WorldWideScience

Sample records for warning radio beacons

  1. Recent progress in satellite radio beacon studies with particular emphasis on the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.

    1980-01-01

    In May 1974 a new era in satellite radio beacon studies of the ionosphere opened with the ATS-6 Radio Beacon Experiment. The history of radio beacon studies up to that time is reviewed briefly and the particular features of the ATS-6 beacon are discussed together with the basic theory required to interpret the measurements. The main emphasis is on the ATS-6 beacon experiment but other beacon data are discussed which provide the necessary background. The diurnal and seasonal variations of the total electron content and the plasmaspheric content are presented for the U.S.A. and Europe. In winter the plasmaspheric content over the Western Hemisphere maximizes at night while in Europe and the Pacific it appears to peak near noon. This is thought to be caused by flow of plasma from the local and conjugate ionospheres. Night maxima of total electron content are found showing that they do not arise from depletions of the plasmaspheric content. The plasmaspheric content is highly sensitive to solar-terrestrial disturbance, it reaches a minimum on the third day of a storm and may take between 10 and 20 days of partial filling and emptying to recover. Travelling disturbances in U.S.A., Europe, and India show similarities of speeds but not of direction. Beacon observations of micropulsations in total content, tropospheric fluctuations and Fresnel diffraction by intense ionospheric irregularities are discussed together with radio wave scintillations and some applications of beacon radio data to communications and navigation. (orig.)

  2. Some early results from the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Fritz, R.B.; Grubb, R.N.; Jones, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The multifrequency satellite radio beacon enables the measurement of the columnar electron content of the ionosphere and plasmasphere along the ray path and its spatial and temporal structure. Measurements include modulation phase, Faraday rotation, and amplitude. The characteristics of the beacon transmitter and its design are presented together with the design of the Boulder receiver and antennas and the calibration procedures. A shape factor F is defined which depends on the electron density and geomagnetic field distributions. It is found that F varies by about 30 percent from day to night. It is shown that the ratio of the plasmaspheric content to total content varies from about 0.08 during the day to about 0.35 at night. Other examples which are presented to illustrate the uses of the radio beacon include sunrise effects, solar flare enhancements of total content, and the ionospheric storms of early July 1974

  3. Remote sensing of the ionosphere using satellite radio beacons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik I in 1957, satellite radio beacons have been used to measure the total electron content of the ionosphere. A review of the role of satellite beacons in studies of the vertical and spatial structure of the total electron content and on the occurrence of plasma irregularities, both of which affect transionospheric radio signals, is presented. Measurements of Faraday rotation and time of flight give information on the topside of the ionosphere and on the protonosphere. Morphological studies show that the slab thickness of the ionosphere depends on the solar index but is approximately independent of geographical location. Scintillation of amplitude, phase, polarization, and angle provide information on plasma irregularity occurrence in space and time. (author). 23 refs., 16 figs ., 4 tabs

  4. Radio beacon synchronization in coherent receivers for nanosatellite applications

    OpenAIRE

    Camps Llorente, Daniel; Piera González, Joan

    2017-01-01

    This document presents a study about the Radio beacon synchronization in coherent receivers for nanosatellite applications. First of all, it is studied the history of these nanosatellites and their actual role in the Aerospace industry, considering their low cost compared to bigger satellites and also because of their availability for all types of companies and people (as universities). These nanosatellites have a wide range of applications, and lots of them depend on the imagination of the u...

  5. 46 CFR 169.555 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.555 Section 169.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). (a) Each vessel certificated for exposed waters must...

  6. 46 CFR 169.831 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.831 Section 169.831 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... radio beacon (EPIRB). The master shall ensure that— (a) The EPIRB required in § 169.555 of this...

  7. 46 CFR 169.744 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.744 Section 169.744 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). Each EPIRB must be marked with the vessel's name. ...

  8. Rayleigh beacon for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padin, S

    2014-12-01

    Millimeter-wavelength Rayleigh scattering from water droplets in a cloud is proposed as a means of generating a bright beacon for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope. A λ=3  mm transmitter, with an output power of a few watts, illuminating a stratiform cloud, can generate a beacon with the same flux as Mars in 10 GHz bandwidth, but the beacon has a narrow line width, so it is extremely bright. The key advantage of the beacon is that it can be used at any time, and positioned anywhere in the sky, as long as there are clouds.

  9. Some measurements of total electron content made with the ATS-6 radio beacon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Degenhardt, W.; Hartmann, G.K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with some measurements made with the radio beacon on board the ATS-6 satellite in the American and European sectors. Measurements of the slant electron content, the Faraday content, and the plasmaspheric (or residual) content, made under different geographic and geomagnetic conditions, are discussed and compared

  10. ATS-6 radio beacon electron content measurements at Ootacamund, India, October 1975-July 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwer, S.D.; Davies, K.; Donnelly, R.F.; Grubb, R.N.; Jones, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    An atlas of total slant-path columnar electron content data measured between the ATS-6 satellite and Ootacamund, India, a site near the magnetic Equator is presented. Although these measurements were taken during a solar minimum, the general level of flare and geomagnetic activity that occurred during the observation period is summarized. These total content (N(T)) data were derived from the modulation phase (group delay) of a carrier signal transmitted from the geostationary satellite's Radio Beacon Experiment. This atlas contains two data sets: (1) N(T) as 2-min subsamples digitally recorded between 2 October 1975 and 28 January 1976 corrected for ATS-6 pitch maneuvers and (2) N(T) as 15-min subsamples chart recorded between 21 October 1975 and 22 July 1976 but uncorrected for changes in satellite orientation

  11. Observations of inner plasmasphere irregularities with a satellite-beacon radio-interferometer array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.; Hoogeveen, G.; Carlos, R.C.; Wu, G.; Fejer, B.G.; Kelley, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    A radio-interferometer array illuminated by 136-MHz beacons of several geosynchronous satellites has been used to study small (≥10 13 m -2 ) transient disturbances in the total electron content along the lines of sight to the satellites. High-frequency (f>3 mHz) electron content oscillations are persistently observed, particularly during night and particularly during geomagnetically disturbed periods. The oscillations move across the array plane at speeds in the range 200 endash 2000 m/s, with propagation azimuths that are strongly peaked in lobes toward the western half-plane. Detailed analysis of this azimuth behavior, involving comparison between observations on various satellite positions, indicates compellingly that the phase oscillations originate in radio refraction due to geomagnetically aligned plasma density perturbations in the inner plasmasphere. The motion of the phase perturbations across the array plane is caused by EXB drift of the plasma medium in which the irregularities are embedded. We review the statistics of 2.5 years of around-the-clock data on the local time, magnetic disturbance, seasonal, and line-of-sight variations of these observed irregularities. We compare the irregularities close-quote inferred electrodynamic drifts to what is known about midlatitude plasma drift from incoherent scatter. Finally, we show in detail how the observation of these irregularities provides a unique and complementary monitor of inner plasmasphere irregularity incidence and zonal drift.copyright 1996 American Geophysical Union

  12. Low and Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Irregularities Studies Using TEC and Radio Scintillation Data from the CITRIS Radio Beacon Receiver in Low-Earth-Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J.; Krall, J.; Roddy, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Unique data on ionospheric plasma irregularities from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) CITRIS (Scintillation and TEC Receiver in Space) instrument will be presented. CITRIS is a multi-band receiver that recorded TEC (Total Electron Content) and radio scintillations from Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) on STPSat1. The 555+/5 km altitude 35° inclination orbit covers low and mid-latitudes. The measurements require propagation from a transmitter to a receiver through the F-region plasma. CITRIS used both 1) satellite beacons in LEO, such as the NRL CERTO (Coherent Electromagnetic Radio TOmography) beacons and 2) the global network of ground-based DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) beacons. The TEC measurements allow for tracking of ionospheric disturbances and irregularities while the measurements of scintillations can simultaneously characterize their effects. CITRIS was operated in a complementary fashion with the C/NOFS (Communication/Navigations Outages Forecasting System) satellite during most of its first year of operations. C/NOFS carries a three-frequency 150/400/1067 MHz CERTO beacon and is dedicated to the study of Spread-F. In the case of Spread-F, ionospheric irregularities start with large scale size density gradients (100s of km) and cascade through complex processes to short scale sizes (10s of meters). It is typically the 100m-1km scale features that harm communication and navigation systems through scintillations. A multi-sensor approach is needed to completely understand this complex system, such as, the combination of CITRIS remote radio sensing and C/NOFS in-situ data. Several types of irregularities have been studied including Spread-F and the newly discovered dawn-side depletions. Comparisons with the physics based SAMI3 model are being performed to help our understanding of the morphology of the irregularities.

  13. Results from the northern New Mexico satellite-beacon radio interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, R.; Jacobson, A.; Massey, R.; Wu, G.

    1994-01-01

    An interferometer described in the Boston, 1992, meeting of the Beacon Satellite Symposium has been in full operation for over a year now. It consists of four autonomous stations; three are in a triangle 70 km on a side and one is in the center. The stations receive the VHF beacons from two geosynchronous satellites, GOES-2 and ATS-3. The phases of the beacons are tracked at each station by referring them to an extremely stable rubidium oscillator. The studies of the two satellites are virtually separate experiments. The received phase of the beacon is retarded by the increased Total-Electron-Content of the dense regions of waves in the ionosphere. By comparing the phase history at four spatially separated stations, the authors can determine the two-dimensional propagation vector of the waves. This array is optimal for wavelengths of 70--300 km (periods of 300--3,000 seconds). Since the measurement is of the phase of the signal rather than the difference between the O-mode and X-mode phases, and since the beacons are in the VHF rather than in the L-band of GPS beacons, the array is very sensitive. It has a noise level of 10 13 electrons/m 2 , or 10 -4 of the normal daytime TEC. This has been verified by operating two stations in the same location, so that they saw the same ionosphere. The first interesting results from a year's study is that the authors do not see the same TID's when looking at the two satellites. One conclusion they draw is that they do not see evidence of ionospheric winds

  14. Beaconing Performance in IEEE 802.11p Vehicular Networks: the Effect of Radio Channel Congestion

    OpenAIRE

    Librino, Francesco; Renda, Maria Elena; Santi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of the beaconing mechanism underlying active safety vehicular applications in presence of different levels of channel congestion. The importance of this study lies in the fact that channel congestion is considered a major factor influencing communication performance in vehicular networks, and that ours is the first investigation of the effects of congestion based on extensive, real-world measurements. The results of our study reveal that congestion has ...

  15. 76 FR 17625 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Emergency Beacon Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Emergency Beacon Registrations AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... emergency radio beacon. Persons purchasing a digital distress beacon, operating in the frequency range of...

  16. Performance Evaluation of Relay Selection Schemes in Beacon-Assisted Dual-Hop Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks under Impact of Hardware Noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Tran Dinh; Duy, Tran Trung; Dung, Le The; Choi, Seong Gon

    2018-06-05

    To solve the problem of energy constraints and spectrum scarcity for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks (CR-WSNs), an underlay decode-and-forward relaying scheme is considered, where the energy constrained secondary source and relay nodes are capable of harvesting energy from a multi-antenna power beacon (PB) and using that harvested energy to forward the source information to the destination. Based on the time switching receiver architecture, three relaying protocols, namely, hybrid partial relay selection (H-PRS), conventional opportunistic relay selection (C-ORS), and best opportunistic relay selection (B-ORS) protocols are considered to enhance the end-to-end performance under the joint impact of maximal interference constraint and transceiver hardware impairments. For performance evaluation and comparison, we derive the exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions of outage probability (OP) and throughput (TP) to provide significant insights into the impact of our proposed protocols on the system performance over Rayleigh fading channel. Finally, simulation results validate the theoretical results.

  17. Personal Beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.

  18. First observations of large-scale wave structure and equatorial spread F using CERTO radio beacon on the C/NOFS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Otsuka, Y.; Tsugawa, T.; Uemoto, J.; Ishii, M.

    2009-12-01

    Equatorial spread F (ESF) is a generic name, which refers to the presence of a wide spectrum of field-aligned irregularities in the equatorial nighttime F-region that can extend over nearly seven orders of magnitude. Recently, a large-scale wave structure (LSWS) in the F-layer electron density is identified as a reliable precursor to ESF. The LSWS can be identified as a quasi-periodic modulation in the altitude of isoelectron density contours in the bottomside F-region, superimposed on a mean slope that increases in altitude from west to east. First observations of large-scale wave structure (LSWS) and the subsequent development of equatorial spread F (ESF), using total electron content (TEC) derived from the ground based reception of Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography (CETRO) radio beacon signals on board the C/NOFS (Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System) satellite will be presented. For this study the TEC observations from Bac Lieu, Vietnam (9.2°N, 105.6°E geographic, 1.7°N magnetic dip latitude), Phukhet (7.8°N, 98.38°E, 0.4°S dip lat) and Kototabang, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 10.36°S dip lat) are analyzed along with ionosonde observations from Bac Lieu, Chumphon (10.7°N, 99.4°E, 3.3° dip lat) and 30.8 MHz VHF radar observations from Kototabang. It should also be mentioned here that LSWS is not easily detectable with overhead measurements using a sensor at a fixed location, at least not during its early growth phase, mainly because initially it grows in amplitude without significant zonal drift. The results indicate (1) LSWS appears to play a more important role in the development of ESF than the post-sunset rise (PSSR) of the F-layer, and (2) LSWS can appear well before E-region sunset. Other findings, that LSWS does not have significant zonal drift in the initial stages of growth, and can have zonal wavelengths of several hundred kilometers, corroborate earlier reports.

  19. Molecular Beacons in Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Sanjay; Kramer, Fred Russell

    2012-01-01

    Recent technical advances have begun to realize the potential of molecular beacons to test for diverse infections in clinical diagnostic laboratories. These include the ability to test for, and quantify, multiple pathogens in the same clinical sample, and to detect antibiotic resistant strains within hours. The design principles of molecular beacons have also spawned a variety of allied technologies.

  20. Auditory evacuation beacons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Boer, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Auditory evacuation beacons can be used to guide people to safe exits, even when vision is totally obscured by smoke. Conventional beacons make use of modulated noise signals. Controlled evacuation experiments show that such signals require explicit instructions and are often misunderstood. A new

  1. On the Efficiency of Secure Beaconing in VANETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoch, Elmar; Kargl, Frank

    Direct inter-vehicle communication enables numerous safety applications like intersection collision warning. Beacons - periodic one-hop link-layer broadcast messages containing, e.g., location, heading, and speed - are the basis for many such applications. For security, current work often requires

  2. Variation in the WWV, 15 MHz field strength received at Hiraiso during a low solar activity and the application of the result to radio disturbance warning services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshio, Mitsuo; Kidokoro, Tsuneichi

    1978-01-01

    Recurrent geomagnetic storms occur predominantly apparently during the period of low solar activity. Radio disturbance warning services are apt to be made in terms of geomagnetic disturbances in this period. This analysis has been made from the standpoint of making the electric field strength of a short wave (WWV, 15 MHz) circuit with a long distance received at Hiraiso, Japan correspond to not only geomagnetic disturbances, but also its absorption in the ionosphere. The electric field strength has been treated as a newly introduced daily mean value of time-integrated one in this paper. The result has been obtained from the analysis that about 2/3 of the daily electric field strength of the total cases treated were influenced by geomagnetic disturbances and that about 2/3 within the remaining about 1/3 proved to be influenced by the ionospheric absorption, ionospheric parameters such as f sub(min) and the phase of a VLF radio wave circuit being used. The strength has been considered to be influenced by the absorption also in case of being influenced by geomagnetic disturbances. The remaining about 1/9 of the total cases could not correspond to its cause. Some applications of the consideration have been made to practical problems. (author)

  3. COSPAS-SARSAT Beacon Certification Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EPG's COSPAS-SARSAT Beacon Certification Facility is one of five certification facilities in the world. Formal certifications are available for all beacon types and...

  4. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A...

  5. An Interfacing System for Radiation Surveillance Using a Radio Communication Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunsiri, T.; Punnachaiya, S.; Pattarasumun, A.

    1998-01-01

    The development of an interfacing system for environmental radiation surveillance using radio communication network is aimed to improve a way by which environmental radiation measurement is transmitted and reported from the regional area monitoring station network. This also includes an automatic warning of beacon status via the radio link network to the center of environmental radiation control when an abnormal radiation level is detected. The interfacing system was developed by simulating the EGAT radio link network, the NT 2612, and can be separated into two parts. The first part was for a mobile station which can manage the output data from the radiation measurement system in the standard form of RS-232, IEEE-488, BCD and analog signal. This was accomplished by modulating the signal in selected baud rates ranging from 150 to 9600 bps using an economical radio packet capable of identifying and recalling the station code number. The other part is the linking system between the output data and the microcomputer equipped with a software to manage and evaluate the data from 10 surveillance stations for convenient handing of data output, statistical analysis and transmitting warning signal. Data transmission was tested using a baud rate of 1200 bps and was found to contain no detectable error when digital signal was transmitted while analog signal transmission resulted in deviations of less than ± 0.003%. The development of this radio link system provides a future trend for the environmental radiation monitoring network for countries with nuclear power plants or neighboring countries needed to continuously monitor for any abnormal radiation level in the environment. In case that the radiation surveillance system detects a high level of radiation, a warning signal will be transmitted and appropriate actions may be immediately exercised to control impacts of radiation on environment and living things according to international guidelines

  6. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of AERA using a beacon reference transmitter and commercial airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huege Tim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio detection of cosmic-ray air showers requires time synchronization of detectors on a nanosecond level, especially for advanced reconstruction algorithms based on the wavefront curvature and for interferometric analysis approaches. At the Auger Engineering Radio Array, the distributed, autonomous detector stations are time-synchronized via the Global Positioning System which, however, does not provide sufficient timing accuracy. We thus employ a dedicated beacon reference transmitter to correct for eventby-event clock drifts in our offline data analysis. In an independent cross-check of this “beacon correction” using radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, we have shown that the combined timing accuracy of the two methods is better than 2 nanoseconds.

  7. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of AERA using a beacon reference transmitter and commercial airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Tim

    2017-03-01

    Radio detection of cosmic-ray air showers requires time synchronization of detectors on a nanosecond level, especially for advanced reconstruction algorithms based on the wavefront curvature and for interferometric analysis approaches. At the Auger Engineering Radio Array, the distributed, autonomous detector stations are time-synchronized via the Global Positioning System which, however, does not provide sufficient timing accuracy. We thus employ a dedicated beacon reference transmitter to correct for eventby-event clock drifts in our offline data analysis. In an independent cross-check of this "beacon correction" using radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, we have shown that the combined timing accuracy of the two methods is better than 2 nanoseconds.

  8. The ANTARES optical beacon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Albert, A.

    2007-01-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented

  9. The ANTARES optical beacon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, M. [CPPM - Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC - Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios de Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: J.A.Aguilar@ific.uv.es; Albert, A. [GRPHE - Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 Rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France)) (and others)

    2007-08-11

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented.

  10. The ANTARES optical beacon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Bigi, A.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; de Botton, N.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Busto, J.; Cafagna, F.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, P.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Colnard, C.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Cussatlegras, A.-S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; de Marzo, C.; de Vita, R.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Denans, D.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dinkespieler, B.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Drogou, J.-F.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galeotti, S.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Gojak, C.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Hallewell, G.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hoffman, C.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kudryavstev, V. A.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laschinsky, H.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le van Suu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Megna, R.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Milovanovic, A.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Naumann, C.; Niess, V.; Noble, T.; Olivetto, C.; Ostasch, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Perez, A.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pillet, R.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Randazzo, N.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; van Rens, B.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Rigaud, V.; Ripani, M.; Roca, V.; Roda, C.; Rolin, J. F.; Rose, H. J.; Rostovtsev, A.; Roux, J.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Rusydi, G.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Sokalski, I.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Stolarczyk, T.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Terreni, G.; Thompson, L. F.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Vallage, B.; Vaudaine, G.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; de Witt Huberts, P.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yao, A.-F.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2007-08-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented.

  11. On making radio contact with extraterrestrial civilizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of attempting to make radio contact with other technological civilizations is examined. It is argued that there are few (perhaps indeed no) omnidirectional radio beacons in the Galaxy primarily because any such beacon, to be effective, would have to be designed for a call-response time of at least some 10 4 years, which is much too long to be likely to be acceptable to governments. A consequence is that any search program by us would have little chance of detecting incoming signals. (Auth.)

  12. Gold Nanoparticle-Based Sensors Activated by External Radio Frequency Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Vedova, Paolo; Ilieva, Mirolyuba; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    A novel molecular beacon (a nanomachine) is constructed that can be actuated by a radio frequency (RF) field. The nanomachine consists of the following elements arranged in molecular beacon configuration: a gold nanoparticle that acts both as quencher for fluorescence and a localized heat source;...

  13. Multi-Band Multi-Tone Tunable Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer For Satellite Beacon Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone tunable millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a satellite beacon transmitter for radio wave propagation studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). In addition, the architecture for a compact beacon transmitter, which includes the multi-tone synthesizer, polarizer, horn antenna, and power/control electronics, has been investigated for a notional space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment payload on a small satellite. The above studies would enable the design of robust high throughput multi-Gbps data rate future space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  14. Searching for Cost-Optimized Interstellar Beacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Gregory; Benford, James; Benford, Dominic

    2010-06-01

    What would SETI beacon transmitters be like if built by civilizations that had a variety of motives but cared about cost? In a companion paper, we presented how, for fixed power density in the far field, a cost-optimum interstellar beacon system could be built. Here, we consider how we should search for a beacon if it were produced by a civilization similar to ours. High-power transmitters could be built for a wide variety of motives other than the need for two-way communication; this would include beacons built to be seen over thousands of light-years. Extraterrestrial beacon builders would likely have to contend with economic pressures just as their terrestrial counterparts do. Cost, spectral lines near 1 GHz, and interstellar scintillation favor radiating frequencies substantially above the classic "water hole." Therefore, the transmission strategy for a distant, cost-conscious beacon would be a rapid scan of the galactic plane with the intent to cover the angular space. Such pulses would be infrequent events for the receiver. Such beacons built by distant, advanced, wealthy societies would have very different characteristics from what SETI researchers seek. Future searches should pay special attention to areas along the galactic disk where SETI searches have seen coherent signals that have not recurred on the limited listening time intervals we have used. We will need to wait for recurring events that may arriarrive in intermittent bursts. Several new SETI search strategies have emerged from these ideas. We propose a new test for beacons that is based on the Life Plane hypotheses.

  15. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  16. BEACON: automated tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON

    KAUST Repository

    Kalkatawi, Manal M.; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    We developed BEACON, a fast tool for an automated and a systematic comparison of different annotations of single genomes. The extended annotation assigns putative functions to many genes with unknown functions. BEACON is available under GNU General Public License version 3.0 and is accessible at: http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/BEACON/

  17. 14 CFR 171.269 - Marker beacon performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marker beacon performance requirements. 171.269 Section 171.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.269 Marker beacon performance requirements. ISMLS marker beacon equipment...

  18. Doing Forensic on DTUsat-2 Using the Beacon Counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fléron, René

    2016-01-01

    DTUsat-2 was launched into a Polar LEO on a Dnepr rocket out of Yasny on 19th June 2014. After the first few days of beacon recording and precise orbit determination it became apparent that all was not nominal. One notable thing was the relatively low beacon count number. The beacon count reflects...

  19. Solar powered aviation beacon/landing light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the work was to design, develop and test Solar Powered Aviation Landing Lights/Obstruction Beacons. The entire lighting units were to be stand alone devices capable of producing their own individual power supply. The whole process was to be documented to provide insight into the processes and decisions involved. (author)

  20. An analytical model for beaconing in VANETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eenennaam, Martijn; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Heijenk, Geert

    2012-01-01

    IEEE 802.11 CSMA/CA is generally considered to be well-understood, and many detailed models are available. However, most models focus on Unicast in small-scale W-LAN scenarios. When modelling beaconing in VANETs, the Broadcast nature and the (potentially) large number of nodes cause phenomena

  1. Remote tracking of a magnetic receiver using low frequency beacons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinker, Arie; Ginzburg, Boris; Salomonski, Nizan; Frumkis, Lev; Kaplan, Ben-Zion

    2014-01-01

    Low frequency magnetic fields feature high penetration ability, which allows communication, localization, and tracking in environments where radio or acoustic waves are blocked or distorted by multipath interferences. In the present work, we propose a method for tracking a magnetic receiver using beacons of low frequency magnetic field, where the receiver includes a tri-axial search-coil magnetometer. Measuring the beacons’ magnetic fields and calculating the total-field signals enables localization without restrictions on magnetometer orientation, allowing on-the-move tracking. The total-field signals are used by a global search method, e.g., simulated annealing (SA) algorithm, to localize the receiver. The magnetic field produced by each beacon has a dipole structure and is governed by the beacon’s position and magnetic moment. We have investigated two different methods for estimating beacons’ magnetic moments prior to localization. The first method requires directional measurements, whereas for the second method the total-field signal is used. Effectiveness of these methods has been proved in numerous field tests. In the present work, we introduce a method for tracking a moving receiver by successive localizations. Using previous localization as a starting point of the search method for the next localization can reduce execution time and chances for divergence. The proposed method has been tested using numerous computer simulations. Successful system operation has been verified in field conditions. The good tracking capability together with simple implementation makes the proposed method attractive for real-time, low power field applications, such as mobile robots navigation. (paper)

  2. Localization with a mobile beacon in underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Kiseon

    2012-01-01

    Localization is one of the most important issues associated with underwater acoustic sensor networks, especially when sensor nodes are randomly deployed. Given that it is difficult to deploy beacon nodes at predetermined locations, localization schemes with a mobile beacon on the sea surface or along the planned path are inherently convenient, accurate, and energy-efficient. In this paper, we propose a new range-free Localization with a Mobile Beacon (LoMoB). The mobile beacon periodically broadcasts a beacon message containing its location. Sensor nodes are individually localized by passively receiving the beacon messages without inter-node communications. For location estimation, a set of potential locations are obtained as candidates for a node's location and then the node's location is determined through the weighted mean of all the potential locations with the weights computed based on residuals.

  3. Localization with a Mobile Beacon in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangho Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Localization is one of the most important issues associated with underwater acoustic sensor networks, especially when sensor nodes are randomly deployed. Given that it is difficult to deploy beacon nodes at predetermined locations, localization schemes with a mobile beacon on the sea surface or along the planned path are inherently convenient, accurate, and energy-efficient. In this paper, we propose a new range-free Localization with a Mobile Beacon (LoMoB. The mobile beacon periodically broadcasts a beacon message containing its location. Sensor nodes are individually localized by passively receiving the beacon messages without inter-node communications. For location estimation, a set of potential locations are obtained as candidates for a node’s location and then the node’s location is determined through the weighted mean of all the potential locations with the weights computed based on residuals.

  4. High-visibility infrared beacons for IFF and combat ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralle, Martin; Puscasu, Irina; Johnson, Edward; Loges, Peter; Melnyk, James

    2005-05-01

    A new kind of Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) infrared beacon has been demonstrated. The omni-directional beacon consists of a pyramidal array of 1W pulsIR thermal light sources. Operating at a total power of 84W, the beacon can be used to track and identify surface vehicles and personnel with a recognition range of up to 6 miles on the battlefield and in urban environments or the marine boundary layer. Advanced photonic technology enables the beacon to be seen only while using a 3-5 μm or 8-12 μm thermal imaging system. There is no visible or near-IR emission to betray the location of the beacon. The beacon is rugged and will operate from -40 to 50°C ambient temperature, 0-100% relative humidity, 0 - 10,000 ft altitude, and meets MIL-STD 810F and MIL-STD 461E.

  5. Aircraft Position Measurement Using Laser Beacon Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    8217Comparison of Solar Concentrators .’ Solar Energy, Vol. 10, p. 93, 1976. 7. Winston , R., ’Light Collection Within the Framework of Goemetrical Optics ...8217 J. Optical Society of Am., Vol. 60, p. 245, 1970. 8. Welford, W. T., tics of Nonimaging Concentrators . New York, Academic Press, T978. 9. Bracewell...helicopter pilot and the flight engineer on board the YO-3A. This thesis will concentrate on the development of the laser beacon, the detector optics

  6. Development of a universal RNA beacon for exogenous gene detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanjian; Lu, Zhongju; Cohen, Ira Stephen; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2015-05-01

    Stem cell therapy requires a nontoxic and high-throughput method to achieve a pure cell population to prevent teratomas that can occur if even one cell in the implant has not been transformed. A promising method to detect and separate cells expressing a particular gene is RNA beacon technology. However, developing a successful, specific beacon to a particular transfected gene can take months to develop and in some cases is impossible. Here, we report on an off-the-shelf universal beacon that decreases the time and cost of applying beacon technology to select any living cell population transfected with an exogenous gene. ©AlphaMed Press.

  7. Radio tomographic imaging of sporadic-E layers during SEEK-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bernhardt

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available During the SEEK-2 Rocket Campaign in August 2002, a Dual Band Beacon (DBB transmitting to Ground Receivers provided unique data on E-Region electron densities. Information from two rocket beacons and four ground receivers yielded multiple samples of E-region horizontal and vertical variations. The radio beacon measurements were made at four sites (Uchinoura, Tarumizu, Tanegashima, Takazaki in Japan for two rockets (S310-31 and S310-32 launched by the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS. Analysis was completed for four sets of beacon data to provide electron density images of sporadic-E layers. Signals from the two-frequency beacons on the SEEK-2 rockets were processed to yield total electron content (TEC data that was converted into electron density measurements. Wide variations in layer structures were detected. These included horizontal sporadic-E variations, vertical profiles of double, single, and weak layers. The radio beacon measurements were shown to be in agreement with the in-situ SEEK-2 sensors. The first tomographic image of a sporadic-E layer was produced from the data. The rocket beacon technique was shown to be an excellent tool to study sporadic-E layers because absolute TEC accuracy of 0.01 TEC Units can be easily obtained and, with proper receiver placement, electron density images can be produced using computerized ionospheric tomography with better than 1km horizontal and vertical resolution. Keywords. Ionospheric irregularities – Instruments and techniques – Mid-latitude ionosphere

  8. Practical Fingerprinting Localization for Indoor Positioning System by Using Beacons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Subedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the fields of smartphones and wireless communication technologies such as beacons, Wi-Fi, and ultra-wideband have made it possible to realize indoor positioning system (IPS with a few meters of accuracy. In this paper, an improvement over traditional fingerprinting localization is proposed by combining it with weighted centroid localization (WCL. The proposed localization method reduces the total number of fingerprint reference points over the localization space, thus minimizing both the time required for reading radio frequency signals and the number of reference points needed during the fingerprinting learning process, which eventually makes the process less time-consuming. The proposed positioning has two major steps of operation. In the first step, we have realized fingerprinting that utilizes lightly populated reference points (RPs and WCL individually. Using the location estimated at the first step, WCL is run again for the final location estimation. The proposed localization technique reduces the number of required fingerprint RPs by more than 40% compared to normal fingerprinting localization method with a similar localization estimation error.

  9. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is the public-facing query of the Program tracking, Beach Advisories, Water quality standards, and Nutrients database (PRAWN) which tracks beach closing and advisory information.

  10. Warning Signs of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Aggressive Behavior Print Share Warning Signs for Bullying There are many warning signs that may indicate ... Get help right away . Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

  11. Radiation early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.; Stadtmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype station for a Radiation Early Warning Network has been designed and set up at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. This unit was developed to measure all relevant parameters necessary to detect and track radioactive contamination at an early stage. The station consists of the following components: Radiation measuring channel for ambient gamma dose rate. Meteorological measurement channels for air temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and precipitation. Data processing and storage unit. The system is capable of unattended operation and data acquisition even under adverse environmental conditions. Connection to a central processing platform may be achieved via leased line, dial up over public switched telephone network (PSTN), or radio-frequency transmission. The remote station will continue acquiring and storing data for at least a month, even if the communications link is broken. Multiple stations can be combined to form a network, providing detailed information about radiological and meteorological data at each site. Thus increased ambient radiation levels may be discovered, tracked, and forecasted based on calculations using current and local weather data

  12. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. 76 FR 65216 - Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-80,219] Beacon Medical Services... workers and former workers of Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, Colorado (Beacon Medical Services... published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2011 (76 FR 40401). The workers of Beacon Medical Services are...

  14. 78 FR 75392 - American Beacon Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Asset Management LLC; (b) American Beacon Balanced Fund--the Manager, Barrow, Hanley, Mewhinney... Beacon Funds, et al.; Notice of Application December 5, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission...) (order). Applicants: American Beacon Funds and American Beacon Select Funds (collectively, the ``Trusts...

  15. Secure Utilization of Beacons and UAVs in Emergency Response Systems for Building Fire Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Jung-In; Song, Jinseok

    2017-09-25

    An intelligent emergency system for hazard monitoring and building evacuation is a very important application area in Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Through the use of smart sensors, such a system can provide more vital and reliable information to first-responders and also reduce the incidents of false alarms. Several smart monitoring and warning systems do already exist, though they exhibit key weaknesses such as a limited monitoring coverage and security, which have not yet been sufficiently addressed. In this paper, we propose a monitoring and emergency response method for buildings by utilizing beacons and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an IoT security platform. In order to demonstrate the practicability of our method, we also implement a proof of concept prototype, which we call the UAV-EMOR (UAV-assisted Emergency Monitoring and Response) system. Our UAV-EMOR system provides the following novel features: (1) secure communications between UAVs, smart sensors, the control server and a smartphone app for security managers; (2) enhanced coordination between smart sensors and indoor/outdoor UAVs to expand real-time monitoring coverage; and (3) beacon-aided rescue and building evacuation.

  16. Diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Using Molecular Beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Achchhe Lal; Sonkar, Subash Chandra; Kumari, Indu; Saluja, Daman

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an important sexually transmitted diseases (STD) causing pathogen worldwide. Due to absence of an affordable diagnostic assay, routine screening of gonococcal infection becomes impossible in developing countries where infection rates are maximum. Treatment is given on the basis of symptoms alone which leads to spread of infection. Thus, development of a rapid, sensitive, specific, and PCR based visual diagnostic assay suitable for developing countries, required for better disease management, is aimed at in present study. Endocervical swabs were collected from patients visiting gynecology department of various hospitals in Delhi. In-house PCR based assay was developed and modified to visual assay using molecular beacon for end-point detection. It was evaluated against Roche AMPLICOR NG kit and rmp gene. Specificity of beacon was confirmed by competition experiments. Diagnostic test was 98.21% specific and 99.59% sensitive whereas negative and positive predicted value were 99.40% and 98.78%, respectively. We also observed that twice the concentration (2X) of premix was stable at 4°C for 4 months and dry swab samples gave concordant results with that of wet swabs. These features make the test best suitable for routine diagnosis of genital infections in developing countries. PMID:25802857

  17. Molecular Beacon-Based MicroRNA Imaging During Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescence monitoring system for examining endogenous microRNA (miRNA) activity in cellular level provides crucial information on not only understanding a critical role of miRNA involving a variety of biological processes, but also evaluating miRNA expression patterns in a noninvasive manner. In this protocol, we report the details of a new procedure for a molecular beacon-based miRNA monitoring system, which includes the illustration scheme for miRNA detection strategy, exogenous miRNA detection, and measurement of endogenous miRNA expression level during neurogenesis. The fluorescence signal of miR-124a beacon quenched by BHQ2 was gradually recovered as increasing concentration of the miR-124a in tube. The functional work of miR-124a beacon was examined in intracellular environment, allowing for the internalization of the miR-124a beacon by lipofectamine, which resulted in activated fluorescent signals of the miR-124a beacon in the HeLa cells after the addition of synthetic miR-124a. The endogenous miR-124a expression level was detected by miR-124a beacon system during neurogenesis, showing brighter fluorescence intensity in cytoplasmic area of P19 cells after induction of neuronal differentiation by retinoic acid. The molecular beacon based-miRNA detection technique could be applicable to the simultaneous visualization of a variety of miRNA expression patterns using different fluorescence dyes. For the study of examining endogenous miRNA expression level using miRNA-beacon system, if cellular differentiation step is already prepared, transfection step of miR-124a beacon into P19 cells, and acquisition of activated fluorescence signal measured by confocal microscope can be conducted approximately within 6 h.

  18. Do rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) use visual beacons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurly, T Andrew; Franz, Simone; Healy, Susan D

    2010-03-01

    Animals are often assumed to use highly conspicuous features of a goal to head directly to that goal ('beaconing'). In the field it is generally assumed that flowers serve as beacons to guide pollinators. Artificial hummingbird feeders are coloured red to serve a similar function. However, anecdotal reports suggest that hummingbirds return to feeder locations in the absence of the feeder (and thus the beacon). Here we test these reports for the first time in the field, using the natural territories of hummingbirds and manipulating flowers on a scale that is ecologically relevant to the birds. We compared the predictions from two distinct hypotheses as to how hummingbirds might use the visual features of rewards: the distant beacon hypothesis and the local cue hypothesis. In two field experiments, we found no evidence that rufous hummingbirds used a distant visual beacon to guide them to a rewarded location. In no case did birds abandon their approach to the goal location from a distance; rather they demonstrated remarkable accuracy of navigation by approaching to within about 70 cm of a rewarded flower's original location. Proximity varied depending on the size of the training flower: birds flew closer to a previously rewarded location if it had been previously signalled with a small beacon. Additionally, when provided with a beacon at a new location, birds did not fly directly to the new beacon. Taken together, we believe these data demonstrate that these hummingbirds depend little on visual characteristics to beacon to rewarded locations, but rather that they encode surrounding landmarks in order to reach the goal and then use the visual features of the goal as confirmation that they have arrived at the correct location.

  19. Low-Frequency Beacon Signal Strength Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Radio Frequency List , RIS AF-6050-12 [141. Using this value and assum- ing performance for these facilities as indicatcd in FAA Handbook 6050.10, ERP...FAA Handbook 6050. 10 for facilities of appropriate transmitter power, determined from FAA Master Radio Frequency List 6050-12, April 1979...these facilities has not been directly measured and, therefore, values corresponding to transmitter powers given in FAA Master Radio Frequency List , RIS

  20. Snapshot analysis for rhodium fixed incore detector using BEACON methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kyoon Ho; Choi, Yu Sun; Lee, Eun Ki; Park, Moon Ghu; Morita, Toshio; Heibel, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to process the rhodium detector data of the Yonggwang nuclear unit 4 cycle 5 core for the measured power distribution by using the BEACON methodology. Rhodium snapshots of the YGN 4 cycle 5 have been analyzed by both BEACON/SPINOVA and CECOR to compare the results of both codes. By analyzing a large number of snapshots obtained during normal plant operation. Reviewing the results of this analysis, the BEACON/SPNOVA can be used for the snapshot analysis of Korean Standard Nuclear Power (KSNP) plants

  1. BEACON TSM application system to the operation of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J. A.; Mildrum, C.; Serrano, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    BEACON-TSM is an advanced core monitoring system for PWR reactor cores, and also offers the possibility to perform a wide range of predictive calculation in support of reactor operation. BEACON-TSM is presently installed and licensed in the 5 Spanish PWR reactors of standard Westinghouse design. the purpose of this paper is to describe the features of this software system and to show the advantages obtainable by a nuclear power plant from its use. To illustrate the capabilities and benefits of BEACON-TSM two real case reactor operating situations are presented. (Author)

  2. Beacon-S TM: Non-uniform attenuation correction for SPECT imaging. The new medium-energy transmission device for AXIS and IRIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel Gagnon, D.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents new medium-energy transmission device for SPECT imaging. Beacon-S includes a 356-keV medium energy 133 Ba source with a 10.54-year half-life. Beacon-S provide high-resolution and high-contrast transmission scans. The higher energy of the gamma substantially improves the transmission contrast for larger patients by virtue of better penetration through the body

  3. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Molecular Beacons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Lily

    2008-01-01

    .... We proposed to use molecular beacon technology to detect the level of expression of several biomarker genes that are highly expressed in breast cancer cells but not in normal breast epithelial cells...

  4. Evaluation of light-emitting diode beacon light fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Rotating beacons containing filament light sources have long been used on highway maintenance trucks : to indicate the presence of the truck to other drivers. Because of advances in light-emitting diode (LED) : technologies, flashing lights containin...

  5. Evaluation of BEACON-COLSS Core Monitoring System Benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joon Sung; Park, Young Ho; Morita, Toshio; Book, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    In Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant COLSS (Core Operating Limit Supervisory System) is used to monitor the DNBR Power Operating Limit (DNBRPOL) and Linear Heat Rate POL (KWPFPOL). Westinghouse and KNFC have developed an upgraded core monitoring system by combining the BEACON TM core monitoring system 1 (Best Estimate Analyzer for Core Operation . Nuclear) and COLSS into an integrated product that is called BEACON-COLSS. BEACON-COLSS generates the 3-D power distribution corrected by the in-core detectors measurements. The 3-D core power distribution methodology in BEACON-COLSS is significantly better than the synthesis methodology in COLSS. BEACONCOLSS uses the CETOP-D 2 thermal hydraulic code instead of CETOP-1. CETOP-D is a multi-channel thermal hydraulics code that will provide more accurate DNBR calculations than the DNBR calculators currently used in COLSS

  6. Pedestrian hybrid beacon guide : recommendations and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A pedestrian hybrid beacon (PHB) is a traffic control : device similar to a European pedestrian signal : (PELICAN) that was imported to the US and adapted by : engineers in Arizona to increase motorists awareness of : pedestrian crossings at uncon...

  7. Radio astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagnibeda, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    The history of radio astronomical observations at the Astronomical Observatory of Leningrad State University is reviewed. Various facilities are described, and methods and instruments used are discussed. Some results are summarized for radio observations of the sun, including observations of local sources of solar radio emission, the absolute solar radio flux, and radio emission from filaments and prominences.

  8. A heuristic evaluation of the Facebook's advertising tool beacon

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, A; Cole, M

    2009-01-01

    Interface usability is critical to the successful adoption of information systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate interface of Facebook's advertising tool Beacon by using privacy heuristics [4]. Beacon represents an interesting case study because of the negative media and user backlash it received. The findings of heuristic evaluation suggest violation of privacy heuristics [4]. Here, analysis identified concerns about user choice and consent, integrity and security of data, and awarene...

  9. Temporal change of EIA asymmetry revealed by a beacon receiver network in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Maruyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Nishioka, Michi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2015-05-01

    To reveal the temporal change of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) asymmetry, a multipoint satellite-ground beacon experiment was conducted along the meridional plane of the Thailand-Indonesia sector. The observation includes one station near the magnetic equator and four stations at off-equator latitudes. This is the first EIA asymmetry study with high spatial resolution using GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) observations in Southeast Asia. GRBR-total electron contents (TECs) from 97 polar-orbit satellite passes in March 2012 were analyzed in this study. Successive passes captured rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry, especially during geomagnetic disturbances. The penetrating electric fields that occur during geomagnetic disturbed days are not the cause of the asymmetry. Instead, high background TEC associated with an intense electric field empowers the neutral wind to produce severe asymmetry of the EIA. Such rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry was not seen during nighttime, when meridional wind mainly controlled the asymmetric structures. Additional data are necessary to identify the source of the variations, i.e., atmospheric waves. Precisely capturing the locations of the crests and the evolution of the asymmetry enhances understanding of the temporal change of EIA asymmetry at the local scale and leads to a future local modeling for TEC prediction in Southeast Asia.

  10. Beacon-Colss core monitoring system application and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, W.A.; Yoon, T.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Westinghouse and KNFC are creating an upgraded core monitoring system by merging the BEACON system (best estimate analyzer for core operation-nuclear) and COLSS (core operating limit supervisory system) into an integrated product. Although both BEACON and COLSS are core monitoring systems that have been in operation at many plants for a number of years, they each have some features and capabilities that are not in the other. Therefore it has been decided to incorporate portions of COLSS into the beacon system to create an optional level to support core monitoring applications on selected combustion engineering (C-E) designed plants. This optional level in the beacon system will be called BEACON-COLSS and will allow the beacon system to monitor the LCO's and Tech Spec limits at CE plants that currently use COLSS. This paper will present the structure of the new core monitoring system and the benefits it achieves for current COLSS plants, i.e., CE plants in the US and KSNP (Korean standard nuclear power plant). (authors)

  11. New radiation warning sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.; Mason, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation accidents involving orphan radioactive sources have happened as a result of people not recognizing the radiation trefoil symbol or from being illiterate and not understanding a warning statement on the radiation source. The trefoil symbol has no inherent meaning to people that have not been instructed in its use. A new radiation warning sign, to supplement the existing trefoil symbol, has been developed to address these issues. Human Factors experts, United Nations member states, and members of the international community of radiation protection professionals were consulted for input on the design of a new radiation warning sign that would clearly convey the message of 'Danger- Run Away- Stay Away' when in close proximity to a dangerous source of radiation. Cultural differences of perception on various warning symbols were taken into consideration and arrays of possible signs were developed. The signs were initially tested in international children for identification with the desired message and response. Based on these test results and further input from radiation protection professionals, five warning signs were identified as the most successful in conveying the desired message and response. These five signs were tested internationally in eleven countries by a professional survey company to determine the best sign for this purpose. The conclusion of the international testing is presented. The new radiation warning sign is currently a draft ISO standard under committee review. The design of the propose d radiation warning sign and the proposed implementation strategy outlined in the draft ISO standard is presented. (authors)

  12. The use of BEACON monitoring in plant power uprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Wade

    2003-01-01

    BEACON is the core support software technology that provides Utilities with continuous 3-D core power distribution monitoring, operational analysis capability, and operations support capability. BEACON monitoring delivers quantifiable plant margins for both reload design and plant operations improvement. When linked to Plant Power Upratings, BEACON permits an improvement in fuel cycle economics through higher peaking factors, higher power levels and higher discharge burnups. Operational flexibility of Uprated Plants is enhanced through elimination of axial power shape and core power tilt specifications. Also, the number of flux maps for these plants is reduced and local power is monitored continuously, permitting faster power escalation. Integrated 3-D power distribution analysis capabilities provide core designers with historical margin data that permits a reduction in core follow requirements as well as reduced curve book data related scope. Examples of specific Uprated Plant applications will be discussed. In anticipation of future needs of Uprated Plants, plans to integrate the technology of BEACON with COLSS are being executed. Finally, the capability to monitor Crud Induced Power Shift (axial offset) is also planned for incorporation into BEACON in the near future and will be discussed

  13. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance requirements...

  14. 33 CFR 149.580 - What are the requirements for a radar beacon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for a radar beacon? 149.580 Section 149.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Navigation Miscellaneous § 149.580 What are the requirements for a radar beacon? (a) A radar beacon (RACON...

  15. 77 FR 41271 - Safety Zone; Newburgh to Beacon Swim, Newburgh, Hudson River, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Newburgh to Beacon Swim, Newburgh, Hudson River, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... navigable waters of the Hudson River, NY in the vicinity of Newburgh, NY for the annual Newburgh Beacon Swim... Beacon Swim is an annual recurring event that has a permanent safety zone found at 33 CFR 165.160. The...

  16. Nucleic acid detection using BRET-beacons based on bioluminescent protein-DNA hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, W.; van de Wiel, K.M.; Meijer, L.H.H.; Saha, B.; Merkx, M.

    2017-01-01

    Bioluminescent molecular beacons have been developed using a modular design approach that relies on BRET between the bright luciferase NanoLuc and a Cy3 acceptor. While classical molecular beacons are hampered by background fluorescence and scattering, these BRET-beacons allow detection of low pM

  17. Information Dissemination in VANETS by Piggybacking on Beacons -- An Analysis of the Impact of Network Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Piggybacking on beacons is a forwarding technique that is regularly used in vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) research as a means to disseminate data. With this technique data is attached to and transmitted along with scheduled beacons, without changing the timing of the beacons. In this paper we

  18. Radio/FADS/IMU integrated navigation for Mars entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiuqiang; Li, Shuang; Huang, Xiangyu

    2018-03-01

    Supposing future orbiting and landing collaborative exploration mission as the potential project background, this paper addresses the issue of Mars entry integrated navigation using radio beacon, flush air data sensing system (FADS), and inertial measurement unit (IMU). The range and Doppler information sensed from an orbiting radio beacon, the dynamic pressure and heating data sensed from flush air data sensing system, and acceleration and attitude angular rate outputs from an inertial measurement unit are integrated in an unscented Kalman filter to perform state estimation and suppress the system and measurement noise. Computer simulations show that the proposed integrated navigation scheme can enhance the navigation accuracy, which enables precise entry guidance for the given Mars orbiting and landing collaborative exploration mission.

  19. NOAA Weather Radio - Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    as a result of non-receipt of alarms, alerts or warnings from these systems. Inclusion of a product that is more easily sensed by a person with a hearing disability. Strobe Light Radio Shack 49-527 damages as a result of non-receipt of alarms, alerts, or warnings from these systems. Inclusion of a

  20. Exploring the transformative potential of Bluetooth beacons in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran McDonald

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing ubiquity of smartphones and tablet devices integrated into personal, social and professional life, facilitated by expansive communication networks globally, has the potential to disrupt higher education. Academics and students are considering the future possibilities of exploiting these tools and utilising networks to consolidate and expand knowledge, enhancing learning gain. Bluetooth beacon technology has been developed by both Apple and Google as a way to situate digital information within physical spaces, and this paper reflects on a beacon intervention in a contemporary art school in higher education conducted by the authors intended to develop a situated community of practice in Art & Design. The paper describes the project, including relevant theoretical foundations and background to the beacon technology, with regards to the potential of using these devices to create a connected learning community by enhancing learning and facilitating knowledge creation in a borderless learning space.

  1. Detection of thermocouple malfunction in the Beacon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, T.; Heibel, M.D.; Congedo, T.V.

    1992-01-01

    The BEACON system uses Core Exit Thermocouples (T/C) extensively for continuous radial power distribution monitoring. The T/C's are used to adjust the reference power distribution generated by the BEACON system to match the current radial power distribution. T/C reliability, repeatability, and relative accuracy have been very satisfactory. However, it is very important to detect any T/C malfunctions during operation, since a T/C signal change caused by an undetected malfunction can lead to serious errors in the radial power distribution developed by BEACON. A simple procedure has been developed which is capable of discriminating between changes in T/C signals caused by actual changes in reactor conditions and signal changes caused by T/C malfunctions

  2. Comparison of BEACON and COMPARE reactor cavity subcompartment analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkett, M.W.; Idar, E.S.; Gido, R.G.; Lime, J.F.; Koestel, A.

    1984-04-01

    In this study, a more advanced best-estimate containment code, BEACON-MOD3A, was ued to calculate force and moment loads resulting from a high-energy blowdown for two reactor cavity geometries previously analyzed with the licensing computer code COMPARE-MOD1A. The BEACON force and moment loads were compared with the COMPARE results to determine the safety margins provided by the COMPARE code. The forces and moments calculated by the codes were found to be different, although not in any consistent manner, for the two reactor cavity geometries studied. Therefore, generic summary statements regarding margins cannot be made because of the effects of the detailed physical configuration. However, differences in the BEACON and COMPARE calculated forces and moments can be attributed to differences in the modeling assumptions used in the codes and the analyses

  3. Training warning flags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    Problems in accredited training programmes at US nuclear stations have resulted in several programmes having their accreditation status designated as probationary. A limited probationary period allows time for problem resolution before the programmes are again reviewed by the National Nuclear Accrediting Board. A careful study of these problems has resulted in the identification of several 'Training Warning Flags' that singularly, or in concert, may indicate or predict degraded training programme effectiveness. These training warning flags have been used by several US nuclear stations as a framework for self-assessments, as a reference in making changes to training programmes, and as a tool in considering student and management feedback on training activities. Further analysis and consideration of the training warning flags has developed precursors for each of the training warning flags. Although more subjective than the training warning flags, the precursors may represent early indicators of factors that may lead to or contribute to degraded training programme effectiveness. Used as evaluative tools, the training warning flags and the precursors may help identify areas for improvements in training programmes and help prioritize training programme improvement efforts. (author)

  4. BEACON: automated tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkatawi, Manal; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-08-18

    Genome annotation is one way of summarizing the existing knowledge about genomic characteristics of an organism. There has been an increased interest during the last several decades in computer-based structural and functional genome annotation. Many methods for this purpose have been developed for eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Our study focuses on comparison of functional annotations of prokaryotic genomes. To the best of our knowledge there is no fully automated system for detailed comparison of functional genome annotations generated by different annotation methods (AMs). The presence of many AMs and development of new ones introduce needs to: a/ compare different annotations for a single genome, and b/ generate annotation by combining individual ones. To address these issues we developed an Automated Tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON (BEACON) that benefits both AM developers and annotation analysers. BEACON provides detailed comparison of gene function annotations of prokaryotic genomes obtained by different AMs and generates extended annotations through combination of individual ones. For the illustration of BEACON's utility, we provide a comparison analysis of multiple different annotations generated for four genomes and show on these examples that the extended annotation can increase the number of genes annotated by putative functions up to 27%, while the number of genes without any function assignment is reduced. We developed BEACON, a fast tool for an automated and a systematic comparison of different annotations of single genomes. The extended annotation assigns putative functions to many genes with unknown functions. BEACON is available under GNU General Public License version 3.0 and is accessible at: http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/BEACON/ .

  5. Beacon communities' public health initiatives: a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L; Marcial, Laura H; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7-14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4-6). Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for the Beacon Communities evaluation work. Sharing a framework or approach

  6. Beacon Communities’ Public Health Initiatives: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L.; Marcial, Laura H.; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. Background: The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Methods: Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Findings: Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7–14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4–6). Discussion: Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. Conclusions: A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for

  7. Development of a high-precision selenodetic coordinate system for the physical surface of the Moon based on LED beacons on its surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirenin, A. M.; Mazurova, E. M.; Bagrov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a mathematical algorithm for processing an array of angular measurements of light beacons on images of the lunar surface onboard a polar artificial lunar satellite (PALS) during the Luna-Glob mission and coordinate-time referencing of the PALS for the development of reference selenocentric coordinate systems. The algorithm makes it possible to obtain angular positions of point light beacons located on the surface of the Moon in selenocentric celestial coordinates. The operation of measurement systems that determine the position and orientation of the PALS during its active existence have been numerically simulated. Recommendations have been made for the optimal use of different types of measurements, including ground radio trajectory measurements, navigational star sensors based on the onboard star catalog, gyroscopic orientation systems, and space videos of the lunar surface.

  8. Frequency Estimator Performance for a Software-Based Beacon Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael J.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Nessel, James A.; Miranda, Felix

    2014-01-01

    As propagation terminals have evolved, their design has trended more toward a software-based approach that facilitates convenient adjustment and customization of the receiver algorithms. One potential improvement is the implementation of a frequency estimation algorithm, through which the primary frequency component of the received signal can be estimated with a much greater resolution than with a simple peak search of the FFT spectrum. To select an estimator for usage in a QV-band beacon receiver, analysis of six frequency estimators was conducted to characterize their effectiveness as they relate to beacon receiver design.

  9. Optimalization of Beacon Selection for Localization in Wireless AD-HOC Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we engage in optimalization of convenient beacons for localization position of a node in the ad-hoc network. An algorithm designed by us localizes position of moving or static node by RSS (Received Signal Strength method and trilateration. At first, localization of unknown node runs by combination of all beacons. Than optimalizating algorithmreduces the number of beacons (and repeats localization, while only three left. Its reduction is based on highest levels of received signal strength. It is only when signals are from the nearest beacons. Position localizating exactness is statistically interpreted from all localization by beacons combination and its repeating.

  10. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Any discussion of the radio emission from stars should begin by emphasizing certain unique problems. First of all, one must clarify a semantic confusion introduced into radio astronomy in the late 1950's when most new radio sources were described as radio stars. All of these early 'radio stars' were eventually identified with other galactic and extra-galactic objects. The study of true radio stars, where the radio emission is produced in the atmosphere of a star, began only in the 1960's. Most of the work on the subject has, in fact, been carried out in only the last few years. Because the real information about radio stars is quite new, it is not surprising that major aspects of the subject are not at all understood. For this reason this paper is organized mainly around three questions: what is the available observational information; what physical processes seem to be involved; and what working hypotheses look potentially fruitful. (Auth.)

  11. Overshadowing of geometric cues by a beacon in a spatial navigation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, Edward S; Hamilton, Derek A; Parker, Matthew O; Chan, Wai; Allison, Craig

    2013-06-01

    In three experiments, we examined whether overshadowing of geometric cues by a discrete landmark (beacon) is due to the relative saliences of the cues. Using a virtual water maze task, human participants were required to locate a platform marked by a beacon in a distinctively shaped pool. In Experiment 1, the beacon overshadowed geometric cues in a trapezium, but not in an isosceles triangle. The longer escape latencies during acquisition in the trapezium control group with no beacon suggest that the geometric cues in the trapezium were less salient than those in the triangle. In Experiment 2, we evaluated whether generalization decrement, caused by the removal of the beacon at test, could account for overshadowing. An additional beacon was placed in an alternative corner. For the control groups, the beacons were identical; for the overshadow groups, they were visually unique. Overshadowing was again found in the trapezium. In Experiment 3, we tested whether the absence of overshadowing in the triangle was due to the geometric cues being more salient than the beacon. Following training, the beacon was relocated to a different corner. Participants approached the beacon rather than the trained platform corner, suggesting that the beacon was more salient. These results suggest that associative processes do not fully explain cue competition in the spatial domain.

  12. Robot-Beacon Distributed Range-Only SLAM for Resource-Constrained Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Arturo; Martínez-de Dios, Jose Ramiro; Ollero, Anibal

    2017-04-20

    This work deals with robot-sensor network cooperation where sensor nodes (beacons) are used as landmarks for Range-Only (RO) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). Most existing RO-SLAM techniques consider beacons as passive devices disregarding the sensing, computational and communication capabilities with which they are actually endowed. SLAM is a resource-demanding task. Besides the technological constraints of the robot and beacons, many applications impose further resource consumption limitations. This paper presents a scalable distributed RO-SLAM scheme for resource-constrained operation. It is capable of exploiting robot-beacon cooperation in order to improve SLAM accuracy while meeting a given resource consumption bound expressed as the maximum number of measurements that are integrated in SLAM per iteration. The proposed scheme combines a Sparse Extended Information Filter (SEIF) SLAM method, in which each beacon gathers and integrates robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements, and a distributed information-driven measurement allocation tool that dynamically selects the measurements that are integrated in SLAM, balancing uncertainty improvement and resource consumption. The scheme adopts a robot-beacon distributed approach in which each beacon participates in the selection, gathering and integration in SLAM of robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements, resulting in significant estimation accuracies, resource-consumption efficiency and scalability. It has been integrated in an octorotor Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) and evaluated in 3D SLAM outdoor experiments. The experimental results obtained show its performance and robustness and evidence its advantages over existing methods.

  13. Faraday polarization fluctuations of satellite beacon signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Klobuchar, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The anisotropic effects of random density irregularities in causing Faraday polarization fluctuations of VHF radio signals are examined, taking both rod-like and sheet-like irregularities into consideration. It is found that the variance of Faraday polarization fluctuations depends on the ratio of perpendicular to parallel correlation lengths. The anisotropic effect of rod-like ionospheric irregularities are shown to be most appreciable for longitudinal propagation. The anisotropic effect of sheet-like ionospheric irregularities, however, is not strongly dependent on the radio propagation angle. During transionospheric propagation at large angles with respect to the geomagnetic field, sheet-like irregularities may cause greater Faraday polarization fluctuations than rod-like irregularities.

  14. The BEACON on-line core monitoring system. Functional upgrades and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, W.A.; Miller, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    The BEACON TM core monitor system has been in commercial operation since 1989 and was licensed by the USNRC for on-line core power distribution and thermal power limit monitoring in 1994. Since that time BEACON has been installed at 17 plants. Each of these customers has a different perspective on the use of data from BEACON and a different approach on the application of BEACON to support their plant operations. To support these varied needs and approaches the BEACON system has been divided into three operational levels to better match the system functions to the customer needs and approaches to system integration. Based on customer feedback, the BEACON system was upgraded in some areas and streamlined in other areas to better support the needs of each customer. The three operational levels of the BEACON system, the major product upgrades and system evolution that has taken place to support the needs and applications of our customers are discussed. (authors)

  15. Remarks on the observability of single beacon underwater navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Ross, Andrew

    This paper contributes a simple and intuitive result in the analysis of underwater navigation using a single ranging beacon. This analysis should help with the design of small and lightweight underwater vehicles by reducing the amount of instrumentation required for accurate navigation. The concept...

  16. The Westinghouse BEACON on-line core monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechel, Robert J.; Boyd, William A.; Casadei, Alberto L.

    1995-01-01

    BEACON (Best Estimate Analysis of Core Operations - Nuclear), a core monitoring and operational support package developed by Westinghouse, has been installed at many operating PWRs worldwide. The BEACON system is a real-time monitoring system which can be used in plants with both fixed and movable incore detector systems and utilizes an on-line nodal model combined with core instrumentation data to provide continuous core power distribution monitoring. In addition, accurate core-predictive capabilities utilizing a full core nodal model updated according to plant operating history can be made to provide operational support. Core history information is kept and displayed to help operators anticipate core behavior and take pro-active control actions. The BEACON system has been licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for direct, continuous monitoring of DNBR and peak linear heat rate. This allows BEACON to be integrated into the plant technical specifications to permit significant relaxation of operating limitations defined by conventional technical specifications. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  17. Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization with Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor wireless localization using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE beacons has attracted considerable attention after the release of the BLE protocol. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses the combination of channel-separate polynomial regression model (PRM, channel-separate fingerprinting (FP, outlier detection and extended Kalman filtering (EKF for smartphone-based indoor localization with BLE beacons. The proposed algorithm uses FP and PRM to estimate the target’s location and the distances between the target and BLE beacons respectively. We compare the performance of distance estimation that uses separate PRM for three advertisement channels (i.e., the separate strategy with that use an aggregate PRM generated through the combination of information from all channels (i.e., the aggregate strategy. The performance of FP-based location estimation results of the separate strategy and the aggregate strategy are also compared. It was found that the separate strategy can provide higher accuracy; thus, it is preferred to adopt PRM and FP for each BLE advertisement channel separately. Furthermore, to enhance the robustness of the algorithm, a two-level outlier detection mechanism is designed. Distance and location estimates obtained from PRM and FP are passed to the first outlier detection to generate improved distance estimates for the EKF. After the EKF process, the second outlier detection algorithm based on statistical testing is further performed to remove the outliers. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by various field experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieved the accuracy of <2.56 m at 90% of the time with dense deployment of BLE beacons (1 beacon per 9 m, which performs 35.82% better than <3.99 m from the Propagation Model (PM + EKF algorithm and 15.77% more accurate than <3.04 m from the FP + EKF algorithm. With sparse deployment (1 beacon per 18 m, the proposed algorithm achieves the accuracies of <3.88 m at

  18. BEACON: automated tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON

    KAUST Repository

    Kalkatawi, Manal M.

    2015-08-18

    Background Genome annotation is one way of summarizing the existing knowledge about genomic characteristics of an organism. There has been an increased interest during the last several decades in computer-based structural and functional genome annotation. Many methods for this purpose have been developed for eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Our study focuses on comparison of functional annotations of prokaryotic genomes. To the best of our knowledge there is no fully automated system for detailed comparison of functional genome annotations generated by different annotation methods (AMs). Results The presence of many AMs and development of new ones introduce needs to: a/ compare different annotations for a single genome, and b/ generate annotation by combining individual ones. To address these issues we developed an Automated Tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON (BEACON) that benefits both AM developers and annotation analysers. BEACON provides detailed comparison of gene function annotations of prokaryotic genomes obtained by different AMs and generates extended annotations through combination of individual ones. For the illustration of BEACON’s utility, we provide a comparison analysis of multiple different annotations generated for four genomes and show on these examples that the extended annotation can increase the number of genes annotated by putative functions up to 27 %, while the number of genes without any function assignment is reduced. Conclusions We developed BEACON, a fast tool for an automated and a systematic comparison of different annotations of single genomes. The extended annotation assigns putative functions to many genes with unknown functions. BEACON is available under GNU General Public License version 3.0 and is accessible at: http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/BEACON/

  19. Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization with Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Yang, Jun; Li, You; Qi, Longning; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-04-26

    Indoor wireless localization using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons has attracted considerable attention after the release of the BLE protocol. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses the combination of channel-separate polynomial regression model (PRM), channel-separate fingerprinting (FP), outlier detection and extended Kalman filtering (EKF) for smartphone-based indoor localization with BLE beacons. The proposed algorithm uses FP and PRM to estimate the target's location and the distances between the target and BLE beacons respectively. We compare the performance of distance estimation that uses separate PRM for three advertisement channels (i.e., the separate strategy) with that use an aggregate PRM generated through the combination of information from all channels (i.e., the aggregate strategy). The performance of FP-based location estimation results of the separate strategy and the aggregate strategy are also compared. It was found that the separate strategy can provide higher accuracy; thus, it is preferred to adopt PRM and FP for each BLE advertisement channel separately. Furthermore, to enhance the robustness of the algorithm, a two-level outlier detection mechanism is designed. Distance and location estimates obtained from PRM and FP are passed to the first outlier detection to generate improved distance estimates for the EKF. After the EKF process, the second outlier detection algorithm based on statistical testing is further performed to remove the outliers. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by various field experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieved the accuracy of EKF algorithm and 15.77% more accurate than EKF algorithm. With sparse deployment (1 beacon per 18 m), the proposed algorithm achieves the accuracies of EKF algorithm and 21.41% better than EKF algorithm. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is especially useful to improve the localization accuracy in environments with sparse beacon deployment.

  20. Managing Risks? Early Warning Systems for Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitati, A. M.; Zommers, Z. A.; Habilov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning systems are a tool with which to minimize risks posed by climate related hazards. Although great strides have been made in developing early warning systems most deal with one hazard, only provide short-term warnings and do not reach the most vulnerable. This presentation will review research results of the United Nations Environment Programme's CLIM-WARN project. The project seeks to identify how governments can better communicate risks by designing multi-hazard early warning systems that deliver actionable warnings across timescales. Household surveys and focus group discussions were conducted in 36 communities in Kenya, Ghana and Burkina Faso in order to identify relevant climate related hazards, current response strategies and early warning needs. Preliminary results show significant variability in both risks and needs within and between countries. For instance, floods are more frequent in rural western parts of Kenya. Droughts are frequent in the north while populations in urban areas face a range of hazards - floods, droughts, disease outbreaks - that sometimes occur simultaneously. The majority of the rural population, especially women, the disabled and the elderly, do not have access to modern media such as radio, television, or internet. While 55% of rural populace never watches television, 64% of urban respondents watch television on a daily basis. Communities have different concepts of how to design warning systems. It will be a challenge for national governments to create systems that accommodate such diversity yet provide standard quality of service to all. There is a need for flexible and forward-looking early warning systems that deliver broader information about risks. Information disseminated through the system could not only include details of hazards, but also long-term adaptation options, general education, and health information, thus increasingly both capabilities and response options.

  1. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.; Gibson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of stellar radio emission became an important field of research in the 1970's and have now expanded to become a major area of radio astronomy with the advent of new instruments such as the Very Large Array in New Mexico and transcontinental telescope arrays. This volume contains papers from the workshop on stellar continuum radio astronomy held in Boulder, Colorado, and is the first book on the rapidly expanding field of radio emission from stars and stellar systems. Subjects covered include the observational and theoretical aspects of stellar winds from both hot and cool stars, radio flares from active double star systems and red dwarf stars, bipolar flows from star-forming regions, and the radio emission from X-ray binaries. (orig.)

  2. Beacon-based tourist information system to identify visiting trends of tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Yamaguchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a system that provides tourist information and obtains trends of visiting tourists using beacons and cloud service. As part of our research, we are working on the promotion of local area tourism in cooperation with a local community. A low energy Bluetooth device is used as a beacon to transmit a universally unique identifier. In addition, beacons are placed at sightseeing spots and tourist facilities. Our proposed system comprises two application programs; one is a client-side application program that provides area-specific tourist information corresponding to the detected beacon. The other is a server-side application to record time and location information of the detected beacons. In this paper, we describe the scheme of our system, and present the results of experiments conducted using the prototype system in the local tourist area. In addition, we discuss an open platform for information collection services using beacons.

  3. SU-E-J-257: Image Artifacts Caused by Implanted Calypso Beacons in MRI Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amro, H; Chetty, I; Gordon, J; Wen, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The presence of Calypso Beacon-transponders in patients can cause artifacts during MRI imaging studies. This could be a problem for post-treatment follow up of cancer patients using MRI studies to evaluate metastasis and for functional imaging studies.This work assesses (1) the volume immediately surrounding the transponders that will not be visualized by the MRI due to the beacons, and (2) the dependence of the non-visualized volume on beacon orientation, and scanning techniques. Methods: Two phantoms were used in this study (1) water filled box, (2) and a 2300 cc block of pork meat. Calypso beacons were implanted in the phantoms both in parallel and perpendicular orientations with respect to the MR scanner magnetic field. MR image series of the phantom were obtained with on a 1.0T high field open MR-SIM with multiple pulse sequences, for example, T1-weighted fast field echo and T2-weighted turbo spin echo. Results: On average, a no-signal region with 2 cm radius and 3 cm length was measured. Image artifacts are more significant when beacons are placed parallel to scanner magnetic field; the no-signal area around the beacon was about 0.5 cm larger in orthogonal orientation. The no-signal region surrounding the beacons slightly varies in dimension for the different pulse sequences. Conclusion: The use of Calypso beacons can prohibit the use of MRI studies in post-treatment assessments, especially in the immediate region surrounding the implanted beacon. A characterization of the MR scanner by identifying the no-signal regions due to implanted beacons is essential. This may render the use of Calypso beacons useful for some cases and give the treating physician a chance to identify those patients prior to beacon implantation

  4. Q-Band (37-41 GHz) Satellite Beacon Architecture for RF Propagation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the design of a beacon transmitter that will be flown as a hosted payload on a geostationary satellite to enable propagation experiments at Q-band (37-41 GHz) frequencies is presented. The beacon uses a phased locked loop stabilized dielectric resonator oscillator and a solid-state power amplifier to achieve the desired output power. The satellite beacon antenna is configured as an offset-fed cut-paraboloidal reflector.

  5. Q-Band (37 to 41 GHz) Satellite Beacon Architecture for RF Propagation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the design of a beacon transmitter that will be flown as a hosted payload on a geostationary satellite to enable propagation experiments at Q-band (37 to 41 GHz) frequencies is presented. The beacon uses a phased locked loop stabilized dielectric resonator oscillator and a solid-state power amplifier to achieve the desired output power. The satellite beacon antenna is configured as an offset-fed cutparaboloidal reflector.

  6. An Analysis of the Optimal Placement of Beacon in Bluetooth-INS Indoor Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xinyu; Ruan, Ling; Zhang, Ling; Long, Yi; Cheng, Fei

    2018-01-01

    The placement of Bluetooth beacon has immediate impact on the accuracy and stability of indoor positioning. Affected by the shelter of building and human, Bluetooth shows uncertain spatial transmission characteristics. Therefore, the scientific deployment of the beacon nodes is closely related to the indoor space environment. In the study of positioning technology using Bluetooth, some scholars have discussed the deployment of Bluetooth beacon in different scenarios. In the principle of avoid...

  7. SU-E-J-257: Image Artifacts Caused by Implanted Calypso Beacons in MRI Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amro, H; Chetty, I; Gordon, J; Wen, N [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The presence of Calypso Beacon-transponders in patients can cause artifacts during MRI imaging studies. This could be a problem for post-treatment follow up of cancer patients using MRI studies to evaluate metastasis and for functional imaging studies.This work assesses (1) the volume immediately surrounding the transponders that will not be visualized by the MRI due to the beacons, and (2) the dependence of the non-visualized volume on beacon orientation, and scanning techniques. Methods: Two phantoms were used in this study (1) water filled box, (2) and a 2300 cc block of pork meat. Calypso beacons were implanted in the phantoms both in parallel and perpendicular orientations with respect to the MR scanner magnetic field. MR image series of the phantom were obtained with on a 1.0T high field open MR-SIM with multiple pulse sequences, for example, T1-weighted fast field echo and T2-weighted turbo spin echo. Results: On average, a no-signal region with 2 cm radius and 3 cm length was measured. Image artifacts are more significant when beacons are placed parallel to scanner magnetic field; the no-signal area around the beacon was about 0.5 cm larger in orthogonal orientation. The no-signal region surrounding the beacons slightly varies in dimension for the different pulse sequences. Conclusion: The use of Calypso beacons can prohibit the use of MRI studies in post-treatment assessments, especially in the immediate region surrounding the implanted beacon. A characterization of the MR scanner by identifying the no-signal regions due to implanted beacons is essential. This may render the use of Calypso beacons useful for some cases and give the treating physician a chance to identify those patients prior to beacon implantation.

  8. Aftermath of bustamante attack on genomic beacon service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Md Momin Al; Ghasemi, Reza; Waliullah, Md; Mohammed, Noman

    2017-07-26

    With the enormous need for federated eco-system for holding global genomic and clinical data, Global Alliance for Genomic and Health (GA4GH) has created an international website called beacon service which allows a researcher to find out whether a specific dataset can be utilized to his or her research beforehand. This simple webservice is quite useful as it allows queries like whether a certain position of a target chromosome has a specific nucleotide. However, the increased integration of individuals genomic data into clinical practice and research raised serious privacy concern. Though the answer of such queries are yes or no in Bacon network, it results in serious privacy implication as demonstrated in a recent work from Shringarpure and Bustamante. In their attack model, the authors demonstrated that with a limited number of queries, presence of an individual in any dataset can be determined. We propose two lightweight algorithms (based on randomized response) which captures the efficacy while preserving the privacy of the participants in a genomic beacon service. We also elaborate the strength and weakness of the attack by explaining some of their statistical and mathematical models using real world genomic database. We extend their experimental simulations for different adversarial assumptions and parameters. We experimentally evaluated the solutions on the original attack model with different parameters for better understanding of the privacy and utility tradeoffs provided by these two methods. Also, the statistical analysis further elaborates the different aspects of the prior attack which leads to a better risk management for the participants in a beacon service. The differentially private and lightweight solutions discussed here will make the attack much difficult to succeed while maintaining the fundamental motivation of beacon database network.

  9. Caged molecular beacons: controlling nucleic acid hybridization with light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunming; Zhu, Zhi; Song, Yanling; Lin, Hui; Yang, Chaoyong James; Tan, Weihong

    2011-05-28

    We have constructed a novel class of light-activatable caged molecular beacons (cMBs) that are caged by locking two stems with a photo-labile biomolecular interaction or covalent bond. With the cMBs, the nucleic acid hybridization process can be easily controlled with light, which offers the possibility for a high spatiotemporal resolution study of intracellular mRNAs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  10. Beta aerosols beacon, a truly portable continuous air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.P.; Garber, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Beta Aerosols Beacon (BAB) is a portable (57 lbs) continuous air monitor designed to detect airborne radiation. Utilizing solid state detectors has eliminated the use of lead shielding usually necessary for achieving accurate readings in high background areas, making the monitor lightweight as well as portable. The size of a small suitcase, it can be carried into confined work areas, eliminating the requirement for workers to wear respirators for many maintenance tasks. This paper describes the operation and applications of the BAB

  11. Performance of MAC protocols in beaconing Mobile Adhoc Multibroadcast Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rico García, Cristina; Lehner, Andreas; Robertson, Patrick; Strang, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of infrastructureless safety applications in dierent transportation systems is a hot research topic. The nodes in thevnetwork are designed to advertise to the rest of the nodes informationabout the current traffic situation by means of short beacon messages containing speed, direction, positions and other relevant safety information. The scheduling should be organized by the MAC layer so that the transmitted messages arrive successfully as soon as possible at the recei...

  12. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  13. Distributed Beacon Requirements for Branch Point Tolerant Laser Beam Compensation in Extended Atmospheric Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zetterlind, Virgil

    2002-01-01

    .... A least squares reconstructor is implemented for comparison. System performance is presented for various scenarios, including correction time-delays, wave-front sensor noise, and extended beacons...

  14. a Search for New Physics with the Beacon Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Shao, Michael; Girerd, André; Lane, Benjamin

    The primary objective of the Beyond Einstein Advanced Coherent Optical Network (BEACON) mission is a search for new physics beyond general relativity by measuring the curvature of relativistic space-time around the Earth. This curvature is characterized by the Eddington parameter γ — the most fundamental relativistic gravity parameter and a direct measure for the presence of new physical interactions. BEACON will achieve an accuracy of 1 × 10-9 in measuring the parameter γ, thereby going a factor of 30,000 beyond the present best result involving the Cassini spacecraft. Secondary mission objectives include: (i) a direct measurement of the "frame-dragging" and geodetic precessions in the Earth's rotational gravitomagnetic field, to 0.05% and 0.03% accuracy respectively, (ii) the first measurement of gravity's nonlinear effects on light and the corresponding second order spatial metric's effects to 0.01% accuracy. BEACON will lead to robust advances in tests of fundamental physics — this mission could discover a violation or extension of general relativity and/or reveal the presence of an additional long range interaction in physics. It will provide crucial information to separate modern scalar-tensor theories of gravity from general relativity, probe possible ways for gravity quantization, and test modern theories of cosmological evolution.

  15. Adapting Mobile Beacon-Assisted Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dong

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to automatically locate sensor nodes is essential in many Wireless Sensor Network (WSN applications. To reduce the number of beacons, many mobile-assisted approaches have been proposed. Current mobile-assisted approaches for localization require special hardware or belong to centralized localization algorithms involving some deterministic approaches due to the fact that they explicitly consider the impreciseness of location estimates. In this paper, we first propose a range-free, distributed and probabilistic Mobile Beacon-assisted Localization (MBL approach for static WSNs. Then, we propose another approach based on MBL, called Adapting MBL (A-MBL, to increase the efficiency and accuracy of MBL by adapting the size of sample sets and the parameter of the dynamic model during the estimation process. Evaluation results show that the accuracy of MBL and A-MBL outperform both Mobile and Static sensor network Localization (MSL and Arrival and Departure Overlap (ADO when both of them use only a single mobile beacon for localization in static WSNs.

  16. Adapting mobile beacon-assisted localization in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Guodong; Zheng, Kougen; Dong, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The ability to automatically locate sensor nodes is essential in many Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. To reduce the number of beacons, many mobile-assisted approaches have been proposed. Current mobile-assisted approaches for localization require special hardware or belong to centralized localization algorithms involving some deterministic approaches due to the fact that they explicitly consider the impreciseness of location estimates. In this paper, we first propose a range-free, distributed and probabilistic Mobile Beacon-assisted Localization (MBL) approach for static WSNs. Then, we propose another approach based on MBL, called Adapting MBL (A-MBL), to increase the efficiency and accuracy of MBL by adapting the size of sample sets and the parameter of the dynamic model during the estimation process. Evaluation results show that the accuracy of MBL and A-MBL outperform both Mobile and Static sensor network Localization (MSL) and Arrival and Departure Overlap (ADO) when both of them use only a single mobile beacon for localization in static WSNs.

  17. Impact of beacon wavelength on phase-compensation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterline, Allison A.; Spencer, Mark F.; Burrell, Derek J.; Brennan, Terry J.

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates the effects of beacon-wavelength mismatch on phase-compensation performance. In general, beacon-wavelength mismatch occurs at the system level because the beacon-illuminator laser (BIL) and high-energy laser (HEL) are often at different wavelengths. Such is the case, for example, when using an aperture sharing element to isolate the beam-control sensor suite from the blinding nature of the HEL. With that said, this study uses the WavePlex Toolbox in MATLAB® to model ideal spherical wave propagation through various atmospheric-turbulence conditions. To quantify phase-compensation performance, we also model a nominal adaptive-optics (AO) system. We achieve correction from a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and continuous-face-sheet deformable mirror using a least-squares phase reconstruction algorithm in the Fried geometry and a leaky integrator control law. To this end, we plot the power in the bucket metric as a function of BIL-HEL wavelength difference. Our initial results show that positive BIL-HEL wavelength differences achieve better phase compensation performance compared to negative BIL-HEL wavelength differences (i.e., red BILs outperform blue BILs). This outcome is consistent with past results.

  18. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  19. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Services: Telephone: (310) 451-7002; Fax: (310) 451-6915; Internet : order@rand.org. al Accesion For "Ni %&’ Storm WarningsDTI’ TAB E03 --- - - -for...reaction leading to an uncontrol- lable burgeoning of private entrepreneurial activity. As one observer 14See Acuerdo del Buro Politico , "Para llevar a...34 10Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba, n.p

  20. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  1. Quake warnings, seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Huggins, Tom; Miles, Scott; Otegui, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Since 1990, nearly one million people have died from the impacts of earthquakes. Reducing those impacts requires building a local seismic culture in which residents are aware of earthquake risks and value efforts to mitigate harm. Such efforts include earthquake early warning (EEW) systems that provide seconds to minutes notice of pending shaking. Recent events in Mexico provide an opportunity to assess performance and perception of an EEW system and highlight areas for further improvement. We have learned that EEW systems, even imperfect ones, can help people prepare for earthquakes and build local seismic culture, both beneficial in reducing earthquake-related losses.

  2. Microwave warning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, W.

    1981-01-01

    A device for warning a person carrying or wearing it of the presence of dangerous microwave radiation is fully powered by the radiations being detected. A very low-wattage gas-discharge lamp is energized by a broadly or a sharply tuned receiver circuit including dipole antennas or one antenna and a ''grounding'' casing element. The casing may be largely and uniformly transparent or have different areas gradedly light-transmissive to indicate varying radiation intensities. The casing can be made in the shape of a pocket watch, fountain pen, bracelet or finger ring, etc

  3. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parijskij, Y.N.; Gossachinskij, I.V.; Zuckerman, B.; Khersonsky, V.K.; Pustilnik, S.; Robinson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of major developments and discoveries in the field of radioastronomy during the period 1973-1975 is presented. The report is presented under the following headings:(1) Continuum radiation from the Galaxy; (2) Neutral hydrogen, 21 cm (galactic and extragalactic) and recombination lines; (3) Radioastronomy investigations of interstellar molecules; (4) Extragalactic radio astronomy and (6) Development in radio astronomy instruments. (B.R.H.)

  4. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.259 Warning time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every 12 months and when the warning system is...

  5. Mapping plasma structures in the high-latitude ionosphere using beacon satellite, incoherent scatter radar and ground-based magnetometer observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neubert

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of the year 2000, four radio receivers capable of tracking various beacon satellites were set up along the southwestern coast of Greenland. They are used to reconstruct images of the ionospheric plasma density distribution via the tomographic method. In order to test and validate tomographic imaging under the highly variable conditions often prevailing in the high-latitude ionosphere, a time interval was selected when the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar conducted measurements of the ionospheric plasma density while the radio receivers tracked a number of beacon satellites. A comparison between two-dimensional images of the plasma density distribution obtained from the radar and the satellite receivers revealed generally good agreement between radar measurements and tomographic images. Observed discrepancies can be attributed to F region plasma patches moving through the field of view with a speed of several hundred meters per second, thereby smearing out the tomographic image. A notable mismatch occurred around local magnetic midnight when a magnetospheric substorm breakup occurred in the vicinity of southwest Greenland (identified from ground-based magnetometer observations. The breakup was associated with a sudden intensification of the westward auroral electrojet which was centered at about 69 and extended up to some 73 corrected geomagnetic latitude. Ground-based magnetometer data may thus have the potential of indicating when the tomographic method is at risk and may fail. We finally outline the application of tomographic imaging, when combined with magnetic field data, to estimate ionospheric Joule heating rates.

  6. Chimeric peptide beacons: a direct polypeptide analog of DNA molecular beacons†

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Kenneth J.; Cash, Kevin J.; Lubin, Arica A.; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a new biosensor architecture, which is comprised of a polypeptide–peptide nucleic acid tri-block copolymer and which we have termed chimeric peptide beacons (CPB), that generates an optical output via a mechanism analogous to that employed in DNA-based molecular beacons.

  7. Weak beacon detection for air-to-ground optical wireless link establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yaoqiang; Dang, Anhong; Tang, Junxiong; Guo, Hong

    2010-02-01

    In an air-to-ground free-space optical communication system, strong background interference seriously affects the beacon detection, which makes it difficult to establish the optical link. In this paper, we propose a correlation beacon detection scheme under strong background interference conditions. As opposed to traditional beacon detection schemes, the beacon is modulated by an m-sequence at the transmitting terminal with a digital differential matched filter (DDMF) array introduced at the receiving end to detect the modulated beacon. This scheme is capable of suppressing both strong interference and noise by correlation reception of the received image sequence. In addition, the DDMF array enables each pixel of the image sensor to have its own DDMF of the same structure to process its received image sequence in parallel, thus it makes fast beacon detection possible. Theoretical analysis and an outdoor experiment have been demonstrated and show that the proposed scheme can realize fast and effective beacon detection under strong background interference conditions. Consequently, the required beacon transmission power can also be reduced dramatically.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of a Magnetically Active 19F Molecular Beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Megan E; Marble, Hetal D; Shen, Tun-Li; Fawzi, Nicolas L; Darling, Eric M

    2018-02-21

    Gene expression is used extensively to describe cellular characteristics and behaviors; however, most methods of assessing gene expression are unsuitable for living samples, requiring destructive processes such as fixation or lysis. Recently, molecular beacons have become a viable tool for live-cell imaging of mRNA molecules in situ. Historically, beacon-mediated imaging has been limited to fluorescence-based approaches. We propose the design and synthesis of a novel molecular beacon for magnetic resonance detection of any desired target nucleotide sequence. The biologically compatible synthesis incorporates commonly used bioconjugation reactions in aqueous conditions and is accessible for laboratories without extensive synthesis capabilities. The resulting beacon uses fluorine ( 19 F) as a reporter, which is broadened, or turned "off", via paramagnetic relaxation enhancement from a stabilized nitroxide radical spin label when the beacon is not bound to its nucleic acid target. Therefore, the 19 F NMR signal of the beacon is quenched in its hairpin conformation when the spin label and the 19 F substituent are held in proximity, but the signal is recovered upon beacon hybridization to its specific complementary nucleotide sequence by physical separation of the radical from the 19 F reporter. This study establishes a path for magnetic resonance-based assessment of specific mRNA expression, providing new possibilities for applying molecular beacon technology in living systems.

  9. Beacon Editor: Capturing Signal Transduction Pathways Using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation Activity Flow Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmarakeby, Haitham; Arefiyan, Mostafa; Myers, Elijah; Li, Song; Grene, Ruth; Heath, Lenwood S

    2017-12-01

    The Beacon Editor is a cross-platform desktop application for the creation and modification of signal transduction pathways using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation Activity Flow (SBGN-AF) language. Prompted by biologists' requests for enhancements, the Beacon Editor includes numerous powerful features for the benefit of creation and presentation.

  10. What Happened to the Beacon Schools? Policy Reform and Educational Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emma

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of the Beacon schools initiative on the social and academic characteristics of secondary schools in England. The Beacon schools programme ran from 1998 to 2004 and epitomised the (then) Labour government's focus on school improvement through diversity, collaboration and partnership. This paper looks at variation in…

  11. Detecting and Preventing Beacon Replay Attacks in Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocols for Energy Efficient WSNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, Alessio; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In receiver-initiated MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication is initiated by the receiver of the data through beacons containing the receiver's identity. In this paper, we consider the case of a network intruder that captures and replays such beacons towards legitimate...

  12. Beacon- and Schema-Based Method for Recognizing Algorithms from Students' Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for recognizing algorithms from students programming submissions coded in Java. The method is based on the concept of "programming schemas" and "beacons". Schemas are high-level programming knowledge with detailed knowledge abstracted out, and beacons are statements that imply specific…

  13. Crowdsourcing for Context: Regarding Privacy in Beacon Encounters via Contextual Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello-Ogunu Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that context is important to the privacy perceptions associated with technology. With Bluetooth Low Energy beacons, one of the latest technologies for providing proximity and indoor tracking, the current identifiers that characterize a beacon are not sufficient for ordinary users to make informed privacy decisions about the location information that could be shared. One solution would be to have standardized category and privacy labels, produced by beacon providers or an independent third-party. An alternative solution is to find an approach driven by users, for users. In this paper, we propose a novel crowdsourcing based approach to introduce elements of context in beacon encounters.We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach through a user study, where participants use a crowd-based mobile app designed to collect beacon category and privacy information as a scavenger hunt game. Results show that our approach was effective in helping users label beacons according to the specific context of a given beacon encounter, as well as the privacy perceptions associated with it. This labeling was done with an accuracy of 92%, and with an acceptance rate of 82% of all recommended crowd labels. Lastly, we conclusively show how crowdsourcing for context can be used towards a user-centric framework for privacy management during beacon encounters.

  14. Het effect van beacons in de ByAmfi Store gemeten, geanalyseerd en ontmaskerd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Anne; van Vliet, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Volgens meerdere marketeers zijn beacons ‘the next big thing’; en grote retailers als de Bijenkorf zetten beacons al in. Klanten kopen namelijk steeds meer via internet, en winkels zoeken daarom naar manieren om een beleving te bieden, zodat klanten naar de winkel blijven komen.

  15. Uncertainty analysis for the BEACON-COLSS core monitoring system application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, T.; Boyd, W.A.; Seong, K.B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will cover the measurement uncertainty analysis of BEACON-COLSS core monitoring system. The uncertainty evaluation is made by using a BEACON-COLSS simulation program. By simulating the BEACON on-line operation for analytically generated reactor conditions, accuracy of the 'Measured' results can be evaluated by comparing to analytically generated 'Truth'. The DNB power margin is evaluated based on the Combustion Engineering's Modified Statistical Combination of Uncertainties (MSCU) using the CETOPD code for the DNBR calculation. A BEACON-COLSS simulation program for the uncertainty evaluation function has been established for plant applications. Qualification work has been completed for two Combustion Engineering plants. Results of the BEACON-COLSS measured peaking factors and DNBR power margin are plant type dependent and are applicable to reload cores as long as the core geometry and detector layout are unchanged. (authors)

  16. Detection of DNA damage by using hairpin molecular beacon probes and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Lu, Qian; Tong, Ying; Wei, Wei; Liu, Songqin

    2012-09-15

    A hairpin molecular beacon tagged with carboxyfluorescein in combination with graphene oxide as a quencher reagent was used to detect the DNA damage by chemical reagents. The fluorescence of molecular beacon was quenched sharply by graphene oxide; while in the presence of its complementary DNA the quenching efficiency decreased because their hybridization prevented the strong adsorbability of molecular beacon on graphene oxide. If the complementary DNA was damaged by a chemical reagent and could not form intact duplex structure with molecular beacon, more molecular beacon would adsorb on graphene oxide increasing the quenching efficiency. Thus, damaged DNA could be detected based on different quenching efficiencies afforded by damaged and intact complementary DNA. The damage effects of chlorpyrifos-methyl and three metabolites of styrene such as mandelieaeids, phenylglyoxylieaeids and epoxystyrene on DNA were studied as models. The method for detection of DNA damage was reliable, rapid and simple compared to the biological methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Addressing Beacon re-identification attacks: quantification and mitigation of privacy risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisaro, Jean Louis; Tramèr, Florian; Ji, Zhanglong; Bu, Diyue; Zhao, Yongan; Carey, Knox; Lloyd, David; Sofia, Heidi; Baker, Dixie; Flicek, Paul; Shringarpure, Suyash; Bustamante, Carlos; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Tang, Haixu; Wang, XiaoFeng; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) created the Beacon Project as a means of testing the willingness of data holders to share genetic data in the simplest technical context-a query for the presence of a specified nucleotide at a given position within a chromosome. Each participating site (or "beacon") is responsible for assuring that genomic data are exposed through the Beacon service only with the permission of the individual to whom the data pertains and in accordance with the GA4GH policy and standards.While recognizing the inference risks associated with large-scale data aggregation, and the fact that some beacons contain sensitive phenotypic associations that increase privacy risk, the GA4GH adjudged the risk of re-identification based on the binary yes/no allele-presence query responses as acceptable. However, recent work demonstrated that, given a beacon with specific characteristics (including relatively small sample size and an adversary who possesses an individual's whole genome sequence), the individual's membership in a beacon can be inferred through repeated queries for variants present in the individual's genome.In this paper, we propose three practical strategies for reducing re-identification risks in beacons. The first two strategies manipulate the beacon such that the presence of rare alleles is obscured; the third strategy budgets the number of accesses per user for each individual genome. Using a beacon containing data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we demonstrate that the proposed strategies can effectively reduce re-identification risk in beacon-like datasets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  18. An Interactive Real-Time Locating System Based on Bluetooth Low-Energy Beacon Network †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, You-Wei; Lin, Chi-Yi

    2018-05-21

    The ubiquity of Bluetooth-enabled smartphones and peripherals has brought tremendous convenience to our daily life. In recent years, Bluetooth beacons have also been gaining popularity in implementing a variety of innovative location-based services such as self-guided systems in exhibition centers. However, the broadcast-based beacon technology can only provide unidirectional communication. In case smartphone users would like to respond to the beacon messages, they have to rely on their own mobile Internet connections to send the information back to the backend system. Nevertheless, mobile Internet services may not be always available or too costly. In this work, we develop a real-time locating system based only on the Bluetooth low energy (BLE) technology to support interactive communications by combining the broadcast and mesh topology options to extend the applicability of beacon solutions. Specifically, we turn the smartphone into a beacon device and augment the beacon devices with the capability of forming a mesh network. The implementation result shows that our beacon devices can detect the presence of specific users at specific locations, and then the presence state can be sent to the application server via the relay of beacon devices. Moreover, the application server can send personalized location-based messages to the users, again via the relay of beacon devices. With the capability of relaying messages between the beacon devices, it would be convenient for developers to implement a variety of interactive applications such as tracking VIP customers at the airport, or tracking an elder with Alzheimer’s disease in the neighborhood.

  19. An Interactive Real-Time Locating System Based on Bluetooth Low-Energy Beacon Network †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of Bluetooth-enabled smartphones and peripherals has brought tremendous convenience to our daily life. In recent years, Bluetooth beacons have also been gaining popularity in implementing a variety of innovative location-based services such as self-guided systems in exhibition centers. However, the broadcast-based beacon technology can only provide unidirectional communication. In case smartphone users would like to respond to the beacon messages, they have to rely on their own mobile Internet connections to send the information back to the backend system. Nevertheless, mobile Internet services may not be always available or too costly. In this work, we develop a real-time locating system based only on the Bluetooth low energy (BLE technology to support interactive communications by combining the broadcast and mesh topology options to extend the applicability of beacon solutions. Specifically, we turn the smartphone into a beacon device and augment the beacon devices with the capability of forming a mesh network. The implementation result shows that our beacon devices can detect the presence of specific users at specific locations, and then the presence state can be sent to the application server via the relay of beacon devices. Moreover, the application server can send personalized location-based messages to the users, again via the relay of beacon devices. With the capability of relaying messages between the beacon devices, it would be convenient for developers to implement a variety of interactive applications such as tracking VIP customers at the airport, or tracking an elder with Alzheimer’s disease in the neighborhood.

  20. Determination of BEACON Coupling Coefficients using data from Xenon transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozic, M.; Kurincic, B.

    2007-01-01

    NEK uses BEACO TM code (BEACO TM - Westinghouse Best Estimate Analyzer for Core Operating Nuclear) for core monitoring, analysis and core behaviour prediction. Coupling Coefficients determine relationship between core response and excore instrumentation. Measured power distribution using incore moveable detectors during Xenon transient with sufficient power axial offset change is the most important data for further analysis. Classic methodology and BEACO TM Conservative methodology using established Coupling Coefficients are compared on NPP Krsko case. BEACON TM Conservative methodology with predefined Coupling Coefficients is used as a surveillance tool for verification of relationship between core and excore instrumentation during power operation. (author)

  1. Beacon-teknologi - fremtidens kundebehandling eller en trussel for personvernet?

    OpenAIRE

    Jyrkinen, Anna; Kamås, Kamilla

    2016-01-01

    Smarttelefoner har blitt en naturlig del av våre liv. Alt man gjør på smarttelefonen, blir lagret som såkalte “big data”. Dette er verdifull informasjon for bedrifter, da de får mer detaljert bilde av hva forbrukere ser, eller holder på med i det virkelige liv. Det kan oppstå et dilemma ved hvor langt selskapene er villige til å strekke seg, for å samle inn informasjon om sine kunder. Beacons er en ny teknologiform og fungerer via små apparater som kommuniserer med kunder gjenn...

  2. Deep sea AUV navigation using multiple acoustic beacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Da-xiong; Song, Wei; Zhao, Hong-yu; Liu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Navigation is a critical requirement for the operation of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). To estimate the vehicle position, we present an algorithm using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to integrate dead-reckoning position with acoustic ranges from multiple beacons pre-deployed in the operating environment. Owing to high latency, variable sound speed multipath transmissions and unreliability in acoustic measurements, outlier recognition techniques are proposed as well. The navigation algorithm has been tested by the recorded data of deep sea AUV during field operations in a variety of environments. Our results show the improved performance over prior techniques based on position computation.

  3. Connected motorcycle crash warning interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Crash warning systems have been deployed in the high-end vehicle market segment for some time and are trickling down to additional motor vehicle industry segments each year. The motorcycle segment, however, has no deployed crash warning system to dat...

  4. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni

    1975-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  5. Overview of on-line core monitoring system BEACON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Qing; Chen Xiaosong

    2013-01-01

    After more than 20 years of development, key technologies embedded with such system have reached a certain degree of maturity among some foreign countries. However, domestically, there is no comparable system yet. Through in-depth research and analysis on the most widely used core monitoring system in the world, BEACON, it's hope that this will provide guidance on our independent development of the first core monitoring system in China. Excore detectors, core outlet thermocouples and incore movable detectors are used to provide measure data on the status of the core for BEACON. Under the assumption of nodal homogeneity, an effective fast group model is used to solve the diffusion equation, followed by core-wise interpolation by Green's function. Finally, reconstruction of a calculated core is fitted with measured data using the surface spline function. The most significant technological advances are core monitoring during unstable core conditions, the use of nodal expansion method to improve accuracy and the adoption of single point calibration to increase the period of recalibration for the whole core. (authors)

  6. Water absorption length measurement with the ANTARES optical beacon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepes-Ramirez, Harold

    2011-01-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea with the aim of detecting high energy neutrinos of extra-terrestrial origin. It consists of a three dimensional array on 12 detection lines of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) able to detect the Cherenkov light induced by muons produced in the interaction of neutrinos with the surrounding water and seabed. To reach the best angular resolution, good time and positioning calibrations are required. The propagation of Cherenkov photons strongly depends on the optical properties of the sea water, which has an impact on the reconstruction efficiency. The determination of the optical parameters, as the absorption and scattering lengths, is crucial to calculate properly the effective area and the angular resolution of the detector. The ANTARES optical beacon system consists of pulsed and fast, well controlled light sources distributed throughout the detector to carry out in situ the relative time calibration of the detector components. In this contribution we show some results on the sea water optical properties and their stability measured with the optical beacon system.

  7. Design and implementation of Bluetooth beacon in mobile payment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiantian; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    The current line of payment means, mainly in the following ways, cash payment, credit card payment, WeChat Alipay sweep payment. There are many inconvenience in Cash payment, large amounts of cash inconvenience to carry, count the money to spend time and effort, true and false banknotes difficult to distinguish, ticket settlement easy to go wrong. Credit card payment is relatively time-consuming, and WeChat Alipay sweep payment need to sweep. Therefore, the design of a convenient, fast payment to meet the line to pay the demand is particularly important. Based on the characteristics of BLE Bluetooth wireless communication technology, this paper designs a kind of payment method based on Bluetooth beacon. Through the Bluetooth beacon broadcast consumption, consumers only need to open the relevant APP in the Android client, and you can get Bluetooth via mobile phone Bluetooth the amount of consumption of the standard broadcast, in accordance with the corresponding payment platform to complete the payment process, which pay less time to improve the efficiency of payment.

  8. Power-Efficient Beacon Recognition Method Based on Periodic Wake-Up for Industrial Wireless Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Soonyong; Lee, Donghun; Jang, Ingook; Choi, Jinchul; Son, Youngsung

    2018-04-17

    Energy harvester-integrated wireless devices are attractive for generating semi-permanent power from wasted energy in industrial environments. The energy-harvesting wireless devices may have difficulty in their communication with access points due to insufficient power supply for beacon recognition during network initialization. In this manuscript, we propose a novel method of beacon recognition based on wake-up control to reduce instantaneous power consumption in the initialization procedure. The proposed method applies a moving window for the periodic wake-up of the wireless devices. For unsynchronized wireless devices, beacons are always located in the same positions within each beacon interval even though the starting offsets are unknown. Using these characteristics, the moving window checks the existence of the beacon associated withspecified resources in a beacon interval, checks again for neighboring resources at the next beacon interval, and so on. This method can reduce instantaneous power and generates a surplus of charging time. Thus, the proposed method alleviates the problems of power insufficiency in the network initialization. The feasibility of the proposed method is evaluated using computer simulations of power shortage in various energy-harvesting conditions.

  9. DNA aptamer beacon assay for C-telopeptide and handheld fluorometer to monitor bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John Gordon; Carrillo, Maria P; Phillips, Taylor; Hanson, Douglas; Bohmann, Jonathan A

    2011-09-01

    A novel DNA aptamer beacon is described for quantification of a 26-amino acid C-telopeptide (CTx) of human type I bone collagen. One aptamer sequence and its reverse complement dominated the aptamer pool (31.6% of sequenced clones). Secondary structures of these aptamers were examined for potential binding pockets. Three-dimensional computer models which analyzed docking topologies and binding energies were in agreement with empirical fluorescence experiments used to select one candidate loop for beacon assay development. All loop structures from the aptamer finalists were end-labeled with TYE 665 and Iowa Black quencher for comparison of beacon fluorescence levels as a function of CTx concentration. The optimal beacon, designated CTx 2R-2h yielded a low ng/ml limit of detection using a commercially available handheld fluorometer. The CTx aptamer beacon bound full-length 26-amino acid CTx peptide, but not a shorter 8-amino acid segment of CTx peptide which is a common target for commercial CTx ELISA kits. The prototype assay was shown to detect CTx peptide from human urine after creatinine and urea were removed by size-exclusion chromatography to prevent nonspecific denaturing of the aptamer beacon. This work demonstrates the potential of aptamer beacons to be utilized for rapid and sensitive bone health monitoring in a handheld or point-of-care format.

  10. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  11. Easy-to-Build Satellite Beacon Receiver for Propagation Experimentation at Millimeter Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Machado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and development of a digital satellite beacon receiver for propagation experimentation. Satellite beacons are frequently available for pointing large antennas, but such signals can be used for measuring rain attenuation and other phenomena as, for example, tropospheric scintillation. A fairly inexpensive beacon receiver has been built using off-the-shelf parts. This instrument is not at all bulky making it suitable for easy transportation. This article analyzes the receiver specifications, describes in detail its structure and presents some operational test results.

  12. Tight Bounds for Beacon-Based Coverage in Simple Rectilinear Polygons

    KAUST Repository

    Bae, Sang Won; Shin, Chan-Su; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2016-01-01

    We establish tight bounds for beacon-based coverage problems. In particular, we show that $$\\lfloor \\frac{n}{6} \\rfloor $$⌊n6⌋ beacons are always sufficient and sometimes necessary to cover a simple rectilinear polygon P with n vertices. When P is monotone and rectilinear, we prove that this bound becomes $$\\lfloor \\frac{n+4}{8} \\rfloor $$⌊n+48⌋. We also present an optimal linear-time algorithm for computing the beacon kernel of P.

  13. Tight Bounds for Beacon-Based Coverage in Simple Rectilinear Polygons

    KAUST Repository

    Bae, Sang Won

    2016-03-21

    We establish tight bounds for beacon-based coverage problems. In particular, we show that $$\\\\lfloor \\\\frac{n}{6} \\ floor $$⌊n6⌋ beacons are always sufficient and sometimes necessary to cover a simple rectilinear polygon P with n vertices. When P is monotone and rectilinear, we prove that this bound becomes $$\\\\lfloor \\\\frac{n+4}{8} \\ floor $$⌊n+48⌋. We also present an optimal linear-time algorithm for computing the beacon kernel of P.

  14. Spacecraft navigation at Mars using earth-based and in situ radio tracking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, S. W.; Edwards, C. D.; Kahn, R. D.; Vijayaraghavan, A.; Hastrup, R. C.; Cesarone, R. J.

    1992-08-01

    A survey of earth-based and in situ radiometric data types and results from a number of studies investigating potential radio navigation performance for spacecraft approaching/orbiting Mars and for landed spacecraft and rovers on the surface of Mars are presented. The performance of Doppler, ranging and interferometry earth-based data types involving single or multiple spacecraft is addressed. This evaluation is conducted with that of in situ data types, such as Doppler and ranging measurements between two spacecraft near Mars, or between a spacecraft and one or more surface radio beacons.

  15. Design and Implementation of Distress Prevention System using a Beacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Imsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It was proven that human accidents due to mountain climbing occupy large proportion of recently occurred man-made disasters. This paper designed and implemented an application that tells users about a variety of accidents that frequently occur in mountain and shows dynamic information about mountain climbing. It designed ‘distress prevention system using beacon’. When using beacon, it can dynamically express information without using GPS. It has advantage of supporting BLE and has little Smartphone battery consumption. The application was developed based on Android as a prototype. We expect that the application developed in this paper can contribute to the protection of precious lives by helping quick rescue in case of emergency such as distress. Manager of mountain can control data regarding the mountain climbing accident where the related functions are provided through view and user authority setup in DBMS.

  16. Beacons of discovery the worldwide science of particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA)

    2011-01-01

    To discover what our world is made of and how it works at the most fundamental level is the challenge of particle physics. The tools of particle physics—experiments at particle accelerators and underground laboratories, together with observations of space—bring opportunities for discovery never before within reach. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world collaborate to design, build and use unique detectors and accelerators to explore the fundamental physics of matter, energy, space and time. Together, in a common world-wide program of discovery, they provide a deep understanding of the world around us and countless benefits to society. Beacons of Discovery presents a vision of the global science of particle physics at the dawn of a new light on the mystery and beauty of the universe.

  17. BEACON: An application of nodal methods for operational support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, W.A.; Nguyen, T.Q.

    1992-01-01

    A practical application of nodal methods is on-line plant operational support. However, to enable plant personnel to take full advantage of a nodal model to support plant operations, (a) a core nodal model must always be up to date with the current core history and conditions, (b) the nodal methods must be fast enough to allow numerous core calculations to be performed in minutes to support engineering decisions, and (c) the system must be easily accessible to engineering personnel at the reactor, their offices, or any other location considered appropriate. A core operational support package developed by Westinghouse called BEACON (best estimate analysis of core operations - nuclear) has been installed at several plants. Results from these plants and numerous in-core flux maps analyzed have demonstrated the accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the methodology

  18. Seamless Guidance System Combining GPS, BLE Beacon, and NFC Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rung-Shiang Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Users rely increasingly on Location-Based Services (LBS and automated navigation/guidance systems nowadays. However, while such services are easily implemented in outdoor environments using Global Positioning System (GPS technology, a requirement still exists for accurate localization and guidance schemes in indoor settings. Accordingly, the present study proposes a system based on GPS, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE beacons, and Near Field Communication (NFC technology. Through establishing graphic information and the design of algorithm, this study develops a guidance system for indoors and outdoors on smart phones, wishing to give user perfect smart life through this system. The proposed system is implemented on a smart phone and evaluated on a student campus environment. The experimental results confirm the ability of the proposed app to switch automatically from an outdoor mode to an indoor mode and to guide the user to requested target destination via the shortest possible route.

  19. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  20. NPP Grassland: Beacon Hill, U.K., 1972-1993, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two ASCII text files, one providing productivity measurements for a chalk grassland on Beacon Hill, West Sussex, U.K. (50.92 N, -0.85 W) and...

  1. Development of Aptamer Beacons for Antemortem Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D

    2005-01-01

    .... Once selected, the CWD aptamers will be configured as aptamer beacons that can act as molecular switches to turn "on" a novel and highly sensitive diagnostic technology termed amplifying fluorescing polymer...

  2. Development of Aptamer Beacons for Antemortem Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clinkenbeard, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    .... Once selected, the CWD aptamers will be configured as aptamer beacons that can act as molecular switches to turn on a novel and highly sensitive diagnostic technology termed amplifying fluorescing polymer. Objective...

  3. Evaluation of light-emitting diode beacon light fixtures : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Rotating beacons containing filament light sources have long been used on highway maintenance trucks : to indicate the presence of the truck to other drivers. Because of advances in light-emitting diode (LED) : technologies, flashing lights containin...

  4. Highly sensitive and rapid bacteria detection using molecular beacon-Au nanoparticles hybrid nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Feng, Chao; Liu, Yan; Wang, Shouyu; Liu, Fei

    2014-07-15

    Since many diseases are caused by pathogenic bacterial infections, accurate and rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria is in urgent need to timely apply appropriate treatments and to reduce economic costs. To end this, we designed molecular beacon-Au nanoparticle hybrid nanoprobes to improve the bacterial detection efficiency and sensitivity. Here, we show that the designed molecular beacon modified Au nanoparticles could specifically recognize synthetic DNAs targets and can readily detect targets in clinical samples. Moreover, the hybrid nanoprobes can recognize Escherichia coli within an hour at a concentration of 10(2) cfu/ml, which is 1000-folds sensitive than using molecular beacon directly. Our results show that the molecular beacon-Au nanoparticle hybrid nanoprobes have great potential in medical and biological applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-kW Uplink Fiber-Laser Beacon with Agile Signal Format, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —  Laser beacons with scalable powers are needed for ground to deep-space optical communication uplinks. They serve as absolute reference for tracking of spacecraft...

  6. Multi-kW Uplink Fiber-Laser Beacon with Agile Signal Format, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uplink Laser Beacons for deep-space communication, can benefit greatly from migration to the 1010-1030nm wavelengths, via use of Silicon-APDs on the spacecraft...

  7. High-throughput SNP genotyping: combining tag SNPs and molecular beacons

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barreiro, LB

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, molecular beacons have emerged to become a widely used tool in the multiplex typing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Improvements in detection technologies in instrumentation and chemistries to label these probes have...

  8. BEACON: A Summary Framework to Overcome Potential Reimbursement Hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, William C N; Mullins, C Daniel; Pirk, Olaf; Goeree, Ron; Postma, Maarten J; Enstone, Ashley; Heron, Louise

    2016-10-01

    To provide a framework for addressing payers' criteria during the development of pharmaceuticals. A conceptual framework was presented to an international health economic expert panel for discussion. A structured literature search (from 2010 to May 2015), using the following databases in Ovid: Medline(®) and Medline(®) In-Process (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), EconLit (EBSCOhost) and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), and a 'grey literature' search, were conducted to identify existing criteria from the payer perspective. The criteria assessed by existing frameworks and guidelines were collated; the most commonly reported criteria were considered for inclusion in the framework. A mnemonic was conceived as a memory aide to summarise these criteria. Overall, 41 publications were identified as potentially relevant to the objective. Following further screening, 26 were excluded upon full-text review on the basis of no framework presented (n = 13), redundancy (n = 11) or abstract only (n = 2). Frameworks that captured criteria developed for or utilised by the pharmaceutical industry (n = 5) and reimbursement guidance (n = 10) were reviewed. The most commonly identified criteria-unmet need/patient burden, safety, efficacy, quality-of-life outcomes, environment, evidence quality, budget impact and comparator-were incorporated into the summary framework. For ease of communication, the following mnemonic was developed: BEACON (Burden/target population, Environment, Affordability/value, Comparator, Outcomes, Number of studies/quality of evidence). The BEACON framework aims to capture the 'essence' of payer requirements by addressing the most commonly described criteria requested by payers regarding the introduction of a new pharmaceutical.

  9. Improving adherence to the Epic Beacon ambulatory workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chackunkal, Ellen; Dhanapal Vogel, Vishnuprabha; Grycki, Meredith; Kostoff, Diana

    2017-06-01

    Computerized physician order entry has been shown to significantly improve chemotherapy safety by reducing the number of prescribing errors. Epic's Beacon Oncology Information System of computerized physician order entry and electronic medication administration was implemented in Henry Ford Health System's ambulatory oncology infusion centers on 9 November 2013. Since that time, compliance to the infusion workflow had not been assessed. The objective of this study was to optimize the current workflow and improve the compliance to this workflow in the ambulatory oncology setting. This study was a retrospective, quasi-experimental study which analyzed the composite workflow compliance rate of patient encounters from 9 to 23 November 2014. Based on this analysis, an intervention was identified and implemented in February 2015 to improve workflow compliance. The primary endpoint was to compare the composite compliance rate to the Beacon workflow before and after a pharmacy-initiated intervention. The intervention, which was education of infusion center staff, was initiated by ambulatory-based, oncology pharmacists and implemented by a multi-disciplinary team of pharmacists and nurses. The composite compliance rate was then reassessed for patient encounters from 2 to 13 March 2015 in order to analyze the effects of the determined intervention on compliance. The initial analysis in November 2014 revealed a composite compliance rate of 38%, and data analysis after the intervention revealed a statistically significant increase in the composite compliance rate to 83% ( p < 0.001). This study supports a pharmacist-initiated educational intervention can improve compliance to an ambulatory, oncology infusion workflow.

  10. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  11. Perancangan Prototipe Receiver Beacon Black Box Locator Acoustic 37,5 kHz Pingers

    OpenAIRE

    RUSTAMAJI RUSTAMAJI; PAULINE RAHMIATI; SARAH PERMATASARI

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAK Ketika suatu pesawat terbang mengalami kecelakaan terjatuh ke dalam air, maka lokasi keberadaannya dapat dideteksi oleh alat yang disebut receiver beacon black box locator acoustic (pingers receiver). Pingers receiver berfungsi untuk menerima sinyal dengan frekuensi 37,5 kHz ± 1 kHz dari pingers transmitter atau Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB) yang berada pada black box pesawat. Dalam penelitian ini dibuat perancangan pingers receiver yang tersusun dari rangkaian Band Pass Filter (BPF...

  12. Serum inverts and improves the fluorescence response of an aptamer beacon to various vitamin D analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John G; Carrillo, Maria P; Phillips, Taylor; Edge, Allison

    2012-01-01

    A dominant aptamer loop structure from a library of nearly 100 candidate aptamer sequences developed against immobilized 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcidiol) was converted into a 5'-TYE 665 and 3'-Iowa black-labelled aptamer beacon. The aptamer beacon exhibited a mild 'lights on' reaction in buffer as a function of increasing concentrations of several vitamin D analogues and metabolites, with a limit of detection of approximately 200 ng/mL, and was not specific for any particular congener. In 10% or 50% human serum, the same aptamer beacon inverted its fluorescence behaviour to become a more intense 'lights off' reaction with an improved limit of detection in the range 4-16 ng/mL. We hypothesized that this drastic change in fluorescence behaviour was due to the presence of creatinine and urea in serum, which might destabilize the quenched beacon, causing an increase in fluorescence followed by decreasing fluorescence as a function of vitamin D concentrations that may bind and quench increasingly greater fractions of the denatured beacons. However, the results of several control experiments in the presence of physiological or greater concentrations of creatinine and urea, alone or combined in buffer, failed to produce the beacon fluorescence inversion. Other possible mechanistic hypotheses are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. An adaptive scheme for robot localization and mapping with dynamically configurable inter-beacon range measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Arturo; Martinez-de Dios, Jose Ramiro; Ollero, Anibal

    2014-04-25

    This work is motivated by robot-sensor network cooperation techniques where sensor nodes (beacons) are used as landmarks for range-only (RO) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This paper presents a RO-SLAM scheme that actuates over the measurement gathering process using mechanisms that dynamically modify the rate and variety of measurements that are integrated in the SLAM filter. It includes a measurement gathering module that can be configured to collect direct robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements with different inter-beacon depth levels and at different rates. It also includes a supervision module that monitors the SLAM performance and dynamically selects the measurement gathering configuration balancing SLAM accuracy and resource consumption. The proposed scheme has been applied to an extended Kalman filter SLAM with auxiliary particle filters for beacon initialization (PF-EKF SLAM) and validated with experiments performed in the CONET Integrated Testbed. It achieved lower map and robot errors (34% and 14%, respectively) than traditional methods with a lower computational burden (16%) and similar beacon energy consumption.

  14. Supporting Beacon and Event-Driven Messages in Vehicular Platoons through Token-Based Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balador, Ali; Uhlemann, Elisabeth; Calafate, Carlos T; Cano, Juan-Carlos

    2018-03-23

    Timely and reliable inter-vehicle communications is a critical requirement to support traffic safety applications, such as vehicle platooning. Furthermore, low-delay communications allow the platoon to react quickly to unexpected events. In this scope, having a predictable and highly effective medium access control (MAC) method is of utmost importance. However, the currently available IEEE 802.11p technology is unable to adequately address these challenges. In this paper, we propose a MAC method especially adapted to platoons, able to transmit beacons within the required time constraints, but with a higher reliability level than IEEE 802.11p, while concurrently enabling efficient dissemination of event-driven messages. The protocol circulates the token within the platoon not in a round-robin fashion, but based on beacon data age, i.e., the time that has passed since the previous collection of status information, thereby automatically offering repeated beacon transmission opportunities for increased reliability. In addition, we propose three different methods for supporting event-driven messages co-existing with beacons. Analysis and simulation results in single and multi-hop scenarios showed that, by providing non-competitive channel access and frequent retransmission opportunities, our protocol can offer beacon delivery within one beacon generation interval while fulfilling the requirements on low-delay dissemination of event-driven messages for traffic safety applications.

  15. Supporting Beacon and Event-Driven Messages in Vehicular Platoons through Token-Based Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Balador

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Timely and reliable inter-vehicle communications is a critical requirement to support traffic safety applications, such as vehicle platooning. Furthermore, low-delay communications allow the platoon to react quickly to unexpected events. In this scope, having a predictable and highly effective medium access control (MAC method is of utmost importance. However, the currently available IEEE 802.11p technology is unable to adequately address these challenges. In this paper, we propose a MAC method especially adapted to platoons, able to transmit beacons within the required time constraints, but with a higher reliability level than IEEE 802.11p, while concurrently enabling efficient dissemination of event-driven messages. The protocol circulates the token within the platoon not in a round-robin fashion, but based on beacon data age, i.e., the time that has passed since the previous collection of status information, thereby automatically offering repeated beacon transmission opportunities for increased reliability. In addition, we propose three different methods for supporting event-driven messages co-existing with beacons. Analysis and simulation results in single and multi-hop scenarios showed that, by providing non-competitive channel access and frequent retransmission opportunities, our protocol can offer beacon delivery within one beacon generation interval while fulfilling the requirements on low-delay dissemination of event-driven messages for traffic safety applications.

  16. Accelerated Adoption of Advanced Health Information Technology in Beacon Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily; Wittie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To complement national and state-level HITECH Act programs, 17 Beacon communities were funded to fuel community-wide use of health information technology to improve quality. Health centers in Beacon communities received supplemental funding. This article explores the association between participation in the Beacon program and the adoption of electronic health records. Using the 2010-2012 Uniform Data System, trends in health information technology adoption among health centers located within and outside of Beacon communities were explored using differences in mean t tests and multivariate logistic regression. Electronic health record adoption was widespread and rapidly growing in all health centers, especially quality improvement functionalities: structured data capture, order and results management, and clinical decision support. Adoption lagged for functionalities supporting patient engagement, performance measurement, care coordination, and public health. The use of advanced functionalities such as care coordination grew faster in Beacon health centers, and Beacon health centers had 1.7 times higher odds of adopting health records with basic safety and quality functionalities in 2010-2012. Three factors likely underlie these findings: technical assistance, community-wide activation supporting health information exchange, and the layering of financial incentives. Additional technical assistance and community-wide activation is needed to support the use of functionalities that are currently lagging. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  17. Radio Resource Management for V2V Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Gatnau, Marta; Kovács, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Big expectations are put into vehicular communications (V2X) for a safer and more intelligent driving. With human lives at risk, the system cannot afford to fail, which translates into very stringent reliability and latency requirements to the radio network. One of the challenges is to find...... efficient radio resource management (RRM) strategies for direct vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication that can fulfil the requirements even with high traffic density. In cellular networks, a device-to-device (D2D) communication is usually split into two phases: the discovery process, for node awareness...... of each other; and the communication phase itself, where data exchange takes place. In the case of V2V, the discovery phase can utilize the status information that cars broadcast periodically as the beacons to detect the presence of neighbouring cars. For the delivery of specific messages (e...

  18. EVALUATING EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILE BROWSER SECURITY WARNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work precisely evaluates whether browser security warnings are as ineffective as proposed by popular sentiments and past writings. This research used different kinds of Android mobile browsers as well as desktop browsers to evaluate security warnings. Security experts and developers should give emphasis on making a user aware of security warnings and should not neglect aim of communicating this to users. Security experts and system architects should emphasis the goal of communicating security information to end users. In most of the browsers, security warnings are not emphasized, and browsers simply do not show warnings, or there are a number of ways to hide those warnings of malicious sites. This work precisely finds that how inconsistent browsers really are in prompting security warnings. In particular, majority of the modern mobile web browsers are vulnerable to these security threats. We find inconsistency in SSL warnings among web browsers. Based on this work, we make recommendations for warning designers and researchers.

  19. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  20. The radio universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worvill, R.

    1977-01-01

    Elementary description of the development of radioastronomy, radio waves from the sun and planets, the use of radio telescopes and the detection of nebulae, supernova, radio galaxies and quasars is presented. A brief glossary of terms is included. (UK)

  1. Quantum dot-based molecular beacon to monitor intracellular microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Moon, Sung Ung; Lee, Yong Seung; Ali, Bahy A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Ali, Daoud; Ahmed, Javed; Al Salem, Abdullah M; Kim, Soonhag

    2015-06-02

    Fluorescence monitoring of endogenous microRNA (miRNA or miR) activity related to neuronal development using nano-sized materials provides crucial information on miRNA expression patterns in a noninvasive manner. In this study, we report a new method to monitor intracellular miRNA124a using quantum dot-based molecular beacon (R9-QD-miR124a beacon). The R9-QD-miR124a beacon was constructed using QDs and two probes, miR124a-targeting oligomer and arginine rich cell-penetrating peptide (R9 peptide). The miR124a-targeting oligomer contains a miR124a binging sequence and a black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1). In the absence of target miR124a, the R9-QD-miR124a beacon forms a partial duplex beacon and remained in quenched state because the BHQ1 quenches the fluorescence signal of the R9-QD-miR124a beacon. The binding of miR124a to the miR124a binding sequence of the miR124a-targeting oligomer triggered the separation of the BHQ1 quencher and subsequent signal-on of a red fluorescence signal. Moreover, enhanced cellular uptake was achieved by conjugation with the R9 peptide, which resulted in increased fluorescent signal of the R9-QD-miR124a beacons in P19 cells during neurogenesis due to the endogenous expression of miR124a.

  2. Quantum Dot-Based Molecular Beacon to Monitor Intracellular MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghwan Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence monitoring of endogenous microRNA (miRNA or miR activity related to neuronal development using nano-sized materials provides crucial information on miRNA expression patterns in a noninvasive manner. In this study, we report a new method to monitor intracellular miRNA124a using quantum dot-based molecular beacon (R9-QD-miR124a beacon. The R9-QD-miR124a beacon was constructed using QDs and two probes, miR124a-targeting oligomer and arginine rich cell-penetrating peptide (R9 peptide. The miR124a-targeting oligomer contains a miR124a binging sequence and a black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1. In the absence of target miR124a, the R9-QD-miR124a beacon forms a partial duplex beacon and remained in quenched state because the BHQ1 quenches the fluorescence signal of the R9-QD-miR124a beacon. The binding of miR124a to the miR124a binding sequence of the miR124a-targeting oligomer triggered the separation of the BHQ1 quencher and subsequent signal-on of a red fluorescence signal. Moreover, enhanced cellular uptake was achieved by conjugation with the R9 peptide, which resulted in increased fluorescent signal of the R9-QD-miR124a beacons in P19 cells during neurogenesis due to the endogenous expression of miR124a.

  3. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Storm Wallets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is responsible for typhoon forecasts and warnings for the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. After each storm, the JTWC...

  4. The relevance and legibility of radio/TV weather reports to the Austrian public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A. G.; Holzer, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    The communicative quality of media weather reports, especially warnings, can be evaluated by user research. It is an interdisciplinary field, still uncoordinated after 35 years. The authors suggest to shift from a cognitive learning model to news processing, qualitative discourse and usability models as the media audience is in an edutainment situation where it acts highly selective. A series of field surveys 2008-2011 tested the relevance and legibility of Austrian radio and television weather reports on fair weather and in warning situations. 247 laypeople heard/saw original, mostly up-to-date radio/TV weather reports and recalled personally relevant data. Also, a questionnaire on weather knowledge was answered by 237 Austrians. Several research hypotheses were tested. The main results were (a) a relatively high level of meteorological knowledge of the general population, with interest and participation of German-speaking migrants, (b) a pluralistic media usage with TV, radio and internet as the leading media, (c) higher interest and attention (also for local weather) after warnings, but a risk of more false recalls after long warnings, (d) more recall problems with radio messages and a wish that the weather elements should always appear in the same order to faciliate processing for the audience. In their narrow time windows, radio/TV weather reports should concentrate on main features (synoptic situation, tomorrow's temperature and precipitation, possible warnings), keep a verbal “speed limit” and restrict show elements to serve the active, selective, multioptional, multicultural audience.

  5. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  6. Optical Fiber Nanotips Coated with Molecular Beacons for DNA Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Giannetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber sensors, thanks to their compactness, fast response and real-time measurements, have a large impact in the fields of life science research, drug discovery and medical diagnostics. In recent years, advances in nanotechnology have resulted in the development of nanotools, capable of entering the single cell, resulting in new nanobiosensors useful for the detection of biomolecules inside living cells. In this paper, we provide an application of a nanotip coupled with molecular beacons (MBs for the detection of DNA. The MBs were characterized by hybridization studies with a complementary target to prove their functionality both free in solution and immobilized onto a solid support. The solid support chosen as substrate for the immobilization of the MBs was a 30 nm tapered tip of an optical fiber, fabricated by chemical etching. With this set-up promising results were obtained and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.57 nM was reached, opening up the possibility of using the proposed nanotip to detect mRNAs inside the cytoplasm of living cells.

  7. A tsunami early warning system for the coastal area modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebroto, Arief Andy; Sunaryo, Suhartanto, Ery

    2015-04-01

    The tsunami disaster is a potential disaster in the territory of Indonesia. Indonesia is an archipelago country and close to the ocean deep. The tsunami occurred in Aceh province in 2004. Early prevention efforts have been carried out. One of them is making "tsunami buoy" which has been developed by BPPT. The tool puts sensors on the ocean floor near the coast to detect earthquakes on the ocean floor. Detection results are transmitted via satellite by a transmitter placed floating on the sea surface. The tool will cost billions of dollars for each system. Another constraint was the transmitter theft "tsunami buoy" in the absence of guard. In this study of the system has a transmission system using radio frequency and focused on coastal areas where costs are cheaper, so that it can be applied at many beaches in Indonesia are potentially affected by the tsunami. The monitoring system sends the detection results to the warning system using a radio frequency with a capability within 3 Km. Test results on the sub module sensor monitoring system generates an error of 0.63% was taken 10% showed a good quality sensing. The test results of data transmission from the transceiver of monitoring system to the receiver of warning system produces 100% successful delivery and reception of data. The test results on the whole system to function 100% properly.

  8. 30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above the surrounding noise level shall be sounded— (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56.14214...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above the surrounding noise level shall be sounded— (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57.14214...

  10. Quencher-free molecular beacon tethering 7-hydroxycoumarin detects targets through protonation/deprotonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashida, Hiromu; Yamaguchi, Kyohei; Hara, Yuichi; Asanuma, Hiroyuki

    2012-07-15

    In this study, we synthesized a simple but efficient quencher-free molecular beacon tethering 7-hydroxycoumarin on D-threoninol based on its pK(a) change. The pK(a) of 7-hydroxycoumarin in a single strand was determined as 8.8, whereas that intercalated in the duplex was over 10. This large pK(a) shift (more than 1.2) upon hybridization could be attributed to the anionic and hydrophobic microenvironment inside the DNA duplex. Because 7-hydroxycoumarin quenches its fluorescence upon protonation, the emission intensity of the duplex at pH 8.5 was 1/15 that of the single strand. We applied this quenching mechanism to the preparation of a quencher-free molecular beacon by introducing the dye into the middle of the stem part. In the absence of the target, the stem region formed a duplex and fluorescence was quenched. However, when the target was added, the molecular beacon opened and the dye was deprotonated. As a result, the emission intensity of the molecular beacon with the target was 10 times higher than that without the target. Accordingly, a quencher-free molecular beacon utilizing the pK(a) change was successfully developed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accurate beacon positioning method for satellite-to-ground optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Tong, Ling; Yu, Siyuan; Tan, Liying; Ma, Jing

    2017-12-11

    In satellite laser communication systems, accurate positioning of the beacon is essential for establishing a steady laser communication link. For satellite-to-ground optical communication, the main influencing factors on the acquisition of the beacon are background noise and atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, we consider the influence of background noise and atmospheric turbulence on the beacon in satellite-to-ground optical communication, and propose a new locating algorithm for the beacon, which takes the correlation coefficient obtained by curve fitting for image data as weights. By performing a long distance laser communication experiment (11.16 km), we verified the feasibility of this method. Both simulation and experiment showed that the new algorithm can accurately obtain the position of the centroid of beacon. Furthermore, for the distortion of the light spot through atmospheric turbulence, the locating accuracy of the new algorithm was 50% higher than that of the conventional gray centroid algorithm. This new approach will be beneficial for the design of satellite-to ground optical communication systems.

  12. A spiral wave front beacon for underwater navigation: transducer prototypes and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikowicz, Benjamin R; Hefner, Brian T

    2012-05-01

    Transducers for acoustic beacons which can produce outgoing signals with wave fronts whose horizontal cross sections are circular or spiral are studied experimentally. A remote hydrophone is used to determine its aspect relative to the transducers by comparing the phase of the circular signal to the phase of the spiral signal. The transducers for a "physical-spiral" beacon are made by forming a strip of 1-3 piezocomposite transducer material around either a circular or spiral backing. A "phased-spiral" beacon is made from an array of transducer elements which can be driven either in phase or staggered out of phase so as to produce signals with either a circular or spiral wave front. Measurements are made to study outgoing signals and their usefulness in determining aspect angle. Vertical beam width is also examined and phase corrections applied when the hydrophone is out of the horizontal plane of the beacon. While numerical simulations indicate that the discontinuity in the physical-spiral beacon introduces errors into the measured phase, damping observed at the ends of the piezocomposite material is a more significant source of error. This damping is also reflected in laser Doppler vibrometer measurements of the transducer's surface velocity.

  13. Adaptive Beaconing in Mobility Aware Clustering Based MAC Protocol for Safety Message Dissemination in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of research contributions in wireless access in vehicular environment (WAVE/IEEE 802.11p standard focus on life critical safety-related applications. These applications require regular status update of vehicle’s position referred to as beaconing. Periodic beaconing in vehicle to vehicle communication leads to severe network congestion in the communication channel. The condition worsens under high vehicular density where it impacts reliability and upper bound latency of safety messages. In this paper, WAVE compliant enhancement to the existing IEEE 802.11p protocol is presented which targets prioritized delivery of safety messages while simultaneously provisioning the dissemination of nonsafety messages. Proposed scheme relies on dynamic generation of beacons to mitigate channel congestion and inefficient bandwidth utilization by reducing transmission frequency of beacons. Through the use of clustering mechanism, different beaconing frequencies and different data transmission rates are assigned to prioritize vehicular mobility. Through extensive simulation results, the performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in terms of a wide range of quality of service (QoS parameters for two different transmission ranges. Results show that the proposed protocol provides significant enhancement and stability of the clustered topology in vehicular ad hoc network over existing standard and other protocols with similar applications.

  14. A Measurement Study of BLE iBeacon and Geometric Adjustment Scheme for Indoor Location-Based Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyeup Paek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE and the iBeacons have recently gained large interest for enabling various proximity-based application services. Given the ubiquitously deployed nature of Bluetooth devices including mobile smartphones, using BLE and iBeacon technologies seemed to be a promising future to come. This work started off with the belief that this was true: iBeacons could provide us with the accuracy in proximity and distance estimation to enable and simplify the development of many previously difficult applications. However, our empirical studies with three different iBeacon devices from various vendors and two types of smartphone platforms prove that this is not the case. Signal strength readings vary significantly over different iBeacon vendors, mobile platforms, environmental or deployment factors, and usage scenarios. This variability in signal strength naturally complicates the process of extracting an accurate location/proximity estimation in real environments. Our lessons on the limitations of iBeacon technique lead us to design a simple class attendance checking application by performing a simple form of geometric adjustments to compensate for the natural variations in beacon signal strength readings. We believe that the negative observations made in this work can provide future researchers with a reference on how well of a performance to expect from iBeacon devices as they enter their system design phases.

  15. A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of warning messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    capabilities of different dissemination channels such as SMS, email and television, have bearing on the information processing required for delivery and consumption of a DEWS EDXL-DE/CAP message over each dissemination channel. These messages may include additional information in the form of maps, graphs, documents, sensor observations, etc. Therefore, the generated messages are pre-processed by channel adaptors in the information dissemination services converting it into a format that is suitable for end-to-end delivery over the dissemination channels without any semantic distortion. The approach followed by DEWS for disseminating warnings not only relies on traditional communication ways used by the already established early warnings such as the delivery of faxes and phone calls but takes into consideration the use of other broadly used communication channels such as SMS, email, narrowcast and broadcast television, instant messaging, Voice over IP, and radio. It also takes advantage of social media channels like RSS feeds, Facebook, Twitter, etc., enabling a multiplier effect, like in the case of radio and television, and thus allowing to create mash-ups by aggregating other sources of information to the original message. Finally, status information is also important in order to assess and understand whether the process of disseminating the warning to the message consumers has been successfully completed or the process failed at some point of the dissemination chain. To that end, CAP-based messages generated within the information dissemination services provide the semantics for those fields that are of interest within the context of reporting the warning dissemination status in DEWS.

  16. Improved margin utilization through the use of beacon power distribution surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R. Wade; Boyd, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Core Operations, including fuel cycle costs, can be significantly improved when state of the art surveillance techniques are employed for core power distribution monitoring. Core power distribution monitoring and Technical Specification surveillance are major operational issues at PWR's, particularly in plants with movable in core detectors. Even plants with fixed in core detectors do not always make use of the continuous data that is available. The BEACON TM system (Best Estimate Analysis of Core Operations - Nuclear) is a core monitoring and operational support package developed by Westinghouse for use in PWR plants with fixed or movable in core detectors. BEACON is a real time core monitoring system, which uses existing core instrumentation data and an on-line neutronics model to provide continuous monitored of the core power distribution information. With this information available the BEACON system can be used to continuously monitor core power margin for the plant Tech Spec surveillance requirements and for plant operational guidance

  17. Efficient Beacon Collision Resolution Procedure for IEEE 802.15.4 /Zigbee Wireless Personal Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam A. Zafar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee is a promising technology for Wireless Personal Area Networks, several transmission problems are not yet resolved. In particular, the problem of beacon transmission interferences is causing the device connection loss to the network. In order to resolve this problem, we present a new distributed and reactive procedure for beacon collision resolution. It is an extension of the alignment procedure to reorganize randomly the beacon transmission time when a collision has occurred. The detail of the proposed procedure will be fully described and analyzed. The performance of our approach is performed by simulations. The results show that our approach reduces the collision probability and the device disconnections consequently.

  18. A beacon interval shifting scheme for interference mitigation in body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungku; Kim, Seokhwan; Kim, Jin-Woo; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of interference avoidance in body area networks (BANs). IEEE 802.15 Task Group 6 presented several schemes to reduce such interference, but these schemes are still not proper solutions for BANs. We present a novel distributed TDMA-based beacon interval shifting scheme that reduces interference in the BANs. A design goal of the scheme is to avoid the wakeup period of each BAN coinciding with other networks by employing carrier sensing before a beacon transmission. We analyze the beacon interval shifting scheme and investigate the proper back-off length when the channel is busy. We compare the performance of the proposed scheme with the schemes presented in IEEE 802.15 Task Group 6 using an OMNeT++ simulation. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has a lower packet loss, energy consumption, and delivery-latency than the schemes of IEEE 802.15 Task Group 6.

  19. Analyte-Triggered DNA-Probe Release from a Triplex Molecular Beacon for Nanopore Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bingyuan; Sheng, Yingying; Zhou, Ke; Liu, Quansheng; Liu, Lei; Wu, Hai-Chen

    2018-03-26

    A new nanopore sensing strategy based on triplex molecular beacon was developed for the detection of specific DNA or multivalent proteins. The sensor is composed of a triplex-forming molecular beacon and a stem-forming DNA component that is modified with a host-guest complex. Upon target DNA hybridizing with the molecular beacon loop or multivalent proteins binding to the recognition elements on the stem, the DNA probe is released and produces highly characteristic current signals when translocated through α-hemolysin. The frequency of current signatures can be used to quantify the concentrations of the target molecules. This sensing approach provides a simple, quick, and modular tool for the detection of specific macromolecules with high sensitivity and excellent selectivity. It may find useful applications in point-of-care diagnostics with a portable nanopore kit in the future. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Development of satellite position location system for aircraft and boat distress beacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    An international satellite system for the detection and location of distress beacons carried on aircraft and vessels is in its technical checkout phase. User demonstration and evaluation (D&E) will start in early 1983 and continue for two years. The D&E phase and a subsequent transition period will form the basis for improved search and rescue operations for the 1980's and beyond. The system, called COSPAS/SARSAT, has international participation involving the U.S., Canada, and France as SARSAT members and joint participation with the Soviet Union's COSPAS Project. Norway and the U.K. have recently joined as investigators. Average position location error of the satellite aided processing is expected to be from 10-20KM for the existing 121.5/243 MHz distress beacons and from 2-5KM for experimental beacons transmitting in the 406 MHz band.

  1. Alcohol warnings in TV beer advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, M D; Domenech, M M

    1995-05-01

    Mandated warnings are among the few steps Congress has taken to influence the use of legal substances such as alcohol. The usefulness of such warnings in discouraging abuse of alcohol is, however, controversial. This study examines the impact of televised warnings on probable antecedents of belief change not examined in previous research: confidence in beliefs about beer risks or benefits, and cognitive responses to the advertisements. The present study (N = 75 male and female college students) tests four of the warnings recommended in Senate Bill 674 (1993--the "Thurmond bill") edited into randomly sampled television beer advertisements, using a between-subjects treatment-and-control experimental design. The four advertisements or advertisement/warning pairs were counterbalanced and analyzed as a repeated measures factor. The study indicated, as hypothesized, that subjects exposed to warnings tended to have less confidence in their generally skeptical assessments of beer risks--a likely precursor to belief change in resistant populations. Repeated exposure to the advertisements alone also appeared to lead to increased confidence in generally positive assessments of beer benefits, whereas repeated exposure to warnings led to decreased confidence in such assessments. Repeated exposure to warnings also may have primed negative reactions to subsequent beer advertisements. These results suggest mechanisms by which alcohol warnings may over time influence beliefs. Measures used here may serve as useful criterion variables in future studies on warnings. Further attention to optimizing warning content and presentation is recommended.

  2. Development of an aptamer beacon for detection of interferon-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleuova, Nazgul; Jones, Caroline N; Yan, Jun; Ramanculov, Erlan; Yokobayashi, Yohei; Revzin, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    Traditional antibody-based affinity sensing strategies employ multiple reagents and washing steps and are unsuitable for real-time detection of analyte binding. Aptamers, on the other hand, may be designed to monitor binding events directly, in real-time, without the need for secondary labels. The goal of the present study was to design an aptamer beacon for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based detection of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)--an important inflammatory cytokine. Variants of DNA aptamer modified with biotin moieties and spacers were immobilized on avidin-coated surfaces and characterized by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The SPR studies showed that immobilization of aptamer via the 3' end resulted in the best binding IFN-gamma (K(d) = 3.44 nM). This optimal aptamer variant was then used to construct a beacon by hybridizing fluorophore-labeled aptamer with an antisense oligonucleotide strand carrying a quencher. SPR studies revealed that IFN-gamma binding with an aptamer beacon occurred within 15 min of analyte introduction--suggesting dynamic replacement of the quencher-complementary strand by IFN-gamma molecules. To further highlight biosensing applications, aptamer beacon molecules were immobilized inside microfluidic channels and challenged with varying concentration of analyte. Fluorescence microscopy revealed low fluorescence in the absence of analyte and high fluorescence after introduction of IFN-gamma. Importantly, unlike traditional antibody-based immunoassays, the signal was observed directly upon binding of analyte without the need for multiple washing steps. The surface immobilized aptamer beacon had a linear range from 5 to 100 nM and a lower limit of detection of 5 nM IFN-gamma. In conclusion, we designed a FRET-based aptamer beacon for monitoring of an inflammatory cytokine-IFN-gamma. In the future, this biosensing strategy will be employed to monitor dynamics of cytokine production by the immune cells.

  3. Building and strengthening infrastructure for data exchange: lessons from the beacon communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Gretchen W; Swietek, Karen; Ubri, Petry S; Singer, Rachel F; Lowell, Kristina H; Miller, Wilhelmine

    2014-01-01

    The Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program supports interventions, including care-delivery innovations, provider performance measurement and feedback initiatives, and tools for providers and consumers to enhance care. Using a learning health system framework, we examine the Beacon Communities' processes in building and strengthening health IT (HIT) infrastructures, specifically successes and challenges in sharing patient information to improve clinical care. In 2010, the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) launched the three-year program, which provided $250 million to 17 Beacon Communities to invest in HIT and health information exchange (HIE) infrastructure. Beacon Communities used this funding to develop and disseminate HIT-enabled quality improvement practices found effective in particular community and practice environments. NORC conducted 7 site visits, November 2012-March 2013, selecting Communities to represent diverse program features. From August-October 2013, NORC held discussions with the remaining 10 Communities. Following each visit or discussion, NORC summarized the information gathered, including transcripts, team observations, and other documents the Community provided, to facilitate a within-Community analysis of context and stakeholders, intervention strategies, enabling factors, and challenges. Although each Community designed and implemented data-sharing strategies in a unique environment, similar challenges and enabling factors emerged across the Beacons. From a learning health system perspective, their strategies to build and strengthen data-sharing infrastructures address the following crosscutting priorities: promoting technical advances and innovations by helping providers adapt EHRs for data exchange and performance measurement with customizable IT and offering technical support to smaller, independent providers; engaging key stakeholders; and fostering transparent governance and stewardship

  4. Time-Resolved Nucleic Acid Hybridization Beacons Utilizing Unimolecular and Toehold-Mediated Strand Displacement Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Melissa; Ancona, Mario G; Medintz, Igor L; Algar, W Russ

    2015-12-01

    Nucleic acid hybridization probes are sought after for numerous assay and imaging applications. These probes are often limited by the properties of fluorescent dyes, prompting the development of new probes where dyes are paired with novel or nontraditional luminescent materials. Luminescent terbium complexes are an example of such a material, and these complexes offer several unique spectroscopic advantages. Here, we demonstrate two nonstem-loop designs for light-up nucleic acid hybridization beacons that utilize time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) between a luminescent Lumi4-Tb cryptate (Tb) donor and a fluorescent reporter dye, where time-resolved emission from the dye provides an analytical signal. Both designs are based on probe oligonucleotides that are labeled at their opposite termini with Tb and a fluorescent reporter dye. In one design, a probe is partially blocked with a quencher dye-labeled oligonucleotide, and target hybridization is signaled through toehold-mediated strand displacement and loss of a competitive FRET pathway. In the other design, the intrinsic folding properties of an unblocked probe are utilized in combination with a temporal mechanism for signaling target hybridization. This temporal mechanism is based on a recently elucidated "sweet spot" for TR-FRET measurements and exploits distance control over FRET efficiencies to shift the Tb lifetime within or outside the time-gated detection window for measurements. Both the blocked and unblocked beacons offer nanomolar (femtomole) detection limits, response times on the order of minutes, multiplexing through the use of different reporter dyes, and detection in complex matrices such as serum and blood. The blocked beacons offer better mismatch selectivity, whereas the unblocked beacons are simpler in design. The temporal mechanism of signaling utilized with the unblocked beacons also plays a significant role with the blocked beacons and represents a new and effective

  5. Molecular beacon anchored onto a graphene oxide substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Arash; Datta, Debopam; Patel, Krunal; Lin, Gary; Stroscio, Michael A.; Dutta, Mitra

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we report a graphene oxide-based nanosensor incorporating semiconductor quantum dots linked to DNA-aptamers that functions as a ‘turn-off’ fluorescent nanosensor for detection of low concentrations of analytes. A specific demonstration of this turn-off aptasensor is presented for the case of the detection of mercury (II) ions. In this system, ensembles of aptamer-based quantum-dot sensors are anchored onto graphene oxide (GO) flakes which provide a platform for analyte detection in the vicinity of GO. Herein, the operation of this ensemble-based nanosensor is demonstrated for mercury ions, which upon addition of mercury, quenching of the emission intensity from the quantum dots is observed due to resonance energy transfer between quantum dots and the gold nanoparticle connected via a mercury target aptamer. A key result is that the usually dominant effect of quenching of the quantum dot due to close proximity to the GO can be reduced to negligible levels by using a linker molecule in conjunctions with the aptamer-based nanosensor. The effect of ionic concentration of the background matrix on the emission intensity was also investigated. The sensor system is found to be highly selective towards mercury and exhibits a linear behavior (r 2 > 0.99) in the nanomolar concentration range. The detection limit of the sensor towards mercury with no GO present was found to be 16.5 nM. With GO attached to molecular beacon via 14 base, 35 base, and 51 base long linker DNA, the detection limit was found to be 38.4 nM, 9.45 nM, and 11.38 nM; respectively.

  6. Experience and evaluation of advanced on-line core monitoring system 'BEACON' at IKATA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitsuka, Nobumichi; Tanouchi, Hideyuki; Imamura, Yasuhiro; Mizobuchil, Daisuke

    1997-01-01

    Shikoku Electric Power Company installed BEACON core monitoring system into IKATA unit 3 in May 1994. During its first cycle of core operation, various operational data were obtained including data of some anomalous reactor conditions introduced for the test objective of the plant start-up. This paper presents the evaluation of the BEACON system capability based on this experience. The system functions such as core monitoring and anomaly detection, prediction of future reactor conditions and increased efficiency of core management activities are discussed. Our future plan to utilize the system is also presented. (authors)

  7. Code Development and Analysis Program: developmental checkout of the BEACON/MOD2A code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsthaler, J.A.; Lime, J.F.; Sahota, M.S.

    1978-12-01

    A best-estimate transient containment code, BEACON, is being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's reactor safety research program. This is an advanced, two-dimensional fluid flow code designed to predict temperatures and pressures in a dry PWR containment during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. The most recent version of the code, MOD2A, is presently in the final stages of production prior to being released to the National Energy Software Center. As part of the final code checkout, seven sample problems were selected to be run with BEACON/MOD2A

  8. Optimal placement of range-only beacons for mobile robot localisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available of the Euclidean distance between the position estimate (x; y; z) and the largest orthogo- nal standard deviations in 3D space, and is an improvement on the GDOP metric as it considers both off-diagonal covariance terms and individual beacon noise. The beacon... is the Euclidean distance between an accessed node and a goal. This results in the shortest route to a goal being determined. The cost of traversing to a node is typically the distance between nodes. However, by replacing this cost with the uncertainty metric...

  9. Molecular beacon – tool for real time studying gene activity in stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilieva, Mirolyuba; Dufva, Martin

    Cells respond to their internal genetic programs and external stimuli by modulating the synthesis of specific mRNAs. Direct observation of mRNA expression in living cells can provide valuable information with regards to understanding fundamental processes such cell differentiation, regeneration...... and cancerogenesis. Molecular beacon technology is based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and the complementary pairing principles. These fluorescent molecular probes are highly specific and sensitive and are one important tool in in vitro diagnostics. Here molecular beacons are used to follow...

  10. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan - Result of recent two years -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland

  11. Operation of a real-time warning system for debris flows in the San Francisco bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond C.; Mark, Robert K.; Barbato, Gary; ,

    1993-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed an operational warning system for debris flows during severe rainstorms in the San Francisco Bay region. The NWS makes quantitative forecasts of precipitation from storm systems approaching the Bay area and coordinates a regional network of radio-telemetered rain gages. The USGS has formulated thresholds for the intensity and duration of rainfall required to initiate debris flows. The first successful public warnings were issued during a severe storm sequence in February 1986. Continued operation of the warning system since 1986 has provided valuable working experience in rainfall forecasting and monitoring, refined rainfall thresholds, and streamlined procedures for issuing public warnings. Advisory statements issued since 1986 are summarized.

  12. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ``beacon transmitter'' which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

  13. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ''beacon transmitter'' which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA

  14. Improving Indoor Localization Using Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kriz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes basic principles of a radio-based indoor localization and focuses on the improvement of its results with the aid of a new Bluetooth Low Energy technology. The advantage of this technology lies in its support by contemporary mobile devices, especially by smartphones and tablets. We have implemented a distributed system for collecting radio fingerprints by mobile devices with the Android operating system. This system enables volunteers to create radio-maps and update them continuously. New Bluetooth Low Energy transmitters (Apple uses its “iBeacon” brand name for these devices have been installed on the floor of the building in addition to existing WiFi access points. The localization of stationary objects based on WiFi, Bluetooth Low Energy, and their combination has been evaluated using the data measured during the experiment in the building. Several configurations of the transmitters’ arrangement, several ways of combination of the data from both technologies, and other parameters influencing the accuracy of the stationary localization have been tested.

  15. Geologic map of the Beacon Rock quadrangle, Skamania County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evarts, Russell C.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2017-06-06

    The Beacon Rock 7.5′ quadrangle is located approximately 50 km east of Portland, Oregon, on the north side of the Columbia River Gorge, a scenic canyon carved through the axis of the Cascade Range by the Columbia River. Although approximately 75,000 people live within the gorge, much of the region remains little developed and is encompassed by the 292,500-acre Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, managed by a consortium of government agencies “to pro­tect and provide for the enhancement of the scenic, cultural, recreational and natural resources of the Gorge and to protect and support the economy of the Columbia River Gorge area.” As the only low-elevation corridor through the Cascade Range, the gorge is a critical regional transportation and utilities corridor (Wang and Chaker, 2004). Major state and national highways and rail lines run along both shores of the Columbia River, which also provides important water access to ports in the agricultural interior of the Pacific Northwest. Transmission lines carry power from hydroelectric facilities in the gorge and farther east to the growing urban areas of western Oregon and Washington, and natural-gas pipelines transect the corridor (Wang and Chaker, 2004). These lifelines are highly vulnerable to disruption by earthquakes, landslides, and floods. A major purpose of the work described here is to identify and map geologic hazards, such as faults and landslide-prone areas, to provide more accurate assessments of the risks associated with these features.The steep canyon walls of the map area reveal exten­sive outcrops of Miocene flood-basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group capped by fluvial deposits of the ances­tral Columbia River, Pliocene lavas erupted from the axis of the Cascade arc to the east, and volcanic rocks erupted from numerous local vents. The Columbia River Basalt Group unconformably rests on a sequence of late Oligocene and early Miocene rocks of the ancestral Cascade volcanic arc

  16. ClassBeacons: designing distributed visualization of teachers’ physical proximity in the classroom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, P.; Bakker, S.; Ordanovski, S.; Taconis, R.; Eggen, J.H.

    2018-01-01

    Pengcheng An, Saskia Bakker, Sara Ordanovski, Ruurd Taconis, Berry Eggen. 2018 (accepted at Oct 2017). ClassBeacons: designing distributed visualization of teachers’ physical proximity in the classroom. In Proceedings of Tangible and Embodied Interaction, TEI 2018, Mar 18-21, 2018,

  17. Pedestrian hybrid beacon crosswalk system (PHB) or high-intensity activated crosswalk (HAWK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon Crosswalk (PHB) is a type of traffic control system, used to aid : pedestrians safely crossing the street and to regulate traffic flow. This study examines the : success of the first PHB installed in the state of Vermont....

  18. Beacon satellite studies and modelling of total electron contents of the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to highlight some of the beacon satellite studies, particularly those relating to total electron content (TEC) and scintillations, with special attention to Indian subcontinent observations. The modelling of TEC is described. The scope of new experiments for specific problem is indicated. (author). 78 refs., 12 figs

  19. Improved fixation quality provided by a Bessel beacon in an adaptive optics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Andrew J; Daly, Elizabeth M; Dainty, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    We investigate whether a structured probe beam that creates the beacon for use in a retinal imaging adaptive optics system can provide useful side effects. In particular we investigate whether a Bessel beam that is seen by the subject as a set of concentric rings has a dampening effect on fixation variations of the subject under observation. This calming effect would allow longer periods of observation, particularly for patients with abnormal fixation. An experimental adaptive optics system developed for retinal imaging is used to monitor the fluctuations in aberrations for artificial and human subjects. The probe beam is alternated between a traditional beacon and one provided by a Bessel beam created by SLM. Time-frequency analysis is used to indicate the differences in power and time variation during fixation depending on whether the Bessel beam or the traditional beacon is employed. Comparison is made with the response for an artificial eye to discount systemic variations. Significant evidence is accrued to indicate the reduced fluctuations in fixation when the Bessel beam is employed to create the beacon. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  20. The Effects of a Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacon on Vehicle Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWagner, Michelle; Van Houten, Ron; Betts, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, nearly 31% of vehicle fatalities were related to failure to adhere to safe vehicle speeds (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], 2009). The current study evaluated the effect of a rectangular rapid-flashing beacon (RRFB) triggered by excessive speed on vehicle speed using a combined alternating treatments and reversal…

  1. Beacon-Based Service Publishing Framework in Multiservice Wi-Fi Hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Sorte Dario

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In an expected future multiaccess and multiservice IEEE 802.11 environment, the problem of providing users with useful service-related information to support a correct rapid network selection is expected to become a very important issue. A feasible short-term 802.11-tailored working solution, compliant with existing equipment, is to publish service information encoded within the SSID information element within beacon frames. This makes it possible for an operator to implement service publishing in 802.11 networks while waiting for a standardized mechanism. Also, this straightforward approach has allowed us to evaluate experimentally the performance of a beacon-based service publishing solution. In fact, the main focus of the paper is indeed to present a quantitative comparison of service discovery times between the legacy scenario, where the user is forced to associate and authenticate with a network point of access to check its service offer, and the enhanced scenario where the set of service-related information is broadcasted within beacons. These discovery times are obtained by processing the results of a measurement campaign performed in a multiaccess/service 802.11 environment. This analysis confirms the effectiveness of the beacon-based approach. We also show that the cost in terms of wireless bandwidth consumption of such solution is low.

  2. Application of the BEACON-TSM system to the operation of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J. A.; Mildrum, C.; Serrano, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    BEACON-TSM is an advanced system of the operation support of PWR reactors that combines the capabilities of an advanced nodal neutronic model and the measures of the instrumentation available in plant to determine, accurately and continuously, the distribution of power in the core and the available margins to the limits of the beak factors.

  3. Beacon signal in transcranial color coded ultrasound: A sign for brain death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Topçuoğlu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A widely under-recognized brain-death confirming transcranial ultrasonography pattern resembling the red-blue beacon signal was demonstrated. Familiarity to this distinct and characteristic ultrasonic pattern seems to be important in the perspective of point-of-care neurological ultrasound use and knobology.

  4. Sequential strand displacement beacon for detection of DNA coverage on functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwoda, Rebecca E; Li, Feng; Reid, Michael S; Lin, Yanwen; Le, X Chris

    2014-06-17

    Functionalizing nanomaterials for diverse analytical, biomedical, and therapeutic applications requires determination of surface coverage (or density) of DNA on nanomaterials. We describe a sequential strand displacement beacon assay that is able to quantify specific DNA sequences conjugated or coconjugated onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Unlike the conventional fluorescence assay that requires the target DNA to be fluorescently labeled, the sequential strand displacement beacon method is able to quantify multiple unlabeled DNA oligonucleotides using a single (universal) strand displacement beacon. This unique feature is achieved by introducing two short unlabeled DNA probes for each specific DNA sequence and by performing sequential DNA strand displacement reactions. Varying the relative amounts of the specific DNA sequences and spacing DNA sequences during their coconjugation onto AuNPs results in different densities of the specific DNA on AuNP, ranging from 90 to 230 DNA molecules per AuNP. Results obtained from our sequential strand displacement beacon assay are consistent with those obtained from the conventional fluorescence assays. However, labeling of DNA with some fluorescent dyes, e.g., tetramethylrhodamine, alters DNA density on AuNP. The strand displacement strategy overcomes this problem by obviating direct labeling of the target DNA. This method has broad potential to facilitate more efficient design and characterization of novel multifunctional materials for diverse applications.

  5. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yuanfu; Yu, Dexin; Song, Jun; Zheng, Kun; Guo, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames) produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network.

  6. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfu Mo

    Full Text Available In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET, the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network.

  7. Analysis and Enhancement of IEEE 802.15.4e DSME Beacon Scheduling Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to construct a successful Internet of things (IoT, reliable network construction and maintenance in a sensor domain should be supported. However, IEEE 802.15.4, which is the most representative wireless standard for IoT, still has problems in constructing a large-scale sensor network, such as beacon collision. To overcome some problems in IEEE 802.15.4, the 15.4e task group proposed various different modes of operation. Particularly, the IEEE 802.15.4e deterministic and synchronous multichannel extension (DSME mode presents a novel scheduling model to solve beacon collision problems. However, the DSME model specified in the 15.4e draft does not present a concrete design model but a conceptual abstract model. Therefore, in this paper we introduce a DSME beacon scheduling model and present a concrete design model. Furthermore, validity and performance of DSME are evaluated through experiments. Based on experiment results, we analyze the problems and limitations of DSME, present solutions step by step, and finally propose an enhanced DSME beacon scheduling model. Through additional experiments, we prove the performance superiority of enhanced DSME.

  8. Scheduled MAC in Beacon Overlay Networks for Underwater Localization and Time-Synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleunen, W.A.P.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we introduce a MAC protocol designed for underwater localization and time-synchronisation. The MAC protocol assumes a network of static reference nodes and allows blind nodes to be localized by listening-only to the beacon messages. Such a system is known to be very scalable. We show

  9. Visual detection of STAT5B gene expression in living cell using the hairpin DNA modified gold nanoparticle beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianpeng; Shan, Lingling; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Yang; Zhu, Hongyan; Deng, Dawei; Qian, Zhiyu; Achilefu, Samuel; Gu, Yueqing

    2013-03-15

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B) is an important protein in JAK-STAT signaling pathway that is responsible for the metastasis and proliferation of tumor cells. Determination of the STAT5B messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) relating to the STAT5B expression provides insight into the mechanism of tumor progression. In this study, we designed and used a special hairpin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for human STAT5B mRNA to functionalize gold nanoparticles, which served as a beacon for detecting human STAT5B expression. Up to 90% quenching efficiency was achieved. Upon hybridizing with the target mRNA, the hairpin DNA modified gold nanoparticle beacons (hDAuNP beacons) release the fluorophores attached at 5' end of the oligonucleotide sequence. The fluorescence properties of the beacon before and after the hybridization with the complementary DNA were confirmed in vitro. The stability of hDAuNP beacons against degradation by DNase I and GSH indicated that the prepared beacon is stable inside cells. The detected fluorescence in MCF-7 cancer cells correlates with the specific STAT5B mRNA expression, which is consistent with the result from PCR measurement. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the hDAuNP beacons internalized in cells without using transfection agents, with intracellular distribution in the cytoplasm rather than the nucleus. The results demonstrated that this beacon could directly provide quantitative measurement of the intracellular STAT5B mRNA in living cells. Compared to the previous approaches, this beacon has advantages of higher target to background ratio of detection and an increased resistance to nuclease degradation. The strategy reported in this study is a promising approach for the intracellular measurement of RNA or protein expression in living cells, and has great potential in the study of drug screening and discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Communicating risk information and warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Major advances have occurred over the last 20 years about how to effectively communicate risk information and warnings to the public. These lessons have been hard won. Knowledge has mounted on the finding from social scientific studies of risk communication failures, successes and those which fell somewhere in between. Moreover, the last 2 decades have borne witness to the brith, cultivation, and blossoming of information sharing between those physical scientists who discover new information about risk and those communcation scientists who trace its diffusion and then measure pbulic reaction. 

  11. Impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission

  12. Fast Radio Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akshaya Rane

    2017-09-12

    ) which were first discovered a decade ago. Following an introduction to radio transients in general, including pulsars and rotating radio transients, we discuss the discovery of FRBs. We then discuss FRB follow-up ...

  13. Supplementary Material for: BEACON: automated tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON

    KAUST Repository

    Kalkatawi, Manal M.; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Genome annotation is one way of summarizing the existing knowledge about genomic characteristics of an organism. There has been an increased interest during the last several decades in computer-based structural and functional genome annotation. Many methods for this purpose have been developed for eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Our study focuses on comparison of functional annotations of prokaryotic genomes. To the best of our knowledge there is no fully automated system for detailed comparison of functional genome annotations generated by different annotation methods (AMs). Results The presence of many AMs and development of new ones introduce needs to: a/ compare different annotations for a single genome, and b/ generate annotation by combining individual ones. To address these issues we developed an Automated Tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON (BEACON) that benefits both AM developers and annotation analysers. BEACON provides detailed comparison of gene function annotations of prokaryotic genomes obtained by different AMs and generates extended annotations through combination of individual ones. For the illustration of BEACONâ s utility, we provide a comparison analysis of multiple different annotations generated for four genomes and show on these examples that the extended annotation can increase the number of genes annotated by putative functions up to 27 %, while the number of genes without any function assignment is reduced. Conclusions We developed BEACON, a fast tool for an automated and a systematic comparison of different annotations of single genomes. The extended annotation assigns putative functions to many genes with unknown functions. BEACON is available under GNU General Public License version 3.0 and is accessible at: http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/BEACON/ .

  14. La radio digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Cortés S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La radio digital es un producto de la llamada convergencia digital. Las nuevas tecnologías interconectadas permiten la aparición de nuevos modos de audiencia y la implementación de herramientas versátiles. Habla del problema de los estándares, de la radio satelital, la radio digital terrestre, las radios internacionales, la interactividad.

  15. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  16. Human Response to Emergency Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J.

    2009-12-01

    Almost every day people evacuate from their homes, businesses or other sites, even ships, in response to actual or predicted threats or hazards. Evacuation is the primary protective action utilized in large-scale emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, or wildfires. Although often precautionary, protecting human lives by temporally relocating populations before or during times of threat remains a major emergency management strategy. One of the most formidable challenges facing emergency officials is evacuating residents for a fast-moving and largely unpredictable event such as a wildfire or a local tsunami. How to issue effective warnings to those at risk in time for residents to take appropriate action is an on-going problem. To do so, some communities have instituted advanced communications systems that include reverse telephone call-down systems or other alerting systems to notify at-risk residents of imminent threats. This presentation examines the effectiveness of using reverse telephone call-down systems for warning San Diego residents of wildfires in the October of 2007. This is the first systematic study conducted on this topic and is based on interviews with 1200 households in the evacuation areas.

  17. Ham radio for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, H Ward

    2013-01-01

    An ideal first step for learning about ham radio Beyond operating wirelessly, today's ham radio operators can transmit data and pictures; use the Internet, laser, and microwave transmitters; and travel to places high and low to make contact. This hands-on beginner guide reflects the operational and technical changes to amateur radio over the past decade and provides you with updated licensing requirements and information, changes in digital communication (such as the Internet, social media, and GPS), and how to use e-mail via radio. Addresses the critical use of ham radio for replacing downe

  18. Pictorial warnings on cigarette packets: Effectiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pictorial warnings and their ability to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking among youth in Egypt. Through semi-structured in-depth interviews with a sample of cigarette smokers, the research argues that various social, cultural, and economic factors constrain the effectiveness of pictorial warnings. A key finding is that ...

  19. Radiation warning system in Slovenia (ROSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arh, S.

    1996-01-01

    Recognizing that a radiological accident may have a widespread effect, the Slovenian government has decided to establish an early warning system. The aim of it is to detect any incident (domestic or foreign) involving radioactivity as fast as possible, to initiate appropriate measures, and to give immediate warning to the population

  20. BEACON/MOD: a computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor containments - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadus, C.R.; Doyle, R.J.; James, S.W.; Lime, J.F.; Mings, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    The BEACON code is a best-estimate, advanced containment code designed to perform a best-estimate analysis of the flow of a mixture of air, water, and steam in a nuclear reactor containment system under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The code can simulate two-component, two-phase fluid flow in complex geometries using a combination of two-dimensional, one-dimensional, and lumped-parameter representations for the various parts of the system. The current version of BEACON, which is designated BEACON/MOD3, contains mass and heat transfer models for wall film and wall conduction. It is suitable for the evaluation of short-term transients in dry-containment systems. This manual describes the models employed in BEACON/MOD3 and specifies code implementation requirements. It provides application information for input data preparation and for output data interpretation

  1. BEACON/MOD2A analysis of the Arkansas-1 reactor cavity during a hypothetical hot leg break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsthaler, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    As part of the evaluation of the new MOD2A version of the BEACON code, the Arkansas-1 reactor cavity was modeled during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. Results of the BEACON analysis were compared with results obtained previously with the COMPARE containment code. Studies were also made investigating some of the BEACON interphasic, timestep control, and wall heat transfer options to assure that these models were working properly and to observe their effects on the results. Descriptions of the Arkansas-1 reactor cavity, initial assumptions during the hypothetical LOCA, and methods of modeling with BEACON are presented. Some of the problems encountered in accurately modeling the penetrations surrounding the hot and cold leg pipes are also discussed

  2. Radiography of Spanish Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Rodero Antón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In its eighty years of existence, radio has been always characterized to adapt to the social, cultural and technological transformations. Thus it has been until this moment. Nevertheless, some years ago, the authors and professionals of this medium have been detecting a stagnation that affects to its structure. At a time in continuous technological evolution, radio demands a deep transformation. For that reason, from the conviction of which the future radio, public and commercial, will necessarily have to renew itself, in this paper we establish ten problems and their possible solutions to the radio crisis in order to draw an x-ray of radio in Spain. Radio has future, but it is necessary to work actively by it. That the radio continues being part of sound of our life, it will depend on the work of all: companies, advertisers, professionals, students, investigators and listeners.

  3. Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna

    2014-09-01

    In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Second Harmonic as Millimeter-Wave Beacon Source for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a CW millimeter-wave satellite beacon source, based on the second harmonic from a traveling-wave tube amplifier and utilizes a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler. A potential application of the beacon source is for investigating the atmospheric effects on Q-band (37-42 GHz) and V/W-band (71- 76 GHz) satellite-to-ground signals.

  5. ATTACK WARNING: Costs to Modernize NORAD's Computer System Significantly Understated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cross, F

    1991-01-01

    ...) Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment (ITW/AA) system. These subsystems provide critical strategic surveillance and attack warning and assessment information to United States and Canadian leaders...

  6. Cleavable DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon: A novel efficient signal translator for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pan; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-15

    Due to its unique features such as high sensitivity, homogeneous format, and independence on fluorescent intensity, fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay has become a hotspot of study in oligonucleotide-based bioassays. However, until now most FA probes require carefully customized structure designs, and thus are neither generalizable for different sensing systems nor effective to obtain sufficient signal response. To address this issue, a cleavable DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon was successfully engineered for signal amplified FA bioassay, via combining the unique stable structure of molecular beacon and the large molecular mass of streptavidin. Compared with single DNA strand probe or conventional molecular beacon, the DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon exhibited a much higher FA value, which was potential to obtain high signal-background ratio in sensing process. As proof-of-principle, this novel DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon was further applied for FA bioassay using DNAzyme-Pb(2+) as a model sensing system. This FA assay approach could selectively detect as low as 0.5nM Pb(2+) in buffer solution, and also be successful for real samples analysis with good recovery values. Compatible with most of oligonucleotide probes' designs and enzyme-based signal amplification strategies, the molecular beacon can serve as a novel signal translator to expand the application prospect of FA technology in various bioassays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An intelligent IoT emergency vehicle warning system using RFID and Wi-Fi technologies for emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yeong-Lin; Chou, Yung-Hua; Chang, Li-Chih

    2018-01-01

    Collisions between emergency vehicles for emergency medical services (EMS) and public road users have been a serious problem, impacting on the safety of road users, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and the patients on board. The aim of this study is to develop a novel intelligent emergency vehicle warning system for EMS applications. The intelligent emergency vehicle warning system is developed by Internet of Things (IoT), radio-frequency identification (RFID), and Wi-Fi technologies. The system consists of three major parts: a system trigger tag, an RFID system in an emergency vehicle, and an RFID system at an intersection. The RFID system either in an emergency vehicle or at an intersection contains a controller, an ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) RFID reader module, a Wi-Fi module, and a 2.4-GHz antenna. In addition, a UHF ID antenna is especially designed for the RFID system in an emergency vehicle. The IoT system provides real-time visual warning at an intersection and siren warning from an emergency vehicle in order to effectively inform road users about an emergency vehicle approaching. The developed intelligent IoT emergency vehicle warning system demonstrates the capabilities of real-time visual and siren warnings for EMS safety.

  8. Communication architecture of an early warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angermann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses aspects of communication architecture for early warning systems (EWS in general and gives details of the specific communication architecture of an early warning system against tsunamis. While its sensors are the "eyes and ears" of a warning system and enable the system to sense physical effects, its communication links and terminals are its "nerves and mouth" which transport measurements and estimates within the system and eventually warnings towards the affected population. Designing the communication architecture of an EWS against tsunamis is particularly challenging. Its sensors are typically very heterogeneous and spread several thousand kilometers apart. They are often located in remote areas and belong to different organizations. Similarly, the geographic spread of the potentially affected population is wide. Moreover, a failure to deliver a warning has fatal consequences. Yet, the communication infrastructure is likely to be affected by the disaster itself. Based on an analysis of the criticality, vulnerability and availability of communication means, we describe the design and implementation of a communication system that employs both terrestrial and satellite communication links. We believe that many of the issues we encountered during our work in the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, Rudloff et al., 2009 on the design and implementation communication architecture are also relevant for other types of warning systems. With this article, we intend to share our insights and lessons learned.

  9. Visually Detecting the Variation of miR-301a Expression Using Gold Nanoparticle Beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Kai; Li, Dandan; Li, Changfeng; Zhang, Bin

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that microRNA-301a plays an important role in many diseases, as well as is overexpressed in human colon cancer and affects the process of tumorigenesis. Determination of the miR-301a expression provides insight into the mechanism of tumor progression. In this study, we designed a special hairpin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for miR-301a to functionalize gold nanoparticles, which served as a beacon for detecting miR-301a expression. A-quenching efficiency up to 90% was achieved. The beacon we designed in this study can monitor the precise variation of miR-301a expression in vivo. The strategy reported in this study is a promising approach for the measurement of miRNA in living cells. Moreover, it has a great potential in the study of drug screening and discovery.

  10. Topical MMP beacon enabled fluorescence-guided resection of oral carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Laura; Chen, Juan; Wolter, Nikolaus E.; Wilson, Brian; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Each year almost 300,000 individuals worldwide are diagnosed with oral cancer, more than 90% of these being oral carcinoma [N. Engl. J. Med. 328, 184 19938417385]. Surgical resection is the standard of care, but accurate delineation of the tumor boundaries is challenging, resulting in either under-resection with risk of local recurrence or over-resection with increased functional loss and negative impact on quality of life. This study evaluates, in two pre-clinical in vivo tumor models, the potential of fluorescence-guided resection using molecular beacons activated by metalloproteinases, which are frequently upregulated in human oral cancer. In both models there was rapid (beacon activation upon local application, allowing clear fluoresecence imaging in vivo and confirmed by ex vivo fluorescence microscopy and HPLC, with minimal activation in normal oral tissues. Although the tissue penetration was limited using topical application, these findings support further development of this approach towards translation to first-in-human trials. PMID:27231609

  11. Design of a K/Q-Band Beacon Receiver for the Alphasat TDP#5 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a coherent KQ-band (2040 GHz) beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed at the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) for use in the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload 5 (TDP5) beacon experiment. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation at 40 GHz to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models in the Q-band. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation. The receiver system has been characterized in the lab and demonstrates a system dynamic range performance of better than 58 dB at 1 Hz and better than 48 dB at 10 Hz rates.

  12. Senior radio listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    Radiobroadcasting and the hardware materialization of radio have during the 20th century changed significantly, which means that senior radio listeners have travelled along with this evolution from large, impressive radio furnitures to DAB and small, wireless, mobile devices, and from grave...... and solemn radio voices to lightharted, laughing and chatting speakers. Senior radio listerners have experienced the development and refinements of technique, content and genres. It is now expected of all media users that they are capable of crossing media, combining, juggling and jumping between various...... media platforms, not the least when listening to radio. The elder generation is no exception from this. Recently, for instance, the Danish public broadcast DR has carried out an exodus of programmes targeted for the senior segment. These programmes are removed from regular FM and sent to DAB receivers...

  13. Increased dose near the skin due to electromagnetic surface beacon transponder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kang-Hyun; Manger, Ryan; Halpern, Howard J; Aydogan, Bulent

    2015-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the increased dose near the skin from an electromagnetic surface beacon transponder, which is used for localization and tracking organ motion. The bolus effect due to the copper coil surface beacon was evaluated with radiographic film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Various beam incidence angles were evaluated for both 6 MV and 18 MV experimentally. We performed simulations using a general-purpose Monte Carlo code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle) to supplement the experimental data. We modeled the surface beacon geometry using the actual mass of the glass vial and copper coil placed in its L-shaped polyethylene terephthalate tubing casing. Film dosimetry measured factors of 2.2 and 3.0 enhancement in the surface dose for normally incident 6 MV and 18 MV beams, respectively. Although surface dose further increased with incidence angle, the relative contribution from the bolus effect was reduced at the oblique incidence. The enhancement factors were 1.5 and 1.8 for 6 MV and 18 MV, respectively, at an incidence angle of 60°. Monte Carlo simulation confirmed the experimental results and indicated that the epidermal skin dose can reach approximately 50% of the dose at dmax at normal incidence. The overall effect could be acceptable considering the skin dose enhancement is confined to a small area (~ 1 cm2), and can be further reduced by using an opposite beam technique. Further clinical studies are justified in order to study the dosimetric benefit versus possible cosmetic effects of the surface beacon. One such clinical situation would be intact breast radiation therapy, especially large-breasted women.

  14. Surface-attached molecular beacons light the way for DNA sequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2004), s. 55-58 ISSN 0167-7799 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5004355; GA ČR GA204/03/0566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : molecular beacon * DNA stem-loop structure * DNA sensors Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 8.606, year: 2004

  15. Beacon: A three-dimensional structural analysis code for bowing history of fast breeder reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, K.

    1979-01-01

    The core elements of an LMFBR are bowed due to radial gradients of both temperature and neutron flux in the core. Since all hexagonal elements are multiply supported by adjacent elements or the restraint system, restraint forces and bending stresses are induced. In turn, these forces and stresses are relaxed by irradiation enhanced creep of the material. The analysis of the core bowing behavior requires a three-dimensional consideration of the mechanical interactions among the core elements, because the core consists of different kinds of elements and of fuel assemblies with various burnup histories. A new computational code BEACON has been developed for analyzing the bowing behavior of an LMFBR's core in three dimensions. To evaluate mechanical interactions among core elements, the code uses the analytical method of the earlier SHADOW code. BEACON analyzes the mechanical interactions in three directions, which form angles of 60 0 with one another. BEACON is applied to the 60 0 sector of a typical LMFBR's core for analyzing the bowing history during one equilibrium cycle. 120 core elements are treated, assuming the boundary condition of rotational symmetry. The application confirms that the code can be an effective tool for parametric studies as well as for detailed structural analysis of LMFBR's core. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic resonance beacon to detect intracellular microRNA during neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Jin, Yeon A; Ko, Hae Young; Lee, Yong Seung; Heo, Hyejung; Cho, Sujeong; Kim, Soonhag

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers great spatial resolution for viewing deep tissues and anatomy. We developed a self-assembling signal-on magnetic fluorescence nanoparticle to visualize intracellular microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) during neurogenesis using MRI. The self-assembling nanoparticle (miR124a MR beacon) was aggregated by the incubation of three different oligonucleotides: a 3' adaptor, a 5' adaptor, and a linker containing miR124a-binding sequences. The T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) signal of the self-assembled nanoparticle was quenched when miR124a was absent from test tubes or was minimally expressed in cells and tissues. When miR124a was present in test tubes or highly expressed in vitro and in vivo during P19 cell neurogenesis, it hybridized with the miR124a MR beacon, causing the linker to detach, resulting in increased signal-on MRI intensity. This MR beacon can be used as a new imaging probe to monitor the miRNA-mediated regulation of cellular processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Microfluidic Love-Wave Biosensing Device for PSA Detection Based on an Aptamer Beacon Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Shuangming; Cao, Kang; Wang, Pengjuan; Su, Yan; Zhu, Xinhua; Wan, Ying

    2015-06-11

    A label-free and selective aptamer beacon-based Love-wave biosensing device was developed for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection. The device consists of the following parts: LiTaO3 substrate with SiO2 film as wave guide layer, two set of inter-digital transducers (IDT), gold film for immobilization of the biorecongniton layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels. DNA aptamer, or "artificial antibody", was used as the specific biorecognition probe for PSA capture. Some nucleotides were added to the 3'-end of the aptamer to form a duplex with the 3'-end, turning the aptamer into an aptamer-beacon. Taking advantage of the selective target-induced assembly changes arising from the "aptamer beacon", highly selective and specific detection of PSA was achieved. Furthermore, PDMS microfluidic channels were designed and fabricated to realize automated quantitative sample injection. After optimization of the experimental conditions, the established device showed good performance for PSA detection between 10 ng/mL to 1 μg/mL, with a detection limit of 10 ng/mL. The proposed sensor might be a promising alternative for point of care diagnostics.

  18. Sparse Localization with a Mobile Beacon Based on LU Decomposition in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Node localization is the core in wireless sensor network. It can be solved by powerful beacons, which are equipped with global positioning system devices to know their location information. In this article, we present a novel sparse localization approach with a mobile beacon based on LU decomposition. Our scheme firstly translates node localization problem into a 1-sparse vector recovery problem by establishing sparse localization model. Then, LU decomposition pre-processing is adopted to solve the problem that measurement matrix does not meet the re¬stricted isometry property. Later, the 1-sparse vector can be exactly recovered by compressive sensing. Finally, as the 1-sparse vector is approximate sparse, weighted Cen¬troid scheme is introduced to accurately locate the node. Simulation and analysis show that our scheme has better localization performance and lower requirement for the mobile beacon than MAP+GC, MAP-M, and MAP-MN schemes. In addition, the obstacles and DOI have little effect on the novel scheme, and it has great localization performance under low SNR, thus, the scheme proposed is robust.

  19. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  20. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  1. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... see the boxed section below for more advice. Stem Cell Uses and FDA Regulation The FDA has the ...

  2. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  3. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  4. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  5. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  6. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  7. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  8. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  9. Caltrans fog detection and warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has implemented a fog detection and warning system on Highway 99 near Fresno. The entire central valley region is susceptible to Tule fog, which can reduce visibility tremendously, sometimes to n...

  10. Radio Astronomers Get Their First Glimpse of Powerful Solar Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    expanding set of loops similar to the loops seen at visible wavelengths. The radio loops, astronomers believe, indicate regions where electrons are being accelerated to nearly the speed of light at about the time the ejection process is getting started. The same ejection observed by the radio telescope also was observed by orbiting solar telescopes. Depending on what later radio observations show, the solar studies may reveal new insights into the physics of other astronomical phenomena. For example, shocks in the corona and the interplanetary medium accelerate electrons and ions, a process believed to occur in supernova remnants - the expanding debris from stellar explosions. The electrons also may be accelerated by processes associated with magnetic reconnection, a process that occurs in the Earth's magnetosphere. "The Sun is an excellent physics laboratory, and what it teaches us can then help us understand other astrophysical phenomena in the universe," Bastian said. The radio detection of a coronal mass ejection also means that warning of the potentially dangerous effects of these events could come from ground-based radio telescopes, rather than more-expensive orbiting observatories. "With solar radio telescopes strategically placed at three or four locations around the world, coronal mass ejections could be detected 24 hours a day to provide advance warning," Bastian said. The Nancay station for radio astronomy is a facility of the Paris Observatory. The Nancay Radioheliograph is funded by the French Ministry of Education, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and by the Region Centre. This research has also been supported by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  11. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-10-28

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Structure health assessment and warning system (SHAWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Daniel M.; Kim, Keehoon; Mapar, Jalal

    2008-03-01

    We are developing a Structure Health Assessment and Warning System (SHAWS) based on building displacement measurements and wireless communication. SHAWS will measure and predict the stability/instability of a building, determine whether it is safe for emergency responders to enter during an emergency, and provide individual warnings on the condition of the structure. SHAWS incorporates remote sensing nodes (RSNs) installed on the exterior frame of a building. Each RSN includes a temperature sensor, a three-axis accelerometer making static-acceleration measurements, and a ZigBee wireless system (IEEE 802.15.4). The RSNs will be deployed remotely using an air cannon delivery system, with each RSN having an innovative adhesive structure for fast (<10 min) and strong installation under emergency conditions. Once the building has moved past a threshold (~0.25 in./building story), a warning will be issued to emergency responders. In addition to the RSNs, SHAWS will include a base station located on an emergency responder's primary vehicle, a PDA for mobile data display to guide responders, and individual warning modules that can be worn by each responder. The individual warning modules will include visual and audio indicators with a ZigBee receiver to provide the proper degree of warning to each responder.

  13. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-01-01

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. PMID:26392620

  14. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the ...

  15. Writing for Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Marianna S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a 24-hour commercial radio station simulation class project for eighth-grade language arts. Students wrote their own scripts, chose music and were disc jockeys on their own music and talk shows, and prepared news and traffic reports. Guest speakers from actual commercial radio came in to discuss issues such as advertising, censorship,…

  16. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence

  17. The Radio Jove Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

  18. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  19. Microminiature radio frequency transmitter for communication and tracking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Richard I.; Emery, Mike S.; Falter, Kelly G.; Nowlin, C. H.; Rochelle, Jim M.; Clonts, Lloyd G.

    1997-02-01

    A micro-miniature radio frequency (rf) transmitter has been developed and demonstrated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objective of the rf transmitter development was to maximize the transmission distance while drastically shrinking the overall transmitter size, including antenna. Based on analysis and testing, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with a 16-GHz gallium arsenide (GaAs) oscillator and integrated on-chip antenna was designed and fabricated using microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) technology. Details of the development and the results of various field tests are discussed. The rf transmitter is applicable to covert surveillance and tracking scenarios due to its small size of 2.2 multiplied by 2.2 mm, including the antenna. Additionally, the 16-GHz frequency is well above the operational range of consumer-grade radio scanners, providing a degree of protection from unauthorized interception. Variations of the transmitter design have been demonstrated for tracking and tagging beacons, transmission of digital data, and transmission of real-time analog video from a surveillance camera. Preliminary laboratory measurements indicate adaptability to direct-sequence spread-spectrum transmission, providing a low probability of intercept and/or detection. Concepts related to law enforcement applications are presented.

  20. Portable Integrated Wireless Device Threat Assessment to Aircraft Radio Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salud, Maria Theresa P.; Williams, Reuben A. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    An assessment was conducted on multiple wireless local area network (WLAN) devices using the three wireless standards for spurious radiated emissions to determine their threat to aircraft radio navigation systems. The measurement process, data and analysis are provided for devices tested using IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, and Bluetooth as well as data from portable laptops/tablet PCs and PDAs (grouping known as PEDs). A comparison was made between wireless LAN devices and portable electronic devices. Spurious radiated emissions were investigated in the radio frequency bands for the following aircraft systems: Instrument Landing System Localizer and Glideslope, Very High Frequency (VHF) Communication, VHF Omnidirectional Range, Traffic Collision Avoidance System, Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System, Microwave Landing System and Global Positioning System. Since several of the contiguous navigation systems were grouped under one encompassing measurement frequency band, there were five measurement frequency bands where spurious radiated emissions data were collected for the PEDs and WLAN devices. The report also provides a comparison between emissions data and regulatory emission limit.

  1. Instructors' Use of Trigger Warnings and Behavior Warnings in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A.; Wells, Anna Mae; Dawson, Kaylee J.

    2016-01-01

    College students have been increasingly demanding warnings and accommodations in relation to course topics they believe will elicit strong, negative emotions. These "trigger warnings" are highly relevant to Abnormal Psychology because of the sensitive topics covered in the course (e.g., suicide, trauma, sex). A survey of Abnormal…

  2. Surveillance technology for HIV-1 subtype C in Ethiopia: an env-based NASBA molecular beacon assay to discriminate between subcluster C and C'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayele, Workenesh; Baar, Michel P. de; Goudsmit, Jaap; Kliphuis, Aletta; Tilahun, Tesfaye; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Wolday, Dawit; Abebe, Almaz; Mengistu, Yohannes; Pollakis, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Forty-nine samples with known C2V3 sequences were used for the evaluation of an env-based molecular beacon assay to distinguish between the two genetic subclusters C and C' which characterize the HIV-1 epidemic in Ethiopia. Two subcluster C and two subcluster C' beacons targeting two different loci

  3. Unlocking radio broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Lykke, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This poster reports the preliminary results of a user study uncovering the information seeking behaviour of humanities scholars dedicated to radio research. The study is part of an interdisciplinary research project on radio culture and auditory resources. The purpose of the study is to inform...... the design of information architecture and interaction design of a research infrastructure that will enable future radio and audio based research. Results from a questionnaire survey on humanities scholars‟ research interest and information needs, preferred access points, and indexing levels are reported....... Finally, a flexible metadata schema is suggested, that includes both general metadata and highly media and research project specific metadata....

  4. Radio y elecciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa Alva de la Selva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el comportamiento de la radio en México ante la contienda electoral de julio de 2000. Se examina el papel de la radio como espacio para la discusión política, así como el tratamiento informativo que hizo del tema. Asimismo, se analiza la posible repercusión de factores de reciente surgimiento en el panorama radiofónico para un manejo más autónomo de la información política en la radio

  5. Environment Agency England flood warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Chris; Walters, Mark; Haynes, Elizabeth; Dobson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Context In England around 5 million homes are at risk of flooding. We invest significantly in flood prevention and management schemes but we can never prevent all flooding. Early alerting systems are fundamental to helping us reduce the impacts of flooding. The Environment Agency has had the responsibility for flood warning since 1996. In 2006 we invested in a new dissemination system that would send direct messages to pre-identified recipients via a range of channels. Since then we have continuously improved the system and service we offer. In 2010 we introduced an 'opt-out' service where we pre-registered landline numbers in flood risk areas, significantly increasing the customer base. The service has performed exceptionally well under intense flood conditions. Over a period of 3 days in December 2013, when England was experiencing an east coast storm surge, the system sent nearly 350,000 telephone messages, 85,000 emails and 70,000 text messages, with a peak call rate of around 37,000 per hour and 100% availability. The Floodline Warnings Direct (FWD) System FWD provides warnings in advance of flooding so that people at risk and responders can take action to minimise the impact of the flood. Warnings are sent via telephone, fax, text message, pager or e-mail to over 1.1 million properties located within flood risk areas in England. Triggers for issuing alerts and warnings include attained and forecast river levels and rainfall in some rapidly responding locations. There are three levels of warning: Flood Alert, Flood Warning and Severe Flood Warning, and a stand down message. The warnings can be updated to include relevant information to help inform those at risk. Working with our current provider Fujitsu, the system is under a programme of continuous improvement including expanding the 'opt-out' service to mobile phone numbers registered to at risk addresses, allowing mobile registration to the system for people 'on the move' and providing access to

  6. Tsunami early warning and decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Steinmetz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS. The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind – it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010. While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG – the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia – which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen

  7. Molecular beacon probes-base multiplex NASBA Real-time for detection of HIV-1 and HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Yeganeh, S; Paryan, M; Mirab Samiee, S; Kia, V; Rezvan, H

    2012-06-01

    Developed in 1991, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) has been introduced as a rapid molecular diagnostic technique, where it has been shown to give quicker results than PCR, and it can also be more sensitive. This paper describes the development of a molecular beacon-based multiplex NASBA assay for simultaneous detection of HIV-1 and HCV in plasma samples. A well-conserved region in the HIV-1 pol gene and 5'-NCR of HCV genome were used for primers and molecular beacon design. The performance features of HCV/HIV-1 multiplex NASBA assay including analytical sensitivity and specificity, clinical sensitivity and clinical specificity were evaluated. The analysis of scalar concentrations of the samples indicated that the limit of quantification of the assay was beacon probes detected all HCV genotypes and all major variants of HIV-1. This method may represent a relatively inexpensive isothermal method for detection of HIV-1/HCV co-infection in monitoring of patients.

  8. Design and Validation of Affective Warning Pictorial on Cigarette Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanduen Pat-Arin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study were to design and validate affective warning pictorials for cigarette label in Thailand. Brainstorming and survey techniques were used to collect the idea of possible warning pictorials. All ideas were grouped for finding candidated pictorials. Then, primary sixty warning pictorials were collected and equally classified into three affective warning pictorial groups as positive, neutral, and negative. Sixty Thai male engineering students participated in affective validation of warning pictorials using SAM rating. The International Affective Picture System (IAPS was used to manipulate the affective state of participants to neutral affective state before the experiments. The results revealed that all affective warning pictorials were successfully evoked target affective states on participants. After refining, thirty affective warning pictorials were provided as positive, neutral, and negative affective warning pictorials for using on cigarette labels. Implications on the affective warning pictorials design and validation.

  9. Creating a Connected Community: Lessons Learned from the Western New York Beacon Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Nancy; Heider, Arvela R.; Rockwood, Amy; Singh, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Secure exchange of clinical data among providers has the potential to improve quality, safety, efficiency, and reduce duplication. Many communities are experiencing challenges in building effective health information exchanges (HIEs). Previous studies have focused on financial and technical issues regarding HIE development. This paper describes the Western New York (WNY) HIE growth and lessons learned about accelerating progress to become a highly connected community. Methods: HEALTHeLINK, with funding from the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) under the Beacon Community Program, expanded HIE usage in eight counties. The communitywide transformation process used three main drivers: (1) a communitywide Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption program; (2) clinical transformation partners; and (3) HIE outreach and infrastructure development. Results: ONC Beacon Community funding allowed WNY to achieve a new level in the use of interoperable HIE. Electronic delivery of results into the EHR expanded from 23 practices in 2010 to 222 practices in 2013, a tenfold increase. There were more than 12.5 million results delivered electronically (HL7 messages) to 222 practices’ EHRs via the HIE in 2013. Use of a secure portal and Virtual Health Record (VHR) to access reports (those not delivered directly to the EHR) also increased significantly, from 13,344 report views in 2010 to over 600,000 in 2013. Discussion and Conclusion: The WNY Beacon successfully expanded the sharing of clinical information among different sources of data and providers, creating a highly connected community to improve the quality and continuity of care. Technical, organizational, and community lessons described in this paper should prove beneficial to others as they pursue efforts to create connected communities. PMID:25848618

  10. Making it local: Beacon Communities use health information technology to optimize care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Amy; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Heider, Arvela; Kanger, Chatrian R; Lobach, David F; McWilliams, Lee; Polello, Jennifer M; Rein, Alison L; Schachter, Abigail A; Singh, Ranjit; Sorondo, Barbara; Tulikangas, Megan C; Turske, Scott A

    2014-06-01

    Care management aims to provide cost-effective, coordinated, non-duplicative care to improve care quality, population health, and reduce costs. The 17 communities receiving funding from the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology through the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program are leaders in building and strengthening their health information technology (health IT) infrastructure to provide more effective and efficient care management. This article profiles 6 Beacon Communities' health IT-enabled care management programs, highlighting the influence of local context on program strategy and design, and describing challenges, lessons learned, and policy implications for care delivery and payment reform. The unique needs (eg, disease burden, demographics), community partnerships, and existing resources and infrastructure all exerted significant influence on the overall priorities and design of each community's care management program. Though each Beacon Community needed to engage in a similar set of care management tasks--including patient identification, stratification, and prioritization; intervention; patient engagement; and evaluation--the contextual factors helped shape the specific strategies and tools used to carry out these tasks and achieve their objectives. Although providers across the country are striving to deliver standardized, high-quality care, the diverse contexts in which this care is delivered significantly influence the priorities, strategies, and design of community-based care management interventions. Gaps and challenges in implementing effective community-based care management programs include: optimizing allocation of care management services; lack of available technology tailored to care management needs; lack of standards and interoperability; integrating care management into care settings; evaluating impact; and funding and sustainability.

  11. A distance-dependent metal-enhanced fluorescence sensing platform based on molecular beacon design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenpeng; Huang, Hongduan; Chen, Yang; Liu, Feng; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Li, Na

    2014-02-15

    A new metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) based platform was developed on the basis of distance-dependent fluorescence quenching-enhancement effect, which combined the easiness of Ag-thiol chemistry with the MEF property of noble-metal structures as well as the molecular beacon design. For the given sized AgNPs, the fluorescence enhancement factor was found to increase with a d(6) dependency in agreement with fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism at shorter distance and decrease with a d(-3) dependency in agreement with plasmonic enhancement mechanism at longer distance between the fluorophore and the AgNP surface. As a proof of concept, the platform was demonstrated by a sensitive detection of mercuric ions, using thymine-containing molecular beacon to tune silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-enhanced fluorescence. Mercuric ions were detected via formation of a thymine-mercuric-thymine structure to open the hairpin, facilitating fluorescence recovery and AgNP enhancement to yield a limit of detection of 1 nM, which is well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation of the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (10nM) in drinking water. Since the AgNP functioned as not only a quencher to reduce the reagent blank signal but also an enhancement substrate to increase fluorescence of the open hairpin when target mercuric ions were present, the quenching-enhancement strategy can greatly improve the detection sensitivity and can in principle be a universal approach for various targets when combined with molecular beacon design. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance of the NASA Beacon Receiver for the Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP5 Propagation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Riva, Carlo; Luini, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have initiated a joint propagation campaign within the framework of the Alphasat propagation experiment to characterize rain attenuation, scintillation, and gaseous absorption effects of the atmosphere in the 40 gigahertz band. NASA GRC has developed and installed a K/Q-band (20/40 gigahertz) beacon receiver at the POLIMI campus in Milan, Italy, which receives the 20/40 gigahertz signals broadcast from the Alphasat Aldo Paraboni Technology Demonstration Payload (TDP) no. 5 beacon payload. The primary goal of these measurements is to develop a physical model to improve predictions of communications systems performance within the Q-band. Herein, we describe the design and preliminary performance of the NASA propagation terminal, which has been installed and operating in Milan since June 2014. The receiver is based upon a validated Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) I/Q digital design approach utilized in other operational NASA propagation terminals, but has been modified to employ power measurement via a frequency estimation technique and to coherently track and measure the amplitude of the 20/40 gigahertz beacon signals. The system consists of a 1.2-meter K-band and a 0.6-meter Q-band Cassegrain reflector employing synchronous open-loop tracking to track the inclined orbit of the Alphasat satellite. An 8 hertz sampling rate is implemented to characterize scintillation effects, with a 1-hertz measurement bandwidth dynamic range of 45 decibels. A weather station with an optical disdrometer is also installed to characterize rain drop size distribution for correlation with physical based models.

  13. Preliminary Results of the NASA Beacon Receiver for Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP5 Propagation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Riva, Carlo; Luini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have initiated a joint propagation campaign within the framework of the Alphasat propagation experiment to characterize rain attenuation, scintillation, and gaseous absorption effects of the atmosphere in the 40 GHz band. NASA GRC has developed and installed a K/Q-band (20/40 GHz) beacon receiver at the POLIMI campus in Milan, Italy, which receives the 20/40 GHz signals broadcast from the Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP#5 beacon payload. The primary goal of these measurements is to develop a physical model to improve predictions of communications systems performance within the Q-band. Herein, we describe the design and preliminary performance of the NASA propagation terminal, which has been installed and operating in Milan since May 2014. The receiver is based upon a validated Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) I/Q digital design approach utilized in other operational NASA propagation terminals, but has been modified to employ power measurement via a frequency estimation technique and to coherently track and measure the amplitude of the 20/40 GHz beacon signals. The system consists of a 1.2-m K-band and a 0.6-m Qband Cassegrain reflector employing synchronous open-loop tracking to track the inclined orbit of the Alphasat satellite. An 8 Hz sampling rate is implemented to characterize scintillation effects, with a 1-Hz measurement bandwidth dynamic range of 45 dB. A weather station with an optical disdrometer is also installed to characterize rain drop size distribution for correlation with physical based models.

  14. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  15. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    del tiempo incluido. Si eres quieres ser avisado de las advertencias y relojes de día o de noche, un Weather Radio relojes son independientes o basadas en el Condado (parroquia basados en Luisiana), aunque

  16. The digital sport radio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario José ROMERO BEJARANO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio has been immersed in recent years in a phase of technological integration and business of multimedia, as well as diversification of systems and channels for broadcasting. In addition, Internet has been consolidated as the platform of digital radio that more has evolved as a result of its continued expansion. However, the merger radio-Internet must be understood as a new form of communication, and not solely as a new complementary medium. In this context, it is of great interest to analyze that transformations in the way of reception, contents, languages, programs and schedules, has brought with it for the radio that integration. To this end is taken as main reference the sports areas, a key aspect and broadly representative of the current broadcasting landscape.

  17. Music, radio and mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Morten; Krogh, Mads

    2016-01-01

    of mediatization where media as such seem to be ascribed agency. Instead, we consider historical accounts of music–radio in order to address the complex nonlinearity of concrete processes of mediatization as they take place in the multiple meetings between a decentred notion of radio and musical life.......Mediatization has become a key concept for understanding the relations between media and other cultural and social fields. Contributing to the discussions related to the concept of mediatization, this article discusses how practices of radio and music(al life) influence each other. We follow Deacon......’s and Stanyer’s advice to supplement the concept of mediatization with ‘a series of additional concepts at lower levels of abstraction’ and suggest, in this respect, the notion of heterogeneous milieus of music–radio. Hereby, we turn away from the all-encompassing perspectives related to the concept...

  18. ITSY Handheld Software Radio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bose, Vanu

    2001-01-01

    .... A handheld software radio platform would enable the construction of devices that could inter-operate with multiple legacy systems, download new waveforms and be used to construct adhoc networks...

  19. Structure in radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breugel, W. van.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that radio jets are a rather common phenomenon in radio galaxies. Jets can be disguised as trails in head-tail sources, bridges in double sources or simply remain undetected because of lack of resolution and sensitivity. It is natural to associate these jets with the channels which had previously been suggested to supply energy to the extended radio lobes. The observations of optical emission suggest that a continuous non-thermal spectrum extending from 10 9 to 10 15 Hz is a common property of jets. Because significant amounts of interstellar matter are also observed in each of the galaxies surveyed it seems that models for jets which involve an interaction with this medium may be most appropriate. New information about the overall structure of extended radio sources has been obtained from the detailed multifrequency study with the WSRT. (Auth.)

  20. The use of low frequency HF beacons to derive layer shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heron, M.L.; Davies, K.

    1978-01-01

    The ATS-6 with its coherent multifrequency channels and various calibrations has brought the technology of beacon experiments to the point where the experimental accuracy exceeds that of some of the approximations used to derive total electron content. For example, the magnetic field term in the Faraday rotation experiment used to be given a mean value corresponding to about 50 km above the F layer peak. Another quantity that depends on profile shape is also available with present experiment, namely the refraction or second order term for carrier phase, modulation phase, or Faraday rotation. Some theoretical and experimental results are presented on these problems

  1. Developing children’s palliative care in Africa through beacon centres: lessons learnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Much progress has been made in the provision of palliative care across sub-Saharan Africa, however much still remains to be done, particularly in the area of children’s palliative care (CPC). The Beacon Centres programme was set up in 2009, aimed at improving access to CPC in South Africa, Uganda and Tanzania through more and better-trained health professionals and CPC clinical services of a high standard. Having identified sites in each country to develop into CPC Beacon Centres, Navigators were identified who would be the ‘champions’ for CPC in those sites and lead a programme of training, mentorship and support. Five navigators (2 in Uganda and Tanzania and 1 in South Africa) were trained between September and December 2009. Following this they undertook CPC needs assessments at the 3 centres and set up and delivered a six-month CPC training programme, providing mentorship and support to students to enable them to integrate CPC into their workplaces. To date, 188 participants have commenced the six-month course, with 80 having completed it. CPC has been integrated into the activities of the centres and a CPC virtual resource centre set up in South Africa. The achievements from the Beacon project have been great and the work of the navigators immense, but as in all projects it has not been without its challenges. Lessons learnt include issues around: the focus of the project; the length and nature of the training; assessment; accreditation; the choice of navigators; mentoring; administrative support; co-ordination; the choice of project sites; and the integration of CPC into services. The need for CPC is not going to go away and it is therefore important that models of scaling-up are found that are not only practical, feasible, affordable and sustainable, but that focus on the outcome of improved CPC for all those who need it. It is hoped that the lessons shared from the Beacon Project will help in developing and implementing such models. PMID:23419095

  2. Controlling the signal: Practical privacy protection of genomic data sharing through Beacon services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhiyu; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley

    2017-07-26

    Genomic data is increasingly collected by a wide array of organizations. As such, there is a growing demand to make summary information about such collections available more widely. However, over the past decade, a series of investigations have shown that attacks, rooted in statistical inference methods, can be applied to discern the presence of a known individual's DNA sequence in the pool of subjects. Recently, it was shown that the Beacon Project of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, a web service for querying about the presence (or absence) of a specific allele, was vulnerable. The Integrating Data for Analysis, Anonymization, and Sharing (iDASH) Center modeled a track in their third Privacy Protection Challenge on how to mitigate the Beacon vulnerability. We developed the winning solution for this track. This paper describes our computational method to optimize the tradeoff between the utility and the privacy of the Beacon service. We generalize the genomic data sharing problem beyond that which was introduced in the iDASH Challenge to be more representative of real world scenarios to allow for a more comprehensive evaluation. We then conduct a sensitivity analysis of our method with respect to several state-of-the-art methods using a dataset of 400,000 positions in Chromosome 10 for 500 individuals from Phase 3 of the 1000 Genomes Project. All methods are evaluated for utility, privacy and efficiency. Our method achieves better performance than all state-of-the-art methods, irrespective of how key factors (e.g., the allele frequency in the population, the size of the pool and utility weights) change from the original parameters of the problem. We further illustrate that it is possible for our method to exhibit subpar performance under special cases of allele query sequences. However, we show our method can be extended to address this issue when the query sequence is fixed and known a priori to the data custodian, so that they may plan stage their

  3. The Southeastern Minnesota Beacon Project for Community-driven Health Information Technology: Origins, Achievements, and Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, Christopher G; Hart, Lacey A; Alexander, Alex K; Jensen, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    The Southeastern (SE) Minnesota Beacon organized all the health care providers, county public health organizations, and school districts in the deployment and integration of health information exchange (HIE) and targeted health communication around childhood asthma and diabetes. The community cooperated to establish a clinical data repository for all residents in the 11-county region. Through this community of practice approach that involved traditional and nontraditional providers, the SE Minnesota Beacon was able to realize unique applications of this technology. This manuscript overviews the associated organization and infrastructure of this community collaboration. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) stimulus, established 17 projects throughout the United States targeting the introduction and meaningful use of health information technology (HIT). These 17 communities were intended to serve as an example of what could be accomplished. The SE Minnesota Beacon is one of these communities. The community ultimately opted for peer-to-peer HIE, using Nationwide Health Information Network (NwHIN) Connect software. The clinical data repository was established using the infrastructure developed by the Regenstrief Institute, which operated as a trusted third party. As an extension to HIE, the consortium of county public health departments created a patient data portal for use by school nurses and parents. Childhood asthma was addressed by creating, exchanging, and maintaining an "asthma action plan" for each affected child, shared throughout the community, including through the patient portal. Diabetes management introduced patient treatment decision tools and patient quality of life measures, facilitating care. Influenza vaccination was enhanced by large-scale community reporting in partnership with the state vaccination registry. The methodology and

  4. Enzymatic Amplification of DNA/RNA Hybrid Molecular Beacon Signaling in Nucleic Acid Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jacroux, Thomas; Rieck, Daniel C.; Cui, Rong; Ouyang, Yexin; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2012-01-01

    A rapid assay operable under isothermal or non-isothermal conditions is described wherein the sensitivity of a typical molecular beacon (MB) system is improved by utilizing thermostable RNase H to enzymatically cleave an MB comprised of a DNA stem and RNA loop (R/D-MB). Upon hybridization of the R/D-MB to target DNA, there was a modest increase in fluorescence intensity (~5.7x above background) due to an opening of the probe and concomitant reduction in the Förster resonance energy transfer e...

  5. In situ exposure to non-directional beacons for air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

    2012-04-01

    In situ electromagnetic field exposure of workers and the general public due to non-directional beacons (NDB) for air traffic control is assessed and characterized. For occupational exposure, the maximal measured electric field value is 881.6 V/m and the maximal magnetic field value is 9.1 A/m. The maximum electric fields exceed the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels at all seven NDB sites, and the magnetic fields at two of the seven NDB sites (occupational exposure). Recommendations and compliance distances for workers and the general public are provided. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Observability analysis of 2D single-beacon navigation in the presence of constant currents for two classes of maneuvers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Crasta, N.; Bayat, M.; Aguiar, A.P.; Pascoal, A.M.

    . In particular, xc = 0 represents a circular motion about the beacon with radius v ω−1. The following result characterizes set of indistinguishable states for the system (5.1)-(5.2) subject to input class Ucir. Proposition 5.6. Consider the system (5...) = npi + 0.5 (−1)n pi, n ∈ Z. Notice also that under this condition the motion is a circular motion around the beacon. The following corollary follows from propositions 5.3 and 5.6. Corollary 5.8. Consider x0 ∈ M. Then (4.1)-(4.2) is observable...

  7. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  8. ¿Radios ciudadanas?

    OpenAIRE

    López Vigil, José Ignacio

    1998-01-01

    Educativas, sindicales, populares, comunitarias, libres, rebeldes, participativas, alternativas, alterativas, han sido las denominaciones de la radio cuando su proyecto está al servicio de la gente. Palabras apropiadas y nobles -dice elautor-pero devaluadas, a las que ahora se agrega la radio ciudadana, para relievarla como ejercicio depoder y espacio de verdadera participación de la genteenla vida de su nación.

  9. Emergency warning for people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkovich, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The intent of this article is to assess the current state of Emergency Warning capabilities in the United States and make recommendations on what needs to be done to cost effectively establish a National Emergency Warning System to best serve the people of the United States, including those with disabilities. As part of this assessment, terminology will be defined, existing systems will be examined, critical needs and functions will be explained, and recommendations made for a system to deliver emergency messages to those people immediately at risk from natural and human-caused disasters in a timely and effective manner, regardless of location or situational circumstance. The assessment will include the needs and available technologies for delivering emergency warnings to people with disabilities, which are generally little understood, poorly addressed, and often ignored.

  10. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  11. A new French flash flood warning service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Saint-Aubin Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The French State services in charge of flood forecasting supervise about 22,000 km among the 120,000 km of the French rivers within a warning procedure called Vigilance Crues (http://www.vigicrues.gouv.fr. Some recent dramatic flood events on small watershed not covered by Vigilance Crues highlight the need for a new warning procedure to anticipate violent flash floods that regularly affect rapid river-basins. Thus the concept emerged of an automatic warning service specifically dedicated to local crisis managers. This service will be less elaborated than Vigilance Crues, probably with false alarms and missed events sometimes, but it will deliver a first information. The generation of the warning is based on a simple rainfall-runoff hydrological model developed by Irstea on all French rivers, fed with radar-gauge rainfall grids provided by Meteo-France. Every fifteen minutes, the hydrological model estimates the discharges on the rivers eligible to the service and determine if certain thresholds corresponding to a high or very high flood are likely to be exceeded. The last step of the real-time system is to determine which municipalities are concerned with flood risk and send them an automatic warning by voice call, optionally by sms or email. A specific web interface is available for users to monitor the evolution of the flood risk on maps that are updated every 15 minutes. This new flash flood warning service will be operational early 2017 as a free service for about 8,000 French municipalities.

  12. Forecasting, Warning and Responding to Transnational Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , but are also sensitive to differences between actors and types of risk. The overall thrust is to challenge both technocratic and popularised accounts of the warning-response problem. Successful prevention or mitigation involves difficult cognitive, normative and political judgements. Whilst these difficulties...... areas to conceptualise and empirically study the interlinked problems of forecasting, warning and mobilising preventive action. Contributors comment on key problems such as uncertainty, silo-mentality, spotting weak-signals, cultures of blame, conflicts of interest and divergent risk perceptions...

  13. Recasting the warning-response problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C.O.; Otto, F.; Brante, J.

    2010-01-01

    , accepted, prioritized and responded to by policy-makers. This has led to a simplistic understanding of how communicative, cognitive and political processes involving a range of actors can influence both the perception as well as the response to warnings. The paper also criticizes that many normative...... judgments about the desirability of preventive action are suffering from hindsight bias and insufficient attention to balancing problems related to risk substitution, opportunity costs and moral hazard. In response to these deficits, the paper puts forward a modified model of warning as a persuasive process...

  14. Sensors Provide Early Warning of Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Early Warning Inc. of Troy, New York, licensed powerful biosensor technology from Ames Research Center. Incorporating carbon nanotubes tipped with single strands of nucleic acid from waterborne pathogens, the sensor can detect even minute amounts of targeted, disease causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Early Warning features the NASA biosensor in its water analyzer, which can provide advance alert of potential biological hazards in water used for agriculture, food and beverages, showers, and at beaches and lakes -- within hours instead of the days required by conventional laboratory methods.

  15. An Infrastructure for a Traffic Warning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2005-01-01

    The LIWAS Trafc Warning System aims at providingearly warning to vehicles about road conditions, such aswhether the road is slippery. The LIWAS system is currentlybeing developed and consists of two main parts:sensors for determining the state of the road and a communicationinfrastructure...... supporting inter-vehicle communication.This paper presents our results on requirementsidentication, design, and prototyping of the infrastructure.The infrastructure combines communication via mobilephones with communication based on the principles ofad-hoc networking, and it supports units in being...... updatedduring operation. The presented prototypes and associatedexperimental results demonstrate the main functionalitiesof the communication infrastructure, and have led to theinitial deployment of LIWAS units....

  16. The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukley, Angelia P.; Mulqueen, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural disaster effects, a system is proposed which would combine the elements of remote sensing, data processing, information distribution, and communications support on a global scale for disaster mitigation.

  17. Solar radio observations and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, H.

    1976-01-01

    The recent solar radio observations related to flares are reviewed for the frequency range of a few kilohertz to several gigahertz. The analysis of the radio data leads to boundary conditions on the acceleration processes which are responsible for the fast particles which cause radio emission. The role and cause of plasma turbulence at the plasma-frequency and at much lower frequencies is discussed in relation to the acceleration processes and the radio emission mechanisms for the various radio bursts. (author)

  18. Preliminary Statistics from the NASA Alphasat Beacon Receiver in Milan, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James; Zemba, Michael; Morse, Jacquelynne; Luini, Lorenzo; Riva, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have initiated a joint propagation campaign within the framework of the Alphasat propagation experiment to characterize rain attenuation, scintillation, and gaseous absorption effects of the atmosphere in the 40 gigahertz band. NASA GRC has developed and installed a K/Q-band (20/40 gigahertz) beacon receiver at the POLIMI campus in Milan, Italy, which receives the 20/40 gigahertz signals broadcast from the Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP no. 5 beacon payload. The primary goal of these measurements is to develop a physical model to improve predictions of communications systems performance within the Q-band. Herein, we provide an overview of the design and data calibration procedure, and present 6 months of preliminary statistics of the NASA propagation terminal, which has been installed and operating in Milan since May 2014. The Q-band receiver has demonstrated a dynamic range of 40 decibels at an 8-hertz sampling rate. A weather station with an optical disdrometer is also installed to characterize rain drop size distribution for correlation with physical based models.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Beacon-Enabled Mode for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Udin Harun Al Rasyid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.5 standard support structure of star and peer-to-peer network formation. Strating from these, the cluster tree network can be built as a special case of peer-to-peer network to increse coverage area. In this paper, we provide an performance evaluation of beacon- enabled mode for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor network on star and cluster topology in order to get the maximum result to apply the appropriate topology model as needed. We conduct analysis on each topology model by using the numbers of nodes from 10 nodes to 100 nodes to analyze throughput, delay, energy consumption, and probability success packet by using NS2 simulator. The simulation results show that the throughput and the probability of success packet of cluster topology are higher than that of star topology, and the energy consumption of cluster topology is lesser than that of star topology. However, cluster topology increases the delay more than star topology. Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4, wireless sensor network, beacon-enabled mode, topology, csma/ca

  20. Palindromic Molecule Beacon-Based Cascade Amplification for Colorimetric Detection of Cancer Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhi-Fa; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Chen, Chang; Xu, Huo; Li, Cong-Cong; Yang, Zhe; Wu, Zai-Sheng

    2018-03-06

    A highly sensitive and selective colorimetric assay based on a multifunctional molecular beacon with palindromic tail (PMB) was proposed for the detection of target p53 gene. The PMB probe can serve as recognition element, primer, and polymerization template and contains a nicking site and a C-rich region complementary to a DNAzyme. In the presence of target DNA, the hairpin of PMB is opened, and the released palindromic tails intermolecularly hybridize with each other, triggering the autonomous polymerization/nicking/displacement cycles. Although only one type of probe is involved, the system can execute triple and continuous polymerization strand displacement amplifications, generating large amounts of G-quadruplex fragments. These G-rich fragments can bind to hemin and form the DNAzymes that possess the catalytic activity similar to horseradish peroxidase, catalyzing the oxidation of ABTS by H 2 O 2 and producing the colorimetric signal. Utilizing the newly proposed sensing system, target DNA can be detected down to 10 pM with a linear response range from 10 pM to 200 nM, and mutant target DNAs are able to be distinguished even by the naked eye. The desirable detection sensitivity, high specificity, and operation convenience without any separation step and chemical modification demonstrate that the palindromic molecular beacon holds the potential for detecting and monitoring a variety of nucleic acid-related biomarkers.

  1. A Two-Layer Method for Sedentary Behaviors Classification Using Smartphone and Bluetooth Beacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Jesús D; López, Diego M; Hofmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Among the factors that outline the health of populations, person's lifestyle is the more important one. This work focuses on the caracterization and prevention of sedentary lifestyles. A sedentary behavior is defined as "any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure of 1.5 METs (Metabolic Equivalent) or less while in a sitting or reclining posture". To propose a method for sedentary behaviors classification using a smartphone and Bluetooth beacons considering different types of classification models: personal, hybrid or impersonal. Following the CRISP-DM methodology, a method based on a two-layer approach for the classification of sedentary behaviors is proposed. Using data collected from a smartphones' accelerometer, gyroscope and barometer; the first layer classifies between performing a sedentary behavior and not. The second layer of the method classifies the specific sedentary activity performed using only the smartphone's accelerometer and barometer data, but adding indoor location data, using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons. To improve the precision of the classification, both layers implemented the Random Forest algorithm and the personal model. This study presents the first available method for the automatic classification of specific sedentary behaviors. The layered classification approach has the potential to improve processing, memory and energy consumption of mobile devices and wearables used.

  2. Perancangan Prototipe Receiver Beacon Black Box Locator Acoustic 37,5 kHz Pingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUSTAMAJI RUSTAMAJI

    2016-01-01

    When an aircraft caught in an accident and crashes into the water, its location can be detected using a device called a receiver beacon black box locator acoustic (pingers receiver. The pingers receiver functioned as a reciever signal with 37,5 kHz ± 1 kHz frequency from trnasmitter pingers or Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB which is on air plane black blox. In this research made design pingers receiver composed of a series of  Band Pass Filter (BPF, envelope detector, audio amplifier, and loud speaker. The signal of 37,5 kHz ± 1 kHz  frequency sent by pingers transmitter will bereceived by pingers receiver, after which the signal will be processed by the Band Pass Filter (BPF circuit before being detected by envelope detector for take back the signal information which like pulse signal with 10ms width and 1 second interval as pingers signal tha can  be to  be heard by human ear. Based on the  design that  was made, the signal ouput generated by the prototype has a 14 ms width with 1 second interval. Keywords: pingers receiver, band pass filter (BPF, envelope detector, loud speaker.

  3. Prototype Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This report is the Project Report for the Rail Crossing Violation Warning (RCVW) safety application developed for the project on Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application and Infrastructure Connection, providing a means for equipped connected vehic...

  4. Crisis management and warning procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie November

    2009-03-01

    territoriale du risque s’avère nécessaire.Based on two flood events that recently affected new housing areas in very different political, organisational and hydrological contexts, this article examines the practices of actors involved in emergency and crisis situations in Switzerland. In both cases, the actors are identified – through their role and their position in the various procedures related to crisis management – and an inventory is made of the documents used. The study examines how the flood events were managed, identifies the organisational changes that followed the crises, and determines how the risk was conceived and to what extent it was formalised by the different actors both before and after the floods. Finally new forecasting and warning procedures that were set up following the events are described. The study shows that floods have a decisive impact on the production of knowledge, but that this phenomenon varies according to the actors. Events such as floods also sometimes reveal the existence of "latent" knowledge, or knowledge that is available but has not yet been integrated into institutional procedures. In terms of both forecasting and crisis management, these events also provide the opportunity to test information channels and to identify and correct any problems relating to organisation, cooperation or the reliability of means of communication. Among other things, the risks and crises related to flooding modify the dynamics and policies of the local area as a result of readjustments in the networks of actors. The introduction of emergency and crisis management measures appears more effective, however, than the reorganisation of planning and development procedures, a process which generally takes a lot longer. Nevertheless, since the recollection of events tends to fade with time, it is important that risks find a more concrete form of spatial expression on the landscape.

  5. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the

  6. 16 CFR 307.2 - Required warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required warnings. 307.2 Section 307.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS REGULATIONS UNDER... Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 is the law that requires the enactment of these...

  7. Brake wear warning device: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    Heat-insulated wire is introduced through brake shoe and partially into brake lining. Wire is connected to positive terminal and light bulb. When brakes wear to critical point, contact between wire and wheel drum grounds circuit and turns on warning light.

  8. 30 CFR 75.208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.208 Warning devices. Except during the..., or a physical barrier shall be installed to impede travel beyond permanent support. ...

  9. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This 6th edition of “Tools of Radio Astronomy”, the most used introductory text in radio astronomy, has been revised to reflect the current state of this important branch of astronomy. This includes the use of satellites, low radio frequencies, the millimeter/sub-mm universe, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the increased importance of mm/sub-mm dust emission. Several derivations and presentations of technical aspects of radio astronomy and receivers, such as receiver noise, the Hertz dipole and  beam forming have been updated, expanded, re-worked or complemented by alternative derivations. These reflect advances in technology. The wider bandwidths of the Jansky-VLA and long wave arrays such as LOFAR and mm/sub-mm arrays such as ALMA required an expansion of the discussion of interferometers and aperture synthesis. Developments in data reduction algorithms have been included. As a result of the large amount of data collected in the past 20 years, the discussion of solar system radio astronomy, dust em...

  10. 2013 Copyright © 2013, CRISA Publications PictoriAl WArningS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Cigarette smoking; tobacco; pictorial warning messages; late adolescents corresponding author: ... messages on the prevention of smoking ... centrate on the effect of social smoking .... The research's aim was explained to the.

  11. Design of early warning system for nuclear preparedness case study at Serpong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, M. M.; Prawito, Susila, I. P.; Yuniarto, A.

    2017-07-01

    One effort to protect the environment from the increasing of potentially environmental radiation hazards as an impact of radiation discharge around nuclear facilities is by a continuous monitoring of the environmental radiation in real time It is important to disclose the dose rate information to public or authorities for radiological protection. In this research, we have designed a nuclear preparedness early warning system around the Serpong nuclear facility. The design is based on Arduino program, general packet radio service (GPRS) shield, and radio frequencies technology to transmit environmental radiation result of the measurement and meteorological data. Data was collected at a certain location at The Center for Informatics and Nuclear Strategic Zone Utilization BATAN Serpong. The system consistency models are defined by the quality of data and the level of radiation exposure in the deployed environment. Online users can access the website which displays the radiation dose on the environment marked on Google Map. This system is capable to issue an early warning emergency when the dose reaches three times of the background radiation exposure value, 250 nSv/hour.

  12. 75 FR 20364 - Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Wildlife Order 187; 4-D-FL-1218] Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property Pursuant to section 2 of Public Law 537, 80th Congress, approved May 19, 1948 (16 U.S.C. 667c), notice is hereby given that: 1. The General...

  13. Guiding Math Students to Campus Services: An Impact Evaluation of the Beacon Program at South Texas College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visher, Mary; Butcher, Kristin F.; Cerna, Oscar S.

    2011-01-01

    This research rigorously evaluates whether a low-cost intervention can improve students' performance in developmental math. The "Beacon Mentoring Program" was developed at South Texas College by professors, administrators, and staff at the college. Surveys of students revealed that many did not have someone on campus whom they felt they…

  14. Beacon Charter School Needs a School: A Case of Capital Outlay of Charters in a Public District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronowski, Meredith L.

    2017-01-01

    The case study presented below is a representation of a real-world, ongoing situation involving a public school district's capital outlay for charter schools within its boundaries. One particular charter, Beacon Charter School, was promised a permanent building by the public school district that also acts as its authorizer. However, recent events…

  15. A molecular-beacon-based asymmetric PCR assay for easy visualization of amplicons in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkar, Subash C; Sachdev, Divya; Mishra, Prashant K; Kumar, Anita; Mittal, Pratima; Saluja, Daman

    2016-12-15

    The currently available nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for trichomoniasis are accurate, quick and confirmative with superior sensitivity than traditional culture-based microbiology assays. However, these assays are associated with problems of carry over contamination, false positive results, requirement of technical expertise for performance and detection of end product. Hence, a diagnostic assay with easy visualization of the amplified product will be profitable. An in-house, rapid, sensitive, specific molecular-beacon-based PCR assay, using primers against pfoB gene of Trichomonas vaginalis, was developed and evaluated using dry ectocervical swabs (n=392) from symptomatic females with vaginal discharge. Total DNA was isolated and used as template for the PCR assays. The performance and reproducibility of PCR assay was evaluated by composite reference standard (CRS). For easy visualization of the amplified product, molecular-beacon was designed and amplicons were visualized directly using fluorescent handheld dark reader or by Micro-Plate Reader. Molecular-beacons are single-stranded hairpin shaped nucleic acid probes composed of a stem, with fluorophore/quencher pair and a loop region complementary to the desired DNA. The beacon-based PCR assay designed in the present study is highly specific as confirmed by competition experiments and extremely sensitive with detection limit of 20fg of genomic DNA (3-4 pathogens). The minimum infrastructure requirement and ease to perform the assay makes this method highly useful for resource poor countries for better disease management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A quencher-free molecular beacon design based on pyrene excimer fluorescence using pyrene-labeled UNA (unlocked nucleic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kasper Kannegård; Okholm, Anders Hauge; Kjems, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A quencher-free molecular beacon capable of generating pyrene excimer fluorescence has been constructed using strategically positioned pyrene-UNA monomers. Hybridization of a fully complementary RNA target was accompanied by a pyrene excimer emission increase of more than 900%, and detection of RNA...

  17. BEACON/MOD2A: a computer program for subcompartment analysis of nuclear reactor containment. A user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.A.

    1979-03-01

    The BEACON code is a Best Estimate Advanced Containment code which being developed by EG and G, Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The program is designed to perform a best estimate analysis of the flow of a mixture of air, water, and steam in a nuclear reactor containment system under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The code can simulate two-component, two-phase fluid flow in complex geometries using a combination of two-dimensional, one-dimensional, and lumped-parameter representations for the various parts of the system. The current version of BEACON, which is designated BEACON/MOD2A, contains mass and heat transfer models for wall film and for wall conduction. It is suitable for the evaluation of short term transients in PWR dry containment systems. This manual describes the models employed in BEACON/MOD2A and specifies code implementation requirements. It provides application information for input data preparation and for output data interpretation

  18. Trigger Warnings as Respect for Student Boundaries in University Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Leland G.; Kulbaga, Theresa A.

    2018-01-01

    The fierce public and scholarly debate over trigger warnings in university classrooms has often characterized the issue as one of academic freedom and ignored the social justice arguments for trigger warnings. In this essay, we argue that trigger warnings expand academic speech by engaging students more fully in their own learning. Specifically,…

  19. Design and Practical Evaluation of a Family of Lightweight Protocols for Heterogeneous Sensing through BLE Beacons in IoT Telemetry Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rojas, Dixys L; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Escudero, Carlos J

    2017-12-27

    The Internet of Things (IoT) involves a wide variety of heterogeneous technologies and resource-constrained devices that interact with each other. Due to such constraints, IoT devices usually require lightweight protocols that optimize the use of resources and energy consumption. Among the different commercial IoT devices, Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)-based beacons, which broadcast periodically certain data packets to notify their presence, have experienced a remarkable growth, specially due to their application in indoor positioning systems. This article proposes a family of protocols named Lightweight Protocol for Sensors (LP4S) that provides fast responses and enables plug-and-play mechanisms that allow IoT telemetry systems to discover new nodes and to describe and auto-register the sensors and actuators connected to a beacon. Thus, three protocols are defined depending on the beacon hardware characteristics: LP4S-6 (for resource-constraint beacons), LP4S-X (for more powerful beacons) and LP4S-J (for beacons able to run complex firmware). In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the designed protocols, the most restrictive (LP4S-6) is tested after implementing it for a telemetry application in a beacon based on Eddystone (Google's open beacon format). Thus, the beacon specification is extended in order to increase its ability to manage unlimited sensors in a telemetry system without interfering in its normal operation with Eddystone frames. The performed experiments show the feasibility of the proposed solution and its superiority, in terms of latency and energy consumption, with respect to approaches based on Generic Attribute Profile (GATT) when multiple users connect to a mote or in scenarios where latency is not a restriction, but where low-energy consumption is essential.

  20. Design and Practical Evaluation of a Family of Lightweight Protocols for Heterogeneous Sensing through BLE Beacons in IoT Telemetry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) involves a wide variety of heterogeneous technologies and resource-constrained devices that interact with each other. Due to such constraints, IoT devices usually require lightweight protocols that optimize the use of resources and energy consumption. Among the different commercial IoT devices, Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)-based beacons, which broadcast periodically certain data packets to notify their presence, have experienced a remarkable growth, specially due to their application in indoor positioning systems. This article proposes a family of protocols named Lightweight Protocol for Sensors (LP4S) that provides fast responses and enables plug-and-play mechanisms that allow IoT telemetry systems to discover new nodes and to describe and auto-register the sensors and actuators connected to a beacon. Thus, three protocols are defined depending on the beacon hardware characteristics: LP4S-6 (for resource-constraint beacons), LP4S-X (for more powerful beacons) and LP4S-J (for beacons able to run complex firmware). In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the designed protocols, the most restrictive (LP4S-6) is tested after implementing it for a telemetry application in a beacon based on Eddystone (Google’s open beacon format). Thus, the beacon specification is extended in order to increase its ability to manage unlimited sensors in a telemetry system without interfering in its normal operation with Eddystone frames. The performed experiments show the feasibility of the proposed solution and its superiority, in terms of latency and energy consumption, with respect to approaches based on Generic Attribute Profile (GATT) when multiple users connect to a mote or in scenarios where latency is not a restriction, but where low-energy consumption is essential. PMID:29280975

  1. Design and Practical Evaluation of a Family of Lightweight Protocols for Heterogeneous Sensing through BLE Beacons in IoT Telemetry Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixys L. Hernández-Rojas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT involves a wide variety of heterogeneous technologies and resource-constrained devices that interact with each other. Due to such constraints, IoT devices usually require lightweight protocols that optimize the use of resources and energy consumption. Among the different commercial IoT devices, Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE-based beacons, which broadcast periodically certain data packets to notify their presence, have experienced a remarkable growth, specially due to their application in indoor positioning systems. This article proposes a family of protocols named Lightweight Protocol for Sensors (LP4S that provides fast responses and enables plug-and-play mechanisms that allow IoT telemetry systems to discover new nodes and to describe and auto-register the sensors and actuators connected to a beacon. Thus, three protocols are defined depending on the beacon hardware characteristics: LP4S-6 (for resource-constraint beacons, LP4S-X (for more powerful beacons and LP4S-J (for beacons able to run complex firmware. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the designed protocols, the most restrictive (LP4S-6 is tested after implementing it for a telemetry application in a beacon based on Eddystone (Google’s open beacon format. Thus, the beacon specification is extended in order to increase its ability to manage unlimited sensors in a telemetry system without interfering in its normal operation with Eddystone frames. The performed experiments show the feasibility of the proposed solution and its superiority, in terms of latency and energy consumption, with respect to approaches based on Generic Attribute Profile (GATT when multiple users connect to a mote or in scenarios where latency is not a restriction, but where low-energy consumption is essential.

  2. Radio Data System-Platform for traffic and travel information services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan BARCA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current National and European context where the public information is simultaneously spread on multiple channels and especially through mass-media channels, the text messaging services from public radio channels proved to be very useful and efficient for this purpose. Over the years, the use of a warning system like Radio Data System (RDS, at a global level shown, through text message or sound alarms is useful for the drivers to know the traffic, as well as for being aware of any emergency situations (fires, floods, earth-quakes. In this paper we present the characteristics of an RDS system with the Alert feature, as well as the study of radio covering of four from the Romanian National Radio News network's broadcasting points.

  3. Warning Triggers in Environmental Hazards: Who Should Be Warned to Do What and When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Thomas J; Dennison, Philip E; Li, Dapeng; Drews, Frank A; Siebeneck, Laura K; Lindell, Michael K

    2017-04-01

    Determining the most effective public warnings to issue during a hazardous environmental event is a complex problem. Three primary questions need to be answered: Who should take protective action? What is the best action? and When should this action be initiated? Warning triggers provide a proactive means for emergency managers to simultaneously answer these questions by recommending that a target group take a specified protective action if a preset environmental trigger condition occurs (e.g., warn a community to evacuate if a wildfire crosses a proximal ridgeline). Triggers are used to warn the public across a wide variety of environmental hazards, and an improved understanding of their nature and role promises to: (1) advance protective action theory by unifying the natural, built, and social themes in hazards research into one framework, (2) reveal important information about emergency managers' risk perception, situational awareness, and threat assessment regarding threat behavior and public response, and (3) advance spatiotemporal models for representing the geography and timing of disaster warning and response (i.e., a coupled natural-built-social system). We provide an overview and research agenda designed to advance our understanding and modeling of warning triggers. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  5. Radio structure in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, observational attention is given to the extended extragalactic radio sources associated with quasars. The isolated compact radio sources, often identified with quasars, are only included in the discussions. Three aspects of the radio structure in quasars and their cosmic evolution are considered: a study of the parsec scale morphology in quasar cores, in relation to the extended morphologies; an investigation of possible epoch dependent hotspot properties as well as a more detailed investigation of this fine scale structure; a VLA project was carried out to obtain morphological information on scales of 0.5 arcsec on high redshift quasars and to investigate possible epoch dependent morphological properties. MERLIN observations at 0.1 arcsec resolution to supplement the VLA data were initiated. (Auth.)

  6. The lower effectiveness of text-only health warnings in China compared to pictorial health warnings in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Xu, Steve Shaowei; Meng, Gang; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve C; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan; Driezen, Pete; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, China changed its health warnings on cigarette packs from side-only text warnings to two text-only warnings on 30% of the bottom of the front and back of the pack. Also in 2009, Malaysia changed from similar text warnings to pictorial health warnings consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11 Guidelines. To measure the impact of the change in health warnings in China and to compare the text-only health warnings to the impact of the pictorial health warnings introduced in Malaysia. We measured changes in key indicators of warning effectiveness among a longitudinal cohort sample of smokers from Waves 1 to 3 (2006-2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey and from Waves 3 to 4 (2008-2009) of the ITC Malaysia Survey. Each cohort consisted of representative samples of adult (≥18 years) smokers from six cities in China (n=6575) and from a national sample in Malaysia (n=2883). Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to examine the impact of the health warnings on subsequent changes in salience of warnings, cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Compared to Malaysia, the weak text-only warning labels in China led to a significant change in only two of six key indicators of health warning effectiveness: forgoing cigarettes and reading the warning labels. The change to pictorial health warnings in Malaysia led to significant and substantial increases in five of six indicators (noticing, reading, forgoing, avoiding, thinking about quitting). The delay in implementing pictorial health warnings in China constitutes a lost opportunity for increasing knowledge and awareness of the harms of cigarettes, and for motivating smokers to quit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Radio Emission from Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Kurt W.; Panagia, Nino; Sramek, Richard A.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Williams, Christopher L.; Stockdale, Christopher J.; Kelley, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    Study of radio supernovae over the past 27 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. It is also possible to detect ionized hydrogen along the line of sight, to demonstrate binary properties of the presupernova stellar system, and to detect dumpiness of the circumstellar material.

  8. Radio emission from Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velusamy, T.

    1976-01-01

    The basic features of the different radio emissions from the planet Jupiter are reviewed. These radio emissions characterized into three types as thermal, decimetric and decametric, are discussed. The coherent emission mechanism for the origin of the decametric bursts and the acceleration mechanism for relativistic electrons in the decimetric radiation have not been properly understood. The emissions are much related to the magnetic field of Jupiter. The system III rotation period for Jupiter has been calculated as 092 55 m 29.74 S. (A.K.)

  9. ¿Radios Comunitarias?

    OpenAIRE

    José Ignacio López Vigil

    2015-01-01

    Varias han sido las denominaciones dadas a la radio cuando su proyecto está al servicio de la gente. Palabras apropiadas pero devaluadas al decir del autor, a las que ahora se suma otras radios ciudadanas. Ciudadana para relievarla como ejercicio de poder y espacio de verdadera participación de la gente en la vida de su nación. Ciudadanos son los que piensan con cabeza propia y pesan en la opinión pública. Presenta una sinopsis de la historia de éstas desde 1974. Señala que la competencia obl...

  10. Data governance and data sharing agreements for community-wide health information exchange: lessons from the beacon communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Claudia; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Heider, Arvela; Lyman, Kristin A; McWilliams, Lee; Rein, Alison L; Schachter, Abigail A; Singh, Ranjit; Sorondo, Barbara; Topper, Joan; Turske, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Unprecedented efforts are underway across the United States to electronically capture and exchange health information to improve health care and population health, and reduce costs. This increased collection and sharing of electronic patient data raises several governance issues, including privacy, security, liability, and market competition. Those engaged in such efforts have had to develop data sharing agreements (DSAs) among entities involved in information exchange, many of whom are "nontraditional" health care entities and/or new partners. This paper shares lessons learned based on the experiences of six federally funded communities participating in the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program, and offers guidance for navigating data governance issues and developing DSAs to facilitate community-wide health information exchange. While all entities involved in electronic data sharing must address governance issues and create DSAs accordingly, until recently little formal guidance existed for doing so - particularly for community-based initiatives. Despite this lack of guidance, together the Beacon Communities' experiences highlight promising strategies for navigating complex governance issues, which may be useful to other entities or communities initiating information exchange efforts to support delivery system transformation. For the past three years, AcademyHealth has provided technical assistance to most of the 17 Beacon Communities, 6 of whom contributed to this collaborative writing effort. Though these communities varied widely in terms of their demographics, resources, and Beacon-driven priorities, common themes emerged as they described their approaches to data governance and DSA development. The 6 Beacon Communities confirmed that DSAs are necessary to satisfy legal and market-based concerns, and they identified several specific issues, many of which have been noted by others involved in network data sharing initiatives. More importantly, these

  11. [Molecular beacon based PNA-FISH method combined with fluorescence scanning for rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Shuai, Jiangbing; Li, Ke; Yu, Huizhen; Jin, Chenchen

    2016-07-04

    To simplify the PNA-FISH (Peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization) test, molecular beacon based PNA probe combined with fluorescence scanning detection technology was applied to replace the original microscope observation to detect Listeria monocytogenes The 5′ end and 3′ end of the L. monocytogenes specific PNA probes were labeled with the fluorescent group and the quenching group respectively, to form a molecular beacon based PNA probe. When PNA probe used for fluorescence scanning and N1 treatment as the control, the false positive rate was 11.4%, and the false negative rate was 0; when N2 treatment as the control, the false positive rate decreased to 4.3%, but the false negative rate rose to 18.6%. When beacon based PNA probe used for fluorescence scanning, taken N1 treatment as blank control, the false positive rate was 8.6%, and the false negative rate was 1.4%; taken N2 treatment as blank control, the false positive rate was 5.7%, and the false negative rate was 1.4%. Compared with PNA probe, molecular beacon based PNA probe can effectively reduce false positives and false negatives. The success rates of hybridization of the two PNA probes were 83.3% and 95.2% respectively; and the rates of the two beacon based PNA probes were 91.7% and 90.5% respectively, which indicated that labeling the both ends of the PNA probe dose not decrease the hybridization rate with the target bacteria. The combination of liquid phase PNA-FISH and fluorescence scanning method, can significantly improve the detection efficiency.

  12. Beacon of Hope? Lessons Learned from Efforts to Reduce Civilian Deaths from Police Shootings in an Australian State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saligari, Jessica; Evans, Richard

    2016-04-01

    In the 1990s, the police service in Victoria, Australia, faced a crisis of community confidence due to a spate of civilian deaths from police shootings. In that decade, twice as many civilians died at the hands of the police in Victoria than in every other Australian state combined. Most of those killed were mentally ill and affected by drugs and alcohol, and were rarely a serious threat except to themselves. The problem was also almost entirely an urban phenomenon. Shootings in rural communities, where mentally ill people were more likely to be personally known to local police, were (and remain) almost unknown. The large number of fatalities was recognised as a serious threat to public confidence, and Victoria Police introduced a ground-breaking training programme, Operation Beacon. Operating procedures and weapons training were fundamentally changed, to focus on de-escalation of conflict and avoiding or minimising police use of force. In the short term, Operation Beacon was successful. Shooting incidents were dramatically reduced. However, during the first decade of the new century, the number of civilians being killed again increased. This article examines Operation Beacon, both as a successful model for reducing civilian deaths at the hand of police and as a cautionary tale for police reform. We argue that the lessons of Operation Beacon have been gradually forgotten and that old habits and attitudes resurfaced. Fatal shootings of mentally ill civilians can be prevented, but if success is to be other than temporary, the Beacon philosophy must be continually reemphasised by police management.

  13. LDAR, A Three-Dimensional Lightning Warning System: Its Development and Use by the Government, and Transition to Public Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Stan; Sharp, David; Merceret, Francis; Madura, John; Murphy, Martin

    1998-01-01

    NASA, at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), developed and operates a unique high precision lightning location system to provide lightning related weather warnings. These warnings are used to stop lightning-sensitive operations such as space vehicle launches and ground operations where equipment and personnel are at risk. The data is provided to the Range Weather Operations [45th Weather Squadron, U. S. Air Force (USAF)] where it is used with other meteorological data to issue weather advisories and warnings for Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) and KSC operations. This system, called Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR), provides users with a graphical display in three dimensions of 66 MHz radio frequency events generated by lightning processes. The locations of these events provide a sound basis for the prediction of lightning hazards. NASA and Global Atmospherics, Inc. are developing a new system that will replace the unique LDAR components with commercially available and maintainable components having improved capabilities. These components will be phased in to ensure full continuity and access to this important warning technology. These LDAR systems are expected to eventually be available for installation and use by the public at specialized facilities, such as airports, and for general weather warnings via the National Weather Service (NWS) or television broadcast. The NWS in Melbourne has had access to real-time LDAR data since 1993 on an experimental basis. This use of LDAR has shown promise for the improvement of aviation forecasts and severe weather warnings. More so, it has opened the door to investigate the feasibility of issuing lightning-related public advisories. The success of its early use suggests that this technology may improve safety and potentially save lives, therefore constituting a significant benefit to the public. This paper describes the LDR system, the plans and progress of these upgrades, and the potential benefits of its use.

  14. Spectrum management and radio resource management considering cognitive radio systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haartsen, J.C.; Wieweg, Lasse; Huschke, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    International fora and some national administrations define a cognitive radio (CR) as a pioneering radio communication system that would be capable of altering and adapting its transmitter and receiver parameters based on communication and the exchange of information with related detectable radio

  15. Social Interactions Sparked by Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa G. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Message Impact Framework suggests that social interactions may offer smokers the opportunity to process pictorial warnings on cigarette packs more deeply. We aimed to describe adult smokers’ social interactions about pictorial cigarette pack warnings in two longitudinal pilot studies. In Pilot Study 1, 30 smokers used cigarette packs with one of nine pictorial warnings for two weeks. In Pilot Study 2, 46 smokers used cigarette packs with one of five pictorial warnings for four weeks. Nearly all smokers (97%/96% in Pilot Study 1/2 talked about the warnings with other people, with the most common people being friends (67%/87% and spouses/significant others (34%/42%. Pilot Study 2 found that 26% of smokers talked about the warnings with strangers. Discussions about the health effects of smoking and quitting smoking were more frequent during the first week of exposure to pictorial warnings than in the week prior to beginning the study (both p < 0.05. Pictorial warnings sparked social interactions about the warnings, the health effects of smoking, and quitting smoking, indicating that pictorial warnings may act as a social intervention reaching beyond the individual. Future research should examine social interactions as a potential mediator of the impact of pictorial warnings on smoking behavior.

  16. Compact radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altschuler, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven compact radio sources were monitored between 1971 and 1974 with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory interferometer. Both flux density and polarization were measured at intervals of about one month at wavelengths of 3.7 and 11.1 cms. Forty-four sources showed definite variability in their total and/or polarized flux density. The variations in polarization were of a shorter time scale than the corresponding flux density variations. Some of the qualitative features of an expanding source model were observed. The data suggest that some form of injection of relativistic electrons is taking place. The absence of significant depolarization in the variable sources indicates that only a small fraction of the mass of the radio outburst is in the form of non-relativistic plasma. Some of the objects observed belong to the BL-Lacertal class. It is shown that this class is very inhomogeneous in its radio properties. For the violently variable BL-Lacertal type objects the spectrum, flux variations and polarization data strongly suggest that these are very young objects

  17. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  18. Radio Frequency Identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been around sinceearly 2000. Its use has currently become commonplace as thecost of RFID tags has rapidly decreased. RFID tags have alsobecome more 'intelligent' with the incorporation of processorsand sensors in them. They are widely used now in manyinnovative ways.

  19. Nanolensed Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, David

    2017-12-01

    It is suggested that fast radio bursts can probe gravitational lensing by clumpy dark matter objects that range in mass from 10-3 M ⊙-102 M ⊙. They may provide a more sensitive probe than observations of lensings of objects in the Magellanic Clouds, and could find or rule out clumpy dark matter with an extended mass spectrum.

  20. AMATEUR "HAM" RADIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    these cooler months. Did you know your body can cool 25 times faster in water than in air? That water code at 13 or 20 words-per-minute will no longer be required to obtain amateur radio operating be found by contacting the ARRL or using an Internet search engine to search on such topics as "

  1. The design of the light-flash warning light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junli

    2018-05-01

    In today's society, the warning light has been used widely in people's daily life and various industries and agricultures. It is important to protect people's life and security. Light-flashing warning light is a kind of warning light control equipment which can control warning light automatically open and work in the state of blinking after dark, and it can automatically shut down after the dawn. It can achieve the flashing light automatic control and dual function. At present, light-flashing warning lights are mainly used in the projects of municipal construction. It is helpful to warn people and vehicles that passed in the construction site and ensure personal safety through using light-flashing warning light. Its design is simple, its performance is stable and it is also very convince to use it.

  2. Forecasting, Warning and Responding to Transnational Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas to conceptualise and empirically study the interlinked problems of forecasting, warning and mobilising preventive action. Contributors comment on key problems such as uncertainty, silo-mentality, spotting weak-signals, cultures of blame, conflicts of interest and divergent risk perceptions......, but are also sensitive to differences between actors and types of risk. The overall thrust is to challenge both technocratic and popularised accounts of the warning-response problem. Successful prevention or mitigation involves difficult cognitive, normative and political judgements. Whilst these difficulties......What does it take to recognise and prevent hazards with international causes and consequences? How can we handle the risks related to financial instability, terrorism, pandemics, air pollution, flooding and climate change? The book brings together scholars and senior practitioners from different...

  3. Automatic early warning systems for the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesjak Martin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Computerized, continuous monitoring environmental early warning systems are complex networks that merge measurements with the information technology. Accuracy, consistency, reliability and data quality are their most important features. Several effects may disturb their characteristics: hostile environment, unreliable communications, poor quality of equipment nonqualified users or service personnel. According to our experiences, a number of measures should be taken to enhance system performances and to maintain them at the desired level. In the paper, we are presenting an analysis of system requirements, possible disturbances and corrective measures that give the main directives for the design, construction and exploitation of the environmental early warning systems. Procedures which ensure data integrity and quality are mentioned. Finally, the contemporary system approach based on the LAN/WAN network topology with Intranet/Internet software is proposed, together with case descriptions of two already operating systems, based on computer-network principle.

  4. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  5. Home seismometer for earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shigeki; Horiuchi, Yuko; Yamamoto, Shunroku; Nakamura, Hiromitsu; Wu, Changjiang; Rydelek, Paul A.; Kachi, Masaaki

    2009-02-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has started the practical service of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) and a very dense deployment of receiving units is expected in the near future. The receiving/alarm unit of an EEW system is equipped with a CPU and memory and is on-line via the internet. By adding an inexpensive seismometer and A/D converter, this unit is transformed into a real-time seismic observatory, which we are calling a home seismometer. If the home seismometer is incorporated in the standard receiving unit of EEW, then the number of seismic observatories will be drastically increased. Since the background noise inside a house caused by human activity may be very large, we have developed specialized software for on-site warning using the home seismometer. We tested our software and found that our algorithm can correctly distinguish between noise and earthquakes for nearly all the events.

  6. Radio images of the planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pater, I.

    1990-01-01

    Observations at radio wavelengths make possible detailed studies of planetary atmospheres, magnetospheres, and surface layers. The paper addresses the question of what can be learned from interferometric radio images of planets. Results from single-element radio observations are also discussed. Observations of both the terrestrial and the giant planets are considered. 106 refs

  7. Isothermal amplification detection of nucleic acids by a double-nicked beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Zhou, Meiling; Pan, Mei; Zhong, Guilin; Ma, Cuiping

    2016-03-01

    Isothermal and rapid amplification detection of nucleic acids is an important technology in environmental monitoring, foodborne pathogen detection, and point-of-care clinical diagnostics. Here we have developed a novel method of isothermal signal amplification for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) detection. The ssDNA target could be used as an initiator, coupled with a double-nicked molecular beacon, to originate amplification cycles, achieving cascade signal amplification. In addition, the method showed good specificity and strong anti-jamming capability. Overall, it is a one-pot and isothermal strand displacement amplification method without the requirement of a stepwise procedure, which greatly simplifies the experimental procedure and decreases the probability of contamination of samples. With its advantages, the method would be very useful to detect nucleic acids in point-of-care or field use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Simple fluorescence-based detection of protein kinase A activity using a molecular beacon probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changbei; Lv, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Kemin; Jin, Shunxin; Liu, Haisheng; Wu, Kefeng; Zeng, Weimin

    2017-11-02

    Protein kinase A was detected by quantifying the amount of ATP used after a protein kinase reaction. The ATP assay was performed using the T4 DNA ligase and a molecular beacon (MB). In the presence of ATP, DNA ligase catalyzed the ligation of short DNA. The ligation product then hybridized to MB, resulting in a fluorescence enhancement of the MB. This assay was capable of determining protein kinase A in the range of 12.5∼150 nM, with a detection limit of 1.25 nM. Furthermore, this assay could also be used to investigate the effect of genistein on protein kinase A. It was a universal, non-radioisotopic, and homogeneous method for assaying protein kinase A.

  9. Considerations for Community-Based mHealth Initiatives: Insights From Three Beacon Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) is gaining widespread attention for its potential to engage patients in their health and health care in their daily lives. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions can be used effectively to support behavior change, but numerous challenges remain when implementing these programs at the community level. This paper provides an overview of considerations when implementing community-based mHealth initiatives, based on the experiences of three Beacon Communities across the United States that have launched text messaging (short message service, SMS) pilot programs aimed at diabetes risk reduction and disease management. The paper addresses lessons learned and suggests strategies to overcome challenges related to developing text message content, conducting marketing and outreach, enrolling participants, engaging providers, evaluating program effectiveness, and sustaining and scaling the programs. PMID:24128406

  10. Facile conversion of ATP-binding RNA aptamer to quencher-free molecular aptamer beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoojin; Nim-Anussornkul, Duangrat; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Morii, Takashi; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2018-01-15

    We have developed RNA-based quencher-free molecular aptamer beacons (RNA-based QF-MABs) for the detection of ATP, taking advantage of the conformational changes associated with ATP binding to the ATP-binding RNA aptamer. The RNA aptamer, with its well-defined structure, was readily converted to the fluorescence sensors by incorporating a fluorophore into the loop region of the hairpin structure. These RNA-based QF-MABs exhibited fluorescence signals in the presence of ATP relative to their low background signals in the absence of ATP. The fluorescence emission intensity increased upon formation of a RNA-based QF-MAB·ATP complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pyrene functionalized molecular beacon with pH-sensitive i-motif in a loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembska, Anna; Juskowiak, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a spectral characterization of pH-sensitive system, which combines the i-motif properties with the spatially sensitive fluorescence signal of pyrene molecules attached to hairpin ends. The excimer production (fluorescence max. ∼480 nm) by pyrene labels at the ends of the molecular beacon is driven by pH-dependent i-motif formation in the loop. To illustrate the performance and reversible work of our systems, we performed the experiments with repeatedly pH cycling between pH values of 7.5±0.3 and 6.5±0.3. The sensor gives analytical response in excimer-monomer switching mode in narrow pH range (1.5 pH units) and exhibits high pH resolution (0.1 pH unit). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanomechanical DNA origami 'single-molecule beacons' directly imaged by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuya, Akinori; Sakai, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Xu, Yan; Komiyama, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    DNA origami involves the folding of long single-stranded DNA into designed structures with the aid of short staple strands; such structures may enable the development of useful nanomechanical DNA devices. Here we develop versatile sensing systems for a variety of chemical and biological targets at molecular resolution. We have designed functional nanomechanical DNA origami devices that can be used as 'single-molecule beacons', and function as pinching devices. Using 'DNA origami pliers' and 'DNA origami forceps', which consist of two levers ~170 nm long connected at a fulcrum, various single-molecule inorganic and organic targets ranging from metal ions to proteins can be visually detected using atomic force microscopy by a shape transition of the origami devices. Any detection mechanism suitable for the target of interest, pinching, zipping or unzipping, can be chosen and used orthogonally with differently shaped origami devices in the same mixture using a single platform. PMID:21863016

  13. Detection of DNA damage based on metal-mediated molecular beacon and DNA strands displacement reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanxiang; Wei, Min; Wei, Wei; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu; Liu, Songqin

    2014-01-01

    DNA hairpin structure probes are usually designed by forming intra-molecular duplex based on Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds. In this paper, a molecular beacon based on silver ions-mediated cytosine-Ag+-cytosine base pairs was used to detect DNA. The inherent characteristic of the metal ligation facilitated the design of functional probe and the adjustment of its binding strength compared to traditional DNA hairpin structure probes, which make it be used to detect DNA in a simple, rapid and easy way with the help of DNA strands displacement reaction. The method was sensitive and also possesses the good specificity to differentiate the single base mismatched DNA from the complementary DNA. It was also successfully applied to study the damage effect of classic genotoxicity chemicals such as styrene oxide and sodium arsenite on DNA, which was significant in food science, environmental science and pharmaceutical science.

  14. Considerations for community-based mHealth initiatives: insights from three Beacon Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Nebeyou A; Capozza, Korey L; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Kulick, David A; Rein, Alison L; Schachter, Abigail A; Turske, Scott A

    2013-10-15

    Mobile health (mHealth) is gaining widespread attention for its potential to engage patients in their health and health care in their daily lives. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions can be used effectively to support behavior change, but numerous challenges remain when implementing these programs at the community level. This paper provides an overview of considerations when implementing community-based mHealth initiatives, based on the experiences of three Beacon Communities across the United States that have launched text messaging (short message service, SMS) pilot programs aimed at diabetes risk reduction and disease management. The paper addresses lessons learned and suggests strategies to overcome challenges related to developing text message content, conducting marketing and outreach, enrolling participants, engaging providers, evaluating program effectiveness, and sustaining and scaling the programs.

  15. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  16. Early warnings : a phenomenon in project management

    OpenAIRE

    Nikander, Ilmari O.

    2002-01-01

    The emergence of Concurrent Engineering has caused growing demands on project management. The classic project management methods are often slow: problems may already exist when those methods are applied. The objective of the present study is to improve the opportunities of those responsible for a project's operational management to receive advance information about potential problems and final results through early warnings typical of the theory of weak signals by Igor Ansoff. The researc...

  17. Improved analysis of plasmasphere motion using the VLA radio interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Hoogeveen

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations using the very large (VLA radio interferometer during the past five years have enabled the discovery of a new type of plasmasphere disturbance, the magnetic eastward-directed wave. Previous work indicated these disturbances were likely frozen to the geomagnetic field as determined from their azimuth distributions. This work provides a method to explain more accurately the azimuth distribution, thereby allowing the calculation of the disturbances' location in the plasmasphere independently of the measured velocity. The measurable velocity due to corotation is calculated and subtracted from the measured trace velocity. This difference, or deviation from corotation, is attributed to electrodynamic convection; the measurement of plasmaspheric convection may lead to the eventual monitoring of mid-latitude electric fields. Disturbances are seen convecting predominantly westward, with the fastest having angular velocities greater than the anticorotating VLA line of sight. The direction of convection and conditions of observations indicate that the disturbances are likely the same phenomenon seen by the Los Alamos satellite beacon array.

  18. Improved analysis of plasmasphere motion using the VLA radio interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Hoogeveen

    Full Text Available Observations using the very large (VLA radio interferometer during the past five years have enabled the discovery of a new type of plasmasphere disturbance, the magnetic eastward-directed wave. Previous work indicated these disturbances were likely frozen to the geomagnetic field as determined from their azimuth distributions. This work provides a method to explain more accurately the azimuth distribution, thereby allowing the calculation of the disturbances' location in the plasmasphere independently of the measured velocity. The measurable velocity due to corotation is calculated and subtracted from the measured trace velocity. This difference, or deviation from corotation, is attributed to electrodynamic convection; the measurement of plasmaspheric convection may lead to the eventual monitoring of mid-latitude electric fields. Disturbances are seen convecting predominantly westward, with the fastest having angular velocities greater than the anticorotating VLA line of sight. The direction of convection and conditions of observations indicate that the disturbances are likely the same phenomenon seen by the Los Alamos satellite beacon array.

  19. Evaluation of a rectangular rapid flashing beacon system at the Belmont Ridge Road and W&OD Trail mid-block crosswalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    On April 8, 2013, the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) installed a Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacon : (RRFB) system at Belmont Ridge Road in Loudoun County that included two units at the Washington and Old Dominion : (W&OD) Trail crossin...

  20. Detection of Candida species in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanhong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Li; Ji, Tongzhen; Meng, Lingxin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Ran; Wang, Xiao; Li, Lin; Lu, Binghuai; Cao, Zheng

    2018-04-20

    Candida pathogens are commonly found in women and can cause vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), whose infection rate is further increased during pregnancy. We aimed to study the Candida prevalence and strain distribution in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon assay. From March 2016 to February 2017, a total of 993 pregnant women attending routine antenatal visits at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled. For Candida detection and identification, a unique molecular beacon assay was presented and compared with a traditional phenotypic method. Antifungal susceptibility was tested with the following agents: 5-flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. The prevalence of Candida was found to be 21.8 % when using the molecular method and 15.0 % when using the phenotypic method. The distribution of the Candida spp. was listed in order of decreasing prevalence: Candida albicans (79.8 %), Candida glabrata (13.5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3.7 %), Candida krusei (2.2 %) and Candida tropicalis (1.1 %). We found that 90.7 % of the Candida detection results were consistent between the molecular and the phenotypic methods. In the cases where the sequencing analyses for the Candida isolates resulted in inconsistent identification, the molecular method showed higher sensitivity than the phenotypic method (96.0 vs 64.6 %). C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis were essentially susceptible to all five antifungal agents tested, whereas C. tropicalis and C. krusei were susceptible to voriconazole and amphotericin B. By exhibiting good sensitivity and specificity, the molecular assay may offer a fast and accurate Candida screening platform for pregnant women.

  1. Energy optimization for upstream data transfer in 802.15.4 beacon-enabled star formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2008-08-01

    Energy saving is one of the major concerns for low rate personal area networks. This paper models energy consumption for beacon-enabled time-slotted media accessing control cooperated with sleeping scheduling in a star network formulation for IEEE 802.15.4 standard. We investigate two different upstream (data transfer from devices to a network coordinator) strategies: a) tracking strategy: the devices wake up and check status (track the beacon) in each time slot; b) non-tracking strategy: nodes only wake-up upon data arriving and stay awake till data transmitted to the coordinator. We consider the tradeoff between energy cost and average data transmission delay for both strategies. Both scenarios are formulated as optimization problems and the optimal solutions are discussed. Our results show that different data arrival rate and system parameters (such as contention access period interval, upstream speed etc.) result in different strategies in terms of energy optimization with maximum delay constraints. Hence, according to different applications and system settings, different strategies might be chosen by each node to achieve energy optimization for both self-interested view and system view. We give the relation among the tunable parameters by formulas and plots to illustrate which strategy is better under corresponding parameters. There are two main points emphasized in our results with delay constraints: on one hand, when the system setting is fixed by coordinator, nodes in the network can intelligently change their strategies according to corresponding application data arrival rate; on the other hand, when the nodes' applications are known by the coordinator, the coordinator can tune the system parameters to achieve optimal system energy consumption.

  2. A comparison of different informative vibrotactile forward collision warnings: does the warning need to be linked to the collision event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gray

    Full Text Available Recent research demonstrates that auditory and vibrotactile forward collision warnings presenting a motion signal (e.g., looming or apparent motion across the body surface can facilitate speeded braking reaction times (BRTs. The purpose of the present study was to expand on this work by directly comparing warning signals in which the motion conveyed was constant across all collision events with signals in which the speed of motion was dependent on the closing velocity (CV. Two experiments were conducted using a simulated car-following task and BRTs were measured. In Experiment 1, increasing intensity (looming vibrotactile signals were presented from a single tactor attached to the driver's waist. When the increase in intensity was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster as compared to a no-warning condition, however, they were not significantly different from constant intensity and CV-independent looming warnings. In Experiment 2, a vertical array of three tactors was used to create motion either towards (upwards or away (downwards from the driver's head. When the warning signal presented upwards motion that was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster than all other warning types. Downwards warnings led to a significantly higher number of brake activations in false alarm situations as compared to upwards moving warnings. The effectiveness of dynamic tactile collision warnings would therefore appear to depend on both the link between the warning and collision event and on the directionality of the warning signal.

  3. The Monumental Task of Warning Future Generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2005-01-01

    Describing preliminary concepts for permanent warning monuments or markers on the mountain's surface will be part of the US Department of Energy's license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NRC requires that the monuments or markers accurately identify the location of the repository, be designed to be as permanent as practicable and convey a warning against intrusion into the underground repository, because of risk to public health and safety from radioactive wastes. Current concepts include both monuments and markers, but the designs will not be final for some time because they will not be approved by the NRC until shortly before the repository is to be permanently sealed and closed. Closure of the repository would be at least 50 years, and possibly up to 300 years, after the first waste is emplaced deep underground. Design ideas for the monuments and markers have been drawn from a broad range of sources: Yucca Mountain's natural conditions, worldwide archeological studies, materials science, and verbal and symbolic linguistics. The monumental challenge is to address how warnings can be coherently conveyed for thousands of years into the future when human society and languages could change radically

  4. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2013-05-01

    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  5. MO-FG-BRA-06: Electromagnetic Beacon Insertion in Lung Cancer Patients and Resultant Surrogacy Errors for Dynamic MLC Tumour Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardcastle, N; Booth, J; Caillet, V; Haddad, C; Crasta, C [Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW (Australia); O’Brien, R; Keall, P [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Szymura, K [Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess endo-bronchial electromagnetic beacon insertion and to quantify the geometric accuracy of using beacons as a surrogate for tumour motion in real-time multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking of lung tumours. Methods: The LIGHT SABR trial is a world-first clinical trial in which the MLC leaves move with lung tumours in real time on a standard linear accelerator. Tracking is performed based on implanted electromagnetic beacons (CalypsoTM, Varian Medical Systems, USA) as a surrogate for tumour motion. Five patients have been treated and have each had three beacons implanted endo-bronchially under fluoroscopic guidance. The centre of mass (C.O.M) has been used to adapt the MLC in real-time. The geometric error in using the beacon C.O.M as a surrogate for tumour motion was measured by measuring the tumour and beacon C.O.M in all phases of the respiratory cycle of a 4DCT. The surrogacy error was defined as the difference in beacon and tumour C.O.M relative to the reference phase (maximum exhale). Results: All five patients have had three beacons successfully implanted with no migration between simulation and end of treatment. Beacon placement relative to tumour C.O.M varied from 14 to 74 mm and in one patient spanned two lobes. Surrogacy error was measured in each patient on the simulation 4DCT and ranged from 0 to 3 mm. Surrogacy error as measured on 4DCT was subject to artefacts in mid-ventilation phases. Surrogacy error was a function of breathing phase and was typically larger at maximum inhale. Conclusion: Beacon placement and thus surrogacy error is a major component of geometric uncertainty in MLC tracking of lung tumours. Surrogacy error must be measured on each patient and incorporated into margin calculation. Reduction of surrogacy error is limited by airway anatomy, however should be taken into consideration when performing beacon insertion and planning. This research is funded by Varian Medical Systems via a collaborative research agreement.

  6. MO-FG-BRA-06: Electromagnetic Beacon Insertion in Lung Cancer Patients and Resultant Surrogacy Errors for Dynamic MLC Tumour Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardcastle, N; Booth, J; Caillet, V; Haddad, C; Crasta, C; O’Brien, R; Keall, P; Szymura, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess endo-bronchial electromagnetic beacon insertion and to quantify the geometric accuracy of using beacons as a surrogate for tumour motion in real-time multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking of lung tumours. Methods: The LIGHT SABR trial is a world-first clinical trial in which the MLC leaves move with lung tumours in real time on a standard linear accelerator. Tracking is performed based on implanted electromagnetic beacons (CalypsoTM, Varian Medical Systems, USA) as a surrogate for tumour motion. Five patients have been treated and have each had three beacons implanted endo-bronchially under fluoroscopic guidance. The centre of mass (C.O.M) has been used to adapt the MLC in real-time. The geometric error in using the beacon C.O.M as a surrogate for tumour motion was measured by measuring the tumour and beacon C.O.M in all phases of the respiratory cycle of a 4DCT. The surrogacy error was defined as the difference in beacon and tumour C.O.M relative to the reference phase (maximum exhale). Results: All five patients have had three beacons successfully implanted with no migration between simulation and end of treatment. Beacon placement relative to tumour C.O.M varied from 14 to 74 mm and in one patient spanned two lobes. Surrogacy error was measured in each patient on the simulation 4DCT and ranged from 0 to 3 mm. Surrogacy error as measured on 4DCT was subject to artefacts in mid-ventilation phases. Surrogacy error was a function of breathing phase and was typically larger at maximum inhale. Conclusion: Beacon placement and thus surrogacy error is a major component of geometric uncertainty in MLC tracking of lung tumours. Surrogacy error must be measured on each patient and incorporated into margin calculation. Reduction of surrogacy error is limited by airway anatomy, however should be taken into consideration when performing beacon insertion and planning. This research is funded by Varian Medical Systems via a collaborative research agreement.

  7. The New Horizons Bistatic Radio Science Experiment to Measure Pluto's Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscott, I.; Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.; Vincent, M.

    2014-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) payload includes a Radio Science Experiment (REX) for principally occultation and radiometric measurement of Pluto and Charon during the flyby in July 2015. The REX subsystem is contained, together with the NH X-Band radio, in the Integrated Electronics Module (IEM) in the New Horizons spacecraft. REX samples and records in two polarizations both total RF power in a 4.5 MHz bandwidth, and radio signal waveforms in a narrow, 1.25 kHz band. During the encounter, and at closest approach to Pluto, the spacecraft's high gain antenna (HGA) will scan Pluto's equatorial latitudes, intercepting the specular zone, a region near Pluto's limb that geometrically favors reflection from the earth's direction. At the same time, a powerful 80 kW uplink beacon will have been transmitted from earth by the DSN to arrive at Pluto during spacecraft closest approach. Reflection from the specular zone is expected to be sufficiently strong to observe the bistatic uplink in the REX narrowband record. Measurements in both polarizations will then be combined to yield surface reflectivity, roughness and limits on the dielectric constant in the specular zone.

  8. Introduction to international radio regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radicella, S M [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2003-12-15

    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field.

  9. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field

  10. Implicit motivational impact of pictorial health warning on cigarette packs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Volchan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. METHODS: Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338 were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63 tested pictorial warnings (ten that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs' manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings' emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. FINDINGS: Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants' judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change.

  11. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated by successes made in non-disease specific community-based early warning systems with a view to identify opportunities for developing similar systems for malaria. This article reviewed the existing community-based early warning systems documented in literature. The types of disasters that are addressed by these systems and the methodologies utilised in the development of the systems were identified. The review showed that most of the documented community-based early warning systems focus on natural disasters such as floods, drought, and landslides. Community-based early warning systems for human diseases are very few, even though such systems exist at national and regional and global levels. There is a clear gap in terms of community-based malaria early warning systems. The methodologies for the development of the community-based early warning systems reviewed mainly derive from the four elements of early warning systems; namely risk knowledge, monitoring, warning communication and response capability. The review indicated the need for the development of community based early warning systems for human diseases. Keywords: community; early warning; disaster; hazards

  12. Radio-capacity of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultakhmedov, Yu.; Kultakhmedova-Vyshnyakova, V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper consider a universal approach to ecosystems of different types, based on representation of their radio-capacity. The concept of ecosystem includes reproduction of components (bio-productivity) and conditions such as maintaining of environment quality. Radio-capacity in the case of radionuclide pollution appears in accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides in the ecosystem. As a result the radionuclides are redistributed and buried in soil or lake bottom sediments. Estimation models for the radio-capacity of water and terrestrial ecosystems are represented. The calculations of the radio-capacity factor of water ecosystems are performed, and the high radio-capacity of a freshwater reservoir (F=0.6-0.8) and extremely high radio-capacity of a reservoir cascade (F c =0.99) is shown material from the Dnieper's cascade reservoirs. The methods of radio-capacity estimation of agroecosystems, wood and marine ecosystems are developed. (authors)

  13. The Concept of 'Radio Music'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    , educational and didactic effort which would enlighten all of society. For a while it seemed that radio music was considered a genre of its own. To fulfil its function, radio music had to consider technical limitations as well as the educational level and listening modes of the new mass audience. Public radio......, as discussed by Kurt Weill and Paul Hindemith, was at first greeted with great expectations, but soon a more realistic attitude prevailed. Weill, himself a radio critic as well, composed Der Lindberghflug (1929) as a piece of ‘radio music theatre’, but then changed some of its features in order to turn...... it into a didactical play for amateurs, a so-called Lehrstück. The article will present the concept of ‘radio music’ developed within German Neue Sachlichkeit and discuss the relevance of such a concept for current research in the field of radio and music....

  14. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The recent years have seen breathtaking progress in technology, especially in the receiver and digital technologies relevant for radio astronomy, which has at the same time advanced to shorter wavelengths. This is the updated and completely revised 5th edition of the most used introductory text in radio astronomy. It presents a unified treatment of the entire field from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Topics covered include instruments, sensitivity considerations, observational methods and interpretations of the data recorded with both single dishes and interferometers. This text is useful to both students and experienced practicing astronomers. Besides making major updates and additions throughout the book, the authors have re-organized a number of chapters to more clearly separate basic theory from rapidly evolving practical aspects. Further, problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter.

  15. Radio telescope control

    CERN Document Server

    Schraml, J

    1972-01-01

    An on-line computer control process developed for the 100-m radio telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie in Bonn is described. The instrument is the largest fully steerable antenna in the world. Its operation started on May 31st 1972. It is controlled by a Ferranti Argus 500 on-line computer. The first part of the paper deals with the process itself, the radio telescope and its operation, and the demands resulting for the control program. The second part briefly describes the computer and its hardware. The final part introduces the architecture of the executive program in general, which has been tailored to meet the demands of the process and the hardware. The communication between the observer and the system, the format of data on magnetic tape and an on-line reduction of position measurements are considered. (0 refs).

  16. Die radio in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Villiers

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Omvang van radio-uitsendings in en na Afrika. — Redes vir die versnelde tempo van uitbreiding. — Radio as die geskikste massa-kommunikasiemiddel vir Afrika. — Faktore wat die verspreiding bemoeilik. — Skouspelagtige toename in luistertalle.Toe Plinius, wat in die jaar 79 oorlede is, in sy „Historia Naturalis” verklaar het dat daar altyd iets nuuts uit Afrika afkomstig is, kon hy nouliks voorsien het dat die „iets" negentien eeue later in die lug sou setel wat hierdie reuse-vasteland oorspan — ’n Babelse spraakverwarring en ’n ongekende, verbete woorde-oorlog in die etergolwe, onder meer daarop bereken om die harte en hoofde van derduisendes te verower.

  17. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    cosas afectan la recepción de señas de la radio. Por ejemplo, las extensiones grandes de agua de sal receptor con una antena interior de calidad buena, o conectarlo a una antena externa. Generalmente los Programación Español Listado de estación Explicacion de SAME Coverage Station Listing County Listing

  18. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, T.; Chen, X.; Mohan, P.; Lao, B. Q.

    2017-09-01

    The observational facilities of radio astronomy keep constant upgrades and developments to achieve better capabilities including increasing the time of the data recording and frequency resolutions, and increasing the receiving and recording bandwidth. However in contrast, only a limited spectrum resource has been allocated to radio astronomy by the International Telecommunication Union, resulting in that the radio observational instrumentations are inevitably exposed to undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI) signals which originate mainly from the terrestrial human activity and are becoming stronger with time. RFIs degrade the quality of data and even lead to invalid data. The impact of RFIs on scientific outcome becomes more and more serious. In this article, the requirement for RFI mitigation is motivated, and the RFI characteristics, mitigation techniques, and strategies are reviewed. The mitigation strategies adopted at some representative observatories, telescopes, and arrays are also introduced. The advantages and shortcomings of the four classes of RFI mitigation strategies are discussed and presented, applicable at the connected causal stages: preventive, pre-detection, pre-correlation, and post-correlation. The proper identification and flagging of RFI is the key to the reduction of data loss and improvement in data quality, and is also the ultimate goal of developing RFI mitigation technique. This can be achieved through a strategy involving a combination of the discussed techniques in stages. The recent advances in the high speed digital signal processing and high performance computing allow for performing RFI excision of the large data volumes generated from large telescopes or arrays in both real time and offline modes, aiding the proposed strategy.

  19. AIDS radio triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  20. Oak Ridge Reservation Public Warning Siren System Annual Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. F. Gee

    2000-01-01

    The full operational test of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Public Warning Siren System (PWSS) was successfully conducted on September 27, 2000. The annual test is a full-scale sounding of the individual siren systems around each of the three Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the annual test is to demonstrate and validate the siren systems' ability to alert personnel outdoors in the Immediate Notification Zones (INZ) (approximately two miles) around each site. The success of this test is based on two critical functions of the siren system. The first function is system operability. The system is considered operable if 90% of the sirens are operational. System diagnostics and direct field observations were used to validate the operability of the siren systems. Based on the diagnostic results and field observations, greater than 90% of the sirens were considered operational. The second function is system audibility. The system is considered audible if the siren could be heard in the immediate notification zones around each of the three sites. Direct field observations, along with sound level measurements, were used to validate the audibility of the siren system. Based on the direct field observations and sound level measurements, the siren system was considered audible. The combination of field observations, system diagnostic status reports, and sound level measurements provided a high level of confidence that the system met and would meet operational requirements upon demand. As part of the overall system test, the Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) activated the Emergency Alerting System (EAS), which utilized area radio stations to make announcements regarding the test and to remind residents of what to do in the event of an actual emergency

  1. Design of a K/Q-Band Beacon Receiver for the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload (TDP) #5 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a coherent KQ-band (2040 GHz) beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed at the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) for use in the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload 5 (TDP5) beacon experiment. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation at 40 GHz to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models in the Q-band. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation. The receiver system has been characterized in the lab and demonstrates a system dynamic range performance of better than 58 dB at 1 Hz and better than 48 dB at 10 Hz rates.

  2. Hardware Implementation of A Non-RLL Soft-decoding Beacon-based Visible Light Communication Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Duc-Phuc; Le, Dinh-Dung; Tran, Thi-Hong; Huynh, Huu-Thuan; Nakashima, Yasuhiko

    2018-01-01

    Visible light communication (VLC)-based beacon systems, which usually transmit identification (ID) information in small-size data frames are applied widely in indoor localization applications. There is one fact that flicker of LED light should be avoid in any VLC systems. Current flicker mitigation solutions based on run-length limited (RLL) codes suffer from reduced code rates, or are limited to hard-decoding forward error correction (FEC) decoders. Recently, soft-decoding techniques of RLL-...

  3. HF-START: A Regional Radio Propagation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, K.; Maruyama, T.; Saito, S.; Nakata, H.; Rougerie, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Jin, H.; Tsugawa, T.; Ishii, M.

    2017-12-01

    HF-START (HF Simulator Targeting for All-users' Regional Telecommunications) is a user-friendly simulator developed to meet the needs of space weather users. Prediction of communications failure due to space weather disturbances is of high priority. Space weather users from various backgrounds with high economic impact, i.e. airlines, telecommunication companies, GPS-related companies, insurance companies, international amateur radio union, etc., recently increase. Space weather information provided by Space Weather Information Center of NICT is, however, too professional to be understood and effectively used by the users. To overcome this issue, I try to translate the research level data to the user level data based on users' needs and provide an immediate usable data. HF-START is positioned to be a space weather product out of laboratory based truly on users' needs. It is originally for radio waves in HF band (3-30 MHz) but higher frequencies up to L band are planned to be covered. Regional ionospheric data in Japan and southeast Asia are employed as a reflector of skywave mode propagation. GAIA (Ground-to-topside model of Atmosphere and Ionosphere for Aeronomy) model will be used as ionospheric input for global simulation. To evaluate HF-START, an evaluation campaign for Japan region will be launched in coming months. If the campaign successes, it will be expanded to southeast Asia region as well. The final goal of HF-START is to provide the near-realtime necessary radio parameters as well as the warning message of radio communications failure to the radio and space weather users.

  4. Implicit Motivational Impact of Pictorial Health Warning on Cigarette Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchan, Eliane; David, Isabel A.; Tavares, Gisella; Nascimento, Billy M.; Oliveira, Jose M.; Gleiser, Sonia; Szklo, Andre; Perez, Cristina; Cavalcante, Tania; Pereira, Mirtes G.; Oliveira, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Objective The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. Methods Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338) were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63) tested pictorial warnings (ten) that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs’ manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings’ emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. Findings Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants’ judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. Conclusions Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change. PMID:23977223

  5. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Macherera; Moses J. Chimbari

    2016-01-01

    Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated...

  6. A case study of pediatric asthma alerts from the beacon community program in cincinnati: technology is just the first step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudnak, Tara; Mansour, Mona; Mandel, Keith; Sauers, Hadley; Pandzik, Gerry; Donisi, Carl; Fairbrother, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    The Beacon Community in Cincinnati, Ohio was an innovative, community-wide initiative to use technology to transform care. One important feature was the development of regional alerts to notify practices when patients were hospitalized or seen in the emergency department. The purpose of this paper is to describe the way in which technology engages the improvement process, and to describe the early stages of learning how to use technology to enhance quality improvement. We interviewed key Beacon leaders as well as providers and office staff in selected practices. We also collected preliminary data from practices that reflected handling of alerts, including the number of asthma related alerts received and followed up. Regional alerts, supplied by the community-wide health information exchange, were a significant addition to the quality improvement effort in that they enabled practices to identify and follow up with additional children at risk. An important finding was the substantial effort at the practice level to integrate technology into ongoing patient care. Developing the technology for community wide alerts represented a significant endeavor in the Cincinnati Beacon Community. However, the technology was just the first step. Despite extra effort and time required on the part of individual practices, they reported that the value of having alerts was high. Hospital and ED visits represent some of the most costly aspects of care, and an efficient process for intervening with children using these costly services was seen as of significant value.

  7. Leakage warning system for flexible underwater pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, E; Bernstein, L

    1985-08-01

    Underwater pipelines for unloading oil tankers, e.g. in 30 km distance from the harbour site, are required to be flexible and require supervision. This is done by implementation of oil sensitive sensors between the inner rubber tube and the following impregnated textile layer. The generated sensor signals, influenced by leak oil, have to be wireless transmitted from 150 meters under water to the supervisory station at the coast. Sensor configurations are described, to derive the point of the leakage from the topologized warning signals.

  8. Early warning signals of simulated Amazon dieback

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, Chris; Good, Peter; Lenton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Dieback of the Amazon rainforest has been considered a potential tipping point in the Earth system due to the belief that there is more than one stable attractor in its dynamics and for future projections within global climate models (GCMs), in some cases a huge amount of forest is lost abruptly. The rainforest is a huge carbon sink, playing a critical role in the global carbon cycle and so if dieback is going to happen over a short period of time, it is important to have some early warning t...

  9. Early warning network of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.; Kuca, P.; Prouza, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The Early Warning Network encompasses 48 measuring sites covering the whole territory of the Czech Republic; 38 of them are located at observatories of the Czech Hydro-Meteorological Institute (28 at round-the-clock manned observatories, 10 at unmanned, automated observatories) and 10 are located at air contamination measuring points operated by the National Radiation Protection Institute and Regional Centres of the State Office for Nuclear Safety. The network operates in one of 3 modes: the standard mode, alert mode, and emergency mode. (P.A.)

  10. An analysis of legal warnings after drug approval in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriphiromya, Pakawadee; Theeraroungchaisri, Anuchai

    2015-02-01

    Drug risk management has many tools for minimizing risk and black-boxed warnings (BBWs) are one of those tools. Some serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) emerge only after a drug is marketed and used in a larger population. In Thailand, additional legal warnings after drug approval, in the form of black-boxed warnings, may be applied. Review of their characteristics can assist in the development of effective risk mitigation. This study was a cross sectional review of all legal warnings imposed in Thailand after drug approval (2003-2012). Any boxed warnings for biological products and revised warnings which were not related to safety were excluded. Nine legal warnings were evaluated. Seven related to drugs classes and two to individual drugs. The warnings involved four main types of predictable ADRs: drug-disease interactions, side effects, overdose and drug-drug interactions. The average time from first ADRs reported to legal warnings implementation was 12 years. The triggers were from both safety signals in Thailand and regulatory measures in other countries outside Thailand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Quantitative Analysis of Variability Warnings in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Flesborg, Elvis; Brabrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    In order to get insight into challenges with quality in highly-configurable software, we analyze one of the largest open source projects, the Linux kernel, and quantify basic properties of configuration-related warnings. We automatically analyze more than 20 thousand valid and distinct random...... configurations, in a computation that lasted more than a month. We count and classify a total of 400,000 warnings to get an insight in the distribution of warning types, and the location of the warnings. We run both on a stable and unstable version of the Linux kernel. The results show that Linux contains...

  12. Warning: you are being primed! The effect of a warning on the impact of subliminal ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, T.; Karremans, J.C.; Bernritter, S.F.; Stroebe, W.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    As it has been demonstrated that subliminal advertising can affect consumers’ decisions - if the ad is goal relevant - the question rises whether consumers are able to shield themselves from subliminal influences. In the present research it was examined whether warning people of the presence of

  13. Warning: You are being primed! The effect of a warning on the impact of subliminal ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, T.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Bernritter, S.F.; Stroebe, W.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    As it has been demonstrated that subliminal advertising can affect consumers' decisions – if the ad is goal relevant – the question rises whether consumers are able to shield themselves from subliminal influences. In the present research it was examined whether warning people of the presence of

  14. Flexible Adaptation in Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to software-defined radio and cognitive radio, along with methodologies for applying knowledge representation, semantic web, logic reasoning and artificial intelligence to cognitive radio, enabling autonomous adaptation and flexible signaling. Readers from the wireless communications and software-defined radio communities will use this book as a reference to extend software-defined radio to cognitive radio, using the semantic technology described. Readers with a background in semantic web and artificial intelligence will find in this book the application of semantic web and artificial intelligence technologies to wireless communications. For readers in networks and network management, this book presents a new approach to enable interoperability, collaborative optimization and flexible adaptation of network components. Provides a comprehensive ontology covering the core concepts of wireless communications using a formal language; Presents the technical realization of using a ...

  15. Multi-Band (K- Q- and E-Band) Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Radio Wave Propagation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust multi-Gbps data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links. Lastly, the architecture for a compact multi-tone beacon transmitter, which includes a high frequency synthesizer, a polarizer, and a conical horn antenna, has been investigated for a notional CubeSat based space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment.

  16. The properties of radio ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W.B.; Disney, M.J.; Rodgers, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    Optical and additional radio data are presented for the bright galaxies of the Disney and Wall survey (1977 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 179, 235). These data form the basis of a statistical comparison of the properties of radio elliptical galaxies to radio-quiet ellipticals. The correlations may be explained by the depth of the gravitational potential well in which the galaxy resides governing the circumstances under which an elliptical galaxy rids itself of internally produced gas. (author)

  17. Central radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The compact radio sources in the nuclei of most active galaxies lie closer to their centers of activity than any other region accessible to observation, excepting only the broad emission line region. They provide uniquely strong evidence for bulk motion of matter at relativistic velocities, encouraging the belief that the activity originates in a gravitational potential well whose escape velocity is of the order of the speed of light. The observational facts are reviewed as well as several theoretical pictures of them. Those places where systematic observations could help to distinguish the true theoretical picture from the many competing forgeries are emphasized. 76 references

  18. A quantum dot-aptamer beacon using a DNA intercalating dye as the FRET reporter: application to label-free thrombin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chun-Wei; Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Li, Yi-Shan; Chen, Lin-Chi

    2011-03-15

    A new quantum dot (QD)-aptamer (apt) beacon that acts by folding-induced dissociation of a DNA intercalating dye, BOBO-3(B), is demonstrated with label-free thrombin detection. The beacon, denoted as QD-apt:B, is constructed by (1) coupling of a single-stranded thrombin aptamer to Qdot 565 via EDC/Sulfo-NHS chemistry and (2) staining the duplex regions of the aptamer on QD with excess BOBO-3 before thrombin binding. When mixing a thrombin sample with QD-apt:B, BOBO-3 is competed away from the beacon due to target-induced aptamer folding, which then causes a decrease in QD fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-mediated BOBO-3 emission and achieves thrombin quantitation. In this work, the effects of Mg(2+), coupling time, and aptamer type on the beacon's performances are investigated and discussed thoroughly with various methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and two-color differential gel electrophoresis. Using the best aptamer beacon (HTQ37), we attain highly specific and wide-range detection (from nM to μM) of thrombin in buffer, and the beacon can sense nM-range thrombin in 15% diluted serum. Compared to the reported QD aptamer assays, our method is advantageous from the aspect of using a simple sensory unit design without losing the detection sensitivity. Therefore, we consider the QD-apt:B beacon a potential alternative to immuno-reagents and an effective tool to study nucleic acid folding on QD as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Warning System Ghana: how to successfully implement a disaster early warning system in a data scarce region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Job; Jungermann, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Ghana is a country frequently struck by natural disasters like floods and droughts. Timely warning or detection of such disasters will mitigate the negative impact on lives and property. However, local data and monitoring systems necessary to provide such a warning are hardly available. The availability and improvement of internet, mobile phones and satellites has provided new possibilities for disaster warning systems in data scarce regions such as Ghana. Our presentation describes the development of an early warning system (EWS) in Ghana completely based on satellite based open data. The EWS provides a flood or drought hazard warning on sub-catchment level and links the warning to a more detailed flood or drought risk map, to enable the disaster coordinator to send warnings or relieve more efficiently to areas that have the highest risk. This is especially relevant because some areas for which the system is implemented are very remote. The system is developed and tested to be robust and operational especially in remote areas. This means that the necessary information is also available under limited internet conditions and not dependent on local computer facilities. In many rural areas in Ghana communities rely on indigenous knowledge when it comes to flood or drought disaster forecasting. The EWS has a feature that allows indigenous knowledge indicators to be taken into account in the warning and makes easy comparison possible with the satellite based warnings.

  20. Observed activation status of lane departure warning and forward collision warning of Honda vehicles at dealership service centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-11-16

    There are little objective data on whether drivers with lane departure warning and forward collision warning systems actually use them, but self-report data indicate that lane departure warning may be used less and viewed less favorably than forward collision warning. The current study assessed whether the systems were turned on when drivers brought their vehicles to dealership service stations and whether the observational protocol is a feasible method for collecting similar data on various manufacturers' systems. Observations of 2013-2015 Honda Accords, 2014-2015 Odysseys, and 2015 CR-Vs occurred at 2 U.S. Honda dealerships for approximately 4 weeks during Summer 2015. Of the 265 vehicles observed to have the 2 systems, 87 (32.8%) had lane departure warning turned on. Accords were associated with a 66% increase in the likelihood that lane departure warning was turned on compared with Odysseys, but the rate was still only about 40% in Accords. In contrast, forward collision warning was turned on in all but one of the observed vehicles. Observations found that the activation rate was much higher for forward collision warning than lane departure warning. The observation method worked well and appears feasible for extending to other manufacturers.

  1. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

    2011-05-01

    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

  2. Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the design, manufacture, and test of antenna systems. The facility is also used as an electromagnetic compatibility/radio frequency interference...

  3. The Hartebeeshoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolson, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the questions, problems and study fields of the modern astronomer. Radioastronomy has made important contributions to the study of the evolution of stars and has given much information on the birth of stars while at the other extreme, studies of neutron stars and the radio emission from the remnants of supernova explosions have given further insight into the death of individual stars. Radio astronomical studies have learned astronomers much about the structure of the Milky way and some twenty years ago, in a search for new radio galaxies, quasars were discovered. Radioastronomy research in South Africa is carried out at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

  4. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS Low Latency Salton Trough Radio Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, C.; Miller, S.; Wilson, B.; Lawrence, S.; Arnitz, E.

    2008-05-01

    UNAVCO is developing a 20 GPS station low latency radio network that spans the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults in the region of highest strain in southern California and the narrowest part of the North America-Pacific plate boundary. The Salton Trough Radio Network (STRN) is instrumented with Ethernet bridge Intuicom EB6+ (900 MHz) radios to transmit a high rate low latency data stream from each permanent GPS site for the purpose of the following: 1) telemeter 15 second data (1 MB/day/station) to the Plate Boundary Observatory archive, 2) accommodate the timely download of 1 and 5 sample per second data following large earthquakes (4 MB/hour/station), and 3) test the UStream of 1Hz BINEX and RTCM data. Three of four phases have been completed. Office radio testing yielded transfer rates of 30-50 KB/s with subsecond latency while streaming 1 Hz data. Latency climbed to ~1.8 seconds while simultaneously streaming 1 Hz and downloading hourly 1 and 5 sample per second data files. Field testing demonstrated rates on the order of 30 KB/s. At present the radios are installed and have transfer rates of 10-40 KB/s between sites that span 10-32 km. The final phase will be the installation of the main telemetry relay where master radios will be connected to a high speed ISP near the town of Brawley. The high-rate low latency UStream data will be available to researchers who are developing prototype earthquake early warning systems in Southern California. A goal of the STRN is to make the data available rapidly enough for GPS-derived coseismic and dynamic displacements to be integrated into early warning system earthquake models. The improved earthquake models will better assist emergency response. UStream data will also aid surveyors who wish to use PBO GPS stations as permanent, high-quality base stations in real-time kinematic surveys.

  6. Dramatugi Penyiar Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastika Yanti Nora

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Dramaturgy is the work of Erving Goffman. He wrote "Presentation of Self in Everyday Life" in '1959. Following the theatrical analogy, Goffman spoke of a front stage and back stage. The front stage is that part of the performance that generally functions in rather fixed and general ways to define the situation for those who observed the performance. The back stage is situation where facts suppressed in the front or various kinds of informal actions may appear. A back stage is usually adjacent to the front stage, but it also cut off from it. Everyone in this world have to run his role in their everyday life. It also a radio announcer. As an actor, they have to be a nice and friendy person when they perform to make air personality, that is  a good  impression, from their audience. But before their perform in the front stage, there so much to do to prepare in the backstage. The front and back stage is radio announcer dramaturgy.

  7. Space Weather Operation at KASI With Van Allen Probes Beacon Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Giuseppe, Romeo; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Sibeck, David; Kessel, Ramona; Mauk, Barry; Giles, Barbara; Gu, Bon-Jun; Lee, Hyesook; Park, Young-Deuk; Lee, Jaejin

    2018-02-01

    The Van Allen Probes (VAPs) are the only modern National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft broadcasting real-time data on the Earth's radiation belts for space weather operations. Since 2012, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has contributed to the receipt of these data via a 7 m satellite-tracking antenna and used these beacon data for space weather operations. An approximately 15 min period is required from measurement to acquisition of Level-1 data. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of VAP data for monitoring space weather conditions at geostationary orbit (GEO) by highlighting the Saint Patrick's Day storm of 2015. During that storm, Probe-A observed a significant increase in the relativistic electron flux at 3 RE. Those electrons diffused outward resulting in a large increase of the electron flux >2 MeV at GEO, which potentially threatened satellite operations. Based on this study, we conclude that the combination of VAP data and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (NOAA-GOES) data can provide improved space environment information to geostationary satellite operators. In addition, the findings obtained indicate that more data-receiving sites would be necessary and data connections improved if this or a similar system were to be used as an operational data service.

  8. The Inversion of Ionospheric/plasmaspheric Electron Density From GPS Beacon Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y. H.; Xu, J. S.; Ma, S. Y.

    It is a space-time 4-D tomography to reconstruct ionospheric/ plasmaspheric elec- tron density, Ne, from ground-based GPS beacon measurements. The mathematical foundation of such inversion is studied in this paper and some simulation results of reconstruction for GPS network observation are presented. Assuming reasonably a power law dependence of NE on time with an index number of 1-3 during one ob- servational time of GPS (60-90min.), 4-D inversion in consideration is reduced to a 3-D cone-beam tomography with incomplete projections. To see clearly the effects of the incompleteness on the quality of reconstruction for 3-D condition, we deduced theoretically the formulae of 3-D parallel-beam tomography. After establishing the mathematical basis, we adopt linear temporal dependence of NE and voxel elemental functions to perform simulation of NE reconstruction with the help of IRI90 model. Reasonable time-dependent 3-D images of ionosphere/ plasmasphere electron density distributions are obtained when taking proper layout of the GPS network and allowing variable resolutions in vertical.

  9. A molecular beacon microarray based on a quantum dot label for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingsheng; Bai, Zhixiong; Liu, Yuqian; Sun, Qingjiang

    2016-03-15

    In this work, we report the application of streptavidin-coated quantum dot (strAV-QD) in molecular beacon (MB) microarray assays by using the strAV-QD to label the immobilized MB, avoiding target labeling and meanwhile obviating the use of amplification. The MBs are stem-loop structured oligodeoxynucleotides, modified with a thiol and a biotin at two terminals of the stem. With the strAV-QD labeling an "opened" MB rather than a "closed" MB via streptavidin-biotin reaction, a sensitive and specific detection of label-free target DNA sequence is demonstrated by the MB microarray, with a signal-to-background ratio of 8. The immobilized MBs can be perfectly regenerated, allowing the reuse of the microarray. The MB microarray also is able to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms, exhibiting genotype-dependent fluorescence signals. It is demonstrated that the MB microarray can perform as a 4-to-2 encoder, compressing the genotype information into two outputs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning from Health Information Exchange Technical Architecture and Implementation in Seven Beacon Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Douglas B.; Propp, Karen; Cohen, Alexander; Sabharwal, Raj; Schachter, Abigail A.; Rein, Alison L.

    2014-01-01

    As health care providers adopt and make “meaningful use” of health information technology (health IT), communities and delivery systems must set up the infrastructure to facilitate health information exchange (HIE) between providers and numerous other stakeholders who have a role in supporting health and care. By facilitating better communication and coordination between providers, HIE has the potential to improve clinical decision-making and continuity of care, while reducing unnecessary use of services. When implemented as part of a broader strategy for health care delivery system and payment reform, HIE capability also can enable the use of analytic tools needed for population health management, patient engagement in care, and continuous learning and improvement. The diverse experiences of seven communities that participated in the three-year federal Beacon Community Program offer practical insight into factors influencing the technical architecture of exchange infrastructure and its role in supporting improved care, reduced cost, and a healthier population. The case studies also document challenges faced by the communities, such as significant time and resources required to harmonize variations in the interpretation of data standards. Findings indicate that their progress developing community-based HIE strategies, while driven by local needs and objectives, is also influenced by broader legal, policy, and market conditions. PMID:25848591

  11. The Keys to Governance and Stakeholder Engagement: The Southeast Michigan Beacon Community Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jardins, Terrisca R.

    2014-01-01

    Community-based health information exchanges (HIEs) and efforts to consolidate and house data are growing, given the advent of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) under the Affordable Care Act and other similar population health focused initiatives. The Southeast Michigan Beacon Community (SEMBC) can be looked to as one case study that offers lessons learned, insights on challenges faced and accompanying workarounds related to governance and stakeholder engagement. The SEMBC case study employs an established Data Warehouse Governance Framework to identify and explain the necessary governance and stakeholder engagement components, particularly as they relate to community-wide data sharing and data warehouses or repositories. Perhaps the biggest lesson learned through the SEMBC experience is that community-based work is hard. It requires a great deal of community leadership, collaboration and resources. SEMBC found that organizational structure and guiding principles needed to be continually revisited and nurtured in order to build the relationships and trust needed among stakeholder organizations. SEMBC also found that risks and risk mitigation tactics presented challenges and opportunities at the outset and through the duration of the three year pilot period. Other communities across the country embarking on similar efforts need to consider realistic expectations about community data sharing infrastructures and the accompanying and necessary governance and stakeholder engagement fundamentals. PMID:25848612

  12. Theranostic properties of a survivin-directed molecular beacon in human melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Carpi

    Full Text Available Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis overexpressed in different types of tumors and undetectable in most terminally differentiated normal tissues. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the in vitro theranostic properties of a molecular beacon-oligodeoxynucleotide (MB that targets survivin mRNA. We used laser scanning confocal microscopy to study MB delivery in living cells and real-time PCR and western blot to assess selective survivin-targeting in human malignant melanoma cells. We further assess the pro-apoptotic effect of MB by measuring internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and changes in nuclear morphology. Transfection of MB into A375 and 501 Mel cells generated high signal intensity from the cytoplasm, while no signal was detected in the extracellular environment and in survivin-negative cells (i.e., human melanocytes and monocytes. MB time dependently decreased survivin mRNA and protein expression in melanoma cells with the maximum effect reached at 72 h. Treatment of melanoma cells with MB induced apoptosis by significant changes in MMP, accumulation of histone-complexed DNA fragments in the cytoplasm and nuclear condensation. MB also enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of standard chemotherapeutic drugs tested at clinically relevant concentrations. The MB tested in the current study conjugates the ability of imaging with the pharmacological silencing activity against survivin mRNA in human melanoma cells and may represent an innovative approach for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Modified beacon probe assisted dual signal amplification for visual detection of microRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuwei; Ying, Na; Ju, Chuanjing; Li, Zhongyi; Xu, Na; Qu, Guijuan; Liu, Wensen; Wan, Jiayu

    2018-04-21

    In a recent study, we reported a novel assay for the detection of microRNA-21 based on duplex-specific nuclease (DSN)-assisted isothermal cleavage and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) dual signal amplification. The Fam modified double-stranded DNA products were generated after the HCR, another biotin modified probe was digested by DSN and released from the magnetic beads after the addition of the target miRNA. The released sequence was then combined with HCR products to form a double-tagging dsDNA, which can be recognized by the lateral flow strips. In this study, we introduced a 2-OMethyl-RNA modified beacon probe (2-OMe-MB) to make some improvements based on the previous study. Firstly, the substitution of modified probe combined on magnetic beads avoids the fussy washing steps for the separation of un-reacted probes. Furthermore, the modification of 2-OMe on the stem of the probe avoided the unnecessary cleavage by DSN, which greatly reduce the background signal. Compared to the previous work, these improvements save us a lot of steps but possess the comparable sensitivity and selectivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Outage Probability Analysis in Power-Beacon Assisted Energy Harvesting Cognitive Relay Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Phuc Le

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the performance of the secondary relay system in a power-beacon (PB assisted energy harvesting cognitive relay wireless network. In our system model, a secondary source node and a relay node first harvest energy from distributed PBs. Then, the source node transmits its data to the destination node with the help of the relay node. Also, fading coefficients of the links from the PBs to the source node and relay node are assumed independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d Nakagami-m random variables. We derive exact expressions for the power outage probability and the channel outage probability. Based on that, we analyze the total outage probability of the secondary relay system. Asymptotic analysis is also performed, which provides insights into the system behavior. Moreover, we evaluate impacts of the primary network on the performance of the secondary network with respect to the tolerant interference threshold at the primary receiver as well as the interference introduced by the primary transmitter at the secondary source and relay nodes. Simulation results are provided to validate the analysis.

  15. Recognition of dual targets by a molecular beacon-based sensor: subtyping of influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Ching; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Lai, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Chang-Chun David; Chuang, Min-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    A molecular beacon (MB)-based sensor to offer a decisive answer in combination with information originated from dual-target inputs is designed. The system harnesses an assistant strand and thermodynamically favored designation of unpaired nucleotides (UNs) to process the binary targets in "AND-gate" format and report fluorescence in "off-on" mechanism via a formation of a DNA four-way junction (4WJ). By manipulating composition of the UNs, the dynamic fluorescence difference between the binary targets-coexisting circumstance and any other scenario was maximized. Characteristic equilibrium constant (K), change of entropy (ΔS), and association rate constant (k) between the association ("on") and dissociation ("off") states of the 4WJ were evaluated to understand unfolding behavior of MB in connection to its sensing capability. Favorable MB and UNs were furthermore designed toward analysis of genuine genetic sequences of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) in an influenza A H5N2 isolate. The MB-based sensor was demonstrated to yield a linear calibration range from 1.2 to 240 nM and detection limit of 120 pM. Furthermore, high-fidelity subtyping of influenza virus was implemented in a sample of unpurified amplicons. The strategy opens an alternative avenue of MB-based sensors for dual targets toward applications in clinical diagnosis.

  16. Learning from health information exchange technical architecture and implementation in seven beacon communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Douglas B; Propp, Karen; Cohen, Alexander; Sabharwal, Raj; Schachter, Abigail A; Rein, Alison L

    2014-01-01

    As health care providers adopt and make "meaningful use" of health information technology (health IT), communities and delivery systems must set up the infrastructure to facilitate health information exchange (HIE) between providers and numerous other stakeholders who have a role in supporting health and care. By facilitating better communication and coordination between providers, HIE has the potential to improve clinical decision-making and continuity of care, while reducing unnecessary use of services. When implemented as part of a broader strategy for health care delivery system and payment reform, HIE capability also can enable the use of analytic tools needed for population health management, patient engagement in care, and continuous learning and improvement. The diverse experiences of seven communities that participated in the three-year federal Beacon Community Program offer practical insight into factors influencing the technical architecture of exchange infrastructure and its role in supporting improved care, reduced cost, and a healthier population. The case studies also document challenges faced by the communities, such as significant time and resources required to harmonize variations in the interpretation of data standards. Findings indicate that their progress developing community-based HIE strategies, while driven by local needs and objectives, is also influenced by broader legal, policy, and market conditions.

  17. Quantum Dot-Fullerene Based Molecular Beacon Nanosensors for Rapid, Highly Sensitive Nucleic Acid Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Kannegulla, Akash; Wu, Bo; Cheng, Li-Jing

    2018-05-15

    Spherical fullerene (C 60 ) can quench the fluorescence of a quantum dot (QD) through energy transfer and charge transfer processes, with the quenching efficiency regulated by the number of proximate C 60 on each QD. With the quenching property and its small size compared with other nanoparticle-based quenchers, it is advantageous to group a QD reporter and multiple C 60 -labeled oligonucleotide probes to construct a molecular beacon (MB) probe for sensitive, robust nucleic acid detection. We demonstrated a rapid, high-sensitivity DNA detection method using the nanosensors composed of QD-C 60 based MBs carried by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The assay was accelerated by first dispersing the nanosensors in analytes for highly efficient DNA capture resulting from short-distance 3-dimensional diffusion of targets to the sensor surface and then concentrating the nanosensors to a substrate by magnetic force to amplify the fluorescence signal for target quantification. The enhanced mass transport enabled a rapid detection (< 10 min) with a small sample volume (1-10 µl). The high signal-to-noise ratio produced by the QD-C 60 pairs and magnetic concentration yielded a detection limit of 100 fM (~106 target DNA copies for a 10 µl analyte). The rapid, sensitive, label-free detection method will benefit the applications in point-of-care molecular diagnostic technologies.

  18. The keys to governance and stakeholder engagement: the southeast michigan beacon community case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jardins, Terrisca R

    2014-01-01

    Community-based health information exchanges (HIEs) and efforts to consolidate and house data are growing, given the advent of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) under the Affordable Care Act and other similar population health focused initiatives. The Southeast Michigan Beacon Community (SEMBC) can be looked to as one case study that offers lessons learned, insights on challenges faced and accompanying workarounds related to governance and stakeholder engagement. The SEMBC case study employs an established Data Warehouse Governance Framework to identify and explain the necessary governance and stakeholder engagement components, particularly as they relate to community-wide data sharing and data warehouses or repositories. Perhaps the biggest lesson learned through the SEMBC experience is that community-based work is hard. It requires a great deal of community leadership, collaboration and resources. SEMBC found that organizational structure and guiding principles needed to be continually revisited and nurtured in order to build the relationships and trust needed among stakeholder organizations. SEMBC also found that risks and risk mitigation tactics presented challenges and opportunities at the outset and through the duration of the three year pilot period. Other communities across the country embarking on similar efforts need to consider realistic expectations about community data sharing infrastructures and the accompanying and necessary governance and stakeholder engagement fundamentals.

  19. VLC-beacon detection with an under-sampled ambient light sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jacob; Pérez-Olivas, Huetzin; Martínez-Díaz, Saúl; García-Márquez, Jorge; Domínguez-González, Carlos; Santiago-Montero, Raúl; Guan, Hongyu; Rozenblat, Marc; Topsu, Suat

    2017-08-01

    LEDs will replace in a near future the current worldwide lighting mainly due to their low production-cost and energy-saving assets. Visible light communications (VLC) will turn gradually the existing lighting network into a communication network. Nowadays VLC transceivers can be found in some commercial centres in Europe; some of them broadcast continuously an identification tag that contains its coordinate position. In such a case, the transceiver acts as a geolocation beacon. Nevertheless, mobile transceivers represent a challenge in the VLC communication chain, as smartphones have not integrated yet a VLC customized detection stage. In order to make current smartphones capable to detect VLC broadcasted signals, their Ambient Light Sensor (ALS) is adapted as a VLC detector. For this to be achieved, lighting transceivers need to adapt their modulation scheme. For instance, frequencies representing start bit, 1, and 0 logic values can be set to avoid flicker from illumination and to permit detecting the under-sampled signal. Decoding the signal requires a multiple steps real-time signal processing as shown here.

  20. Collision warning system based on probability density functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a collision warning method between the host vehicle and target object(s) is studied. A probabilistic collision warning method is proposed, which is, in particular, useful for objects, e.g. vulnerable road users, which trajectories can rapidly change heading and/or velocity with

  1. 14 CFR 91.223 - Terrain awareness and warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the terrain awareness and warning system audio and visual warnings. (d) Exceptions. Paragraphs (a... after March 29, 2002. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a... minimum meets the requirements for Class B equipment in Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C151. (b) Airplanes...

  2. 49 CFR 571.125 - Standard No. 125; Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal... in motor vehicles and used to warn approaching traffic of the presence of a stopped vehicle, except... the driver activate the vehicular hazard warning signal lamps before leaving the vehicle to erect the...

  3. 49 CFR 234.211 - Security of warning system apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security of warning system apparatus. 234.211... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.211 Security of warning system apparatus...

  4. Multimodal warnings to enhance risk communication and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, E.C.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal warnings incorporate audio and/or skin-based (tactile) cues to supplement or replace visual cues in environments where the user’s visual perception is busy, impaired, or nonexistent. This paper describes characteristics of audio, tactile, and multimodal warning displays and their role in

  5. An exploration of public knowledge of warning signs for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Sinead; McKenna, Hugh; Fleming, Paul; McIlfatrick, Sonja

    2011-02-01

    Warning signs of cancer have long been used as an effective way to summarise and communicate early indications of cancer to the public. Given the increasing global burden of cancer, the communication of these warning signs to the public is more important than ever before. This paper presents part of a larger study which explored the attitudes, knowledge and behaviours of people in mid-life towards cancer prevention. The focus of this paper is on the assessment of the knowledge of members of the public aged between 35 and 54 years of age. A questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of the population listing 17 warning signs of cancer. These included the correct warning signs and distracter signs. Respondents were asked to correctly identify the seven warning signs. Findings show that respondents could identify 4.8 cancer warning signs correctly. Analysis by demographics shows that being female, being older, having a higher level of educational attainment and being in a higher socio-economic group are predictors of better level of knowledge of cancer warning signs. Recommendations are proffered with regard to better targeting, clarification and communication of cancer warning signs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17 Animal food labeling warning statements. (a) Self-pressurized containers. (1) The label of a food packaged in...

  7. A scheme for evaluating a local queue warning system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H. & Oei, H.-L.

    2018-01-01

    This article outlines a method of evaluating a 'local queue warning system', in principle intended only to warn drivers of unexpected congestion at known discontinuities of the road geomctry (bottleneck) and give them advisory speed indications. A prerequisite for installing this system is therefore

  8. 30 CFR 77.410 - Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.410 Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices. (a) Mobile equipment such as front-end loaders, forklifts, tractors, graders, and trucks, except...

  9. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wächter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

    Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

    In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

    In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  10. Warning Signs for Suicide: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, M. David; Berman, Alan L.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Nock, Matthew K.; Silverman, Morton M.; Mandrusiak, Michael; Van Orden, Kimberly; Witte, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    The current article addresses the issue of warning signs for suicide, attempting to differentiate the construct from risk factors. In accordance with the characteristic features discussed, a consensus set of warning signs identified by the American Association of Suicidology working group are presented, along with a discussion of relevant clinical…

  11. The investigation of early warning signs of aggression in forensic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans Fluttert; prof Berno van Meijel; Mieke Grypdonck; Bjørkly Stal; Mirjan van Leeuwen

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives. The Forensic Early Warning Signs of Aggression Inventory (FESAI) was developed to assist nurses and patients in identifying early warning signs and constructing individual early detection plans (EDP) for the prevention of aggressive incidents. The aims of this research were as

  12. The Mental Health Counselor and "Duty to Warn."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrofesa, John J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews background and case histories surrounding legal concept of "duty to warn" and confidentiality limits of counseling. Discusses professional, ethical, and legal responsibilities of mental health counselors and identifies steps to follow for counselors who have to warn potential victims of danger from their clients. (Author/ABL)

  13. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  14. Red warning for air pollution in China: Exploring residents' perceptions of the first two red warnings in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hanping; Wang, Fangping; Niu, Chence; Wang, Han; Zhang, Xiaoxue

    2018-02-01

    Air pollution early warnings have been issued in China to mitigate the effects of high pollution days. Public perceptions and views about early warning signals can affect individual behaviors and play a major role in the public's response to air pollution risks. This study examined public attitudes and responses to the first two red warnings for air pollution in Beijing in 2015. An online survey was sent out, and 664 respondents (response rate = 90%) provided their perspectives on the red warnings. Descriptive statistics, sign tests and binary logit models were used to analyze the data. More than half of the respondents reported that their life and work were affected by the red warning in December 2015. In contrast to their perceptions about the second red warning period, the public thought that the first red warning should have been issued earlier and that the number of consecutive days of warnings should have been reduced. The respondents also recommended that instead of reducing the number of red warnings, the red warning emergency measures should be adjusted. Specifically, the public preferred the installation of air purifiers in schools rather than closing schools and strengthening road flushing and dust pollution controls over restrictions on driving. Data analyses were conducted to examine the affected groups and different groups' perceptions of the necessity of implementing emergency measures. The results indicated that men and more educated respondents were more likely to be affected by driving limitations, and men were less supportive of these limitations. The age and education of respondents were significantly negatively associated with the opinion that schools should be closed, whereas wealthier respondents were more supportive of school closings. The finding of a negative attitude among the public toward the first two red warnings may be used to help local governments modify protective measures and pollution mitigation initiatives to increase

  15. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows, their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche

  16. Gold nanoparticle-based beacon to detect STAT5b mRNA expression in living cells: a case optimized by bioinformatics screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dawei; Li, Yang; Xue, Jianpeng; Wang, Jie; Ai, Guanhua; Li, Xin; Gu, Yueqing

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA), a single-strand ribonucleic acid with functional gene information is usually abnormally expressed in cancer cells and has become a promising biomarker for the study of tumor progress. Hairpin DNA-coated gold nanoparticle (hDAuNP) beacon containing a bare gold nanoparticle (AuNP) as fluorescence quencher and thiol-terminated fluorescently labeled stem-loop-stem oligonucleotide sequences attached by Au-S bond is currently a new nanoscale biodiagnostic platform capable of mRNA detection, in which the design of the loop region sequence is crucial for hybridizing with the target mRNA. Hence, in this study, to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of hDAuNP beacon simultaneously, the loop region of hairpin DNA was screened by bioinformatics strategy. Here, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) mRNA was selected and used as a practical example. The results from the combined characterizations using optical techniques, flow cytometry assay, and cell microscopic imaging showed that after optimization, the as-prepared hDAuNP beacon had higher selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of STAT5b mRNA in living cells, as compared with our previous beacon. Thus, the bioinformatics method may be a promising new strategy for assisting in the designing of the hDAuNP beacon, extending its application in the detection of mRNA expression and the resultant mRNA-based biological processes and disease pathogenesis.

  17. Tuning in to pavement radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenon known all over Africa, for which there is no really satisfactory term in English but which is summed up in the French term 'radio trottoir', literally 'pavement radio'. It may be defined as the popular and unofficial discussion of current affairs in Africa,

  18. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  19. Car Gestures - Advisory warning using additional steering wheel angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Christian; Schneider, Norbert; Lübbeke, Thomas; Weisswange, Thomas H; Goerick, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Advisory warning systems (AWS) notify the driver about upcoming hazards. This is in contrast to the majority of currently deployed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) that manage emergency situations. The target of this study is to investigate the effectiveness, acceptance, and controllability of a specific kind of AWS that uses the haptic information channel for warning the driver. This could be beneficial, as alternatives for using the visual modality can help to reduce the risk of visual overload. The driving simulator study (N=24) compared an AWS based on additional steering wheel angle control (Car Gestures) with a visual warning presented in a simulated head-up display (HUD). Both types of warning were activated 3.5s before the hazard object was reached. An additional condition of unassisted driving completed the experimental design. The subjects encountered potential hazards in a variety of urban situations (e.g. a pedestrian standing on the curbs). For the investigated situations, subjective ratings show that a majority of drivers prefer visual warnings over haptic information via gestures. An analysis of driving behavior indicates that both warning approaches guide the vehicle away from the potential hazard. Whereas gestures lead to a faster lateral driving reaction (compared to HUD warnings), the visual warnings result in a greater safety benefit (measured by the minimum distance to the hazard object). A controllability study with gestures in the wrong direction (i.e. leading toward the hazard object) shows that drivers are able to cope with wrong haptic warnings and safety is not reduced compared to unassisted driving as well as compared to (correct) haptic gestures and visual warnings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Early warning of climate tipping points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.

    2011-07-01

    A climate 'tipping point' occurs when a small change in forcing triggers a strongly nonlinear response in the internal dynamics of part of the climate system, qualitatively changing its future state. Human-induced climate change could push several large-scale 'tipping elements' past a tipping point. Candidates include irreversible melt of the Greenland ice sheet, dieback of the Amazon rainforest and shift of the West African monsoon. Recent assessments give an increased probability of future tipping events, and the corresponding impacts are estimated to be large, making them significant risks. Recent work shows that early warning of an approaching climate tipping point is possible in principle, and could have considerable value in reducing the risk that they pose.

  1. Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island

  2. Ionizing-radiation warning - Supplementary symbol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the symbol to warn of the presence of a dangerous level of ionizing radiation from a high-level sealed radioactive source that can cause death or serious injury if handled carelessly. This symbol is not intended to replace the basic ionizing radiation symbol [ISO 361, ISO 7010:2003, Table 1 (Reference number W003)], but to supplement it by providing further information on the danger associated with the source and the necessity for untrained or uninformed members of the public to stay away from it. This symbol is recommended for use with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 1, 2, and 3 sealed radioactive sources. These sources are defined by the IAEA as having the ability to cause death or serious injuries. The paper informs about scope, shape, proportions and colour of the symbol, and application of the symbol. An annex provides the technical specifications of the symbol

  3. CONSTRAINING RADIO EMISSION FROM MAGNETARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, P.; Kaspi, V. M.; Dib, R. [Department of Physics, Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Champion, D. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Hessels, J. W. T., E-mail: plazar@physics.mcgill.ca [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2012-01-10

    We report on radio observations of five magnetars and two magnetar candidates carried out at 1950 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope in 2006-2007. The data from these observations were searched for periodic emission and bright single pulses. Also, monitoring observations of magnetar 4U 0142+61 following its 2006 X-ray bursts were obtained. No radio emission was detected for any of our targets. The non-detections allow us to place luminosity upper limits of L{sub 1950} {approx}< 1.60 mJy kpc{sup 2} for periodic emission and L{sub 1950,single} {approx}< 7.6 Jy kpc{sup 2} for single pulse emission. These are the most stringent limits yet for the magnetars observed. The resulting luminosity upper limits together with previous results are discussed, as is the importance of further radio observations of radio-loud and radio-quiet magnetars.

  4. Radio observations of symbiotic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A E [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Epping (Australia). Div. of Radiophysics; Allen, D A

    1978-09-01

    A search for 2-cm continuum emission from 91 symbiotic stars has been undertaken using the Parkes radio telescope. Nine sources have been detected, four of which are reported for the first time. The radio spectral indices are mostly about + 0.6; these are interpreted in terms of mass loss. In two stars a portion of the radio spectrum has an index of zero, and for one of these stars (RX Puppis) this is plausibly a manifestation of the cessation of symbiotic activity that occurred about two decades ago. There is an extraordinarily good correlation between the detectability at 2cm and the presence of circumstellar dust, but not between the radio and optical domains. The importance of continued radio monitoring of HM Sagittae over the next few years is stressed.

  5. Reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards: Concept and application to debris flow warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are increasingly applied to mitigate the risks posed by natural hazards. To compare the effect of EWS with alternative risk reduction measures and to optimize their design and operation, their reliability and effectiveness must be quantified. In the present contribution, a framework approach to the evaluation of threshold-based EWS for natural hazards is presented. The system reliability is classically represented by the Probability of Detection (POD) and Probability of False Alarms (PFA). We demonstrate how the EWS effectiveness, which is a measure of risk reduction, can be formulated as a function of POD and PFA. To model the EWS and compute the reliability, we develop a framework based on Bayesian Networks, which is further extended to a decision graph, facilitating the optimization of the warning system. In a case study, the framework is applied to the assessment of an existing debris flow EWS. The application demonstrates the potential of the framework for identifying the important factors influencing the effectiveness of the EWS and determining optimal warning strategies and system configurations. - Highlights: • Warning systems are increasingly applied measures to reduce natural hazard risks. • Bayesian Networks (BN) are powerful tools to quantify warning system's reliability. • The effectiveness is defined to assess the optimality of warning systems. • By extending BNs to decision graphs, the optimal warning strategy is identified. • Sensors positioning significantly influence the effectiveness of warning systems

  6. Radio opaque gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, A.V.; Whittaker, R.E. Jr.; Goldstrom, R.A.; Shipko, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation shielding garments and accessories, such as radio-opaque gloves for surgeons, shielding against the harmful x-ray radiation in a fluoroscopic zone, are advantageously different from garments for shielding from other medical uses of x-rays. Such garments are provided with zones of differing opacity, whereby desired sensitivity and ''feel'' through the glove material is retained. One feature is the provision of an ''opacity gradient'' across the glove cross section with opacity being relatively low at the fingertip area (lesser shield-thickness), but relatively high at the less nonprehensile hand zones, such as the palm. Glove fabrication techniques for achieving such an opacity gradient are described. (U.S.)

  7. MUSIC RADIO-JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovtceva Ludmila I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on years of practical experience, the author highlights the main radio genres in which music correspondent, music reviewer, music commentator, and music leading and a disc jockey work. Theoretical principles of their creative activities are analyzed in common journalistic genres, such as interview, reportage, talk show, live broadcast, radiofilm, as well as specialized genres like concert on demand and music competition. Journalist’ speech is seen as a logical element, the incoming with music in art-structural relationships. However, it does not become the predominant sound layer and aims to harmonious correlation or local penetration into music opus. In addition, important links in music journalism are defined the auxiliary "offscreen" editor's job and keeping the original sound archive. The author cites a number of own work examples on the air.

  8. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, T.

    1992-01-01

    Knowledge about cellular events in mammalian cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation is meager. Recent works showed that human lymphocytes become resistant to radiation-induced chromosomal damage after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Experimental evidence for radio-adaptive response (RAR) in cultured mammalian cells was obtained. Exposure to very low doses of gamma-rays or tritium beta-rays make cells less susceptible to the induction of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges by subsequent higher doses. Many important characteristics of the novel response suggest that RAR is a stress response resulting in the enhanced repair of chromosomal DNA damage in cell under restricted conditions. Experiments are still in progress in order to elucidate the molecular basis for RAR processes. (author). 13 refs.; 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  10. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji

    1991-01-01

    An adaptive response to radiation stress was found in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells, as a suppressed induction of micronuclei (MNs) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in the cells conditioned by very low doses. The important characteristics of the novel chromosomal response, called radio-adaptive response (RAR), that have newly emerged in this study are: 1) Low doses of beta-rays from tritiated water (HTO) as well as tritiated thymidine can cause the RAR. 2) Thermal neutrons, a high LET radiation, can not act as tritium beta-rays or gamma-rays. 3) The RAR expression is suppressed by an inhibition of protein synthesis. 4) Several proteins are newly synthesized concurrently with the RAR expression after adapting doses, viewed by two-dimensional electrophoresis of cellular proteins. These results suggest that the RAR is an adaptive chromosomal DNA repair induced by very low doses of low LET radiations under restricted conditions, accompanying the inducible specific gene expression. (author)

  11. A turbulent radio jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    A relativistic plasma flow can explain many of the observations on the one-sided jets, which are associated with radio sources that show superluminal motions in their cores. The pressure from the ambient medium will communicate across the jet in a relatively short distance, typically 30 kpc. The friction between the jet and the external medium then makes the flow go turbulent. As a result the jet dissipates energy and will be brought to rest within a few hundred kpc, if it does not strike an obstacle before. The mean flow in the jet is strongly sheared and stretches the lines of force of any magnetic field frozen into the plasma. The dominant field direction, as seen from the rest frame of the plasma, is therefore parallel to the length of the jet. Polarization measurements have shown that this is in fact the case. (author)

  12. AGONIZAN RADIOS MINERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Salinas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ofrece un amplio análisis sobre la industria electoral, recordando que un candidato a presidente es "un producto para la venta". Se Desmenuzan las estrategias utilizadas en el plebiscito chileno,las elecciones norteamericanas con el NO a BUSH. El Mercadeo Social es una nueva metodología utilizada en proyectos de desarrollo a nivel de campo por ello se hace un esclarecimiento y clarifica el vínculo con la comunicación. Se agrega temas como: Los modelos de recepción de mensajes cuyos marcos conceptuales y metodologías aún no se han adaptado al potencial de esta línea de trabajo.Se analiza la agonía de las radios mineras en Bolivia en la que 42 años de historia y heroísmo se desmoronan.

  13. Radio-isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfangel, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the dispersions that may be used for preparing radio-isotopic tracers, technetium labelled dispersions, processes for preparing these dispersions and their use as tracers. Technetium 99m sulphur colloids are utilized as scintillation tracers to give a picture of the reticulo-endothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. A dispersion is provided which only requires the addition of a radioactive nuclide to form a radioactively labelled dispersion that can be injected as a tracer. It is formed of a colloid of tin sulphur dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution. Such a reagent has the advantage of being safe and reliable and is easier to use. The colloid can be prepared more quickly since additions of several different reagents are avoided. There is no need to heat up and no sulphuretted hydrogen, which is a toxic gas, is used [fr

  14. Radio frequency picosecond phototube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaryan, A.; Carlini, R.; Ent, R.; Grigoryan, N.; Gyunashyan, K.; Hashimoto, O.; Hovater, K.; Ispiryan, M.; Knyazyan, S.; Kross, B.; Majewski, S.; Marikyan, G.; Mkrtchyan, M.; Parlakyan, L.; Popov, V.; Tang, L.; Vardanyan, H.; Yan, C.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zorn, C.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a photon detector for recording low-level and ultra-fast optical signals, based on radio frequency (RF) analysis of low-energy photoelectrons (PEs). By using currently developed 500 MHz RF deflector, it is possible to scan circularly and detect single PEs, amplified in multi-channel plates (MCPs). The operation of the tube is investigated by means of thermionic electron source. It is demonstrated that the signals generated in the MCP can be processed event by event; by using available nanosecond electronics and that time resolution better than 20 ps can be achieved. Timing characteristics of the Cherenkov detector with RF phototube in a 'head-on' geometry is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation

  15. Radio frequency picosecond phototube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaryan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia)]. E-mail: mat@mail.yerphi.am; Carlini, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Ent, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Grigoryan, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Gyunashyan, K. [Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction, Yerevan (Armenia); Hashimoto, O. [Tohoku University, Sendai 98-77 (Japan); Hovater, K. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Ispiryan, M. [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Rd, Houston TX 77204 (United States); Knyazyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Kross, B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Majewski, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Marikyan, G. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Mkrtchyan, M. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Parlakyan, L. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Popov, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Tang, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Vardanyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Yan, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Zhamkochyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Zorn, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    We propose a photon detector for recording low-level and ultra-fast optical signals, based on radio frequency (RF) analysis of low-energy photoelectrons (PEs). By using currently developed 500 MHz RF deflector, it is possible to scan circularly and detect single PEs, amplified in multi-channel plates (MCPs). The operation of the tube is investigated by means of thermionic electron source. It is demonstrated that the signals generated in the MCP can be processed event by event; by using available nanosecond electronics and that time resolution better than 20 ps can be achieved. Timing characteristics of the Cherenkov detector with RF phototube in a 'head-on' geometry is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation.

  16. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Salous, Sana

    2013-01-01

    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  17. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  18. A Radio Astronomy Science Education Partnership - GAVRT and Radio JOVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Bunnell, K.; Soholt, G.

    2009-12-01

    The planet Jupiter provides an excellent subject to educate, engage, and inspire students and teachers to learn science. The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http://www.lewiscenter.org/gavrt) and The Radio JOVE project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) each have a long history of allowing students and teachers to interact with scientists and real radio telescopes. The upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) allows both GAVRT and Radio JOVE to combine efforts and engage with the NASA Juno mission, thus increasing the excitement and learning potential for teachers, students, and the general public. Teachers can attend workshops for training to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. We will overview some classroom activities and highlight some teacher-student experiences. In addition, we will update our efforts on greater Web-based control of the radio telescopes, as well as highlight our upcoming workshops to allow better access for teachers in different parts of the Country.

  19. South African Radio League Introduction to Amateur Radio: A study guide for the Radio Amateur Examination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ) .............................................................................. 15 1.12 The Radio Amateurs’ Examination .......................................................................... 15 1.13 Restrictions on the Use of an Amateur Radio Station .............................................. 16 Chapter 2: Operating... ............................................................................................. 116 14.1 Theory of Operation ............................................................................................... 116 14.2 Turns Ratio...

  20. Radio Astronomy Explorer /RAE/. I - Observations of terrestrial radio noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.; Stone, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial radio noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 dB and more above cosmic noise background, on frequencies above the F-layer critical frequency.

  1. Usage of Wireless Sensor Networks in a service based spatial data infrastructure for Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernandez-Steeger, T. M.; Walter, K.; Kallash, A.; Niemeyer, F.; Azzam, R.; Bill, R.

    2007-12-01

    The joint project Sensor based Landslide Early Warning System (SLEWS) aims at a systematic development of a prototyping alarm- and early warning system for the detection of mass movements by application of an ad hoc wireless sensor network (WSN). Next to the development of suitable sensor setups, sensor fusion and network fusion are applied to enhance data quality and reduce false alarm rates. Of special interest is the data retrieval, processing and visualization in GI-Systems. Therefore a suitable serviced based Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) will be developed with respect to existing and upcoming Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards.The application of WSN provides a cheap and easy to set up solution for special monitoring and data gathering in large areas. Measurement data from different low-cost transducers for deformation observation (acceleration, displacement, tilting) is collected by distributed sensor nodes (motes), which interact separately and connect each other in a self-organizing manner. Data are collected and aggregated at the beacon (transmission station) and further operations like data pre-processing and compression can be performed. The WSN concept provides next to energy efficiency, miniaturization, real-time monitoring and remote operation, but also new monitoring strategies like sensor and network fusion. Since not only single sensors can be integrated at single motes either cross-validation or redundant sensor setups are possible to enhance data quality. The planned monitoring and information system will include a mobile infrastructure (information technologies and communication components) as well as methods and models to estimate surface deformation parameters (positioning systems). The measurements result in heterogeneous observation sets that have to be integrated in a common adjustment and filtering approach. Reliable real-time information will be obtained using a range of sensor input and algorithms, from which early warnings

  2. Application of a molecular beacon based real-time isothermal amplification (MBRTIA) technology for simultaneous detection of Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandappa, I M; Joglekar, Prasanna; Manonmani, H K

    2015-07-01

    A multiplex real-time isothermal amplification assay was developed using molecular beacons for the detection of Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus by targeting four important virulence genes. A correlation between targeting highly accessible DNA sequences and isothermal amplification based molecular beacon efficiency and sensitivity was demonstrated using phi(Φ)29 DNA polymerase at a constant isothermal temperature of 30 °C. It was very selective and consistently detected down to 10(1) copies of DNA. The specificity and sensitivity of this assay, when tested with pure culture were high, surpassing those of currently used PCR assays for the detection of these organisms. The molecular beacon based real-time isothermal amplification (MBRTIA) assay could be carried out entirely in 96 well plates or well strips, enabling a rapid and high-throughput detection of food borne pathogens.

  3. Designing Fatigue Warning Systems: The perspective of professional drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Peng, Qijia; Li, Musen; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Professional drivers have been characterized as experiencing heavy fatigue resulting from long driving time in their daily work. This study aimed to explore the potential demand of Fatigue Warning Systems (FWSs) among professional drivers as a means of reducing the danger of fatigue driving and to examine their opinions regarding the design of FWSs. Six focus groups with 35 participants and a questionnaire survey with 600 respondents were conducted among Chinese truck and taxi drivers to collect qualitative and quantitative data concerning the current situation of fatigue driving and opinions regarding the design of FWSs. The results revealed that both truck and taxi drivers had a positive attitude toward FWSs, and they hoped this system could not only monitor and warn them regarding their fatigue but also somewhat relieve their fatigue before they could stop and rest. As for warning signals, participants preferred auditory warnings, as opposed to visual, vibrotactile or electric stimuli. Interestingly, it was proposed that verbal warnings involving the information regarding consequences of fatigue driving or the wishes of drivers' family members would be more effective. Additionally, different warning patterns, including graded, single and continuous warnings, were discussed in the focus group. Finally, the participants proposed many other suggestions, as well as their concerns regarding FWSs, which will provide valuable information for companies who wish to develop FWSs for professional drivers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  5. Predictors for the Number of Warning Information Sources During Tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhen; Luo, Jianjun; Liang, Daan; Nejat, Ali

    2017-04-01

    People may receive tornado warnings from multiple information sources, but little is known about factors that affect the number of warning information sources (WISs). This study examined predictors for the number of WISs with a telephone survey on randomly sampled residents in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Joplin, Missouri, approximately 1 year after both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (EF4 and EF5) in 2011. The survey included 1006 finished interviews and the working sample included 903 respondents. Poisson regression and Zero-Inflated Poisson regression showed that older age and having an emergency plan predicted more WISs in both cities. Education, marital status, and gender affected the possibilities of receiving warnings and the number of WISs either in Joplin or in Tuscaloosa. The findings suggest that social disparity affects the access to warnings not only with respect to the likelihood of receiving any warnings but also with respect to the number of WISs. In addition, historical and social contexts are important for examining predictors for the number of WISs. We recommend that the number of WISs should be regarded as an important measure to evaluate access to warnings in addition to the likelihood of receiving warnings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:168-172).

  6. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  7. Perception of the mexican public about the warning symbols of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Ramos, L.; Avila, G.; Canales, G.; Altamirano, R.

    2007-01-01

    The perception and familiarization of the mexican public on the terms of 'ionizing radiation' and 'radioactive material' and the traditional warning symbol of ionizing radiation, it has been strongly influenced by the television series 'The Simpson' and their character 'Homero Simpson', which has been the means of communication that of agreement to the results of the anonymous survey carried out in the cities of Mexico, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Veracruz and Merida, it has treated these impact topics in the public opinion in a simple way in different chapters of the series, jointly with the medical common practice of carrying out studies of X rays to the patients and the signals placed in the access doors in the imagenology areas. A bigger percentage is reported to 70% of those interviewed that they have listened the terms of 'ionizing radiation' and 'radioactive material. The traditional symbol of warning of ionizing radiation, 12% recognizes it at first sight, the logo doesn't mean him anything, and only a small group that knows the safety color code associates the yellow color of the bottom with the message of warning-danger. For the case of the new symbol, 100% of the interviewees indicates to ignore it at first sight, however the logo stops in 95% of the cases an opinion to have a meaning, being the perception of death 68%, danger 24%, to run 8% and the red color the message of danger. Inside the public with more familiarity with terminology and the derived traditional symbol of warning of their activities in the work, they were identified the firemen. Of the analysis of the surveys it is observed that the perception of fear to the radioactive material is of 42%, continued by that of ionizing radiations with 32% of the mentions. The presented arguments are that it produces cancer 80% and it can exploit 20% for the first case and it produces cancer 100% for the second case. 98% of the public is interested one in receiving bigger information on these topics and

  8. Gold nanoparticle-based beacon to detect STAT5b mRNA expression in living cells: a case optimized by bioinformatics screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dawei Deng,* Yang Li,* Jianpeng Xue, Jie Wang, Guanhua Ai, Xin Li, Yueqing GuDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Messenger RNA (mRNA, a single-strand ribonucleic acid with functional gene information is usually abnormally expressed in cancer cells and has become a promising biomarker for the study of tumor progress. Hairpin DNA-coated gold nanoparticle (hDAuNP beacon containing a bare gold nanoparticle (AuNP as fluorescence quencher and thiol-terminated fluorescently labeled stem–loop–stem oligonucleotide sequences attached by Au–S bond is currently a new nanoscale biodiagnostic platform capable of mRNA detection, in which the design of the loop region sequence is crucial for hybridizing with the target mRNA. Hence, in this study, to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of hDAuNP beacon simultaneously, the loop region of hairpin DNA was screened by bioinformatics strategy. Here, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b mRNA was selected and used as a practical example. The results from the combined characterizations using optical techniques, flow cytometry assay, and cell microscopic imaging showed that after optimization, the as-prepared hDAuNP beacon had higher selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of STAT5b mRNA in living cells, as compared with our previous beacon. Thus, the bioinformatics method may be a promising new strategy for assisting in the designing of the hDAuNP beacon, extending its application in the detection of mRNA expression and the resultant mRNA-based biological processes and disease pathogenesis.Keywords: molecular beacon, bioinformatics, gold nanoparticle, STAT5b mRNA, visual detection

  9. Health warning messages on tobacco products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2011-09-01

    To review evidence on the impact of health warning messages on tobacco packages. Articles were identified through electronic databases of published articles, as well as relevant 'grey' literature using the following keywords: health warning, health message, health communication, label and labelling in conjunction with at least one of the following terms: smoking, tobacco, cigarette, product, package and pack. Relevant articles available prior to January 2011 were screened for six methodological criteria. A total of 94 original original articles met inclusion criteria, including 72 quantitative studies, 16 qualitative studies, 5 studies with both qualitative and qualitative components, and 1 review paper: Canada (n=35), USA (n=29) Australia (n=16), UK (n=13), The Netherlands (n=3), France (n=3), New Zealand (n=3), Mexico (n=3), Brazil (n=2), Belgium (n=1), other European countries (n=10), Norway (n=1), Malaysia (n=1) and China (n=1). The evidence indicates that the impact of health warnings depends upon their size and whereas obscure text-only warnings appear to have little impact, prominent health warnings on the face of packages serve as a prominent source of health information for smokers and non-smokers, can increase health knowledge and perceptions of risk and can promote smoking cessation. The evidence also indicates that comprehensive warnings are effective among youth and may help to prevent smoking initiation. Pictorial health warnings that elicit strong emotional reactions are significantly more effective. Health warnings on packages are among the most direct and prominent means of communicating with smokers. Larger warnings with pictures are significantly more effective than smaller, text-only messages.

  10. Theragnosis-based combined cancer therapy using doxorubicin-conjugated microRNA-221 molecular beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Choi, Kyung-Ju; Moon, Sung Ung; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-01-01

    Recently, microRNA (miRNA or miR) has emerged as a new cancer biomarker because of its high expression level in various cancer types and its role in the control of tumor suppressor genes. In cancer studies, molecular imaging and treatment based on target cancer markers have been combined to facilitate simultaneous cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, for combined therapy with diagnosis of cancer, we developed a doxorubicin-conjugated miR-221 molecular beacon (miR-221 DOXO MB) in a single platform composed of three different nucleotides: miR-221 binding sequence, black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1), and doxorubicin binding site. Imaging of endogenous miR-221 was achieved by specific hybridization between miR-221 and the miR-221 binding site in miR-221 DOXO MB. The presence of miR-221 triggered detachment of the quencher oligo and subsequent activation of a fluorescent signal of miR-221 DOXO MB. Simultaneous cancer therapy in C6 astrocytoma cells and nude mice was achieved by inhibition of miRNA-221 function that downregulates tumor suppressor genes. The detection of miR-221 expression and inhibition of miR-221 function by miR-221 DOXO MB provide the feasibility as a cancer theragnostic probe. Furthermore, a cytotoxic effect was induced by unloading of doxorubicin intercalated into miR-221 DOXO MB inside cells. Loss of miR-221 function and cytotoxicity induced by the miR-221 DOXO MB provides combined therapeutic efficacy against cancers. This method could be used as a new theragnostic probe with enhanced therapy to detect and inhibit many cancer-related miRNAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Naja atra Cardiotoxin Using Adenosine-Based Molecular Beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yi-Jun; Chen, Ying-Jung; Hu, Wan-Ping; Chang, Long-Sen

    2017-01-07

    This study presents an adenosine (A)-based molecular beacon (MB) for selective detection of Naja atra cardiotoxin (CTX) that functions by utilizing the competitive binding between CTX and the poly(A) stem of MB to coralyne. The 5'- and 3'-end of MB were labeled with a reporter fluorophore and a non-fluorescent quencher, respectively. Coralyne induced formation of the stem-loop MB structure through A₂-coralyne-A₂ coordination, causing fluorescence signal turn-off due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the fluorophore and quencher. CTX3 could bind to coralyne. Moreover, CTX3 alone induced the folding of MB structure and quenching of MB fluorescence. Unlike that of snake venom α-neurotoxins, the fluorescence signal of coralyne-MB complexes produced a bell-shaped concentration-dependent curve in the presence of CTX3 and CTX isotoxins; a turn-on fluorescence signal was noted when CTX concentration was ≤80 nM, while a turn-off fluorescence signal was noted with a further increase in toxin concentrations. The fluorescence signal of coralyne-MB complexes yielded a bell-shaped curve in response to varying concentrations of N. atra crude venom but not those of Bungarus multicinctus and Protobothrops mucrosquamatus venoms. Moreover, N. nigricollis venom also functioned as N. atra venom to yield a bell-shaped concentration-dependent curve of MB fluorescence signal, again supporting that the hairpin-shaped MB could detect crude venoms containing CTXs. Taken together, our data validate that a platform composed of coralyne-induced stem-loop MB structure selectively detects CTXs.

  12. G-Quadruplex DNAzyme Molecular Beacon for Amplified Colorimetric Biosensing of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With an internal transcribed spacer of 18 S, 5.8 S and 26 S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA ITS as DNA marker, we report a colorimetric approach for authentication of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (PH and its counterfeit species based on the differentiation of the nrDNA ITS sequence. The assay possesses an unlabelled G-quadruplex DNAzyme molecular beacon (MB probe, employing complementary sequence as biorecognition element and 1:1:1:1 split G-quadruplex halves as reporter. In the absence of target DNA (T-DNA, the probe can shape intermolecular G-quadruplex structures capable of binding hemin to form G-quadruplex-hemin DNAzyme and catalyze the oxidation of ABTS2− to blue-green ABTS•− by H2O2. In the presence of T-DNA, T-DNA can hybridize with the complementary sequence to form a duplex structure, hindering the formation of the G-quadruplex structure and resulting in the loss of the catalytic activity. Consequently, a UV-Vis absorption signal decrease is observed in the ABTS2−-H2O2 system. The “turn-off” assay allows the detection of T-DNA from 1.0 × 10−9 to 3.0 × 10−7 mol·L−1 (R2 = 0.9906, with a low detection limit of 3.1 × 10−10 mol·L−1. The present study provides a sensitive and selective method and may serve as a foundation of utilizing the DNAzyme MB sensor for identifying traditional Chinese medicines.

  13. The journey of primary care practices to meaningful use: a Colorado Beacon Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Douglas H; Wearner, Robyn; Dickinson, W Perry

    2013-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 provides for incentive payments through Medicare and Medicaid for clinicians who implement electronic health records (EHRs) and use this technology meaningfully to improve patient care. There are few comprehensive descriptions of how primary care practices achieve the meaningful use of clinical data, including the formal stage 1 meaningful use requirements. Evaluation of the Colorado Beacon Consortium project included iterative qualitative analysis of practice narratives, provider and staff interviews, and separate focus groups with quality improvement (QI) advisors and staff from the regional health information exchange (HIE). Most practices described significant realignment of practice priorities and aims, which often required substantial education and training of physicians and staff. Re-engineering office processes, data collection protocols, EHRs, staff roles, and practice culture comprised the primary effort and commitment to attest to stage 1 meaningful use and subsequent meaningful use of clinical data. While realizing important benefits, practices bore a significant burden in learning the true capabilities of their EHRs with little effective support from vendors. Attestation was an important initial milestone in the process, but practices faced substantial ongoing work to use their data meaningfully for patient care and QI. Key resources were instrumental to these practices: local technical EHR expertise; collaborative learning mechanisms; and regular contact and support from QI advisors. Meeting the stage 1 requirements for incentives under Medicare and Medicaid meaningful use criteria is the first waypoint in a longer journey by primary care practices to the meaningful use of electronic data to continuously improve the care and health of their patients. The intensive re-engineering effort for stage 1 yielded practice changes consistent with larger practice aims and goals

  14. A Biofunctional Molecular Beacon for Detecting Single Base Mutations in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a convenient and sensitive biosensing system to detect specific DNA sequences is an important issue in the field of genetic disease therapy. As a classic DNA detection technique, molecular beacon (MB is often used in the biosensing system. However, it has intrinsic drawbacks, including high assay cost, complicated chemical modification, and operational complexity. In this study, we developed a simple and cost-effective label-free multifunctional MB (LMMB by integrating elements of polymerization primer, template, target recognition, and G-quadruplex into one entity to detect target DNA. The core technique was accomplished by introducing a G-hairpin that features fragments of both G-quadruplex and target DNA recognition in the G-hairpin stem. Hybridization between LMMB and target DNA triggered conformational change between the G-hairpin and the common C-hairpin, resulting in significant SYBR-green signal amplification. The hybridization continues to the isothermal circular strand-displacement polymerization and accumulation of the double-stranded fragments, causing the uninterrupted extension of the LMMB without a need of chemical modification and other assistant DNA sequences. The novel and programmable LMMB could detect target DNA with sensitivity at 250 pmol/l with a linear range from 2 to 100 nmol/l and the relative standard deviation of 7.98%. The LMMB could sense a single base mutation from the normal DNA, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplicons of the mutant-type cell line from the wild-type one. The total time required for preparation and assaying was only 25 minutes. Apparently, the LMMB shows great potential for detecting DNA and its mutations in biosamples, and therefore it opens up a new prospect for genetic disease therapy.

  15. Experimental Analysis of Sublimation Dynamics for Buried Glacier Ice in Beacon Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeucht, S.; Dennis, D. P.; Marchant, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The age of the oldest known buried ice in Beacon Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) Antarctica is a topic of active debate due to its implications for the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Published age estimates range from as young as 300 ka to as old as 8.1 Ma. In the upland MDV, ablation occurs predominantly via sublimation. The relict ice in question (ancient ice from Taylor Glacier) lies buried beneath a thin ( 30-70 cm) layer of sublimation till, which forms as a lag deposit as underlying debris-rich ice sublimes. As the ice sublimates, the debris held within the ice accumulates slowly on the surface, creating a porous boundary between the buried-ice surface and the atmosphere, which in turn influences gas exchange between the ice and the atmosphere. Additionally, englacial debris adds several salt species that are ultimately concentrated on the ice surface. It is well documented the rate of ice sublimation varies as a function of overlying till thickness. However, the rate-limiting dynamics under varying environmental conditions, including the threshold thicknesses at which sublimation is strongly retarded, are not yet defined. To better understand the relationships between sublimation rate, till thickness, and long-term surface evolution, we build on previous studies by Lamp and Marchant (2017) and evaluate the role of till thickness as a control on ice loss in an environmental chamber capable of replicating the extreme cold desert conditions observed in the MDV. Previous work has shown that this relationship exhibits exponential decay behavior, with sublimation rate significantly dampened under less than 10 cm of till. In our experiments we pay particular attention to the effect of the first several cm of till in order to quantify the dynamics that govern the transition from bare ice to debris-covered ice. We also examine this transition for various forms of glacier ice, including ice with various salt species.

  16. 75 FR 10439 - Cognitive Radio Technologies and Software Defined Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... petition could not through the exercise of due diligence have learned of the facts in question prior to... to a wide variety of radio services, including safety-of-life services--the Commission holds the...

  17. radio frequency based radio frequency based water level monitor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ABSTRACT. This paper elucidates a radio frequency (RF) based transmission and reception system used to remotely monitor and .... range the wireless can cover but in this prototype, it ... power supply to the system, the sensed water level is.

  18. Introduction to solar radio astronomy and radio physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, A.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic summary is presented of the work done during the last thirty years in the field of solar radio astronomy from the standpoint of general solar physics. Instrumental aspects, observations and theory are covered. A brief introduction is given to the matter consisting of the history of solar radio astronomy and some fundamentals of astronomy and solar physics are outlined. Some topics of the instrumental background of solar radio astronomy and the main results of observations are presented. The elements of a theoretical interpretation of solar radio observations are reported and a synthesis of both observation and theory contributing to a general picture of solar and solar-terrestrial physics is outlined. (C.F./Auth)

  19. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  20. Introduction to international radio regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struzak, R

    2003-12-15

    These notes introduce the ITU Radio Regulations and related UN and WTO agreements that specify how terrestrial and satellite radio should be used in all countries over the planet. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on these regulations. The paper also discusses few problems related to the use of the radio frequencies and satellite orbits. The notes are extracted from a book under preparation, in which these issues are discussed in more detail. (author)