yourself in? The Consequences of Environmental Self-Policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Sarah L.

    2007-01-01

    Facilities that self-police under the Environmental Protection Agency's Audit Policy are eligible for reduced penalties on disclosed violations. This paper investigates whether self-policing has additional consequences; in particular, whether self-policing reduces future enforcement activity. Using data on U.S. hazardous waste enforcement and…

  2. 76 FR 5207 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Revision to a... Review: Community Policing Self-Assessment (CP-SAT). The Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) will be submitting the following information collection request to the...

  3. 75 FR 77904 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a... Policing Services (COPS) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of... Ashley Hoornstra, Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 145 N Street, NE...

  4. Police Departments Connect to School District Camera Feeds to Aid Incident Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    School systems and police departments are community partners, and ensuring student, faculty, and officer safety is a high priority for both. In Pennsylvania, police departments are being both innovative and proactive by using wireless technology to handle school safety. If there's an emergency, local police departments can increase situational…

  5. An Ex Post Facto Evaluation Framework for Place-Based Police Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Anthony A.; Hureau, David M.; Papachristos, Andrew V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A small but growing body of research evidence suggests that place-based police interventions generate significant crime control gains. While place-based policing strategies have been adopted by a majority of U.S. police departments, very few agencies make a priori commitments to rigorous evaluations. Objective: Recent methodological…

  6. The Quality of Police Education. A Critical Review with Recommendations for Improving Programs in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Lawrence W.; And Others

    The findings of a two-year national study on the problems of U.S. police education are examined in this report of a commission whose members were noted educators, police administrators, and public officials. The following recommendations are among those offered: (1) the majority of federal funds for police higher education should go to programs…

  7. Ten Years after Patten: Young People and Policing in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jonny; Jarman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of existing literature, this article documents young people's experiences of policing during the period of political transition and extensive reform of the structures of policing in Northern Ireland since the publication of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (The Patten Report) in 1999. The…

  8. 32 CFR 635.14 - Accounting for military police record disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accounting for military police record disclosure... § 635.14 Accounting for military police record disclosure. (a) AR 340-21 prescribes accounting policies and procedures concerning the disclosure of military police records. (b) Provost Marshals/Directors...

  9. Police Response to Domestic Violence: Making Decisions about Risk and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Trujillo, Monica; Ross, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Assessing and responding to risk are key elements in how police respond to domestic violence. However, relatively little is known about the way police make judgments about the risks associated with domestic violence and how these judgments influence their actions. This study examines police decisions about risk in domestic violence incidents when…

  10. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component...

  11. 26 CFR 1.120-1 - Statutory subsistence allowance received by police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... police. 1.120-1 Section 1.120-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....120-1 Statutory subsistence allowance received by police. (a) Section 120 excludes from the gross income of an individual employed as a police official by a State, Territory, or possession of the...

  12. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Police-Reported Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Sherry; Cristofalo, Meg; Reed, Sarah; Caetano, Raul; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine racial and ethnic disparities in perpetrator and incident characteristics and discrepancies between police charges and reported perpetrator behaviors in police-reported intimate partner violence (IPV). This cross-sectional study used standardized police data and victim narratives of IPV incidents…

  13. Secretly Recording the Police: The Confluence of Communication, Culture, and Technology in the Public Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Zachary A.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile communication technologies have changed the way that police do their job. Since the Rodney King beating outside of Los Angeles in 1991, literally thousands of police brutality videos have surfaced on the internet that document perceived acts of violence carried out against seemingly defenseless perpetrators. Police organizations throughout…

  14. Police Response to Domestic Violence: Making Decisions about Risk and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Trujillo, Monica; Ross, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Assessing and responding to risk are key elements in how police respond to domestic violence. However, relatively little is known about the way police make judgments about the risks associated with domestic violence and how these judgments influence their actions. This study examines police decisions about risk in domestic violence incidents when…

  15. The Myth of an 'Invisible Mediator': An Australian Case Study of English-Japanese Police Interpreting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Nakane

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have challenged the assumption that the interpreter is an ‘invisible’ mediator and have demonstrated a departure from the ‘conduit’ role often assigned to interpreters in their professional ethics guidelines (e.g. Russell 2000, Wadensjö 1998, 2004; Yoshida 2007. In this paper, I address the issue of interpreter’s role as an invisible mediator through an examination of interactional ‘repairs’, one of the key aspects of interaction management mechanisms in the tradition of Conversation Analysis. The context of interpreting is Australian Federal Police interviews mediated by Japanese-English interpreters. While some repair sequences in interpreter-mediated police interviews followed common patterns of monolingual police interviews, there were also some features of repairs specific to interpreter-mediated discourse. In particular, due to the interpreting of each turn, in some cases, it is not always possible to ascertain whether it was the primary speaker’s turn or the interpreted version that was the source of ‘trouble’ leading to an interactional repair. The paper demonstrates interpreters’ vulnerability to being identified as the ‘troublemaker’ in repair sequences and consequential face-saving strategies. These strategies included modifying the primary speaker’s utterances or providing explanations for why a need to repair was perceived or why a repair sequence failed to rectify a problem. It is demonstrated that in engaging in these types of problem solving activities, interpreters at times shift roles, sometimes pushing the boundaries of their professional ethics. The paper argues that, while interpreters are often viewed as operating within a third ‘invisible’ space between interlocutors, this invisibility needs to be questioned. It is suggested that the expectation of a completely invisible, or neutral, third space is unrealistic, and that interpreters as cultural and linguistic mediators, and

  16. Police Tweets and Public Perceptions of Safety and Police Performance: An Experiment on Framing and Other Tweet Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Smulders

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new media as a means of communication by the police triggers interesting questions about the impact of such new developments, such as the effect on people’s safety perceptions. Since communication is mostly overlooked as a possible determinant of safety perception, this led to a research project into the relationship between Twitter use by community policing officers and citizen’s perceptions of safety. This article reports on a part of this study, an experiment on framing and other linguistic effects of tweets by police officers. To assess the aforementioned relationship, it is important to examine how the precise content of a community policing officer’s tweet is perceived by the public. In an experimental setting the effects of gain versus loss frames, implicit versus explicit advice and style of addressing have been tested, with regard to safety perceptions and several related factors. The results show that gain framed tweets yield significantly more positive responses concerning opinion about police performance, perceived risk of burglary or assault, safety perception and marginally for perceived crime level in the neighbourhood. Including an explicitly or implicitly formulated piece of advice in the tweets doesn’t make a difference in any of the queried variables and style of addressing has only small effects: formal address leads to slightly more positive opinions about police performance than impersonal address.  The results show that formulation aspects – specifically framing – are worth taking into account in safety communications and that this type of research is beneficial for studying effects of social media.

  17. Measuring Black men's police-based discrimination experiences: Development and validation of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J

    2017-04-01

    Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A New Platform of Cyber Policing for the Interaction of Police and Public%网络警务互动的新平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦博

    2012-01-01

    Cyber policing,makes the police affairs extend in virtual area,and leads a reformation by informationalized means.Network is an important channel for observing public opinions,it also improves policing efficiency.Meanwhile,cyber policing prompts the transition on serving conception and innovation of serving mode.This paper starts from the definition of cyber policing.Subsequently,it illustrates the significance and problems in practicing.At last,the paper shows the trend of evolution of police micro-blog.%本文从网络警务的概念入手,对其存在的现实意义和存在问题进行了分析,以此探究出公安机关在未来推行公安微博的一些发展趋势。

  19. Quorum sensing and policing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa social cheaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meizhen; Schaefer, Amy L; Dandekar, Ajai A; Greenberg, E Peter

    2015-02-17

    The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that uses a quorum sensing signal cascade to activate expression of dozens of genes when sufficient population densities have been reached. Quorum sensing controls production of several key virulence factors, including secreted proteases such as elastase. Cooperating groups of bacteria growing on protein are susceptible to social cheating by quorum-sensing defective mutants. A possible way to restrict cheater emergence is by policing where cooperators produce costly goods to sanction or punish cheats. The P. aeruginosa LasR-LasI quorum sensing system controls genes including those encoding proteases and also those encoding a second quorum-sensing system, the RhlR-RhlI system, which controls numerous genes including those for cyanide production. By using RhlR quorum sensing mutants and cyanide synthesis mutants, we show that cyanide production is costly and cyanide-producing cooperators use cyanide to punish LasR-null social cheaters. Cooperators are less susceptible to cyanide than are LasR mutants. These experiments demonstrate policing in P. aeruginosa, provide a mechanistic understanding of policing, and show policing involves the cascade organization of the two quorum sensing systems in this bacterium.

  20. Police in the Dorms: Student Safety or Privacy Infringement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970, officers on the Seattle campus have regularly patrolled the hallways of dormitories of the University of Washington. It is a community-policing strategy, a low-key way to engage students. However, the practice might cease this fall. In June, the state's Court of Appeals ruled that students have the same right to privacy in dormitory…

  1. A Qualitative Examination of Police Officers’ Perception of Football Supporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    and categorise football supporters on the basis of a field-based observational study and a qualitative interview study undertaken at the East Jutland Police department in Denmark in the period 2008–2009. The main findings show a general lack of knowledge of supporter culture as well as scepticism towards...

  2. Applications of Social Psychology in Police-Community Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Neil

    Many techniques can be utilized to improve citizen attitude toward police. Research in social psychology provides considerable information concerning attitude change processes. This paper explores interpersonal attraction (attitudes toward individuals) and helping behavior (assisting others) within the broader context of attitude change.…

  3. ATLAS: A Community Policing Response to Adverse Student Athlete Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The University at Albany Police and the University at Albany Athletics Department have teamed together to implement a ground breaking program aimed at identifying, addressing and managing negative behavior among student athletes. ATLAS stands for: Athletics, Team Building, Leadership Development, And Mentoring for Student Athletes. The program was…

  4. Language style matching and confessions in police interrogations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Beth H.; Taylor, P.J.; Snook, Brent; Conchie, S M; Bennell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Studies of police interrogation have often sought to understand how the ebb-and-flow of dialogue relates to a confession. There is now a considerable body of work examining the effect of questioning style (e.g., Granhag, Montecinos, & Oleszkiewicz, in press; Snook, Luther, Quinlan, & Milne, 2012) an

  5. Information Behavior of Taiwanese Internal Investigation Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research explored how Taiwanese internal investigation police officers investigate cases and seek information. The tasks performed by internal investigation police officers are more difficult than those allocated to other officers, because internal investigation officers are investigating colleagues. This study examined the information sources that are available to internal investigation police officers, as well as how the officers analyze collected information. In-depth interviews with eight officers who have held their current positions for between 8 months and 3 years revealed that the main information sources used by the officers were their peer officers, informants, the Internet, personal profile, wiretapping, and surveillance. For each case, the information sources varied according to the stage of investigation. The financial status, keywords used in conversation, daily habits, and some behaviors were the primary information sources when the officers analyzed the collected information. Five factors were identified as contributing to their information barriers: language, laws and regulations, equipment, human resources, and psychological factors. Our observations indicate that police officers have unique information behaviors and sources.

  6. How Should Police Respect and Protect Human Rights?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIUHONG

    2007-01-01

    @@ A11 people are equal before law and human rights must be respected and guaranteed.This is an established principle in China in bringing about a harmonious society. But how should police respect and ensure human rights in exercising their powers?

  7. Policing 'Vancouver's Mental Health Crisis': A Critical Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jade; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In Canada and other western nations there has been an unprecedented expansion of criminal justice systems and a well documented increase of contact between people with mental illness and the police. Canadian police, especially in Vancouver, British Columbia, have been increasingly at the forefront of discourse and regulation specific to mental health. Drawing on critical discourse analysis, this paper to explores this claim through a case study of four Vancouver Police Department (VPD) policy reports on "Vancouver's mental health crisis" from 2008-2013, which include recommendations for action. Analyzed is the VPD's role in framing issues of mental health in one urban space. This study is the first analysis to critically examine the VPD reports on mental health in Vancouver, B.C. The reports reproduce negative discourses about deinstitutionalization, mental illness and dangerousness that may contribute to further stigma and discrimination of persons with mental illness. Policing reports are widely drawn upon, thus critical analyses are particularly significant for policy makers and public health professionals in and outside of Canada.

  8. Policing of reproduction by hidden threats in a cooperative mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Michael A; Nichols, Hazel J; Johnstone, Rufus A; Hodge, Sarah J

    2014-01-07

    The evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies is associated with mechanisms to suppress individual selfishness. In insect societies, queens and workers enforce cooperation by "policing" selfish reproduction by workers. Insect policing typically takes the form of damage limitation after individuals have carried out selfish acts (such as laying eggs). In contrast, human policing is based on the use of threats that deter individuals from acting selfishly in the first place, minimizing the need for damage limitation. Policing by threat could in principle be used to enforce reproductive suppression in animal societies, but testing this idea requires an experimental approach to simulate reproductive transgression and provoke out-of-equilibrium behavior. We carried out an experiment of this kind on a wild population of cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Uganda. In this species, each group contains multiple female breeders that give birth to a communal litter, usually on the same day. In a 7-y experiment we used contraceptive injections to manipulate the distribution of maternity within groups, triggering hidden threats of infanticide. Our data suggest that older, socially dominant females use the threat of infanticide to deter selfish reproduction by younger females, but that females can escape the threat of infanticide by synchronizing birth to the same day as older females. Our study shows that reproduction in animal societies can be profoundly influenced by threats that remain hidden until they are triggered experimentally. Coercion may thus extend well beyond the systems in which acts of infanticide are common.

  9. Incident reporting: a technique for studying police corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    The study of police corruption faces seemingly insurmountable sampling and validity problems. This paper outlines an experimental technique for overcoming these issues by challenging the assumption that corruption is not prone to systematic observational research. Incident reporting combines a ‘comb

  10. Far and away: police negotiators on overseas deployments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martini-Nieboer, H.A.; Dolnik, A.; Giebels, E.

    2012-01-01

    The growing presence of Western expats and travelers in fragile states and conflict zones has led to a rise in the deployment of police negotiators overseas to assist in the management of kidnap cases. However, despite the fact that the conflict setting and dynamics of overseas cases arguably differ

  11. Officers at work in a multicultural police force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijes, C.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine cross-cultural perception and cooperation between black, Curacaoan and white Dutch police officers in The Netherlands. It also, compares the findings with similar research carried out in the Dutch Internal Revenue Service. Design/methodol

  12. Case Disposition: An Assessment of Literature on Police Referral Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eric J.; And Others

    This report reviews the manner in which police handle citizen requests for social services. The focus is on how officers make their decisions--whether they handle such requests themselves, direct them elsewhere in the department, or refer citizens to other agencies. In their assessment of the literature on referral practices, the authors point out…

  13. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  14. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David J; Noyes, Eilidh; Dowsett, Andrew J; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come to be known as 'super-recognisers'. The Metropolitan Police Force (London) recruits 'super-recognisers' from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police 'super-recognisers' perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition.

  15. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Robertson

    Full Text Available Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come to be known as 'super-recognisers'. The Metropolitan Police Force (London recruits 'super-recognisers' from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police 'super-recognisers' perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition.

  16. Anti-Stigma Programs: Stigma in Campus Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the most effective way to combat mental illness stigma is to focus on power groups who have a direct impact on the lives of persons with serious mental illness. With the increase of violence and need for mental health services on college campuses, campus police officers are seen as an important power group for persons…

  17. Problem Solving in Student Police Officers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Zascerinskis, Mihails

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The success of human safety requires the ability of police officers in problem solving within continuing professional development to be considered. Aim of the study: To analyze problem based teaching and learning in tertiary education within continuing professional development. Materials and methods: The search for problem based…

  18. Downside Seen in Rush to Hire School-Based Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    With nightmare visions of a gunman stalking school halls, districts often rush to hire police officers to patrol their campuses after news of a school shooting. Critics of that impulsive response, which has been in high gear nationwide since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings in December, acknowledge the concern for student and staff…

  19. Knowledge of Normal versus Pathological Memory Aging among Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Karri S.; Garrity, April W.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined police officers' knowledge of memory changes in adulthood utilizing the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ). The KMAQ is a 28-item true/false questionnaire that covers a broad range of topics related to normal memory aging due to maturational processes and pathological memory aging, such as adult dementia. Results…

  20. ICT trends in European policing (Deliverable 4.1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Denef (Sebastian); N. Kaptein (Nico); P.S. Bayerl (Saskia); K. Birdi (Kamal); F. Bisogni (Fabio); D. Cassan (Damien); J. Christe-Zeyse (Jochen); P. Costanzo (Pietro); M. Gasco (Mila); K.E. Horton (Kate); G. Belschak-Jacobs (Gabriele); T. Jochoms (Theo); K. Krstevska (Katerina); S. Mirceva (Stojanka); A. van den Oord (Ad); C. Otoiu (Catalina); R. Rajkovchevski (Rade); Z. Reguli (Zdenko); T. Stojanovski (Trpe); G. Vonas (Gabriel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this report we present the results from interviews and document analyses of current and planned information and communication technology (ICT) projects with police forces from 10 European countries and from interviews with technology vendors in the field of ICT for

  1. Incident reporting: a technique for studying police corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.V. Vigneswaran

    2011-01-01

    The study of police corruption faces seemingly insurmountable sampling and validity problems. This paper outlines an experimental technique for overcoming these issues by challenging the assumption that corruption is not prone to systematic observational research. Incident reporting combines a ‘comb

  2. Workers' Compensation Claims and Physical Fitness Capacity of Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study compared police officers' physical fitness levels with workers' compensation (WC) claims. Officers who collected WC were predominantly female, younger, and lower ranking, with better physical fitness than officers not collecting WC. Officers in the second highest fitness level and older officers with greater cardiovascular fitness had…

  3. Anti-Stigma Programs: Stigma in Campus Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the most effective way to combat mental illness stigma is to focus on power groups who have a direct impact on the lives of persons with serious mental illness. With the increase of violence and need for mental health services on college campuses, campus police officers are seen as an important power group for persons…

  4. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Charge (SAC) or unit commander. (c) The control and processing of a crime scene and the collection... in charge of the crime scene when the military police have investigative responsibility. To prevent the possible loss or destruction of evidence, the investigator or supervisor in charge of the crime...

  5. "The Police Have Given Up": An Empirical Examination of Covictims' Beliefs About Cold Case Homicide Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretesky, Paul B; Cope, Kathryn; Shelley, Tara O'Connor; Hogan, Michael J; Unnithan, N Prabha

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the perception by cold case homicide covictims that police have given up trying to solve their loved one's murder. A random sample (n = 65) of cold case homicide covictims is surveyed to determine if, and how, different forms of communication may be important in their perceptions about police. Ordered logistic regression analyses indicate that perceived importance of the information communicated, frequency of police contact, and satisfaction with communication efforts by police are inversely correlated with covictims' perceptions that police have given up on the investigation. These inverse correlations persist despite statistical controls and have important implications for the bereavement of covictims and for crime rates.

  6. Analysis of physical fitness and coronary heart disease risk of Dallas area police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, M L; Gettman, L R; Meyer, B U

    1978-06-01

    Two hundred thirteen male police officers between 21 and 52 years of age volunteered to participate in a physical evaluation and conditioning program. Information concerning the physical fitness status and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) of police officers were shown. Younger police officers (less than 30 years of age) were average in physical fitness levels and CHD risk compared to the population of the same age. Middle-aged police officers were shown to be lower in physical fitness levels and higher in CHD risk compared to their cohorts. The results from this investigation support the need for physical fitness and preventive medicine programs for police officers.

  7. Female Participation in Formed Police Units: A Report on the Integration of Women in Formed Police Units of Peacekeeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    www.international.gc.ca/rights-droits/ women- femmes /resolution1325_04.aspx?lang=eng&view=d 61 127. Gary W. Cordner and Ann Marie Cordner , “Stuck on a Plateau...Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, peace and secu- rity,” July 2004, http://www.international.gc.ca/rights-droits/ women- femmes

  8. Difficult-to-treat gouty arthritis: a disease warranting better management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2011-07-30

    -to-treat disease. The development of difficult-to-treat disease reflects the short-comings of current standard treatments in a growing number of gouty arthritis patients. This has been recognized by the pharmaceutical industry and has promoted the development of innovative therapies. An appreciation of the key role of IL-1β in inflammation in gouty arthritis has led to the development of a new class of anti-inflammatory agents that block IL-1β signal transduction. The current IL-1β blockers in trials are rilonacept and canakinumab. Canakinumab, a fully human anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody, has been shown to produce rapid and sustained pain relief from acute flares in patients with difficult-to-treat disease, and both rilonacept and canakinumab have been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent flares. Promising new therapies for reducing serum urate levels are also being developed. These include the recently approved therapies pegloticase (a pegylated form of the enzyme uricase that converts urate to allantoin), inhibitors of renal urate transporter proteins, and inhibitors of purine nucleotide phosphorylase, an enzyme involved in purine metabolism. Further studies are warranted to establish the value and role of these new therapies in the management of gouty arthritis. These new options should help reduce the growing human burden associated with gouty arthritis, lowering the tophaceous burden, minimizing the risk of flares, and enabling patients to achieve rapid and effective pain relief when flares do occur.

  9. Police Work Absence: An Analysis of Stress and Resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda; Tinney-Zara, Cathy A; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2014-03-01

    Police work is a high stress occupation and stress has been implicated in work absence. The present study examined (1) associations between specific types of police stress and work absences, (2) distinctions between "voluntary" (1-day) and "involuntary" (> 3-days) absences; and (3) the modifying effect of resiliency. Officers (n=337) from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study were included in the present study. The sample was 72% male, 77% Caucasian, 73% married, and 75% patrol officers. Mean age was 41 years (SD=6.4). Measures included: the Spielberger Police Stress Survey, 1-year payroll absence data, and the Dispositional Resilience Scale. The negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios (RR) of 1-day and >3-days work absences for increasing stress scores. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, rank, smoking status, alcohol intake, and sleep duration. For one-unit increase in stress scores, the covariate adjusted RRs for one-day work absences were: total stress score (RR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.04-1.36); administrative stress (RR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.05-2.18); physical/psychological stress (RR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.07); and lack of support (RR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.01-3.05). Results suggest that officers were more likely to take voluntary 1-day absences due to specific types of stress at work. When the entire sample was considered, there was no significant association between police specific stress and episodes of work absence lasting at least three consecutive days. Hardy individuals, including those with high scores on the challenge sub-score, may use 1-day absences as a positive coping strategy.

  10. Police enforcement of drinking and driving laws: A field study of police decisions for requiring a roadside breath test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundy, C.M. & Verschuur, W.L.G.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to arresting a driver on suspicion of alcohol intoxication, a police officer needs good reason to believe that such an arrest is justifiable. He is then often forced to rely on his own judgement, and often looks for gross signs of impairment. This paper presents part of the results of a field

  11. Experiences of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Policing in England and Wales: Surveying Police and the Autism Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Maras, Katie L.; Hawken, Tamsyn; Mulcahy, Sue; Memon, Amina

    2016-01-01

    An online survey gathered the experiences and views of 394 police officers (from England and Wales) regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Just 42% of officers were satisfied with how they had worked with individuals with ASD and reasons for this varied. Although officers acknowledged the need for adjustments, organisational/time constraints…

  12. [24-hour work: the interaction of stress and changes in the sleep-wake cycle in the police force].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Disruption in police officers. In recent years there has been a widespread growth in services, available regardless of time or day organization (24/7 service) and a diffuse increase in their use, both in work and private lives, generally ignoring the importance of a regular sleep organization. Police officers - often need to work extended shifts and long hours under highly stressful conditions, which results in reduced levels of safety and operational effectiveness. In numerous studies, perceived stress has been found to correlate with both subjective and objective disturbances in sleep. Consequently, excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most frequent health and safety hazards that police officers have to deal with. Sleep deprivation affects performance outcomes through a wide range of cognitive domains. Sleepiness and fatigue, caused by sleep loss, extended work and wakefulness, circadian misalignment and sleep disorders are major causes of workplace human errors, incidents, and accidents. Therefore, prevention of sleep loss, high levels of stress and fatigue is a key factor to consider when assessing emergency intervention. In order to combat fatigue and sleepiness, a 30-90 minutes nap before night shift could be a viable option.

  13. 欧洲警察学院研究综述%The Summary of Research on European Police College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    续磊; 陈志锋

    2011-01-01

    欧洲警察学院是欧盟进行区域警务培训与科研的重要机构,对促进欧盟一体化、提高欧洲共同打击犯罪活动能力起着枢纽作用,但当前国内对欧洲警察学院的研究尚为空白,本文重点介绍欧洲警察学院在历史沿革、组织运作以及职能任务等方面的内容,以便为我国警务培训体制改革提供有益借鉴。%European Police College (CEPOL) is an important institution which is used by the European Union (EU) to do regional police training and scientific research. It plays a pivotal role of promoting the EU integration and improving the European abilities to fight against crime together. However, no one has conducted research on the CEPOL domestically. This paper puts emphasis on the CEPOL's historical evolution, organization, operation, and function etc, to provide beneficial reference for the reform of police training system in our country.

  14. SMARTPHONE-BASED DILATED FUNDUS PHOTOGRAPHY AND NEAR VISUAL ACUITY TESTING AS INEXPENSIVE SCREENING TOOLS TO DETECT REFERRAL WARRANTED DIABETIC EYE DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Brian C; Myung, David J; He, Lingmin; Pan, Carolyn K; Chang, Robert T; Polkinhorne, Alison; Merrell, Douglas; Foster, Doug; Blumenkranz, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    To compare clinical assessment of diabetic eye disease by standard dilated examination with data gathered using a smartphone-based store-and-forward teleophthalmology platform. 100 eyes of 50 adult patients with diabetes from a health care safety-net ophthalmology clinic. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Concurrently, a smartphone was used to estimate near visual acuity and capture anterior and dilated posterior segment photographs, which underwent masked, standardized review. Quantitative comparison of clinic and smartphone-based data using descriptive, kappa, Bland-Altman, and receiver operating characteristic analyses was performed. Smartphone visual acuity was successfully measured in all eyes. Anterior and posterior segment photography was of sufficient quality to grade in 96 and 98 eyes, respectively. There was good correlation between clinical Snellen and smartphone visual acuity measurements (rho = 0.91). Smartphone-acquired fundus photographs demonstrated 91% sensitivity and 99% specificity to detect moderate nonproliferative and worse diabetic retinopathy, with good agreement between clinic and photograph grades (kappa = 0.91 ± 0.1, P smartphone-based telemedicine system that demonstrated sensitivity and specificity to detect referral-warranted diabetic eye disease as a proof-of-concept. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate this approach to expanding screening for diabetic retinopathy.

  15. Effective and Legitimate? Learning from the Lessons of 10 Years of Practice with the European Arrest Warrant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the European Arrest Warrant (EAW) and the issues which have emerged in its first 10 years of practice. After a first section explaining the choice for the principle of mutual recognition as expression of effectiveness and subsidiarity in judicial cooperation in criminal matters,

  16. Effective and Legitimate? Learning from the Lessons of 10 Years of Practice with the European Arrest Warrant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, L.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the European Arrest Warrant (EAW) and the issues which have emerged in its first 10 years of practice. After a first section explaining the choice for the principle of mutual recognition as expression of effectiveness and subsidiarity in judicial cooperation in criminal matters,

  17. The European arrest warrant and domestic legal orders : tensions between mutual recognition and fundamental rights: the Italian Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses some recent decisions on the European Arrest Warrant by the Italian higher courts, the Constitutional Court and the Court of Cassation. Though not as challenging to the EAW as the ‘first round’ of European judgments of 2005, they bring however some interesting dev

  18. 20 CFR 416.934 - Impairments which may warrant a finding of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impairments which may warrant a finding of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness. 416.934 Section 416.934 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... benefits for her child states that the child attends (or attended) a special school, or special classes...

  19. [Consumption of licit and illicit substances by police officers in the city of Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Schenker, Miriam; Constantino, Patrícia; Correia, Bruna Soares Chaves

    2013-03-01

    The consumption of psychoactive substances by civil and military police of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated. Data was gathered from two cross-sectional studies on a questionnaire on work and health conditions given to a sample from the two corporations. The results show higher frequencies of regular consumption of tobacco (23.3% by civil police and 19.1% by military police), daily use of alcohol (12% by civil police and 11% by military police) and tranquilizers in the past year (13.3% by civil police and 10.1% by military police). The consumption of marijuana among officers was 0.1% by civil police and 1.1% by military police, and cocaine use among the military police was 1.1%. Alcohol consumption proved to be intense and causes problems at work and in the social and family relationships of these officers. The need for preventive policies for addiction and the possible underestimation of information on illicit substances is emphasized.

  20. The Effect of Police on Recorded Crime vs. The Effect of Police on Victimisation of Crime. Evidence for England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation

  1. Political Culture versus Socioeconomic Approaches to Predicting Police Strength in U.S. Police Agencies: Results of a Longitudinal Study, 1993 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jihong; Ren, Ling; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of theories have emerged that offer plausible explanations, one from the political institutional perspective and others from sociological perspective. There has been renewed interest in the effect of local political structure on police strength in the policing literature. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the two main…

  2. The Effect of Police on Recorded Crime vs. The Effect of Police on Victimisation of Crime. Evidence for England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation

  3. Brigade Combat Team the World’s Police: Understanding the United States Army Brigade Combat Team’s role in Developing Foreign Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats ( SWOT ) analysis to measure the efficacy of the BCT’s organic structure in conducting foreign police...Opportunities, and Threats ( SWOT ) analysis to measure the efficacy of the BCT’s organic structure in conducting foreign police development, potential...57 Brigade Combat Team SWOT Analysis ....................................................................... 60 DOTMLPF Analysis

  4. Role of the police in linking individuals experiencing mental health crises with mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Rob H S; Broer, Jan; Tholen, Alfons J; Winthorst, Wim H; Visser, Ellen; Wiersma, Durk

    2012-10-17

    The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing contact. Police records were searched for calls regarding individuals with acute mental health needs and police handling of these calls. Mental healthcare contact data were retrieved from a Psychiatric Case Register. The police were called upon for mental health crisis situations 492 times within the study year, involving 336 individuals (i.e. 1.7 per 1000 inhabitants per year). Half of these individuals (N=162) were disengaged from mental health services, lacking regular care contact in the year prior to the crisis (apart from contact for crisis intervention). In the month following the crisis, 21% of those who were previously disengaged from services had regular care contact, and this was more frequent (49%) if the police had contacted the mental health services during the crisis. The influence of police referral to the services was still present the following year. However, for the majority (58%) of disengaged individuals police did not contact the mental health services at the time of crisis. The police deal with a substantial number of individuals experiencing a mental health crisis, half of whom are out of contact with mental health services, and police play an important role in linking these individuals to services. Training police officers to recognise and handle mental health crises, and implementing practical models of cooperation between the police and mental health services in dealing with such crises may further improve police referral of individuals disengaged from mental health services.

  5. Role of the police in linking individuals experiencing mental health crises with mental health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Brink Rob HS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing contact. Methods Police records were searched for calls regarding individuals with acute mental health needs and police handling of these calls. Mental healthcare contact data were retrieved from a Psychiatric Case Register. Results The police were called upon for mental health crisis situations 492 times within the study year, involving 336 individuals (i.e. 1.7 per 1000 inhabitants per year. Half of these individuals (N=162 were disengaged from mental health services, lacking regular care contact in the year prior to the crisis (apart from contact for crisis intervention. In the month following the crisis, 21% of those who were previously disengaged from services had regular care contact, and this was more frequent (49% if the police had contacted the mental health services during the crisis. The influence of police referral to the services was still present the following year. However, for the majority (58% of disengaged individuals police did not contact the mental health services at the time of crisis. Conclusions The police deal with a substantial number of individuals experiencing a mental health crisis, half of whom are out of contact with mental health services, and police play an important role in linking these individuals to services. Training police officers to recognise and handle mental health crises, and implementing practical models of cooperation between the police and mental health services in dealing with such crises may further improve police referral of individuals disengaged from mental health services.

  6. Comprehensive methodology for identification of Kratom in police laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Anna Paulina; Łozak, Anna; Zjawiony, Jordan Kordian

    2013-12-10

    Leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), commonly known as Kratom, are a popular narcotic product among recreational users all over the world. This product is widely distributed on the Internet and via smart-shops and is often a subject of examination in police laboratories. A major psychoactive component of Kratom is mitragynine which occurs exclusively in this species. The variety of combinations among M. speciosa products, cases of plant or chemical composition adulteration, give rise to a need to develop an universal methodology for identification of both, plant material and its active metabolite, mitragynine. Herein we propose a comprehensive authentication procedure which involves the microscopic analysis of plant material and inexpensive mitragynine detection using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The developed methodology was successfully applied for the plant material investigation. Five samples of dried, shredded or powdered Kratom leaves, purchased via the Internet and one sample delivered by police have been identified.

  7. Kyrgyzstan’s Fragmented Police and Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a first attempt to analyze the underlying reasons behind the unprofessional behavior of the Kyrgyz military and police during ethnic conflict in Osh on June 10-14, 2010. It argues that the higher military leadership in Bishkek shares a common distrust of the Tashkent regime and overall uncertainly about power sharing two months after regime change, while lower level personnel may have provoked the Uzbek minority, because of their nationalist feelings (the majority of police and army personnel are ethnic Kyrgyz and overall frustration with the fragmented political leadership. The situation was further exacerbated by the lack of political control over the security forces and their lack of adequate training to deal with civic unrest.

  8. La Policía y el Ministerio Público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César González Sandoval

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Las nuevas funciones asignadas por ley al Ministerio Público son una necesidad dentro del marco global de modernización del Sistema de Justicia Penal Nicaragüense ya que, en el nuevo proceso penal, la Policía continuará cumpliendo con las atribuciones y funciones establecidas tanto en la Constitución Política como en la Ley No. 228 (Ley de la Policía Nacional. Pero una nueva ley buena y necesaria, además de ser obedecida, necesita legitimidad social que la haga viable en su aplicación, sin que las instituciones que han acumulado experiencia en el campo de la investigación criminal pierdan identidad y capacidad de desarrollo.

  9. Detecting true lies: police officers' ability to detect suspects' lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Samantha; Vrij, Aldert; Bull, Ray

    2004-02-01

    Ninety-nine police officers, not identified in previous research as belonging to groups that are superior in lie detection, attempted to detect truths and lies told by suspects during their videotaped police interviews. Accuracy rates were higher than those typically found in deception research and reached levels similar to those obtained by specialized lie detectors in previous research. Accuracy was positively correlated with perceived experience in interviewing suspects and with mentioning cues to detecting deceit that relate to a suspect's story. Accuracy was negatively correlated with popular stereotypical cues such as gaze aversion and fidgeting. As in previous research, accuracy and confidence were not significantly correlated, but the level of confidence was dependent on whether officers judged actual truths or actual lies and on the method by which confidence was measured.

  10. When are victims unlikely to cooperate with the police?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Lantz, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to examine the tendency for victims of physical assault, sexual assault, and robbery to refuse to cooperate with the police (N= 3,856,171). Analyses of physical assaults involving homosexual and heterosexual couples did not support the hypothesis that women attacked by their male partners are less likely to cooperate than victims of other assaults. Analyses of violent offenses more generally showed that victims of violence were more likely to refuse to cooperate if they knew the offender in any way than if the offender was a stranger. In the case of physical and sexual assault, these effects were mainly observed for minor incidents. Finally, victims of sexual assault were more likely to cooperate with the police than victims of physical assault. The findings suggest the importance of comparing the victim's reactions to intimate partner violence and sexual assault to their reactions to other offenses.

  11. Physical fitness capacity and absenteeism of police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, R W; Jones, G R; Hiatt, A R

    1991-11-01

    Police officers (n = 514) were studied to determine the relationship between physical fitness capacity and annual absenteeism rate. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that for officers aged 34 years and younger, only 5% of the variability in absenteeism could be accounted for by age, sex, and physical fitness variables. For officers 35 years old and older, 7% of the variability was explained by these variables, and a bicycle ergometer score was a significant predictor of absenteeism. Each individual test and an overall physical fitness score were classified into five levels. ANOVAs revealed no significant differences between overall fitness levels and absenteeism. However, men 35 and over who were most fit on the bicycle ergometer test had fewer absences, and women 34 and under who were thinnest had more absences. In conclusion, at least among police officers, the extent to which physical fitness capacity can predict absenteeism is low.

  12. Mobile Police Information System Based on Web Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The demand for communications anywhere, anytime, and on any device without recording the date is growing with the development of modern information technologies. Current wireless communications enable people to freely exchange information, while web services provide loosely-coupled, language-neutral, and platform-independent ways of linking applications within organizations, across enterprises, and across the Internet. This paper describes a mobile information system for police service, which integrates wireless communication technologies and web service technologies. The system satisfies the special demands of police information systems, such as security and interoperability. Policemen in the system can use various kinds of mobile terminals, such as mobile phones, tablet PCs, personal digital assistants, and laptops equipped with wireless LAN or GPRS to access data in the central database. The system is based on web services with a secure web service architecture and simple object access protocol message passing.

  13. Peculiarities of the Enforcement of the European Arrest Warrant in the Case of an Illegal Liberty Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Ioana Rusu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The illegal deprivation of liberty is, under the current context, one of the most serious offenses, being treated differently in the European Union. The need to prevent and combat this violation, it has led the European legislator to include it under different names in the European legislative act that governs the institution of the European arrest warrant. In this context, the European arrest warrant is the most important form of judicial cooperation in penal matters between the Member States of the EU, which is based on mutualrecognition of criminal judgments. The research conducted on how it is regulated the enforcement of the European arrest warrant in the case of illegal liberty deprivation in the European legislative act (the Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA leads to the conclusion that the legislature failed to mention the violation in question in the group of the violation for which it was not necessary the inspection of the double incrimination, but, still, including the offenses as kidnapping, illegal restraint and hostage-taking. Even if theRomanian legislator included this violation in the above mentioned group, this situation is not solved, because it will cause some problems in the request by the Romanian judicial authorities of the enforcement of such warrant. Another criticized issue, observed not only in the European legislative act, but also in the internal law, is related to the lack of stipulations, which can lead to the possibility of issuing and executing a European arrest warrant and for the execution of educational measures for illegal deprivation of liberty and also others. Also, in order to increase the effectiveness of the execution of a European arrest warrant, we consider that it should be granted executive powers of all courts of Romania. The originality of the work consists of the critical observations and the lege ferenda proposal which covers both the European legislativeact and the Romanian Law. At the same time

  14. Occupational Stress and Coping among Portuguese Military Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the professional experience of military police officers from the Portuguese Republican National Guard (N = 95). We focused on the main sources and consequences of stress and the coping strategies used to deal with stress. The evaluation protocol included one closed-ended question and four open-ended questions. Data analysis of meaningful text segments was conceptually based and data categorization followed deductive content analysis. Results allowed the identification of ...

  15. Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS): Current Legislative Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-14

    largest police forces also have the highest number of reported crimes. 23 Steven D. Levitt , “Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors...amount. 59 Both Evans and Owens and Muhlhausen cite research conducted by Ted R. Miller, Mark A. Cohen...expenses (e.g., medical care and property losses); reduced productivity related to work, home, and school; and quality of life losses. See Ted R

  16. Resultados operativos de la Policía Nacional, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeizon Andrés Duarte Velásquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo contiene los resultados estadísticos de los logros operativos y de los servicios de la Policía Nacional en el año 2012, que sin dudas han posibilitado prevenir, disuadir, controlar e investigar conductas desviadas, como hechos delictivos y contravenciones, que han permitido lograr el mantenimiento de la convivencia y seguridad ciudadana a través de procedimientos y operaciones policiales en Colombia.

  17. Shift work and occupational stress in police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Claudia C; Andrew, Michael E; Fekedulegn, Desta; Gu, Ja K; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2015-03-01

    Shift work has been associated with occupational stress in health providers and in those working in some industrial companies. The association is not well established in the law enforcement workforce. Our objective was to examine the association between shift work and police work-related stress. The number of stressful events that occurred in the previous month and year was obtained using the Spielberger Police Stress Survey among 365 police officers aged 27-66 years. Work hours were derived from daily payroll records. A dominant shift (day, afternoon, or night) was defined for each participant as the shift with the largest percentage of total time a participant worked (starting time from 4:00 AM to 11:59 AM, from 12 PM to 7:59 PM, and from 8:00 PM to 3:59 AM for day, afternoon, and night shift, respectively) in the previous month or year. Analysis of variance and covariance were used to examine the number of total and subscale (administrative/professional pressure, physical/psychological danger, or organizational support) stressful events across the shift. During the previous month and year, officers working the afternoon and night shifts reported more stressful events than day shift officers for total stress, administrative/professional pressure, and physical/psychological danger (p stressful events did not differ significantly between officers working the afternoon and night shifts. Non-day shift workers may be exposed to more stressful events in this cohort. Interventions to reduce or manage police stress that are tailored by shift may be considered.

  18. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come t...

  19. The Role of the Police in Violence Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Neild

    1999-01-01

    This document is one of a series of technical notes that describe the nature and magnitude of violence in the region, its causes and effects, and how it can be prevented and controlled. The notes provide useful information on designing programs and policies to prevent and deal with violence. This technical note discusses the roles of police in controlling and preventing violence and crime. These issues are the subject of much debate. Broadly, the debate breaks down into two opposing views tha...

  20. Policing cyber hate, cyber threat and cyber terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers-Jones, C.

    2013-01-01

    In late August 2012 the Government Forum of Incident Response and Cyber security Teams (GFIRST) gathered in Atlanta to discuss cyber threats and how new realities are emerging and how new forms of regulation are needed. At the same time Policing cyber hate, cyber threat and cyber terrorism was published. This comprehensive book brings together a divergent problem and tackles each with a candid exploration. The book has ten chapters and covers aspects such as extortion via the internet, the ps...

  1. Resultados operativos de la Policía Nacional, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nilson Harvey Barco Pérez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una breve reseña introductoria a las tablas estadísticas que presentan los resultados operativos alcanzados por la Policía Nacional para el 2013, en el desarrollo de estrategias ajustadas a políticas gubernamentales e institucionales, que permitan un despliegue efectivo de acciones preventivas, disuasivas y de control orientadas a garantizar la seguridad y la convivencia de todos los colombianos.

  2. Applying Resilience Promotion Training Among Special Forces Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P. Andersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Police Special Forces (a.k.a. special weapons and tactics [SWAT] officers are tasked with responding to the most critical situations, including incidents that require specialized skills and equipment beyond typical policing activities. In this study, we tested the feasibility of applying Arnetz and colleagues’ resilience promotion training that was developed for patrol officers to SWAT team officers (n = 18. The resilience promotion training program included psychoeducation focused on police stress and resilience, and the practice of resilience promotion techniques (controlled breathing and imagery while listening to audio-recorded critical incident scenarios. The aims of this study were to (a examine if a resilience training program was relevant and accepted by SWAT team officers and (b assess participants’ physiological stress responses (heart rate, respiration during the resilience training sessions to note if there were improvements in stress responding over time. Our findings revealed that participants were able to significantly reduce their average heart rate and improve their ability to engage in controlled respiration (i.e., breathing during simulated critical incidents over the course of the 5-day training. Improvements in stress responding were observed even when the critical incident scenarios became more graphic. Results suggest that an intervention to reduce stress responses of SWAT officers to critical incident scenarios works in a simulated training setting. Translation of these findings to real-world occupational hazards is a recommended next step.

  3. Linking Educational Institutions with Police Officer Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Wood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Community partnerships that are formed through Community Oriented Policing help to assist law enforcement officers with academy education and post academy education. The training offered in the academy and the post academy Field Training Officer Program traditionally places little to no emphasis on critical thinking, professional self-regulation, communication skills or problem-based learning. In the last several years a new approach has been spawned. The Police Training Officer Program (PTO is an innovative form of education that focuses on problem based learning for post academy graduates. The PTO Program emphasizes adult education, problem solving, emotional intelligence, and conflict resolution. This education is necessary to assist officers in de-escalation strategies within their communities and can lend to the reduction of civil disturbances. However, currently, relatively few agencies are offering this education to their post academy graduates and none are offering it to their academy recruits due, in part, to a lack of qualified instructors. PTO instructors must be proficient and fully trained in problem based learning techniques. Through Community Oriented Policing, law enforcement agencies can address this instructor shortage by partnering with university educational institutions to secure instructors who are competent in andragogy, critical thinking, and problem-based learning.

  4. Visual function of police officers who have undergone refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jeffery K; Ramaswamy, Shankaran

    2006-11-01

    The visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of police recruits and officers was evaluated in both normal and dim illumination conditions to determine whether officers who have had refractive surgery have compromised night vision. The control group consisted of 76 officers and recruits who have not had refractive surgery and the refractive surgery group consisted of 22 officers and recruits who had refractive surgery. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured under both room illumination and dim illumination. The room illumination test series included high contrast acuity, low contrast acuity and Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity. The dim illumination test series included high contrast acuity, low contrast acuity, Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity, license plate number acuity (with and without glare) and the Mesotest. The general findings were that the refractive surgery group had lower acuity scores on low contrast targets in both room and dim light levels along with a reduction in the Mesotest scores with a glare source compared to the control group. Although refractive surgery police recruits and officers had reduced performance on some vision tests, these reductions were small and it is unlikely that their performance on vision related tasks would be compromised, on average. The major concern is the small number of refractive surgery candidates whose results were well outside the range of the non-surgical candidates. Their vision may be unacceptable for policing. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391

  6. Assuring gender equity in recruitment standards for police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J; Bonneau, Jean

    2002-06-01

    Human Rights Tribunals require application of non-discriminatory fitness standards in the hiring, promotion, and retention of employees. This issue has become controversial for public safety officers such as police, where differences in average levels of absolute fitness between men and women cause a high proportion of female applicants to fail many entrance tests. The present review summarizes the impact on physical working capacity of commonly encountered gender differences in size, body composition, haemoglobin levels, and muscular strength. The principles applied in designing content- and construct-validity occupational fitness tests are described, and Human Rights policies are reviewed in the light of the Meiorin judgment. Criteria are indicated for establishing a bona-fide occupational fitness requirement, and description is given of the approach used in developing standards that satisfy these criteria. Requirements are based on the task to be accomplished. The potential training response of female applicants is likely at least to match that of their male peers, and the needs of female police recruits are thus best accommodated by providing every opportunity to augment fitness to the required minimum level. The main weakness of any current requirement is that most police forces do not yet apply an equivalent criterion to older incumbent officers, where similar issues may arise.

  7. Longitudinal changes in strength of police officers with gender comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Robert W; Jones, Glenn R; Schendt, Katherine E; Lloyd, Cameron L; Boone, Edward L

    2009-11-01

    Strength is a critical factor in the health and job performance of police officers. Using a retrospective longitudinal design, the purpose of this study was to identify differences in strength scores from initial recruitment to in-service tests and to compare gender differences. Strength changes were also compared in low- to high-strength groups. Strength scores included bench press, bench press/lean weight, and bench press/weight. Body weight, percent body fat, and bench press scores were retrieved for the 1990-1995 recruit classes and were paired to most recent scores on 2006 in-service fitness record. Sample included 327 police officers: 30 females and 297 males. Mean age at initial recruitment was 24.6 years and for in-service was 37.1 years. Average time between tests was 12.5 years. Over this period bench press and bench press/lean weight significantly increased for both gender groups (p officers increased in strength well into their late 30s. The practical applications of this study include documented benefits gained from maintaining ongoing fitness training and testing, as well as the potentially positive role of weight gain on strength. Also, low- to high-strength groups did not change relative positions over time even with improvements in strength scores, demonstrating the importance of minimum selection criteria for police.

  8. The information needs of female Police Officers involved in undercover prostitution work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda M. Baker

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the information behavior of female police officers involved in undercover prostitution work. Seven Vice Officers were interviewed during the summer of 2003 and two were observed during one decoy operation. The model, Information Seeking of Professionals, provided the framework for understanding their needs within the context of their role as decoys. The results revealed that the officers need a variety of information and start seeking it before they transfer to the Vice Unit. Their work demands the use several methods of informal communication, including signals and dress code. Information sources include the men who solicit their services, the female sex workers with whom they share space, members of the community, and their fellow officers who are responsible for protecting their lives.

  9. Policing Visible Sexual/Gender Diversity as a Program of Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dwyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Using interview data on LGBT young people’s policing experiences, I argue policing and security works as a program of government (Dean 1999; Foucault 1991; Rose 1999 that constrains the visibilities of diverse sexuality and gender in public spaces. While young people narrated police actions as discriminatory, the interactions were complex and multi-faceted with police and security working to subtly constrain the public visibilities of ‘queerness’. Same sex affection, for instance, was visibly yet unverifiably (Mason 2002 regulated by police as a method of governing the boundaries of proper gender and sexuality in public. The paper concludes by noting how the visibility of police interactions with LGBT young people demonstrates to the public that public spaces are, and should remain, heterosexual spaces.

  10. Pathogenic Policy: Immigrant Policing, Fear, and Parallel Medical Systems in the US South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Nolan

    2017-01-01

    Medical anthropology has a vital role in identifying health-related impacts of policy. In the United States, increasingly harsh immigration policies have formed a multilayered immigrant policing regime comprising state and federal laws and local police practices, the effects of which demand ethnographic attention. In this article, I draw from ethnographic fieldwork in Atlanta, Georgia, to examine the biopolitics of immigrant policing. I underscore how immigrant policing directly impacts undocumented immigrants' health by producing a type of fear based governance that alters immigrants' health behaviors and sites for seeking health services. Ethnographic data further point to how immigrant policing sustains a need for an unequal, parallel medical system, reflecting broader social inequalities impacting vulnerable populations. Moreover, by focusing on immigrant policing, I demonstrate the analytical utility in examining the biopolitics of fear, which can reveal individual experiences and structural influents of health-related vulnerability.

  11. Linking Neighborhood Characteristics and Drug-Related Police Interventions: A Bayesian Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Marco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of drug-related police interventions and the neighborhood characteristics influencing these spatial patterns. To this end, police officers ranked each census block group in Valencia, Spain (N = 552, providing an index of drug-related police interventions. Data from the City Statistics Office and observational variables were used to analyze neighborhood characteristics. Distance to the police station was used as the control variable. A Bayesian ecological analysis was performed with a spatial beta regression model. Results indicated that high physical decay, low socioeconomic status, and high immigrant concentration were associated with high levels of drug-related police interventions after adjustment for distance to the police station. Results illustrate the importance of a spatial approach to understanding crime.

  12. Building Partnerships Towards a Democratic Police Force in the Post-Revolutionary Tunisia Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Lavut

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes security sector reform in Tunisia, and focuses on Tunisia’s Community Policing (CP program in particular. CP is identified as an effective form of policing in the context of Tunisia’s political transition and continuing security concerns. This work pinpoints a number of gaps in the existing pilot CP program and areas for improvement, and proposes additional ways to address separate but interrelated problems by means of new policing methods, based on comparative research into methods used in the United States and Germany. It proposes to expand the existing private-public partnerships, which are at the heart of CP, and it identifies some areas of cooperation between the police and society that can be generalized across nations. Finally, the argument is put forth that police reform is a multi-pronged, multi-sectoral effort, relying on the efforts of many actors other than the police

  13. Policing in the United States: Has the Time Come for a Full-Time National Police Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    possible without her encouragement. Her patience over this last year and while I continue to drag her around the world amazes me. vi TABLE OF... surprise , but it still represents an inescapable gap in the literature review. Delimitations Delimitations are factors within the control of the author...to equip and train police officers like soldiers, it should come as no surprise if they start acting like soldiers.52 There is no shortage of

  14. Online Media Use and Adoption by Hurricane Sandy Affected Fire and Police Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Apoorva

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis work, I examine the use and adoption of online communication media by 840 fire and police departments that were affected by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. I began by exploring how and why these fire and police departments used (or did not use) online media to communicate with the public during Hurricane Sandy. Results show that fire and police departments used online media during Hurricane Sandy to give timely and relevant information to the public about things such as evacuations, ...

  15. A test of evolutionary policing theory with data from human societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmerli, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    In social groups where relatedness among interacting individuals is low, cooperation can often only be maintained through mechanisms that repress competition among group members. Repression-of-competition mechanisms, such as policing and punishment, seem to be of particular importance in human societies, where cooperative interactions often occur among unrelated individuals. In line with this view, economic games have shown that the ability to punish defectors enforces cooperation among humans. Here, I examine a real-world example of a repression-of-competition system, the police institutions common to modern human societies. Specifically, I test evolutionary policing theory by comparing data on policing effort, per capita crime rate, and similarity (used as a proxy for genetic relatedness) among citizens across the 26 cantons of Switzerland. This comparison revealed full support for all three predictions of evolutionary policing theory. First, when controlling for policing efforts, crime rate correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens. This is in line with the prediction that high similarity results in higher levels of cooperative self-restraint (i.e. lower crime rates) because it aligns the interests of individuals. Second, policing effort correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens, supporting the prediction that more policing is required to enforce cooperation in low-similarity societies, where individuals' interests diverge most. Third, increased policing efforts were associated with reductions in crime rates, indicating that policing indeed enforces cooperation. These analyses strongly indicate that humans respond to cues of their social environment and adjust cheating and policing behaviour as predicted by evolutionary policing theory.

  16. A qualitative study of police interactions as perceived by people living with mental disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Police officers are often the first responders to individuals in crises. Understanding the dynamic interaction between police and persons living with mental illness is critical to developing interventions and appropriate services for this population. Using procedural justice theory, this study involves a qualitative thematic analysis of interviews conducted with 60 people living with mental illness regarding their interactions with police officers. The results indicate that common factors ...

  17. Reforming the Police in Post-Soviet States: Georgia and Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    regime must feel accountable to the broader public to guide reform and destroy the Soviet legacy of a militarized police, while also introducing the...regime must feel accountable to the broader public to guide the reform and destroy the Soviet leg- acy of a militarized police, while also introducing...abuse of power begins the day after a cadet graduates from the Police Academy.81 In summer 2011, to celebrate their gradu- ation, new policemen in

  18. A test of evolutionary policing theory with data from human societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kümmerli

    Full Text Available In social groups where relatedness among interacting individuals is low, cooperation can often only be maintained through mechanisms that repress competition among group members. Repression-of-competition mechanisms, such as policing and punishment, seem to be of particular importance in human societies, where cooperative interactions often occur among unrelated individuals. In line with this view, economic games have shown that the ability to punish defectors enforces cooperation among humans. Here, I examine a real-world example of a repression-of-competition system, the police institutions common to modern human societies. Specifically, I test evolutionary policing theory by comparing data on policing effort, per capita crime rate, and similarity (used as a proxy for genetic relatedness among citizens across the 26 cantons of Switzerland. This comparison revealed full support for all three predictions of evolutionary policing theory. First, when controlling for policing efforts, crime rate correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens. This is in line with the prediction that high similarity results in higher levels of cooperative self-restraint (i.e. lower crime rates because it aligns the interests of individuals. Second, policing effort correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens, supporting the prediction that more policing is required to enforce cooperation in low-similarity societies, where individuals' interests diverge most. Third, increased policing efforts were associated with reductions in crime rates, indicating that policing indeed enforces cooperation. These analyses strongly indicate that humans respond to cues of their social environment and adjust cheating and policing behaviour as predicted by evolutionary policing theory.

  19. Experiences with Policing among People Who Inject Drugs in Bangkok, Thailand: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as “patients” not “criminals,” Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Methods and Findings Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. Conclusions This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings

  20. Policing and Muslim Communities in Germany: Structures, Workplace Cultures and the Threat of Islamophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Mescher, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    In recognizing that today most organizations in modern societies have been confronted with the necessity of engaging with the processes of an intercultural interaction, this paper focuses on the police and the role police officers play in shaping the interaction between majority and minority ethnic populations in multi-ethnic societies. Empirical data of 727 serving police officers have been analysed emphasising interactions and contact with as well as attitudes towards Muslim members of soci...