WorldWideScience

Sample records for warning signs

  1. Warning Signs of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to talk to kids about bullying. Respond to Bullying Learn how to respond to bullying . From stopping ... Text Size: A A A Warning Signs for Bullying There are many warning signs that may indicate ...

  2. 33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1830 - Warning sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (2) Facing outboard towards the water so that the sign may be seen from the water. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each warning sign must have the following words: (1) Warning. (2) Dangerous Cargo. (3) No Visitors. (4) No Smoking. (5) No Open Lights. (c) Each letter in the words on...

  4. What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cardiovascular Conditions What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke? Brain tissue affected by blockage Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in ... over 55 years old have more chance of stroke, and the risk gets greater as you get ...

  5. Warning signs prior to aggressive behavior in child psychiatric units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faay, M.D.M.; Valenkamp, M.W.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at detecting and categorizing early warning signs of aggressive behavior in child psychiatric units. We analyzed 575 violent incident report forms and developed a coding scheme consisting of 16 warning signs. From the 575 incident report forms, a total of 1087 signs were coded. Most

  6. The investigation of early warning signs of aggression in forensic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof Berno van Meijel; Mirjan van Leeuwen; Mieke Grypdonck; Frans Fluttert; Bjørkly Stal

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives. The Forensic Early Warning Signs of Aggression Inventory (FESAI) was developed to assist nurses and patients in identifying early warning signs and constructing individual early detection plans (EDP) for the prevention of aggressive incidents. The aims of this research were as f

  7. Know the Risks, Warning Signs of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163117.html Know the Risks, Warning Signs of Ovarian Cancer Older age, family history raise the odds for ... Women need to be aware their risk for ovarian cancer increases with age. Half of all cases affect ...

  8. 46 CFR 105.45-15 - Warning signals and signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning signals and signs. 105.45-15 Section 105.45-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS... signals and signs. (a) During transfer of cargo while fast to a dock, a red signal (flag by day and...

  9. Conspicuity, memorability, comprehension, and priming in road hazard warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Samuel G

    2006-05-01

    This study assessed driver reactions to 16 road hazard warning signs of various formats by projecting life-sized video of road scenes to drivers in a driving simulator. A range of measures, including attentional and search conspicuity, implicit and explicit recognition, dynamic and static comprehension, and sign priming were collected. Of the signs tested, road works and school warning signs were most often detected, remembered, and understood. Slippery surface warnings were associated with some of the lowest detection and comprehension rates. The effectiveness of the different formats depended on the type of hazard sign. In the case of road works warnings, a flashing variable message format was only slightly more conspicuous than the large dimension format, equal in comprehensibility, and perhaps somewhat worse in terms of memorability. For the school warnings, however, the flashing variable message format appeared to convey a greater sense of potential hazard, produced superior search conspicuity and priming, and was equal in terms of memorability and comprehensibility. The range of measures worked well as a whole with the two measures of conspicuity and the measure of static comprehension showing the greatest consistency.

  10. Warning signs and symptoms of heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... veins that go from the lungs to the heart. Fluid leaks into the lungs and causes shortness of ... another sign of a heart problem. When your heart doesn't work as ... legs. This causes fluid to build up in your tissues. You may ...

  11. Heeding the warning signs: further displacement predicted for Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeidl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is currently much evidence pointing to another wave of displacement likely to occur in Afghanistan. Ignoring these early warning signs and failing to act may mean paying a higher price in the future, both financially and in human terms.

  12. 30 CFR 77.1102 - Warning signs; smoking and open flame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning signs; smoking and open flame. 77.1102... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1102 Warning signs; smoking and open flame. Signs warning against smoking and open flames shall be posted so they can be readily seen in areas or places where fire...

  13. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator...

  14. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall—...

  15. Superficial siderosis is a warning sign for future intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Jennifer; Wollenweber, Frank A; Lummel, Nina; Bochmann, Katja; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Bruckmann, Hartmut; Dichgans, Martin; Opherk, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Supratentorial superficial siderosis (SS) is a frequent imaging marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). It is most probably caused by focal subarachnoid hemorrhages (fSAHs). Based on single-case observations, it has been proposed that such fSAHs might be a predisposing factor for future intracranial hemorrhage. Here we tested the hypothesis if a SS as a residue of fSAHs must be regarded as a warning sign for future intracranial hemorrhage. Fifty-one consecutive patients with SS and no apparent cause other than possible or probable CAA were identified through a database search and followed-up for a median interval of 35.3 months (range 6-120 months). Main outcome measures were rate and location of new intracranial hemorrhages. Twenty-four patients (47.1 %) had experienced any new intracranial hemorrhage, 18 patients (35.3 %) had an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and in 13 of them (25.5 %), the hemorrhage was located at the site of pre-existing siderosis. Six patients (11.7 %) had developed a new subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), four of them at the site of siderosis. Patients with SS are at substantial risk for subsequent intracranial hemorrhage. SS can be considered a warning sign of future ICH or SAH, which frequently occur adjacent to pre-existing SS. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  16. 49 CFR 176.325 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in... material. (b) A sign carrying the legend: FLAMMABLE VAPORS KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY NO SMOKING must...

  17. 49 CFR 176.220 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.220 Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in any hold...

  18. [Extra-oral signs to look for in patients exhibiting oral warning signs of genetic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Lusson, Charlène; Hyon, Isabelle; Dajean-Trutaud, Sylvie; Le Caignec, Cédric; Lopez-Cazaux, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This article is aimed at defining guidelines for dental surgeons to manage patients with warning signs of rare genetic diseases. Anomalies of tooth development may occur as an isolated condition or in association with other symptoms in syndromes. In many cases, dental anomalies may be the first manifestations of a genetic disease. The dentist can contribute to the diagnosis, and hence to an early treatment of this syndrome. When one or more dental anomalies are found, practitioners should refer patients to a genetic clinic or a specialized reference center to diagnose genetic diseases. Therefore, we provide, for the first time, a table of extra-oral signs that dental surgeons can look for in patients exhibiting heritable dental developmental anomalies. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. National women's knowledge of stroke warning signs, overall and by race/ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Towfighi, Amytis; Mosca, Lori

    2014-04-01

    Recognition of stroke warning signs may reduce treatment delays. The purpose of this study was to evaluate contemporary knowledge of stroke warning signs and knowledge to call 9-1-1, among a nationally representative sample of women, overall and by race/ethnic group. A study of cardiovascular disease awareness was conducted by the American Heart Association in 2012 among English-speaking US women ≥25 years identified through random-digit dialing (n=1205; 54% white, 17% black, 17% Hispanic, and 12% other). Knowledge of stroke warning signs, and what to do first if experiencing stroke warning signs, was assessed by standardized open-ended questions. Half of women surveyed (51%) identified sudden weakness/numbness of face/limb on one side as a stroke warning sign; this did not vary by race/ethnic group. Loss of/trouble talking/understanding speech was identified by 44% of women, more frequently among white versus Hispanic women (48% versus 36%; P<0.05). Fewer than 1 in 4 women identified sudden severe headache (23%), unexplained dizziness (20%), or sudden dimness/loss of vision (18%) as warning signs, and 1 in 5 (20%) did not know 1 stroke warning sign. The majority of women said that they would call 9-1-1 first if they thought they were experiencing signs of a stroke (84%), and this did not vary among black (86%), Hispanic (79%), or white/other (85%) women. Knowledge of stroke warning signs was low among a nationally representative sample of women, especially among Hispanics. In contrast, knowledge to call 9-1-1 when experiencing signs of stroke was high.

  20. 7 Warning Signs of Alzheimer's | Alzheimer's disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease 7 Warning Signs of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents The ... Suncoast Gerontology Center, University of South Florida. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain The only definite way to ...

  1. Improving visual attention : the effect of Warning signs with different formats

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Zheng; SUTO, Hidetsugu

    2015-01-01

    Designed warning signs were applied in this study to describe the performance of visual attention with different formats of stimulation. The dependent variables had be obtained from an eye movement experiment. A new proposal about how to sort experimental materials will be proposed.

  2. Exposure to a Mnemonic Interferes with Recall of Suicide Warning Signs in a Community-Based Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J.; Steiner-Pappalardo, Nicole; Rudd, M. David

    2009-01-01

    The incremental impact of adding a mnemonic to remember suicide warning signs to the Air Force Suicide Prevention Program (AFSPP) community awareness briefing was investigated with a sample of young, junior-enlisted airmen. Participants in the standard briefing significantly increased their ability to list suicide warning signs and improved…

  3. Awareness of the Warning Signs, Risk Factors, and Treatment for Tuberculosis among Urban Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi O. Desalu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the awareness of the warning signs, risk factors, and treatment of tuberculosis among urban Nigerians. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey among 574 adults in Ilorin, Nigeria. Semistructured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to obtain information about awareness of tuberculosis warning signs, risk factors, and treatment. Results. Majority of the subjects (71.4% were aware of at least one warning sign of tuberculosis. Cough (66.2%, weight loss (38.0%, and haemoptysis (30.7% were the most identified warning signs. The predictors of awareness of warning sign were increasing age (, higher family income (, higher level of education (, and belonging to Christian faith (. Awareness of risk factors for tuberculosis was higher for tobacco smokers (77.0% and history of contact with a case of TB (76.0%. Less than half were aware of HIV infection (49.8%, alcohol consumption (42.5%, chronic kidney disease (40.4%, extremes of ages (39.4%, cancers (36.9%, and diabetes mellitus (27.5% as risk factors for TB. Tuberculosis was reported to be curable by 74.6% of the subjects and 67.9% knew that there are medications for treatment of tuberculosis, while 11.5% knew the duration of treatment. Conclusion. This study has revealed that the awareness of HIV and noncommunicable diseases as risk factors for TB is poor. This study has therefore demonstrated the need for health education programs that will emphasize recognition, identification, and modification of risk factor for TB.

  4. Predicting severe dengue using quantified warning signs. A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Low Kim Kuan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop and evaluate predictive models by quantifying warning signs prior to the development of severe dengue. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which the total number of warning signs each day was compared between dengue with warning signs and severe dengue. Multivariate logistic regression with forward likelihood ratio method was employed to achieve the best fit models for the prediction of severe dengue. The models were also being explored by adding diarrhoea and removing lethargy. Receiver operating characteristics were then used in these best fit models to identify suitable cut-off probability values derived from the equation of the models. Results: Median age of patients was 26 years old (interquartile range was 15 years and 65.3% (1 110 were males. Age with total number of warning signs at day one of illness (model T1 and age with total number of warning signs at day two of illness (model T2 were identified as the best fit models. The best probability cut-offs for model T1 was 0.050 6 with 10.1% positive predictive value, 96.4% negative predictive value, 99.4% sensitivity, 1.8% specificity; for model T2 was 0.050 3 with 10.2% positive predictive value, 96.4% negative predictive value, 99.4% sensitivity, 1.8% specificity. Conclusions: The models developed in this study might not reduce the burden effectively. Clinicians may use the models but the models must be re-validated in their clinical settings as the effect size might vary. Furthermore, the risk and benefit in selecting the cut-off values should be evaluated before implementing such models.

  5. Predicting severe dengue using quantified warning signs. A retrospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary Low Kim Kuan; Yong Mun Hin; Isa Ridzuan Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop and evaluate predictive models by quantifying warning signs prior to the development of severe dengue. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which the total number of warning signs each day was compared between dengue with warning signs and severe dengue. Multivariate logistic regression with forward likelihood ratio method was employed to achieve the best fit models for the prediction of severe dengue. The models were also being explored by adding diarrhoea and removing lethargy. Receiver operating characteristics were then used in these best fit models to identify suitable cut-off probability values derived from the equation of the models. Results: Median age of patients was 26 years old (interquartile range was 15 years) and 65.3%(1110) were males. Age with total number of warning signs at day one of illness (model T1) and age with total number of warning signs at day two of illness (model T2) were identified as the best fit models. The best probability cut-offs for model T1 was 0.0506 with 10.1% positive predictive value, 96.4% negative predictive value, 99.4% sensitivity, 1.8% specificity; for model T2 was 0.0503 with 10.2% positive predictive value, 96.4% negative predictive value, 99.4% sensitivity, 1.8% specificity. Conclusions: The models developed in this study might not reduce the burden effectively. Clinicians may use the models but the models must be re-validated in their clinical settings as the effect size might vary. Furthermore, the risk and benefit in selecting the cut-off values should be evaluated before implementing such models.

  6. Assessing awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Awat; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Hosseini, Mohsen; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Jamali, Jamshid

    2011-12-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. This cross-sectional interview-based survey investigated 2,500 people aged 18 years and over, as a representative sample of Tehran population. Latent class regression was applied for analyzing data. A small (18.8%) proportion of the respondents had high level of knowledge, and 54.5% had moderate awareness, and 26.7% had low level of awareness. Most effective predictors for awareness were educational attainment, sex, and marital status. The findings suggest that the overall level of knowledge about warning signs of cancer among the public is low, particularly about some specific signs. Accordingly, educational and intervention programmes, with special attention placed on particular at-risk populations, to increase awareness about the disease leading to its early diagnosis are needed.

  7. Awareness and impact of New York City's graphic point-of-sale tobacco health warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Micaela H; Chan, Christina A; Auer, Kari; Farley, Shannon M; Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Kansagra, Susan M

    2013-05-01

    To increase knowledge of smoking-related health risks and provide smoking cessation information at the point of sale, in 2009, New York City required the posting of graphic point-of-sale tobacco health warnings in tobacco retailers. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of such a policy in the USA. Cross-sectional street-intercept surveys conducted among adult current smokers and recent quitters before and after signage implementation assessed the awareness and impact of the signs. Approximately 10 street-intercept surveys were conducted at each of 50 tobacco retailers in New York City before and after policy implementation. A total of 1007 adults who were either current smokers or recent quitters were surveyed about the awareness and impact of tobacco health warning signs. Multivariate risk ratios (RR) were calculated to estimate awareness and impact of the signs. Most participants (86%) were current smokers, and the sample was 28% African-American, 32% Hispanic/Latino and 27% non-Hispanic white. Awareness of tobacco health warning signs more than doubled after the policy implementation (adjusted RR =2.01, 95% CI 1.74 to 2.33). Signage posting was associated with an 11% increase in the extent to which signs made respondents think about quitting smoking (adjusted RR =1.11, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.22). A policy requiring tobacco retailers to display graphic health warning signs increased awareness of health risks of smoking and stimulated thoughts about quitting smoking. Additional research aimed at evaluating the effect of tobacco control measures in the retail environment is necessary to provide further rationale for implementing these changes.

  8. A Video Camera Road Sign System of the Early Warning from Collision with the Wild Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuska Slavomir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a camera road sign system of the early warning, which can help to avoid from vehicle collision with the wild animals. The system consists of camera modules placed down the particularly chosen route and the intelligent road signs. The camera module consists of the camera device and the computing unit. The video stream is captured from video camera using computing unit. Then the algorithms of object detection are deployed. Afterwards, the machine learning algorithms will be used to classify the moving objects. If the moving object is classified as animal and this animal can be dangerous for safety of the vehicle, warning will be displayed on the intelligent road sings.

  9. Weather instabilities as a warning sign for a nearby climatic tipping point?

    CERN Document Server

    Louchet, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Using in a simple way the theory of non linear dynamical systems, we show that increasing climatic instabilities may be a qualitative warning sign for the occurrence of a nearby bifurcation, yielding a discontinuous and sudden climate tipping towards an unknown and unpredictable state. The possibility of an accurate prediction of the occurrence time of such a transition is also discussed in terms of the approach of a critical point.

  10. Case Report: Postpartum hemorrhage associated with Dengue with warning signs in a term pregnancy and delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Le Phi Hung; Tran Diem Nghi; Nguyen Hoang Anh; Mai Van Hieu; Nguyen Thien Luan; Nguyen Phuoc Long; Than Trong Thach

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dengue infection during peripartum period, although rare in endemic regions, has challenged clinicians regarding its management, especially if a parturient woman experiences postpartum hemorrhage due to a classical risk factor of maternal bleeding. Case: A full-term pregnant Vietnamese woman was diagnosed with polyhydramnios and Dengue with warning signs (DWS). She was administered platelet transfusion prior to delivery and then gave birth to a healthy newborn. After active manage...

  11. Enough is not enough: Medical students’ knowledge of early warning signs of childhood cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ann Geel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reported incidence of childhood cancer in upper-middle-income South Africa (SA is much lower than in high-income countries, partly due to under-diagnosis and under-reporting. Documented survival rates are disturbingly low, prompting an analysis of potential factors that may be responsible. Objectives. To determine final-year medical students’ level of knowledge of early warning signs of childhood cancer and whether a correlation existed between test scores and participants’ age, gender and previous exposure to a person with cancer. Methods. A two-part questionnaire based on the Saint Siluan mnemonic, testing both recall and recognition of early warning signs of childhood cancer, was administered. The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test was used to assess differences in continuous and count variables between demographic data, experience and responses, and Fisher’s exact test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used to determine correlations between demographic data, previous contact with persons with cancer and test scores. A novel equality ratio was calculated to compare the recall and recognition sections and allowed analysis of recall v. recognition. Results. The 84 participants recalled a median of six signs each (interquartile range 4 - 7 and correctly recognised a median of 70% in the recognition section, considered a pass mark. There was no correlation between participants’ age, gender, previous contact with a person with cancer and recognition scores. Students with previous exposure to a person with cancer had higher scores in the recall section, but this did not achieve statistical significance. Students were able to recognise more signs of haematological malignancies than central nervous system (CNS malignancies. Conclusion. The study demonstrated a marked inconsistency between recall and recognition of signs of childhood cancer, with signs of CNS malignancies being least recognised. However, the majority

  12. Children’s Understanding of No Diving Warning Signs: Implications for Preventing Childhood Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Morrongiello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined children’s understanding of No Diving warning signs. Normally-developing 7 to 10 year olds were asked questions to assess their understanding of text, images, and main messages on No Diving warning signs. These structured interviews were audio recorded and responses were later coded. Results revealed that children understood the behavior advised against (diving, why it is prohibited (can hit head on the bottom, and what can happen (serious injury including hospitalization. They understood that breaking your neck results in limitations in mobility and can occur from diving, but they did not anticipate that such an injury is likely to occur. There were no gender and few age differences, but diving experience was associated with children significantly downplaying their risk of injury. The findings suggest that having No Diving warning signs explicitly mention a broken neck, may serve to remind children of this potential consequence at the time of decision making. Active adult supervision is particularly important for children who have prior positive diving experiences.

  13. Early-warning signs for pattern-formation in stochastic partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Karna; Kuehn, Christian

    2015-05-01

    There have been significant recent advances in our understanding of the potential use and limitations of early-warning signs for predicting drastic changes, so called critical transitions or tipping points, in dynamical systems. A focus of mathematical modeling and analysis has been on stochastic ordinary differential equations, where generic statistical early-warning signs can be identified near bifurcation-induced tipping points. In this paper, we outline some basic steps to extend this theory to stochastic partial differential equations with a focus on analytically characterizing basic scaling laws for linear SPDEs and comparing the results to numerical simulations of fully nonlinear problems. In particular, we study stochastic versions of the Swift-Hohenberg and Ginzburg-Landau equations. We derive a scaling law of the covariance operator in a regime where linearization is expected to be a good approximation for the local fluctuations around deterministic steady states. We compare these results to direct numerical simulation, and study the influence of noise level, noise color, distance to bifurcation and domain size on early-warning signs.

  14. Implementation and evaluation of early gastroscopy for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, Francisco Javier; Hernández Tejero, María; Rubio Benito, Elvira; Valer, Paz; Guerra, Iván; García Ceballos, Victoria Gema; Noguerol, Mar; Llinares, Victoria; Bermejo, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Dyspepsia is a common disorder in both Primary (PC) and Specialised Care (SC). Gastroscopy is recommended at the start of the study if there are warning signs, although it is not always available in PC. We developed a pilot project establishing an early gastroscopy programme for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs in PC, subsequently extending it to the entire healthcare area. The aim was to evaluate the requirements, impact and opinion of this service at the PC level. Demographic, symptomatic and endoscopic variables on the patients referred to SC from the pilot centre were recorded. A satisfaction survey was conducted among the PC physicians. The one-year pilot study and the first year of implementation of the programme were evaluated. A total of 355 patients were included (median age 56.4 years; IQR 45.5-64.3); 61.2% (56.1-66.3%) were women. The waiting time for examination was 1.5 weeks (IQR 1.5-2.5). Gastroscopy was correctly indicated in 82.7% (78.4-86.3%) of patients. The median number of requests per month was 1.1 per 10,000 adults (range 0.8-1.6). Monthly referrals to SC clinics from the pilot centre fell by 11 subjects (95% CI 5.9-16) with respect to the previous median of 58 (IQR 48-64.5). Almost all those polled (98.4%) considered the programme useful in routine practice. The availability of an early gastroscopy programme in PC for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs reduced the number of referrals to SC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing Awareness Level about Warning Signs of Cancer and its Determinants in an Iranian General Population

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. This cross-sectional interview-based survey investigated 2,500 people aged 18 years and over, as a representative sample of Tehran population. Latent class regression was applied for analyzing data. A small (18.8%) proportion of the respondents had high level of knowledge, and 54.5% had moderate awareness, and 26.7% had low level of awareness. M...

  16. The Development of the Forensic Early Warning Signs of Aggression lnventory: Preliminary findings: Toward a Better Management of Inpatient Aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof Berno van Meijel; Mirjam van Leeuwen; Henk Nijman; Stål Bjørkly; Mieke Grypdonck; Frans Fluttert

    2011-01-01

    “Early warning signs of aggression” refers to recurring changes in behaviors, thoughts, perceptions, and feelings of the patient that are considered to be precursors of aggressive behavior. The early recognition of these signs offers possibilities for early intervention and prevention of aggressive

  17. Risk Factors, Warning Signs, and Drivers of Suicide: What Are They, How Do They Differ, and Why Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Raymond P; Crowley, Kevin J; Davidson, Collin L; Gutierrez, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Research investigating suicide attempts and deaths by suicide has yielded many specific risk factors and warning signs for future suicidal behaviors. Yet, even though these variables are each valuable for suicide prevention efforts, they may be limited in their applicability to clinical practice. The differences among risk factors, warning signs, and "drivers," which are person-specific variables that lead individuals to desire death by suicide, are highlighted. The scarce evidence on drivers is described and specific recommendations for conducting future drivers-focused research and targeting them in clinical practice are suggested.

  18. Stroke awareness in the general population: knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in older adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Anne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and functional impairment. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have the poorest awareness of stroke warning signs and risk factors. This study examined knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Randomly selected community-dwelling older people (aged 65+) in Ireland (n = 2,033; 68% response rate). Participants completed home interviews. Questions assessed knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors, and personal risk factors for stroke. RESULTS: Of the overall sample, 6% had previously experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. When asked to identify stroke risk factors from a provided list, less than half of the overall sample identified established risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypercholesterolaemia), hypertension being the only exception (identified by 74%). Similarly, less than half identified established warning signs (e.g., weakness, headache), with slurred speech (54%) as the exception. Overall, there were considerable gaps in awareness with poorest levels evident in those with primary level education only and in those living in Northern Ireland (compared with Republic of Ireland). CONCLUSION: Knowledge deficits in this study suggest that most of the common early symptoms or signs of stroke were recognized as such by less than half of the older adults surveyed. As such, many older adults may not recognise early symptoms of stroke in themselves or others. Thus, they may lose vital time in presenting for medical attention. Lack of public awareness about stroke warning signs and risk factors must be addressed as one important contribution to reducing mortality and morbidity from stroke.

  19. Stroke awareness in the general population: knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Emer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a leading cause of death and functional impairment. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have the poorest awareness of stroke warning signs and risk factors. This study examined knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors among community-dwelling older adults. Methods Randomly selected community-dwelling older people (aged 65+ in Ireland (n = 2,033; 68% response rate. Participants completed home interviews. Questions assessed knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors, and personal risk factors for stroke. Results Of the overall sample, 6% had previously experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. When asked to identify stroke risk factors from a provided list, less than half of the overall sample identified established risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension being the only exception (identified by 74%. Similarly, less than half identified established warning signs (e.g., weakness, headache, with slurred speech (54% as the exception. Overall, there were considerable gaps in awareness with poorest levels evident in those with primary level education only and in those living in Northern Ireland (compared with Republic of Ireland. Conclusion Knowledge deficits in this study suggest that most of the common early symptoms or signs of stroke were recognized as such by less than half of the older adults surveyed. As such, many older adults may not recognise early symptoms of stroke in themselves or others. Thus, they may lose vital time in presenting for medical attention. Lack of public awareness about stroke warning signs and risk factors must be addressed as one important contribution to reducing mortality and morbidity from stroke.

  20. Dengue at the Doorstep: Small Outbreaks in Florida are a Warning Sign to US Navy Medical Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Warning Sign to US Navy Medical Personnel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Navy Entomology Center of Excellence,Naval Air Station

  1. The “widow maker” warning sign or Wellens’ syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wellens’ syndrome, also known as LAD (left anterior descending coronary T-wave syndrome, “widow maker” or warning sign, is a potentially unrecognized critical proximal LAD stenosis with possible fatal consequences. It can be associated with extensive acute anterior wall myocardial infarction, with left ventricular dysfunction and a lethal outcome within a few days after the onset of symptoms. It usually consists of a typical ECG finding in the precordial leads that represents a significant proximal LAD stenosis in patients with unstable angina pectoris. Although this syndrome is not indicated for PCI (the patient is usually pain-free at the time of electrocardiography registration, it is necessary to recognize the characteristic pattern and perform an emergency coronary angiography and percutaneous or surgical revascularisation of the affected blood vessel. Here we present the case report of a 47 year-old woman without previous anamnesis of coronary disease. On admission to the Coronary Care Unit she was chest pain-free and had all the indicators of Wellens’ syndrome.

  2. Testing the warning signs of suicidal behavior among suicide ideators using the 2009 National survey on drug abuse and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John F; Lester, David; McSwain, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    In order to help crisis counselors assess clients for their suicidal risk, in 2003 the American Association of Suicidology proposed ten warning signs, memorized through the acronym IS PATH WARM However, little research has been done investigating their effectiveness for predicting suicidal behavior The present study compared (1) suicide ideators with non-suicide ideator controls and (2) suicide ideators with suicide attempters on six of the IS PATH WARM warning signs, along with depression in the past year, marital status, and gender With regards to the comparison between suicide ideators and non-ideators, all variables but gender; abuse of alcohol in the past year, and anxiety in the past year were predictive of suicide ideation. However, when comparing suicide ideators who had not made a suicide attempt with those who had, only anger/aggression, depression in the past year, and marital status were predictive of a suicide attempt.

  3. Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montazeri Ali

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer remains an important public health problem. This study aimed to investigate about female knowledge of breast cancer and self-reported practice of breast self-examination in Iran. Methods This was a population-based survey carried out in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire containing 15 questions on demographic status, history of personal and family breast problems, subjective knowledge about breast cancer covering its symptoms, the screening methods and practice of breast self-examination (BSE. A trained female nurse interviewed each respondent. Analysis included descriptive statistics and the Chi-squared test where necessary. Results A total of 1402 women were interviewed. The mean age of respondents was 43.4 (SD = 14.4 years; most were married (85%, and without any personal (94% and family history (90% of breast problems. It was found that 64% of the respondents were familiar with breast cancer and 61% (n = 851 believed that 'the disease is relatively common among women in Iran'. Most women (44% perceived a painless mass as a breast cancer symptom. Overall, 61% of the respondents stated that they knew about breast cancer screening programs and most indicated that electronic media (television 34% and radio 14% were their source of information. Only 17% of women said that 'they were conducting regular breast self-examination'. The main reason for women not doing breast self-examination was due to the fact that they did not know how to do it (64%. The findings indicated that performing breast self-examination is significantly related to: age, marital status, education, knowledge of breast cancer and knowledge about breast cancer screening programs (p Conclusion This descriptive study provides useful information that could be utilized by both researchers and those involved in public health programmes. The findings indicated that the women awareness of breast cancer warning signs

  4. Determination of early warning signs for photocatalytic degradation of titanium white oil paints by means of surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, B. A.; Wezendonk, T. A.; van den Berg, K. J.; Kooyman, P. J.; Gascon, J.; Dik, J.

    2017-02-01

    Titanium white (TiO2) has been widely used as a pigment in the 20th century. However, its most photocatalytic form (anatase) can cause severe degradation of the oil paint in which it is contained. UV light initiates TiO2-photocatalyzed processes in the paint film, degrading the oil binder into volatile components resulting in chalking of the paint. This will eventually lead to severe changes in the appearance of a painting. To date, limited examples of degraded works of art containing titanium white are known due to the relatively short existence of the paintings in question and the slow progress of the degradation process. However, UV light will inevitably cause degradation of paint in works of art containing photocatalytic titanium white. In this work, a method to detect early warning signs of photocatalytic degradation of unvarnished oil paint is proposed, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Consequently, a four-stage degradation model was developed through in-depth study of TiO2-containing paint films in various stages of degradation. The XPS surface analysis proved very valuable for detecting early warning signs of paint degradation, whereas the AFM results provide additional confirmation and are in good agreement with bulk gloss reduction.

  5. Early warning scores: a sign of deterioration in patients and systems

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fox, A

    2015-02-01

    The early warning score is a decision-making tool that has a simple design, yet its implementation in healthcare organisations is proving complex. This article reports the results of a survey that evaluated the nurses’ experiences of using the NEWS (National Early Warning Score) in an acute hospital in Ireland. Staff reported that the NEWS was easy to use, did not increase workload and enhanced their ability to identify deteriorating patients. However, they also identified problems related to doctors’ delayed response times, doctors lack of training in the use of the tool, and a failure by doctors to modify parameters for patients with chronic conditions. NEWS enhances nurses’ role in early detection of patient deterioration but delays in response times by doctors, exposes systematic flaws in healthcare. This suggests that it is not only an indicator of patient deterioration but also of deteriorating healthcare systems.

  6. Effect of information education and communication (IEC) programme on knowledge of pregnant mothers regarding prevention and management of warning signs during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takoo, Sarla; Chhugani, Manju; Sharma, Veena

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an Information, Education and Communication (IEC) programme on knowledge of pregnant mothers regarding prevention and management of warning signs during pregnancy in a selected health care setting at New Delhi. An evaluative research approach with one group pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the present study. A structured interview schedule was prepared. Purposive non-probability sampling technique was employed to interview 30 pregnant mothers who attended antenatal clinic. Data gathered was analysed and interpreted using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that there was maximum knowledge deficit regarding warning signs of pregnancy. IEC programme was effective in enhancing the knowledge of pregnant mothers on prevention and management of warning signs during pregnancy.

  7. Pudendal Neuralgia Due to Pudendal Nerve Entrapment: Warning Signs Observed in Two Cases and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploteau, Stephanie; Cardaillac, Claire; Perrouin-Verbe, Marie-Aimee; Riant, Thibault; Labat, Jean-Jacques

    2016-03-01

    Pudendal neuralgia is a chronic neuropathic pelvic pain that is often misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated. The Nantes criteria provide a basis for the diagnosis of pudendal neuralgia due to pudendal nerve entrapment. The 5 essential diagnostic criteria are pain situated in the anatomical territory of the pudendal nerve, worsened by sitting, the patient is not woken at night by the pain, and no objective sensory loss is detected on clinical examination. The fifth criterion is a positive pudendal nerve block. We have also clarified a number of complementary diagnostic criteria and several exclusion criteria that make the diagnosis unlikely. When pudendal neuralgia due to pudendal nerve entrapment is diagnosed according to the Nantes criteria, no further investigation is required and medical or surgical treatment can be proposed. Nevertheless, a number of warning signs suggesting other possible causes of pudendal neuralgia must not be overlooked. These warning signs (red flags) are waking up at night, excessively neuropathic nature of the pain (for example, associated with hypoesthesia), specifically pinpointed pain, which can suggest neuroma and pain associated with neurological deficit. In these atypical presentations, the diagnosis of pain due to pudendal nerve entrapment should be reconsidered and a radiological examination should be performed. The 2 cases described in this report (tumor compression of the pudendal nerve) illustrate the need to recognize atypical pudendal neuralgia and clarify the role of pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as MRI provides very valuable information for the evaluation of diseases involving the ischiorectal fossa. The presence of red flags must be investigated in all cases of pudendal neuralgia to avoid missing pudendal neuralgia secondary to a mechanism other than nerve entrapment.

  8. The accuracy of newly proposed warning signs in the third edition of Malaysian guideline on the management of dengue infection in adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kim Kuan Low

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of persistent vomiting and persistent diarrhoea proposed in the Malaysian dengue guideline. Methods: The eligibility criteria were dengue patients with vomiting or/and diarrhoea at the earliest day of illness without other warning signs. Vomiting and diarrhoea categorised by three or more episodes over 24 h were considered as warning signs. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Results: There were a total of 479 patients, of whom 36 (7.5% got severe dengue and 443 (92.5% got dengue with warning signs. The overall accuracy ranged from 33.3% to 72.7% for sensitivity, 28.8% to 56.5% for specificity, 1.8% to 14.5% for positive predictive value and 88.5% to 96.3% for negative predictive value. There were 16 false negative. Conclusions: The newly proposed warning signs in the third edition of Malaysian dengue guideline may not be effective in predicting severe dengue.

  9. The accuracy of newly proposed warning signs in the third edition of Malaysian guideline on the management of dengue infection in adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary Kim Kuan Low

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the accuracy of persistent vomiting and persistent diarrhoea proposed in the Malaysian dengue guideline. Methods:The eligibility criteria were dengue patients with vomiting or/and diarrhoea at the earliest day of illness without other warning signs. Vomiting and diarrhoea categorised by three or more episodes over 24 h were considered as warning signs. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Results: There were a total of 479 patients, of whom 36 (7.5%) got severe dengue and 443 (92.5%) got dengue with warning signs. The overall accuracy ranged from 33.3% to 72.7% for sensitivity, 28.8% to 56.5% for specificity, 1.8% to 14.5% for positive predictive value and 88.5% to 96.3% for negative predictive value. There were 16 false negative. Conclusions: The newly proposed warning signs in the third edition of Malaysian dengue guideline may not be effective in predicting severe dengue.

  10. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PEDIATRIC PULMONARY AND EXTRA-PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS: A WARNING SIGN FOR THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Devrim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB remains a major global health problem affecting millions of people annually. Tuberculosis in children has unique features different from adults which makes the diagnosis to be more difficult. The spectrum of the symptoms of TB in children could vary from non-specific symptoms to severe clinical presentations.  In this study, we reviewed our experience at pediatric patients with active TB admitted in a tertiary hospital  and aimed to compare the epide­miological, clinical and microbiological features of  children with  the extra-pulmonary tuberculosis(EPTB and pulmonary tuberculosis(PTB. Material and methods: Patients under 14 years of age diagnosed with active TB in our unit between December 2008 and September 2013 were included in the study. Data including demographic characteristics, clinical history, microbiology, imaging studies, medications and outcomes of the patients were collected from medical records. Results: A total of 129 cases of active TB were identified.  Ninety-two (78.6% of the cases had Pulmonary Tuberculosis and 25 (21.4% of the cases had Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The most common signs and symptoms on admission were fever in 40 cases (34.2% and cough in 81 cases (69.2%. The number of patients without symptoms including fever, cough, malaise and weight loss were significantly higher in EXPTB (72.0% group when compared with patients in PTB group (13.0% (p 0.05. The detection rate of source in PTB group (42.4% was significantly higher than the rate in  EPTB group (20.0%( p=0.04. In the drug-resistant group, no source of infection could be established in 5 of 9 patients (55.5%. Conclusions: Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis is more difficult than Pulmonary tuberculosis in children due to the various problems such as absence of associated pulmonary involvement,  lack of constitutional symptoms and negative tuberculosis exposure history compared to Pulmonary Tuberculosis. New

  11. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Spread the Word™ campaign Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  12. Symptoms and Warning Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to maintain a normal or healthy weight distorted body image; intense fear of gaining weight lack of menstruation among girls and women repeatedly weighing him/herself portioning food carefully, eating ...

  13. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since the ... and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce your ...

  14. Warning Signs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of seasonal flu and when it is serious enough to seek medical help.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  15. Driving behaviour responses to a moose encounter, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message determined in a factorial simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Antonson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In a driving simulator study, driving behaviour responses (speed and deceleration) to encountering a moose, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message, with or without a wildlife fence and in dense forest or open landscape, were analysed. The study consisted of a factorial experiment that examined responses to factors singly and in combination over 9-km road stretches driven eight times by 25 participants (10 men, 15 women). The aims were to: determine the most effective animal-vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures in reducing vehicle speed and test whether these are more effective in combination for reducing vehicle speed; identify the most effective countermeasures on encountering moose; and determine whether the driving responses to AVC countermeasures are affected by the presence of wildlife fences and landscape characteristics. The AVC countermeasures that proved most effective in reducing vehicle speed were a wildlife warning sign and radio message, while automatic speed cameras had a speed-increasing effect. There were no statistically significant interactions between different countermeasures and moose encounters. However, there was a tendency for a stronger speed-reducing effect from the radio message warning and from a combination of a radio message and wildlife warning sign in velocity profiles covering longer driving distances than the statistical tests. Encountering a moose during the drive had the overall strongest speed-reducing effect and gave the strongest deceleration, indicating that moose decoys or moose artwork might be useful as speed-reducing countermeasures. Furthermore, drivers reduced speed earlier on encountering a moose in open landscape and had lower velocity when driving past it. The presence of a wildlife fence on encountering the moose resulted in smaller deceleration.

  16. Organic colonic lesions in 3,332 patients with suspected irritable bowel syndrome and lacking warning signs, a retrospective case--control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhi, Fa-Chao; Jiang, Bo; Huang, Ying

    2011-07-01

    The diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome is symptom based, and colonoscopy is the most direct way to rule out organic colonic diseases. It is controversial on the necessity of colonoscopy for patients with suspected irritable bowel syndrome and lacking alarm features. This study was designed to verify the organic lesions and discuss the value of colonoscopy in this type of patients. Colonoscopy of 3,332 patients with suspected irritable bowel syndrome and lacking warning signs from 2000 to 2009 were reviewed. One thousand five hundred eighty-eight patients under 50 years of age who underwent colonoscopy screening for health care in the same period were used as controls. The prevalence of different colonic organic lesions was compared between two groups. Organic colonic lesions were found in 30.3% of the patients with suspected irritable bowel syndrome (1,010/3,332) and 39.0% of the controls (619/1,588). Compared with controls, patients with suspected irritable bowel syndrome had higher prevalence of noninflammatory bowel disease and noninfectious colitis and terminal ileitis, however, had lower prevalence of diverticular disease, adenomatous polyps, and non-adenomatous polyps (all P irritable bowel syndrome without colonoscopy is not more than 69.7% in patients with suspected irritable bowel syndrome lacking warning signs. Though the method of colonoscopy is hard to screen tumor in this type of patients, it is beneficial to uncover some other relevant organic lesions such as terminal ileitis. Colonoscopy should not be refused to suspected irritable bowel syndrome patients without warning signs.

  17. Awareness Levels about Breast Cancer Risk Factors, Early Warning Signs, and Screening and Therapeutic Approaches among Iranian Adult Women: A large Population Based Study Using Latent Class Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Tazhibi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Breast cancer (BC continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women throughout the world and in Iran. Lack of awareness and early detection program in developing country is a main reason for escalating the mortality. The present research was conducted to assess the Iranian women’s level of knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches, and their correlated determinants. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 2250 women before participating at a community based screening and public educational program in an institute of cancer research in Isfahan, Iran, in 2012 were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire about risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches of BC. Latent class regression as a comprehensive statistical method was used for evaluating the level of knowledge and its correlated determinants. Results. Only 33.2%, 31.9%, 26.7%, and 35.8% of study participants had high awareness levels about screening approaches, risk factors, early warning signs and therapeutic modalities of breast cancer, respectively, and majority had poor to moderate knowledge levels. Most effective predictors of high level of awareness were higher educational qualifications, attending in screening and public educational programs, personal problem, and family history of BC, respectively. Conclusion. Results of current study indicated that the levels of awareness among study population about key elements of BC are low. These findings reenforce the continuing need for more BC education through conducting public and professional programs that are intended to raise awareness among younger, single women and those with low educational attainments and without family history.

  18. Case Report: Postpartum hemorrhage associated with Dengue with warning signs in a term pregnancy and delivery [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 not approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Phi Hung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue infection during peripartum period, although rare in endemic regions, has challenged clinicians regarding its management, especially if a parturient woman experiences postpartum hemorrhage due to a classical risk factor of maternal bleeding. Case: A full-term pregnant Vietnamese woman was diagnosed with polyhydramnios and Dengue with warning signs (DWS. She was administered platelet transfusion prior to delivery and then gave birth to a healthy newborn. After active management of the third stage of labor, the patient suffered a postpartum hemorrhage which was caused by uterine atony and accompanied with thrombocytopenia. Therefore, we decided to administer uterotonic drugs and additionally transfuse platelets. Conclusion: We describe a case of postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine atony and coinciding with Dengue infection during delivery period, which is a rare clinical entity. With timely detection and management, the patient was finally discharged without complications.

  19. Aggregate National Early Warning Score (NEWS) values are more important than high scores for a single vital signs parameter for discriminating the risk of adverse outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Stuart; Kovacs, Caroline; Briggs, Jim; Meredith, Paul; Schmidt, Paul E; Featherstone, Peter I; Prytherch, David R; Smith, Gary B

    2015-02-01

    The Royal College of Physicians (RCPL) National Early Warning Score (NEWS) escalates care to a doctor at NEWS values of ≥5 and when the score for any single vital sign is 3. We calculated the 24-h risk of serious clinical outcomes for vital signs observation sets with NEWS values of 3, 4 and 5, separately determining risks when the score did/did not include a single score of 3. We compared workloads generated by the RCPL's escalation protocol and for aggregate NEWS value alone. Aggregate NEWS values of 3 or 4 (n=142,282) formed 15.1% of all vital signs sets measured; those containing a single vital sign scoring 3 (n=36,207) constituted 3.8% of all sets. Aggregate NEWS values of either 3 or 4 with a component score of 3 have significantly lower risks (OR: 0.26 and 0.53) than an aggregate value of 5 (OR: 1.0). Escalating care to a doctor when any single component of NEWS scores 3 compared to when aggregate NEWS values ≥5, would have increased doctors' workload by 40% with only a small increase in detected adverse outcomes from 2.99 to 3.08 per day (a 3% improvement in detection). The recommended NEWS escalation protocol produces additional work for the bedside nurse and responding doctor, disproportionate to a modest benefit in increased detection of adverse outcomes. It may have significant ramifications for efficient staff resource allocation, distort patient safety focus and risk alarm fatigue. Our findings suggest that the RCPL escalation guidance warrants review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Difference of Memory Effects among Three Types of Traffic Warning Signs%不同类型交通警示标识的记忆效果差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景怡; 闫子豪; 杨海波

    2015-01-01

    交通警示是指用文字或符号传递引导、限制、警告或指示信息的道路设施,其呈现方式主要为文字类、图片类和图文结合类。研究以120名青年人为被试,探讨了民众对三种交通警示标识的记忆效果。结果发现,民众对不同类型交通警示标识的记忆效果存在显著差异,具体表现为:(1)自由回忆成绩上,图片类交通警示的成绩最好,图文结合类次之,文字类的成绩最差;(2)再认反应时上,图片类交通警示标识的再认时间最短,图文结合类警示标识的再认时间最长;(3)再认正确率上,图片类交通警示标识的再认正确率最高,文字类警示标识的再认正确率最低。结果表明,民众对图片类交通警示标识的记忆效果优于图文结合类和文字类。%Traffic warningsign refers to road facilities which deliver guiding ,limiting ,warning or indicating information in words or symbols .Traffic warning signs mainly appear in text ,picture or text‐picture combined .This study is single factor designed , exploring the effect of three kinds of traffic warning signs on the memory of public .The subjects are 120 young people .Results show there is significant difference between the memory effect of different types of traffic warning signs .Specifically ,(1) in free hecall task ,people who watched picture traffic warning signs score highest ,text‐picture combined group score second ,text group score lowest ;(2) people who watched picture traffic warning signs have the shortest recognition time ,while the text‐pic‐ture combined group have the longest recognition time ;(3) people who watched picture traffic warning signs have the highest recognition accuracy rate ,while the text group have the lowest recognition accuracy rate .The result shows that people have bet‐ter memory on traffic warning signs in picture form than traffic warning signs in text‐picture combined or text

  1. Warning Signs of Breastfeeding Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding sessions that are consistently briefer than about ten minutes during the first few months may mean ... such as mastitis and help you with any problems with latching on. You may need to start ...

  2. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families Become an APA Member Learn More Explore APA Psychiatrists Residents & Medical Students Patients & Families About APA ... Psychiatric News Message from President APA Blogs Join APA General Members Residents and Fellows Medical Students International ...

  3. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of heart failure may not be cause for alarm. But if you have more than one of ... also causing fluid retention in the tissues. Tiredness, fatigue ...a tired feeling all the time and difficulty ...

  4. Influenza Round Table: Warning Signs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-11-03

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of flu, including the new H1N1 flu, and when it is serious enough to seek medical help.  Created: 11/3/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/3/2009.

  5. Warning Signs of Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Must Resume Work on Bipartisan Healthcare Improvements Blog: Yoga, Tai Chi and Your Lungs: The Benefits of ... number of items"); $("#local_list_xml").quickPagination(); }, error: function() { console.log("An error occurred while processing XML ...

  6. Early warning signs of severe preeclampsia%重度子痫前期患者临床发病前预警信息分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史峻梅; 杨孜; 陈蕾; 王伽略

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the early warning signs of severe preeclampsia (SPE). Methods A case-control (1: 2) observational study was conducted. Forty-seven pregnant women with SPE, who attended the prenatal clinics of Peking University Third Hospital regularly from Jan. 2002 to Dec. 2007, were selected as the study group, including 12 early onset and 35 late onset ones. The control group consisted of 94 healthy singleton pregnant women at the same period. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. Results (1) The basal body mass index (BMI) showed no difference between the study and control group [(23.27±4.31)kg/m2 vs (21.52±3.09)kg/m2, P>0.05]. (2) The net increase of BMI in the study group before the onset of SPE was higher than that in the control [(5.60±2.17)kg/m2 vs (4.85±1.52)kg/m2, P0.50 kg/w) [60%(25/42) in the study group vs 63%(53/84) in the control group, P>0.05]. (4) Higher percentage of women experienced pre-hypertension in the study group than in the controls [17%(8/47) vs 5%(5/94), P0.85 kg/w during the third trimester (OR=11.60,95%CI:3.54-37.97). Conclusions Edema, excessive weight gain,pre-hypertension and hypoproteinemia are early warning signs of SPE. Pregnant women with the above signs required close monitoring during prenatal care.%目的 探讨重度子痫前期孕妇临床病程进展中的预警信息.方法 选择2002年1月至2007年12月从早、中孕期起即在北京大学第三医院妇产科进行规律产前检查的47例重度子痫前期患者作为研究组.采用1∶ 2病例对照研究方法取同期正常单胎妊娠94例孕妇为对照组.记录并分析两组孕妇的临床资料,包括体重指数及体重变化、水肿情况、高血压前期表现、血浆白蛋白及尿蛋白情况.结果 (1)体重指数:研究组孕妇基础体重指数为(23.27±4.31)kg/m2,对照组为(21.52±3.09)kg/m2,两组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).(2)体重指数增长幅度:研究组孕妇在重度子痫前期发病前

  7. 护理警示标识在医院护理风险管理中的临床应用效果%Clinical Application Effect of Nursing Warning Signs in Hospital Nursing Risk Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴普和; 曹岳蓉; 王建英; 郭溜萍; 徐晓娟

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To study the clinical application effect of nursing warning signs in hospital nursing risk management. [ Methods] From January to December 2010, the nursing warning signs in the Affiliated Jiangyin People's Hospital of Southeast University Medical College had been standardized, and all departments had implemented the operational norms of nursing warning signs. The patients'satisfaction about the nursing care, the score of basic nursing care quality and the nursing error rate between 2009 and 2010 were compared. [ Results] After the implementation of nursing warning signs, the satisfaction and accreditation of patients, and score of basic nursing care quality were 159.27 ± 10.76, 29.13 ±2.59 and 99.62 ±0.67 respectively, which were higher than those before the implementation (130.56 ±10.43, 26.97±2.51 and 95.85 ±0.73), and there were significant differences between before and after the implementation (P <0.05). The nursing error rate after the implementation (0.31% ) was lower than that before the implementation (0.49% ) significantly (P <0.05). [ Conclusion] Nursing warning signs can significantly decrease the nursing error rate, reduce the nursing risk, and improve the care quality and patients'satisfaction.%目的 探讨护理警示标识在医院护理风险管理中的临床应用效果.方法 于2010年1-12月,统一、规范东南大学医学院附属江阴医院护理警示标识,各科事执行护理警示标识操作规范.比较2009和2010年患者对护理工作的评价、护士基础护理质量评分以及护理差错率.结果 实施护理警示标识后,患者对护士工作的满意度、认可度和基础护理质量评分分别为159.27±10.76、29.13±2.59、99.62±0.67,显著高于实施前的130.56±10.43、26.97 +2.51、95.85±0.73,实施前后比较,差异均有统计学意义,P<0.01;护理差错率是0.26%,显著低于实施前的0.51%,.结论 护理警示标识可明显减少护理差错发生率,降低护理风险,

  8. Record review to explore the adequacy of post-operative vital signs monitoring using a local modified early warning score (mews chart to evaluate outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una Kyriacos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To explore the adequacy of: vital signs' recordings (respiratory and heart rate, oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure (BP, temperature, level of consciousness and urine output in the first 8 post-operative hours; responses to clinical deterioration. 2 To identify factors associated with death on the ward between transfer from the theatre recovery suite and the seventh day after operation. DESIGN: Retrospective review of records of 11 patients who died plus four controls for each case. PARTICIPANTS: We reviewed clinical records of 55 patients who met inclusion criteria (general anaesthetic, age >13, complete records from six surgical wards in a teaching hospital between 1 May and 31 July 2009. METHODS: In the absence of guidelines for routine post-operative vital signs' monitoring, nurses' standard practice graphical plots of recordings were recoded into MEWS formats (0 = normal, 1-3 upper or lower limit and their responses to clinical deterioration were interpreted using MEWS reporting algorithms. RESULTS: No patients' records contained recordings for all seven parameters displayed on the MEWS. There was no evidence of response to: 22/36 (61.1% abnormal vital signs for patients who died that would have triggered an escalated MEWS reporting algorithm; 81/87 (93.1% for controls. Death was associated with age, ≥61 years (OR 14.2, 3.0-68.0; ≥2 pre-existing co-morbidities (OR 75.3, 3.7-1527.4; high/low systolic BP on admission (OR 7.2, 1.5-34.2; tachycardia (≥111-129 bpm (OR 6.6, 1.4-30.0 and low systolic BP (≤81-100 mmHg, as defined by the MEWS (OR 8.0, 1.9-33.1. CONCLUSIONS: Guidelines for post-operative vital signs' monitoring and reporting need to be established. The MEWS provides a useful scoring system for interpreting clinical deterioration and guiding intervention. Exploration of the ability of the Cape Town MEWS chart plus reporting algorithm to expedite recognition of signs of clinical and physiological

  9. From primary care to hospitalization: clinical warning signs of severe dengue fever in children and adolescents during an outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gerusa; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Brasil, Patrícia; Pacheco, Antonio Guilherme; Cruz, Oswaldo G; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Kubelka, Claire; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed factors associated with severe cases of dengue in children and adolescents hospitalized during the 2007/2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a retrospective case-control study that covers 88 cases of severe dengue in patients admitted to four tertiary care children's hospitals. Controls consisted of 22 children with non-severe dengue living in the same neighborhood as the patients with severe dengue. Differences in prevalence of the clinical signs - abdominal pain, breathing difficulty, drowsiness or irritability - emerged on the third day after the onset of symptoms, in the febrile stage. Cases and controls received first medical care at the same clinical stage of disease. However, hospital admission of severe cases occurred later, on average between the third and fourth day after the onset of the disease. Early discharge of patients with fever whose condition could have progressed to severe dengue may have been a consequence of the type of medical assistance provided by primary care units, suggesting deficiencies both in the use of the risk classification protocol and patient triage.

  10. Bruxismo na infância: um sinal de alerta para odontopediatras e pediatras Childhood bruxism: a warning sign to pediatric dentists and pediatricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Baffi Diniz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão de literatura sobre o bruxismo na infância, abordando os fatores etiológicos, as características clínicas, os sinais e sintomas, a importância do diagnóstico por parte dos pediatras e odontopediatras e o tratamento multidisciplinar desta condição parafuncional. FONTES DE DADOS: Foram selecionados os artigos mais relevantes sobre o tema publicados desde 1907 até 2007, com pesquisa realizada no Medline, na Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia (BBO e em livros de Odontologia. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O bruxismo é definido como um hábito não funcional do sistema mastigatório, caracterizado pelo ato de ranger ou apertar os dentes, podendo ocorrer durante o dia e durante o sono. A etiologia é multifatorial e a literatura sugere vários fatores associados: dentário, fisiológico, psicológico e neurológico. As forças exercidas pelo bruxismo podem provocar distúrbios em diferentes graus nos dentes e nos tecidos de suporte, na musculatura e na articulação têmporo-mandibular. O sinal mais comum é o desgaste nas faces incisais dos dentes anteriores e oclusais nos posteriores, além de mobilidade e hipersensibilidade dentárias, fratura de cúspides e restaurações e hipertonicidade dos músculos mastigatórios. CONCLUSÃO: O conhecimento dos fatores etiológicos e das características clínicas do bruxismo na infância é fundamental para que o diagnóstico seja precoce, permitindo que pediatras, odontopediatras e psicólogos possam estabelecer um tratamento multidisciplinar e favoreçam o desenvolvimento integral da criança para a promoção de saúde e bem-estar individual.OBJECTIVE: To present a review of literature on childhood bruxism, including etiological factors, clinical characteristics, signs and symptoms, the importance of the diagnosis by pediatric dentists and pediatricians and the multidisciplinary management of this parafunctional condition. DATA SOURCE: The most relevant articles

  11. Fact Sheet: Early Warning Signs of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Research (2 items) Genetics (1 item) Brain Anatomy and Physiology (1 item) Other Treatments (4 items) Coping with ... Services Research (2 items) Genetics (1 item) Brain Anatomy and Physiology (1 item) Other Treatments (4 items) Coping with ...

  12. Brain Aneurysm Warning Signs/Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us BAF at a Glance Staff/Board of Directors Medical Advisory Board Publications BAF Newsletters Annual Reports News Public Service Announcements Press Releases Blog Administrative Tax Returns and Financial Statements 501 (c) (3) IRS Determination Letter Home » About ...

  13. Brain Aneurysm Warning Signs/Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Challenge Emotional Challenges Potential Deficits Strategies For Short-Term Memory Loss Rehabilitation Kinds of Therapy What to Expect Common Questions How Long Until I Get Better? Why am I so ...

  14. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (2) Can be seen from the shore and the water; and, (3) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this... centimeters (3 inches) high. (c) The words “No Smoking” and “No Open Lights” may be omitted when the product...

  15. Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  16. 10 Early Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a symptom of Alzheimer's or another dementia . Alzheimer's is a brain disease that causes a slow decline in memory, thinking and reasoning skills. There are 10 warning signs and symptoms. Every individual may experience one or more of ...

  17. Warning systems and public warning response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

  18. Wind gust warning verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Operational meteorological centres around the world increasingly include warnings as one of their regular forecast products. Warnings are issued to warn the public about extreme weather situations that might occur leading to damages and losses. In forecasting these extreme events, meteorological centres help their potential users in preventing the damage or losses they might suffer. However, verifying these warnings requires specific methods. This is due not only to the fact that they happen rarely, but also because a new temporal dimension is added when defining a warning, namely the time window of the forecasted event. This paper analyses the issues that might appear when dealing with warning verification. It also proposes some new verification approaches that can be applied to wind warnings. These new techniques are later applied to a real life example, the verification of wind gust warnings at the German Meteorological Centre ("Deutscher Wetterdienst"). Finally, the results obtained from the latter are discussed.

  19. Researchers warn of neglect to basic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Russia is losing its standing as a scientific powerhouse and its science is in a state of decline, according to a new report by the information-services provider Thomson Reuters. Entitled "The New Geography of Science: Research and Collaboration in Russia", the report warns that the country's research base "has a problem, and it shows little sign of a solution".

  20. Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  1. Signes Iconiques, Signes Linguistiques (Iconic Signs, Linguistic Signs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Henri

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses the audiovisual image as sign; the classification of signs according to two different semiologies, and two different semantic theories; and the relation to different pedagogical approaches. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  2. Signes Iconiques, Signes Linguistiques (Iconic Signs, Linguistic Signs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Henri

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses the audiovisual image as sign; the classification of signs according to two different semiologies, and two different semantic theories; and the relation to different pedagogical approaches. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  3. Electronic gaming machine warning messages: information versus self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Sally; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Regulators have extensively used warning signs in many health domains to enhance knowledge and shift attitudes and behaviors to reduce associated harm. The effectiveness of these signs is influenced by their physical attributes and content. Gambling warning signs traditionally focus on the following: informing individuals of the potentially risky outcomes of gambling and the odds of winning, encouraging gambling within affordable limits, and advertising counseling services. The limited evidence suggests that warning signs for gambling attract attention and improve knowledge but are generally ineffective in modifying players' thoughts and behaviors. Therefore, the authors aimed to determine the optimal content of messages that would enhance responsible gambling practices. The authors conclude that, in contrast with signs displaying probabilities or informing players of the risks associated with gambling, signs designed to encourage players to reflect on, appraise, evaluate, and self-regulate their actions have greater theoretical and empirical support. The authors comment that warning signs should promote the application of self-appraisal and self-regulation skills rather than the simple provision of information on odds and probabilities to maximize their effectiveness as a public health tool.

  4. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  5. Could Loneliness Be an Early Sign of Alzheimer's?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Could Loneliness Be an Early Sign of Alzheimer's? People with 'biomarkers' for the brain disease were ... Subtle feelings of loneliness might warn of impending Alzheimer's disease in older folks, a new study suggests. ...

  6. Babinski sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, H U

    2002-09-01

    Despite all of the medical advances, Babinski sign has proved reliable in precise localization of central nervous system dysfunction. It is well accepted that Babinski sign is indicative of dysfunction of fibers within the pyramidal tract. Joseph François Félix Babinski first described the clinical significance of the reflex in 1896. He showed that the extensor plantar response was indicative of pyramidal dysfunction and that it was absent in hysteria. He also illustrated that it was present in infancy and transiently appeared in epilepsy and strychnine poisoning. Babinski also pointed to the existence of "formes frustes" of his reflex and recognized its occasional absence in patients with other clinical signs of pyramidal lesions. The sign emerges when the dysfunction of the pyramidal tract involves the fibers that project on motoneurons of foot muscles and is mediated by extensor hallucis longus. Babinski sign may not be present acutely after transverse lesions of the spinal cord or acute brain lesions because of temporary inexcitability of spinal motoneurons.

  7. Clever Cars Can Read Road Signs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duncan Graham-Rowe; 张高慧

    2004-01-01

    @@ The plaintive① plea to the traffic cop② is the same the world over: "Sorry officer, I didn't know I was speeding." But drivers may soon have to come up with a better excuse. A new electronic driver's assistant will detect road signs and warn drivers not to ignore them.

  8. [Lhermitte's sign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moreno, J M; Izquierdo, G

    2002-03-01

    Besides Babinski's, Lhermitte's sign is likely the eponym mostly used in the neurological literature. We review here the history of this eponym as well as recent advances on its pathophysiology and treatment. Lhermitte's phenomenon is, on one hand, a symptom as it is spontaneously explained by patients, and, on the other hand, a sign as it may be triggered by flexion of the nape. Initially described after head and cervical spine trauma, firstly by Marie and then by Babinski, it was Jean Lhermitte who recognized on it an etiological specificity, namely, a demyelinating sign of cervical spinal posterior cords. He also made a pathophysiological interpretation of the phenomenon, namely, a stretching of posterior cords during flexion of the neck. All authors agree that this phenomenon is more common in multiple sclerosis, although it has been descibed in many other conditions. The history of how this sign was hatched, whose pathophysiology remains a mystery, is fascinating. And it is fascinating the fact that patients compare the phenomenon with a current, especially if we bear in mind that few people may have suffered an electrocution, mainly in that time when just a few ones could actually enjoy domestic electricity.

  9. Resting tachycardia, a warning sign in anorexia nervosa: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krantz Mori J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among psychiatric disorders, anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate. During an exacerbation of this illness, patients frequently present with nonspecific symptoms. Upon hospitalization, anorexia nervosa patients are often markedly bradycardic, which may be an adaptive response to progressive weight loss and negative energy balance. When anorexia nervosa patients manifest tachycardia, even heart rates in the 80–90 bpm range, a supervening acute illness should be suspected. Case presentation A 52-year old woman with longstanding anorexia nervosa was hospitalized due to progressive leg pain, weakness, and fatigue accompanied by marked weight loss. On physical examination she was cachectic but in no apparent distress. She had fine lanugo-type hair over her face and arms with an erythematous rash noted on her palms and left lower extremity. Her blood pressure was 96/50 mm Hg and resting heart rate was 106 bpm though she appeared euvolemic. Laboratory tests revealed anemia, mild leukocytosis, and hypoalbuminemia. She was initially treated with enteral feedings for an exacerbation of anorexia nervosa, but increasing leukocytosis without fever and worsening left leg pain prompted the diagnosis of an indolent left lower extremity cellulitis. With antibiotic therapy her heart rate decreased to 45 bpm despite minimal restoration of body weight. Conclusions Bradycardia is a characteristic feature of anorexia nervosa particularly with significant weight loss. When anorexia nervosa patients present with nonspecific symptoms, resting tachycardia should prompt a search for potentially life-threatening conditions.

  10. Know the Warning Signs of Educator Sexual Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Charol

    2013-01-01

    Educators can prevent much of the sexual misconduct in schools if they know how to recognize and respond to suspicious patterns and if administrators enforce an environment of high expectations for behavior. School districts can assess their schools and the district for being at risk of educator sexual misconduct and then can develop and enforce…

  11. 46 CFR 153.955 - Warning signs during cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... outboard toward the water so that it may be seen from the water. (See figure 1). (b) Except as provided in... width. (e) The spacing must be: (1) 1.3 cm (approx. 1/2 in.) between letters of the same word; (2) 5 cm (approx. 2 in.) between words; (3) 5 cm (approx. 2 in.) between lines; and (4) 5 cm (approx. 2 in.) at...

  12. Prehypertension: A warning sign of future cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnak Assadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the report from the national high blood pressure (BP education program working group on BP in children and adolescents and the introduction of a new description called prehypertension many data have been provided on its rate of progression to hypertension, its prevalence and association with other cardiovascular (CV risk factors and its therapy. Making a diagnosis of prehypertension in a child or adolescent identifies an individual at increased risk for early-onset CV disease who requires specific treatment. Thus, routine BP measurement is highly recommended at every health-care encounter beginning at 3 years of age. This review will present updated data on prehypertension in children and adolescents to increase awareness of health-care providers to the seriousness of this condition. Optimal BP measurement techniques as well as the evaluation and management of prehypertension will be discussed and preventive strategies to reduce the CV risk will be presented.

  13. Aging Parents: 7 Warning Signs of Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... memory problems are a fairly common part of aging, and sometimes medication side effects or underlying conditions contribute to memory loss. There's a difference, though, between normal changes in memory and the type of memory loss ...

  14. Adolescents and Substance Abuse: Warning Signs and School Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, LaShonda B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…

  15. Early Warning Signs and Indicators to Genocide and Mass Atrocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    US criminal sentencing data to prove racial discrepancies in the sentencing of juveniles to life without parole or using patient payment records from... sentencing . HRW combines these 179Ibid. 180Ibid. 74 with other data collection from the

  16. Experimental evaluation of fog warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

    2007-11-01

    Highway safety is a major concern to the public and to transportation professionals, so the number of crashes caused by poor visibility due to fog form an alarming statistic. Drivers respond to poor visibility conditions in different ways: some slow down; others do not. Many drivers simply follow the taillights of the vehicle ahead. Accordingly, hazardous conditions are created in which speeds are both too high for the prevailing conditions and highly variable. Findings are presented from a study of traffic crashes due to fog in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of fog detection and warning system on driver behavior regarding speed and headway. This warning system includes visibility sensors that automatically activate a variable message sign that posts an advisory speed when hazardous conditions due to fog occur. The system was installed on a 2 km section of a two-lane, rural highway. A data set of 36,013 observations from both experimental and control sections at two study sites was collected and analyzed. The data included vehicle speed, volume, and classification; time headway, time of day, and visibility distance. Although the warning system was ineffective in reducing speed variability, mean speed throughout the experimental sections was reduced by about 6.5 kph. This reduction indicates that the warning system appeared to have a positive effect on driver behavior in fog even though the observed mean speeds were still higher than the posted advisory speed. From relationships found in the literature between mean driving speed and number of crashes, a speed reduction of only 5 kph would yield a 15% decrease in the number of crashes.

  17. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.259 Warning time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every 12 months and when the warning system...

  18. Signing off

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    sharp that they cause paper cuts. Stains. If you accidentally spill some food or drink on your clothes, make sure you attempt to remove it as soon as possible and preferably within the same lunar cycle. Some teachers seem to think they should be worn with pride like the stains on a chemistry teacher's white coat. This is a myth. Materials. For scientists continually teaching about the wonder of smart materials, physics teachers are remarkably conservative in their choice of materials for their clothes. Try to break out from the traditional corduroy and tweed and practise what you teach. It is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Steven Chapman Science Year Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science Signing Off takes a humorous and irreverent look at physics education. The views expressed here are those of the author and are not endorsed by the Editorial Board for Physics Education. Can you contribute a zany attitude or humorous anecdote? Please send your offering to ped@iop.org marked Signing Off.

  19. Controversy within Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay

    1987-01-01

    A review of problems with using such manual communication systems as cued speech, fingerspelling, Signed or Manual English, American Sign Language, and Pidgin Sign provides a rationale for using a combination of American Sign Language and Pidgin Sign and a few markers from Signed English for a Total Communication system. (CB)

  20. Signing off

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Physics Related Aptitude Test As the teacher shortage bites anyone with a degree in science expects to walk into a school and be received, with open arms, as a physics teacher. Are they really suitable? To help you decide Signing Off provides the following invaluable psychometric test. Extensively researched and, for single users only, it comes completely free to Physics Education subscribers! (Copies of this Physics Related Aptitude Test are available to credit-card customers from prat@realripoff.com priced #35 per client, 125 dollars to US customers.) This invaluable psychometric test has been extensively researched. Your first lesson of the new school year introduces the study of electricity. Do you: A Use the notes prepared by your predecessor. B Find a video on electricity and play it to the class. C Arrange a series of exciting practical demonstrations to stimulate the young inquiring mind. D Let the children design and make their own circuits to light flashlight bulbs. Your 14-year-olds have completed a written test on heat and energy. Do you: A Mark correct only the work of students who have written their names neatly at the top LEFT HAND corner, as required. B Only set multiple choice tests, so that the computer can mark them for you. C Mark carefully by hand, explaining in detail to each student exactly how and why they have made errors and adding encouraging comments with lots of praise. D Give out correct sets of answers and allow students to mark their own work. There is a staff social. Do you: A Ask for a definition of the term 'social'. B Ask for a web-based version. C Determine to go, so that you can discuss setting up cross-curricular links with colleagues. D Join the organizing committee. Who do you admire most? A Sir Isaac Newton. B Bill Gates. C Leonardo da Vinci. D Leonardo di Caprio. You are required to teach biology class. Your response is: A Denial. B To ask for an appropriate computer simulation. C To attend a specialized course for biology

  1. Flash floods: forecasting and warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sene, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    ... and levees.The volume discusses the increasing use of meteorological observation and forecasting techniques to extend the lead time available for warning, combined with hydrological models for the river response...

  2. Flash floods: forecasting and warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sene, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    .... Floods of this type are often characterised by fast flowing deep water and a high debris content which - combined with the short lead time available for warnings - add to the risk to people and property...

  3. Sign Language Diglossia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, William C., Jr.

    Charles A. Ferguson's concept of "diglossia" (1959, 1964) is used in analyzing sign language. As in Haitian Creole or Swiss German, "two or more varieties" of sign language are "used by the same speakers under different conditions"--these are here called "High" (H) sign language and "Low" (L) sign language. H sign language is formally taught…

  4. EVALUATING EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILE BROWSER SECURITY WARNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work precisely evaluates whether browser security warnings are as ineffective as proposed by popular sentiments and past writings. This research used different kinds of Android mobile browsers as well as desktop browsers to evaluate security warnings. Security experts and developers should give emphasis on making a user aware of security warnings and should not neglect aim of communicating this to users. Security experts and system architects should emphasis the goal of communicating security information to end users. In most of the browsers, security warnings are not emphasized, and browsers simply do not show warnings, or there are a number of ways to hide those warnings of malicious sites. This work precisely finds that how inconsistent browsers really are in prompting security warnings. In particular, majority of the modern mobile web browsers are vulnerable to these security threats. We find inconsistency in SSL warnings among web browsers. Based on this work, we make recommendations for warning designers and researchers.

  5. Macro finance early warning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guihuan ZHENG; Xun ZHANG; Wei SHANG; Shanying XU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a financial early warning informa-tion system is developed based on the multi-dimensional cli-mate approach that is featured with a multi-dimensional in-dex construction and the relevant multi-dimensional analy-sis. Requirement analysis and design issues of building an information system supporting this multi-dimensional cli-mate approach are discussed in detail. And a case using this system to study the macro financial issues is presented to illustrate how the proposed multi-dimensional approach works in the information system we design. This research is an interdisciplinary work of economic theories, macro finan-cial empirical studies, and software engineering. With ad-vanced macro financial early warning theories implemented in a web application, the Macro Financial Early Warning System (FEWS) developed in this research has been proved to be effective in a trial running in the Forecasting research institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Sign Language Tutoring Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Aran, Oya; Benoit, Alexandre; Carrillo, Ana Huerta; Fanard, François-Xavier; Campr, Pavel; Akarun, Lale; Caplier, Alice; Rombaut, Michele; Sankur, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    In this project, we have developed a sign language tutor that lets users learn isolated signs by watching recorded videos and by trying the same signs. The system records the user's video and analyses it. If the sign is recognized, both verbal and animated feedback is given to the user. The system is able to recognize complex signs that involve both hand gestures and head movements and expressions. Our performance tests yield a 99% recognition rate on signs involving only manual gestures and 85% recognition rate on signs that involve both manual and non manual components, such as head movement and facial expressions.

  7. Automatic sign language identification

    OpenAIRE

    Gebre, B.G.; Wittenburg, P.; Heskes, T.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a Random-Forest based sign language identification system. The system uses low-level visual features and is based on the hypothesis that sign languages have varying distributions of phonemes (hand-shapes, locations and movements). We evaluated the system on two sign languages -- British SL and Greek SL, both taken from a publicly available corpus, called Dicta Sign Corpus. Achieved average F1 scores are about 95% - indicating that sign languages can be identified with high accuracy...

  8. Microsimulation modelling of driver behaviour towards alternative warning devices at railway level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Li-Sian; Zhu, Sicong; Ferreira, Luis; Wallis, Guy

    2014-10-01

    Level crossings are amongst the most complex of road safety issues, due to the addition of rail infrastructure, trains and train operations. The differences in the operational characteristics of different warning devices together with varying crossing, traffic or/and train characteristics, cause different driver behaviour at crossings. This paper compares driver behaviour towards two novel warning devices (rumble strips and in-vehicle audio warning) with two conventional warning devices (flashing light and stop sign) at railway level crossings using microsimulation modelling. Two safety performance indicators directly related to collision risks, violation and time-to-collision, were adopted. Results indicated the active systems were more effective at reducing likely collisions compared to passive devices. With the combined application of driving simulation and traffic microsimulation modelling, traffic safety performance indicators for a level crossing can be estimated. From these, relative safety comparisons for the different traffic devices are derived, or even for absolute safety evaluation with proper calibration from field investigations.

  9. Sugary Drink Warnings Hit Home with Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160860.html Sugary Drink Warnings Hit Home With Teens Fewer choose sweetened ... Health warning labels can steer teens away from sugary drinks, a new study suggests. "The average teen in ...

  10. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Storm Wallets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is responsible for typhoon forecasts and warnings for the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. After each storm, the JTWC...

  11. Technology-Based Early Warning Systems for Bipolar Disorder: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depp, Colin; Torous, John; Thompson, Wesley

    2016-09-07

    Recognition and timely action around "warning signs" of illness exacerbation is central to the self-management of bipolar disorder. Due to its heterogeneity and fluctuating course, passive and active mobile technologies have been increasingly evaluated as adjunctive or standalone tools to predict and prevent risk of worsening of course in bipolar disorder. As predictive analytics approaches to big data from mobile health (mHealth) applications and ancillary sensors advance, it is likely that early warning systems will increasingly become available to patients. Such systems could reduce the amount of time spent experiencing symptoms and diminish the immense disability experienced by people with bipolar disorder. However, in addition to the challenges in validating such systems, we argue that early warning systems may not be without harms. Probabilistic warnings may be delivered to individuals who may not be able to interpret the warning, have limited information about what behaviors to change, or are unprepared to or cannot feasibly act due to time or logistic constraints. We propose five essential elements for early warning systems and provide a conceptual framework for designing, incorporating stakeholder input, and validating early warning systems for bipolar disorder with a focus on pragmatic considerations.

  12. Interpretation and misinterpretation of warning signage: perceptions of rockfalls in a naturalistic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucote, Helen M; Miner, Anthony; Dahlhaus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors relating to non-adherence to warning signs about falling rocks from coastal cliff faces. Face-to-face interviews (n = 62) in a naturalistic setting (in the vicinity of a high-risk rockfall area) were conducted to investigate attention to and comprehension of warning signs, as well as beliefs relating to non-adherence of the signage. It was found that, while most participants could correctly identify the danger in the area and had noticed the warning signage, less than half of the participants could correctly interpret the signage. The perception of danger did not differ significantly between the participants who had, or had not, entered the high-risk zone. Differences in knowledge and beliefs between local residents and visitors to the area were identified. It was concluded that the warning signs did not provide enough detail for people to make informed decisions about safe behaviours. Comprehension of the signage may have been hampered by a lack of prior-knowledge of the particular risk, a failure to think carefully about the situation (i.e. low-effort processing), and the pictorial representation on the signs misleading the participants as to the true danger.

  13. Imperfect implementation of an early warning scoring system in a Danish teaching hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niegsch, Mark; Fabritius, Maria Louise; Anhøj, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the initiation of a patient safety campaign led to the introduction of Ward Observational Charts (WOC) and Medical Early Warning Score (MEWS) at Naestved Regional Hospital. This included systematic measuring of vital signs of all patients in order to prevent patient deterioration and ass...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 56.14208 Section 56.14208 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 57.14208 Section 57.14208... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices shall be used when parked mobile equipment creates a hazard to persons in other mobile...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above the surrounding noise level shall be sounded— (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above the surrounding noise level shall be sounded— (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section...

  18. Clarence Cannon Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Clarence Cannon Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a list...

  19. Signed languages and globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2011-01-01

    Deaf people who form part of a Deaf community communicate using a shared sign language. When meeting people from another language community, they can fall back on a flexible and highly context-dependent form of communication called international sign, in which shared elements from their own sign

  20. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  1. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  2. Storm Warnings on Lake Balaton,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-06

    magnitude of this effect. Consequently, the employees of the Storm Warning Service decided in the course of the summer 1962, to set up a cup -type... anemometer on a passenger ship regularly passing between Si6fok and Balatonfired, and to take wind measurements along this route across the Lake in a...along this route. During the measurements, the reading of the anemometer was taken at intervals and noted together with the time of reading. Since the

  3. [Computerizing the radiological sign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaud, V; Belhadj, I; Dameron, O; Garcelon, N; Hendaoui, L; Marin, F; Duvauferrier, R

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to present to the radiologist the different theories of the sign and their consequences for sign representation in computer systems. All the theories of the sign are presented, but the most relevant are highlighted in order to explain the great modeling systems currently in use (such as DICOM-SR or the UMLS). The constructivist approach of the notion of disease, the semiosis process, which starting from signs produces new signs, and the structuralist analysis of sign through language are emphasized. The purpose of this analysis is to end up with a consensual representation of the sign that can be understood by human beings and processed by machines. Such a representation, also known as an ontology, is based on a semantic organization of language, thus allowing medicine to become a truly scientific discipline. It aims at disambiguating the symbols given to machines, which will help us in our reasoning.

  4. Patient with pontine warning syndrome and bilateral posterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capsular warning syndrome was first described in 1993, featured with repetitive episodes of motor and/or sensory dysfunction without cortical signs. Recently, it has been demonstrated that clinically typical capsular warning syndrome can be associated with pontine infarct and the term “pontine warning syndrome� was coined. Case Presentation A 54-year-old woman with a history of hypertension was seen with profound left-sided hemiplegia. She had had 3 episodes of left-sided weakness before complete hemiplegia. Her speech was slurred. Left central facial palsy and hemiglossoplegia were presented. Her left plantar response was extensor and bilateral posterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia was seen on neurologic examination. Biochemical tests revealed hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia on the next day. MRI demonstrated an acute right paramedian pontine infarct. The patient was commenced on oral clopidogrel, atorvastatin and acarbose. After 23 days of hospitalization, she was discharged with severe left hemiplegia. Conclusions 1 Pontine warning syndrome may be underestimated and understudied. 2 Posterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia is a rare clinical sign in cerebrovascular diseases, while it can help to locate a brainstem lesion rather than an internal capsular one. 3 Blood pressure lowing administration may be improper for patients with pontine warning syndrome.

  5. Early warning score predicts acute mortality in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljehult, J; Christensen, T

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate whether the aggregate weighted track and trigger system early warning score (EWS) can be used as a simple observational tool to identify patients at risk and predict mortality in a population of patients with acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted with acute stroke...... at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Nordsjaellands Hospital, Denmark, from May to September 2012 were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study (n = 274). Vital signs were measured immediately after admission and consistently during the hospitalization period. Based on the vital signs, a single composite EWS...... the EWS at admission (AUROC 0.856; 95% CI 0.760-0.951; P-value score is a simple and valid...

  6. The sandwich sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Mahomed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The sandwich sign refers to the sandwiching of mesenteric vessels and fat by enlarged mesenteric nodes on cross-sectional imaging, commonly occurring in lymphoma, but not specific to lymphoma. The sign is radiologically indistinguishable from post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. The radiological significance of the sandwich sign is in suggesting the diagnosis of lymphoma so that appropriate treatment may be initiated early as the tumour has a rapid growth pattern.

  7. Traffic Signs Inventory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ružbarský

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on practical application of Cambridge Correlator. The goal is to propose a traffic signs inventory system by using excellent characteristics of correlator in the rapid optical correlation. The proposal of this inventory system includes obtaining of traffic signs to create the database either collecting the GPS coordinates. It is necessary to know the traffic signs position and also to document the entire surface route for later evaluation in offline mode.

  8. The Forbidden Signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilstrup, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    is an important addition that offers insight into the hardware requirements for bio-semiosis. As any type of semiosis must be dependent upon Semiotic scaffolds, I recently argued that the process of semiosis has to be divided into two separate processes of sign establishment and sign interpretation....... I also show that biological semiosis offers examples of forbidden signs, where the faulty interpretation of signs may lead to decimation of whole evolutionary lines of organisms. A new concept of Evolutionary memory which is applicable to both human and biological semiosis is explained...

  9. Motivation of Crime in The Sign of Four

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Li

    2016-01-01

    Spirit world is more significant with the fast development of material life .The Sign of Four is one of Arthur Conan Doyle’s popular novels. Through studying the motivation cause the four characters to commit the crime of the four characters, the readers are warned by the detrimental result caused by material desire and greedy. To attain the goal of“Less crime, better life”, people contribute to construct a peaceful and harmonious society.

  10. 33 CFR 127.207 - Warning alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.207 Warning alarms. (a) The...

  11. Communicating risk information and warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Major advances have occurred over the last 20 years about how to effectively communicate risk information and warnings to the public. These lessons have been hard won. Knowledge has mounted on the finding from social scientific studies of risk communication failures, successes and those which fell somewhere in between. Moreover, the last 2 decades have borne witness to the brith, cultivation, and blossoming of information sharing between those physical scientists who discover new information about risk and those communcation scientists who trace its diffusion and then measure pbulic reaction. 

  12. Genital Infection as a First Sign of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Oiso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene is a life-threatening disorder caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection. We report a case of genital infection as the initial warning sign of acute myeloid leukemia. We were able to prevent progression to Fournier’s gangrene in our patient by immediate intensive therapy with incision, blood transfusions and intravenous administration of antibiotics. This case suggests that hematologists and dermatologists should keep in mind that genital infection can be a first sign of hematologic malignancy.

  13. British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Jim; Woll, Bencie

    1981-01-01

    The author reports on the use of British Sign Language in the United Kingdom and dispels some myths that surround the language. It is pointed out that there is a low level of interest in deaf people and their method of communication. Research needs in the area of sign language systems are briefly considered. (SB)

  14. Sign Language Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Marilyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes Sign in Education, a pilot program in the United Kingdom that integrated Deaf children and hearing children in a hearing classroom with a culturally Deaf teacher who taught the national curriculum in British Sign Language one afternoon a week. Explores the advantage to the Deaf community, as well as the majority culture of adopting such…

  15. Completely random signed measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmund, Gunnar

    Completely random signed measures are defined, characterized and related to Lévy random measures and Lévy bases.......Completely random signed measures are defined, characterized and related to Lévy random measures and Lévy bases....

  16. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  17. Artefactual stripe sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, J. [St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW, (Australia)

    1997-09-01

    Full text: The stripe sign consist of `the presence on the perfusion image of a VQ lung scan of a stripe of perfused lung tissue between a perfusion defect and the adjacent pleural surface`. In the revised PIOPED criteria, it is predictive of the absence of pulmonary embolism in the area of the sign. This case study involved a 71-year-old woman who presented with left-sided pleuritic chest pain. The perfusion lung scan demonstrated a perfusion defect involving the left posterior and superior basal segments with an associated stripe sign. A repeat LPO view at a more posterior angle and tomography of the lungs failed to demonstrate the stripe. In this case, the stripe sign was an artefact, perhaps `shine through` from the underlying lung. This evidence suggests that before the stripe sign is used to diagnose a patient, it should be apparent on at least two views of differing angles or on tomography.

  18. Nódulo umbilical metastático (nódulo da Irmã Maria José: um sinal de alerta para tumoração maligna intra-abdominal - relato de caso Sister Mary Joseph's nodule: a warning sign for intra-abdominal malignant tumors. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Soares Fogaça

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available O nódulo da "Irmã Maria José" é tumor metastático que acomete a cicatriz umbilical e pode ser a primeira evidência de neoplasia intra-abdominal disseminada. Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente com o nódulo da "Irmã Maria José" no qual o diagnóstico do tumor primário só foi possível por meio dos testes imuno-histoquímicos da lesão biopsiada da pele.The umbilical metastatic tumoral nodule, Sister Mary Joseph's nodule, is a rare clinical sign indicative of disseminated intra-abdominal tumor, and may be the first evidence of malignancy. The authors report a case of a patient with umbilical metastatic nodule in whom the diagnosis of the primary tumor was possible by immunohistochemistry of the lesion biopsy.

  19. 30 CFR 75.208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 75.208 Section 75.208 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.208 Warning devices. Except during...

  20. An Infrastructure for a Traffic Warning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2005-01-01

    The LIWAS Trafc Warning System aims at providingearly warning to vehicles about road conditions, such aswhether the road is slippery. The LIWAS system is currentlybeing developed and consists of two main parts:sensors for determining the state of the road and a communicationinfrastructure support...

  1. Urban Flood Warning Systems using Radar Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N.; Bedient, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    There have been an increasing number of urban areas that rely on weather radars to provide accurate precipitation information for flood warning purposes. As non-structural tools, radar-based flood warning systems can provide accurate and timely warnings to the public and private entities in urban areas that are prone to flash floods. The wider spatial and temporal coverage from radar increases flood warning lead-time when compared to rain and stream gages alone. The Third Generation Rice and Texas Medical Center (TMC) Flood Alert System (FAS3) has been delivering warning information with 2 to 3 hours of lead time and a R2 value of 93% to facility personnel in a readily understood format for more than 50 events in the past 15 years. The current FAS utilizes NEXRAD Level II radar rainfall data coupled with a real-time hydrologic model (RTHEC-1) to deliver warning information. The system has a user-friendly dashboard to provide rainfall maps, Google Maps based inundation maps, hydrologic predictions, and real-time monitoring at the bayou. This paper will evaluate its reliable performance during the recent events occurring in 2012 and 2013 and the development of a similar radar-based flood warning system for the City of Sugar Land, Texas. Having a significant role in the communication of flood information, FAS marks an important step towards the establishment of an operational and reliable flood warning system for flood-prone urban areas.

  2. An Infrastructure for a Traffic Warning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2005-01-01

    The LIWAS Trafc Warning System aims at providingearly warning to vehicles about road conditions, such aswhether the road is slippery. The LIWAS system is currentlybeing developed and consists of two main parts:sensors for determining the state of the road and a communicationinfrastructure support...

  3. Dermatomyositis: Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meet our Partners How to Get Involved Donate Dermatomyositis (DM) Share print email share facebook twitter google ... Signs and Symptoms What happens to someone with dermatomyositis? For many decades, DM was considered “ polymyositis with ...

  4. Signs of Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Text Size Email Print Share Signs of Overload Page Content Article Body Although stress is a ... 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be ...

  5. Pertussis Signs & Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Signs and Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... not for as long as 3 weeks. Early Symptoms In those who have been vaccinated: In most ...

  6. The Babinski sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Jasper M; Reilly, Mary M

    2011-10-01

    Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), a French neurologist of Polish descent, was the first person to describe extension of the big toe following stimulation of the sole of the foot on 22 February 1896 (Babinski, 1896). He referred to the sign as 'phénomène des orteils' (toes phenomenon) but it is now usually referred to eponymously as the 'Babinski sign' or descriptively as the extensor plantar response.

  7. ODD SIGNS FROM ENGLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IN AN OFFICE:Would the person who took the step ladder yesterday please bring it back or further steps will be taken.IN ANOTHER OFFLCE:After the tea break staff should empty the teapot and stand upside down on the draining board.OUTSIDE A SECOND HAND SHOP:We exchange anything—bicycles,washing machines etc.Why not bring yourwife along and get a wonderful bargain.QUICKSAND WARNING:Quicksand.Any person passing this point will be drowned.By order of the District Council.

  8. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.

  9. Refining Prescription Warning Labels Using Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka O Shiyanbola

    Full Text Available The complexity of written medication information hinders patients' understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4% with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3. The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0-6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including 'WARNING' on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability.

  10. Visualizing Patient Journals by Combining Vital Signs Monitoring and Natural Language Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilic, Adnan; Petersen, John Asger; Hoppe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    monitoring vital signs and then combining these into Early Warning Scores (EWS). Hereafter, techniques from Natural Language Processing (NLP) are applied on the existing patient journal to extract all entries. Finally, the two methods are combined into an interactive timeline featuring the ability to see...

  11. Early warning of changing drinking water quality by trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring and control of water treatment plants play an essential role in ensuring high quality drinking water and avoiding health-related problems or economic losses. The most common quality variables, which can be used also for assessing the efficiency of the water treatment process, are turbidity and residual levels of coagulation and disinfection chemicals. In the present study, the trend indices are developed from scaled measurements to detect warning signs of changes in the quality variables of drinking water and some operating condition variables that strongly affect water quality. The scaling is based on monotonically increasing nonlinear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. Deviation indices are used to assess the severity of situations. The study shows the potential of the described trend analysis as a predictive monitoring tool, as it provides an advantage over the traditional manual inspection of variables by detecting changes in water quality and giving early warnings.

  12. Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

    2012-10-01

    Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (≥65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need additional support to learn and recall the signs of stroke.

  13. Angiographic warning of hemorrhagic transformation after stent retriever thrombectomy procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Andrew T; Bruno, Charles A; Dumeer, Shifali; Malone, Hani; Meyers, Philip M

    2014-01-01

    This study reports cerebral angiographic findings observed after stent retriever thrombectomy that is suggestive of a higher risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT). A woman aged 65-75 presented with a right middle cerebral artery syndrome confirmed by non-contrast CT brain scan. Endovascular revascularization using the Solitaire device was placed across the thromboembolic occlusion and thromboembolectomy was performed. Angiography showed complete recanalization of the left internal carotid artery, anterior and middle cerebral artery branches. Twelve hours following the procedure the patient had a hemorrhagic conversion of the ischemic infarct with significant mass effect causing herniation. Despite surgical intervention (hemicraniectomy) the patient died. The angiographic features following revascularization of the vessels distal to the occlusion showed subtle dilations which were visualized at the branch points of the vessels. This may be a warning sign of increased risk of HT.

  14. Computational triadic algebras of signs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadrozny, W. [T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We present a finite model of Peirce`s ten classes of signs. We briefly describe Peirce`s taxonomy of signs; we prove that any finite collection of signs can be extended to a finite algebra of signs in which all interpretants are themselves being interpreted; and we argue that Peirce`s ten classes of signs can be defined using constraints on algebras of signs. The paper opens the possibility of defining multimodal cognitive agents using Peirce`s classes of signs, and is a first step towards building a computational logic of signs based on Peirce`s taxonomies.

  15. Signs In Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamid, Salmiah Binti Abdul; Jensen, Ole B.; Silva, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Travelling in unfamiliar areas is usually very interesting; however, it can also be stressful. People travel or move around in an urban space according to their needs, and the environment can influence the way people move about from one place to another. If a person gets lost, a map or GPS can...... be an effective guidance tool. However, “signs in place” offer alternative or additional guidelines to help people with their journey. This paper, first, seeks to understand road traffic signs in terms of mobility in everyday life. It, then, attempts to distinguish the different perspectives of mobility...... and geosemiotic studies with regards to the road traffic signs used in urban spaces. The paper ends with a discussion on how people choreograph their movement in their everyday life from two different perspectives: above vs. below...

  16. Signs in Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamid, Salmiah Binti Abdul; Jensen, Ole B.; Silva, Victor

    Travelling in unfamiliar areas is usually very interesting, however it can also be stressful. People travel or move around in an urban space according to their needs, and the environment can also influence the way people move about from one place to another. If a person gets lost, a map or GPS can...... be an effective guidance tool. However, “signs in place” offer alternative or additional guidelines to help people with their journey. This paper firstly seeks to understand road traffic signs in terms of mobility in everyday life. It then attempts to distinguish the different perspectives of mobility...... and geosemiotic studies with regards to the road traffic signs used in urban spaces. The paper ends with a discussion on how people choreograph their movement in their everyday life from two different perspectives: above vs. below....

  17. Field observation of advance warning/advisory signage for passive railway crossings with restricted lateral sightline visibility: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N J; Wilde, G J

    1995-04-01

    This study evaluated a newly proposed series of signs intended for passive crossings with restrictions to lateral sightline visibility. These signs provide advance warning of a crossing and the restriction to lateral visibility. In addition, the signs advise motorists to come to a complete stop before crossing. Motorist behaviour was examined before and after installation of these signs at a rural passive crossing. A second site was observed in parallel to control partially for any confounding effects. Results indicated that motorists reduced speed and searched approach quadrants longer at points in the approachway after installation of the signs. However, there was no reliable increase in the number of motorists coming to complete stop, engaging in search behaviours, or classified as safe. The results are discussed in terms of reasons for the lack of compliance with the sign advisory.

  18. Babinski and Babinski sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, C

    1995-12-01

    Babinski's sign probably is the best known neurologic eponym, referring to dorsiflexion of the great toe with or without fanning of the other toes and withdrawal of the leg. This follows plantar stimulation in patients with pyramidal tract dysfunction. Although the plantar reflex already had been described, Babinski--a French neurologist of Polish descent and a pupil of Charcot--was the first to differentiate between a normal and pathologic response of the toes and recognize its clinical implication. Despite the continuing controversy over its pathophysiologic interpretation, the clinical utility of Babinski's sign remains unchanged almost 100 years after its description.

  19. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  20. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  1. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  2. National Weather Service County Warning Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons corresponding to the County Warning Areas (CWAs) of each Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in the National Weather Service (NWS).

  3. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... blood-forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

  4. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  5. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  6. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  7. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  8. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  9. Development of Flood Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy J. Labo,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems (CBEWS is a “people-centered” system and empowers individuals and communities threatened by hazards to act on sufficient time and in an appropriate manner to reduce the possibility of personal injury, loss of life, damage to property, environment and loss of livelihood. These things lead to the development of the device necessary for the protection of the community against flood hazards as it allows people to get prepared with sufficient time. An alarm system was developed to monitor the water level on Salog River that overflows during heavy rains. The water level sensors were submerged in a canal of water to test the functionality of the device before its installation. Computer programs were created to enhance the monitoring of water level: the River Monitor Software and the Water Level Monitor. The LED arrays emit light according to water level; green for low, orange for medium, and red for high. A siren also alarms with different intervals (30 seconds for low, 15 seconds for medium, and a continuous alarm for high. Automatic emergency lighting was integrated in the design and lights up during power outages powered by rechargeable sealed battery that charges when ac power is supplied to the device. Levels were established based on available data; low water level means awareness; medium water level means preparedness and high water level means immediate response is necessary.

  10. The SuperNova Early Warning System

    OpenAIRE

    Scholberg, K.

    2008-01-01

    A core collapse in the Milky Way will produce an enormous burst of neutrinos in detectors world-wide. Such a burst has the potential to provide an early warning of a supernova's appearance. I will describe the nature of the signal, the sensitivity of current detectors, and SNEWS, the SuperNova Early Warning System, a network designed to alert astronomers as soon as possible after the detected neutrino signal.

  11. Internet sex and dating sites need warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Peter L

    2006-01-01

    For this issue's Commentary column, Peter L. Tenore, MD, discusses risk for infection with HIV or acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases associated with the use of the Internet to find sexual partners and presents results of an informal survey to determine whether Internet sites used to find sexual partners provide warnings about sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. He also calls for the operators of such sites to add warnings to their sites.

  12. Toward the Ideal Signing Avatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Adamo-Villani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses ongoing research on the effects of a signing avatar's modeling/rendering features on the perception of sign language animation. It reports a recent study that aimed to determine whether a character's visual style has an effect on how signing animated characters are perceived by viewers. The stimuli of the study were two polygonal characters presenting two different visual styles: stylized and realistic. Each character signed four sentences. Forty-seven participants with experience in American Sign Language (ASL viewed the animated signing clips in random order via web survey. They (1 identified the signed sentences (if recognizable, (2 rated their legibility, and (3 rated the appeal of the signing avatar. Findings show that while character's visual style does not have an effect on subjects' perceived legibility of the signs and sign recognition, it has an effect on subjects' interest in the character. The stylized signing avatar was perceived as more appealing than the realistic one.

  13. The ivy sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Mahomed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ivy sign refers to diffuse bilateral leptomeningeal enhancement on post- contrastT1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and increased signal intensity in bilateralsubarachnoid spaces and perivascular spaces on T2-weighted fluid attenuation inversionrecovery (FLAIR MRI sequences in patients with moyamoya disease.

  14. Flemish Sign Language Standardisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Vermeerbergen, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, the Flemish Deaf community officially rejected standardisation of Flemish Sign Language. It was a bold choice, which at the time was not in line with some of the decisions taken in the neighbouring countries. In this article, we shall discuss the choices the Flemish Deaf community has made in this respect and explore why the Flemish Deaf…

  15. Signing in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

  16. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  17. Derivative Sign Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

  18. Derivative Sign Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

  19. Sign Language Web Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

  20. The Sign of Love

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司亮

    2009-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 Mr Rabbit and Mr Wolf are neighbors.Mr Rabbit has many friends,but Mr Wolf has none.One day Mr Wolf wants to know the truth.He asks a lot of anitmals and finds the secret:it is a red paper heart.They all call it"the sign of love".

  1. These signs here now

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    1995-01-01

    Hallidays (1984) formulations of systemic-functional linguistics together with Hodge and Kress' (1988) social semiotics share the assumption that signs are not arbitrary: People make choices out of a web of possible constructions or expressions, and those choices can be shown to be motivated...

  2. Ratings checklist for warnings: a prototype tool to aid experts in the adequacy evaluation of proposed or existing warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenorovitz, David R; Leonard, S David; Karnes, Edward W

    2012-01-01

    In the field of forensic human factors, experts are often called upon to assess and evaluate the adequacy of new or existing products' warnings or warnings systems. The usual goal of this evaluation is to arrive at a simple binary decision regarding the warning in question (i.e., does it "pass/fail", or is it "adequate/inadequate"). However, such a warning assessment process may in fact be quite complex and multidimensional in its execution. The existing warnings research literature has identified a fairly large number of warnings features or factors likely to have an impact on a given warning's effectiveness or adequacy. The tool addressed in this article is intended for use by a warnings expert (as opposed to one less knowledgeable and informed about complex warnings issues), and can serve as a reminder checklist to help ensure that the expert has taken into consideration the most relevant features or factors during such a warnings adequacy assessment.

  3. The Early Warning System and the EU’s subsidiarity principle: the Basque Parliament’s application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis de Castro Ruano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses and evaluates the Basque Parliament’s participation in the EU’s Early Warning System (EWS for checking the application of the subsidiarity principle in the EU’s legislative process. The Early Warning System is an instrument created by the Lisbon Treaty (signed in 2007 and in force since 2009 to safeguard the subsidiarity principle. One of its most interesting innovations is that it facilitates the participation of regional parliaments in the control of the subsidiarity principle. Two years after its introduction, the Basque Parliament is one of the most active regional actors in this regard.

  4. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  5. Instructors' Use of Trigger Warnings and Behavior Warnings in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A.; Wells, Anna Mae; Dawson, Kaylee J.

    2016-01-01

    College students have been increasingly demanding warnings and accommodations in relation to course topics they believe will elicit strong, negative emotions. These "trigger warnings" are highly relevant to Abnormal Psychology because of the sensitive topics covered in the course (e.g., suicide, trauma, sex). A survey of Abnormal…

  6. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  7. Visual Signs of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Rexbye

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer culture has placed the ageing body in a dilemma of representation. Physical appearance has become increasingly important as a symbol of identity, and at the same time society idealizes youth. This study explores visual ageing empirically. By using photographs of older persons (70+ as starting point, it is explored how visual age is assessed and interpreted. It is shown that informants read age in a spread of stages and categories. Main age indicators are biological markers: skin, eyes, and hair colour, but supplemented by vigour, style, and grooming. Furthermore, in-depth interviews indicate that visual age is mainly interpreted into categories and moral regulations rooted in early modernity. Subsequently the question of a postmodern perspective of visual ageing is discussed in this article. The empirical findings in the study question a postmodern fluidity of visual signs – at least when the concern is signs of ageing.

  8. The Integral Sign Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Keith

    2007-07-01

    We will observe the unusual warped disk galaxy known as the Integral Sign Galaxy, UGC 3697, with a small two-position WFPC2 mosaic. Observations will be obtained in three broad band filters and the resulting image will be released on the 19th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope on ~April 24, 2009. Multidrizzled mosaics will be made available through the archive.

  9. Planetary Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David

    2016-07-01

    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  10. Environment Agency England flood warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Chris; Walters, Mark; Haynes, Elizabeth; Dobson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Context In England around 5 million homes are at risk of flooding. We invest significantly in flood prevention and management schemes but we can never prevent all flooding. Early alerting systems are fundamental to helping us reduce the impacts of flooding. The Environment Agency has had the responsibility for flood warning since 1996. In 2006 we invested in a new dissemination system that would send direct messages to pre-identified recipients via a range of channels. Since then we have continuously improved the system and service we offer. In 2010 we introduced an 'opt-out' service where we pre-registered landline numbers in flood risk areas, significantly increasing the customer base. The service has performed exceptionally well under intense flood conditions. Over a period of 3 days in December 2013, when England was experiencing an east coast storm surge, the system sent nearly 350,000 telephone messages, 85,000 emails and 70,000 text messages, with a peak call rate of around 37,000 per hour and 100% availability. The Floodline Warnings Direct (FWD) System FWD provides warnings in advance of flooding so that people at risk and responders can take action to minimise the impact of the flood. Warnings are sent via telephone, fax, text message, pager or e-mail to over 1.1 million properties located within flood risk areas in England. Triggers for issuing alerts and warnings include attained and forecast river levels and rainfall in some rapidly responding locations. There are three levels of warning: Flood Alert, Flood Warning and Severe Flood Warning, and a stand down message. The warnings can be updated to include relevant information to help inform those at risk. Working with our current provider Fujitsu, the system is under a programme of continuous improvement including expanding the 'opt-out' service to mobile phone numbers registered to at risk addresses, allowing mobile registration to the system for people 'on the move' and providing access to

  11. Tsunami early warning and decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Steinmetz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS. The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind – it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010. While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG – the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia – which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen

  12. Modelling driver behaviour towards innovative warning devices at railway level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Li-Sian; Wallis, Guy; Cloete, Steven; Ferreira, Luis

    2013-03-01

    Improving safety at railway level crossings is costly and as funds are often limited, it is important to search for cost-effective, evidence-based solutions. The effect that the many existing alternative systems have on driver behaviour is not always known. This paper compares driver behaviour towards two novel warning devices (rumble strips and in-vehicle audio warning) at railway level crossings with two conventional warning devices (flashing light and stop sign). Regression models were developed to reflect driver's responses towards the four different types of devices based on data collected from a driving simulation experiment. The regression models include a binary choice model for predicting the probability of a driver stopping or driving through a railway crossing, as well as mixed regression models for predicting the moment at which a driver will produce specific behavioural responses before stopping at a crossing (e.g. initiation of accelerator release and application of foot-pedal brake). Violation results indicated the active systems produced much higher levels of driver compliance than passive devices. Contributing factors, such as age, gender, speed and types of warning devices were found significant at different approach stages to the level crossings. With the application of such behavioural models and traffic conflict techniques in microscopic simulation tools, traffic safety indicators, such as collision likelihood and time-to-collision can be estimated. From these, relative safety comparisons for the different traffic devices are derived. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Danish Sign Language Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The entries of the The Danish Sign Language Dictionary have four sections:  Entry header: In this section the sign headword is shown as a photo and a gloss. The first occurring location and handshape of the sign are shown as icons.  Video window: By default the base form of the sign headword...... forms of the sign (only for classifier entries). In addition to this, frequent co-occurrences with the sign are shown in this section. The signs in the The Danish Sign Language Dictionary can be looked up through:  Handshape: Particular handshapes for the active and the passive hand can be specified...... to find signs that are not themselves lemmas in the dictionary, but appear in example sentences.  Topic: Topics can be chosen as search criteria from a list of 70 topics....

  14. Green's Theorem for Sign Data

    OpenAIRE

    Louis M. Houston

    2012-01-01

    Sign data are the signs of signal added to noise. It is well known that a constant signal can be recovered from sign data. In this paper, we show that an integral over variant signal can be recovered from an integral over sign data based on the variant signal. We refer to this as a generalized sign data average. We use this result to derive a Green's theorem for sign data. Green's theorem is important to various seismic processing methods, including seismic migration. Results in this paper ge...

  15. Sign language perception research for improving automatic sign language recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Holt, Gineke A.; Arendsen, Jeroen; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink-van Doorn, Andrea J.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Hendriks, Emile A.

    2009-02-01

    Current automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) seldom uses perceptual knowledge about the recognition of sign language. Using such knowledge can improve ASLR because it can give an indication which elements or phases of a sign are important for its meaning. Also, the current generation of data-driven ASLR methods has shortcomings which may not be solvable without the use of knowledge on human sign language processing. Handling variation in the precise execution of signs is an example of such shortcomings: data-driven methods (which include almost all current methods) have difficulty recognizing signs that deviate too much from the examples that were used to train the method. Insight into human sign processing is needed to solve these problems. Perceptual research on sign language can provide such insights. This paper discusses knowledge derived from a set of sign perception experiments, and the application of such knowledge in ASLR. Among the findings are the facts that not all phases and elements of a sign are equally informative, that defining the 'correct' form for a sign is not trivial, and that statistical ASLR methods do not necessarily arrive at sign representations that resemble those of human beings. Apparently, current ASLR methods are quite different from human observers: their method of learning gives them different sign definitions, they regard each moment and element of a sign as equally important and they employ a single definition of 'correct' for all circumstances. If the object is for an ASLR method to handle natural sign language, then the insights from sign perception research must be integrated into ASLR.

  16. A survey of early warning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.D.; Arlowe, H.D.; Williams, J.D.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a survey of technologies useful in providing early warning in physical security systems. Early warning is important in virtually all types of security systems whether they are used for temporary (tactical, portable, or semi-permanent) applications, border warning, fixed-site detection, or standoff surveillance detection. With the exception of the standoff surveillance detection systems, all systems discussed in this paper usually involve a moving target. The fact that a person(s) to be detected in a standoff surveillance scenario is not moving presents challenging problems and requires different applications of technology. The technologies commonly used to detect moving targets and some suggestions for detection of stationary targets are addressed in this paper.

  17. Automatic earthquake confirmation for early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyuk, H. S.; Colombelli, S.; Zollo, A.; Allen, R. M.; Erdik, M. O.

    2015-07-01

    Earthquake early warning studies are shifting real-time seismology in earthquake science. They provide methods to rapidly assess earthquakes to predict damaging ground shaking. Preventing false alarms from these systems is key. Here we developed a simple, robust algorithm, Authorizing GRound shaking for Earthquake Early warning Systems (AGREEs), to reduce falsely issued alarms. This is a network threshold-based algorithm, which differs from existing approaches based on apparent velocity of P and S waves. AGREEs is designed to function as an external module to support existing earthquake early warning systems (EEWSs) and filters out the false events, by evaluating actual shaking near the epicenter. Our retrospective analyses of the 2009 L'Aquila and 2012 Emilia earthquakes show that AGREEs could help an EEWS by confirming the epicentral intensity. Furthermore, AGREEs is able to effectively identify three false events due to a storm, a teleseismic earthquake, and broken sensors in Irpinia Seismic Network, Italy.

  18. Natural risk warning: comparison of two methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cavallo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Italian network of "Centri Funzionali" is now reaching operational status both in hydro-meteorological risk forecasting and support to the decision making of administrations that issue natural risk warning. Each centre operates for its district of influence. In order to have a nationwide common standard the National Civil Protection Department proposed a quantitative warning methodology based on the definition of rainfall thresholds correlated to historical damages. In the first phase the thresholds have been defined using two studies that cover all Italy: the VAPI (statistics of extreme rainfall and discharges, see reference and the AVI (database of historical flood and landslide events and reported damages, see reference. This work presents one year back analysis that compares the new methodology and the one that has been usied since 2000 by the Liguria Region Meteorological Centre with regard to flood warning, pinpointing the performance differences in terms of false and missed alerts.

  19. Interactive early warning technique based on SVDD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    After reviewing current researches on early warning,it is found that"bad" data of some systems is not easy to obtain,which makes methods proposed by these researches unsuitable for monitored systems.An interactive early warning technique based on SVDD(support vector data description)is proposed to adopt"good" data as samples to overcome the difficulty in obtaining the"bad"data.The process consists of two parts:(1)A hypersphere is fitted on"good"data using SVDD.If the data object are outside the hypersphere,it would be taken as"suspicious";(2)A group of experts would decide whether the suspicious data is"bad"or"good",early warning messages would be issued according to the decisions.And the detailed process of implementation is proposed.At last,an experiment based on data of a macroeconomic system is conducted to verify the proposed technique.

  20. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  1. Sign language typology: The contribution of rural sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Vos; R. Pfau

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the field of sign language typology has shown that sign languages exhibit typological variation at all relevant levels of linguistic description. These initial typological comparisons were heavily skewed toward the urban sign languages of developed countries, mostly in the Western w

  2. American Sign Language and Pidgin Sign English: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Judy; McIntire, Marina L.

    1980-01-01

    The differences between Pidgin Sign English and American Sign Language in simultaneity, or the visible presence of two or more linguistic units (manual or nonmanual) co-occurring, are demonstrated. Differences are exemplified in handshape-classifier pronouns, directional verbs, co-occurring manual signs, and nonmanual behavior. (PMJ)

  3. A new French flash flood warning service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Saint-Aubin Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The French State services in charge of flood forecasting supervise about 22,000 km among the 120,000 km of the French rivers within a warning procedure called Vigilance Crues (http://www.vigicrues.gouv.fr. Some recent dramatic flood events on small watershed not covered by Vigilance Crues highlight the need for a new warning procedure to anticipate violent flash floods that regularly affect rapid river-basins. Thus the concept emerged of an automatic warning service specifically dedicated to local crisis managers. This service will be less elaborated than Vigilance Crues, probably with false alarms and missed events sometimes, but it will deliver a first information. The generation of the warning is based on a simple rainfall-runoff hydrological model developed by Irstea on all French rivers, fed with radar-gauge rainfall grids provided by Meteo-France. Every fifteen minutes, the hydrological model estimates the discharges on the rivers eligible to the service and determine if certain thresholds corresponding to a high or very high flood are likely to be exceeded. The last step of the real-time system is to determine which municipalities are concerned with flood risk and send them an automatic warning by voice call, optionally by sms or email. A specific web interface is available for users to monitor the evolution of the flood risk on maps that are updated every 15 minutes. This new flash flood warning service will be operational early 2017 as a free service for about 8,000 French municipalities.

  4. Refuting the lipstick sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassbaugh, Jason A; Bean, Betsey R; Greenhouse, Alyssa R; Yu, Henry H; Arrington, Edward D; Friedman, Richard J; Eichinger, Josef K

    2017-08-01

    Arthroscopic examination of the tendon has been described as the "gold standard" for diagnosis of tendinitis of the long head of the biceps (LHB). An arthroscopic finding of an inflamed and hyperemic LHB within the bicipital groove has been described as the "lipstick sign." Studies evaluating direct visualization in diagnosis of LHB tendinitis are lacking. During a 1-year period, 363 arthroscopic shoulder procedures were performed, with 16 and 39 patients prospectively selected as positive cases and negative controls, respectively. All positive controls had groove tenderness, positive Speed maneuver, and diagnostic ultrasound-guided bicipital injection. Negative controls had none of these findings. Six surgeons reviewed randomized deidentified arthroscopic pictures of enrolled patients The surgeons were asked whether the images demonstrated LHB tendinitis and if the lipstick sign was present. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 49% and 66%, respectively, for detecting LHB tendinitis and 64% and 31%, respectively, for erythema. The nonweighted κ score for interobserver reliability ranged from 0.042 to 0.419 (mean, 0.215 ± 0.116) for tendinitis and from 0.486 to 0.835 (mean, 0.680 ± 0.102) for erythema. The nonweighted κ score for intraobserver reliability ranged from 0.264 to 0.854 (mean, 0.615) for tendinitis and from 0.641 to 0.951 (mean, 0.783) for erythema. The presence of the lipstick sign performed only moderately well in a rigorously designed level III study to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. There is only fair agreement among participating surgeons in diagnosing LHB tendinitis arthroscopically. Consequently, LHB tendinitis requiring tenodesis remains a clinical diagnosis that should be made before arthroscopic examination. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The impact and acceptability of Canadian-style cigarette warning labels among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Romer, Daniel; Slovic, Paul; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Wharfield, Leisha; Mertz, C K; Carpenter, Stephanie M

    2007-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major source of mortality and medical costs in the United States. More graphic and salient warning labels on cigarette packs as used in Canada may help to reduce smoking initiation and increase quit attempts. However, the labels also may lead to defensive reactions among smokers. In an experimental setting, smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to Canadian or U.S. warning labels. Compared with current U.S. labels, Canadian labels produced more negative affective reactions to smoking cues and to the smoker image among both smokers and nonsmokers without signs of defensive reactions from smokers. A majority of both smokers and nonsmokers endorsed the use of Canadian labels in the United States. Canadian-style warnings should be adopted in the United States as part of the country's overall tobacco control strategy.

  6. Recasting the warning-response problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C.O.; Otto, F.; Brante, J.;

    2010-01-01

    , accepted, prioritized and responded to by policy-makers. This has led to a simplistic understanding of how communicative, cognitive and political processes involving a range of actors can influence both the perception as well as the response to warnings. The paper also criticizes that many normative...... judgments about the desirability of preventive action are suffering from hindsight bias and insufficient attention to balancing problems related to risk substitution, opportunity costs and moral hazard. In response to these deficits, the paper puts forward a modified model of warning as a persuasive process...

  7. Signs In Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamid, Salmiah Binti Abdul; Jensen, Ole B.; Silva, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Travelling in unfamiliar areas is usually very interesting; however, it can also be stressful. People travel or move around in an urban space according to their needs, and the environment can influence the way people move about from one place to another. If a person gets lost, a map or GPS can...... and geosemiotic studies with regards to the road traffic signs used in urban spaces. The paper ends with a discussion on how people choreograph their movement in their everyday life from two different perspectives: above vs. below...

  8. Puusepp's sign--clinical significance of a forgotten pyramidal sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacik, Pawel; Krasnianski, M; Zierz, S

    2009-12-01

    The pyramidal signs in the lower extremity can be divided into three groups: (1) Babinski's group characterised by dorsoflexion of the great toe, (2) pyramidal signs marked by plantar flexion of the toes (e.g. Rossolimo's sign), and (3) synkinetic movements such as Strümpell's phenomenon. Puusepp's sign described by the Estonian neurologist and neurosurgeon Ludvig Puusepp belongs to none of these three groups. Its eliciting does not differ from that of Babinski's sign. The response, however, is different and consists of a tonic slow abduction of the little toe. We showed its relevance on the basis of clinical examination of six patients: four females aged 29, 50, 43 and 57 years and two males aged 42 and 49 years. The diagnoses were as follows: a new relapse of multiple sclerosis, a secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, a left middle cerebral artery stroke, a lumbago resulting in L3-L4 fusion surgery, an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a left intracerebral haemorrhage respectively. Puusepp's sign was the only elicitable pyramidal sign in all the patients but two. The 50-year-old female patient revealed on neurological examination Babinski's sign on the left side and Puusepp's sign on the right side. The testing of pyramidal signs in the 57-year-old woman displayed a bilateral Strümpell's sign and a left Puusepp's sign. These six cases showed that although rarely recognized in the clinical practice Puusepp's sign contributed to establishing the diagnosis of a central motor neuron involvement in the case of an absent Babinski's sign. Thus, its testing does not differ from that of Babinski's sign which requires only a little attention from the examiner, but provides an important piece of clinical information.

  9. Brief communication: Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction - success or warning sign for Paris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, Jaroslav; Surminski, Swenja; Thieken, Annegret; Mechler, Reinhard; Aerts, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    In March 2015, a new international blueprint for disaster risk reduction (DRR) was adopted in Sendai, Japan, at the end of the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR, 14-18 March 2015). We review and discuss the agreed commitments and targets, as well as the negotiation leading the Sendai Framework for DRR (SFDRR) and discuss briefly its implication for the later UN-led negotiations on sustainable development goals and climate change.

  10. [Transient cerebral ischemia--precursors of stroke. Can warning signs be recognized?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, R L

    2003-02-13

    Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) are neurological deficits of sudden onset and equally sudden reversal. They are considered to be precursors of stroke that (still) have a good prognosis. Since the symptoms have usually disappeared by the time of the first examination the physician must rely on the information provided by the patient or relatives for the medical history. Symptoms to look for include disordered speech, aphasia, vertigo, unilateral arm paralysis, crooked mouth. When a TIA is suspected, the following examinations are mandatory: neurological ultrasound, blood pressure, ECG, laboratory examinations (blood sugar, blood count, hematocrit), CT or MRI, Doppler-ultrasonography of the carotids and, where indicated, transcranial Doppler. Long-term prophylaxis with platelet antiaggregation agents or Marcumar (phenprocoumon) and appropriate changes in lifestyle are indicated for all TIA patients. When the indication is established, thrombarterectomy must be carried out within six months after the event.

  11. Mental Illness and the Family: Recognizing the Warning Signs & How to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recovery & Support Treatment Education Housing Managing Your Money Parenting Paying for Care Meaningful Work and Recovery Taking ... A Secondary Footer Menu Home Contact Us Store Career Center Site Policies Site Map Donate Affiliate Login ...

  12. Wind Turbine Infra and Low-Frequency Sound: Warning Signs that Were Not Heard

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines are frequently thought of as benign. However, the literature is reporting adverse health effects associated with the implementation of industrial-scale wind developments. This article explores the historical evidence about what was known regarding infra and low-frequency sound from wind turbines and other noise sources…

  13. Early warning signs of functional illiteracy: predictors in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, N; Brooks-Gunn, J; Furstenberg, F F

    1993-06-01

    Early childhood, middle childhood, and early adolescence determinants of functional literacy in adulthood are investigated, using 20-year longitudinal data from a sample of black children of teenaged mothers from the Baltimore metropolitan area. Document literacy was assessed by a test that consisted of a subset of items of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) adult literacy test. The Baltimore sample is compared to the NAEP sample. Family environmental factors, early childhood developmental level, and educational career factors were considered as predictors of young adulthood literacy. Preschool cognitive and behavioral functioning is highly predictive of literacy in young adulthood, even when the effects of family environmental characteristics, including living arrangements, the quality of the home environment, maternal education, and income, are controlled. Grade failure in elementary school is also associated with literacy, but this effect disappears when the measure of preschool abilities is controlled. Family environmental factors that are predictive of literacy include maternal education, family size in early childhood, maternal marital status, and income in middle childhood and early adolescence. Policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Exercise-Associated Amenorrhea: Are Altered Leptin Levels an Early Warning Sign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Michelle P.; Ramos, Russalind H.; Bronson, Emily M.

    2002-01-01

    Although the exact cause of the female athlete triad (amenorrhea, disordered eating, and osteoporosis) is unknown, recent research implicates leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes. Leptin may be an important indicator of nutritional status and may play a role in reproductive function. Physicians who develop a plan for early recognition and…

  15. Early Warning Signs of Suicide in Service Members Who Engage in Unauthorized Acts of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    sexual assault in male veterans. Psychological Services, 12(4), 384-393. Shneidman, E. S. (1996). The Suicidal Mind. New York, NY: Oxford University...1) psychological issues of depression, anxiety, hopelessness, a mental health diagnosis, and participation in treatment, (2) physical changes and...behavior such as assaults, death, stalking, domestic violence, kidnapping, workplace violence/threats, and sexual assault, and (3) Both suicidal and

  16. Syphilis in Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Warning Sign for HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gállego-Lezáun, C; Arrizabalaga Asenjo, M; González-Moreno, J; Ferullo, I; Teslev, A; Fernández-Vaca, V; Payeras Cifre, A

    2015-11-01

    To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of syphilis in men who have sex with men (MSM) in an area of Mallorca, Spain. We performed a retrospective analysis of syphilis cases in MSM seen at a hospital in Mallorca between January 2005 and June 2013. Fifty-five cases of syphilis were recorded in MSM during the study period (34.3% of all cases diagnosed), and 74.5% of these patients had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The two diseases had been diagnosed simultaneously in 70.7% of this population. Patients with HIV coinfection had a median CD4 count of 456cells/μL (range, 29-979 cells/μL). Syphilis was diagnosed clinically in 49.1% of cases and by screening in the remaining 50.9%. The most common form of syphilis was late latent or indeterminate syphilis (41.9% of cases). In the group of men with syphilis, MSM had a higher risk of HIV infection. A majority of MSM with syphilis had HIV coinfection. HIV screening is therefore essential in this population and could even result in early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  17. Wind Turbine Infra and Low-Frequency Sound: Warning Signs that Were Not Heard

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines are frequently thought of as benign. However, the literature is reporting adverse health effects associated with the implementation of industrial-scale wind developments. This article explores the historical evidence about what was known regarding infra and low-frequency sound from wind turbines and other noise sources…

  18. System-Wide Early Warning Signs of Instability in Stochastically Forced Power Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has shown that spectral decomposition of the reduced power flow Jacobian can yield participation factors that describe the extent to which particular buses contribute to particular mode shapes in a power system. Research has also shown that both variance and autocorrelation of time series voltage data tend to increase as a power system approaches a critical transition. This paper presents evidence suggesting that a system's participation factors predict the relative bus voltage variance values for all nodes in a system. As a result, these participation factors can be used to combine PMU data from various locations dispersed throughout a power network into a single, coherent measure of global stability. This paper first describes the method of computing the participation factors. Next, two methods for using these factors in conjunction with dynamic time series data are presented. The method is tested using a dynamic model of a 2383-bus test case. Results from these tests indicate that system wid...

  19. Streamlining Tsunami Messages (e.g., Warnings) of the US National Tsunami Warning Center, Palmer, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.; Johnston, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Spurred in part by world-wide interest in improving warning messaging for and response to tsunamis in the wake of several catastrophic tsunamis since 2004 and growing interest at the US National Weather Service (NWS) to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program, the NWS Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii have made great progress toward enhancing tsunami messages. These include numerous products, among them being Tsunami Warnings, Tsunami Advisories and Tsunami Watches. Beginning in 2010 we have worked with US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Warning Coordination and Mitigation and Education Subcommittee members; Tsunami Program administrators; and NWS Weather Forecast Officers to conduct a series of focus group meetings with stakeholders in coastal areas of Alaska, American Samoa, California, Hawaii, North Carolina, Oregon, US Virgin Islands and Washington to understand end-user perceptions of existing messages and their existing needs in message products. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a Tsunami Warning Message Metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order, Formatting, and Receiver Characteristics. A sample message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met, whether the message is a full length or short message. Incrementally, this work contributed to revisions in the format, content and style of message products issued by the National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC). Since that time, interest in short warning messages has continued to increase and in May 2016 the NTWC began efforts to revise message products to take advantage of recent NWS policy changes allowing use of mixed-case text

  20. INFINITY construction contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  1. Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey : Status Update 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral Ozel, N.; Necmioglu, O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Kalafat, D.; Yilmazer, M.; Comoglu, M.; Sanli, U.; Gurbuz, C.; Erdik, M.

    2012-04-01

    This is an update to EGU2011-3094 informing on the progress of the establishment of a National Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey (NTWC-TR) under the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission - Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (IOC-ICG/NEAMTWS) initiative. NTWC-TR is integrated into the 24/7 operational National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) of KOERI comprising 129 BB and 61 strong motion sensors. Based on an agreement with the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (DEMP), data from 10 BB stations located in the Aegean and Mediterranean Coast is now transmitted in real time to KOERI. Real-time data transmission from 6 primary and 10 auxiliary stations from the International Monitoring System will be in place in the very near future based on an agreement concluded with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2011. In an agreement with a major Turkish GSM company, KOERI is enlarging its strong-motion network to promote real-time seismology and to extend Earthquake Early Warning system countrywide. 25 accelerometers (included in the number given above) have been purchased and installed at Base Transceiver Station Sites in coastal regions within the scope of this initiative. Data from 3 tide gauge stations operated by General Command of Mapping (GCM) is being transmitted to KOERI via satellite connection and the aim is to integrate all tide-gauge stations operated by GCM into NTWC-TR. A collaborative agreement has been signed with the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) and MOD1 Tsunami Scenario Database and TAT (Tsunami Analysis Tool) are received by KOERI and user training was provided. The database and the tool are linked to SeisComp3 and currently operational. In addition KOERI is continuing the work towards providing contributions to JRC in order to develop an improved database

  2. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  3. Issues in Sign Language Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwitserlood, Inge; Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    ge lexicography has thus far been a relatively obscure area in the world of lexicography. Therefore, this article will contain background information on signed languages and the communities in which they are used, on the lexicography of sign languages, the situation in the Netherlands as well...... as a review of a sign language dictionary that has recently been published in the Netherlands...

  4. 3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... issued statements addressing constitutional or other legal questions upon signing bills into law (signing... of the use of signing statements to raise constitutional objections to statutory provisions. There is no doubt that the practice of issuing such statements can be abused. Constitutional...

  5. Early warning signals of desertification transitions in semiarid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Raffaele; Cherubini, Anna Maria; Pennetta, Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    The identification of early warning signals for regime shifts in ecosystems is of crucial importance given their impact in terms of economic and social effects. We present here the results of a theoretical study on the desertification transition in semiarid ecosystems under external stress. We performed numerical simulations based on a stochastic cellular automaton model, and we studied the dynamics of the vegetation clusters in terms of percolation theory, assumed as an effective tool for analyzing the geometrical properties of the clusters. Focusing on the role played by the strength of external stresses, measured by the mortality rate m , we followed the progressive degradation of the ecosystem for increasing m , identifying different stages: first, the fragmentation transition occurring at relatively low values of m , then the desertification transition at higher mortality rates, and finally the full desertification transition corresponding to the extinction of the vegetation and the almost complete degradation of the soil, attained at the maximum value of m . For each transition we calculated the spanning probabilities as functions of m and the percolation thresholds according to different spanning criteria. The identification of the different thresholds is proposed as an useful tool for monitoring the increasing degradation of real-world finite-size systems. Moreover, we studied the time fluctuations of the sizes of the biggest clusters of vegetated and nonvegetated cells over the entire range of mortality values. The change of sign in the skewness of the size distributions, occurring at the fragmentation threshold for the biggest vegetation cluster and at the desertification threshold for the nonvegetated cluster, offers new early warning signals for desertification. Other new and robust indicators are given by the maxima of the root-mean-square deviation of the distributions, which are attained respectively inside the fragmentation interval, for the

  6. How do signs organize in directed signed social networks?

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Long

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a reshuffled approach to empirical analyze signs' organization in real directed signed social networks of Epinions and Slashdots from the global viewpoint. In the reshuffled approach, each negative link has probability $p_{rs}$ to exchange its sign with another positive link chosen randomly. Through calculating the entropies of social status ($S_{in}$ and $S_{out}$) of and mimicking opinion formation of the majority-rule model on each reshuffled signed network, we find that $S_{in}$ and $S_{out}$ reach their own minimum values as well as the magnetization $|m^{*}|$ reaches its maximum value at $p_{rs}=0$. Namely, individuals share the homogeneous properties of social status and dynamic status in real directed signed social networks. Our present work provides some interesting tools and perspective to understand the signs' organization in signed social networks.

  7. Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163468.html Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn With February designated National Heart Month, ... physicians warns that too many Americans struggle with high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor ...

  8. Digital Tracking of Cognitive Decline: Researchers Are Co-opting Computers in their Efforts to Detect Early Signs of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Pinpointing where healthy brain aging leaves off and dementia begins is difficult. Is a slip in memory an expected outcome for a too-busy person or a warning of something else? If an empty-nester loses the motivation to cook, is it a sign that the person is enjoying retirement after a lifetime spent cooking or an early sign of a cognitive decline?

  9. Early warning of geohazards using space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronin, A.

    The societal impact of geological hazards is enormous. Every year volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence claim thousands of lives, injure many thousands more, devastate peoples' homes and destroy their livelihoods. The costs of damaged infrastructure are taken higher still by insurance premiums and run into the billions in any currency. This affects rich and poor alike, but with a disproportionate impact on the developing world. As the human population increases and more people live in hazardous areas, this impact grows unsustainably. It must be reduced and that requires increased understanding of the geohazards, improved preparedness for disasters and better ways to manage them when they occur. The inter-related disasters that comprise geohazards are all driven directly by geological processes and share ground deformation as a common thread. This means that they can be addressed using similar technology and understood using related scientific modelling processes. Geohazards are a complex phenomenon and no one method can provide all the necessary information and understanding. It is essential that Earth Observation data are integrated with airborne data, in-situ observations and associated historical data archives, and then analysed using GIS and other modelling tools if these hazards are to be understood and managed. Geohazards occur in one form or another in every country. They do not respect national boundaries and have the potential to cause changes in the atmosphere that will be truly global in effect, requiring a global observing infrastructure to monitor them. The current situation in space research of early warning of geohazards indicates a few phenomena, related with geohazard processes: Earth's deformation, surface temperature, gas and aerosol emission, electromagnetic disturbances in ionosphere. Both horizontal and vertical deformations scaled about tens centimetres and meters measured after the shock. Such deformations are recorded by In

  10. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the probabi

  11. Forecasting, Warning and Responding to Transnational Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas to conceptualise and empirically study the interlinked problems of forecasting, warning and mobilising preventive action. Contributors comment on key problems such as uncertainty, silo-mentality, spotting weak-signals, cultures of blame, conflicts of interest and divergent risk perceptions...

  12. Public responses to flood warning messages: the Floodline service in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Michael; Geddes, Alistair; Black, Andrew; Ambler, Alice; Menmuir, Cordelia

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade, efforts have been made to improve the national flood warning system in Scotland, with new capabilities in the underlying flood forecasting tools, as well as development of an active flood warning dissemination service. This paper focusses on the latter service, for which there are around 26,000 customers registered at present, and which saw over 300,000 individual messages being issued during recent floods in winter 2015/16. However, notwithstanding such promising signs of change, evidence of how (if at all) the flood warning messages disseminated by the service actually impacts on recipient behaviour remains more limited. For example, this includes knowledge of the extent to which the messages influence actions on flood preparedness and mitigation. In consequence, there are also ongoing questions over the cost-effectiveness of the service in its current format, and of its scalability to even larger numbers of recipients. This paper will present initial findings from the first detailed study of customer perceptions of the messages distributed via the Scottish flood warning system, officially known as Floodline. In particular, the primary focus will be on results generated from a web-based questionnaire survey of registered Floodline customers. The survey was designed to assess associations between multiple customer characteristics, including location and risk level, type of warning message received, prior experience of flooding, risk awareness, and demographics. The study was conducted for the Scottish Environment Protection Agency, which is responsible for running the Floodline service. More broadly it resonates with current emphases on exploring effective means of hazard communication and encouraging public engagement in flood risk management.

  13. [Reverse Chaddock sign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Kunio

    2011-08-01

    It is widely accepted that the Babinski reflex is the most well-known and important pathological reflex in clinical neurology. Among many other pathological reflexes that elicit an upgoing great toe, such as Chaddock, Oppenheim, Gordon, Schaefer, and Stransky, only the Chaddock reflex is said to be as sensitive as the Babinski reflex. The optimal receptive fields of the Babinski and Chaddock reflexes are the lateral plantar surface and the external inframalleolar area of the dorsum, respectively. It has been said that the Babinski reflex, obtained by stroking the sole, is by far the best and most reliable method of eliciting an upgoing great toe. However, the Chaddock reflex, the external malleolar sign, is also considered sensitive and reliable according to the literature and everyday neurological practice. The major problems in eliciting the Babinski reflex by stroking the lateral part of the sole are false positive or negative responses due to foot withdrawal, tonic foot response, or some equivocal movements. On the other hand, according to my clinical experience, the external inframalleolar area, which is the receptive field of the Chaddock reflex, is definitely suitable for eliciting the upgoing great toe. In fact, the newly proposed method to stimulate the dorsum of the foot from the medial to the lateral side, which I term the "reversed Chaddock method," is equally sensitive to demonstrate pyramidal tract involvement. With the "reversed Chaddock method", the receptive field of the Chaddock reflex may be postulated to be in the territory of the sural nerve, which could be supported by the better response obtained on stimulation of the postero-lateral calf than the anterior shin. With regard to the receptive fields of the Babinski and Chaddock reflexes, the first sacral dermatome (S1) is also considered a reflexogenous zone, but since the dermatome shows marked overlapping, the zones vary among individuals. As upgoing toe responses are consistently observed in

  14. Crisis management and warning procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie November

    2009-03-01

    territoriale du risque s’avère nécessaire.Based on two flood events that recently affected new housing areas in very different political, organisational and hydrological contexts, this article examines the practices of actors involved in emergency and crisis situations in Switzerland. In both cases, the actors are identified – through their role and their position in the various procedures related to crisis management – and an inventory is made of the documents used. The study examines how the flood events were managed, identifies the organisational changes that followed the crises, and determines how the risk was conceived and to what extent it was formalised by the different actors both before and after the floods. Finally new forecasting and warning procedures that were set up following the events are described. The study shows that floods have a decisive impact on the production of knowledge, but that this phenomenon varies according to the actors. Events such as floods also sometimes reveal the existence of "latent" knowledge, or knowledge that is available but has not yet been integrated into institutional procedures. In terms of both forecasting and crisis management, these events also provide the opportunity to test information channels and to identify and correct any problems relating to organisation, cooperation or the reliability of means of communication. Among other things, the risks and crises related to flooding modify the dynamics and policies of the local area as a result of readjustments in the networks of actors. The introduction of emergency and crisis management measures appears more effective, however, than the reorganisation of planning and development procedures, a process which generally takes a lot longer. Nevertheless, since the recollection of events tends to fade with time, it is important that risks find a more concrete form of spatial expression on the landscape.

  15. Tsunami Warning Services for the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Ferris, J. C.; Weinstein, S. A.

    2007-05-01

    Tsunami warning and watch services are currently provided to the Caribbean region through a collaborative effort between the two NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs): the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, and the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska. The WCATWC, in coordination with the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), provides fast-response warning services to the U.S. territories of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (PR/VI). The PTWC provides regional watch services to other countries throughout and surrounding the Caribbean Sea as part of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions. This collaboration is analogous to the TWC's responsibilities in the Pacific basin: the WCATWC provides fast-response warning services for the U.S. west coast states, Alaska, and British Columbia in Canada, while the PTWC provides regional services for countries throughout and surrounding the Pacific Ocean (as well as a fast-response service for the U.S. State of Hawaii). Caribbean seismic data are transmitted to the TWCs through several means. The PRSN directly exports data to the WCATWC, providing the Center sufficient seismic data for the PR/VI region. Additionally, the PRSN provides the TWCs with data gathered from other Caribbean nations. Using modern communication capabilities, the seismic data can be processed at the TWCs at the same time it is processed locally. Another source of high- quality seismic data is the new USGS nine-station array that circles the region. The Global Seismic Network maintains several stations in Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations which are available in real-time to the TWCs. Unfortunately, sea level data coverage is sporadic in the region. The PR/VI has a relatively dense array of coastal tide gages, but coastal tide gage coverage is very sparse for the rest of the Caribbean basin. Three deep-ocean pressure

  16. Accuracy of a pediatric early warning score in the recognition of clinical deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Juliana de Oliveira Freitas; Camargo, Climene Laura de; Nascimento, Carlito Lopes; Portela, Daniel Sales; Monaghan, Alan

    2017-07-10

    to evaluate the accuracy of the version of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score translated and adapted for the Brazilian context, in the recognition of clinical deterioration. a diagnostic test study to measure the accuracy of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, in relation to a reference standard. The sample consisted of 271 children, aged 0 to 10 years, blindly evaluated by a nurse and a physician, specialists in pediatrics, with interval of 5 to 10 minutes between the evaluations, for the application of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context and of the reference standard. The data were processed and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and VassarStats.net programs. The performance of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context was evaluated through the indicators of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, area under the ROC curve, likelihood ratios and post-test probability. the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context showed sensitivity of 73.9%, specificity of 95.5%, positive predictive value of 73.3%, negative predictive value of 94.7%, area under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve of 91.9% and the positive post-test probability was 80%. the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, presented good performance, considered valid for the recognition of clinical deterioration warning signs of the children studied. avaliar a acurácia da versão traduzida e adaptada do Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para o contexto brasileiro, no reconhecimento da deterioração clínica. estudo de teste diagnóstico para medir a acurácia do Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score, para o contexto brasileiro, em relação a um padrão de referência. A amostra foi composta por 271 crianças de 0 a 10 anos, avaliadas de forma cega por uma enfermeira e um médico, especialistas em pediatria, com

  17. Validation of an abbreviated Vitalpac™ Early Warning Score (ViEWS) in 75,419 consecutive admissions to a Canadian regional hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kellett, John

    2012-03-01

    The early warning score derived from 198,755 vital sign sets in the Vitalpac™ database (ViEWS) has an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) for death of acute unselected medical patients within 24h of 88%.

  18. Electrical Distribution System (EDS) and Caution and Warning System (CWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclung, T.

    1975-01-01

    An astronaut caution and warning system is described which monitors various life support system parameters and detects out-of-range parameter conditions. The warning system generates a warning tone and displays the malfunction condition to the astronaut along with the proper corrective procedures required.

  19. The effect of adult Early Warning Systems education on nurses' knowledge, confidence and clinical performance: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohamad M; McCarthy, Bridie; Andrews, Tom; Savage, Eileen; Drummond, Frances J; Walshe, Nuala; Forde, Mary; Breen, Dorothy; Henn, Patrick; Drennan, Jonathan; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-04-25

    This review aims to determine the effect of adult Early Warning Systems education on nurses' knowledge, confidence and clinical performance. Early Warning Systems support timely identification of clinical deterioration and prevention of avoidable deaths. Several educational programmes have been designed to help nurses recognize and manage deteriorating patients. Little is known as to the effectiveness of these programmes. Systematic review. Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection, SocINDEX and the UK & Ireland Reference Centre, EMBASE, the Turning Research Into Practice database, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Grey Literature sources were searched between October and November 2015. This is a quantitative systematic review using Cochrane methods. Studies published between January 2011 - November 2015 in English were sought. The risk of bias, level of evidence and the quality of evidence per outcome were assessed. Eleven articles with 10 studies were included. Nine studies addressed clinical performance, four addressed knowledge and two addressed confidence. Knowledge, vital signs recording and Early Warning Score calculation were improved in the short term. Two interventions had no effect on nurses' response to clinical deterioration and use of communication tools. This review highlights the importance of measuring outcomes using standardized tools and valid and reliable instruments. Using longitudinal designs, researchers are encouraged to investigate the effect of Early Warning Systems educational programmes. These can include interactive e-learning, on-site interdisciplinary Early Warning Scoring systems training sessions and simulated scenarios. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  1. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  2. Warning Triggers in Environmental Hazards: Who Should Be Warned to Do What and When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Thomas J; Dennison, Philip E; Li, Dapeng; Drews, Frank A; Siebeneck, Laura K; Lindell, Michael K

    2016-07-13

    Determining the most effective public warnings to issue during a hazardous environmental event is a complex problem. Three primary questions need to be answered: Who should take protective action? What is the best action? and When should this action be initiated? Warning triggers provide a proactive means for emergency managers to simultaneously answer these questions by recommending that a target group take a specified protective action if a preset environmental trigger condition occurs (e.g., warn a community to evacuate if a wildfire crosses a proximal ridgeline). Triggers are used to warn the public across a wide variety of environmental hazards, and an improved understanding of their nature and role promises to: (1) advance protective action theory by unifying the natural, built, and social themes in hazards research into one framework, (2) reveal important information about emergency managers' risk perception, situational awareness, and threat assessment regarding threat behavior and public response, and (3) advance spatiotemporal models for representing the geography and timing of disaster warning and response (i.e., a coupled natural-built-social system). We provide an overview and research agenda designed to advance our understanding and modeling of warning triggers.

  3. Rigler’s sign and the football sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Daya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rigler’s sign was first described in 1941 by L G Rigler as a new radiological sign for recognising free air in the peritoneal cavity on supine radiograph. The presence of pneumoperitoneum allows free intraperitoneal air to be contrasted with intraluminal gas, accentuating the wall of gas-containing viscera. It is observed in infants and very ill patients where only limited radiographs of the abdomen are possible. The football sign was first described by R E Miller in the 1960s. Seen on supine abdominal radiographs, this describes an oval radiolucency resembling an American football. It is important for the radiologist to recognise the supporting signs of pneumoperitoneum, such as Rigler’s sign and the football sign, on supine abdominal radiographs, especially in neonates and infants, where erect chest/abdominal radiographs are not always possible.

  4. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.

  5. Non-smoking male adolescents' reactions to cigarette warnings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Pepper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these warning effects varied by age. METHODS: A national sample of 386 non-smoking American males ages 11-17 participated in an online experiment during fall 2010. We randomly assigned participants to view warnings using a 2 × 2 between-subjects design. The warnings described a harm of smoking (addiction or lung cancer using text only or text plus an image used on European cigarette package warnings. Analyses tested whether age moderated the warnings' impact on risk perceptions and smoking motivations. RESULTS: The warnings discouraged most adolescents from wanting to smoke, but lung cancer warnings discouraged them more than addiction warnings did (60% vs. 34% were "very much" discouraged, p<.001. Including an image had no effect on discouragement. The warnings affected several beliefs about the harms from smoking, and age moderated these effects. Adolescents said addiction was easier to imagine and more likely to happen to them than lung cancer. They also believed that their true likelihood of experiencing any harm was lower than what an expert would say. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that warnings focusing on lung cancer, rather than addiction, are more likely to discourage wanting to smoke among adolescent males and enhance their ability to imagine the harmful consequences of smoking. Including images on warnings had little effect on non-smoking male adolescents' discouragement or beliefs, though additional research on the effects of pictorial warnings for this at-risk population is needed as the FDA moves forward with developing new graphic labels.

  6. LIVE DEMONSTRATION OF DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.; Wächter, J.

    2009-12-01

    The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the objective to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems based on an open sensor platform. This platform integrates OGC [2] SWE [3] compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of earthquakes, for the monitoring of sea level, ocean floor events, and ground displacements. Based on the upstream information flow DEWS focuses on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Multiple telecommunication channels will be used for the dissemination of warning messages. Wherever possible, existing standards have been integrated. The Command and Control User Interface (CCUI), a rich client application based on Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform) [4] and the open source GIS uDig [5], integrates various OGC services. Using WMS (Web Map Service) [6] and WFS (Web Feature Service) [7] spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture and to integrate a simulation system via WPS (Web Processing Service) [8] to identify affected areas. Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS [9] CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) [10] standard together with addressing information defined via EDXL-DE (Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element) [11]. Internal interfaces are realized with SOAP [12] web services. Based on results of GITEWS [13] - in particular the GITEWS Tsunami Service Bus [14] - the DEWS approach provides an implementation for tsunami early warning systems. The introductory part of the demonstration briefly explains the DEWS project, the CCUI in conjunction with operators’ workflow, the system architecture, details of information logistics and the virtual scenario of live demonstration. The live demonstration exhibits the CCUI on screen and the service

  7. LSE-Sign: A lexical database for Spanish Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Costello, Brendan; Baus, Cristina; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The LSE-Sign database is a free online tool for selecting Spanish Sign Language stimulus materials to be used in experiments. It contains 2,400 individual signs taken from a recent standardized LSE dictionary, and a further 2,700 related nonsigns. Each entry is coded for a wide range of grammatical, phonological, and articulatory information, including handshape, location, movement, and non-manual elements. The database is accessible via a graphically based search facility which is highly flexible both in terms of the search options available and the way the results are displayed. LSE-Sign is available at the following website: http://www.bcbl.eu/databases/lse/.

  8. Chvostek's sign in paediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zeeshaan U; Absamara, Rania; Ahmed, Mas

    2014-01-01

    Chvostek's Sign was first described in 1876, as a clinical clue associated with patients who suffered from latent tetany, and is induced by percussion of the angle of the jaw. However, over the years many clinicians have called into question the strength of the association with latent tetany, particularly in paediatric practice. This review examines the variation in techniques used to elicit the sign in studies conducted on this phenomenon in children as well as how differences in the classification of a positive Chvostek's sign have lead to varied reports on the strength of the association. Furthermore, an appraisal of the literature regarding the proposed mechanism of Chvostek's sign is reported alongside analysing other diseases which have been associated with Chvostek's sign to uncover any unifying mechanism for the presence of this clinical sign in children.

  9. Space is special in Sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruth; Woll, Bencie

    2003-01-01

    Following groundbreaking work by linguists and cognitive scientists over the past thirty years, it is now generally accepted that sign languages of the deaf, such as ASL (American Sign Language) or BSL (British Sign Language), are structured and processed in a similar manner to spoken languages. The one striking difference is that they operate in a wholly non-auditory, visuospatial medium. How does the medium impact on language processing itself?

  10. Sign Languages of the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This handbook provides information on some 38 sign languages, including basic facts about each of the languages, structural aspects, history and culture of the Deaf communities, and history of research. The papers are all original, and each has been specifically written for the volume by an expert...... or team of experts in the particular sign language, at the invitation of the editors. Thirty-eight different deaf sign languages and alternate sign languages from every continent are represented, and over seventy international deaf and hearing scholars have contributed to the volume....

  11. Traffic-Sign Recognition Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Escalera, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a full generic approach to the detection and recognition of traffic signs. The approach is based on the latest computer vision methods for object detection, and on powerful methods for multiclass classification. The challenge was to robustly detect a set of different sign classes in real time, and to classify each detected sign into a large, extensible set of classes. To address this challenge, several state-of-the-art methods were developed that can be used for different recognition problems. Following an introduction to the problems of traffic sign detection and categoriza

  12. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  13. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign…

  14. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  15. Physically based landslide warning at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Ekrem; Mergili, Martin; Glade, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Albeit advancements in the past within the field of geotechnical engineering have led to an increasing in situ damage control in many parts of the world, heavy rainstorms still cause severe damage by triggering landslides. Landslides are usually restricted to the local scale when taking into consideration single events, however, they often tend to occur spatially abundant which makes them a regional phenomenon. This makes the necessity of regional-scale early warning systems (EWS) indispensable. When dealing with landslide EWS, it is impossible to cover all potential early warning situations. Although the calculation of rainfall thresholds is the most common approach for assessing regional landslide early warning, they only represent a simplification of the physical processes involved. In most cases, indeed, there is more than just this one causative factor involved. Here, we present an early prototype for a regional, physically based landslide EWS driven by real-time spatio-temporal rainfall data. Instead of assuming uniform rainfall over a certain area, an automated geostatistical approach is suggested which allows approximating real-time spatially distributed, hourly rainfall predictions based on gauged rainfall data available on the internet. The methodology presented in this study is especially suitable for the implementation in warning systems that contain predefined thresholds and for landslides related to a progressive increase of soil saturation and/or a rising groundwater table. The transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based slope stability (TRIGRS) model is used in a modified way to compute transient pore-pressure changes and associated changes in the factor of safety due to rainfall infiltration. The geotechnical properties involved are probabilistically integrated within certain predefined ranges to account for the inherent spatial uncertainties. The result is an automatically generated probability of failure raster map that is updated hourly based

  16. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    OpenAIRE

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi,K.

    2013-01-01

    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the probability of dike failure, the ensuing scenarios of dike breaching, predicted flood spreading and escape routes for people from the affected areas. Results are presented on interactive decision support ...

  17. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  18. A comparison of different informative vibrotactile forward collision warnings: does the warning need to be linked to the collision event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob; Ho, Cristy; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that auditory and vibrotactile forward collision warnings presenting a motion signal (e.g., looming or apparent motion across the body surface) can facilitate speeded braking reaction times (BRTs). The purpose of the present study was to expand on this work by directly comparing warning signals in which the motion conveyed was constant across all collision events with signals in which the speed of motion was dependent on the closing velocity (CV). Two experiments were conducted using a simulated car-following task and BRTs were measured. In Experiment 1, increasing intensity (looming) vibrotactile signals were presented from a single tactor attached to the driver's waist. When the increase in intensity was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster as compared to a no-warning condition, however, they were not significantly different from constant intensity and CV-independent looming warnings. In Experiment 2, a vertical array of three tactors was used to create motion either towards (upwards) or away (downwards) from the driver's head. When the warning signal presented upwards motion that was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster than all other warning types. Downwards warnings led to a significantly higher number of brake activations in false alarm situations as compared to upwards moving warnings. The effectiveness of dynamic tactile collision warnings would therefore appear to depend on both the link between the warning and collision event and on the directionality of the warning signal.

  19. A comparison of different informative vibrotactile forward collision warnings: does the warning need to be linked to the collision event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gray

    Full Text Available Recent research demonstrates that auditory and vibrotactile forward collision warnings presenting a motion signal (e.g., looming or apparent motion across the body surface can facilitate speeded braking reaction times (BRTs. The purpose of the present study was to expand on this work by directly comparing warning signals in which the motion conveyed was constant across all collision events with signals in which the speed of motion was dependent on the closing velocity (CV. Two experiments were conducted using a simulated car-following task and BRTs were measured. In Experiment 1, increasing intensity (looming vibrotactile signals were presented from a single tactor attached to the driver's waist. When the increase in intensity was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster as compared to a no-warning condition, however, they were not significantly different from constant intensity and CV-independent looming warnings. In Experiment 2, a vertical array of three tactors was used to create motion either towards (upwards or away (downwards from the driver's head. When the warning signal presented upwards motion that was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster than all other warning types. Downwards warnings led to a significantly higher number of brake activations in false alarm situations as compared to upwards moving warnings. The effectiveness of dynamic tactile collision warnings would therefore appear to depend on both the link between the warning and collision event and on the directionality of the warning signal.

  20. Sooty blotch and flyspeck control with fungicide applications based on calendar, local IPM, and warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérri Spolti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare fungicide application timing for the control of sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS of 'Fuji' apples in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The following treatments were evaluated in two growing seasons: two warning system-based (modified version of the Brown-Sutton-Hartmann system spray of captan plus thiophanate methyl, with or without summer pruning; two calendar/rain-based spray of captan or a mixture of captan plus thiophanate methyl; fungicide spray timing based on a local integrated pest management (IPM for the control of summer diseases; and a check without spraying. Sooty blotch and flyspeck incidence over time and their severity at harvest were evaluated. The highest number of spray was required by calendar/rain-based treatments (eight and seven sprays in the sequential years. The warning system recommended five and three sprays, in the sequential years, which led to the highest SBFS control efficacy expressed by the reduced initial inoculum and disease progress rate. Summer pruning enhanced SBFS control efficacy, especially by suppressing SBFS signs which tended to be restrained to the peduncle region of the fruit. Sooty blotch and flyspeck can be managed both with calendar and the grower-based IPM practices in Brazil, but a reduced number of sprays is required when the warning system is used.

  1. On the C-E Translation of Public Signs from the Functional Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐绪红

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of Chinese economy,more and more foreigners have been attracted to China to invest,work,study and travel.To help the foreigners better understand China and facilitate cross-cultural communication,bilingual or even trilingual public signs spring up in every part of China.As is known that public signs,usually in the form of a few words,a picture or words accompanied with a picture,function not only as a“ face” of a city and a nation,but also as a first calling card given to the foreigners.Moreover,public signs have definite functions - informing,warning or directing.However,to our disappointment,mistranslations of the public signs are present everywhere.

  2. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products Resident to the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. Sometimes these have resulted in regionally evident disturbance progressions (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and have resulted in extensive forest overstory mortality. In addition to stand replacement disturbances, other forests are subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and varying types and intensities of ephemeral damage from storms. Sometimes, after prolonged severe disturbance, signs of recovery in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can occur. The growing prominence and threat of forest disturbances in part have led to the formation and implementation of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act which mandated that national forest threat early warning system be developed and deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oakridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build and roll-out the near real time ForWarn early warning system for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines that are used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six forest change products that are refreshed every 8 days. ForWarn employs daily quarter kilometer MODIS NDVI data from the Aqua and Terra satellites, including MOD13 data for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS 7 NDVI for compiling current NDVI. In doing so, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally de-noise, fuse, and aggregate current and historical MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of products per year. The 24 day compositing interval enables disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. Forest change products are

  3. Learning to Detect Traffic Signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the performance of sign detection based on synthetic training data to the performance of detection based on real-world training images. Viola-Jones detectors are created for 4 different traffic signs with both synthetic and real data, and varying numbers of training samples...

  4. Implicit motivational impact of pictorial health warning on cigarette packs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Volchan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. METHODS: Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338 were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63 tested pictorial warnings (ten that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs' manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings' emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. FINDINGS: Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants' judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change.

  5. A Near Real-time Early Warning System on Erosion Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal H. Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available With many incidences of landslides, mudslides and erosion occurrences lately, especially in the highlands in Malaysia, properties were damaged and lives were lost. Seeing the need of resolving and minimizing such untoward incidences, a study has been embarked on developing a near real-time early warning system on erosion hazards so as to provide an early warning to the public, whenever there are signs and probable occurrence of such incidences. Consequently, a case study on Cameron Highlands Catchment was carried out, which involved a detailed baseline database of the study area to be set up first. The highland catchment is considered an environmentally sensitive area where many land development for various activities such as agriculture, agro-tourism, property development and road-widening projects, had already been carried out and some are still on going as to-date. To develop the baseline database, acquisition of the latest Structure Plan, Satellite Imagery, topographical and rainfall information of the catchment area were carried out. Once this is done, real-time rainfall information would be adopted to develop the early warning system. This could be done by using solar-powered rain sensors, which would be triggered based on the rainfall amount and intensity. A SIM-card based GPRS transmitter, which is attached to the “rain sensing and transmission unit” would then send out e-mails at every minute interval, so that the data could be transferred to a receiving unit. At this point, the e-mail is read and data is processed within the Geographical Information Systems (GIS using an automated keyboard simulation programme. The final processed values would then be set against the threshold values, which will trigger an early warning if any of the values exceeds the threshold limits. Therefore, it is hoped that the application of this new locally developed system, which has been trademarked under the name EWARNSTM (Early Warning And Risk

  6. Application of Machine Vision to Vehicle Automatic Collision Warning Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiang-feng; GAO Feng; XU Guo-yan; YAO Sheng-zhuo

    2008-01-01

    Using the new technologies such as information technology, communication technology and electronic control technology, vehicle collision warning system(CWS) can acquire road condition, adjacent vehicle march condition as well as its dynamics performance continuously, then it can forecast the oncoming potential collision and give a warning. Based on the analysis of driver's driving behavior, algorithm's warning norms are determined. Based on warning norms adopting machine vision method, the cooperation collision warning algorithm(CWA) model with multi-input and multi-output is established which is used in supporting vehicle CWS. The CWA is tested using the actual data and the result shows that this algorithm can identify and carry out warning for vehicle collision efficiently, which has important meaning for improving the vehicle travel safety.

  7. FROM SAUSSURE TO CHARAUDEAU: LANGAUGE SIGN AND DISCOURSE SIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Crim Valente

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The work of Ferdinand de Saussure was massively revisited, in 2013, the year of the centenary of the death of the Genevian Master. In fact, his linguistic production has always been the object of several studies since the publication of Course in General Linguistics, in 1916. This article brings to light the considerations of renowned linguists on the Saussurean work and its links with Discourse Analysis (DA, considering the notions of language sign and discourse sign. Among the various branches of DA, it is made an option herein for the Semiolinguistic conception of discourse, based on the work of Patrick Charaudeau, with emphasis on the concept of contract of communication. With the support of such theoretical support, media texts, verbal and non-verbal, will be analyzed in order to highlight the importance of linguistic signs – language and discourse signs – in the construction of meaning in such text genre.

  8. Sign Inference for Dynamic Signed Networks via Dictionary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile online social network (mOSN is a burgeoning research area. However, most existing works referring to mOSNs deal with static network structures and simply encode whether relationships among entities exist or not. In contrast, relationships in signed mOSNs can be positive or negative and may be changed with time and locations. Applying certain global characteristics of social balance, in this paper, we aim to infer the unknown relationships in dynamic signed mOSNs and formulate this sign inference problem as a low-rank matrix estimation problem. Specifically, motivated by the Singular Value Thresholding (SVT algorithm, a compact dictionary is selected from the observed dataset. Based on this compact dictionary, the relationships in the dynamic signed mOSNs are estimated via solving the formulated problem. Furthermore, the estimation accuracy is improved by employing a dictionary self-updating mechanism.

  9. Sign order in Slovenian Sign Language locative constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Pavlič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In both sign and spoken languages, locative relations tend to be encoded within constructions that display the non-basic word/sign order. In addition, in such an environment, sign languages habitually use a distinct predicate type – a classifier predicate – which may independently affect the order of constituents in the sentence. In this paper, I present Slovenian Sign Language (SZJ locative constructions, in which (i the argument that enables spatial anchoring (“ground” precedes both the argument that requires spatial anchoring (“figure” and the predicate. At the same time, (ii the relative order of the figure with respect to the predicate depends on the type of predicate employed: a non-classifier predicate precedes the figure, while a classifier predicate only comes after the figure.

  10. Which System Variables Carry Robust Early Signs of Upcoming Phase Transition? An Ecological Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahbani, Ehsan; Steyn-Ross, D. Alistair; Steyn-Ross, Moira L.; Aguirre, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of critical fluctuations prior to catastrophic state transition is generally regarded as a universal phenomenon, providing a valuable early warning signal in dynamical systems. Using an ecological fisheries model of three populations (juvenile prey J, adult prey A and predator P), a recent study has reported silent early warning signals obtained from P and A populations prior to saddle-node (SN) bifurcation, and thus concluded that early warning signals are not universal. By performing a full eigenvalue analysis of the same system we demonstrate that while J and P populations undergo SN bifurcation, A does not jump to a new state, so it is not expected to carry early warning signs. In contrast with the previous study, we capture a significant increase in the noise-induced fluctuations in the P population, but only on close approach to the bifurcation point; it is not clear why the P variance initially shows a decaying trend. Here we resolve this puzzle using observability measures from control theory. By computing the observability coefficient for the system from the recordings of each population considered one at a time, we are able to quantify their ability to describe changing internal dynamics. We demonstrate that precursor fluctuations are best observed using only the J variable, and also P variable if close to transition. Using observability analysis we are able to describe why a poorly observable variable (P) has poor forecasting capabilities although a full eigenvalue analysis shows that this variable undergoes a bifurcation. We conclude that observability analysis provides complementary information to identify the variables carrying early-warning signs about impending state transition. PMID:27631984

  11. Which System Variables Carry Robust Early Signs of Upcoming Phase Transition? An Ecological Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahbani, Ehsan; Steyn-Ross, D Alistair; Steyn-Ross, Moira L; Aguirre, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Growth of critical fluctuations prior to catastrophic state transition is generally regarded as a universal phenomenon, providing a valuable early warning signal in dynamical systems. Using an ecological fisheries model of three populations (juvenile prey J, adult prey A and predator P), a recent study has reported silent early warning signals obtained from P and A populations prior to saddle-node (SN) bifurcation, and thus concluded that early warning signals are not universal. By performing a full eigenvalue analysis of the same system we demonstrate that while J and P populations undergo SN bifurcation, A does not jump to a new state, so it is not expected to carry early warning signs. In contrast with the previous study, we capture a significant increase in the noise-induced fluctuations in the P population, but only on close approach to the bifurcation point; it is not clear why the P variance initially shows a decaying trend. Here we resolve this puzzle using observability measures from control theory. By computing the observability coefficient for the system from the recordings of each population considered one at a time, we are able to quantify their ability to describe changing internal dynamics. We demonstrate that precursor fluctuations are best observed using only the J variable, and also P variable if close to transition. Using observability analysis we are able to describe why a poorly observable variable (P) has poor forecasting capabilities although a full eigenvalue analysis shows that this variable undergoes a bifurcation. We conclude that observability analysis provides complementary information to identify the variables carrying early-warning signs about impending state transition.

  12. The Innovation Research of Financial Early-Warning Index Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The period economic fluctuation is vital for an enterprise to exist and further develop,it directly affect the enterprise financial health.So,it is significant to build up financial early-warning index and measure the warning condition that the enterprise faces and take the effective measures to eliminate. We criticize Altman's Z calculating model and build up some new indexes for enterprise financial early-warning condition measuring and making sound decision.

  13. Real-time earthquake warning for astronomical observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael; Barrientos, Sergio; Claver, Chuck; Harms, Jan; Smith, Christopher; Warner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Early earthquake warning is a rapidly developing capability that has significant ramifications for many fields, including astronomical observatories. In this work, we describe the susceptibility of astronomical facilities to seismic events, including large telescopes as well as second-generation ground-based gravitational-wave interferometers. We describe the potential warning times for observatories from current seismic networks and propose locations for future seismometers to maximize warning times.

  14. Implicit Motivational Impact of Pictorial Health Warning on Cigarette Packs

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Volchan; Isabel A David; Gisella Tavares; Nascimento, Billy M.; Oliveira, Jose M.; Sonia Gleiser; Andre Szklo; Cristina Perez; Tania Cavalcante; Mirtes G. Pereira; Leticia Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. H...

  15. [Hemiplegia with two Babinski's sign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Montoya, María C; Camacho, John E; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Bayona, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Neurological signs and symptoms are very important to establish a correct neurological diagnosis. We present here a Colombian female patient, 60 years-old, who had ischaemic stroke in the left cerebral media artery. It produced right hemiplegia, motor aphasia, "central" facial palsy and atrophy of right platysma muscle. This latter finding, described originally by Joseph Babinski as "The Babinski Sign" was observed only two years and seven months after the ictus even when she had, previously, been evaluated by several neurologists. The underdiagnosis of clinical signs like the one described here may lead to erroneous diagnosis that will, ultimately, affect neurorehabilitation measures.

  16. Hush sign: a new clinical sign in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Gulnihal; Bilir, Erhan; Erdem, Atilla; Gomceli, Yasemin B; Kurt, G Semiha; Serdaroglu, Ayse

    2005-05-01

    Neurologists have been analyzing the clinical behaviors that occur during seizures for many years. Several ictal behaviors have been defined in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Ictal behaviors are especially important in the evaluation of epilepsy surgery candidates. We propose a new lateralizing sign in TLE originating from the nondominant hemisphere-the "hush" sign. Our patients were 30- and 21-year old women (Cases 1 and 2, respectively). Their epileptogenic foci were localized to the right mesial temporal region after noninvasive presurgical investigations. Case 1 had no cranial MRI abnormality, whereas cranial MRI revealed right hippocampal atrophy in Case 2. These women repeatedly moved their right index fingers to their mouth while puckering their lips during complex partial seizures. We have named this ictal behavior the "hush" sign. Anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy was performed in both patients, and pathological examinations revealed hippocampal sclerosis. The "hush" sign no longer occurred after seizures were controlled. They were seizure free as of 30 and 31 months of follow-up, respectively. We believe that the "hush" sign may be supportive of a diagnosis of TLE originating from the nondominant hemisphere. This sign may occur as a result of ictal activation of a specific brain region in this hemisphere.

  17. Landslide risk mitigation by means of early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvello, Michele

    2017-04-01

    Among the many options available to mitigate landslide risk, early warning systems may be used where, in specific circumstances, the risk to life increases above tolerable levels. A coherent framework to classify and analyse landslide early warning systems (LEWS) is herein presented. Once the objectives of an early warning strategy are defined depending on the scale of analysis and the type of landslides to address, the process of designing and managing a LEWS should synergically employ technical and social skills. A classification scheme for the main components of LEWSs is proposed for weather-induced landslides. The scheme is based on a clear distinction among: i) the landslide model, i.e. a functional relationship between weather characteristics and landslide events considering the geotechnical, geomorphological and hydro-geological characterization of the area as well as an adequate monitoring strategy; ii) the warning model, i.e. the landslide model plus procedures to define the warning events and to issue the warnings; iii) the warning system, i.e. the warning model plus warning dissemination procedures, communication and education tools, strategies for community involvement and emergency plans. Each component of a LEWS is related to a number of actors involved with their deployment, operational activities and management. For instance, communication and education, community involvement and emergency plans are all significantly influenced by people's risk perception and by operational aspects system managers need to address in cooperation with scientists.

  18. A Quantitative Analysis of Variability Warnings in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Flesborg, Elvis; Brabrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    In order to get insight into challenges with quality in highly-configurable software, we analyze one of the largest open source projects, the Linux kernel, and quantify basic properties of configuration-related warnings. We automatically analyze more than 20 thousand valid and distinct random...... configurations, in a computation that lasted more than a month. We count and classify a total of 400,000 warnings to get an insight in the distribution of warning types, and the location of the warnings. We run both on a stable and unstable version of the Linux kernel. The results show that Linux contains...

  19. A Plant Damage State Early Warning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chih Yao; Chou, Hwai Pwu [National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2014-08-15

    In case of a severe accident, operators need to follow the emergency operating procedures (EOPS) to limit the damage. In order to assist operators to face a lot of Plant Damage States (PDS) suddenly, we try to predict and identify the Plant Damage State (PDS) for early warning and decision making. In this study, Containment Event Tree (CET) is used in this event-oriented approach to help severe accident management. The Taipower Lungmen nuclear power station (LNPS), an advanced boiling water reactor, is chosen for case study. The LNPS full scope engineering simulator is used to generate the testing data for method development.

  20. Device for Monitoring - Warning Frequency Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Nhu Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power quality was assessed by two parameters voltage and frequency, the voltage changes are of a local property, and change the frequency – systematic. Frequency deviation in the grid due to an imbalance in power between the generator and the load will affect the economic and technical indicators of power stations, as well as consumers. To ensure the stability and reliability of the electric system and generator protection to prevent damage during the operation, it is necessary and indispensable device monitoring – warning frequency generator in power stations.

  1. Know the Signs of Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167572.html Know the Signs of Concussion This serious health threat affects kids as well ... 2, 2017 WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Concussions have been in the news a lot because ...

  2. Signs and Symptoms of Mumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Serology Publications and Resources Multimedia MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Signs & Symptoms of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  3. Diagnosing Dementia--Positive Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  4. Triage of the Sign Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Splittorff, K

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the sign problem in QCD at nonzero chemical potential and its relation with chiral symmetry breaking and the spectrum of the Dirac operator using the framework of chiral random matrix theory. We show that the Banks-Casher formula is not valid for theories with a sign problem and has to be replaced by an alternative mechanism that is worked out in detail for QCD in one dimension at nonzero chemical potential.

  5. Early Warning System Ghana: how to successfully implement a disaster early warning system in a data scarce region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Job; Jungermann, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Ghana is a country frequently struck by natural disasters like floods and droughts. Timely warning or detection of such disasters will mitigate the negative impact on lives and property. However, local data and monitoring systems necessary to provide such a warning are hardly available. The availability and improvement of internet, mobile phones and satellites has provided new possibilities for disaster warning systems in data scarce regions such as Ghana. Our presentation describes the development of an early warning system (EWS) in Ghana completely based on satellite based open data. The EWS provides a flood or drought hazard warning on sub-catchment level and links the warning to a more detailed flood or drought risk map, to enable the disaster coordinator to send warnings or relieve more efficiently to areas that have the highest risk. This is especially relevant because some areas for which the system is implemented are very remote. The system is developed and tested to be robust and operational especially in remote areas. This means that the necessary information is also available under limited internet conditions and not dependent on local computer facilities. In many rural areas in Ghana communities rely on indigenous knowledge when it comes to flood or drought disaster forecasting. The EWS has a feature that allows indigenous knowledge indicators to be taken into account in the warning and makes easy comparison possible with the satellite based warnings.

  6. Measuring the modified early warning score and the Rothman index: advantages of utilizing the electronic medical record in an early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, G Duncan; Rothman, Michael J; Smith, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Early detection of an impending cardiac or pulmonary arrest is an important focus for hospitals trying to improve quality of care. Unfortunately, all current early warning systems suffer from high false-alarm rates. Most systems are based on the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS); 4 of its 5 inputs are vital signs. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of MEWS against the Rothman Index (RI), a patient acuity score based upon summation of excess risk functions that utilize additional data from the electronic medical record (EMR). MEWS and RI scores were computed retrospectively for 32,472 patient visits. Nursing assessments, a category of EMR inputs only used by the RI, showed sharp differences 24 hours before death. Receiver operating characteristic curves for 24-hour mortality demonstrated superior RI performance with c-statistics, 0.82 and 0.93, respectively. At the point where MEWS triggers an alarm, we identified the RI point corresponding to equal sensitivity and found the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) for MEWS was 7.8, and for the RI was 16.9 with false alarms reduced by 53%. At the RI point corresponding to equal LR+, the sensitivity for MEWS was 49% and 77% for RI, capturing 54% more of those patients who will die within 24 hours.

  7. Discussion on Earthquake Forecasting and Early Warning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Jiang Haikun; Li Mingxiao

    2008-01-01

    Through analysis of natural and social attributes of earthquake forecasting,the relationship between the natural and social attributes of earthquake forecasting (early warning) has been discussed.Regarding the natural attributes of earthquake forecasting,it only attempts to forecast the magnitude,location and occurrence time of future earthquake based on the aualysis of observational data and relevant theories and taking into consideration the present understanding of seismogeny and earthquake generation.It need not consider the consequences an earthquake forecast involves,and its purpose is to check out the level of scientific understanding of earthquakes.In respect of the social aspect of earthquake forecasting,people also focus on the consequence that the forecasting involves,in addition to its natural aspect,such as the uncertainty of earthquake prediction itself,the impact of earthquake prediction,and the earthquake resistant capability of structures (buildings),lifeline works,etc.In a word,it highlights the risk of earthquake forecasting and tries to mitigate the earthquake hazard as much as possible.In this paper,the authors also discuss the scientific and social challenges faced in earthquake prediction and analyze preliminarily the meanings and content of earthquake early warning.

  8. Students' Perceptions of Trigger Warnings in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Elizabeth A; Díaz, Sebastián; Kerr, Anna M; Balbo, Jane T; Prokopakis, Kayla E; Fredricks, Todd R

    2017-07-28

    Phenomenon: Trigger warnings are verbal statements or written warnings that alert students in advance to potentially distressing material. Medical education includes numerous subjects frequently identified as triggers, such as abuse, rape, self-injurious behaviors, eating disorders, drug and alcohol addiction, and suicide. Thus, exploring medical students' perceptions of trigger warnings may provide a valuable perspective on the use of these warnings in higher education. As part of a larger descriptive, cross-sectional survey study on medical education, we assessed 1st- and 2nd-year medical students' perceptions of trigger warnings in the preclinical curriculum. Five questions specific to trigger warnings explored students' knowledge, prior experience, and perceptions of trigger warnings in medical education. Frequencies of individual question responses were calculated, and qualitative data were analyzed via content and thematic analyses. Of the 424 medical students invited to participate, 259 completed the survey (M = 24.8 years, SD + 3.4, 51.4% female, 76.1% White, 53.7% 1st-year students). Few students (11.2%) were aware of the term trigger warning and its definition. However, after being presented with a formal definition on the online survey, 38.6% reported having had a professor use one. When asked whether they supported the use of trigger warnings in medical education, respondents were distributed fairly equally by response (yes = 31.0%, maybe = 39.2%, no = 29.7%). Qualitative analysis revealed three themes: (a) Trigger Warnings Allow Students to Know What is Coming and Prepare Themselves: Respondents believed that trigger warnings would benefit students with a history of trauma by providing them additional time to prepare for the material and, if appropriate, seek professional help; (b) Students Need to Learn How to Handle Distressing Information: Respondents agreed that they needed to learn and cope with highly sensitive material because they would be

  9. Operationalization and application of “early warning signs” to screen nanomaterials for harmful properties operationalizationand application of “early warning signs” to screen nanomaterials for harmful properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Nielsen, K. N.; Knudsen, N.

    endeavors. This paper explores ho w the first lesson - “Acknowledge and respond to ignorance, uncertainty and risk in techn ology appraisal” could be applied to screen nanomaterials. In cases of ignorance, uncertainty a nd risk, the EEA recommends paying particular attention to important warning signs suc h....... Finally, we discuss how these warning sig ns can be used by different stakeholders such as nanomaterial researchers and developers, compani es and regulators to design benign nanomaterials, communicate what is known about nano -risks and decide on whether to implement precautionary regulatory measures.......In 2001 the European Environment Agency (EEA) publi shed a report that analyzed 14 cases of technological developments that later on turned out to have negative side-effects and they identified 12 “late lessons” for current and future policy-makers to have in mind when initiating new technological...

  10. Warning labels formulated as questions positively influence smoking-related risk perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glock, S.; Müller, B.C.N.; Ritter, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulat

  11. 33 CFR 143.15 - Lights and warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and warning devices. 143... devices. (a) OCS facilities must meet the lights and warning devices requirements under part 67 of this... devices requirements under the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 or...

  12. Multimodal warnings to enhance risk communication and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, E.C.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal warnings incorporate audio and/or skin-based (tactile) cues to supplement or replace visual cues in environments where the user’s visual perception is busy, impaired, or nonexistent. This paper describes characteristics of audio, tactile, and multimodal warning displays and their role in

  13. 30 CFR 77.410 - Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.410 Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices. (a) Mobile equipment such as front-end loaders, forklifts, tractors, graders, and trucks,...

  14. 75 FR 69523 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... descriptive printed matter a brief statement of, among other things, the relevant warnings. Moreover, a.... Specifically, the new required warnings are designed to clearly and effectively convey the negative health... at p. 89; see also Ref. 19 at p. 158). Research has shown that some adolescents report symptoms of...

  15. 49 CFR 218.73 - Warning signal display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... signal display. (a) Warning signals, i.e., a white disk with the words “Occupied Camp Car” in black.... Once the signals have been displayed— (1) The camp cars may not be moved for coupling to other rolling...) Warning signals indicating the presence of occupied camp cars, displayed in accordance with §§ 218.75 and...

  16. Tactical Checkpoint: Hail/Warn Suppress/Stop (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    distractor , optical suppression , human behavior, checkpoint, ambient light, driver suppression , human experimentation, light, paintball, obscuration...HAIL/WARN AND - SUPPRESS /STOP Poster Presented at the 2010 Directed Energies Professional Society Meeting, 15-19 November 2010. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...warning to a driver that is approaching a checkpoint. The laser, MCNC light, and the windshield obscuration were evaluated for their suppression

  17. 21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... AND NOT MISBRANDED General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing...

  18. 46 CFR 98.30-33 - Warning signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning signals. 98.30-33 Section 98.30-33 Shipping... Warning signals. (a) If the vessel is moored, no person may transfer to or from a portable tank a product... a red flag. (c) The signal required in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section must be visible on all...

  19. 49 CFR 393.19 - Hazard warning signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazard warning signals. 393.19 Section 393.19... signals. The hazard warning signal operating unit on each commercial motor vehicle shall operate independently of the ignition or equivalent switch, and when activated, cause all turn signals required by § 393...

  20. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wächter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

    Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

    In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

    In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  1. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  2. Perceptions and Expected Immediate Reactions to Tornado Warning Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, M. K.; Huang, S. K.; Wei, H. L.; Samuelson, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    To provide people with more specific information about tornado threats, the National Weather Service has replaced its county-wide warnings with smaller warning polygons that more specifically indicate the risk area. However, tornado warning polygons do not have a standardized definition regarding tornado strike probabilities (ps) so it is unclear how warning recipients interpret them. To better understand this issue, 155 participants responded to 15 hypothetical warning polygons. After viewing each polygon, they rated the likelihood of a tornado striking their location and the likelihood that they would take nine different response actions ranging from continuing normal activities to getting in a car and driving somewhere safer. The results showed participants inferred that the ps was highest at the polygon's centroid, lower just inside the edges of the polygon, still lower (but not zero) just outside the edges of the polygon, and lowest in locations beyond that. Moreover, higher ps values were associated with lower expectations of continuing normal activities and higher expectations of seeking information from social sources (but not environmental cues) and higher expectations of seeking shelter (but not evacuating in their cars). These results indicate that most people make some errors in their ps judgments but are likely to respond appropriately to the ps they infer from the warning polygons. Overall, the findings from this study and other research can help meteorologists to better understand how people interpret the uncertainty associated with warning polygons and, thus, improve tornado warning systems.

  3. Silent Warning: Understanding the National Terrorism Advisory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    examination of a terrorism warning system must qualitatively accommodate the complex warning community, determine the level of decision advantage it...costs incurred by state and local governments—and the potential economic losses from reductions in consumer confidence, travel, and tourism —only makes

  4. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  5. Sign Plan : Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Necedah National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given...

  6. Sign Plan Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  7. Sign Plan Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  8. Sign Plan : Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  9. Sign Plan : Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  10. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  11. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arattano, Massimo; Marchi, Lorenzo

    2008-04-04

    Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows), their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall) and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche pendulums, photocells

  12. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows, their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche

  13. Performance of clinical signs in poultry for the detection of outbreaks during the avian influenza A (H7N7) epidemic in the Netherlands in 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Koch, G.; Bouma, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the clinical signs of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), to facilitate the development of an operational syndrome-reporting system (SRS) in The Netherlands as an early warning system for HPAI outbreaks. A total of 537 poultry flocks (240

  14. Performance of clinical signs in poultry for the detection of outbreaks during the avian influenza A (H7N7) epidemic in the Netherlands in 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Koch, G.; Bouma, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the clinical signs of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), to facilitate the development of an operational syndrome-reporting system (SRS) in The Netherlands as an early warning system for HPAI outbreaks. A total of 537 poultry flocks (240 infe

  15. Speak Simply When Warning About After Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, A. J.; Hardebeck, J.; Page, M. T.; van der Elst, N.; Wein, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    When a fault in the ground slips, the ground moves fast and can shake hard. After a big ground shake, there are more shakes. We call them after shocks and these can happen over a long time, for many years. An after shock can shake the ground more than it shook the first time. These shocks can shake and break places where people live and work, make rocks fall down and the ground go soft and wet, and hurt or kill people. After shocks also make people worry. If people are scared, then they may leave the area and not come back. To help people be safe and feel calm we want to tell them what may happen. We often use big words and lots of numbers to give the chances for the number of shakes over days, weeks, and years. That helps some people fix things and do their jobs such as those who work on roads, power, water, phones, hospitals, schools or in the money business. But big words and too many numbers can confuse a lot of people and make them worry more. Studies of talking about the ground shake problem show that it is best to speak simply to people. What if we only use the ten hundred most often used words to talk about these ground shakes. Would that work? Here is a possible warning: Last week's huge ground shake will probably make more ground shakes. This week expect to feel three to ten ground shakes and maybe one big ground shake that could break things. That big ground shake has a chance of 1 in 10. This is normal. Be safe. Stay out of broken houses, shops, and work places. When you feel the ground shake: drop, cover, and hold on. People may feel afraid or be hurt, so check on friends and family. Get some more food and water. Over time there will be fewer ground shakes, but always be ready for them. That warning gives a lot of key ideas: what may happen, whether houses could get broken, that what is happening is normal, and what people may feel and should do. These are the key parts of a good warning. Maybe we should use the most often used words all the time.

  16. An Early Warning System for Asteroid Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonry, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Earth is bombarded by meteors, occasionally by one large enough to cause a significant explosion and possible loss of life. It is not possible to detect all hazardous asteroids, and the efforts to detect them years before they strike are only advancing slowly. Similarly, ideas for mitigation of the danger from an impact by moving the asteroid are in their infancy. Although the odds of a deadly asteroid strike in the next century are low, the most likely impact is by a relatively small asteroid, and we suggest that the best mitigation strategy in the near term is simply to move people out of the way. With enough warning, a small asteroid impact should not cause loss of life, and even portable property might be preserved. We describe an early warning system that could provide a week’s notice of most sizeable asteroids or comets on track to hit the Earth. This may be all the mitigation needed or desired for small asteroids, and it can be implemented immediately for relatively low cost. This system, dubbed Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System (ATLAS), comprises two observatories separated by about 100 km that simultaneously scan the visible sky twice a night. Software automatically registers a comparison with the unchanging sky and identifies everything that has moved or changed. Communications between the observatories lock down the orbits of anything approaching the Earth, within one night if its arrival is less than a week. The sensitivity of the system permits detection of 140 m asteroids (100 Mton impact energy) three weeks before impact and 50 m asteroids a week before arrival. An ATLAS alarm, augmented by other observations, should result in a determination of impact location and time that is accurate to a few kilometers and a few seconds. In addition to detecting and warning of approaching asteroids, ATLAS will continuously monitor the changing universe around us: most of the variable stars in our Galaxy, many microlensing events from stellar

  17. Signed Networks in Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    Leskovec, Jure; Kleinberg, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Relations between users on social media sites often reflect a mixture of positive (friendly) and negative (antagonistic) interactions. In contrast to the bulk of research on social networks that has focused almost exclusively on positive interpretations of links between people, we study how the interplay between positive and negative relationships affects the structure of on-line social networks. We connect our analyses to theories of signed networks from social psychology. We find that the classical theory of structural balance tends to capture certain common patterns of interaction, but that it is also at odds with some of the fundamental phenomena we observe --- particularly related to the evolving, directed nature of these on-line networks. We then develop an alternate theory of status that better explains the observed edge signs and provides insights into the underlying social mechanisms. Our work provides one of the first large-scale evaluations of theories of signed networks using on-line datasets, as ...

  18. Effectiveness of FDA's new over-the-counter acetaminophen warning label in improving consumer risk perception of liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, R K; Rajan, S S; Essien, E J; Sansgiry, S S

    2012-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued new organ-specific warning label requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic products in order to make consumers aware of the risk of liver damage when using acetaminophen. However, awareness of a health risk alone cannot ensure consumers' engagement in safe and preventive behaviour. In this study, we attempted to: (i) measure consumer risk perception of liver damage due to the OTC acetaminophen products and (ii) analyse the effectiveness of the new organ-specific warning label in improving consumer risk perception of liver damage and intention to perform protective behaviours while using OTC acetaminophen products. This within-subject experimental study used a convenience sample of English-speaking adults visiting OTC segments of selected pharmacy stores in Houston. Participants were randomly exposed to the old and new warning labels and their respective risk perception (measured on a visual analogue scale, 0%, no risk, to 100%, extreme risk) and behavioural intention (measured on a 7-point Likert scale) were recorded using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed using sas statistical software (v 9.2) at a priori significance level of 0.05. Majority of participants (74.4%) were not aware of the new warnings; however, majority (67.8%) had prior knowledge of the risk. The mean risk perception score for the new warning label was found to be significantly higher (72.2% vs. 65.9%, P consumer risk perception of potential liver damage and may encourage protective behaviour. However, future studies are essential to assess the impact of the new label on actual changes in consumer behaviour and subsequent reduction in acetaminophen-related morbidity and mortality. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Systematic ranging and late warning asteroid impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Farnocchia, D; Micheli, M

    2015-01-01

    We describe systematic ranging, an orbit determination technique especially suitable to assess the near-term Earth impact hazard posed by newly discovered asteroids. For these late warning cases, the time interval covered by the observations is generally short, perhaps a few hours or even less, which leads to severe degeneracies in the orbit estimation process. The systematic ranging approach gets around these degeneracies by performing a raster scan in the poorly-constrained space of topocentric range and range rate, while the plane of sky position and motion are directly tied to the recorded observations. This scan allows us to identify regions corresponding to collision solutions, as well as potential impact times and locations. From the probability distribution of the observation errors, we obtain a probability distribution in the orbital space and then estimate the probability of an Earth impact. We show how this technique is effective for a number of examples, including 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA, the only tw...

  20. Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island.

  1. Tsunami Modeling, Forecast and Warning (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, K.

    2010-12-01

    Tsunami is an infrequent natural hazard; however, once it happens, the effects are devastating and can be on global scale, as demonstrated by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Deterministic modeling of tsunami generation, propagation and coastal behavior has become popular, at least for earthquake tsunamis. Once the earthquake parameters are specified, tsunami arrival times, heights and current velocity at specific coastal points, and inland inundation area can be estimated. Such modeling has been used to make hazard maps usually by assuming largest possible earthquakes. However, smaller tsunamis than such a worst-case scenario occur more frequently. If the hazard maps are used incorrectly, it may lose reliability of coastal residents. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments, similar to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, have been made for some coasts. The output is tsunami hazard curves, i.e. annual probability (or return period) for specified coastal tsunami heights. A hazard curve is obtained by integration over the aleatory uncertainties, and a large number of hazard curves are made for each branch of logic tress representing epistemic uncertainty. Probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis is used for design of critical facilities but not popularly used for disaster mitigation. Tsunami warning systems, which have been significantly developed since 2004, rely on seismic and sea-level monitoring and pre-made numerical simulation. Real-time data assimilation of offshore sea level measurements can be used to update the warning levels. Tsunami from the February 2010 Chilean earthquake was recorded on many tide gauges and ocean bottom pressure gauges in the Pacific, before it arrived on the Japanese coast about 22 hours after the earthquake. The tsunami height was up to 2 m on the Japanese coast, causing fishery damage amounting 60 million US dollars, but did not cause any human damage.

  2. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability

  3. [Study on early-warning of Chinese materia medica price base on ARMA model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng; Mao, Yang-Dui

    2014-05-01

    This study sets up an early-warning system framework of Chinese materia medica price, using price index as early warning indicator to establish black early-warning model, with indicator of price index volatility and limit line of "price principal". The research divides warning degree into 5 parts named negative heavy warning, negative light warning, no warning, positive light warning and positive heavy warning, with 5 corresponding lights to describe the change level of the medicine price. Then make an early-warning empirical research based on Chengdu Chinese materia medica price index from December in 2010 to October in 2013. ARMA model is applied to forecast index and the result of early-warning is analyzed, and finally farmer households, companies, customers and the government are recommended respectively.

  4. Compiling a Sign Language Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    As we began working on the Danish Sign Language (DTS) Dictionary, we soon realised the truth in the statement that a lexicographer has to deal with problems within almost any linguistic discipline. Most of these problems come down to establishing simple rules, rules that can easily be applied eve...

  5. Signing Shakespeare: Romeo Loves Juliet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Liz; Cambridge, Terry

    1995-01-01

    A language arts teacher of junior high students with deafness or hearing impairments familiarized her students with "Romeo and Juliet" by telling the story in speech and signs, exploring the characters's personalities, reviewing vocabulary, putting the characters into contemporary situations, and directing the students in a full-scale production…

  6. Models as coherent sign structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.; Jorna, R.J.J.M.; Gazendam, H.W.M.; Cijsouw, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter explains how models function as the glue that keeps organizations together. In an analysis of models from a semiotic and cognitive point of view, assumptions about evolutionary dynamics and bounded rationality are used. It is concluded that a model is a coherent sign structure,

  7. Symptom,sign and syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010381 Clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome:retrospective study in forty-five patients. GUAN Yuzhou(管宇宙),et al. Dept Neurol,PUMC & CAMS,Bejing 100730. Chin J Neurol 2010;331-334. Objective To analyze the symptoms and signs in forty-five Lambert-Eaton myasthenia syndrome (LEMS)patients

  8. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  9. Predictors for the Number of Warning Information Sources During Tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhen; Luo, Jianjun; Liang, Daan; Nejat, Ali

    2017-04-01

    People may receive tornado warnings from multiple information sources, but little is known about factors that affect the number of warning information sources (WISs). This study examined predictors for the number of WISs with a telephone survey on randomly sampled residents in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Joplin, Missouri, approximately 1 year after both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (EF4 and EF5) in 2011. The survey included 1006 finished interviews and the working sample included 903 respondents. Poisson regression and Zero-Inflated Poisson regression showed that older age and having an emergency plan predicted more WISs in both cities. Education, marital status, and gender affected the possibilities of receiving warnings and the number of WISs either in Joplin or in Tuscaloosa. The findings suggest that social disparity affects the access to warnings not only with respect to the likelihood of receiving any warnings but also with respect to the number of WISs. In addition, historical and social contexts are important for examining predictors for the number of WISs. We recommend that the number of WISs should be regarded as an important measure to evaluate access to warnings in addition to the likelihood of receiving warnings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:168-172).

  10. Managing Risks? Early Warning Systems for Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitati, A. M.; Zommers, Z. A.; Habilov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning systems are a tool with which to minimize risks posed by climate related hazards. Although great strides have been made in developing early warning systems most deal with one hazard, only provide short-term warnings and do not reach the most vulnerable. This presentation will review research results of the United Nations Environment Programme's CLIM-WARN project. The project seeks to identify how governments can better communicate risks by designing multi-hazard early warning systems that deliver actionable warnings across timescales. Household surveys and focus group discussions were conducted in 36 communities in Kenya, Ghana and Burkina Faso in order to identify relevant climate related hazards, current response strategies and early warning needs. Preliminary results show significant variability in both risks and needs within and between countries. For instance, floods are more frequent in rural western parts of Kenya. Droughts are frequent in the north while populations in urban areas face a range of hazards - floods, droughts, disease outbreaks - that sometimes occur simultaneously. The majority of the rural population, especially women, the disabled and the elderly, do not have access to modern media such as radio, television, or internet. While 55% of rural populace never watches television, 64% of urban respondents watch television on a daily basis. Communities have different concepts of how to design warning systems. It will be a challenge for national governments to create systems that accommodate such diversity yet provide standard quality of service to all. There is a need for flexible and forward-looking early warning systems that deliver broader information about risks. Information disseminated through the system could not only include details of hazards, but also long-term adaptation options, general education, and health information, thus increasingly both capabilities and response options.

  11. Real-Time (Vision-Based) Road Sign Recognition Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kh Tohidul; Raj, Ram Gopal

    2017-01-01

    Road sign recognition is a driver support function that can be used to notify and warn the driver by showing the restrictions that may be effective on the current stretch of road. Examples for such regulations are ‘traffic light ahead’ or ‘pedestrian crossing’ indications. The present investigation targets the recognition of Malaysian road and traffic signs in real-time. Real-time video is taken by a digital camera from a moving vehicle and real world road signs are then extracted using vision-only information. The system is based on two stages, one performs the detection and another one is for recognition. In the first stage, a hybrid color segmentation algorithm has been developed and tested. In the second stage, an introduced robust custom feature extraction method is used for the first time in a road sign recognition approach. Finally, a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) has been created to recognize and interpret various road signs. It is robust because it has been tested on both standard and non-standard road signs with significant recognition accuracy. This proposed system achieved an average of 99.90% accuracy with 99.90% of sensitivity, 99.90% of specificity, 99.90% of f-measure, and 0.001 of false positive rate (FPR) with 0.3 s computational time. This low FPR can increase the system stability and dependability in real-time applications. PMID:28406471

  12. Inversion of tsunami waveforms and tsunami warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chao

    Ever since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the technique of inversion of tsunami data and the importance of tsunami warning have drawn the attention of many researchers. However, since tsunamis are rare and extreme events, developed inverse techniques lack validation, and open questions rise when they are applied to a real event. In this study, several of those open questions are investigated, i.e., the wave dispersion, bathymetry grid size and subfault division. First, tsunami records from three large tsunami events -- 2010 Maule, 2011 Tohoku and 2012 Haida Gwaii -- are analyzed to extract the main characteristics of the leading tsunami waves. Using the tool of wavelet transforming, the instant wave period can be obtained and thus the dispersive parameter mu2 can be calculated. mu2 is found to be smaller than 0.02 for all records, indicating that the wave dispersion is minor for the propagation of tsunami leading waves. Second, inversions of tsunami data are carried out for three tsunami events -- 2011 Tohoku, 2012 Haida Gwaii and 2014 Iquique. By varying the subfault size and the bathymetry grid size in the inversions, general rules are established for choosing those two parameters. It is found that the choice of bathymetry grid size depends on various parameters, such as the subfault size and the depth of subfaults. The global bathymetry data GEBCO with spatial resolution of 30 arcsec is generally good if the subfault size is larger than 40 km x 40 km; otherwise, bathymetry data with finer resolution is desirable. Detailed instructions of choosing the bathymetry size can be found in Chapter 2. By contrast, the choice of subfault size has much more freedom; our study shows that the subfault size can be very large without significant influence on the predicted tsunami waves. For earthquakes with magnitude of 8.0 ˜ 9.0, the subfault size can be 60 km ˜ 100 km. In our study, the maximum subfault size results in 9 ˜ 16 subfault patches on the ruptured fault surface

  13. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Call signs. 2.302 Section 2.302... RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call signs. The table which follows indicates the composition and blocks of international call signs available...

  14. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  15. Tactile Signing with One-Handed Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Tactile signing among persons with deaf-blindness is not homogenous; rather, like other forms of language, it exhibits variation, especially in turn taking. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language, tactile Norwegian Sign Language, and tactile French Sign Language focused on tactile communication with four hands, in which partially blind or…

  16. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  17. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  18. Anatomy of Historical Tsunamis: Lessons Learned for Tsunami Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Y.; Kong, L.; Yamamoto, M.; McCreery, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Tsunamis are high-impact disasters that can cause death and destruction locally within a few minutes of their occurrence and across oceans hours, even up to a day, afterward. Efforts to establish tsunami warning systems to protect life and property began in the Pacific after the 1946 Aleutian Islands tsunami caused casualties in Hawaii. Seismic and sea level data were used by a central control center to evaluate tsunamigenic potential and then issue alerts and warnings. The ensuing events of 1952, 1957, and 1960 tested the new system, which continued to expand and evolve from a United States system to an international system in 1965. The Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ITSU) steadily improved through the decades as more stations became available in real and near-real time through better communications technology and greater bandwidth. New analysis techniques, coupled with more data of higher quality, resulted in better detection, greater solution accuracy, and more reliable warnings, but limitations still exist in constraining the source and in accurately predicting propagation of the wave from source to shore. Tsunami event data collected over the last two decades through international tsunami science surveys have led to more realistic models for source generation and inundation, and within the warning centers, real-time tsunami wave forecasting will become a reality in the near future. The tsunami warning system is an international cooperative effort amongst countries supported by global and national monitoring networks and dedicated tsunami warning centers; the research community has contributed to the system by advancing and improving its analysis tools. Lessons learned from the earliest tsunamis provided the backbone for the present system, but despite 45 years of experience, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami reminded us that tsunamis strike and kill everywhere, not just in the Pacific. Today, a global intergovernmental tsunami warning system is coordinated

  19. Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of a rockfall warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bründl, Michael; Sättele, Martina; Krautblatter, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Rockslides and rockfalls can pose high risk to human settlements and traffic infrastructure. In addition to structural mitigation measures like rockfall nets, warning systems are increasingly installed to reduce rockfall risks. Whereas for structural mitigation measures with reducing effects on the spatial extent a structured evaluation method is existing, no or only few approaches to assess the effectiveness for warning systems are known. Especially for higher magnitude rockfalls structural mitigation measures are not effective, and reliable early warning systems will be essential in future. In response to that, we developed a classification and a framework to assess the reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems (Sättele et al, 2015a; 2016). Here, we demonstrate an application for the rockfall warning system installed in Preonzo prior to a major rockfall in May 2012 (Sättele et al., 2015b). We show that it is necessary to design such a warning system as fail-safe construction, which has to incorporate components with low failure probabilities, high redundancy, low warning thresholds, and additional control systems. With a hypothetical probabilistic analysis, we investigate the effect of the risk attitude of decision makers and of the number of sensors on the probability of detecting an event and on initiating a timely evacuation, as well as on related intervention cost. We conclude that it is possible to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of warning systems, which helps to optimize mitigation strategies against rockfall events. References Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Reliability and effectiveness of warning systems for natural hazards: concept and application to debris flow warning, Rel. Eng. Syst. Safety, 142, 192-202, 2015a. Sättele, M., Krautblatter, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Forecasting rock slope failure: How reliable and effective are warning systems?, Landslides, 605, 1-14, 2015b. Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and

  20. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Paradoxical Effects of Warning in the Production of Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Francesco; Mirandola, Chiara; Konishi, Mahiko; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The effects of warning on false recognition and associated subjective experience of false recollection and familiarity were investigated in 7-to 13-year-old children and young adults (N = 259) using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two warning conditions (warning with an example of a critical lure and warning without an example of a…

  2. Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164398.html Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs ... According to the study's first author, Sarah Kowitt, "Most adults, including smokers, have favorable attitudes towards larger ...

  3. Warning labels. A source of toxicity information for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, B E; Klein-Schwartz, W; Oderda, G M; Lucy, J S

    1984-08-01

    The Hazardous Substances Act specifies that warning labels for household products contain specific signal words. This study was designed to determine whether this warning label format provides enough information for parents to accurately assess product toxicity. One hundred forty-two parents from two different sites (community health clinic, private pediatrician's office) were asked to rate the toxicity of four common household products (Crystal Drano, Lysol Basin/Tub and Tile Cleaner, Clorox Bleach, Tempera Poster Paint) and four imaginary products based on the warning labels found on them. Parents had a fairly accurate perception of the toxicity of products and the toxicity to be anticipated based on the warning label. There was considerable variability in response for products which were less toxic or nontoxic. Confusion was noted regarding the meaning of the term nontoxic.

  4. Drug Abuse Warning Network US (DAWN-NS-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...

  5. Drug Abuse Warning Network US (DAWN-NS-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...

  6. Application of real-time GPS to earthquake early warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard M. Allen; Alon Ziv

    2011-01-01

      Real-time GPS can provide static-offset observations during an earthquake Real-time GPS provides a robust constrain on magnitude for warnings GPS networks should be used as a companion to seismic...

  7. Annan warns of 'content divide' between rich and poor

    CERN Multimedia

    Dickson, D

    2003-01-01

    "The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, warned today (10 December) that a "content divide" is threatening to deprive developing countries of the full benefits offered by information and communications technologies (ICTs)" (1 page)

  8. 2004 through 2010 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that continuously monitors drug-related visits to hospital...

  9. Objective test and performance measurement of automotive crash warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, S.; Norcross, R. J.; Falco, J. A.

    2007-04-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), under an interagency agreement with the United States Department of Transportation (DOT), is supporting development of objective test and measurement procedures for vehicle-based warning systems intended to warn an inattentive driver of imminent rear-end, road-departure and lane-change crash scenarios. The work includes development of track and on-road test procedures, and development of an independent measurement system, which together provide data for evaluating warning system performance. This paper will provide an overview of DOT's Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety System (IVBSS) program along with a review of the approach for objectively testing and measuring warning system performance.

  10. Warnings reduce false memories for missing aspects of events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrie, Matthew P; Garry, Maryanne

    2011-01-01

    When people see movies with some parts missing, they falsely recognize many of the missing parts later. In two experiments, we examined the effect of warnings on people's false memories for these parts. In Experiment 1, warning subjects about false recognition before the movie (forewarnings) reduced false recognition, but warning them after the movie (postwarnings) reduced false recognition to a lesser extent. In Experiment 2, the effect of the warnings depended on the nature of the missing parts. Forewarnings were more effective than postwarnings in reducing false recognition of missing noncrucial parts, but forewarnings and postwarnings were similarly effective in reducing false recognition of crucial missing parts. We use the source monitoring framework to explain our results.

  11. Fentanyl-Laced 'Norco' Is Lethal, Report Warns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160158.html Fentanyl-Laced 'Norco' Is Lethal, Report Warns New street ... study involving the drug. The street drug combines fentanyl -- the synthetic opioid painkiller linked to the death ...

  12. FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162543.html FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under ... agency news release. She is director of the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. "Parents and ...

  13. Signed Networks in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Leskovec, Jure; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Relations between users on social media sites often reflect a mixture of positive (friendly) and negative (antagonistic) interactions. In contrast to the bulk of research on social networks that has focused almost exclusively on positive interpretations of links between people, we study how the interplay between positive and negative relationships affects the structure of on-line social networks. We connect our analyses to theories of signed networks from social psychology. We find that the c...

  14. Vital Signs-Secondhand Smoke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This podcast is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  15. Vital Signs - Child Passenger Safety

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    This podcast is based on the February 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Over the past 10 years, more than 9,000 children 12 and under died in motor vehicle crashes, and a third who died in 2011 weren't buckled up. Buckling up is the best way to reduce injuries and save lives.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/4/2014.

  16. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  17. An Early Warning System for Asteroid Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Tonry, John L

    2010-01-01

    Earth is bombarded by meteors, occasionally by one large enough to cause a significant explosion and possible loss of life. Although the odds of a deadly asteroid strike in the next century are low, the most likely impact is by a relatively small asteroid, and we suggest that the best mitigation strategy in the near term is simply to move people out of the way. We describe an "early warning" system that could provide a week's notice of most sizable asteroids or comets on track to hit the Earth. This system, dubbed "Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System" (ATLAS), comprises two observatories separated by about 100km that simultaneously scan the visible sky twice a night, and can be implemented immediately for relatively low cost. The sensitivity of ATLAS permits detection of 140m asteroids (100 Mton impact energy) three weeks before impact, and 50m asteroids a week before arrival. An ATLAS alarm, augmented by other observations, should result in a determination of impact location and time that is accura...

  18. Smartphone MEMS accelerometers and earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.; Kwon, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    The low cost MEMS accelerometers in the smartphones are attracting more and more attentions from the science community due to the vast number and potential applications in various areas. We are using the accelerometers inside the smartphones to detect the earthquakes. We did shake table tests to show these accelerometers are also suitable to record large shakings caused by earthquakes. We developed an android app - MyShake, which can even distinguish earthquake movements from daily human activities from the recordings recorded by the accelerometers in personal smartphones and upload trigger information/waveform to our server for further analysis. The data from these smartphones forms a unique datasets for seismological applications, such as earthquake early warning. In this talk I will layout the method we used to recognize earthquake-like movement from single smartphone, and the overview of the whole system that harness the information from a network of smartphones for rapid earthquake detection. This type of system can be easily deployed and scaled up around the global and provides additional insights of the earthquake hazards.

  19. Low Cost Reversible Signed Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Sharmin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays exponential advancement in reversible comp utation has lead to better fabrication and integration process. It has become very popular ove r the last few years since reversible logic circuit s dramatically reduce energy loss. It consumes less p ower by recovering bit loss from its unique input-o utput mapping. This paper presents two new gates called RC-I and RC-II to design an n-bit signed binary comparator where simulation results show that the p roposed circuit works correctly and gives significa ntly better performance than the existing counterparts. An algorithm has been presented in this paper for constructing an optimized reversible n-bit signed c omparator circuit. Moreover some lower bounds have been proposed on the quantum cost, the numbers of g ates used and the number of garbage outputs generated for designing a low cost reversible sign ed comparator. The comparative study shows that the proposed design exhibits superior performance consi dering all the efficiency parameters of reversible logic design which includes number of gates used, quantum cost, garbage output and constant inputs. This proposed design has certainly outperformed all the other existing approaches.

  20. Number of warning information sources and decision making during tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianjun; Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan

    2015-03-01

    Taking proper protective action upon receiving tornado warnings is critical to reducing casualties. With more warning information sources becoming available, how the number of such information sources affects decision making should be quantitatively investigated. To examine how the number of warning information sources affected individuals' decisions to take protective action during tornadoes. A telephone survey using random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO, resulting in a working sample of 782 respondents. Both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (Enhanced Fujita Scale [EF]4 and EF5) in 2011. The analysis was conducted in 2013. Logistic regression analysis showed that relative to having only one warning information source, having two and three or more warning information sources significantly increased the odds of taking protective action in Joplin but not in Tuscaloosa; having three or more sources had a significantly stronger effect on taking protective action in Joplin than in Tuscaloosa. Having an emergency preparation plan in both cities and being white in Tuscaloosa significantly increased the odds of taking protective action, whereas being divorced in Joplin reduced these odds. Receiving warnings from more warning information sources might be more beneficial in places with less previous exposure to tornadoes and for populations with lower awareness of a potential tornado and higher probability of receiving no warnings. Emergency management agencies and public health officials should give priority to these places and populations when formulating disaster mitigation decisions and policies. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Air quality early-warning system for cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunzhen; Yang, Wendong; Wang, Jianzhou

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution has become a serious issue in many developing countries, especially in China, and could generate adverse effects on human beings. Air quality early-warning systems play an increasingly significant role in regulatory plans that reduce and control emissions of air pollutants and inform the public in advance when harmful air pollution is foreseen. However, building a robust early-warning system that will improve the ability of early-warning is not only a challenge but also a critical issue for the entire society. Relevant research is still poor in China and cannot always satisfy the growing requirements of regulatory planning, despite the issue's significance. Therefore, in this paper, a hybrid air quality early-warning system was successfully developed, composed of forecasting and evaluation. First, a hybrid forecasting model was proposed as an important part of this system based on the theory of "decomposition and ensemble" and combined with the advanced data processing technique, support vector machine, the latest bio-inspired optimization algorithm and the leave-one-out strategy for deciding weights. Afterwards, to intensify the research, fuzzy evaluation was performed, which also plays an indispensable role in the early-warning system. The forecasting model and fuzzy evaluation approaches are complementary. Case studies using daily air pollution concentrations of six air pollutants from three cities in China (i.e., Taiyuan, Harbin and Chongqing) are used as examples to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the developed air quality early-warning system. Experimental results demonstrate that both the accuracy and the effectiveness of the developed system are greatly superior for air quality early warning. Furthermore, the application of forecasting and evaluation enables the informative and effective quantification of future air quality, offering a significant advantage, and can be employed to develop rapid air quality early-warning systems.

  2. Earthquake Early Warning with Seismogeodesy: Detection, Location, and Magnitude Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D.; Bock, Y.; Melgar, D.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake early warning is critical to reducing injuries and casualties in case of a large magnitude earthquake. The system must rely on near-source data to minimize the time between event onset and issuance of a warning. Early warning systems typically use seismic instruments (seismometers and accelerometers), but these instruments experience difficulty maintaining reliable data in the near-source region and undergo magnitude saturation for large events. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) instruments capture the long period motions and have been shown to produce robust estimates of the true size of the earthquake source. However, GNSS is often overlooked in this context in part because it is not precise enough to record the first seismic wave arrivals (P-wave detection), an important consideration for issuing an early warning. GNSS instruments are becoming integrated into early warning, but are not yet fully exploited. Our approach involves the combination of direct measurements from collocated GNSS and accelerometer stations to estimate broadband coseismic displacement and velocity waveforms [Bock et al., 2011], a method known as seismogeodesy. We present the prototype seismogeodetic early warning system developed at Scripps and demonstrate that the seismogeodetic dataset can be used for P-wave detection, hypocenter location, and shaking onset determination. We discuss uncertainties in each of these estimates and include discussion of the sensitivity of our estimates as a function of the azimuthal distribution of monitoring stations. The seismogeodetic combination has previously been shown to be immune to magnitude saturation [Crowell et al., 2013; Melgar et al., 2015]. Rapid magnitude estimation is an important product in earthquake early warning, and is the critical metric in current tsunami hazard warnings. Using the seismogeodetic approach, we refine earthquake magnitude scaling using P-wave amplitudes (Pd) and peak ground displacements (PGD) for a

  3. Research of internet worm warning system based on system identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao ZHOU; Guanzhong DAI; Huimin YE

    2006-01-01

    The frequent explosion of Internet worms has been one of the most serious problems in cyberspace security.In this paper, by analyzing the worm's propagation model, we propose a new worm warning system based on the method of system identification, and use recursive least squares algorithm to estimate the worm's infection rate. The simulation result shows the method we adopted is an efficient way to conduct Internet worm warning.

  4. Public Health Surveillance in Pilot Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C.; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the lessons learned from operation and maintenance of the public health surveillance (PHS) component of five pilot city drinking water contamination warning systems (CWS) including: Cincinnati, New York, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Dallas. Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed a program to pilot multi-component contamination warning systems (CWSs), known as the ?Water Security initiative (WSi).? The Cincinnati pilot has been f...

  5. Enhancement of Delivery of Warning Messages for Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Sheng Tsai

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication systems have been studied extensively in recent years by transportation experts worldwide. Such systems enable the transmission of warning messages (alarms between vehicles without additional roadside infrastructure. Thus, messages can be sent faster than through base stations. Because of these advantages, researchers worldwide are exploring how this technology can improve traffic safety. However, the various V2V schemes proposed thus far share the same problem: (1 unnecessary repetition of warning messages and (2 transmission to inapplicable respondents. This study proposes a new method for delivering V2V warning messages which reduces the redundant messages common in current schemes. Here, three schemes to deliver alarms are considered. One is blind flooding to broadcast alarms. Warning messages are routed by AODV protocol. Another is called Two Lanes. The broadcasting region of alarms is limited in two traffic lanes nearby a traffic accident only. And the last one is the proposed strategy where a warning message received by a car will be simply checked the prime number carried within the alarm header and decided whether the car is responsible to deliver it. If necessary, it will be forwarded to the next nodes. Otherwise, the redundant warning message shall be discarded to release system load and avoid to suspend other normal transmission proceeding. The results reveal that minimizing the delays caused by such redundant messages enables warnings to be sent to drivers more rapidly. Also, it prioritizes warning messages so that drivers are apprised of the most serious and dangerous traffic accidents. Moreover, another key finding in this paper is that the radii of the broadcasting coverage shall be adjusted carefully and adaptively to optimize the system performance.

  6. Developing models to estimate the benefits from flood warnings

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Dennis J.; Priest, Sally J.; Schildt, Anne; Handmer, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Flood forecasting and warning systems have a significant role to play within integrated flood risk management, either in combination with mobile structural flood defences or as part of an approach which combines a number of non-structural measures. In theory the benefits of flood warnings, in terms of community security, protection of life and flood damage reduction, should be large. The theoretical benefit potential is being driven upwards by important advances in the predictive sciences, an...

  7. Road and Street Centerlines, MDTA Road Signs like Stop signs, Toll signs, Roadway Signs, Stop Signs, Toll signs, Overhead signs, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2010. It is described as 'MDTA Road Signs like Stop...

  8. The Role of Sign Phonology and Iconicity During Sign Processing: The Case of Deaf Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, E.A.; Hermans, D.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the influence of sign phonology and iconicity during sign processing in deaf children, the roles of these sign features were examined using an experimental sign-picture verification paradigm. Participants had to make decisions about sign-picture pairs, manipulated according to

  9. Multisensory in-car warning signals for collision avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cristy; Reed, Nick; Spence, Charles

    2007-12-01

    A driving simulator study was conducted in order to assess the relative utility of unimodal auditory, unimodal vibrotactile, and combined audiotactile (i.e., multisensory) in-car warning signals to alert and inform drivers of likely front-to-rear-end collision events in a situation modeled on real-world driving. The implementation of nonvisual in-car warning signals may have important safety implications in lessening any visual overload during driving. Multisensory integration can provide synergistic facilitation effects. The participants drove along a rural road in a car-following scenario in either the presence or absence of a radio program in the background. The brake light signals of the lead vehicle were also unpredictably either enabled or disabled on a trial-by-trial basis. The results showed that the participants initiated their braking responses significantly more rapidly following the presentation of audiotactile warning signals than following the presentation of either unimodal auditory or unimodal vibrotactile warning signals. Multisensory warning signals offer a particularly effective means of capturing driver attention in demanding situations such as driving. The potential value of such multisensory in-car warning signals is explained with reference to recent cognitive neuroscience research.

  10. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Quester Pascale G; Miller Caroline L; Hill David J; Hiller Janet E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than ...

  11. Augmented reality warnings in vehicles: Effects of modality and specificity on effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Felix; Fastenmeier, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In the future, vehicles will be able to warn drivers of hidden dangers before they are visible. Specific warning information about these hazards could improve drivers' reactions and the warning effectiveness, but could also impair them, for example, by additional cognitive-processing costs. In a driving simulator study with 88 participants, we investigated the effects of modality (auditory vs. visual) and specificity (low vs. high) on warning effectiveness. For the specific warnings, we used augmented reality as an advanced technology to display the additional auditory or visual warning information. Part one of the study concentrates on the effectiveness of necessary warnings and part two on the drivers' compliance despite false alarms. For the first warning scenario, we found several positive main effects of specificity. However, subsequent effects of specificity were moderated by the modality of the warnings. The specific visual warnings were observed to have advantages over the three other warning designs concerning gaze and braking reaction times, passing speeds and collision rates. Besides the true alarms, braking reaction times as well as subjective evaluation after these warnings were still improved despite false alarms. The specific auditory warnings were revealed to have only a few advantages, but also several disadvantages. The results further indicate that the exact coding of additional information, beyond its mere amount and modality, plays an important role. Moreover, the observed advantages of the specific visual warnings highlight the potential benefit of augmented reality coding to improve future collision warnings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. UncertiantyQuantificationinTsunamiEarlyWarningCalculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunziato, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the Tsunami calculations is the estimation of the impact of waves caused by large seismic events on the coasts and the determination of potential inundation areas. In the case of Early Warning Systems, i.e. systems that should allow to anticipate the possible effects and give the possibility to react consequently (i.e. issue evacuation of areas at risk), this must be done in very short time (minutes) to be effective. In reality, the above estimation includes several uncertainty factors which make the prediction extremely difficult. The quality of the very first estimations of the seismic parameters is not very precise: the uncertainty in the determination of the seismic components (location, magnitude and depth) decreases with time because as time passes it is possible to use more and more seismic signals and the event characterization becomes more precise. On the other hand other parameters that are necessary to establish for the performance of a calculation (i.e. fault mechanism) are difficult to estimate accurately also after hours (and in some cases remain unknown) and therefore this uncertainty remains in the estimated impact evaluations; when a quick tsunami calculation is necessary (early warning systems) the possibility to include any possible future variation of the conditions to establish the "worst case scenario" is particularly important. The consequence is that the number of uncertain parameters is so large that it is not easy to assess the relative importance of each of them and their effect on the predicted results. In general the complexity of system computer codes is generated by the multitude of different models which are assembled into a single program to give the global response for a particular phenomenon. Each of these model has associated a determined uncertainty coming from the application of that model to single cases and/or separated effect test cases. The difficulty in the prediction of a Tsunami calculation response is

  13. Design and evaluation of security multimedia warnings for children's smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Wiebke; Tuchscheerer, Sven; Fruth, Jana; Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana

    2012-02-01

    This article describes primarily the development and empiric validation of a design for security warning messages on smartphones for primary school children (7-10 years old). Our design approach for security warnings for children uses a specific character and is based on recommendations of a paediatrician expert. The design criteria are adapted to children's skills, e.g. their visual, acoustic, and haptic perception and their literacy. The developed security warnings are prototypically implemented in an iOS application (on the iPhone 3G/4G) where children are warned by a simulated anti-malware background service, while they are busy with another task. For the evaluation we select methods for empiric validation of the design approach from the field of usability testing ("think aloud" test, questionnaires, log-files, etc.). Our security warnings prototype is evaluated in an empiric user study with 13 primary school children, aged between 8 and 9 years and of different gender (5 girls, 8 boys). The evaluation analysis shows, that nearly all children liked the design of our security warnings. Surprisingly, on several security warning messages most of the children react in the right way after reading the warning, although the meaning couldn't be interpreted in the right way. Another interesting result is, that several children relate specific information, e.g. update, to a specific character. Furthermore, it could be seen that most of the primary school test candidates have little awareness of security threats on smartphones. It is a very strong argument to develop e.g. tutorials or websites in order to raise awareness and teach children how to recognize security threats and how to react to them. Our design approach of security warnings for children's smartphones can be a basis for warning on other systems or applications like tutorials, which are used by children. In a second investigation, we focus on webpages, designed for children since smartphones and webpages (the

  14. Early Warning Signals - conceptual limitations and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathiany, Sebastian; Claussen, Martin; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Due to potentially large positive feedbacks in the climate system, the existence of tipping points is under debate. At these points, small changes in forcing can lead to abrupt climate change due to the destabilising feedbacks. In order to predict such abrupt changes or to distinguish changes in stability from random state transitions, it has been proposed to exploit statistical precursors of instabilities, also called early warning signals (EWS). However, we argue that the limitations of the underlying concept generally do not allow conclusions on the mechanism of abrupt changes without substantial physical knowledge - the burden of proof lies with the applier of EWS. We demonstrate these limitations with examples from vegetation dynamics and sea ice cover change in models of very different complexity. Apart from the practical problem of short and non-stationary time-series, statistical properties such as variance and autocorrelation usually change for reasons unrelated to the system's stability. In particular, it has to be known, how the natural variability (noise) in a system is caused and how it propagates through the system. A further fundamental limitation is imposed by the large number of spatial degrees of freedom. The benefit of EWS has only been shown in idealised systems of predefined spatial extent. In a more general context like a complex climate system model, the critical subsystem that exhibits a loss in stability (hotspot) and the critical mode of the transition may be unknown. An abrupt change can therefore come as a surprise. However, we suggest that EWS can be applied as a diagnostic tool to find the hotspot of a sudden transition and to distinguish this hotspot from regions experiencing an induced tipping. For this purpose we present a scheme which identifies a hotspot as a certain combination of grid cells which maximise an EWS. The method can provide information on the causality of sudden transitions and may help to improve the knowledge on

  15. From a physical approach to earthquake prediction, towards long and short term warnings ahead of large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, R.; Bonafede, M.

    2012-04-01

    approach of statistics of universal precursors or stress level. The approach is more related to failure physics, by studying the ongoing failure. But it requires watching and relevant modeling for years, even decades. Useful information on fault process and warnings can be issued along the way, starting when we discover a fault showing signs of preparatory processes, up to the time of the earthquake. Such information and warnings could be issued by government agencies in cooperation with scientists to the local Civil Protection committee closest to the fault with information about how to prepare, including directives about enhanced watching. For such a warning service we need a continuously operating geo-watching system, applying modern computing technology to the multidisciplinary data, and a rule based schedule to prepare adequate warnings.

  16. Vital Signs-Trucker Safety

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In 2012 in the United States, about 317,000 motor vehicle crashes involved a large truck. Twenty-six thousand truck drivers and their passengers were injured in these crashes, and about 700 died. Learn what can be done to help truck drivers stay safe.  Created: 3/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/3/2015.

  17. Grandfather Moose: Sign Language Nursery Rhymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Harley

    1987-01-01

    "Grandfather Moose" rhymes, written to follow the Mother Goose tradition, are short, appealing, easy-to-memorize sign language nursery rhymes which employ visual poetic devices such as similar signs and transitional flow of movement. (CB)

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... government is Tracking the nation’s progress in reducing crash injuries and deaths. www.cdc.gov/psr/national-summary/ ... Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety CDC: Child Passenger ...

  19. South African sign language assistive translation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a novel approach and practical solution to an interactive sign language machine translation system from English to South African Sign Language. They interface the system with the GNApp application, which is an augmentative...

  20. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR (including the Louisa District, the Annada District, and the Brussels District) Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide...

  1. Signs and Symptoms of Untreated Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ Health care providers Educational materials Signs and Symptoms of Untreated Lyme Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... area where Lyme disease occurs . Early Signs and Symptoms (3 to 30 days after tick bite) Fever, ...

  2. Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders Depression and bipolar disorder (also ... a Confidential Online Mood Disorder Screening Signs and symptoms of depression Prolonged sadness or unexplained crying spells ...

  3. Cooperative Sign Language Tutoring: A Multiagent Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ilker; Aran, Oya; Yolum, Pınar; Akarun, Lale

    Sign languages can be learned effectively only with frequent feedback from an expert in the field. The expert needs to watch a performed sign, and decide whether the sign has been performed well based on his/her previous knowledge about the sign. The expert's role can be imitated by an automatic system, which uses a training set as its knowledge base to train a classifier that can decide whether the performed sign is correct. However, when the system does not have enough previous knowledge about a given sign, the decision will not be accurate. Accordingly, we propose a multiagent architecture in which agents cooperate with each other to decide on the correct classification of performed signs. We apply different cooperation strategies and test their performances in varying environments. Further, through analysis of the multiagent system, we can discover inherent properties of sign languages, such as the existence of dialects.

  4. GITEWS -- The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterjung, J.; Rudloff, A.

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this work is the implementation of an effective Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean. It is a component part of an Early Warning System that will also be capable of registering other natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The system integrates terrestrial observation networks of seismology und geodesy with marine measurements techniques and satellite observations. The required R & D work will be realized within the framework of a stage-plan, which will, within a short time span of 1-3 years, be able to provide effective warning on the one hand and, which will also allow for an integration of technological developments, currently undergoing further research. The initiative is coordinated by the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (HGF), represented by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ). In view of the geological situation one has to bear in mind that Indonesia especially, due to the fact that the main islands are located next to and above the Sunda seismogenic zone, could most frequently and most intensively in the future be prone to catastrophic Tsunami events. The envisaged Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean consists of different components as broadband seismometers, GPS, tide gauges, ocean-bottom pressure sensors and GPS-Buoys. On the basis of the data and recordings registered a warning can be generated. This presentation gives insight into the creation of the 26 December 2004 Tsunami, introduces the planned technical realization of the Early Warning System, shows first model scenarios and gives an overview of the planned realization of an Early Warning System in the Indian Ocean. http://www.gfz-potsdam.de

  5. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  6. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  7. Sign (di)Lemma for Dimension Shifting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitin Nitsure

    2009-04-01

    There is a surprising occurrence of some minus signs in the isomorphisms produced in the well-known technique of dimension shifting in calculating derived functors in homological algebra. We explicitly determine these signs. Getting these signs right is important in order to avoid basic contradictions. We illustrate the result – which we call as the sign lemma for dimension shifting – by some de Rham cohomology and Chern class considerations for compact Riemann surfaces.

  8. Cutaneous signs of classical dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, M; Capo, A; Meogrossi, G; Amerio, P

    2014-10-01

    Idiopathic immune myopathies (IIM) are an heterogeneous group of autoimmune muscle disorders characterized by progressive muscle involvement. Dermatomyositis (DM) is the most common form of IIM. It is a multisystem disorder characterized by symmetric proximal, extensor, inflammatory myopathy, vascular involvement and a characteristic cutaneous eruption. Six types of DM have been identified: idiopathic, juvenile (JDM), cancer-related other autoimmune diseases-related, iatrogenic DM and amyopathic DM. Cutaneous manifestations of DM are the most important aspect of this disease and can precede from several months to years muscle or systemic involvement. Three groups of signs have been described: pathognomonic, highly characteristic and compatible. Although differences exist among the different clinical presentation of skin lesions, they share common histological findings including the presence of interface dermatitis with epidermal atrophy, basement membrane degeneration, vacuolar alteration of basal keratinocytes, and dermal changes consisting of interstitial mucin deposition and a sparse lymphocytic infiltrate. DM is a serious disease; the correct evaluation of any skin lesion suggesting an early diagnosis is of utmost importance. Skin signs may, also, represent a marker of treatment efficacy even though systemic symptoms worsening may not always be followed by more severe skin lesions.

  9. Maternal perception of cause, signs and severity of diarrhoea in a suburban west African community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    1996-01-01

    With the aim of investigating perceived morbidity and care seeking behaviour, a household survey was conducted, where 319 episodes of diarrhoea were followed by interviews every second day. The chance of consultation increased with the number of symptoms reported by the mother. The appearance...... of the eyes and how the child breastfed were early warnings that mothers recognized best. By contrast, there was an 80% reduction in the likelihood of seeking consultation when the mother perceived the diarrhoea as caused by teeth eruption (n = 96). Children with "teething diarrhoea" were, however, just...... as likely to develop signs of dehydration as children with non-teething diarrhoea. We conclude that health education concerning diarrhoea should emphasize early signs of dehydration and the discouragement of "teething" as an explanation of natural diarrhoea....

  10. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  11. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  12. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a list...

  13. Sign Plan : Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Seney NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a list of...

  14. Smart Signs Show You the Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijding, M.E.M.; Meratnia, N.; Benz, H.P.; Matysiak Szóstek, A.

    2007-01-01

    Smart Signs are a new type of electronic door and way signs based on small computers which can be seamlessly incorporated in the environment. Smart Signs provide personalized context-aware guidance and messaging designed to support wayfinding activities in large indoor spaces and their surroundings.

  15. Sign Plan : Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sherburne NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a list...

  16. Sign Plan: Kenai National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Kenai NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a list of...

  17. Sign Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mingo NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a list of...

  18. How many Babinski's signs are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakitani, Fabio T; Collares, Daniel; Kurozawa, Adam Y; Lima, Plínio M G de; Teive, Hélio A G

    2010-08-01

    In addition to the famous sign described by Joseph Babinski, which is also known as Babinski's reflex, there are references in the literature to various other signs described by this famous disciple of J-M Charcot. This article reviews all the neurological signs described by Babinski.

  19. Smart Signs Show You the Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijding, M.E.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Benz, H.P.; Matysiak Szóstek, A.

    Smart Signs are a new type of electronic door and way signs based on small computers which can be seamlessly incorporated in the environment. Smart Signs provide personalized context-aware guidance and messaging designed to support wayfinding activities in large indoor spaces and their surroundings.

  20. Sign Plan : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Big Stone NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a list of...

  1. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  2. Sign Language Planning: Pragmatism, Pessimism and Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Graham H.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the present collection of sign language planning studies. Contextualising the analyses against the backdrop of core issues in the theory of language planning and the evolution of applied sign linguistics, it is argued that--while the sociolinguistic circumstances of signed languages worldwide can, in many respects, be…

  3. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  4. A Segmental Framework for Representing Signs Phonetically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    The arguments for dividing the signing stream in signed languages into sequences of phonetic segments are compelling. The visual records of instances of actually occurring signs provide evidence of two basic types of segments: postural segments and trans-forming segments. Postural segments specify an alignment of articulatory features, both manual…

  5. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Parker River NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a list...

  6. Research on the Translation of Public Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiannan, Ma

    2012-01-01

    Because of the increasing international image of China, the translation of public signs in city has become the very important issue. From the point of view of cross-cultural communication, the public signs have crucial influence on the image of the city, even for the whole China. However, there exist many translation errors of the public signs in…

  7. Sign Plan : Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Valley NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a...

  8. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  9. Patients’ attention to and understanding of adverse drug reaction warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresa Muir McNeal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tresa Muir McNeal1, Colleen Y Colbert1, Christian Cable1, Curtis R Mirkes1, June G Lubowinski2, John D Myers11Department of Medicine, Texas A&M University System HSC College of Medicine, Scott & White Healthcare, Temple, TX, USA; 2RD Haynes Medical Library, Scott & White Healthcare, Temple, TX, USAIntroduction: Medications are critical to the management of patient conditions, and they can have significant effects on the success or failure of medical interventions. Patient perceptions of drug warnings play an important role in medication compliance and ultimately disease management. Several factors may affect patients’ understanding of drug warnings and drug labeling, including health literacy and interactions with physicians and pharmacists.Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature related to patient perceptions of drug warnings and drug labeling. Descriptive articles and studies regarding patient perceptions and knowledge of adverse drug reaction warnings were reviewed.Methods: The following databases were utilized to search the literature related to patient perceptions of drug warnings: PubMed, Academic Search Premiere, CINAHL, Medline, Psych Info, Business Source Complete, Alternative Healthwatch, Health Source (both Nursing/Academic and Consumer additions, JSTOR, and Master File Premiere. For the purpose of this review, any peer-reviewed article was eligible. Exclusionary criteria included: articles published in languages other than English, articles/studies on patient perceptions of vaccines and chemotherapy, and articles related to perceptions of medications administered in the inpatient setting. Forty-six articles were included in the review.Results: Health literacy has been shown to have a major impact on patients’ ability to understand potential adverse reactions and instructions on correct dosing of medications. Direct communication with physicians and pharmacists is one of the most important and

  10. Impact of social preparedness on flood early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Seibert, J.

    2017-01-01

    Flood early warning systems play a major role in the disaster risk reduction paradigm as cost-effective methods to mitigate flood disaster damage. The connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social spheres of early warning systems are increasingly being considered as key aspects for successful flood mitigation. The behavior of the public and first responders during flood situations, determined by their preparedness, is heavily influenced by many behavioral traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or even denial. In this study, we use the recency of flood experiences as a proxy for social preparedness to assess its impact on the efficiency of flood early warning systems through a simple stylized model and implemented this model using a simple mathematical description. The main findings, which are based on synthetic data, point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially in circumstances where the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. Furthermore, we found that efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings provide important insights into the role of social preparedness that may help guide decision-making in the field of flood early warning systems.

  11. History and evolution of warning labels for automotive friction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelovich, Luda M; Thuett, Kerry A; Chapman, Pamela S; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-04-01

    There have been claims over the years that asbestos-containing product manufacturers did not sufficiently warn end users early enough regarding the potential health hazards associated with their products (1930s-1990s). To address this issue, we compared the content of the warnings associated with asbestos-containing friction products (brakes, clutches, and gaskets) manufactured by the US automotive industries to what was expected by regulatory agencies during the time period in which an understanding of asbestos health hazards was being developed. We ended our evaluation around 1990, since asbestos-containing manufacturer supplied automotive products were functionally removed from commerce by 1985 in the United States. We assessed the warnings issued in users' manuals, technical service bulletins, product packaging materials, and labels placed on products themselves. Based on our evaluation, regulatory agencies had no guidelines regarding specific warning language for finished friction products, particularly when a product contained encapsulated asbestos fibers (i.e., modified by a bonding agent). Even today, federal regulations do not require labeling on encapsulated products when, based on professional judgment or sampling, user exposure is not expected to exceed the OSHA PEL. We concluded that, despite limited regulatory guidance, the US automotive industry provided adequate warnings with regards to its friction products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A brief measure of reactance to health warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G; Sheeran, Paschal; Noar, Seth M; Ribisl, Kurt M; Boynton, Marcella H; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-06-01

    Reactance to persuasive messages involves perceived threat to freedom, anger, and counterarguing that may undermine the impact of health warnings. To understand reactance's effects, reliable and valid assessment is critical. We sought to develop and validate a brief Reactance to Health Warnings Scale (RHWS). Two independent samples of US adults completed the brief RHWS in studies that presented warnings on cigarette packs that smokers carried with them for 4 weeks (Study 1; n = 2149) or as digital images of cigarette packs that participants viewed briefly (Study 2; n = 1413). The three-item Brief RHWS had good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The scale correlated with higher trait reactance and exposure to pictorial warnings, supporting its convergent validity. With respect to predictive validity, the Brief RHWS predicted perceived message effectiveness, quit intentions, avoidance of the warnings, and number of cigarettes smoked per day. The Brief RHWS can serve as an efficient adjunct to the development of persuasive messages.

  13. Congenital Heart Disease as a Warning Sign for the Diagnosis of the 22q11.2 Deletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Marcília S., E-mail: marcilia.grassi@hc.fm.usp.br; Jacob, Cristina M. A. [Instituto da Criança - HC-FMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kulikowski, Leslie D. [Departamento de Patologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pastorino, Antonio C. [Instituto da Criança - HC-FMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Dutra, Roberta L. [Departamento de Patologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miura, Nana; Jatene, Marcelo B. [Instituto do Coração - HC-FMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pegler, Stephanie P.; Kim, Chong A.; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda [Instituto da Criança - HC-FMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    To alert for the diagnosis of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). To describe the main CHDs, as well as phenotypic, metabolic and immunological findings in a series of 60 patients diagnosed with 22q11.2DS. The study included 60 patients with 22q11.2DS evaluated between 2007 and 2013 (M:F=1.3, age range 14 days to 20 years and 3 months) at a pediatric reference center for primary immunodeficiencies. The diagnosis was established by detection of the 22q11.2 microdeletion using FISH (n = 18) and/or MLPA (n = 42), in association with clinical and laboratory information. Associated CHDs, progression of phenotypic facial features, hypocalcemia and immunological changes were analyzed. CHDs were detected in 77% of the patients and the most frequent type was tetralogy of Fallot (38.3%). Surgical correction of CHD was performed in 34 patients. Craniofacial dysmorphisms were detected in 41 patients: elongated face (60%) and/or elongated nose (53.3%), narrow palpebral fissure (50%), dysplastic, overfolded ears (48.3%), thin lips (41.6%), elongated fingers (38.3%) and short stature (36.6%). Hypocalcemia was detected in 64.2% and decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in 25.9%. Decrease in total lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 counts were present in 40%, 53.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Hypogammaglobulinemia was detected in one patient and decreased concentrations of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in two other patients. Suspicion for 22q11.2DS should be raised in all patients with CHD associated with hypocalcemia and/or facial dysmorphisms, considering that many of these changes may evolve with age. The 22q11.2 microdeletion should be confirmed by molecular testing in all patients.

  14. Eating Disorders in children and adolescents with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: prevalence, risk factors, warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicka, Ewa; Bryńska, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased risk for eating disorders, various dependent on type of diabetes. Binge eating disorder is more common in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Whereas, intentional omission of insulin doses for the purpose of weight loss occurs mainly in patient with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), however, in some patients with type 2 diabetes omission of oral hypoglycemic drugs can be present. Risk factors for the development of eating disorders in patients with diabetes include: age, female gender, greater body weight, body image dissatisfaction, history of dieting and history of depression. Poor glycemic control, recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis or recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, secondary to intentional insulin overdose, missed clinical appointments, dietary manipulation and low self-esteem should raise concern. The consequence of eating disorders or disordered eating patterns in patients with diabetes is poor glycemic control and hence higher possibility of complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and premature death.

  15. Warning sign of postmenopausal hormone replacement treatment%绝经后激素治疗慎用证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爱军

    2011-01-01

    Patients with menopausal symptoms, especially those who are also complicated with any disease of uterine fibroids, endometriosis, diabetes, hypertension, thrombophilia, gallbladder diseases, asthma, and hyperprolactinemia, or also with a family history of breast cancer, should be individually and carefully assessed when hormone replacement therapy is applied to them, so as to provide better medical service to them.%有更年期症状的患者如同时合并子宫肌瘤、子宫内膜异位症、糖尿病、高血压、血栓形成倾向、胆囊疾病、哮喘、高泌乳素血症或有乳腺癌家族史应用激素治疗时应仔细评估,个体化分析每个患者的慎用情况,以期为患者提供更好的医疗服务.

  16. Eating Disorders in children and adolescents with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: prevalence, risk factors, warning signs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Racicka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is associated with increased risk for eating disorders, various dependent on type of diabetes. Binge eating disorder is more common in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Whereas, intentional omission of insulin doses for the purpose of weight loss occurs mainly in patient with type 1 diabetes (T1DM, however, in some patients with type 2 diabetes omission of oral hypoglycemic drugs can be present. Risk factors for the development of eating disorders in patients with diabetes include: age, female gender, greater body weight, body image dissatisfaction, history of dieting and history of depression. Poor glycemic control, recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis or recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, secondary to intentional insulin overdose, missed clinical appointments, dietary manipulation and low self-esteem should raise concern. The consequence of eating disorders or disordered eating patterns in patients with diabetes is poor glycemic control and hence higher possibility of complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and premature death.

  17. Congenital Heart Disease as a Warning Sign for the Diagnosis of the 22q11.2 Deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcília S. Grassi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To alert for the diagnosis of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD. Objective: To describe the main CHDs, as well as phenotypic, metabolic and immunological findings in a series of 60 patients diagnosed with 22q11.2DS. Methods: The study included 60 patients with 22q11.2DS evaluated between 2007 and 2013 (M:F=1.3, age range 14 days to 20 years and 3 months at a pediatric reference center for primary immunodeficiencies. The diagnosis was established by detection of the 22q11.2 microdeletion using FISH (n = 18 and/or MLPA (n = 42, in association with clinical and laboratory information. Associated CHDs, progression of phenotypic facial features, hypocalcemia and immunological changes were analyzed. Results: CHDs were detected in 77% of the patients and the most frequent type was tetralogy of Fallot (38.3%. Surgical correction of CHD was performed in 34 patients. Craniofacial dysmorphisms were detected in 41 patients: elongated face (60% and/or elongated nose (53.3%, narrow palpebral fissure (50%, dysplastic, overfolded ears (48.3%, thin lips (41.6%, elongated fingers (38.3% and short stature (36.6%. Hypocalcemia was detected in 64.2% and decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH level in 25.9%. Decrease in total lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 counts were present in 40%, 53.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Hypogammaglobulinemia was detected in one patient and decreased concentrations of immunoglobulin M (IgM in two other patients. Conclusion: Suspicion for 22q11.2DS should be raised in all patients with CHD associated with hypocalcemia and/or facial dysmorphisms, considering that many of these changes may evolve with age. The 22q11.2 microdeletion should be confirmed by molecular testing in all patients.

  18. Patterns of Radicalization: Identifying the Markers and Warning Signs of Domestic Lone Wolf Terrorists in Our Midst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Kaczynski’s troubled childhood. It also thoroughly covers Kaczynski’s academic career from grade school through his doctoral program in mathematics...Weapons Ban. “The 1994 law banned the sale to civilians of 19 types of semiautomatic weapons, including semiautomatic versions of the Intratec Tec...believed this, it was not true because the law banned the purchase of semiautomatic weapons from its activation date and did not penalize citizens

  19. 不得不看的海啸逃生技巧%Tsunami Warning Signs You Should Know

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese coined the word tsunami to mean "harbor wave." ("tsu" means harbor, and the character "nami" means wave). In the wake of the Japanese tragedy, remember these tsunami survival tips:

  20. Papilomavírus humano (HPV entre jovens: um sinal de alerta Human papillomavirus (HPV among youth: a warning sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Aparecida Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O Papilomavírus Humano - HPV - assume especial destaque na Saúde Pública diante do reconhecimento de sua associação com a ocorrência do câncer uterino, entre outros. Levando em conta a necessidade de implementação de programas de esclarecimentos sobre a prevenção dos agravos relacionados à infecção pelo HPV, coloca-se o propósito da realização do presente diagnóstico sobre conhecimentos e práticas sexuais entre jovens. Direcionando, estrategicamente, para o segmento de universitários, o estudo foi realizado no Campus da Baixada Santista da UNIFESP, estruturado em torno da formação multiprofissional em saúde. O levantamento foi feito a partir da aplicação de questionário em sala de aula, junto aos alunos do primeiro e terceiro ano. Com uma concentração de iniciação sexual na faixa de 15 a 17 anos de idade, os alunos referiram uso de preservativos masculinos associado à preocupação com a contracepção, secundada pela prevenção de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis - DSTs. O conhecimento sobre o HPV foi restrito na população investigada. Embora crescente do primeiro para o terceiro ano, sua apreciação é relativizada quanto ao conhecimento da transmissão, consequências e prevenção. A investigação apontou a necessidade de disponibilizar informações relativas ao HPV em atenção às especificidades da doença.Human Papillomavirus (HPV assumes an important focus in public health care mainly because recognition of its association with cancer, especially cervix cancer. The purpose of this study was to characterize the level of knowledge about HPV infection and preventive practices among youths, with intention to support health care protocols. Descriptive data collection enrolled a self-completion questionnaire, addressed to first and third year health care college students of Campus Baixada Santista of Federal University of Sao Paulo - UNIFESP. With age of sexual initiation concentrated between 15 and 17 years old, respondents referred use of preventive methods during the first sexual relation firstly associated to concern about pregnancy and followed by Sexually Transmitted Disease - STD prevention. Restrict knowledge about HPV was referred by the students. Although acquaintance of HPV increased from the first year to the third year, incomprehension was shown regarding its transmission, consequences or prevention. This survey revealed the need for available information regarding characteristics of HPV disease.

  1. Transfusion-associated circulatory overload in adult, medical emergency patients with perspectives on early warning practice: a single-centre, clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmann, Fanny; Nørgaard, Astrid; Rasmussen, Maj-Britt; Rahbek, Charlotte; Seeberg, Jens; Møller, Tom

    2017-01-26

    Transfusion-associated circulatory overload is characterised by acute respiratory distress, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, acute pulmonary oedema and/or evidence of positive fluid balance occurring within 6 hours after transfusion. Transfusion-associated circulatory overload is a serious, underreported reaction, which makes this iatrogenic condition difficult to prevent. We present an audit of patients admitted to a medical emergency unit, aiming to investigate: (i) the incidence of transfusion-associated circulatory overload; and (ii) whether cases were reported to the haemovigilance system. The clinical implications are discussed within the frame of the Early Warning Score. We conducted a retrospective audit of electronic hospital medical records of patients receiving blood transfusion in a single medical emergency unit. Patients were admitted during a 6-month period and data on symptoms and vital signs were extracted from the records. Of 4,353 consecutively admitted patients, 156 patients were transfused with a total of 411 blood components. The audit identified five cases of transfusion-associated circulatory overload (incidence 3.2%) and four cases of transfusion-associated dyspnoea. Vital signs and changes in dyspnoea and blood pressure were registered within the frame of the Early Warning Score, and one case was documented as being transfusion-related in the medical record. No cases were reported to the haemovigilance system. The incidence of transfusion-associated circulatory overload in acute emergency patients was similar to that in other clinical studies. Lack of recognition and reporting was marked, even though changes in vital signs were monitored in the context of the Early Warning Score. This study points to a missing link in the transfusion chain, namely recognising the vital signs of circulatory overload during or shortly after transfusion as being a serious adverse transfusion reaction.

  2. Phonological development in hearing learners of a sign language: The role of sign complexity and iconicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega, G.; Morgan, G.

    2015-01-01

    The present study implemented a sign-repetition task at two points in time to hearing adult learners of British Sign Language and explored how each phonological parameter, sign complexity, and iconicity affected sign production over an 11-week (22-hour) instructional period. The results show that tr

  3. Conjoining Word and Image in British Sign Language (BSL): An Exploration of Metaphorical Signs in BSL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The Lexicon of British Sign Language (BSL), including, and perhaps especially, the productive lexicon, is highly motivated. Many sign linguists in the last few decades have played down the role of iconicity and other types of motivation in signed language. They have suggested that because sign forms and structures conform to rules of linguistic…

  4. Forced Choice Recognition of Sign in Novice Learners of British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruth; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigation of the accuracy of novice learners of British Sign Language (BSL) and sign-naive subjects in recognizing possible and impossible BSL signs and in naming signs suggests that rated iconicity and the ability to process potentially meaningful gestures, determined recognition and naming accuracy. (19 references) (Author/CB)

  5. How Do You Sign "Apartheid"? The Politics of South African Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Claire; Reagan, Timothy

    1990-01-01

    Discusses sign language use in South Africa and the deaf as an oppressed community. The following issues are addressed: language planning and sign language, the role of sign language as the vernacular of an oppressed linguistic community, and the implications of sign language for other cultural and social issues that divide South African society.…

  6. Brief communication "Landslide Early Warning System: toolbox and general concepts"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Intrieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We define landslide Early Warning Systems and present practical guidelines to assist end-users with limited experience in the design of landslide Early Warning Systems (EWSs.

    In particular, two flow chart-based tools coming from the results of the SafeLand project (7th Framework Program have been created to make them as simple and general as possible and in compliance with a variety of landslide types and settings at single slope scale. We point out that it is not possible to cover all the real landslide early warning situations that might occur, therefore it will be necessary for end-users to adapt the procedure to local peculiarities of the locations where the landslide EWS will be operated.

  7. On-site early-warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Bindi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of an on-site early warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan is outlined. Several low cost sensors equipped with MEMS accelerometers are installed in eight buildings distributed within the urban area. The different sensing units communicate each other via wireless links and the seismic data are streamed in real-time to the data center using internet. Since each single sensing unit has computing capabilities, software for data processing can be installed to perform decentralized actions. In particular, each sensing unit can perform event detection task and run software for on-site early warning. If a description for the vulnerability of the building is uploaded in the sensing unit, this piece of information can be exploited to introduce the expected probability of damage in the early-warning protocol customized for a specific structure.

  8. Data Processing Model of Coalmine Gas Early-Warning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jian-sheng; YIN Hong-sheng; LIU Xiu-rong; HUA Gang; XU Yong-gang

    2007-01-01

    The data processing mode is vital to the performance of an entire coalmine gas early-warning system, especially in real-time performance. Our objective was to present the structural features of coalmine gas data, so that the data could be processed at different priority levels in C language. Two different data processing models, one with priority and the other without priority, were built based on queuing theory. Their theoretical formulas were determined via a M/M/1 model in order to calculate average occupation time of each measuring point in an early-warning program. We validated the model with the gas early-warning system of the Huaibei Coalmine Group Corp. The results indicate that the average occupation time for gas data processing by using the queuing system model with priority is nearly 1/30 of that of the model without priority..

  9. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  10. Wavelet analysis of the seismograms for tsunami warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chamoli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity in the tsunami phenomenon makes the available warning systems not much effective in the practical situations. The problem arises due to the time lapsed in the data transfer, processing and modeling. The modeling and simulation needs the input fault geometry and mechanism of the earthquake. The estimation of these parameters and other aprior information increases the utilized time for making any warning. Here, the wavelet analysis is used to identify the tsunamigenesis of an earthquake. The frequency content of the seismogram in time scale domain is examined using wavelet transform. The energy content in high frequencies is calculated and gives a threshold for tsunami warnings. Only first few minutes of the seismograms of the earthquake events are used for quick estimation. The results for the earthquake events of Andaman Sumatra region and other historic events are promising.

  11. Signs and symptoms of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Koch Nogueira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The abnormalities of the genitourinary tract development are the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD in children. The diagnosis of this disease in Brazil is late and incomplete, which results in increased morbidity and mortality in this age group. Early diagnosis of this condition is the prerogative of generalist pediatricians, and the aim of this study was to review the clinical signs and symptoms associated with developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Data sources: Based on the description of a symbolic clinical case, the authors conducted a non-systematic review of medical literature. Data synthesis: The results suggest that the following data should be used as a warning for early diagnosis of affected children: (a combined urinary tract abnormalities (chromosomal abnormalities; sequence of malformations [VACTERLand Prune-Belly]; and musculoskeletal, digestive tract, heart, and nervous system malformations; (b previous history (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract [CAKUT] in the family, low birth weight, and oligoamnios; (c clinical signs (polyuria/nocturia, urinary tract infection, systemic arterial hypertension, failure to thrive, weak urinary stream, difficulty to start urination, distended bladder, non-monosymptomatic enuresis, urinary/urge incontinence, and bowel and bladder dysfunction; and (d pre- and postnatal ultrasonographic alterations (increased anteroposterior diameter of the renal pelvis, mainly in the third trimester of pregnancy; single kidney; hydronephrosis associated with other abnormalities; and hydronephrosis with parenchymal involvement in the post-neonatal assessment. Conclusion: The suggestions shown here can help the pediatrician to establish clinical hypotheses for the early diagnosis of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract without resorting to expensive and invasive procedures.

  12. Application of Seismic Array Processing to Tsunami Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, C.; Meng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami wave predictions of the current tsunami warning systems rely on accurate earthquake source inversions of wave height data. They are of limited effectiveness for the near-field areas since the tsunami waves arrive before data are collected. Recent seismic and tsunami disasters have revealed the need for early warning to protect near-source coastal populations. In this work we developed the basis for a tsunami warning system based on rapid earthquake source characterisation through regional seismic array back-projections. We explored rapid earthquake source imaging using onshore dense seismic arrays located at regional distances on the order of 1000 km, which provides faster source images than conventional teleseismic back-projections. We implement this method in a simulated real-time environment, and analysed the 2011 Tohoku earthquake rupture with two clusters of Hi-net stations in Kyushu and Northern Hokkaido, and the 2014 Iquique event with the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array. The results yield reasonable estimates of rupture area, which is approximated by an ellipse and leads to the construction of simple slip models based on empirical scaling of the rupture area, seismic moment and average slip. The slip model is then used as the input of the tsunami simulation package COMCOT to predict the tsunami waves. In the example of the Tohoku event, the earthquake source model can be acquired within 6 minutes from the start of rupture and the simulation of tsunami waves takes less than 2 min, which could facilitate a timely tsunami warning. The predicted arrival time and wave amplitude reasonably fit observations. Based on this method, we propose to develop an automatic warning mechanism that provides rapid near-field warning for areas of high tsunami risk. The initial focus will be Japan, Pacific Northwest and Alaska, where dense seismic networks with the capability of real-time data telemetry and open data accessibility, such as the Japanese HiNet (>800

  13. Dynamic vibrotactile signals for forward collision avoidance warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Gray, Rob; Ho, Cristy; Ahtamad, Mujthaba; Spence, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted in order to assess the effectiveness of dynamic vibrotactile collision-warning signals in potentially enhancing safe driving. Auditory neuroscience research has demonstrated that auditory signals that move toward a person are more salient than those that move away. If this looming effect were found to extend to the tactile modality, then it could be utilized in the context of in-car warning signal design. The effectiveness of various vibrotactile warning signals was assessed using a simulated car-following task. The vibrotactile warning signals consisted of dynamic toward-/away-from-torso cues (Experiment 1), dynamic versus static vibrotactile cues (Experiment 2), looming-intensity- and constant-intensity-toward-torso cues (Experiment 3), and static cues presented on the hands or on the waist, having either a low or high vibration intensity (Experiment 4). Braking reaction times (BRTs) were significantly faster for toward-torso as compared to away-from-torso cues (Experiments 1 and 2) and static cues (Experiment 2). This difference could not have been attributed to differential responses to signals delivered to different body parts (i.e., the waist vs. hands; Experiment 4). Embedding a looming-intensity signal into the toward-torso signal did not result in any additional BRT benefits (Experiment 3). Dynamic vibrotactile cues that feel as though they are approaching the torso can be used to communicate information concerning external events, resulting in a significantly faster reaction time to potential collisions. Dynamic vibrotactile warning signals that move toward the body offer great potential for the design of future in-car collision-warning system. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. NOAA-USGS Debris-Flow Warning System - Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Landslides and debris flows cause loss of life and millions of dollars in property damage annually in the United States (National Research Council, 2004). In an effort to reduce loss of life by debris flows, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operated an experimental debris-flow prediction and warning system in the San Francisco Bay area from 1986 to 1995 that relied on forecasts and measurements of precipitation linked to empirical precipitation thresholds to predict the onset of rainfall-triggered debris flows. Since 1995, there have been substantial improvements in quantifying precipitation estimates and forecasts, development of better models for delineating landslide hazards, and advancements in geographic information technology that allow stronger spatial and temporal linkage between precipitation forecasts and hazard models. Unfortunately, there have also been several debris flows that have caused loss of life and property across the United States. Establishment of debris-flow warning systems in areas where linkages between rainfall amounts and debris-flow occurrence have been identified can help mitigate the hazards posed by these types of landslides. Development of a national warning system can help support the NOAA-USGS goal of issuing timely Warnings of potential debris flows to the affected populace and civil authorities on a broader scale. This document presents the findings and recommendations of a joint NOAA-USGS Task Force that assessed the current state-of-the-art in precipitation forecasting and debris-flow hazard-assessment techniques. This report includes an assessment of the science and resources needed to establish a demonstration debris-flow warning project in recently burned areas of southern California and the necessary scientific advancements and resources associated with expanding such a warning system to unburned areas and, possibly, to a

  15. Human factors research problems in electronic voice warning system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    The speech messages issued by voice warning systems must be carefully designed in accordance with general principles of human decision making processes, human speech comprehension, and the conditions in which the warnings can occur. The operator's effectiveness must not be degraded by messages that are either inappropriate or difficult to comprehend. Important experimental variables include message content, linguistic redundancy, signal/noise ratio, interference with concurrent tasks, and listener expectations generated by the pragmatic or real world context in which the messages are presented.

  16. VisionSense - An advanced lateral collision warning system

    OpenAIRE

    Dijck, T.; Heijden, van der, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    VisionSense is an advanced driver assistance system which combines a lateral collision warning system with vehicle-to-vehicle communication. This paper shows the results of user needs assessment and traffic safety modelling of VisionSense. User needs were determined by means of a Web-based survey. The results show, that VisionSense is most appreciated when it uses a light signal to warn the driver in a possibly hazardous situation on a highway. The willingness to pay is estimated at 300 Euros...

  17. Flow ensemble prediction for flash flood warnings at ungauged basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demargne, Julie; Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Caseri, Angelica; Ramos, Maria-Helena; de Saint Aubin, Céline; Jurdy, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods, which are typically triggered by severe rainfall events, are difficult to monitor and predict at the spatial and temporal scales of interest due to large meteorological and hydrologic uncertainties. In particular, uncertainties in quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) and quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) need to be taken into account to provide skillful flash flood warnings with increased warning lead time. In France, the AIGA discharge-threshold flood warning system is currently being enhanced to ingest high-resolution ensemble QPFs from convection-permitting numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, as well as probabilistic QPEs, to improve flash flood warnings for small-to-medium (from 10 to 1000 km²) ungauged basins. The current deterministic AIGA system is operational in the South of France since 2005. It ingests the operational radar-gauge QPE grids from Météo-France to run a simplified hourly distributed hydrologic model at a 1-km² resolution every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). This produces real-time peak discharge estimates along the river network, which are subsequently compared to regionalized flood frequency estimates of given return periods. Warnings are then provided to the French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) and regional flood forecasting offices, based on the estimated severity of ongoing events. The calibration and regionalization of the hydrologic model has been recently enhanced to implement an operational flash flood warning system for the entire French territory. To quantify the QPF uncertainty, the COSMO-DE-EPS rainfall ensembles from the Deutscher Wetterdienst (20 members at a 2.8-km resolution for a lead time of 21 hours), which are available on the North-eastern part of France, were ingested in the hydrologic model of the AIGA system. Streamflow ensembles were produced and probabilistic flash flood warnings were derived for the Meuse and Moselle river basins and

  18. Recognition Stage for a Speed Supervisor Based on Road Sign Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Juan-Pablo; de la Escalera, Arturo; Armingol, José María

    2012-01-01

    Traffic accidents are still one of the main health problems in the World. A number of measures have been applied in order to reduce the number of injuries and fatalities in roads, i.e., implementation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) based on image processing. In this paper, a real time speed supervisor based on road sign recognition that can work both in urban and non-urban environments is presented. The system is able to recognize 135 road signs, belonging to the danger, yield, prohibition obligation and indication types, and sends warning messages to the driver upon the combination of two pieces of information: the current speed of the car and the road sign symbol. The core of this paper is the comparison between the two main methods which have been traditionally used for detection and recognition of road signs: template matching (TM) and neural networks (NN). The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches will be shown and commented. Additionally we will show how the use of well-known algorithms to avoid illumination issues reduces the amount of images needed to train a neural network.

  19. Recognition Stage for a Speed Supervisor Based on Road Sign Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Armingol

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are still one of the main health problems in the World. A number of measures have been applied in order to reduce the number of injuries and fatalities in roads, i.e., implementation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS based on image processing. In this paper, a real time speed supervisor based on road sign recognition that can work both in urban and non-urban environments is presented. The system is able to recognize 135 road signs, belonging to the danger, yield, prohibition obligation and indication types, and sends warning messages to the driver upon the combination of two pieces of information: the current speed of the car and the road sign symbol. The core of this paper is the comparison between the two main methods which have been traditionally used for detection and recognition of road signs: template matching (TM and neural networks (NN. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches will be shown and commented. Additionally we will show how the use of well-known algorithms to avoid illumination issues reduces the amount of images needed to train a neural network.

  20. Comprehension of safety signs for construction workers: comparison of existing and newly designed signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arphorn, Sara; Augsornpeug, Naiphaporn; Srisorrachatr, Suwat; Pruktharathikul, Vichai

    2003-12-01

    The comprehension of safety signs for construction workers was compared among existing and improved designs. Safety signs considered were existing signs, existing signs improved by adding text, existing signs improved by adding/changing pictorials, and existing signs improved by adding/changing pictorials and text. Three hundred and eighty-four construction workers were randomized for assignments into four groups. They were working on nine constructions work sites randomly selected from work sites located in Bangkok, Thailand. The number of workers in each work site was calculated for the proportion of the sample size and then they were randomized so that equal numbers of workers were included in the four groups. The four types of safety signs and an interview form were used to test their comprehension of safety signs. For data analysis, percentages, means, standard deviations, the chi-square test, the one-way ANOVA and LSD tests were applied. The results showed that the mean comprehension scores of the existing signs improved by adding text, the existing signs improved by adding/changing pictorials, and the existing signs improved by adding/changing pictorials and text were significantly higher than those of the existing signs. In addition, the mean comprehension scores of the existing signs improved by adding text and the existing signs improved by adding/changing pictorials and text were significantly higher than those of the existing signs improved by adding/changing pictorials. The highest mean comprehension score of safety signs for the construction workers was found in the existing signs improved by adding/changing pictorials and text. These results indicated that for construction workers, the comprehension of safety signs with pictorials and explanatory text was better than that of the existing signs.

  1. 75 FR 75936 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... warnings and accompanying graphics to be displayed on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements... health warning statements appear on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. Section 201...

  2. 49 CFR 234.205 - Operating characteristics of warning system apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating characteristics of warning system... characteristics of warning system apparatus. Operating characteristics of electromagnetic, electronic, or... limits within which the system is designed to operate....

  3. A tour in sign language

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard

    2016-01-01

    In early May, CERN welcomed a group of deaf children for a tour of Microcosm and a Fun with Physics demonstration.   On 4 May, around ten children from the Centre pour enfants sourds de Montbrillant (Montbrillant Centre for Deaf Children), a public school funded by the Office médico-pédagogique du canton de Genève, took a guided tour of the Microcosm exhibition and were treated to a Fun with Physics demonstration. The tour guides’ explanations were interpreted into sign language in real time by a professional interpreter who accompanied the children, and the pace and content were adapted to maximise the interaction with the children. This visit demonstrates CERN’s commitment to remaining as widely accessible as possible. To this end, most of CERN’s visit sites offer reduced-mobility access. In the past few months, CERN has also welcomed children suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum (a genetic disorder causing extreme sensiti...

  4. INERTIA SETS OF SYMMETRIC SIGN PATTERN MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A sign pattern matrix is a matrixwhose entries are from the set {+ ,- ,0}. The symmetric sign pattern matrices that require unique inertia have recently been characterized. The purpose of this paper is to more generally investigate the inertia sets of symmetric sign pattern matrices. In particular, nonnegative fri-diagonal sign patterns and the square sign pattern with all + entries are examined. An algorithm is given for generating nonnegative real symmetric Toeplitz matrices with zero diagonal of orders n≥3 which have exactly two negative eigenvalues. The inertia set of the square pattern with all + off-diagonal entries and zero diagonal entries is then analyzed. The types of inertias which can be in the inertia set of any sign pattern are also obtained in the paper. Specifically, certain compatibility and consecutiveness properties are established.

  5. Epidemic spreading on evolving signed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saeedian, M; Jafari, G R; Kertesz, J

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of disease spreading consider the underlying social network as obtained without the contagion, though epidemic influences peoples willingness to contact others: A friendly contact may be turned to unfriendly to avoid infection. We study the susceptible-infected (SI) disease spreading model on signed networks, in which each edge is associated with a positive or negative sign representing the friendly or unfriendly relation between its end nodes. In a signed network, according to Heiders theory, edge signs evolve such that finally a state of structural balance is achieved, corresponding to no frustration in physics terms. However, the danger of infection affects the evolution of its edge signs. To describe the coupled problem of the sign evolution and disease spreading, we generalize the notion of structural balance by taking into account the state of the nodes. We introduce an energy function and carry out Monte-Carlo simulations on complete networks to test the energy landscape, where we find loc...

  6. Aphasia in a user of British Sign Language: Dissociation between sign and gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jane; Atkinson, Jo; Smulovitch, Elaine; Thacker, Alice; Woll, Bencie

    2004-07-01

    This paper reports a single case investigation of "Charles", a Deaf man with sign language aphasia following a left CVA. Anomia, or a deficit in sign retrieval, was a prominent feature of his aphasia, and this showed many of the well-documented characteristics of speech anomia. For example, sign retrieval was sensitive to familiarity, it could be cued, and there were both semantic and phonological errors. Like a previous case in the literature (Corina, Poizner, Bellugi, Feinberg, Dowd, & O'Grady-Batch, 1992), Charles demonstrated a striking dissociation between sign and gesture, since his gesture production was relatively intact. This dissociation was impervious to the iconicity of signs. So, Charles' sign production showed no effect of iconicity, and gesture production was superior to sign production even when the forms of the signs and gestures were similar. The implications of these findings for models of sign and gesture production are discussed.

  7. CT "halo sign" in pulmonary tuberculoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, M; Volta, S; Stroscio, S; Romeo, P; Pandolfo, I

    1992-01-01

    The CT halo sign has been described as the CT finding of a low-attenuation zone surrounding a pulmonary nodule. It is an early clue to the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We describe a case of CT halo sign associated with a pulmonary tuberculoma. Therefore, we think that a diagnosis other than invasive pulmonary aspergillosis should be considered in the presence of the CT halo sign in immunocompetent patients.

  8. An electronic dictionary of Danish Sign Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Compiling sign language dictionaries has in the last 15 years changed from most often being simply collecting and presenting signs for a given gloss in the surrounding vocal language to being a complicated lexicographic task including all parts of linguistic analysis, i.e. phonology, phonetics, m......, morphology, syntax and semantics. In this presentation we will give a short overview of the Danish Sign Language dictionary project. We will further focus on lemma selection and some of the problems connected with lemmatisation....

  9. An electronic dictionary of Danish Sign Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Compiling sign language dictionaries has in the last 15 years changed from most often being simply collecting and presenting signs for a given gloss in the surrounding vocal language to being a complicated lexicographic task including all parts of linguistic analysis, i.e. phonology, phonetics......, morphology, syntax and semantics. In this presentation we will give a short overview of the Danish Sign Language dictionary project. We will further focus on lemma selection and some of the problems connected with lemmatisation....

  10. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  11. Public Health Measures: Alerts and Early Warning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews various reactive and proactive alert and early warning systems that can be used for the identification of emerging risks to food safety, both within the European Union and at the global level. Recent developments include the establishment of a unit dedicated to emerging risks at

  12. The new Euskalmet coastal-maritime warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztelumendi, Santiago; Egaña, Joseba; Liria, Pedro; Gonzalez, Manuel; Aranda, José Antonio; Anitua, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    This work presents the main characteristics of the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) maritime-coastal risk warning system, with special emphasis on the latest updates, including a clear differentiation on specific warning messages addressing sea conditions for navigation purposes in the first 2 nautical miles, and expected coastal impacts. Some details of the warning bulletin for maritime and coastal risk situations are also presented, together with other communication products and strategies used in coastal and maritime severe episodes at the Basque coast. Today, three different aspects are included in the coastal-maritime risk warning system in Basque Country, related to the main potential severe events that affecting coastal activities. - "Galerna" risk relates to a sudden wind reversal that can severely affect coastal navigation and recreational activities. - "Navigation" risk relates to severe sea state conditions for 0-2 miles, affecting different navigation activities. - "Coastal impact" risk relates to adverse wave characteristics and tidal surges that induce flooding events and different impacts in littoral areas.

  13. Early warning of critical transitions in biodiversity from compositional disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doncaster, C. Patrick; Alonso Chávez, Vasthi; Viguier, Clément;

    2016-01-01

    of species in the community. In a stochastic simulation, sequential correlations over time switch from positive to negative as keystones prevail over canaries, and back to positive with domination of weedy species. The model finds support in empirical tests on multi-decadal time series of fossil diatom...... the identification of early-warning signals from other metrics....

  14. Drug safety and the impact of drug warnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, G.; Fischer, K. E.; Borch-Johnsen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the impact of drug safety warnings from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on drug utilisation and their interaction with information released through national reimbursement bodies. Methods Insurance claims data on anti-diabetic drug prescriptions in primary care in Germany ...

  15. Warning signals for poor performance improve human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brule, R. van den; Bijlstra, G.; Dotsch, R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot's nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the robot

  16. 40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child hazard warning. 156.66 Section 156.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS..., marketing, storage or use is remote (for example, an industrial use product); or (2) The pesticide...

  17. Warning signals for poor performance improve human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brule, R. van den; Bijlstra, G.; Dotsch, R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot's nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the robot

  18. Warning Signals for Poor Performance Improve Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Dotsch, Ron; Haselager, Pim; Wigboldus, Daniel HJ

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot’s nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the robot

  19. Warning Signals for Poor Performance Improve Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Dotsch, Ron; Haselager, Pim; Wigboldus, Daniel HJ

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot’s nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the robot

  20. Scheme for evaluating a local queue warning system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H. & Oei, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of evaluating an automatic queue warning system is outlined. The main object of the evaluation is to measure the effect of such a system on traffic behaviour and road safety, although the overall journey time is also examined. The chosen method of research entails before and after studies,

  1. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was

  2. Reactions to Graphic Health Warnings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Kamyab, Kian; Davis, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18-24…

  3. Public Health Measures: Alerts and Early Warning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews various reactive and proactive alert and early warning systems that can be used for the identification of emerging risks to food safety, both within the European Union and at the global level. Recent developments include the establishment of a unit dedicated to emerging risks at

  4. Warning signals for poor performance improve human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brule, R. van den; Bijlstra, G.; Dotsch, R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot's nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the

  5. Ecosystems for Early Warning: Potential Use of Bioindicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zommers, Z. A.; Sitati, A. M.; Habilov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Bioindicators are biological processes, species or communities, which are used to assess changes in the environment or environmental quality. Theoretically, they could also be used to provide advanced warning of hazards. They are inexpensive, locally relevant, and can encourage stakeholder participation in early warning system development and maintenance. While bioindicators have been identified for environmental problems such as air pollution and water pollution, and have been used to assess health of ecosystems, little information is available on bioindicators for climate related hazards. This presentation reviews possible biodindicators for droughts, wildfires and tropical cyclones, based on the results of a literature review. It will also present results from a household survey of 36 communities in Kenya, Ghana and Burkina Faso. Indigenous knowledge offers a wealth of potential bioindicators; including animal and insect behavior, and plant phenology. Yet significant study is needed to verify these indicators and evaluate them against criteria such as specificity, variability, monotonicity, practicality and relevance. Bioindicators may not be specific to individual hazards and may provide limited advanced warning, as response often occurs after the actual onset of the hazard. Furthermore, indicators may become increasingly unreliable due to climate change itself. There is a need for a large-scale assessment of hazard bioindicators, which should also include forecasts of bioindicator change under global warming, and a cost-benefit analysis of the value of integrating bioindicators into early warning systems. Lessons can be drawn from ethnopharmacology. Coordinated research on this topic could contribute to the resilience of both ecosystems and human livelihoods.

  6. Evaluation of the Individualized Study Program: Early Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Celeste M.

    The Early Warning System (EWS) of the Individualized Study Program (ISP) at the University of California, Davis, was evaluated. Disadvantaged students who have not met the university's entrance requirements are tracked by the EWS during their first year in order to identify academic problems and provide advising and support. Findings include: EWS…

  7. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  8. Perception and meaning of warning signals in urban context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Corsin; Polack, Jean-Dominique; Castellengo, Michèle

    1999-01-01

    Perception of warning signals in urban context points out the question of their efficiency, that is, whether they are identified or not. Results show that contextual constraints influence the perceptual threshold and the identification. The classes of signals obtained can be used to determine new...

  9. Research of indoor smoke warning and air purification equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangronglong; Zhaoyexing; Fuyunhua

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce indoor smoke concentration and improve indoor air quality,we put forward the intelligent indoor smoke warning and air purification device. This device can quickly reduce the concentration of indoor smoke by the air purification and fire alarm function. It provides a suitable living environment for people.

  10. The Food Early Warning System Project in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

  11. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was s

  12. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was s

  13. Diabetes Drug Gets FDA Warning Due to Amputation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Diabetes Drug Gets FDA Warning Due to Amputation Risk Canagliflozin tied to a doubling of amputations of legs, feet, agency says To use the ... to increase the risk of leg and foot amputations, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration says. The ...

  14. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sonke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured…

  15. Scientists Warn of Possible Floods Caused by Melting Glaciers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Aresearch team led by LI Xin from the Cold &Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute under CAS recently called on the authorities to set up an early warning system for the possible floods due to glacial lake outbursts in China's alpine hinterland.

  16. SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION USING THINNING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Omkar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many approaches have been made that uses computer vision algorithms to interpret sign language. This endeavour is yet another approach to accomplish interpretation of human hand gestures. The first step of this work is background subtraction which achieved by the Euclidean distance threshold method. Thinning algorithm is then applied to obtain a thinned image of the human hand for further analysis. The different feature points which include terminating points and curved edges are extracted for the recognition of the different signs. The input for the project is taken from video data of a human hand gesturing all the signs of the American Sign Language.

  17. Iconicity and Sign Lexical Acquisition: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    The study of iconicity, defined as the direct relationship between a linguistic form and its referent, has gained momentum in recent years across a wide range of disciplines. In the spoken modality, there is abundant evidence showing that iconicity is a key factor that facilitates language acquisition. However, when we look at sign languages, which excel in the prevalence of iconic structures, there is a more mixed picture, with some studies showing a positive effect and others showing a null or negative effect. In an attempt to reconcile the existing evidence the present review presents a critical overview of the literature on the acquisition of a sign language as first (L1) and second (L2) language and points at some factor that may be the source of disagreement. Regarding sign L1 acquisition, the contradicting findings may relate to iconicity being defined in a very broad sense when a more fine-grained operationalisation might reveal an effect in sign learning. Regarding sign L2 acquisition, evidence shows that there is a clear dissociation in the effect of iconicity in that it facilitates conceptual-semantic aspects of sign learning but hinders the acquisition of the exact phonological form of signs. It will be argued that when we consider the gradient nature of iconicity and that signs consist of a phonological form attached to a meaning we can discern how iconicity impacts sign learning in positive and negative ways. PMID:28824480

  18. Driver behavior during bicycle passing maneuvers in response to a Share the Road sign treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jonathan J; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J; Datta, Tapan K

    2014-09-01

    The interaction of motorists and bicyclists, particularly during passing maneuvers, is an area of concern to the bicycle safety community as there is a general perception that motor vehicle drivers may not share the road effectively with bicyclists. This is a particular concern on road sections with centerline rumble strips where motorists are prone to crowd bicyclists during passing events. One potential countermeasure to address this concern is the use of a bicycle warning sign with a "Share the Road" plaque. This paper presents the results of a controlled field evaluation of this sign treatment, which involved an examination of driver behavior while overtaking bicyclists. A series of field studies were conducted concurrently on two segments of a high-speed, rural two-lane highway. These segments were similar in terms of roadway geometry, traffic volumes, and other relevant factors, except that one of the segments included centerline rumble strips while the other did not. A before-and-after study design was utilized to examine changes in motor vehicle lateral placement and speed at the time of the passing event as they relate to the presence of centerline rumble strips and the sign treatment. Centerline rumble strips generally shifted vehicles closer to the bicyclists during passing maneuvers, though the magnitude of this effect was marginal. The sign treatment was found to shift motor vehicles away from the rightmost lane positions, though the signs did not significantly affect the mean buffer distance between the bicyclists and passing motorists or the propensity of crowding events during passing. The sign treatment also resulted in a 2.5miles/h (4.0km/h) reduction in vehicle speeds. Vehicle type, bicyclist position, and the presence of opposing traffic were also found to affect lateral placement and speed selection during passing maneuvers.

  19. A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform

  20. Performance of Early Warning Systems on Landslides in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, W.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    We performed a reconnaissance about Early Warning Systems (EWS) on Landslides (EWSL) in the countries of Central America. The advance of the EWSL began in the 1990-ies and accelerated dramatically after the regional disaster provoked by Hurricane Mitch in 1998. In the last decade, Early Warning Systems were intensely promoted by national and international development programs aimed on disaster prevention. Early Warning on landslides is more complicated than for other geological phenomena. But, we found information on more than 30 EWSL in the region. In practice, for example in planning, implementation and evaluation of development projects, it is often not clearly defined what exactly is an Early Warning System. Only few of the systems can be classified as true EWSL that means 1) being directly and solely aimed at persons living in the well-defined areas of greatest risk and 2) focusing their work on saving lives before the phenomenon impacts. There is little written information about the work of the EWSL after the initial phase. Even, there are no statistics whether they issued warnings, if the warnings were successful, how many people were evacuated, if there were few false alerts, etc.. Actually, we did not find a single report on a successful landslide warning issued by an EWSL. The lack of information is often due to the fact that communitarian EWSL are considered local structures and do not have a clearly defined position in the governmental hierarchy; there is little oversight and no qualified support and long-term support. The EWSL suffer from severe problems as lack of funding on the long term, low technical level, and insufficient support from central institutions. Often the EWSL are implemented by NGÓs with funding from international agencies, but leave the project alone after the initial phase. In many cases, the hope of the local people to get some protection against the landslide hazard is not really fulfilled. There is one case, where an EWSL with a

  1. The Trend of Voluntary Warnings in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Magazine Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Some manufacturers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) voluntarily carried health warnings in their advertisements. This study examined these voluntary warnings in magazine ads and plotted their trends between 2012 and early 2015. ENDS magazine ads were obtained through Kantar media and warnings were collected from the Chicago Public Library or the Trinkets and Trash surveillance system. The prevalence of voluntary warnings, warnings with the specific capitalized word “WARNING”, and MarkTen warnings were examined after being weighted using factors related to exposure between January 2012 and March 2015. Five brands (MarkTen, NJOY, MISTIC, and some Blu) carried warnings during the study period. The prevalence of warnings post 2012 that contained a description of nicotine did not significantly increase until the launch of MarkTen, which also happened several months before April 2014 when the U.S. food and drug administration (FDA) published its proposed deeming rule. In addition, none of these warnings met the criteria required by the FDA in the final rules. Voluntary warnings, particularly MarkTen warnings, significantly increased in ENDS magazine ads between 2014 and 2015. It is important to monitor how ENDS manufacturers will comply with the FDA regulation related to warnings and how this regulation will ultimately impact ENDS risk perceptions and use. PMID:28075420

  2. The Trend of Voluntary Warnings in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Magazine Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some manufacturers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS voluntarily carried health warnings in their advertisements. This study examined these voluntary warnings in magazine ads and plotted their trends between 2012 and early 2015. ENDS magazine ads were obtained through Kantar media and warnings were collected from the Chicago Public Library or the Trinkets and Trash surveillance system. The prevalence of voluntary warnings, warnings with the specific capitalized word “WARNING”, and MarkTen warnings were examined after being weighted using factors related to exposure between January 2012 and March 2015. Five brands (MarkTen, NJOY, MISTIC, and some Blu carried warnings during the study period. The prevalence of warnings post 2012 that contained a description of nicotine did not significantly increase until the launch of MarkTen, which also happened several months before April 2014 when the U.S. food and drug administration (FDA published its proposed deeming rule. In addition, none of these warnings met the criteria required by the FDA in the final rules. Voluntary warnings, particularly MarkTen warnings, significantly increased in ENDS magazine ads between 2014 and 2015. It is important to monitor how ENDS manufacturers will comply with the FDA regulation related to warnings and how this regulation will ultimately impact ENDS risk perceptions and use.

  3. Longer Term Impact of Cigarette Package Warnings in Australia Compared with the United Kingdom and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M.; Thrasher, James F.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK…

  4. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning device...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways of...

  6. Objects in Films: analyzing signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAMBARATO, Renira Rampazzo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this essay is the analysis of daily objects as signs in films. Objects from everyday life acquire several functions in films: they can be solely used as scene objects or to support a particular film style. Other objects are specially chosen to translate a character’s interior state of mind or the filmmaker’s aesthetical or ethical commitment to narrative concepts. In order to understand such functions and commitments, we developed a methodology for film analysis which focuses on the objects. Object interpretation, as the starting point of film analysis, is not a new approach. For instance, French film critic André Bazin proposed that use of object interpretation in the 1950s. Similarly, German film theorist Siegfried Kracauer stated it in the 1960s. However, there is currently no existing analytical model to use when engaging in object interpretation in film. This methodology searches for the most representative objects in films which involves both quantitative and qualitative analysis; we consider the number of times each object appears in a film (quantitative analysis as well as the context of their appearance, i.e. the type of shot used and how that creates either a larger or smaller relevance and/or expressiveness (qualitative analysis. In addition to the criteria of relevance and expressiveness, we also analyze the functionality of an object by exploring details and specifying the role various objects play in films. This research was developed at Concordia University, Montreal, Canada and was supported by the Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada (DFAIT.

  7. Site correction of earthquake early warning system in Ilan, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao Chu, Hsu; Liang, Wen Kuo; Jyun Yan, Huang

    2015-04-01

    When large earthquake occurs, earthquake early warning (EEW) provides alerts to urban areas of the forthcoming strong ground shaking. Depending on the specific geometry of the epicenter and the strong motion network used in EEW, the warning time can be a few seconds to tens of seconds. This warning time can be extremely important since even a few seconds can be sufficient for pre-programmed systems to have emergency response. The Central Weather Bureau (CWB) had already used network EEW system to predict intensity map. Due to leveling of intensity was roughly divided into seven grades according to peak acceleration (PGA) in Taiwan, the warning message is not cautious for company, home and school use, the accuracy of predicted PGA were discuss for our result. A practical site correction approach for EEW was constructed in this study. Period parameter (τc) and an amplitude parameter (Pd)from the initial 3 seconds of P waves were calculated after Wu et al.(2005) first for each site of Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) in Ilan, Taiwan for focal depths less than 35 km and magnitude Mw>=5.0. Two pairs of linear relations had showed in each station between τc, magnitude (Mw) and Pd, hypocenter distance (R) that could be corrected individually. Prediction results of PGA from site correction based ground motion prediction equation (Jean et al. 2006) indicated that the corrected parameters of EEW in this study had improved the accuracy of ground motion prediction. Which means reasonable site correction of each station was needed for EEW system. Key works: earthquake early warning, P wave, site correction

  8. Warning system for hydrogeological hazards in Campania (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, Mauro; Cristiano, Luigi; Gentile, Salvatore; Gentilella, Matteo; Giannattasio, Maurizio; Napoli, Francesca

    2010-05-01

    Campania is the Italian region with the highest population density (419 inhabitants/km2). Almost 20% of its territory (13669 km2) is affected by significant hydrogeological hazards, with related loss scenarios in almost 12% of it. The most critical hydrogeological hazard scenarios are those triggered by extreme rainfall events with duration ranging from a few tens of minutes up 72 hours: flood loss scenarios are expected in catchments with spatial extent from a few Km2 up to 5000 km2; shallow landslides and mudflows are also triggered by rainfall events within a broad range of time scales. This study presents a warning system for hydrogeological hazards, which has been operating in Campania since 2005, designed for mitigating losses due to extreme rainfall events. The warning system is structured into two stages: the meteorological forecasting stage and the hydrological monitoring stage. In the first stage, after evaluating rainfall forecasts provided by numerical weather prediction models (with a forecasting time up to 48 hours), warning messages are issued to the local municipalities grouped in 8 warning zones. Critical rainfall events are identified by three different alert levels, according to their forecasted spatial and temporal extents, each corresponding to a category of expected hazard scenarios at regional level. During the second stage, the dynamic evolution of the hydrological events is monitored by a real-time network of river stage and rain gauges, which are employed to compute one or more precursors for each loss scenario. Loss scenarios have been classified according to the temporal and spatial scales of the corresponding precursors, in order to deal with the difficulties related to the occurrence of significantly different hazard scenarios during the same rainfall event. Three threshold values have been identified for each precursor, corresponding to given hazard and alert levels. As a precursor exceeds a threshold value, warning messages are

  9. Earthquake early warning system using real-time signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, R.R. Jr.; Dowla, F.U.

    1996-02-01

    An earthquake warning system has been developed to provide a time series profile from which vital parameters such as the time until strong shaking begins, the intensity of the shaking, and the duration of the shaking, can be derived. Interaction of different types of ground motion and changes in the elastic properties of geological media throughout the propagation path result in a highly nonlinear function. We use neural networks to model these nonlinearities and develop learning techniques for the analysis of temporal precursors occurring in the emerging earthquake seismic signal. The warning system is designed to analyze the first-arrival from the three components of an earthquake signal and instantaneously provide a profile of impending ground motion, in as little as 0.3 sec after first ground motion is felt at the sensors. For each new data sample, at a rate of 25 samples per second, the complete profile of the earthquake is updated. The profile consists of a magnitude-related estimate as well as an estimate of the envelope of the complete earthquake signal. The envelope provides estimates of damage parameters, such as time until peak ground acceleration (PGA) and duration. The neural network based system is trained using seismogram data from more than 400 earthquakes recorded in southern California. The system has been implemented in hardware using silicon accelerometers and a standard microprocessor. The proposed warning units can be used for site-specific applications, distributed networks, or to enhance existing distributed networks. By producing accurate, and informative warnings, the system has the potential to significantly minimize the hazards of catastrophic ground motion. Detailed system design and performance issues, including error measurement in a simple warning scenario are discussed in detail.

  10. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Disease? The signs and symptoms of coronary heart disease ( ... will have signs and symptoms of the disease. Heart Disease Signs and Symptoms The illustration shows the major ...

  11. God and the World of Signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johanne Stubbe T

    2016-01-01

    Review of Robinson, Andrew (Andrew John Nottage). God and the world of signs: Trinity, evolution, and the metaphysical semiotics of C. S. Peirce. Publisher: Leiden: Brill, 2010. ISBN: 9789004187993......Review of Robinson, Andrew (Andrew John Nottage). God and the world of signs: Trinity, evolution, and the metaphysical semiotics of C. S. Peirce. Publisher: Leiden: Brill, 2010. ISBN: 9789004187993...

  12. Mental Illness in Children: Know the Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autism spectrum disorder: Signs and symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/signs.html. Accessed Dec. 8, 2014. Feb. 11, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/mental-illness-in-children/ ...

  13. Sign Language and the Brain: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruth; MacSweeney, Mairead; Waters, Dafydd

    2008-01-01

    How are signed languages processed by the brain? This review briefly outlines some basic principles of brain structure and function and the methodological principles and techniques that have been used to investigate this question. We then summarize a number of different studies exploring brain activity associated with sign language processing…

  14. 14 CFR 406.111 - Signing documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... individual's knowledge, information, and belief, the document is— (1) Consistent with these rules; (2... signed in violation of this section; (2) Strike the request for discovery or the discovery response signed in violation of this section and preclude further discovery by the party; (3) Deny the motion...

  15. Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

  16. Research Ethics in Sign Language Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Raychelle; Holmes, Heidi M.; Mertens, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    Codes of ethics exist for most professional associations whose members do research on, for, or with sign language communities. However, these ethical codes are silent regarding the need to frame research ethics from a cultural standpoint, an issue of particular salience for sign language communities. Scholars who write from the perspective of…

  17. Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

  18. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Danyang

    2005-01-01

      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  19. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Danyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.

  20. The Functional Use of a Mathematical Sign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Margot

    2004-01-01

    The question of how a mathematics student at university-level makes sense of a new mathematical sign, presented to her or him in the form of a definition, is a fundamental problem in mathematics education. Using an analogy with Vygotsky's theory (1986, 1994) of how a child learns a new word, I argue that a learner uses a new mathematical sign both…