WorldWideScience

Sample records for warning devices for the handicapped

  1. 38 CFR 17.152 - Devices to assist in overcoming the handicap of deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Devices to assist in overcoming the handicap of deafness. 17.152 Section 17.152 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... in overcoming the handicap of deafness. Devices for assisting in overcoming the handicap of...

  2. Device for Monitoring - Warning Frequency Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Nhu Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power quality was assessed by two parameters voltage and frequency, the voltage changes are of a local property, and change the frequency – systematic. Frequency deviation in the grid due to an imbalance in power between the generator and the load will affect the economic and technical indicators of power stations, as well as consumers. To ensure the stability and reliability of the electric system and generator protection to prevent damage during the operation, it is necessary and indispensable device monitoring – warning frequency generator in power stations.

  3. Assessment Strategies for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidubaldi, John; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This review of assessment strategies for handicapped populations is intended to provide counselors with assessment perspectives as well as specific suggestions. The review emphasizes the counselor's role as a member of a diagnostic team and the need to consider a variety of information in formation of meaningful intervention strategies. (Author)

  4. The Holland Theory: Implications for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Rhoda; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors review John Holland's theory that career choice reflects individual personality and behavioral styles, as well as related research findings with nonhandicapped populations. They discuss implications of the theory's appropriateness for the handicapped. (SK)

  5. Preferential Education Policies for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Warren T.

    1981-01-01

    The author examines the issue of preferential education for the handicapped from the perspectives of ethics, civil rights, and theories of justice. This article is part of a theme issue on disabled persons. (SJL)

  6. Information Booklet for the Handicapped. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Office of Handicapped Student Services.

    This handbook is prepared by the University of Southern California for its handicapped students. It contains a description of the facilities located on campus, including accessibility of buildings, restrooms, telephones, ramps, and designated parking spaces. Also included is a description of student services available and solutions to problems…

  7. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  8. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... § 910.34 Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (a) Every development shall incorporate features which will make the development accessible by the physically handicapped. The standards in the...

  9. Consumer Education for the Mentally Handicapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperstein, Neil M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses community placement of mentally handicapped people and remedial procedures for encouraging independent decision making and behavior. Intertwines this behavior change with an alternative method of consumer education. (Author/RK)

  10. 33 CFR 143.15 - Lights and warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and warning devices. 143... devices. (a) OCS facilities must meet the lights and warning devices requirements under part 67 of this... devices requirements under the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 or...

  11. The Dance Within: A Pilot Project in Dance for the Handicapped and Teaching Dance for the Handicapped: A Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Dance Association, Lansing.

    The Michigan Dance Association's Dance Project for the Handicapped is the subject of the two pamphlets that make up this document. The first pamphlet, "The Dance Within," describes the history, nature and goals of the Jackson Pilot Project, the first handicapped dance program in Michigan; it also offers suggestions on how to set up similar…

  12. A Career Counseling Model for the Mentally Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, David C.

    1987-01-01

    A model for career counseling for the mentally handicapped is proposed that addresses goals, method, process, interview techniques, assessment, occupational information, and materials. The process is highly structured and directive, provides predictive and prescriptive information and involves the mentally handicapped individual's parents.…

  13. Toy Libraries for the Handicapped: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Kristen D.

    A brief history of the toy library movement is offered. Programs for both handicapped and nonhandicapped children in 15 countries are described and the effectiveness of such programs is considered. Two types of toy library programs are defined--the Scandinavian model, or lekotek (designed exclusively for handicapped children and their families and…

  14. Information Prosthetics for the Handicapped. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papert, Seymour A.

    The paper describes the successful use of the LOGO System (an interactive graphics, computer based learning environment) with 12 severely physically handicapped adolescents with cerebral palsy. Five goals were set forth concerning the opportunity to work with microcomputers in interesting ways, the assessment of the students' spatial competence,…

  15. Horticulture for Secondary Level Handicapped Adolescents: The Cherokee County Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Greg H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Cherokee County (Alabama) horticulture training program provides 40 mildly mentally retarded adolescents with vocational training in a marketable skills. The broad spectrum of vocational skills makes horticulture ideal for the handicapped. (DB)

  16. Swimming for the Handicapped: A Manual for the Aide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Louise

    Presented is the American National Red Cross Swimming for the Handicapped Program manual designed for volunteer aides. The program's aims, scope, and value are described in the introduction. It is noted that the nonswimming aides can play a vital role in transportation, dressing room assistance, record keeping, and as safety assistants, while…

  17. Vocational Reintegration of Handicapped Workers with Assistive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, N. E.

    1977-01-01

    Two approaches to vocational reintegration of handicapped workers are described: (1) adapting the disabled to the working environment through treatment, therapy, counseling, selective placement, and prostheses, and (2) adapting the working environment to particular handicaps, with the assistive device fitted to the machine or tool rather than to…

  18. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Hygiene Care for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for dental hygiene curriculum cover the scope and definitions of care for the handicapped, interrelationships between disciplines and courses, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty, and…

  19. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and...

  20. Aids for Handicapped Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The reference circular provides information on approximately 50 reading and writing aids intended for physically or visually handicapped individuals. Described are low vision aids, aids for holding a book or turning pages, aids for reading in bed, handwriting aids, typewriters and accessories, braille writing equipment, sound reproducers, and aids…

  1. Maryland Public Library Services for the Handicapped. A Survey for Handicapped Accessibility to Public Library Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Library Development and Services.

    Prepared as a part of an ongoing effort to make Maryland public libraries readily accessible to the handicapped, this directory identifies equipment, services, and facilities available to library users who are confined to wheel chairs and others who have difficulty with steps or stairs. Supplied by the administrators of Maryland's 24 public…

  2. Making Facilities Accessible to the Physically Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Guidelines on performance criteria for the State University of New York consider two main types of handicapped: the ambulant and semi-ambulant, including some physically handicapped, the visually and aurally handicapped, and persons with cardiac conditions; and persons confined to wheel chairs. The handicapped and planning for them are discussed.…

  3. Educational Technology for the Severely Handicapped: A Comprehensive Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Debby, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents approximately 650 references (1955-1975) on educational programs for the severely handicapped. Citations are listed alphabetically by author's name in the following areas: behavior management, curriculum guides, medico-prosthetic aids, motor development, parent training (including aspects of parent involvement in school…

  4. Early Childhood Program for the Handicapped in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucman, Elisabeth

    1985-01-01

    Early intervention in France begins with compulsory screening of all infants at birth, nine months, and at two years. Problems remain, especially in the availability of adequate support and of services for the handicapped child. Interdisciplinary teams operate from "early medico-social activity centers" to provide a variety of…

  5. 48 CFR 552.238-70 - Identification of Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped. 552.238-70 Section 552.238-70... Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped. As prescribed in 538.273(a)(1), insert the following clause: Identification of Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped...

  6. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201

  7. COORDINATING SERVICES FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN, A REPORT OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON SERVICES FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AND YOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KURREN, OSCAR; OBERMANN, C. ESCO

    THE REPORT AND ITS GUIDELINES SUMMARIZE VIEWS EXPRESSED IN SEVERAL PAPERS AND CONFERENCES SPONSORED BY THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON SERVICES FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AND YOUTH. THE PURPOSES OF THE INSTITUTE ARE DEFINED. GUIDELINES DEVELOPED BY PRELIMINARY COMMITTEES AND REFINED BY CONFERENCES COVER FIVE AREAS--COOPERATION AMONG VOLUNTARY…

  8. 30 CFR 56.14208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 56.14208 Section 56.14208 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 57.14208 Section 57.14208... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices shall be used when parked mobile equipment creates a hazard to persons in other mobile...

  10. Tsunami Warning Services for the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Ferris, J. C.; Weinstein, S. A.

    2007-05-01

    Tsunami warning and watch services are currently provided to the Caribbean region through a collaborative effort between the two NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs): the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, and the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska. The WCATWC, in coordination with the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), provides fast-response warning services to the U.S. territories of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (PR/VI). The PTWC provides regional watch services to other countries throughout and surrounding the Caribbean Sea as part of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions. This collaboration is analogous to the TWC's responsibilities in the Pacific basin: the WCATWC provides fast-response warning services for the U.S. west coast states, Alaska, and British Columbia in Canada, while the PTWC provides regional services for countries throughout and surrounding the Pacific Ocean (as well as a fast-response service for the U.S. State of Hawaii). Caribbean seismic data are transmitted to the TWCs through several means. The PRSN directly exports data to the WCATWC, providing the Center sufficient seismic data for the PR/VI region. Additionally, the PRSN provides the TWCs with data gathered from other Caribbean nations. Using modern communication capabilities, the seismic data can be processed at the TWCs at the same time it is processed locally. Another source of high- quality seismic data is the new USGS nine-station array that circles the region. The Global Seismic Network maintains several stations in Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations which are available in real-time to the TWCs. Unfortunately, sea level data coverage is sporadic in the region. The PR/VI has a relatively dense array of coastal tide gages, but coastal tide gage coverage is very sparse for the rest of the Caribbean basin. Three deep-ocean pressure

  11. On the design of a (H)EV steerable warning device using acoustic beam forming and advanced numerical acoustic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Genechten, B.; Vansant, K.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation-based design methodology used in the eVADER project for the development of targeted acoustic warning devices for increased detectability of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEVs) while, at the same time, reducing urban noise pollution. A key component of this system

  12. [The concept of handicap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamonet, C; Magalhaes, T

    2003-11-01

    The notion of disability appears recently in the medical and medico-legal field. It is the origin of a fundamental discussion about the health, and an ethical debate about human person. Indeed it drives to identify among the health users a particular group: disabled persons for whom the methods used with success in the field of diseases are not convenient. For ethical point of view: it is the identity of the person in a situation of disability, its dignity, its self-esteem and the respect through the regard of others which are in question. The debate was amplified when the project of a classification of handicap, as consequences of diseases, (Wood, WHO) was published, in 1980. Two tendencies were in opposition: one of them is "medicinal", following the opinion of Wood, the second is "anthropological and social", supported by scientific and disabled associations. The first proposition of Wood, after a long discussion, is abandoned. It is replaced by a "Classification of functioning, disability and health", adopted by the Mondail assembly of WHO in May 2002. This device is a compromise between the precedent tendencies. This document is heavy, confusing, imprecise and very difficult to use. We suggest a definition with dimensions, separating clearly the body modifications, the universal functional capacities for a human person and the situations of life. The subjectivity is individualised as a special dimension of assessment.

  13. Innovative Methods for Serving Rural Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Glenn; Burnham, Julia

    1985-01-01

    Some innovative methods of serving the rural handicapped population are described: volunteers; telecommunications for home instruction; SPECIALNET electronic mail; and resources for parents. Three cases involving Utah's Cooperative Extension Project for the Handicapped summarize services for handicapped and Indian students. (GDC)

  14. Handicaps for the large scale commercial application of micropropagation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.L.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the last 10 years micropropagation has shown a spectacular development. However, at present the widespread use of micropropagation is handicapped by the following facts: Frequently mutations occur, particularly when applying the adventitious bud technique and callus systems. Basic knowledge

  15. Ratings checklist for warnings: a prototype tool to aid experts in the adequacy evaluation of proposed or existing warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenorovitz, David R; Leonard, S David; Karnes, Edward W

    2012-01-01

    In the field of forensic human factors, experts are often called upon to assess and evaluate the adequacy of new or existing products' warnings or warnings systems. The usual goal of this evaluation is to arrive at a simple binary decision regarding the warning in question (i.e., does it "pass/fail", or is it "adequate/inadequate"). However, such a warning assessment process may in fact be quite complex and multidimensional in its execution. The existing warnings research literature has identified a fairly large number of warnings features or factors likely to have an impact on a given warning's effectiveness or adequacy. The tool addressed in this article is intended for use by a warnings expert (as opposed to one less knowledgeable and informed about complex warnings issues), and can serve as a reminder checklist to help ensure that the expert has taken into consideration the most relevant features or factors during such a warnings adequacy assessment.

  16. Heatwave warning for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    Engineers have been able to start warming up the first sectors of the LHC where the tests on the superconductor circuits have been completed. Raising the temperature from 1.9 K to 300 K is a remarkable but delicate process.   Filling the first liquid-helium truck for external storage. The first update on LS1, published in the previous edition of the Bulletin, announced the start of the Electrical Quality Assurance (ElQA) tests on the LHC magnets. These tests began on 22 February and have already been completed in two Sectors: “The integrity of the magnets’ electrical insulation has been fully verified in sectors 4-5 and 5-6,” reports Mirko Pojer, Engineer in Charge of the LHC. “This is vital in order for the magnets to function properly at the nominal current, which we should reach in 2015. The ElQA team has also run other tests, in particular to verify the electrical insulation between the coils. Fortunately, we have not detected any major problems so...

  17. 30 CFR 75.208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 75.208 Section 75.208 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.208 Warning devices. Except during...

  18. Placing Handicapped Students in the Least Restrictive Environment: An Adapted Model for Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Gary; And Others

    Intended for local school district personnel, the document suggests a model for assisting decision makers in placing handicapped students in the least restrictive environment (LRE). Basic considerations of a multidisciplinary team in determining the appropriate placement for the handicapped students are listed (including the nature and degree of…

  19. Uses of the HOME Inventory for Families with Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The usefulness and validity of the 3 versions (Infant-Toddler, Early Childhood, and Middle Childhood) of the HOME Inventory were studied with 261 children with cognitive, hearing, vision, or orthopedic handicaps. The Inventory in its original form and a modified form was subjected to analysis of reliability, construct validity, and criterion…

  20. 30 CFR 77.410 - Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.410 Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices. (a) Mobile equipment such as front-end loaders, forklifts, tractors, graders, and trucks,...

  1. A new foam for support of the physically handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreska, J; Albisser, A M

    1975-02-01

    This article is intended to inform professionals in the fields of rehabilitation medicine and biomedical engineering of some of the more significant properities of Temper Foam, a new foam for support of the physically handicapped. The unique properties of this foam are explained in terms of its microstructure, illustrated by scanning electron micrographs and by mechanical tests using an Instron Materials Testing machine. Fourteen non-ambulatory patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are using this foam in custom-fitted contoured support systems. Normally, these children show increasing signs of discomfort and skin breakdown due to their inability to alternate areas of weight bearing and high local pressure such as the ischial tuberosities. In our support systems lined with Temper Foam these problems have completely dissappeared. We find that Temper Foam types T-36, T-38 and -41 are ideally suited for patients weighing up to 35 kg. T-41 may be used for patients weighing up to 70 kg.

  2. 38 CFR 21.44 - Extension of the basic period of eligibility for a veteran with a serious employment handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... period of eligibility for a veteran with a serious employment handicap. 21.44 Section 21.44 Pensions... Extension of the basic period of eligibility for a veteran with a serious employment handicap. (a... extend the basic period of eligibility of a veteran with a serious employment handicap when the...

  3. The Gifted-Visually Handicapped Child: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shang-Ping; Sikka, Anjoo

    This literature review examines and integrates research addressing visual handicap and giftedness and provides suggestions for the identification and education of gifted students with visual handicaps. The review addresses definitions of visual handicap and giftedness, characteristics of the gifted visually handicapped child, the problem of…

  4. Human factors field evaluation of automotive headway maintenance/collision warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingus, T A; McGehee, D V; Manakkal, N; Jahns, S K; Carney, C; Hankey, J M

    1997-06-01

    Three on-road studies were conducted to determine how headway maintenance and collision warning displays influence driver behavior. Visual perspective, visual perspective with a pointer, visual perspective combined with an auditory warning, discrete visual warning, and discrete auditory warning were assessed during both coupled headway and deceleration events. Results indicate that when drivers are provided with salient visual information regarding safe headways, they utilize the information and increase their headway when appropriate. Auditory warnings were less effective than visual warnings for increasing headways but may be helpful for improving reaction time during events that require deceleration. Drivers were somewhat insensitive to false alarm rates, at least during short-term use. Finally, and most important, driver headway maintenance increased by as much as 0.5 s when the appropriate visual display was used. However, a study to investigate the longterm effects of such displays on behavior is strongly recommended prior to mass marketing of headway maintenance/collision warning devices.

  5. Predictors for the Number of Warning Information Sources During Tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhen; Luo, Jianjun; Liang, Daan; Nejat, Ali

    2017-04-01

    People may receive tornado warnings from multiple information sources, but little is known about factors that affect the number of warning information sources (WISs). This study examined predictors for the number of WISs with a telephone survey on randomly sampled residents in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Joplin, Missouri, approximately 1 year after both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (EF4 and EF5) in 2011. The survey included 1006 finished interviews and the working sample included 903 respondents. Poisson regression and Zero-Inflated Poisson regression showed that older age and having an emergency plan predicted more WISs in both cities. Education, marital status, and gender affected the possibilities of receiving warnings and the number of WISs either in Joplin or in Tuscaloosa. The findings suggest that social disparity affects the access to warnings not only with respect to the likelihood of receiving any warnings but also with respect to the number of WISs. In addition, historical and social contexts are important for examining predictors for the number of WISs. We recommend that the number of WISs should be regarded as an important measure to evaluate access to warnings in addition to the likelihood of receiving warnings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:168-172).

  6. Horticultural therapy--aspects of land use for the mentally handicapped. A system of planning for the requirements of the mentally handicapped gardener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, T; Underhill, C

    1979-01-01

    An increasing number of facilities for the mentally handicapped use horticulture, agriculture and gardening in their training programmes. This paper contains a review of: (1) some aspects of land use as a medium for leisure, rehabilitation, therapy and training for the mentally handicapped, (2) employment, both sheltered and open, in land use as reflected in a recent survey, (3) the variety of knowledge available through the medium of land use. The main emphasis of the paper deals with: (1) the need for planning, (2) a suggested planning system that assists the instructor in understanding the requirements of the mentally handicapped gardener when he approaches a given job, (3) some problems peculiar to land use work with the mentally handicapped. In conclusion the authors briefly examine: (1) the need for assessment, (2) the need to distinguish between production and training, (3) suggestions towards an expansion of the planning system to take in other areas of the horticultural unit than were originally described, (4) social activities connected with the horticultural activities described, (5) the hierarchy identified through the use of a particular planning system.

  7. Microsimulation modelling of driver behaviour towards alternative warning devices at railway level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Li-Sian; Zhu, Sicong; Ferreira, Luis; Wallis, Guy

    2014-10-01

    Level crossings are amongst the most complex of road safety issues, due to the addition of rail infrastructure, trains and train operations. The differences in the operational characteristics of different warning devices together with varying crossing, traffic or/and train characteristics, cause different driver behaviour at crossings. This paper compares driver behaviour towards two novel warning devices (rumble strips and in-vehicle audio warning) with two conventional warning devices (flashing light and stop sign) at railway level crossings using microsimulation modelling. Two safety performance indicators directly related to collision risks, violation and time-to-collision, were adopted. Results indicated the active systems were more effective at reducing likely collisions compared to passive devices. With the combined application of driving simulation and traffic microsimulation modelling, traffic safety performance indicators for a level crossing can be estimated. From these, relative safety comparisons for the different traffic devices are derived, or even for absolute safety evaluation with proper calibration from field investigations.

  8. Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Carol A.; Ross, Amparo

    The project titled "Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped" was established to research existing evaluation instruments in language other than English, validate the tests as well as additional translations where needed, and develop a procedural manual for distribution to utilize in evaluating non-English speaking handicapped students. The…

  9. Teaching the Physically Handicapped to Swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William

    First principles of teaching swimming to the handicapped are reviewed; attention is given to children with cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy, physical handicaps, blindness, and deafness. Swimming strokes, suggested exercises, group teaching, and a typical sequence of lessons and exercises are considered. Some case histories and a plan for a…

  10. Designing Instructional Activities for Young Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Louise A.; Dell, Amy Glasser

    1981-01-01

    Proposed are several new directions that encourage the variety and flexibility of haphazard teaching and the precision of one objective-one activity teaching in the design of activities for handicapped preschoolers. Journal availability: see EC 133 846. (Author)

  11. Siblings of Handicapped Children: Assessing the Need for and Impact of Their Early Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Debra; Miller, Carol T.

    The project examined the psychosocial functioning of preschool-aged siblings of handicapped children in comparison to a matched control group of siblings of non-handicapped children. The project then examined the psychosocial effects of increasing sibling understanding of and involvement with the handicapped child via participation in a 6-week…

  12. The development of a nursing assessment instrument for the mentally handicapped individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily van Rhyn

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Because mental handicap is a lifelong condition, mentally handicapped individuals and their families experience unique needs and problems, which require sound assessment by the nurse to enable her to intervene effectively.

    Opsomming
    Vanwee die feit dat geestesgestremdheid 'n lewenslange toestand is, ervaar geestesgestremde persone en hul families unieke behoeftes en probleme wat deeglike beraming deur verpleegkundiges vereis, ten einde effektiewe ingn'ping te verseker. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  13. Vocational Education for the Handicapped: A Model for Appropriate Placement and Effective Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Carl; And Others

    Three papers discuss issues in providing vocational education services to handicapped children. In the first, "Vocational Education Speaks to Special Education," G. Rackliffe and N. Pearson consider aspects of appropriate placement and describe a handbook produced to address vocational issues for special educators. The handbook covers such topics…

  14. Wavelet analysis of the seismograms for tsunami warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chamoli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity in the tsunami phenomenon makes the available warning systems not much effective in the practical situations. The problem arises due to the time lapsed in the data transfer, processing and modeling. The modeling and simulation needs the input fault geometry and mechanism of the earthquake. The estimation of these parameters and other aprior information increases the utilized time for making any warning. Here, the wavelet analysis is used to identify the tsunamigenesis of an earthquake. The frequency content of the seismogram in time scale domain is examined using wavelet transform. The energy content in high frequencies is calculated and gives a threshold for tsunami warnings. Only first few minutes of the seismograms of the earthquake events are used for quick estimation. The results for the earthquake events of Andaman Sumatra region and other historic events are promising.

  15. Utility of Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 in a Microbial Fuel Cell as an Early Warning Device for Hexavalent Chromium Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey-Horng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fast hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI determination is important for environmental risk and health-related considerations. We used a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor inoculated with a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI-reducing, and exoelectrogenic Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 to determine the Cr(VI concentration in water. The results indicated that O. anthropi YC152 exhibited high adaptability to pH, temperature, salinity, and water quality under anaerobic conditions. The stable performance of the microbial fuel cell (MFC-based biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. The MFC voltage decreased as the Cr(VI concentration in the MFC increased. Two satisfactory linear relationships were observed between the Cr(VI concentration and voltage output for various Cr(VI concentration ranges (0.0125–0.3 mg/L and 0.3–5 mg/L. The MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI concentrations in drinking water, groundwater, and electroplating wastewater in 45 min with low deviations (<10%. The use of the biosensor can help in preventing the violation of effluent regulations and the maximum allowable concentration of Cr(VI in water. Thus, the developed MFC biosensor has potential as an early warning detection device for Cr(VI determination even if O. anthropi YC152 is a possible opportunistic pathogen.

  16. Utility of Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 in a Microbial Fuel Cell as an Early Warning Device for Hexavalent Chromium Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guey-Horng; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Liu, Man-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-08-16

    Fast hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) determination is important for environmental risk and health-related considerations. We used a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor inoculated with a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI)-reducing, and exoelectrogenic Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 to determine the Cr(VI) concentration in water. The results indicated that O. anthropi YC152 exhibited high adaptability to pH, temperature, salinity, and water quality under anaerobic conditions. The stable performance of the microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. The MFC voltage decreased as the Cr(VI) concentration in the MFC increased. Two satisfactory linear relationships were observed between the Cr(VI) concentration and voltage output for various Cr(VI) concentration ranges (0.0125-0.3 mg/L and 0.3-5 mg/L). The MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI) concentrations in drinking water, groundwater, and electroplating wastewater in 45 min with low deviations (<10%). The use of the biosensor can help in preventing the violation of effluent regulations and the maximum allowable concentration of Cr(VI) in water. Thus, the developed MFC biosensor has potential as an early warning detection device for Cr(VI) determination even if O. anthropi YC152 is a possible opportunistic pathogen.

  17. He Will Lift Up His Head: A Report to the Developmental Disabilities Office on the Situation of Handicapped Navajos and the Implications Thereof for All Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, James S.; Stifle, J. M.

    Issues involved in education of handicapped Navajo children are examined. Background sections contrast the history of treatment for the handicapped in America with the treatment received by handicapped Navajos. Unemployment, substandard housing, lack of accessibility within the reservation, overpopulation, language barriers, and the relationship…

  18. Library Resources for the Blind and Physically Handicapped: A Directory with FY 1993 Statistics on Readership, Circulation, Budget, Staff, and Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The first part of this National Library Service (NLS) for the Blind and Physically Handicapped directory lists NLS network libraries and machine-lending agencies, arranged alphabetically by state. The information for each library includes its address, telephone number, librarian, hours of operation, book collection, assistive devices, special…

  19. Library Resources for the Blind and Physically Handicapped: A Directory with FY 1992 Statistics on Readership, Circulation, Budget, Staff, and Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The first part of this National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) directory lists NLS network libraries and machine-lending agencies arranged alphabetically by state. The information about each library includes address, telephone number, hours of operation, book collection, special collections, assistive devices,…

  20. Workshops on Communication Networks That Promote Opportunities in Postsecondary Education for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcher, Bertha N., Ed.; Shworles, Thomas R., Ed.

    The book contains the major addresses, workshop findings, and materials from a 2 day workshop on communication networks designed to promote opportunities for the handicapped in higher education. The book is arranged in sections following the format of the conference program, with each segment prefaced by a brief introduction indicating the content…

  1. Outdoor Recreation for the Physically Handicapped. A Handbook of Design Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Council on Parks and Outdoor Recreation, Albany.

    Public outdoor recreational facilities and the needs of the physically handicapped are overviewed with guidelines to develop such facilities. Circulation and access provisions for wheel chairs and the semi-ambulatory are emphasized, including requirements for parking lots, pathways, resting areas and public bathrooms. Standard dimensions and…

  2. An Instructional Playground for the Handicapped Using Tires as Inexpensive Playground Equipment: Activity and Construction Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Special Education Instructional Materials Center.

    The manual explains how special education students in an occupational program used tires to construct an inexpensive instructional playground for handicapped elementary school pupils. Presented in two sections with accompanying pictures or diagrams are activity ideas for using the tires in a variety of configurations (Part 1) and construction and…

  3. The Three Bears and Other Plays: Six Easy Plays Especially Written for Educationally Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Dhyan

    This booklet contains six easy plays written for educationally handicapped children. The plays are brief, use few characters and simple language and plots, and are based on fairy tales. Titles are: (1) "The Three Bears'" (2) "The Gingerbread Boy'" (3) "Little Red Riding Hood'" (4) "The Three Billy Goats Gruff'" (5) "Hansel and Gretel'" and (6)…

  4. Reevaluation of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospers, J. Mirjam Boeschen; Smits, Niels; Smits, Cas; Stam, Mariska; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We reevaluated the psychometric properties of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1995) using item response theory. Item response theory describes item functioning along an ability continuum. Method: Cross-sectional data from 2,352 adults with and without hearing…

  5. Reevaluation of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospers, J. Mirjam Boeschen; Smits, Niels; Smits, Cas; Stam, Mariska; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We reevaluated the psychometric properties of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1995) using item response theory. Item response theory describes item functioning along an ability continuum. Method: Cross-sectional data from 2,352 adults with and without hearing…

  6. Museums and Handicapped Students: Guidelines for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    Presented are guidelines drawn from surveys of programs and services provided for handicapped persons in U.S. museums. An initial section which reviews literature on museum programs for handicapped visitors focuses on problems and misconceptions regarding blind, deaf, physically handicapped, learning disabled and emotionally disturbed, and…

  7. Library Services for the Handicapped in Maine; A State-of-the-Art Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patrick A.

    The purpose of this state-of-the-art report is to describe how handicapped readers in Maine receive their special library services as part of the national network. Handicapped readers are defined as those persons who are unable to read conventional print or handle conventionally printed materials because of some visual or physical impairment. The…

  8. The natural environment and human development: implications for handicapped children in urban settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis A. Vinton; Donald E. Hawkins

    1977-01-01

    This review of literature is intended to promote awareness of the needs of the 15 percent of the nation's children and youth who are afflicted with some form of handicap. It is imperative that those who design children's programs that utilize natural environments understand the special problems of handicapped children.

  9. Protect Rights and Interests of the Handicapped

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG SHUIXIA; MENG BAOLIN

    2007-01-01

    @@ Yuncheng is a city in the southwestern part of North China's Shanxi Province. It has a handicapped population of 223,000 or 4.5% of the total population of 4.985 million. The city has made big progress in protecting the rights and interests of handicapped people since the handicapped associations were set up at the city and county levels.

  10. Book Holder And Page Turner For The Elderly And Handicapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, James; Eklund, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    Device holds reading matter and facilitates page turning for person not having use of arms and hands. Accommodates variety of publication formats, whether book, magazine, or newspaper. Holder sits on hospital-bed table and adjusted to convenient viewing angle. Includes flat upright back support for reading matter, hinged base, and main bracket with bent-wire page holders. Top support on back extended for such large items as newspapers. Wings on back support extended for oversize materials. Reader turns page by gripping special rod via mouthpiece, applying friction cup at its tip to page, and manipulating rod. Mouthpiece wide and tapered so user grips with teeth and uses jaws to move it, rather than using tongue or lips. Helpful to older people, whose facial and mouth muscles weak.

  11. Handbook for Teaching Emotionally Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Al

    The handbook is intended to assist school districts in Arizona establish effective educational programs for emotionally handicapped children. Information on policies for initiation, organization, and operation of programs is provided, as are recommendations for academic programing, use of ancillary personnel, and behavior management techniques.…

  12. Modelling driver behaviour towards innovative warning devices at railway level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Li-Sian; Wallis, Guy; Cloete, Steven; Ferreira, Luis

    2013-03-01

    Improving safety at railway level crossings is costly and as funds are often limited, it is important to search for cost-effective, evidence-based solutions. The effect that the many existing alternative systems have on driver behaviour is not always known. This paper compares driver behaviour towards two novel warning devices (rumble strips and in-vehicle audio warning) at railway level crossings with two conventional warning devices (flashing light and stop sign). Regression models were developed to reflect driver's responses towards the four different types of devices based on data collected from a driving simulation experiment. The regression models include a binary choice model for predicting the probability of a driver stopping or driving through a railway crossing, as well as mixed regression models for predicting the moment at which a driver will produce specific behavioural responses before stopping at a crossing (e.g. initiation of accelerator release and application of foot-pedal brake). Violation results indicated the active systems produced much higher levels of driver compliance than passive devices. Contributing factors, such as age, gender, speed and types of warning devices were found significant at different approach stages to the level crossings. With the application of such behavioural models and traffic conflict techniques in microscopic simulation tools, traffic safety indicators, such as collision likelihood and time-to-collision can be estimated. From these, relative safety comparisons for the different traffic devices are derived. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the relationship between authenticity and self-handicapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet; Akin, Umran

    2014-12-01

    Self-handicapping includes strategies of externalization in which people excuse failure and internalize success, but which also prevents them from behaving in an authentic way. The goal was to investigate the relation of authenticity with self-handicapping. The study was conducted with 366 university students (176 men, 190 women; M age = 20.2 yr.). Participants completed the Turkish version of the Authenticity Scale and the Self-handicapping Scale. Self-handicapping was correlated positively with two factors of authenticity, accepting external influence and self-alienation, and negatively with the authentic living factor. A multiple regression analysis indicated that self-handicapping was predicted positively by self-alienation and accepting external influence and negatively by authentic living, accounting for 21% of the variance collectively. These results demonstrated the negative association of authenticity with self-handicapping.

  14. 76 FR 58301 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Automatic Fire Sensor and Warning Device...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Sensor and Warning Device Systems; Examination and Test Requirements ACTION: Notice of request for public... Coal Mining. OMB 1219-0145 has been renamed Automatic Fire Sensor and Warning Device Systems... to a task in July 2011; OMB 1219-0073 subsumed Sec. 75.1103-5(a)(2)(ii) Automatic fire sensor and...

  15. Research of the Warning Alarm Device of Vehicle Rollover%汽车侧翻预警报警装置的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈启鹏; 熊巧巧; 周成

    2012-01-01

    阐述了汽车侧翻的危害,以及我国汽车侧翻预警装置的研究现状.简述了汽车侧翻预警报警装置的工作原理,提出了一种基于侧向加速度和基于横向载荷转移率为侧翻判断条件的侧翻预警的方法.指出侧向加速度和横向载荷转移率是开发实用汽车侧翻预警报警系统的关键技术,并对汽车侧翻预警报警装置的实用性进行了探讨.%This paper states the damage of vehicle rollover, and the research status of the warning alarm device of vehicle rollover at home. Additionally, it supplely states the warning alarm device of vehicle rollover,which presents a rollover warning method that based on lateral acceleration and lateral load transfer ratio. And finally,it points out lateral acceleration and lateral load transfer ratio are the key technology of exploiting the application vehicle rollover warning alarm system, and discuss the practicability of vehicle rollover warning alarm device.

  16. Learning Experiences for Mentally Handicapped Students in a School Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Carol

    A supermarket chain supplies a small grocery store in an elementary school in Jefferson County, Kentucky. The store program seeks to provide learning experiences for students, as they make selections, spend their earnings, and save for later purchases. Students with multiple handicaps and students with severe/profound handicaps shop in the store…

  17. Career Education and the Handicapped Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Kenneth B.

    The implications of career education are considered for handicapped persons. It is explained that career education consists of all experiences for learning about work; and basic definitions are given for "work", "career", "vocation", "occupation", "leisure" and "education". Work as a basic human need and human right is discussed; and economic,…

  18. Applications of Environmental Psychology in Programming for Severely Handicapped Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dixie Branner

    1980-01-01

    Theory and research from the field of environmental psychology are reviewed and implications regarding environmental programing for severely handicapped individuals are discussed. A challenge is issued to design for severely handicapped persons environments which are both manageable and consistent with normalization tenets. (Author)

  19. Exploring the Role of Social Memory of Floods for Designing Flood Early Warning Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Grabs, Thomas; Halldin, Sven; Seibert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Early warning systems are an important tool for natural disaster mitigation practices, especially for flooding events. Warnings rely on near-future forecasts to provide time to take preventive actions before a flood occurs, thus reducing potential losses. However, on top of the technical capacities, successful warnings require an efficient coordination and communication among a range of different actors and stakeholders. The complexity of integrating the technical and social spheres of warning systems has, however, resulted in system designs neglecting a number of important aspects such as social awareness of floods thus leading to suboptimal results. A better understanding of the interactions and feedbacks among the different elements of early warning systems is therefore needed to improve their efficiency and therefore social resilience. When designing an early warning system two important decisions need to be made regarding (i) the hazard magnitude at and from which a warning should be issued and (ii) the degree of confidence required for issuing a warning. The first decision is usually taken based on the social vulnerability and climatic variability while the second one is related to the performance (i.e. accuracy) of the forecasting tools. Consequently, by estimating the vulnerability and the accuracy of the forecasts, these two variables can be optimized to minimize the costs and losses. Important parameters with a strong influence on the efficiency of warning systems such as social awareness are however not considered in their design. In this study we present a theoretical exploration of the impact of social awareness on the design of early warning systems. For this purpose we use a definition of social memory of flood events as a proxy for flood risk awareness and test its effect on the optimization of the warning system design variables. Understanding the impact of social awareness on warning system design is important to make more robust warnings that can

  20. Flood and landslide warning based on rainfall thresholds and soil moisture indexes: the HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System for Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brigandì

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the paper is to present a flood and landslide early warning system, named HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System, specifically developed for the Civil Protection Department of Sicily, based on the combined use of rainfall thresholds, soil moisture modelling and quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF. The warning system is referred to 9 different Alert Zones in which Sicily has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels: ordinary, moderate and high. In this system, for early flood warning, a Soil Moisture Accounting (SMA model provides daily soil moisture conditions, which allow to select a specific set of three rainfall thresholds, one for each critical level considered, to be used for issue the alert bulletin. Wetness indexes, representative of the soil moisture conditions of a catchment, are calculated using a simple, spatially-lumped rainfall–streamflow model, based on the SCS-CN method, and on the unit hydrograph approach, that require daily observed and/or predicted rainfall, and temperature data as input. For the calibration of this model daily continuous time series of rainfall, streamflow and air temperature data are used. An event based lumped rainfall–runoff model has been, instead, used for the derivation of the rainfall thresholds for each catchment in Sicily characterised by an area larger than 50 km2. In particular, a Kinematic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph based lumped rainfall–runoff model with the SCS-CN routine for net rainfall was developed for this purpose. For rainfall-induced shallow landslide warning, empirical rainfall thresholds provided by Gariano et al. (2015 have been included in the system. They were derived on an empirical basis starting from a catalogue of 265 shallow landslides in Sicily in the period 2002–2012. Finally, Delft-FEWS operational forecasting platform has been applied to link input data, SMA model and rainfall

  1. Design and evaluation of multimedia security warnings for the interaction between humans and industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruth, Jana; Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana

    2011-01-01

    In this document a multi-media security warning design approach for automated production scenarios with industrial robots is introduced. This first approach is based on and adapts design principles of common security programs and a German VDI standard for safety warnings design. We focus on direct human-to-robot interaction scenarios, e.g. the online-programming of industrial robots, because of their potential indirect safety impacts, which could be caused by malicious codes infection of a robots control computer. We designed ten different multi-media security warnings, composed of visual and acoustical information. Visual information of warnings is transported via a traffic light metaphor (symbolizing three different threat levels), different warn icons (symbolizing properties of malicious codes) and instructions icons to programmers or operators and additional textual information. With an acknowledgment button in the middle of the warning, the programmer's confirmation of the reception of the warning is verified. Additionally, three different acoustical signals also indicate the threat level of the warning. Furthermore, an evaluation is presented, which uses concepts known from usability testing (method of loud thinking, questionnaire, time measurement). The aim is to evaluate general design criteria of our developed security warnings and tendency of user perception for further advancement of our warnings design.

  2. The Philosophy behind a (Danish) Voice-controlled Interface to Internet Browsing for motor-handicapped

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The public-funded project "Indtal" ("Speak-it") has succeeded in developing a Danish voice-controlled utility for internet browsing targeting motor-handicapped users having difficulties using a standard keyboard and/or a standard mouse. The system underlies a number of a priori defined design...... criteria: learnability and memorability rather than naturalness, minimal need for maintenance after release, support for "all" web standards (not just HTML conforming to certain "recommendations"), independency of the language on the websites being browsed, allowance for multimodal control along...

  3. On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

    2010-05-01

    Warning systems commonly use information provided by networks of sensors able to monitor and detect impending disasters, aggregate and condense these information to provide reliable information to a decision maker whether to warn or not, disseminates the warning message and provide this information to people at risk. Ultimate aim is to enable those in danger to make decisions (e.g. initiate protective actions for buildings) and to take action to safe their lives. This involves very complex issues when considering all four elements of early warning systems (UNISDR-PPEW), namely (1) risk knowledge, (2) monitoring and warning service, (3) dissemination and communication, (4) response capability with the ultimate aim to gain as much time as possible to empower individuals and communities to act in an appropriate manner to reduce injury, loss of life, damage to property and the environment and loss of livelihoods. Commonly most warning systems feature strengths and main attention on the technical/structural dimension (monitoring & warning service, dissemination tools) with weaknesses and less attention on social/cultural dimension (e.g. human response capabilities, defined warning chain to and knowing what to do by the people). Also, the use of risk knowledge in early warning most often is treated in a theoretical manner (knowing that it is somehow important), yet less in an operational, practical sense. Risk assessments and risk maps help to motivate people, prioritise early warning system needs and guide preparations for response and disaster prevention activities. Beyond this risk knowledge can be seen as a tie between national level early warning and community level reaction schemes. This presentation focuses on results, key findings and lessons-learnt related to tsunami risk assessment in the context of early warning within the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning) project. Here a novel methodology reflecting risk information needs in the early warning

  4. The Fuzzy and Compartment System Concept for the Communication System Taking Account of the Handicapped Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Aruga

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the previous papers the process of structuring the Life support system to consider the essential meaning of the ubiquitous system has been presented. There the Life support system is shown as it is synthesized from the Expanded EMR and on the basis of such an essential concept of the ubiquitous system as it is in the recovery of lost functions of ordinary persons. The Life support system has been described to be synthesized with embedding the communication system for the handicapped people as a module, and as such an example of the embedded comunication system as a module the "YUBITSUKIYI" system has been described. Considering the synthesis of the Life support system the transmission structure of information of this system has been needed to be studied, and there some concepts over the ordinary Shannon

  5. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PACIFIC, ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEMS FOR CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Murty

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada has coastlines on three of the four oceans on the globe, namely, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans are connected to the Arctic Ocean in the north, but still they are three distinct oceans, and need three individual tsunami warning systems. Tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are not as well documented as in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. From what is known, tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are rare and probably are small in amplitude. Because of very low population density, around the Canadian Arctic, at present, there is no priority for a tsunami warning system for Arctic Canada. For the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami warning system is in existence since 1948. In at least one sense, the warning aspects of the tsunami warning system for the Pacific coast of Canada, is relatively simple and straight forward, because it involves only the federal government (PSEPC and the provincial government of British Columbia (PEP. For the Atlantic Ocean, A tsunami warning system is now being established. The warning aspects will be some what more complex for eastern Canada, since it not only involves the federal government, but also five provinces, namely, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. The Alaska tsunami warning center (ATWC in Palmer, Alaska, provides tsunami warnings for both Pacific and Atlantic Canada.

  6. On the use of Bayesian decision theory for issuing natural hazard warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, T; Stephenson, D B; Rougier, J C; Neal, R A; Mylne, K R

    2016-10-01

    Warnings for natural hazards improve societal resilience and are a good example of decision-making under uncertainty. A warning system is only useful if well defined and thus understood by stakeholders. However, most operational warning systems are heuristic: not formally or transparently defined. Bayesian decision theory provides a framework for issuing warnings under uncertainty but has not been fully exploited. Here, a decision theoretic framework is proposed for hazard warnings. The framework allows any number of warning levels and future states of nature, and a mathematical model for constructing the necessary loss functions for both generic and specific end-users is described. The approach is illustrated using one-day ahead warnings of daily severe precipitation over the UK, and compared to the current decision tool used by the UK Met Office. A probability model is proposed to predict precipitation, given ensemble forecast information, and loss functions are constructed for two generic stakeholders: an end-user and a forecaster. Results show that the Met Office tool issues fewer high-level warnings compared with our system for the generic end-user, suggesting the former may not be suitable for risk averse end-users. In addition, raw ensemble forecasts are shown to be unreliable and result in higher losses from warnings.

  7. On the use of Bayesian decision theory for issuing natural hazard warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, T.; Stephenson, D. B.; Rougier, J. C.; Neal, R. A.; Mylne, K. R.

    2016-10-01

    Warnings for natural hazards improve societal resilience and are a good example of decision-making under uncertainty. A warning system is only useful if well defined and thus understood by stakeholders. However, most operational warning systems are heuristic: not formally or transparently defined. Bayesian decision theory provides a framework for issuing warnings under uncertainty but has not been fully exploited. Here, a decision theoretic framework is proposed for hazard warnings. The framework allows any number of warning levels and future states of nature, and a mathematical model for constructing the necessary loss functions for both generic and specific end-users is described. The approach is illustrated using one-day ahead warnings of daily severe precipitation over the UK, and compared to the current decision tool used by the UK Met Office. A probability model is proposed to predict precipitation, given ensemble forecast information, and loss functions are constructed for two generic stakeholders: an end-user and a forecaster. Results show that the Met Office tool issues fewer high-level warnings compared with our system for the generic end-user, suggesting the former may not be suitable for risk averse end-users. In addition, raw ensemble forecasts are shown to be unreliable and result in higher losses from warnings.

  8. Quantifying the effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sättele

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Early warning systems (EWS are increasingly applied as preventive measures within an integrated risk management approach for natural hazards. At present, common standards and detailed guidelines for the evaluation of their effectiveness are lacking. To support decision-makers in the identification of optimal risk mitigation measures, a three-step framework approach for the evaluation of EWS is presented. The effectiveness is calculated in function of the technical and the inherent reliability of the EWS. The framework is applicable to automated and non-automated EWS and combinations thereof. To address the specifics and needs of a wide variety of EWS designs, a classification of EWS is provided, which focuses on the degree of automations encountered in varying EWS. The framework and its implementation are illustrated through a series of example applications of EWS in an alpine environment.

  9. "Euthanasia" of Persons with Severe Handicaps: Refuting the Rationalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn

    1985-01-01

    The article examines two common rationalizations for euthanasia of persons with severe handicaps and presents arguments to refute them. The article calls for parents, professionals, and friends of persons with severe handicaps to be vocal in refuting euthanasia and its rationales. (Author/CL)

  10. "Euthanasia" of Persons with Severe Handicaps: Refuting the Rationalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn

    1985-01-01

    The article examines two common rationalizations for euthanasia of persons with severe handicaps and presents arguments to refute them. The article calls for parents, professionals, and friends of persons with severe handicaps to be vocal in refuting euthanasia and its rationales. (Author/CL)

  11. Validation and Adaptation of the Singing Voice Handicap Index for Egyptian Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Baz, Hemmat; Afsah, Omayma; Abo-Elsoud, Hend

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the severity of a voice disorder is difficult. This can be achieved by both subjective and objective measures. The Voice Handicap Index is the most known and used self-rating tool for voice disorders. The Classical Singing Handicap Index (CSHI) is a self-administered questionnaire measuring the impact of vocal deviation on the quality of life of singers. The objective of this study was to develop an Arabic version of the CSHI and to test its validity and reliability in Egyptian singers with different singing styles with normal voice and with voice disorders. The interpreted version was administered to 70 Egyptian singers including artistic singers (classical and popular) and specialized singers (Quran reciters and priests) who were divided into 40 asymptomatic singers (control group) and 30 singers with voice disorders. Participants' responses were statistically analyzed to assess the validity and reliability, and to compare the patient group with the control group. Quran reciters, patients with no previous professional training, and patients with vocal fold lesions demonstrated the highest scores. The Arabic version of CSHI is found to be a reliable, valid, and sensitive self-assessment tool that can be used in the clinical practice for the evaluation of the impact of voice disorders on singing voice. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Handicap Principle for Trust in Computer Security, the Semantic Web and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhanshan (Sam); Krings, Axel W.; Hung, Chih-Cheng

    Communication is a fundamental function of life, and it exists in almost all living things: from single-cell bacteria to human beings. Communication, together with competition and cooperation,arethree fundamental processes in nature. Computer scientists are familiar with the study of competition or 'struggle for life' through Darwin's evolutionary theory, or even evolutionary computing. They may be equally familiar with the study of cooperation or altruism through the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game. However, they are likely to be less familiar with the theory of animal communication. The objective of this article is three-fold: (i) To suggest that the study of animal communication, especially the honesty (reliability) of animal communication, in which some significant advances in behavioral biology have been achieved in the last three decades, should be on the verge to spawn important cross-disciplinary research similar to that generated by the study of cooperation with the PD game. One of the far-reaching advances in the field is marked by the publication of "The Handicap Principle: a Missing Piece of Darwin's Puzzle" by Zahavi (1997). The 'Handicap' principle [34][35], which states that communication signals must be costly in some proper way to be reliable (honest), is best elucidated with evolutionary games, e.g., Sir Philip Sidney (SPS) game [23]. Accordingly, we suggest that the Handicap principle may serve as a fundamental paradigm for trust research in computer science. (ii) To suggest to computer scientists that their expertise in modeling computer networks may help behavioral biologists in their study of the reliability of animal communication networks. This is largely due to the historical reason that, until the last decade, animal communication was studied with the dyadic paradigm (sender-receiver) rather than with the network paradigm. (iii) To pose several open questions, the answers to which may bear some refreshing insights to trust research in

  13. Heeding the warning signs: further displacement predicted for Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeidl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is currently much evidence pointing to another wave of displacement likely to occur in Afghanistan. Ignoring these early warning signs and failing to act may mean paying a higher price in the future, both financially and in human terms.

  14. Educating the Handicapped in Biomedical Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbrier, Gilbert N.

    1974-01-01

    Handicapped community college students recruited for a one-year pilot career program (Biomedical Equipment Technology) proved that when architectual barriers are removed, educational and career fulfillment become possible. Innovations introduced to assist handicapped students now benifit every college student; new programs for paraplegics and the…

  15. The Handicapped Student: Problems and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, J. Roger; Dudley, David H.

    1980-01-01

    Handicapped college students view the attitudes of the nonhandicapped as the major barrier facing them. Other concerns include finding a rewarding career, architectual barriers and financial need. Faculty and students need to be aware of both the problems and contributions of the handicapped. (JAC)

  16. Minimum Competency Testing and the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    This brief overview of minimum competency testing and disabled high school students discusses: the inclusion or exclusion of handicapped students in minimum competency testing programs; approaches to accommodating the individual needs of handicapped students; and legal issues. Surveys of states that have mandated minimum competency tests indicate…

  17. THE INEXPENSIVE DEVICE FOR SEA LEVEL MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Annunziato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new mareograph device has been designed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission (EC in order improve the sea level network in use for the Tsunami Hazard monitoring in the Mediterranean Sea and in the North Atlantic area (NEAMTWS area of UNESCO. The instrument has the characteristic to be cheap and very effective but its reliability, duration and quality need to be determined and qualified. For this reason a number of experimental campaigns are being conducted, whose first results are presented here. In collaboration with the UNESCO/IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, responsible of the definition of the Tsunami Warning System of this geographical area, a set of 20 devices has been offered by JRC for a period of 1 year of testing of the devices; the surveys for the installation of the devices is under way and the installation should be completed by the end of 2015.

  18. Personality traits, age and sex as predictors for self-handicapping tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-handicapping is one of the strategies people use when facing potential failure. Paper presents new scale for assessing self-handicapping tendency as relatively stable trait, as well as its relations with personality traits, sex and age. Self-handicapping questionnaire and shortened form of Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire were administered to 230 participants of both sexes, age 18 to 59. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that model with four latent dimensions, encompassed by a higher-order latent dimension, fits the data well. Those lower order dimensions correspond to originally created scales: External handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in achievement area and External handicaps in achievement area. Results of MANCOVA shows that Neuroticism is predictor of all dimensions of self- handicapping. Impulsive sensation seeking predicts choice of external handicaps in interpersonal area, as well as internal handicaps in achievement area. Latter is predicted also by low Activity. Younger subjects show significantly higher tendency to use internal handicaps, and men in general show more self-handicapping tendency than women, except in choosing internal handicaps in achievement area, where sex shows no significant effect.

  19. Drug Treatment with Children in Programs for the Trainable Mentally Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    In order to describe the extent of drug treatment with mentally retarded children in public schools and the involvement of teachers in the drug regimen, a study was designed to survey teachers of the trainable mentally handicapped by mail about psychotropic and anticonvulsant drug use with the children they were teaching. The study was divided…

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AUTO-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS IN ARITHMETIC FOR THE EDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIGGINS, CONWELL; RUSCH, REUBEN R.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT WAS (1) TO DEVELOP EDUCATIONAL MEDIA FOR TEACHING EDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED (EMH) CHILDREN ARITHMETIC CONCEPTS AND (2) TO EVALUATE THE DEVELOPED PROGRAMED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS. DURING THE FIRST PHASE OF THE STUDY THE ACTIVITIES WERE DEVOTED TOWARD ACCOMPLISHING THE FIRST PURPOSE, DEVELOPING THE EQUIPMENT AND…

  1. Arte en la Clase para Personas Incapacitadas (Art in the Classroom for Handicapped Persons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    The Spanish translation contains a collection of arts strategies intended to stimulate, motivate, and teach basic skills to handicapped children. The lessons involve one or more of the basic art forms (movement, music, drama, and art) and are further divided into five levels of aesthetic development: awareness, imitation, self-initiation, skill…

  2. Arte en la Clase para Personas Incapacitadas (Art in the Classroom for Handicapped Persons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    The Spanish translation contains a collection of arts strategies intended to stimulate, motivate, and teach basic skills to handicapped children. The lessons involve one or more of the basic art forms (movement, music, drama, and art) and are further divided into five levels of aesthetic development: awareness, imitation, self-initiation, skill…

  3. Sewing. Exemplary Prevocational Programs for the Handicapped in Mississippi. PVO Unit XIII--Miniunits 1-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, David, Comp.; And Others

    This unit is part of a Mississippi program designed to provide exploratory experiences and training for handicapped students, to determine if these students are capable of further vocational training or are poor risks for further occupational training, and to train students for basal skill occupations. The materials included in this unit on sewing…

  4. The Representation of the Handicapped in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogamo, Hideo

    The paper summarizes results from an analysis of 276 Japanese literary works which include the handicapped. Works dealing with the blind and haiku written by a poet with cerebral palsy are described. (CL)

  5. Study on the early warning mechanism for the security of blast furnace hearths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-bo; Huo, Shou-feng; Cheng, Shu-sen

    2013-04-01

    The campaign life of blast furnace (BF) hearths has become the limiting factor for safety and high efficiency production of modern BFs. However, the early warning mechanism of hearth security has not been clear. In this article, based on heat transfer calculations, heat flux and erosion monitoring, the features of heat flux and erosion were analyzed and compared among different types of hearths. The primary detecting elements, mathematical models, evaluating standards, and warning methods were discussed. A novel early warning mechanism with the three-level quantificational standards was proposed for BF hearth security.

  6. A Classical Conditioning Procedure for the Hearing Assessment of Multiply Handicapped Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Hearing assessments of multiply handicapped children/adolescents were conducted using classical conditioning (with an air puff as unconditioned stimulus) and operant conditioning (with a modified visual reinforcement audiometry procedure or edible reinforcement). Findings indicate that classical conditioning was successful with 21 of the 23…

  7. 24 CFR 235.331 - Increased maximum mortgage amount for physically handicapped persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for physically handicapped persons. 235.331 Section 235.331 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... maximum mortgage amount for physically handicapped persons. If the mortgage relates to a dwelling unit to be occupied by a handicapped person as defined in § 235.5(c)(2), the otherwise applicable...

  8. The CAP Approach to Modifying Vocational Programs for Handicapped Students. Vol. 5: Trades and Industry with an Example in Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessenden, Patricia K.; Mendini, Daniel

    This combination teaching guide and student workbook, fifth in a five-volume series (see note), presents an approach to teaching basic welding and welding terms for handicapped students. The teaching guide discusses a functional approach to teaching that can accomodate or alleviate the effects of disabilities. Discussion centers on categories to…

  9. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory as a screening test for psychiatric comorbidity in patients with tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salviati, Massimo; Macrì, Francesco; Terlizzi, Samira; Melcore, Claudia; Provenzano, Alessandra; Capparelli, Emilia; Altissimi, Giancarlo; Cianfrone, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is common in patients who seek help for tinnitus. The perceived severity of tinnitus correlates closer to psychological and general health factors than to audiometrical parameters. Audiologists need valid screening tools in order to identify patients with psychiatric disorders and to tailor treatment in a multidisciplinary setting. The tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) has gained widespread acceptance as a self-report measure of tinnitus handicap. In several studies, THI test score correlates with the level of psychopathologic distress. The aim of our study was to investigate the predictive power of the test THI in relation to psychiatric disorders. We recruited 156 patients with chronic tinnitus who have requested help at our tinnitus center. All patients underwent psychiatric evaluation, the diagnosis was made in agreement with the DSMIV-TR criteria; all patients filled out the following questionnaires: THI, Symptomatic Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and Stress-related Vulnerability Scale (VRS). Sensibility and specificity of tests as screening tool for psychiatric disorders was evaluated using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Sixty-eight patients (prevalence: 43.59%) were found to be affected by a psychiatric disorder. AUC = 0.792 (p > 0.001) shows that THI is a moderately accurate test to individuate psychiatric affected people among our sample. We identified a score of 36 at THI (sensibility = 86.76%; specificity = 59.09%) as an appropriate cut-off point. If a patient reports a THI score greater than 36, the audiologist should supplement diagnostic studies with a psychiatric evaluation. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Handicapped Can Dance Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Marcia L.

    1978-01-01

    A program of dance therapy activities can offer handicapped individuals positive experiences in such areas as body image, spatial awareness, self-confidence, hand-eye/foot-eye coordination, visual focusing, balance and social relations. (Author/MJB)

  11. The Integration of the Handicapped into the Regular Classroom: Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cooperative and individualistic learning experiences on interpersonal attraction between handicapped and nonhandicapped fourth graders were compared. Students were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for handicap, ability, and sex. Cooperative experiences promoted more cross-handicapped interaction and…

  12. 13 CFR 113.3-3 - Structural accommodations for handicapped clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handicapped clients. 113.3-3 Section 113.3-3 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... ADMINISTRATOR General Provisions § 113.3-3 Structural accommodations for handicapped clients. (a) Existing... by handicapped clients. Where structural changes are necessary to make the recipient's goods...

  13. Early Warning System for reducing disaster risk: the technological platform DEWETRA for the Republic of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Molini, Luca; Kostic, Bojan; Campanella, Paolo; Stevanovic, Slavimir

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk reduction has long been recognized for its role in mitigating the negative environmental, social and economic impacts of natural hazards. Flood Early Warning System is a disaster risk reduction measure based on the capacities of institutions to observe and predict extreme hydro-meteorological events and to disseminate timely and meaningful warning information; it is furthermore based on the capacities of individuals, communities and organizations to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss. An operational definition of an Early Warning System has been suggested by ISDR - UN Office for DRR [15 January 2009]: "EWS is the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss.". ISDR continues by commenting that a people-centered early warning system necessarily comprises four key elements: 1-knowledge of the risks; 2-monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; 3-communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and 4- local capabilities to respond to the warnings received." The technological platform DEWETRA supports the strengthening of the first three key elements of EWS suggested by ISDR definition, hence to improve the capacities to build real-time risk scenarios and to inform and warn the population in advance The technological platform DEWETRA has been implemented for the Republic of Serbia. DEWETRA is a real time-integrate system that supports decision makers for risk forecasting and monitoring and for distributing warnings to end-user and to the general public. The system is based on the rapid availability of different data that helps to establish up-to-date and reliable risk scenarios. The integration of all relevant data for risk management significantly

  14. Ten years after the FDA black box warning for antidepressant drugs: a critical narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martínez-Aguayo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA has warned about the increased suicidality risk associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI and venlafaxine in children and adolescents. Objectives To critically appraise the available evidence supporting the FDA Black box warning concerning to the use of antidepressants in child and adolescents. Methods A critical review of articles in Medline/PubMed and SciELO databases regarding the FDA Black box warning for antidepressants, and the impact of FDA warnings on antidepressant prescriptions and suicide rates. Results The warning was based on surveys that did not report either cases of suicide nor a significant difference supporting an increased suicidality rate. The concept was defined in an ambiguous way and there is currently more available evidence to support such definition. The use of SSRI and venlafaxine has been associated to lower suicidality rates, but the prescription fall due to the warning increased suicide rates. Discussion Suicidality is an inherent feature of depressive disorders so it would be desirable to consider how much of the phenomenon may be attributed to antidepressants per se. It would be appropriate to consider that suicide rates might increase also as a consequence of the warning.

  15. Should Museums Serve the Visually Handicapped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Dove

    1975-01-01

    The National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution undertook a research project to determine what could be done to enable visually handicapped persons to benefit from the museum's resources. (Author)

  16. The community deals with the child who has a handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, I D; Dohnal, J T

    1984-06-01

    Exclusion messages, however subtle, are interwoven into the community of the child who is handicapped. The subsystems of family, religion, neighborhood, education, health care, and financial assistance agencies have good intentions but frequently communicate poorly with the child and the parents. What is meant as a help becomes a hindrance for the child who must adapt to a limitation while continuing to move toward self-esteem, self-sufficiency, and skills that will enhance productivity and employability. No one negative message will destroy a handicapped child: it is the "history of learned inferiority" that cripples the child who is handicapped. Only when able-bodied individuals within the subsystems recognize the cumulative effect of these messages will the community be responsive to the real needs of the child who has a handicap. Nurses, schooled in sensitivity for the person, should resolve to be in the vanguard in this movement, becoming ever more sensitive to the needs of the handicapped. Such a giant step will begin a fresh and long-needed approach toward understanding those needs central to the well-being of the child who resides in the community and is also handicapped.

  17. JUSTIFICATION OF THE EXISTENCE OF PREPARATORY GROUPS IN SPECIAL SCOOLS FOR CHILDREN LIGHTLY HANDICAPPED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta ANDONAKIS

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Researches about child’s intellectual development in the psychology has started in the 19th century and the first step has been made by Tiedemann in “ Observation of the development of the mental abilities of the children”. His work caused a great interest in the circles of doctors and psychologists. Their interpretation of intelligence was different, but the most acceptable is the performance of complicated activities for getting knowledge and skills and getting over the obstacles in the development of the person”.The social ability do not correspond with the intelligence. The two aspects are tested and a complete picture of their functioning can be seen. The developmental principle is determined from general to the separate as functionally connected.In the period when a child does not accept the higher level of intelligence and thinking , in relation to which are effectuated by sense-motor activities, than we say that a child is mentally handicapped. The widest approach of the educational system should be treated as a functional, institutional and organizational, that takes part in the realization of the social aims and tasks.Not getting into viewing of the curriculum's and programs for preparatory groups in the preeducational period, we may say that the justification for the existence of these group in the regular schools, is maturation of the perceptive motor coordination and learning. With the maturing the function of the "ego" is increasing.As a child adapts better he can learn better, and the maturity comes sooner. In this way these groups are justified.Mentally handicapped child has not the opportunity to attend an organized prepared education which provides:-forming of the speech, self-control, which can be achieved in the process of learning through a direct contact with other children;· regulation of the lateralization through re-education of the psycho-motor abilities, and in general neuro-motor experienced maturation

  18. Warning Analysis for the Information Age: Rethinking the Intelligence Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    efforts to build production fermenters —either by the military or for biopesticides or for vaccines. Projecting forward or back in time—either for projects...contains the nuclear device or BW fermenter so that he can interdict that facility with a single smart bomb or cruise missile with minimal collateral...intent.34 After 9/11, “extraordinary” is a single WMD or terrorist act. This could be a single fermenter and crop duster or could be a single hijacked

  19. Current National Weather Service Watches, Warnings, or Advisories for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Storm Prediction Center uses RSS feeds to disseminate all watches, warnings and advisories for the United States that are...

  20. A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of warning messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    The tsunami disaster affecting the Indian Ocean region on Christmas 2004 demonstrated very clearly the shortcomings in tsunami detection, public warning processes as well as intergovernmental warning message exchange in the Indian Ocean region. In that regard, early warning systems require that the dissemination of early warning messages has to be executed in way that ensures that the message delivery is timely; the message content is understandable, usable and accurate. To that end, diverse and multiple dissemination channels must be used to increase the chance of the messages reaching all affected persons in a hazard scenario. In addition to this, usage of internationally accepted standards for the warning dissemination such as the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element specified by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) increase the interoperability among different warning systems enabling thus the concept of system-of-systems proposed by GEOSS. The project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), co-funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme, aims at strengthening the early warning capacities by building an innovative generation of interoperable tsunami early warning systems based on the above mentioned concepts following a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. The project focuses on the downstream part of the hazard information processing where customized, user-tailored warning messages and alerts flow from the warning centre to the responsible authorities and/or the public with their different needs and responsibilities. The information logistics services within DEWS generate tailored EDXL-DE/CAP warning messages for each user that must receive the message according to their preferences, e.g., settings for language, interested areas, dissemination channels, etc.. However, the significant difference in the implementation and

  1. An Infrastructure for a Traffic Warning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2005-01-01

    The LIWAS Trafc Warning System aims at providingearly warning to vehicles about road conditions, such aswhether the road is slippery. The LIWAS system is currentlybeing developed and consists of two main parts:sensors for determining the state of the road and a communicationinfrastructure support...

  2. An Infrastructure for a Traffic Warning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2005-01-01

    The LIWAS Trafc Warning System aims at providingearly warning to vehicles about road conditions, such aswhether the road is slippery. The LIWAS system is currentlybeing developed and consists of two main parts:sensors for determining the state of the road and a communicationinfrastructure support...

  3. Validity and Reliability of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly: Version Adapted for Use on the Portuguese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Sofia Margarida Marques; Simões, João; Paiva, António; Newman, Craig; Castro E Sousa, Francisco; Bébéar, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    The use of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE) questionnaire enables us to measure self-perceived psychosocial handicaps of hearing impairment in the elderly as a supplement to pure-tone audiometry. This screening instrument is widely used and it has been going through adaptations and validations for many languages; all of these versions have kept the validity and reliability of the original version. To validate the HHIE questionnaire, translated into Portuguese of Portugal, on the Portuguese population. This study is a descriptive correlational qualitative study. The authors performed the translation from English into Portuguese, the linguistic adaptation, and the counter translation. Two hundred and sixty patients from the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Department of Coimbra University Hospitals were divided into a case group (83 individuals) and a control group (177 individuals). All of the 260 patients completed the 25 items in the questionnaire and the answers were reviewed for completeness. The patients volunteered to answer the 25-item HHIE during an ENT appointment. Correlations between each individual item and the total score of the HHIE were tested, and demographic and clinical variables were correlated with the total score, as well. The instrument's reproducibility was assessed using the internal consistency model (Cronbach's alpha). The questions were successfully understood by the participants. There was a significant difference in the HHIE-10 and HHIE-25 total scores between the two groups (p Portuguese of Portugal maintained the validity of the original version and it is useful to assess the psychosocial handicap of hearing impairment in the elderly. American Academy of Audiology.

  4. Questionário Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly - Screening version (HHIE-S: estudo da sensibilidade e especificidade Questionnaire Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly - Screening version (HHIE-S: sensitivity and specificity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Argondizo de Rosis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a sensibilidade e especificidade do questionário Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly - Screening version (HHIE-S na triagem auditiva de idosos que procuram diferentes serviços de atenção à saúde (clínica audiológica e outras clínicas. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliada a audição de 78 idosos - 23 atendidos na disciplina de Geriatria e Gerontologia da instituição de origem, que não tinham, necessariamente, queixas relacionadas à audição, e 55 atendidos no Ambulatório de Audiologia da mesma instituição, com queixas relacionadas aos sistemas auditivo e/ou vestibular. Foi aplicado o HHIE-S, cujo escore total foi dividido em três categorias, de acordo com a percepção do handicap. RESULTADOS: Houve relação estatisticamente significante entre handicap e grau de perda auditiva no grupo de pacientes do Ambulatório de Audiologia (p=0,009, e no grupo de pacientes do Ambulatório de Geriatria (p=0,002. No primeiro grupo, o questionário HHIE-S revelou baixa sensibilidade (23,5% e alta especificidade (73,7%. No grupo de pacientes do setor de Geriatria, foram altos os valores de sensibilidade (94,7% e de especificidade (75%. CONCLUSÕES: Há associação positiva entre o grau de perda auditiva e o handicap referido em ambos os grupos. O questionário HHIE-S é um instrumento de triagem auditiva com alta especificidade e sensibilidade na identificação de perdas auditivas em idosos que procuram serviços de saúde que não são específicos para atendimentos relacionados às alterações auditivas.PURPOSE: To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly - Screening version (HHIE-S in the hearing screening of elderly people who seek for different health care services (audiological clinic and other clinics. METHODS: The hearing of 78 elderly - 23 attended at the Discipline of Geriatrics and Gerontology of the institution who did not, necessarily, have

  5. Early warning for geo-hazards based on the weather condition in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanzheng LIU; Yanhui LIU; Mingsheng WEN; Can TANG; Tiefeng LI; Jianfa LIAN

    2006-01-01

    According to national early warning practice for geo-hazards from 2003 to 2005, it is systematically concluded that the basic characteristics of geo-hazards, early warning method and forecast result based on the geological maps of China in a scale 1∶6 000 000. With the contrast of different characters between sustained rainfall and typhoon rainfall inducing geo-hazards, the disaster reduction result and some problems are preliminarily analyzed. Some basic recognition is that early warning to geo-hazards is feasible, national scale forecast is only to call attention, but can't immediately be used to disaster reduction decision-making. And, the future direction is to build a united disaster reduction framework of early warning system including national, provincial and county levels based on weather factors in different scale of area.

  6. Estimating the benefits of single value and probability forecasting for flood warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Verkade

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk can be reduced by means of flood forecasting, warning and response systems (FFWRS. These systems include a forecasting sub-system which is imperfect, meaning that inherent uncertainties in hydrological forecasts may result in false alarms and missed events. This forecasting uncertainty decreases the potential reduction of flood risk, but is seldom accounted for in estimates of the benefits of FFWRSs. In the present paper, a method to estimate the benefits of (imperfect FFWRSs in reducing flood risk is presented. The method is based on a hydro-economic model of expected annual damage (EAD due to flooding, combined with the concept of Relative Economic Value (REV. The estimated benefits include not only the reduction of flood losses due to a warning response, but also consider the costs of the warning response itself, as well as the costs associated with forecasting uncertainty. The method allows for estimation of the benefits of FFWRSs that use either deterministic or probabilistic forecasts. Through application to a case study, it is shown that FFWRSs using a probabilistic forecast have the potential to realise higher benefits at all lead-times. However, it is also shown that provision of warning at increasing lead-time does not necessarily lead to an increasing reduction of flood risk, but rather that an optimal lead-time at which warnings are provided can be established as a function of forecast uncertainty and the cost-loss ratio of the user receiving and responding to the warning.

  7. Investigating the feasibility of a BCI-driven robot-based writing agent for handicapped individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syan, Chanan S.; Harnarinesingh, Randy E. S.; Beharry, Rishi

    2014-07-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) predominantly employ output actuators such as virtual keyboards and wheelchair controllers to enable handicapped individuals to interact and communicate with their environment. However, BCI-based assistive technologies are limited in their application. There is minimal research geared towards granting disabled individuals the ability to communicate using written words. This is a drawback because involving a human attendant in writing tasks can entail a breach of personal privacy where the task entails sensitive and private information such as banking matters. BCI-driven robot-based writing however can provide a safeguard for user privacy where it is required. This study investigated the feasibility of a BCI-driven writing agent using the 3 degree-of- freedom Phantom Omnibot. A full alphanumerical English character set was developed and validated using a teach pendant program in MATLAB. The Omnibot was subsequently interfaced to a P300-based BCI. Three subjects utilised the BCI in the online context to communicate words to the writing robot over a Local Area Network (LAN). The average online letter-wise classification accuracy was 91.43%. The writing agent legibly constructed the communicated letters with minor errors in trajectory execution. The developed system therefore provided a feasible platform for BCI-based writing.

  8. The One-Meter Criterion for Tsunami Warning: Time for a Reevaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, G. J.; Weinstein, S.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. tsunami warning centers issue warnings when runup is anticipated to exceed one meter. The origins of the one-meter criterion are unclear, though Whitmore, et al (2008) showed from tsunami history that one meter is roughly the threshold above which damage occurs. Recent experiences in Hawaii, however, suggest that the threshold could be raised. Tsunami Warnings were issued for 2010 Chile, 2011 Tohoku, and 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunamis; each exceeded one meter runup somewhere in the State. Evacuation, however, was necessary only in 2011, and even then onshore damage (as opposed to damage from currents) occurred only where runup exceeded 1.5m. During both Chile and Haida Gwaii tsunamis the existing criteria led to unnecessary evacuation. Maximum runup during the Chile tsunami was 1.1m at Hilo's Wailoa Boat Harbor, while the Haida Gwaii tsunami peaked at 1.2m at Honouliwai Bay on Molokai. Both tsunamis caused only minor damage and minimal flooding; in both cases a Tsunami Advisory (i.e., there is no need to evacuate, but stay off the beach and out of the water) would have been adequate. The Advisory was originally developed as an ad hoc response to the mildly threatening 2006 Kuril tsunami and has since been formalized as the product we issue when maximum runup is expected to be 0.3-1.0 m. At the time it was introduced, however, there was no discussion that this new low-level warning might allow the criterion for Tsunami Warning itself to be adjusted. We now suggest that the divide between Advisory and Warning be raised from 1.0 to something greater, possibly 1.2m. If the warning threshold were raised to 1.2m, the over-warning for the Chile tsunami still could not have been avoided. Models calibrated against DART data consistently forecast runup just over 1.2m for that event. For Haida Gwaii, adjusting the models to match the DART data increased the forecast runup to almost 2m, which again meant a warning, though in retrospect we should have been skeptical. The

  9. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning device...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways of...

  11. [Hepatitis A, B, and C in an occupational center for the mentally handicapped].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo, A; Latorre, M D; Pac, M R; Safont, L; Guillén, F; Aguinaga, I

    1998-10-01

    Estimation of prevalence of serologic markers of viral hepatitis A, B and C in students and staff of an occupational centre in Castellón (Spain). Serologic markers of hepatitis A (IgG anti-HAV) and B (HBsAg, anti-HBe, anti-HBc, anti-HBs) were detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and serologic markers of hepatitis C (anti-HCV) by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Ninety per cent of students (54/60) and 80% of staff (8/10) participated. The prevalence of IgG anti-HVA was 55.6% in students and 75% in staff, increasing with age. Considering persons not vaccinated against hepatitis B, the prevalence of serologic markers hepatitis B was 18.5% in students, two HBsAg and anti-HBe positive, and nobody in staff. Serologic markers hepatitis B was associated with duration of stay institutions for mentally handicapped. None of the center was positive for anti-HCV. Viral hepatitis prevalences present notable differences. To maintain a serological surveillance of these diseases is important to control and prevention.

  12. Analysis of Triwheeler for Handicapped Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onkar Wadkar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar plays a vital role in day to day life. In this project we have discussed that how solar tri-wheeler will help to reduce the eff ort of handicapped person. All the designs specification considered after analyzing the problems from the handicapped person. Comfort of the person in the tri-wheeler is an important and we have given importance to it. The main content of the tri-wheeler is Solar PV panel, Brushless PMDC motor, Charge controller and battery. In this project we have discuss about the main idea of this project and to get a larger picture on what is the problem in the current technologies, what that we want to achieve in this project and the area that will cover on this project. This project is divided into some categories that are project background to describe the reasons to do this project, problem statement to inform about the problem or weakness of the existing technology, objective to make sure what actually this project must achieve and scope of this project to specify what will be used in this project. In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by this technology. The electrical power is used to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle, better performance and it cause less pollution. Driving mode selectivity improves this system more economical, stable and more efficient

  13. Instrumental monitoring of lahars for warning purposes: new developments along the Colima Volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Velio; Capra, Lucia; Vázquez, Rosario; Márquez, Víctor H.; Cruz, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWSs) for rapid flow-like landslides can be classified into two main types: advance- and event-systems. Advance EWSs predict the flow occurrence by monitoring the parameters that may lead to initiation conditions, typically rainfall. This kind of EWSs are prone to a high number of false alarms because they are strongly affected by uncertainties in both precipitation measurements and in the estimate of rainfall thresholds. Event EWSs are based on the instrumental detection of the flow when it is already in progress. Those systems can be particularly effective to protect vulnerable infrastructures such as communication routes that do not require an excessively long alert time. However, having a much smaller lead time than advance-systems, their effectiveness strictly depends on the possibility to perform accurate and rapid measurements and to automatically process, store and validate monitoring data, that is to integrate an effective warning algorithm. In mountainous regions, several instrumented catchments exist where debris flow monitoring is performed using stage sensors, video cameras, and ground vibration detectors (GVDs). For early warning purpose, the possibility to detect debris flows from a distance is an important advantage of GVDs. In addition, most monitoring devices need to be installed in the channel bed or very close to it, with consequent great danger to be destructed. Consequently, a growing number of monitoring systems of active basins integrate a linear array of GVDs distributed along the channel, in safe locations. A debris flow warning algorithm based on geophone data was recently developed and implemented in the Gadria testing field for EWSs, Northeastern Italian Alps. This algorithm uses the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) as warning parameter instead of a classical intensity/duration threshold. The event detection algorithm adopts a non-simultaneous triggering condition requiring that at least two geophones trigger in order

  14. GNSS Tsunami Warning System Augmentation for the Indo-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrecque, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The years since the devastating Banda Aceh Earthquake of December, 2004 have repeatedly inflicted the terrible loss of life and economic disruption from large earthquakes and resulting tsunamis upon Indo-Pacific coastal populations. The hardest hit populations are those closest to the earthquake source, a scenario for which most Indo-Pacific nations lack an adequate early warning system. Following the Banda Aceh Earthquake, GNSS based techniques were developed to provide accurate, timely, estimates of ground displacements, the modeling and monitoring of tsunami propagation. Major investments are also being made to deploy and upgrade existing GNSS constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Beidou, Galileo, GZSS, and IRNSS) by the end of this decade. There have also been significant investments in multi-GNSS ground networks and analysis centers that often provide measurements in real time. These multi-national investments now present the possibility for significant improvements to the Indo-Pacific region's tsunami warning. The development of GNSS based tsunami warning integrated with existing seismic based tsunami warning systems will provide a robust, accurate, timely, and cost effective network to provide effective warning for the Indo-Pacific coastal communities. The UN General Assembly has called for the sharing of geodetic data for the mitigation of natural hazards while the IUGG and IGS recommend the implementation of a GNSS based augmentation to the Tsunami Early Warning System. The same GNSS ground networks and constellations that support the Tsunami Early Warning network also provide Positioning, Navigation, and Timing and other benefits to these communities thereby insuring a sustainable and reliable capability.

  15. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  16. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the U.S. for Warn Early Warning System for Forest Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2012-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx 751 million acres (approx 1/3 of total land). Several abiotic and biotic damage agents disturb, damage, kill, and/or threaten these forests. Regionally extensive forest disturbances can also threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work at finer scales. daily MODIS data provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis, leveraging vegetation phenology. In response, the USFS and NASA began collaborating in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS).

  17. 34 CFR 75.610 - Access by the handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access by the handicapped. 75.610 Section 75.610... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.610 Access by the handicapped. A grantee shall comply with the Federal regulations on access by the handicapped that apply to construction and alteration of...

  18. Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

    2014-11-01

    To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning.

  19. Directory of Services for the Multiply Handicapped Deaf and/or Hearing Impaired. Resources for the Rubella Deaf Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC.

    The directory contains information on centers, facilities, and schools which provide some services or programs suitable to the needs of the deaf or hearing impaired who have additonal handicaps (adults as well as children). A brief description of the facility, the clients served, and the services offered accompanies the listing of each facility's…

  20. Vocational Education of Handicapped Students: A Guide for Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sharon; Ward, Michael

    Designed to assist state and local educational agencies and intermeidate educational units in developing administrative policies for the vocational education of handicapped students, the manual address present policy areas and administrative concerns. Guidelines are presented for policy development in the following nine areas (examples of…

  1. A Model of Services for Young Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Janis A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a model of services for 38 infants and young children whose primary handicap was a communication disorder or for whom a communication disorder was a related problem. Data indicated that the model was effective in producing child growth in receptive and expressive language, as well as other developmental areas. (Author/CL)

  2. Signal modulation as a mechanism for handicap disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavassa, Sat; Silva, Ana C.; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Stoddard, Philip K.

    2012-01-01

    Signal honesty may be compromised when heightened competition provides incentive for signal exaggeration. Some degree of honesty might be maintained by intrinsic handicap costs on signalling or through imposition of extrinsic costs, such as social punishment of low quality cheaters. Thus, theory predicts a delicate balance between signal enhancement and signal reliability that varies with degree of social competition, handicap cost, and social cost. We investigated whether male sexual signals of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio would become less reliable predictors of body length when competition provides incentives for males to boost electric signal amplitude. As expected, social competition under natural field conditions and in controlled lab experiments drove males to enhance their signals. However, signal enhancement improved the reliability of the information conveyed by the signal, as revealed in the tightening of the relationship between signal amplitude and body length. Signal augmentation in male B. gauderio was independent of body length, and thus appeared not to be curtailed through punishment of low quality (small) individuals. Rather, all individuals boosted their signals under high competition, but those whose signals were farthest from the predicted value under low competition boosted signal amplitude the most. By elimination, intrinsic handicap cost of signal production, rather than extrinsic social cost, appears to be the basis for the unexpected reinforcement of electric signal honesty under social competition. Signal modulation may provide its greatest advantage to the signaller as a mechanism for handicap disposal under low competition rather than as a mechanism for exaggeration of quality under high competition. PMID:22665940

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Training in Spelling for Learning Handicapped Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Michael M.; Hall, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of effective cognitive-behavioral training approaches for students with learning handicaps in academic domains, such as spelling, requires greater concern for teachers' knowledge of the academic domain, as well as their pedagogical expertise in finely and precisely adjusting their instructional use of language to communicate that…

  4. Image and Video Processing for Visually Handicapped People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tzovaras

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art in the field of assistive devices for sight-handicapped people. It concentrates in particular on systems that use image and video processing for converting visual data into an alternate rendering modality that will be appropriate for a blind user. Such alternate modalities can be auditory, haptic, or a combination of both. There is thus the need for modality conversion, from the visual modality to another one; this is where image and video processing plays a crucial role. The possible alternate sensory channels are examined with the purpose of using them to present visual information to totally blind persons. Aids that are either already existing or still under development are then presented, where a distinction is made according to the final output channel. Haptic encoding is the most often used by means of either tactile or combined tactile/kinesthetic encoding of the visual data. Auditory encoding may lead to low-cost devices, but there is need to handle high information loss incurred when transforming visual data to auditory one. Despite a higher technical complexity, audio/haptic encoding has the advantage of making use of all available user's sensory channels.

  5. Image and Video Processing for Visually Handicapped People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bologna Guido

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art in the field of assistive devices for sight-handicapped people. It concentrates in particular on systems that use image and video processing for converting visual data into an alternate rendering modality that will be appropriate for a blind user. Such alternate modalities can be auditory, haptic, or a combination of both. There is thus the need for modality conversion, from the visual modality to another one; this is where image and video processing plays a crucial role. The possible alternate sensory channels are examined with the purpose of using them to present visual information to totally blind persons. Aids that are either already existing or still under development are then presented, where a distinction is made according to the final output channel. Haptic encoding is the most often used by means of either tactile or combined tactile/kinesthetic encoding of the visual data. Auditory encoding may lead to low-cost devices, but there is need to handle high information loss incurred when transforming visual data to auditory one. Despite a higher technical complexity, audio/haptic encoding has the advantage of making use of all available user's sensory channels.

  6. Classroom Centers for Multiple Handicapped Children 1972-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Camilla

    The Classroom Centers for Multiple Handicapped Children were designed to provide profoundly retarded children with instructional programs meeting individual needs. In addition to the educational and training components of the program, speech and physical therapy services were also included. Seven classroom centers served approximately 56 children…

  7. A Family Oriented Enrichment Program for Handicapped Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Setsu; O'Reilly, Kitty

    This report describes a program for handicapped infants which emphasizes early treatment as a prime means of preventing more serious physical and behavioral problems later in life. Also, the program focuses on the entire family of the developmentally disabled, including infant, parents, and siblings. Program objectives include (1) increased…

  8. Concevoir des objets techniques pour une population normale, c’est-à-dire comprenant aussi des personnes handicapées ou très âgées Designing technological devices for a normal population, namely also including disabled people and the elderly. Contribution of ergonomics Contribution of ergonomics Diseñar objetos técnicos para una población normal, es decir incluyendo personas discapacitadas o adultos mayores. Contribución de la ergonomía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Sperandio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Les technologies peuvent être des obstacles redoutables pour les personnes handicapées ou très âgées, ou au contraire apporter des solutions efficaces aux problèmes que rencontrent ces personnes. Ceci concerne les objets ordinaires de la vie courante, mais aussi les aides techniques spécialisées, le logement, le transport public, les postes de travail, etc. Beaucoup de réaménagements spéciaux ou d’aides techniques particulières ne seraient pas nécessaires si la conception initiale des objets ou services destinés au grand public tenait compte de l’existence de personnes handicapées ou très âgées dans la population générale. L’ergonomie peut contribuer à la conception d’objets techniques et de services plus facilement utilisables par des personnes handicapées.Technologies can be formidable obstacles for disabled people or the elderly, or inversely, can also provide effective solutions to the problems that these people encounter. This involves all the usual objects of daily life, but also assistive devices, lodging, public transportation, workstations, etc.Many special redesigns or particular assistive devices would be unnecessary if the initial design of objects or services intended for the general public had taken into account disabled people or the elderly in the general population. Ergonomics can contribute to the design of assistive devices and services more easily usable by handicapped peopleLas tecnologías pueden constituir obstáculos temibles para las personas discapacitadas o de edad muy avanzada, o al contrario, pueden solucionar de un modo eficaz los problemas que estas personas encuentran. Esta problemática concierne los objetos ordinarios de la vida diaria, pero también las ayudas técnicas especializadas, el espacio habitacional, el transporte público, los puestos de trabajo, etc. Muchas adaptaciones especiales o ayudas técnicas especializadas no serían necesarias si el diseño inicial de los

  9. A Plan for Itinerant Educational Consultant Services for Preschool Visually Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, PA.

    A demonstration project was conducted involving itinerant educational consultant services for preschool visually handicapped children with the objective of preventing social and sensory deprivation and of developing personal independence. Channels were established for referral of applicable visually handicapped preschool children to the program.…

  10. A Robust Scheme for the Global Earthquake Early Warning Based on Characteristic Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chang; Chiao, Ling-Yun; Wu, Cheng-Ju

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake hazards mitigation have always been an important issue. Prompt and rapid high precision magnitude estimation is essential to achieve the goal of effective early warning. However, the current state of the method including the maximum predominant period (τpmax), the vertical displacement of P-wave (Pd), and the τc × Pdmethod has reached a standstill for nearly a decade. The major shortcoming is that these methods are not quite applicable for large earthquakes (M>7). Therefore, a new magnitude estimation method for earthquake early warning is crucial and is needed for human preventing loss and casualties in the large earthquakes. Here we demonstrate a robust scheme based on the characteristic frequency. Our result shows a linear relation between the momentum magnitude and the characteristic frequency of P-wave which appears within the first few seconds. This method requires fewer calculations and doesn't need to apply any filter to obtain better results, so the data processing time needed for the real-time earthquake early warning system is greatly reduced. This method also indicates strong applicability for estimating earthquakes with magnitude larger than 7. We demonstrate a robust scheme of global earthquake early warning.

  11. How did the earthquake early warning perform for the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M.; Nishimae, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes are the sequence of two major earthquakes occurred in the Kumamoto, South part of Japan, in April 2016. The first earthquake occurred on April, 14 9:26pm with Mj6.5. The second and larger earthquake occurred 27 hours later, on April 16 1:25am with Mj 7.3. About 50 people were killed due to the collapse of housings and landslides. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) properly provided earthquake early warnings (EEW) for both earthquakes: the warning for the April 14 earthquake was issued at 4 seconds after the first P-wave detection, which is 8 seconds after the origin time. The warning for the April 16 earthquake was issued at 4 seconds after the first P-arrival, and 8.5 seconds after the origin time. The blind zone where EEW was not provided before S-wave arrival is about 25km from the epicenter. This range of blind zone is expected for inland earthquakes whose S-P time is relatively short, so the EEW system worked properly as it was designed. The estimated magnitude was 6.5 and 6.9, respectively, when the warning was reported to public, so the performance of the accuracy and speed was satisfactory. The EEW provided other 17 warnings for smaller earthquakes in Kumamoto prefecture in April 2016. 80% of the warnings (14/17) predicted the seismic intensity within plus-minus 1. However, three events overestimated the seismic intensity by more than 1 unit, and two events underestimated the intensity by more than 1 unit. For the underestimated cases, the magnitude was estimated reasonably well with the error less than 0.3, which suggests this underestimation was due to the error in either attenuation relationship or subsurface soil amplification. For the overestimated cases, the magnitude was also overestimated, which suggests the source estimation had a significant error due to multiple aftershocks. We try to improve this performance to the aftershocks by applying the integrated particle filter approach to the JMA strong motion and Hi

  12. The UrbanFlood common information space for early warning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balis, B.; Kasztelnik, M.; Bubak, M.; Bartynski, T.; Gubala, T.; Nowakowski, P.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) can play a crucial role in mitigating the effects of natural disasters. Modern EWSs leverage wireless sensors for real-time monitoring of natural phenomena and computing-intensive scientific applications for scenario-based prediction and analysis of sensor data. This pape

  13. The UrbanFlood common information space for early warning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balis, B.; Kasztelnik, M.; Bubak, M.; Bartynski, T.; Gubala, T.; Nowakowski, P.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) can play a crucial role in mitigating the effects of natural disasters. Modern EWSs leverage wireless sensors for real-time monitoring of natural phenomena and computing-intensive scientific applications for scenario-based prediction and analysis of sensor data. This

  14. Geospatiotemporal data mining in an early warning system for forest threats in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.M. Hoffman; R.T. Mills; J. Kumar; S.S. Vulli; W.W. Hargrove

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the potential of geospatiotemporal data mining of multi-year land surface phenology data (250 m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in this study) for the conterminous United States as part of an early warning system to identify threats to forest ecosystems. Cluster...

  15. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products Resident to the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. Sometimes these have resulted in regionally evident disturbance progressions (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and have resulted in extensive forest overstory mortality. In addition to stand replacement disturbances, other forests are subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and varying types and intensities of ephemeral damage from storms. Sometimes, after prolonged severe disturbance, signs of recovery in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can occur. The growing prominence and threat of forest disturbances in part have led to the formation and implementation of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act which mandated that national forest threat early warning system be developed and deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oakridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build and roll-out the near real time ForWarn early warning system for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines that are used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six forest change products that are refreshed every 8 days. ForWarn employs daily quarter kilometer MODIS NDVI data from the Aqua and Terra satellites, including MOD13 data for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS 7 NDVI for compiling current NDVI. In doing so, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally de-noise, fuse, and aggregate current and historical MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of products per year. The 24 day compositing interval enables disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. Forest change products are

  16. A Comparison of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Leiter International Performance Scale for a Group of Educationally Handicapped Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Melanie Walton; Ratcliffe, Kevin J.

    1980-01-01

    Compared the WISC-R and Leiter International Performance Scale IQs for a sample of educationally handicapped adolescents. Results indicated positive correlations between WISC-R Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale scores and Leiter scores. Findings suggest the same pattern exists for the WISC-R and Leiter as for the WISC and Leiter. (Author)

  17. School-to-Work Transition for Handicapped Youth: Perspectives on Educational and Economic Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Jeanne B., Ed.

    This compilation of papers focuses on the economic and educational considerations required for planning transitional services for handicapped youth, and was developed from the second and third annual forums sponsored by the Transitional Programming for Handicapped Youth: Interdisciplinary Leadership Preparation Program at the University of…

  18. A Comparison of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II) and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclawskyj, Theodosia R.; Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jerald W.; Baglio, Christopher S.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 233 individuals with severe mental retardation examined the validity of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II) through correlation with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). DASH-II as a whole was found to have a high degree of convergent validity with the ABC total score. (CR)

  19. Awareness of the Warning Signs, Risk Factors, and Treatment for Tuberculosis among Urban Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi O. Desalu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the awareness of the warning signs, risk factors, and treatment of tuberculosis among urban Nigerians. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey among 574 adults in Ilorin, Nigeria. Semistructured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to obtain information about awareness of tuberculosis warning signs, risk factors, and treatment. Results. Majority of the subjects (71.4% were aware of at least one warning sign of tuberculosis. Cough (66.2%, weight loss (38.0%, and haemoptysis (30.7% were the most identified warning signs. The predictors of awareness of warning sign were increasing age (, higher family income (, higher level of education (, and belonging to Christian faith (. Awareness of risk factors for tuberculosis was higher for tobacco smokers (77.0% and history of contact with a case of TB (76.0%. Less than half were aware of HIV infection (49.8%, alcohol consumption (42.5%, chronic kidney disease (40.4%, extremes of ages (39.4%, cancers (36.9%, and diabetes mellitus (27.5% as risk factors for TB. Tuberculosis was reported to be curable by 74.6% of the subjects and 67.9% knew that there are medications for treatment of tuberculosis, while 11.5% knew the duration of treatment. Conclusion. This study has revealed that the awareness of HIV and noncommunicable diseases as risk factors for TB is poor. This study has therefore demonstrated the need for health education programs that will emphasize recognition, identification, and modification of risk factor for TB.

  20. The Doman-Delacato Treatment of Neurologically Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the Doman-Delacato approach to treating children with neurological handicaps cites lack of reseach support for the method and concludes that its demands may overburden families without achieving progress that would not be accounted for by growth and development. (CL)

  1. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A and B and vaccination status in staff at German schools for the handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Matthias; Kimbel, Renate; Schöne, Klaus; Letzel, Stephan; Rose, Dirk-Matthias

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to assess serostatus and vaccination status of hepatitis A and B among staff at schools for the handicapped. We also wanted to investigate factors associated with serostatus, number of infections with hepatitis A/hepatitis B at work, and factors influencing being vaccinated or not. The cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2010 and August 2012 at 13 German schools for severely handicapped. Data were analyzed using blood samples, vaccination documents, and questionnaires. A total of 395 persons participated in our study (response: 59.7%), information on 367 could be used for analysis. Two respondents have been infected with HAV at work, 53.4% were anti-HAV seropositive. Vaccination against hepatitis A was influenced by information about infectious diseases before starting to work, level of education, and marital status. One person got infected with hepatitis B during work, 53.2% were anti-HBs-seropositive. Vaccination against hepatitis B depended on perceived burden by nursing activities, and vaccination costs being paid by employer. Immunity to hepatitis A and B in our sample is insufficient and does not correspond to the infectious risks. Two persons got infected with hepatitis A and one person with hepatitis B during work at school, indicating an urgent need for preventive actions. J. Med. Virol. 89:825-833, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Summer School for the Handicapped: A Review of the Literature. Supplementary Report to "Special Education Mandates: A Preliminary Report."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Edith

    This report analyzes the literature on the issues involved in providing summer school services to handicapped students (3-21 years old) in Illinois. Introductory sections examine the state legislative history regarding summer school and judicial decisions from across the country on the topic. A review of the literature is presented followed by…

  3. The association between back pain and trunk posture of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin C H; Lee, Raymond Y W; Yeung, Simon S

    2009-04-29

    The present study aims to determine the time spent in different static trunk postures during a typical working day of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps. Eighteen workers with low back pain (LBP) and fifteen asymptomatic workers were recruited. A cross-sectional design was employed to study the time spent in different static trunk postures which was recorded by a biaxial accelerometer attached to the T12 level of the back of the subjects. The results of ANCOVA revealed that subjects with LBP spent significantly longer percentage of time in static trunk posture when compared to normal (p posture, and this has potential for widespread applications in the workplace. The findings of the present investigation suggest that teachers in special schools are at increased risk of getting LBP. In order to minimise such risk, frequent postural change and awareness of work posture are recommended.

  4. A new silver robot platform for the elderly and the handicapped: Spiderbot TM-posture balancing and muscle strengthening exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Aslam; Farahani, Hossein S.; Jeong, Seung-Gweon; Kim, Hyunho; Ryu, Jeha

    2005-12-01

    By using a new type of silver robot called SpiderBot TM, posture balancing and muscle strengthening exercises were presented. Unlike mobile robots on a floor, SpiderBot TM is conceptualized to generate full mobility in a room and to have higher payload while generating six degrees-of-freedom for assisting daily lives of the elderly and the handicapped. A preliminary prototype of SpiderBot TM has been constructed by using incompletely restrained wire mechanism and simple control algorithms were implemented for two types of exercises for elderly people's health improvement. One is a posture balancing exercise that prevents from falling to any directions. And the other is muscle strengthening exercise that uses the SpiderBot TM as a weight lifting mechanism. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed new silver robot platform is used for such exercises.

  5. KI-Aikido for Handicapped Students at Leeward Community College: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGugan, Kirk

    In an effort to provide physical education instruction for handicapped students, Leeward Community College implemented, on a pilot basis, a non-credit course in KI-Aikido, an oriental martial art which combines theory and exercise toward the goal of controlling the body through the power of the mind. The course, offered to both handicapped and…

  6. Differences in wrist mechanics during the golf swing based on golf handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorcik, Gregory G; Queen, Robin M; Abbey, Alicia N; Moorman, Claude T; Ruch, David S

    2012-05-01

    Variation in swing mechanics between golfers of different skill levels has been previously reported. To investigate if differences in three-dimensional wrist kinematics and the angle of golf club descent between low and high handicap golfers. A descriptive laboratory study was performed with twenty-eight male golfers divided into two groups, low handicap golfers (handicap = 0-5, n = 15) and high handicap golfers (handicap ≥ 10, n = 13). Bilateral peak three-dimensional wrist mechanics, bilateral wrist mechanics at ball contact (BC), peak angle of descent from the end of the backswing to ball contact, and the angle of descent when the forearm was parallel to the ground (DEC-PAR) were determined using an 8 camera motion capture system. Independent t-tests were completed for each study variable (α = 0.05). Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between golf handicap and each of the study variables. The peak lead arm radial deviation (5.7 degrees, p = 0.008), lead arm radial deviation at ball contact (7.1 degrees, p = 0.001), and DEC-PAR (15.8 degrees, p = 0.002) were significantly greater in the high handicap group. In comparison with golfers with a low handicap, golfers with a high handicap have increased radial deviation during the golf swing and at ball contact. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 41 CFR 50-201.1102 - Tolerance for apprentices, student-learners, and handicapped workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., student-learners, and handicapped workers. 50-201.1102 Section 50-201.1102 Public Contracts and Property... REGULATIONS § 50-201.1102 Tolerance for apprentices, student-learners, and handicapped workers. (a... standards and procedures as are prescribed for the employment of apprentices, student-learners,...

  8. Resource Catalogue for Teachers of Severely Handicapped Students. Program Assistance Report No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Lynette; And Others

    Intended for teachers and other personnel working with severely/multiply handicapped students, the catalogue lists books and journal articles (1975-1981) related to special education for severely/multiply handicapped students. Following an introduction discussing definitional issues, entries are alphabetized by title and arranged according to one…

  9. PROJECT ORPHEUS: Complying with the Education for All Handicapped Children Act at the Orchard School, An Innovative Approach to Utilizing Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Gary O.; And Others

    After a review of Public Law 94-142 (Education for All Handicapped Children Act) and its implications, the author discusses the use of innovative educational technology in the individualized instruction of children with emotional and learning problems at the Orchard School (NY). Focusing on the requirements of an individualized education plan…

  10. Exceptional Children Conference Papers: Education of the Educable Mentally Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    Nine conference papers focus on education of educable mentally handicapped (EMH) children. A prototype evaluation of procedures for teaching reading comprehension involves assessment of 96 EMH or normal students' skills in identifying main and supporting ideas in connected discourse. Described is the Lincoln School's behavioral management system…

  11. Hospital Patients and Handicapped Readers Section and Round Table of Libraries for the Blind. Libraries Serving the General Public Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on hospital and health libraries and library services to the blind and deaf which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations conference include: (1) "Leisure Pursuits of the Blind" by Antun Lastric (Yugoslavia); (2) "Library Services for the Handicapped in Canada: An Overview" by…

  12. The education of physically handicapped children in normal schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, C; Garvey, C; Byrne, M M

    1975-01-01

    This paper is based on our experience in the Central Remedial Clinic over a number of years that physically handicapped children do not in general do well in ordinary schools. An attempt is made to delineate some of the problems that may confront a handicapped child of generally average intelligence who attends a normal school. These problems are associated with the following conditions: specific learning difficulties, emotional problems, poor school attendance, large classes, limitations in ordinary teacher training and lack of remedial teachers and other special staff. The need for early and continued psychological and educational assessments is emphasized, and it is suggested that most young physically handicapped children of average intelligence would benefit from starting in a special assessment unit, to ensure as far as possible, correct school placement. This view is not currently held by a number of educational authorities who generally advise that physically handicapped children should go to ordinary schools if possible. We feel that this advice is not always in the best interests of the child. There is need for continuing friendly and informal communications between parents and members of the special school team.

  13. Development and validation of the Dutch version of the London Handicap Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Detmar, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The London Handicap Scale (LHS) was found to be a valid and reliable scale for measuring participation restrictions in adults. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the development and assesses the construct-related validity of a Dutch version of the London Handicap Scale (DLHS). METHODS: The

  14. The Origin of the Term Handicap in Games and Sports – History of a Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Jørn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Words and concepts may change in time, and this has certainly been the case with the term handicap. From the establishment of modern sports in the middle of the 19th century and up until the middle of the 20th century, handicap had an entirely different meaning within sports. Thus, handicap was understood as a disadvantage imposed on talented contestants to make the competition more equal in sports. Later the term handicap became much closer related to the concepts invalid and crippled than to concept originally employed within sports, With the gradual introduction of the welfare state measures to the political agenda the politicians in Denmark also started to take an interest in invalids and cripples and in 1925 the National Association of the Crippled and Maimed was founded. By the end of the 20 century the term crippled was seen by many as outdated and in 1988 the name was changed to the Danish Association for the Disabled (Dansk Handicap Forbund and already in 1971 this organization helped to found The Danish Disabled Sports Association (Dansk Handicap Idræts-Forbund. The article tells the story of how the concept of handicap, which originally was an aim to provide equal opportunities, today has become a synonym for disability, while in the Paralympics and competitive disability sports, the original sports term handicap has been replaced by classification.

  15. Como Trabajar y Vivir en la Realidad: Pasos Basicos Para Jovenes con Incapacidades, sus Padres y sus Profesores (How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Patricia L.; And Others

    This Spanish version of "How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers" is for young people with handicaps who are getting ready to graduate from high school and begin working and living in the adult world. The booklet places a special focus on individuals with cultural…

  16. Genetic Circuit for the Early Warning of Lung Cancer using iBioSim

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    With the development of molecular biology and gene-engineering technology, gene diagnosis has been an emerging approach for modern life sciences. Biological marker, recognized as the hot topic in the molecular and gene fields, has important values in early diagnosis, malignant tumour stage, treatment and therapeutic efficacy evaluation. The design of markers detection genetic circuit system for lung cancer is presented as a new method to provide basis for early warning and therapy. The system...

  17. 28 CFR 41.32 - Qualified handicapped person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualified handicapped person. 41.32..., NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS Standards for Determining Who Are Handicapped Persons § 41.32 Qualified handicapped person. Qualified handicapped person means: (a) With...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROGRAM FOR THE RE-EDUCATION AND REHABILITATION OF EMOTIONALLY HANDICAPPED MALE ADOLESCENTS WITHIN A PUBLIC SCHOOL SETTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEEM, MICHAEL A.; PORTER, WILLIAM R.

    MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THIS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT WERE (1) TO CONTINUE DEVELOPING A PROTOTYPE SPECIAL CLASS PROGRAM FOR EMOTIONALLY HANDICAPPED PUPILS (18 MALE ADOLESCENTS), (2) TO DEVISE METHODS OF EVALUATION FOR THE PROGRAM, AND (3) TO IDENTIFY SIGNIFICANT VARIABLES FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION AND RESEARCH. IN PLANNING THE PROJECT DURING THE FIRST…

  19. Voice-controlled Internet Browsing for Motor-handicapped Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom; Aaskoven, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The public-funded project "Indtal" ("Speak-it") has succeeded in developing a Danish voice-controlled utility for internet browsing targeting motor-handicapped users having difficulties using a standard keyboard and/or a standard mouse. The system has been designed and implemented in collaboration...... with an advisory board of motor-handicapped (potential) end-users and underlies a number of a priori defined design criteria: learnability and memorability rather than naturalness, minimal need for maintenance after release, support for "all" web standards (not just HTML conforming to certain "recommendations......"), independency of the language on the websites being browsed, etc. These criteria have lead to a primarily message-driven system interacting with an existing browser on the end users' systems...

  20. Development of a Mobility Training Program for Young Adult Trainable Mentally Handicapped Clients at the Ray Graham Training Center. Maxi II Practicum Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ellen M.

    Provided is a practicum report on a travel training program initiated at the Ray Graham Training Center (Chicago, Illinois) for 40 trainable mentally handicapped young adults. The center is described in terms of the geographic area and clients served, staff roles, parent role, and curriculum. It is noted that a prime impetus for the development of…

  1. Progress of KOERI Tsunami Warning System for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Yilmazer, Mehmet; Cokacar, Tulay; Comoglu, Mustafa; Pinar, Ali; Kekovali, Kivanc

    2016-04-01

    This presentation provides a progress report on the activities of the Bogazici University / Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute - Regional Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring Center (KOERI-RETMC) which provides services as a Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) of ICG/NEAMTWS in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas since 1 July 2012. KOERI continues to operate 178 BB and 97 strong motion and 6 short period sensors and the regional coverage includes 77 stations from GFZ and additional 16 stations through bilateral agreements. One radar-type tide-gauge has been installed in Fethiye within the framework of "Inexpensive Device for Sea-Level Measurement" (IDSL) initiative offered as donation by the EC/JRC and planning is in progress for the possible installation of three more IDSLs in selected locations in the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey. The capabilities and the limitations of HF Radar technology for the purpose of tsunami detection in the Eastern Mediterranean has been identified and the maturity and the applicability of these systems for the possible use under the Tsunami Warning System has been determined. The development of the TsuComp as a user-friendly interface to be used in the assessment of tsunamigenic potential and as a single-point entry for message dissemination has been finalized. The work towards the creation of Tsunami Inundation Maps at the Tsunami Forecast Points in Turkey is near finalization. This work is partially funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839. The authors would like to thank EC/JRC and Mr. Alessandro Annunziato for their continuous support in the operational activities of RETMC and IDSL initiative.

  2. Library Resources for the Blind and Physically Handicapped: A Directory with FY 1994 Statistics on Readership, Circulation, Budget, Staff, and Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The first part of this directory of National Library Service (NLS) resources for the blind and physically handicapped lists NLS network libraries and machine-lending agencies, arranged alphabetically by state. The information for each library includes its address, telephone and fax numbers, librarian, hours of operation, book and special…

  3. End points for validating early warning scores in the context of rapid response systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N E; Oestergaard, D.; Lippert, A.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When investigating early warning scores and similar physiology-based risk stratification tools, death, cardiac arrest and intensive care unit admission are traditionally used as end points. A large proportion of the patients identified by these end points cannot be saved, even...... the items receiving highest ratings. CONCLUSIONS: End points relating to death, cardiac arrest and intensive care unit admission currently comprise the most obvious compromises for investigating early warning scores and similar risk stratification tools. Additional end points from the gross list...... in the Delphi process, and the experts' combined rating of the usefulness of each suggestion was established. RESULTS: A gross list of 86 suggestions for end points, relating to 13 themes, was produced. No items were uniformly recognised as ideal. The themes cardiac arrest, death, and level of care contained...

  4. Longitudinal Studies of the Effects and Costs of Early Intervention for Handicapped Children. Annual Report 1987-88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Univ., Logan. Early Intervention Research Inst.

    The 1987-88 annual report reviews progress on 17 longitudinal studies to determine the efficacy of early intervention with handicapped children. The overview chapter reviews previous research on this topic; considers ethical, practical, and scientific considerations of randomized experiments in early childhood special education; examines benefits…

  5. Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1990, P.L. 101-476: A Summary. CRS Report for Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This summary of the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1990, Public Law 101-476, identifies how these Amendments extend and expand special education research, demonstration, and training programs of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA authorizes three state formula grant programs and several discretionary grant…

  6. A Warning System for Overspeed at the Corner Using Visible Light Based Road-To-Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniyoshi Okuda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When a car enters a corner with over speed, it rises the accident risk higher. To warn the risk and urging the caution to drivers, many of the accident-prone corners have warning rights. The driver can decelerate the car smoothly and pass through the corner safety by those devices. However, appropriate speed for each corner is different by curvature of the corner and characteristics of the vehicle. The driver has to suppose the safe speed for every corner only by experience, usually. Of course too much slow causes traffic jam. Especially at the first road in the first place for the driver, it is difficult to suppose the curvatures of the corners. Then, we propose a visible light communication system so that the warning lights in the corner send appropriate warning information. Visible light communication transmits a signal by blinking the light. One of the characteristics of visible light communication is that it can use existing lighting equipment as a transmitter. In our system, we can distribute the warning information to the driver using the visible light communication. Though the curvature(R:radious of the corner does not change, the speed of each vehicle to approach the corner always to different. Focusing the distance from the corner to the car, we consider a communication system to send different kind of information according to that distance. If the distance is enough long, the driver has a plenty of time to decelerate the vehicle. The more the distance becomes short, the more the driver is required rapid deceleration. Therefore, to distribute the appropriate warning information to the driver, dividing the distance from the corner into some areas, we make the system to send different information in each area. Generally in communication system, modulation primarily changes the amplitude, phase or frequency. In visible light communication, change of the amplitude changes the brightness, which causes flickering that burdens the drivers

  7. Automatic earthquake confirmation for early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyuk, H. S.; Colombelli, S.; Zollo, A.; Allen, R. M.; Erdik, M. O.

    2015-07-01

    Earthquake early warning studies are shifting real-time seismology in earthquake science. They provide methods to rapidly assess earthquakes to predict damaging ground shaking. Preventing false alarms from these systems is key. Here we developed a simple, robust algorithm, Authorizing GRound shaking for Earthquake Early warning Systems (AGREEs), to reduce falsely issued alarms. This is a network threshold-based algorithm, which differs from existing approaches based on apparent velocity of P and S waves. AGREEs is designed to function as an external module to support existing earthquake early warning systems (EEWSs) and filters out the false events, by evaluating actual shaking near the epicenter. Our retrospective analyses of the 2009 L'Aquila and 2012 Emilia earthquakes show that AGREEs could help an EEWS by confirming the epicentral intensity. Furthermore, AGREEs is able to effectively identify three false events due to a storm, a teleseismic earthquake, and broken sensors in Irpinia Seismic Network, Italy.

  8. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    which market-type re- forms must be introduced in the economy to find a way out of Cuba’s callej6n sin salida (cul-de-sac). At issue, also, is whether...in northern Mexico. See Wayne A. Cornelius and Ann L. Craig, The Mexican Political System in Transition, San Diego: University of California , Center...special circumstances whereby his salida (exit) rebounds to Cuba’s advantage and his greater glory. For Endgame IV to start unfolding without violence

  9. Electromyographic Analysis of the Lower Limb Muscles in Low- and High-Handicap Golfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Vaz, João R.; Castro, Maria António; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the electromyographic patterns of the lower limb muscles during a golf swing performed by low- and high-handicap golfers. Method: Ten golfers (5 low- and 5 high-handicap) performed 8 swings using a 7-iron. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded for the following lower limb muscles on both sides:…

  10. The infrared-based early warning system for bird strike prevention at Frankfurt airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzberg, M.; Schilling, A.; Schlemmer, H.; Vogel, H.; Cramer, H.; Schlosshauer, J.

    2011-06-01

    Flocks of migratory birds are very often using geographic structures like rivers, valleys or coast lines for orientation. Wherever the preferred migration routes are crossing the approach corridor of an airport there is an increased risk of bird strike. Flocks of birds crossing the runway corridor of the new runway Northwest of the Frankfurt airport are kept under surveillance now with in total three watch towers located at the river Main which in this case is the preferred used line of orientation. Each of the watch towers carries an early warning system which consists of two pairs of stereoscopic thermal imaging cameras sensitive in the mid wavelength infrared range (3 - 5 μm). A stereoscopic pair measures the swarm size, direction of flight and velocity in real time and with high accuracy. From these results an early warning is derived under all relevant weather conditions. The fixed focus thermal imaging cameras are thermally compensated and designed for ultra low image distortion. Each stereoscopic pair is aligned in the sub-pixel range and is controlled by a reference beam to ensure that the alignment is preserved under all environmental conditions and over a very long time. The technical concept is discussed and the design of the realized warning system at the Frankfurt airport is presented.

  11. The handicap principle and the argument of subversion from within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Christian

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the very disparate positions that various actors have taken towards the argument of subversion from within (a classical argument against the evolution of altruism by group selection) in a set of related debates on group selection, altruism and the handicap principle. Using this set of debates as a case study, this paper argues that different applications of epistemic values were one of the factors behind the disagreements between John Maynard Smith and Amotz Zahavi over a number of important evolutionary issues. The paper also argues that these different applications were connected to important epistemological differences related in part (but not solely) to their disciplinary background. Apart from conflicting evolutionary views concerning the theoretical feasibility of the handicap effect, these antagonists both differed in the confidence they ascribed to mathematical modeling and over the hereditary basis for altruistic behavior.

  12. [Wisconsin Administrative Practice Scale: Special Education. A Survey of Selected Administrative Practices Used in the Coordination of Diagnostic Units for Handicapped Children. Test and Manual.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Jeremy Jon

    The Wisconsin Administrative Practice Scale: Special Education (WAPS) is a self-administering survey instrument designed to measure implementation of 162 selected administrative practices and policies used to coordinate diagnostic units for handicapped children. One hundred thirty-five items are grouped into seven subscales each consisting of…

  13. European Ruling on Pensions: A Second Warning for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerten, H.

    2016-01-01

    The Hogan Judgment of the ECJ found that each EU state is liable for a minimum level of pension benefit commitments. The claimants in this case found that Ireland had not properly transposed Article 8 of Directive 2008/94 into national law. This Directive protects employees when their employer becom

  14. Utility of Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 in a Microbial Fuel Cell as an Early Warning Device for Hexavalent Chromium Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Guey-Horng Wang; Chiu-Yu Cheng; Man-Hai Liu; Tzu-Yu Chen; Min-Chi Hsieh; Ying-Chien Chung

    2016-01-01

    Fast hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) determination is important for environmental risk and health-related considerations. We used a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor inoculated with a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI)-reducing, and exoelectrogenic Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 to determine the Cr(VI) concentration in water. The results indicated that O. anthropi YC152 exhibited high adaptability to pH, temperature, salinity, and water quality under anaerobic conditions. The stable performance of t...

  15. Developing the Framework for an Early Warning System for Ebola based on Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartevelle, Sebastien; Nguy-Robertson, Anthony; Bell, Jesse; Chretien, Jean-Paul

    2017-04-01

    The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa indicated that this lethal disease can become a National Security issue as it crossed boarders and taxed regional health care systems. Ebola symptoms are also similar to other endemic diseases. Thus, forewarning of its possible presence can alert local public health facilities and populations, and may thereby reduce response time. Early work by our group has identified local climate (e.g. temperature, precipitation) and vegetation health (e.g. remote sensing using normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) variables as leading indicators to known historical Ebola outbreaks. The environmental stress placed on the system as it reaches a climatic tipping point provides optimal conditions for spillover of Ebola virus from the reservoir host (which is unknown but suspected to be bats) to humans. This work outlines a framework for an approach to provide early warning maps based on the present state of the environment. Time series data from Climate Forecast System ver. 2 and AVHRR and MODIS satellite sensors are the basis for the early warning models used. These maps can provide policy makers and local health care professionals timely information for disease surveillance and preparation for future Ebola outbreaks.

  16. Design and Implementation of a C++ Software Package to scan for and parse Tsunami Messages issued by the Tsunami Warning Centers for Operational use at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, V.

    2012-12-01

    The US Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) have traditionally generated their tsunami message products primarily as blocks of text then tagged with headers that identify them on each particular communications' (comms) circuit. Each warning center has a primary area of responsibility (AOR) within which it has an authoritative role regarding parameters such as earthquake location and magnitude. This means that when a major tsunamigenic event occurs the other warning centers need to quickly access the earthquake parameters issued by the authoritative warning center before issuing their message products intended for customers in their own AOR. Thus, within the operational context of the TWCs the scientists on duty have an operational need to access the information contained in the message products issued by other warning centers as quickly as possible. As a solution to this operational problem we designed and implemented a C++ software package that allows scanning for and parsing the entire suite of tsunami message products issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC), and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The scanning and parsing classes composing the resulting C++ software package allow parsing both non-official message products(observatory messages) routinely issued by the TWCs, and all official tsunami message products such as tsunami advisories, watches, and warnings. This software package currently allows scientists on duty at the PTWC to automatically retrieve the parameters contained in tsunami messages issued by WCATWC, JMA, or PTWC itself. Extension of the capabilities of the classes composing the software package would make it possible to generate XML and CAP compliant versions of the TWCs' message products until new messaging software natively adds this capabilities. Customers who receive the TWCs' tsunami message products could also use the package to automatically retrieve information from

  17. Simulation-based design of a steerable acoustic warning device to increase (H)EV detectability while reducing urban noise pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Genechten, B.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation-based design methodology used in the eVADER project for the development of targeted acoustic warning devices for increased detectability of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEVs) while, at the same time, reducing urban noise pollution compared to conventional

  18. Performance evaluation of the national early warning system for shallow landslides in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Mads-Peter; Piciullo, Luca; Devoli, Graziella; Colleuille, Hervé; Calvello, Michele

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of the increased number of rainfall-and snowmelt-induced landslides (debris flows, debris slides, debris avalanches and slush flows) occurring in Norway, a national landslide early warning system (EWS) has been developed for monitoring and forecasting the hydro-meteorological conditions potentially necessary of triggering slope failures. The system, operational since 2013, is managed by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) and has been designed in cooperation with the Norwegian Public Road Administration (SVV), the Norwegian National Rail Administration (JBV) and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET). Decision-making in the EWS is based upon hazard threshold levels, hydro-meteorological and real-time landslide observations as well as landslide inventory and susceptibility maps. Hazard threshold levels have been obtained through statistical analyses of historical landslides and modelled hydro-meteorological parameters. Daily hydro-meteorological conditions such as rainfall, snowmelt, runoff, soil saturation, groundwater level and frost depth have been derived from a distributed version of the hydrological HBV-model. Two different landslide susceptibility maps are used as supportive data in deciding daily warning levels. Daily alerts are issued throughout the country considering variable warning zones. Warnings are issued once per day for the following 3 days with an update possibility later during the day according to the information gathered by the monitoring variables. The performance of the EWS has been evaluated applying the EDuMaP method. In particular, the performance of warnings issued in Western Norway, in the period 2013-2014 has been evaluated using two different landslide datasets. The best performance is obtained for the smallest and more accurate dataset. Different performance results may be observed as a function of changing the landslide density criterion, Lden(k), (i.e., thresholds considered to

  19. Real-time earthquake monitoring for tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hanka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a tsunami that affected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230 000 fatalities. In the response to this tragedy the German government funded the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS Project. The task of the GEOFON group of GFZ Potsdam was to develop and implement the seismological component. In this paper we describe the concept of the GITEWS earthquake monitoring system and report on its present status. The major challenge for earthquake monitoring within a tsunami warning system is to deliver rapid information about location, depth, size and possibly other source parameters. This is particularly true for coast lines adjacent to the potential source areas such as the Sunda trench where these parameters are required within a few minutes after the event in order to be able to warn the population before the potential tsunami hits the neighbouring coastal areas. Therefore, the key for a seismic monitoring system with short warning times adequate for Indonesia is a dense real-time seismic network across Indonesia with densifications close to the Sunda trench. A substantial number of supplementary stations in other Indian Ocean rim countries are added to strengthen the teleseismic monitoring capabilities. The installation of the new GITEWS seismic network – consisting of 31 combined broadband and strong motion stations – out of these 21 stations in Indonesia – is almost completed. The real-time data collection is using a private VSAT communication system with hubs in Jakarta and Vienna. In addition, all available seismic real-time data from the other seismic networks in Indonesia and other Indian Ocean rim countries are acquired also directly by VSAT or by Internet at the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre in Jakarta and the resulting "virtual" network of more than 230 stations can jointly be used for seismic data processing. The

  20. Operation of a real-time warning system for debris flows in the San Francisco bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond C.; Mark, Robert K.; Barbato, Gary; ,

    1993-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed an operational warning system for debris flows during severe rainstorms in the San Francisco Bay region. The NWS makes quantitative forecasts of precipitation from storm systems approaching the Bay area and coordinates a regional network of radio-telemetered rain gages. The USGS has formulated thresholds for the intensity and duration of rainfall required to initiate debris flows. The first successful public warnings were issued during a severe storm sequence in February 1986. Continued operation of the warning system since 1986 has provided valuable working experience in rainfall forecasting and monitoring, refined rainfall thresholds, and streamlined procedures for issuing public warnings. Advisory statements issued since 1986 are summarized.

  1. The Early-Warning System for incoming storm surge and tide in the Republic of Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Tom; de Lima Rego, Joao; Vatvani, Deepak; Virasami, Renganaden; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Republic of Mauritius (ROM) is a group of islands in the South West of the Indian Ocean, consisting of the main islands of Mauritius, Rodrigues and Agalega and the archipelago of Saint Brandon. The ROM is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, especially in the coastal zone, where a convergence of accelerating sea level rise and increasing intensity of tropical cyclones is expected to result in considerable economic loss, humanitarian stresses, and environmental degradation. Storm surges and swell waves are expected to be aggravated through sea level rise and climate change effects on weather patterns. Adaptation to increased vulnerability requires a re-evaluation of existing preparedness measures. The focus of this project is on more effective preparedness and issuing of alerts developing a fully-automated Early-Warning System for incoming storm surge and tide, together with the Mauritius Meteorological Services and the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Centre (NDRRMC), such that coastal communities in Mauritius, Rodrigues and Agalega Islands are able to evacuate timely and safely in case of predicted extreme water levels. The Mauritius Early-Warning System for storm surge and tide was implemented using software from Deltares' Open-Source and free software Community. A set of five depth-averaged Delft3D-FLOW hydrodynamic models are run every six-hours with a forecast horizon of three days, simulating water levels along the coast of the three main islands. Two regional models of horizontal resolution 5km force the three detailed models of 500m resolution; all models are forced at the surface by the 0.25° NOAA/GFS meteorological forecasts. In addition, our Wind-Enhancement Scheme is used to blend detailed cyclone track bulletin's info with the larger-scale Numerical Weather Predictions. Measured data is retrieved near real-time from available Automatic Weather Stations. All these workflows are managed by the operational

  2. The TRIDEC Project: Future-Saving FOSS GIS Applications for Tsunami Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, P.; Wächter, J.; Hammitzsch, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 killed over 240,000 people in 14 countries and inundated the affected shorelines with waves reaching heights up to 30m. This natural disaster coincided with an information catastrophy, as potentially life-saving early warning information existed, yet no means were available to deliver it to the communities under imminent threat. Tsunami Early Warning Capabilities have improved in the meantime by continuing development of modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). However, recent tsunami events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key challenge for ongoing TEWS research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of reliable early warning messages. Since 2004, the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CEGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already: The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), a European project funded under the sixth Framework Programme (FP6). These developments are continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7). This ongoing project focuses on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management and its long-term application. All TRIDEC developments are based on Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) components and industry standards where-ever possible. Tsunami Early Warning in TRIDEC is also based on mature system architecture models to ensure long-term usability and the flexibility to adapt to future generations of Tsunami sensors. All open source software produced by the project consortium are foreseen to be published on FOSSLAB, a publicly available

  3. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined at...

  4. Counseling Special Students: An Activity Book for Encouraging Positive Interaction Between Non-Handicapped and Handicapped Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Hazel

    The activity book is designed to assist school counselors in preparing nonhandicapped persons to interact in a positive manner with the handicapped. An introductory section defines the term handicapped, offers program management guidelines, considers needs assessment, and describes three counseling models (peer helper, classroom guidance, and…

  5. The Application of Big data Mining in Risk Warning for Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajie; WANG; Bing; YANG; Yan; LUO; Jinlin; HE; Hong; TAN

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive evaluation and warning is very important and difficult in food safety. This paper mainly focuses on introducing the application of using big data mining in food safety warning field. At first,we introduce the concept of big data miming and three big data methods. At the same time,we discuss the application of the three big data miming methods in food safety areas. Then we compare these big data miming methods,and propose how to apply Back Propagation Neural Network in food safety risk warning.

  6. Scientific Animations for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation: The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's YouTube Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Shiro, B.; Ward, B.

    2013-12-01

    Outreach and education save lives, and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) has a new tool--a YouTube Channel--to advance its mission to protect lives and property from dangerous tsunamis. Such outreach and education is critical for coastal populations nearest an earthquake since they may not get an official warning before a tsunami reaches them and will need to know what to do when they feel strong shaking. Those who live far enough away to receive useful official warnings and react to them, however, can also benefit from PTWC's education and outreach efforts. They can better understand a tsunami warning message when they receive one, can better understand the danger facing them, and can better anticipate how events will unfold while the warning is in effect. The same holds true for emergency managers, who have the authority to evacuate the public they serve, and for the news media, critical partners in disseminating tsunami hazard information. PTWC's YouTube channel supplements its formal outreach and education efforts by making its computer animations available 24/7 to anyone with an Internet connection. Though the YouTube channel is only a month old (as of August 2013), it should rapidly develop a large global audience since similar videos on PTWC's Facebook page have reached over 70,000 viewers during organized media events, while PTWC's official web page has received tens of millions of hits during damaging tsunamis. These animations are not mere cartoons but use scientific data and calculations to render graphical depictions of real-world phenomena as accurately as possible. This practice holds true whether the animation is a simple comparison of historic earthquake magnitudes or a complex simulation cycling through thousands of high-resolution data grids to render tsunami waves propagating across an entire ocean basin. PTWC's animations fall into two broad categories. The first group illustrates concepts about seismology and how it is critical to

  7. 49 CFR 214.511 - Required audible warning devices for new on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE...) An automatic change-of-direction alarm which provides an audible signal that is at least three seconds long and is distinguishable from the surrounding noise. Change of direction alarms may be...

  8. The role of the different aspects of academic motivation and competitiveness in explaining self-handicapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Šimek

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research on self-handicapping, the goal was to examine the role of different types of academic motivation according to the level of self-determination. Since the existing research on self-handicapping has examined only the role of interpersonal competition, we also aimed to explore the role of different kinds of competition, i.e., the role of the reasons that motivate people to participate in competition, and the role of the reasons for the avoidance of competition. 748 high school students participated in the study. Regarding the role of academic motivation in self-handicapping the prevailing role of amotivation stood out. Intrinsic motivation predicted self-handicapping negatively, but extrinsic motivation proved to be a positive predictor. The factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale only enabled differentiation of the reasons for education on the level of three basic types. With regard to the role of the different dimensions of competitiveness in self-handicapping, results show that those denoted by fear of failure and self-worth protection proved to be more characteristic of self-handicapping than those defined by a high valuation of the importance of quality of task accomplishment. Among others, our research suggests that by diverting students away from hypercompetitive values, functionality of self-handicapping can be decreased.

  9. Real-time earthquake warning for astronomical observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael; Barrientos, Sergio; Claver, Chuck; Harms, Jan; Smith, Christopher; Warner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Early earthquake warning is a rapidly developing capability that has significant ramifications for many fields, including astronomical observatories. In this work, we describe the susceptibility of astronomical facilities to seismic events, including large telescopes as well as second-generation ground-based gravitational-wave interferometers. We describe the potential warning times for observatories from current seismic networks and propose locations for future seismometers to maximize warning times.

  10. Development of the Arabic Version of Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Mohamed; Malki, Khalid H; Mesallam, Tamer A; Bukhari, Manal; Alharethy, Sami

    2014-08-01

    The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a 25-item self-administered questionnaire. It is a noninvasive tool for measuring the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of people's lives. The purposes of the present study were to develop an Arabic version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the normal Arabic population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. This was a prospective study that was carried out at the Communication and Swallowing Disorders Unit, King Saud University. The generated Arabic DHI was administered to 94 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 98 control subjects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Arabic DHI showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.95). Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Arabic DHI (r = 0.9, p = 0.001). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (p DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patients and can be used by Arabic language speakers.

  11. The association between back pain and trunk posture of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Raymond YW

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aims to determine the time spent in different static trunk postures during a typical working day of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps. Methods Eighteen workers with low back pain (LBP and fifteen asymptomatic workers were recruited. A cross-sectional design was employed to study the time spent in different static trunk postures which was recorded by a biaxial accelerometer attached to the T12 level of the back of the subjects. Results The results of ANCOVA revealed that subjects with LBP spent significantly longer percentage of time in static trunk posture when compared to normal (p Conclusion An innovative method has been developed for continuous tracking of spinal posture, and this has potential for widespread applications in the workplace. The findings of the present investigation suggest that teachers in special schools are at increased risk of getting LBP. In order to minimise such risk, frequent postural change and awareness of work posture are recommended.

  12. A logistic regression based approach for the prediction of flood warning threshold exceedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomede, Tommaso; Trotter, Luca; Stefania Tesini, Maria; Marsigli, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    A method based on logistic regression is proposed for the prediction of river level threshold exceedance at short (+0-18h) and medium (+18-42h) lead times. The aim of the study is to provide a valuable tool for the issue of warnings by the authority responsible of public safety in case of flood. The role of different precipitation periods as predictors for the exceedance of a fixed river level has been investigated, in order to derive significant information for flood forecasting. Based on catchment-averaged values, a separation of "antecedent" and "peak-triggering" rainfall amounts as independent variables is attempted. In particular, the following flood-related precipitation periods have been considered: (i) the period from 1 to n days before the forecast issue time, which may be relevant for the soil saturation, (ii) the last 24 hours, which may be relevant for the current water level in the river, and (iii) the period from 0 to x hours in advance with respect to the forecast issue time, when the flood-triggering precipitation generally occurs. Several combinations and values of these predictors have been tested to optimise the method implementation. In particular, the period for the precursor antecedent precipitation ranges between 5 and 45 days; the state of the river can be represented by the last 24-h precipitation or, as alternative, by the current river level. The flood-triggering precipitation has been cumulated over the next 18 hours (for the short lead time) and 36-42 hours (for the medium lead time). The proposed approach requires a specific implementation of logistic regression for each river section and warning threshold. The method performance has been evaluated over the Santerno river catchment (about 450 km2) in the Emilia-Romagna Region, northern Italy. A statistical analysis in terms of false alarms, misses and related scores was carried out by using a 8-year long database. The results are quite satisfactory, with slightly better performances

  13. Train in vain: the role of the self in claimed self-handicapping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finez, Lucie; Sherman, David K

    2012-10-01

    Two field studies investigate the role of self in the tendency of athletes to engage in claimed handicapping strategies during training (anticipatively claiming that handicaps may interfere with their performance). Study 1 tested the relationship between trait self-esteem and athletes' engagement in claimed self-handicapping. As hypothesized, low physical self-esteem athletes claimed more handicaps than high physical self-esteem athletes. For stronger evidence for the causal role of the self, Study 2 tested whether securing athletes' self-worth through self-affirmation would lead to decreased claimed self-handicapping by using a mixed model design that allows for both between-subjects (affirmation vs. control condition) and within-subject comparisons (before vs. after self-affirmation intervention). Self-affirmed athletes had decreased levels of claimed self-handicapping. Studies 1 and 2 also demonstrate that athletes engage in claimed self-handicapping during training, which could have deleterious effects on subsequent performance. Discussion centers on theoretical implications and applications for coaches, sport teachers, and sport psychologists.

  14. Developing an early warning system for storm surge inundation in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tablazon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A storm surge is the sudden rise of sea water generated by an approaching storm, over and above the astronomical tides. This event imposes a major threat in the Philippine coastal areas, as manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013 where more than 6000 people lost their lives. It has become evident that the need to develop an early warning system for storm surges is of utmost importance. To provide forecasts of the possible storm surge heights of an approaching typhoon, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-Project NOAH simulated historical tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. Bathymetric data, storm track, central atmospheric pressure, and maximum wind speed were used as parameters for the Japan Meteorological Agency Storm Surge Model. The researchers calculated the frequency distribution of maximum storm surge heights of all typhoons under a specific Public Storm Warning Signal (PSWS that passed through a particular coastal area. This determines the storm surge height corresponding to a given probability of occurrence. The storm surge heights from the model were added to the maximum astronomical tide data from WXTide software. The team then created maps of probable area inundation and flood levels of storm surges along coastal areas for a specific PSWS using the results of the frequency distribution. These maps were developed from the time series data of the storm tide at 10 min intervals of all observation points in the Philippines. This information will be beneficial in developing early warnings systems, static maps, disaster mitigation and preparedness plans, vulnerability assessments, risk-sensitive land use plans, shoreline defense efforts, and coastal protection measures. Moreover, these will support the local government units' mandate to raise public awareness, disseminate information about storm surge hazards, and implement

  15. The development and implementation of a real-time meteotsunami warning network for the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šepić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Adriatic Sea meteotsunami research and warning network is described. The network is located in the middle Adriatic, an area where the most destructive of the Adriatic meteotsunamis (destructive tsunami-like sea level oscillations generated by air pressure oscillations occur. The network consists of three microbarograph meteorological stations, and is supplemented by four permanent tide-gauge stations. The two strongest air pressure disturbances, detected in almost a year and a half of measurements, are examined in more detail and used to test functionality and applicability of the network. Both of these disturbances had a meteotsunami favourable velocity, however, only one generated a meteotsunami. It is discussed why this happened and additional information on creating a meteotsunami warning system are obtained. Methods to construct a simple low-cost meteotsunami warning network are given.

  16. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network: An early warning system for tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovero, Francesco; Ahumada, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    While there are well established early warning systems for a number of natural phenomena (e.g. earthquakes, catastrophic fires, tsunamis), we do not have an early warning system for biodiversity. Yet, we are losing species at an unprecedented rate, and this especially occurs in tropical rainforests, the biologically richest but most eroded biome on earth. Unfortunately, there is a chronic gap in standardized and pan-tropical data in tropical forests, affecting our capacity to monitor changes and anticipate future scenarios. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network was established to contribute addressing this issue, as it generates real time data to monitor long-term trends in tropical biodiversity and guide conservation practice. We present the Network and focus primarily on the Terrestrial Vertebrates protocol, that uses systematic camera trapping to detect forest mammals and birds, and secondarily on the Zone of Interaction protocol, that measures changes in the anthroposphere around the core monitoring area. With over 3 million images so far recorded, and managed using advanced information technology, TEAM has created the most important data set on tropical forest mammals globally. We provide examples of site-specific and global analyses that, combined with data on anthropogenic disturbance collected in the larger ecosystem where monitoring sites are, allowed us to understand the drivers of changes of target species and communities in space and time. We discuss the potential of this system as a candidate model towards setting up an early warning system that can effectively anticipate changes in coupled human-natural system, trigger management actions, and hence decrease the gap between research and management responses. In turn, TEAM produces robust biodiversity indicators that meet the requirements set by global policies such as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Standardization in data collection and public sharing of data in near real time

  17. An Early Warning System for Bankruptcy Prediction: lessons from the Venezuelan Bank Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigo, Loren; Gonzalez, Felix; Llamozas, Jose

    2007-01-01

    During 1993-94 Venezuela experienced a severe banking crisis which ended up with 18 commercial banks intervened by the government. Here we develop an early warning system for detecting credit related bankruptcy through discriminant functions developed on financial and macroeconomic data predating the crisis. A robustness test performed on these functions shows high precision in error estimation. The model calibrated on pre-crisis data could detect abnormal financial tension in the late Banco Capital many months before it was intervened and liquidated.

  18. Toward Global Drought Early Warning Capability - Expanding International Cooperation for the Development of a Framework for Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Will; Sheffield, Justin; Stefanski, Robert; Cripe, Douglas; Pulwarty, Roger; Vogt, Jurgen V.; Heim, Richard R., Jr.; Brewer, Michael J.; Svoboda, Mark; Westerhoff, Rogier; hide

    2013-01-01

    Drought has had a significant impact on civilization throughout history in terms of reductions in agricultural productivity, potable water supply, and economic activity, and in extreme cases this has led to famine. Every continent has semiarid areas, which are especially vulnerable to drought. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has noted that average annual river runoff and water availability are projected to decrease by 10 percent-13 percent over some dry and semiarid regions in mid and low latitudes, increasing the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought, along with its associated impacts. The sheer magnitude of the problem demands efforts to reduce vulnerability to drought by moving away from the reactive, crisis management approach of the past toward a more proactive, risk management approach that is centered on reducing vulnerability to drought as much as possible while providing early warning of evolving drought conditions and possible impacts. Many countries, unfortunately, do not have adequate resources to provide early warning, but require outside support to provide the necessary early warning information for risk management. Furthermore, in an interconnected world, the need for information on a global scale is crucial for understanding the prospect of declines in agricultural productivity and associated impacts on food prices, food security, and potential for civil conflict. This paper highlights the recent progress made toward a Global Drought Early Warning Monitoring Framework (GDEWF), an underlying partnership and framework, along with its Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS), which is its interoperable information system, and the organizations that have begun working together to make it a reality. The GDEWF aims to improve existing regional and national drought monitoring and forecasting capabilities by adding a global component, facilitating continental monitoring and forecasting (where lacking), and improving these tools at

  19. Streamlining Tsunami Messages (e.g., Warnings) of the US National Tsunami Warning Center, Palmer, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.; Johnston, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Spurred in part by world-wide interest in improving warning messaging for and response to tsunamis in the wake of several catastrophic tsunamis since 2004 and growing interest at the US National Weather Service (NWS) to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program, the NWS Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii have made great progress toward enhancing tsunami messages. These include numerous products, among them being Tsunami Warnings, Tsunami Advisories and Tsunami Watches. Beginning in 2010 we have worked with US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Warning Coordination and Mitigation and Education Subcommittee members; Tsunami Program administrators; and NWS Weather Forecast Officers to conduct a series of focus group meetings with stakeholders in coastal areas of Alaska, American Samoa, California, Hawaii, North Carolina, Oregon, US Virgin Islands and Washington to understand end-user perceptions of existing messages and their existing needs in message products. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a Tsunami Warning Message Metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order, Formatting, and Receiver Characteristics. A sample message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met, whether the message is a full length or short message. Incrementally, this work contributed to revisions in the format, content and style of message products issued by the National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC). Since that time, interest in short warning messages has continued to increase and in May 2016 the NTWC began efforts to revise message products to take advantage of recent NWS policy changes allowing use of mixed-case text

  20. The value of ProMED-mail for the Early Warning Committee in the Netherlands : more specific approach recommended

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeldenrust, M E; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; Postma, M.J.; van Vliet, J A

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a retrospective and descriptive study into the added value of ProMED-mail--the global electronic reporting system for outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases and toxins maintained by the International Society for Infectious Diseases--as an early warning system for The Nether

  1. The value of ProMED-mail for the Early Warning Committee in the Netherlands : more specific approach recommended

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeldenrust, M E; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; Postma, M.J.; van Vliet, J A

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a retrospective and descriptive study into the added value of ProMED-mail--the global electronic reporting system for outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases and toxins maintained by the International Society for Infectious Diseases--as an early warning system for The

  2. [Psychosocial adjustment of the handicapped child--possibilities and problems of rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulitz, R

    1989-01-01

    A successful childhood is to be striven after particularly for a handicapped child. Habilitation and rehabilitation, only carefully adapted to one another referring to medical specialties in colaboration with the family, may rise to the demand of the individuality of every one handicapped child. On prior conditions children with chiefly physical handicaps may be integrated into the polytechnical secondary school providing general education in the home town. The total-body examination of these children remains to be the basis for all paediatric actions.

  3. An overview of the applications for early warning and mapping of the flood events in New Brunswick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; McGillivray, E.; Anton, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the on-line flood warning implementation in the province of New Brunswick, Canada. The on-line flood warning applications are available via the “River Watch” website provided by the New Brunswick Department of Environment. Advanced GIS technology combined with hydr....... The searchable historical database containing reports about the impact of past floods and estimated damages provides a valuable insight into the past of the province of New Brunswick and the motivation for development of the system for flood prediction and management....

  4. Early warnings of the potential for malaria transmission in Rural Africa using the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Early warnings of malaria transmission allow health officials to better prepare for future epidemics. Monitoring rainfall is recognized as an important part of malaria early warning systems, as outlined by the Roll Back Malaria Initiative. The Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Simulator (HYDREMATS) is a mechanistic model that relates rainfall to malaria transmission, and could be used to provide early warnings of malaria epidemics. HYDREMATS is used to make predictions of mosquito populations and vectorial capacity for 2005, 2006, and 2007 in Banizoumbou village in western Niger. HYDREMATS is forced by observed rainfall, followed by a rainfall prediction based on the seasonal mean rainfall for a period two or four weeks into the future. Predictions made using this method provided reasonable estimates of mosquito populations and vectorial capacity, two to four weeks in advance. The predictions were significantly improved compared to those made when HYDREMATS was forced with seasonal mean rainfall alone.

  5. The Innovation Research of Financial Early-Warning Index Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The period economic fluctuation is vital for an enterprise to exist and further develop,it directly affect the enterprise financial health.So,it is significant to build up financial early-warning index and measure the warning condition that the enterprise faces and take the effective measures to eliminate. We criticize Altman's Z calculating model and build up some new indexes for enterprise financial early-warning condition measuring and making sound decision.

  6. An Evolutionary Comparison of the Handicap Principle and Hybrid Equilibrium Theories of Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Patrick; Zollman, Kevin J S

    2015-01-01

    The handicap principle has come under significant challenge both from empirical studies and from theoretical work. As a result, a number of alternative explanations for honest signaling have been proposed. This paper compares the evolutionary plausibility of one such alternative, the "hybrid equilibrium," to the handicap principle. We utilize computer simulations to compare these two theories as they are instantiated in Maynard Smith's Sir Philip Sidney game. We conclude that, when both types of communication are possible, evolution is unlikely to lead to handicap signaling and is far more likely to result in the partially honest signaling predicted by hybrid equilibrium theory.

  7. Visual Warning Signals Optimized for Human Perception: What the Eye Sees Fastest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Gros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to answer the question of how to design a visual warning signal that is most easily seen and produces the quickest reaction time. This is a classic problem of bionic optimization—if one knows the properties of the receiver one can most easily find a suitable solution. Because the peak of the spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity function of the human visual system occurs at non-zero spatial and temporal frequencies, it is likely that movement enhances the detectability of threshold visual signals. Earlier studies employing extended drifting sinewave gratings bear out this prediction. We have studied the ability of human observers to detect threshold visual signals for both moving and stationary stimuli. We used discrete, localized signals such as might be employed in aerospace or automotive warning signal displays. Moving stimuli show a superior detectability to non-moving stimuli of the same integrated energy. Moving stimuli at threshold detectability are seen faster than non-moving threshold stimuli. Under some conditions the speed advantage is over 0.25 seconds. Similar advantages have also been shown to occur for suprathreshold signals.

  8. A Formative Evaluation of Me Now, Unit I, Digestion and Circulation, Life Sciences for the Educable Mentally Handicapped Intermediate Grades (11-13 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James T.; Tolman, Richard R.

    In order to evaluate Unit I (Digestion and Circulation) of the Me Now series of Life Sciences for the Educable Mentally Handicapped, 139 students in an experimental group (mean IQ 72.04; mean CA 144.9 months) and 154 control subjects (mean IQ 70.2; mean CA 148.3 months) were pre- and post-tested following instruction in the Me Now series…

  9. Stability Analysis of a Repairable System with Warning Device and Repairman Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangli Ren

    2013-01-01

    probability analysis method, the system is first transformed into a group of integrodifferential equations. Then, the existence and uniqueness as well as regularity of the system dynamic solution are discussed with the functional analysis method. Further, the asymptotic stability, especially the exponential stability of the system dynamic solution, is studied by using the strongly continuous semigroup theory or C0 semigroup theory. The reliability indices and some applications (such as the comparisons of indices and profit of systems with and without warning device, as well as numerical examples, are presented at the end of the paper.

  10. Operational Earthquake Forecasting and Earthquake Early Warning: The Challenges of Introducing Scientific Innovations for Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Although variants of both earthquake early warning and short-term operational earthquake forecasting systems have been implemented or are now being implemented in some regions and nations, they have been slow to gain acceptance within the disciplines that produced them as well as among those for whom they were intended to assist. To accelerate the development and implementation of these technologies will require the cooperation and collaboration of multiple disciplines, some inside and others outside of academia. Seismologists, social scientists, emergency managers, elected officials and key opinion leaders from the media and public must be the participants in this process. Representatives of these groups come from both inside and outside of academia and represent very different organizational cultures, backgrounds and expectations for these systems, sometimes leading to serious disagreements and impediments to further development and implementation. This presentation will focus on examples of the emergence of earthquake early warning and operational earthquake forecasting systems in California, Japan and other regions and document the challenges confronted in the ongoing effort to improve seismic safety.

  11. Voice handicap and health-related quality of life after treatment for small laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killguss, Helen; Gottwald, Frank; Haderlein, Tino; Maier, Andreas; Rosanowski, Frank; Iro, Heinrich; Psychogios, Georgios; Schuster, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of small carcinoma of the larynx may lead to voice handicap and restricted quality of life. The relationship between the two is revealed. Sixty-five patients aged 62.1 ± 10.0 years rated their voice handicap and quality of life after treatment of T1 (n = 35) or T2 (n = 30) laryngeal carcinoma during regular out-patient examinations. For the self-assessment of the voice, the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the disease-independent Short Form-36 Health Survery (SF-36) questionnaires were used. Voice handicap (total score 38.9 ± 26.0) did not differ in the two tested groups, T1 and T2, and the data of SF-36 (physical score 43.0 ± 10.7; mental score 50.2 ± 9.1) showed significant differences for the mental score. Patients rated their voice handicap worse than healthy persons did after treatment of laryngeal carcinoma. VHI and SF-36 data were strongly correlated. Voice handicap is significantly related to the quality of life, especially affecting the mental domain. Thus, the rehabilitation of voice disorders should have a beneficial impact on quality of life.

  12. Simulation systems for tsunami wave propagation forecasting within the French tsunami warning center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hernandez, B.

    2012-04-01

    Improvements in the availability of sea-level observations and advances in numerical modeling techniques are increasing the potential for tsunami warnings to be based on numerical model forecasts. Numerical tsunami propagation and inundation models are well developed, but they present a challenge to run in real-time, partly due to computational limitations and also to a lack of detailed knowledge on the earthquake rupture parameters. A first generation model-based tsunami prediction system is being developed as part of the French Tsunami Warning Center that will be operational by mid 2012. It involves a pre-computed unit source functions database (i.e., a number of tsunami model runs that are calculated ahead of time and stored) corresponding to tsunami scenarios generated by a source of seismic moment 1.75E+19 N.m with a rectangular fault 25 km by 20 km in size and 1 m in slip. The faults of the unit functions are placed adjacent to each other, following the discretization of the main seismogenic faults bounding the western Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic basins. An authomatized composite scenarios calculation tool is implemented to allow the simulation of any tsunami propagation scenario (i.e., of any seismic moment). The strategy is based on linear combinations and scaling of a finite number of pre-computed unit source functions. The number of unit functions involved varies with the magnitude of the wanted composite solution and the combined wave heights are multiplied by a given scaling factor to produce the new arbitrary scenario. Uncertainty on the magnitude of the detected event and inaccuracy on the epicenter location are taken into account in the composite scenarios calculation. For one tsunamigenic event, the tool produces finally 3 warning maps (i.e., most likely, minimum and maximum scenarios) together with the rough decision matrix representation. A no-dimension code representation is chosen to show zones in the main axis of energy at the basin

  13. The Communication As A Barrier For Including Visual Handicapped Pupils In Optics Classes [a Comunicação Como Barreira à Inclusão De Alunos Com Deficiência Visual Em Aulas De óptica

    OpenAIRE

    de Camargo E.P.; Nardi R.; Veraszto E.V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper represents a continuity of outcomes presented before by Camargo and Nardi (Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física 29, 117 (2007)). It is a part of a broader study aiming to understand the main barriers for including visual handicapped pupils in the physics' teaching context. It analyzes communication difficulties between future physics teachers and visual handicapped pupils during optics classes. For that, it emphasizes the empirical and semantic-sensorial structures of the languag...

  14. The reconnaissance and early-warning optical system design for dual field of space-based "solar blind ultraviolet"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-cong; Jin, Dong-dong; Shao, Fei; Hu, Hui-jun; Shi, Yu-feng; Song, Juan; Zhang, Yu-tu; Yong, Liu

    2016-07-01

    With the development of modern technology, especially the development of information technology at high speed, the ultraviolet early warning system plays an increasingly important role. In the modern warfare, how to detect the threats earlier, prevent and reduce the attack of precision-guided missile has become a new challenge. Because the ultraviolet warning technology has high environmental adaptability, the low false alarm rate, small volume and other advantages, in the military field applications it has been developed rapidly. According to current application demands for solar blind ultraviolet detection and warning, this paper proposes a reconnaissance and early-warning optical system, which covers solar blind ultraviolet (250nm-280nm) and dual field. This structure takes advantage of a narrow field of view and long focal length optical system to achieve the target object detection, uses wide-field and short focal length optical system to achieve early warning of the target object. It makes use of an ultraviolet beam-splitter to achieve the separation of two optical systems. According to the detector and the corresponding application needs of two visual field of the optical system, the calculation and optical system design were completed. After the design, the MTF of the two optical system is more than 0.8@39lp/mm. A single pixel energy concentration is greater than 80%.

  15. Education for All the Handicapped Children Act, Hearing Officer and the Labor Arbitrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, M. J., Jr.; Stack, William B.

    1979-01-01

    The authors review the qualifications for hearing officers required in Public Law 94-142 and suggest that practicing labor arbitrators in the public and private sectors be considered for use as hearing officers. (Author/IRT)

  16. Causes of blindness in blind unit of the school for the handicapped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the blind or visually challenged people in the blind unit of the school for the ... person (5.6%) had visual impairment with visual acuity of 4/60 in the better eye. ... transfer of blind people for rehabilitation to enhance the overall development of ...

  17. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arattano, Massimo; Marchi, Lorenzo

    2008-04-04

    Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows), their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall) and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche pendulums, photocells

  18. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows, their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche

  19. DOGO Warn Levels: An Upgrade to Quality Flags for the OCO-2 Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldering, A.; Mandrake, L.; Doran, G. B., Jr.; O'Dell, C.

    2015-12-01

    All large observational datasets contain varying quality data due to instrument limitations, retrieval software imperfections, and confounding (poorly modeled) effects in the system being observed. Traditionally, we image large percentages of data that are of limited or no scientific use, so called "bad data." The previous solution was for an instrument team to create a binary filter (quality flag) to remove unwanted observations before any analyses are performed. However, quality flags assume fully separable "good"/ "bad" data and produce a fixed percentage of data that may still be too high or low for a particular user's needs. Additionally, atmospheric soundings are confounded by clouds and aerosols that continuously vary in optical depth and size scale without a sharp, simple boundary between "good" and "bad," breaking the data quality concept. OCO2 has for the first time at JPL/NASA developed an alternative to quality flags: the award-winning DOGO (Data Ordering Genetic Optimization) system. DOGO uses machine-learning to derive a coarse ordering of the data from most to least trusted without making arbitrary good/bad decisions. By seeking to reduce metrics like stdev of southern hemisphere XCO2, difference from TCCON, and stdev of global small areas, DOGO searches the space of all possible filters and isolates a handful of predictive metadata features that, through simple formula, can be used to predict an optimal ordering. This ordering seeks to keep the above metrics reduced while gradually admitting more data for analysis. The ordering is crystallized into the Warn Level (WL) product, so named because higher Warn Levels for an individual sounding indicate higher chances that the sounding will not prove useful. Users use WL's by accepting the soundings with lowest values first, then proceeding higher until the data volume need, coverage need, or problem tolerance is reached. DOGO's WL's are the official quality estimation tool provided with OCO-2 data

  20. Gastrointestinal problems in the handicapped child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, S K

    2001-10-01

    Gastrointestinal issues are a major chronic problem in 80 to 90% of children with cerebral palsy and in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities who are at special risk of developing malnutrition because of uncoordinated swallowing, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation. In addition to poor linear growth, there is a decrease in muscle strength and coordination, impaired cerebral function leading to decreased motivation and energy. Significant neurodevelopmental progress can be achieved with improved nutritional status. A multidisciplinary approach, with input from neurologists, gastroenterologists, nurses, occupational therapists, and dieticians, can make a major contribution to the medical wellbeing and quality of life of these children. Different neurological diseases ( eg, spinal dysraphism, syringomyelia, tethered cord syndromes) can give rise to gastrointestinal dysfunction and symptoms that may need different gastrointestinal or surgical management. The introduction of new drugs, including proton pump inhibitors and innovative endoscopic and surgical techniques in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease and constipation also may have an impact on the treatment of neurologically handicapped children in the future.

  1. Access to English Language Acquisition in Ghana Schools for the Deaf: Are the Deaf Students Handicapped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obosu, Gideon Kwesi; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia; Deku, Prosper

    2016-01-01

    This paper primarily discusses the challenges deaf students in Ghana are likely to grapple with as they access education provided for them in English language. The arguments discussed in this paper are supported by findings from a multiple site case study of five Schools for the Deaf purposively sampled from four regions of Ghana. Observations…

  2. MOBILITY DEVICES FOR THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru KAMATA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose the use of micro-electric vehicles called “silver vehicles” (SV as mobility devices for older drivers who have difficulty driving automobiles. Previous reports have described research on characteristics of the elderly, proposed the SV concept and evaluated it in townmobility field tests. This report addresses feasibility of the SV concept and issues of town planning through a follow-up study of characteristics of the elderly three years later, long-term in-use testing of SV-comparable production vehicles, and investigations of elderly driver characteristics and trailing behavior in mixed traffic situations.

  3. 45 CFR 1151.12 - Qualified handicapped person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified handicapped person. 1151.12 Section 1151... AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Standards for Determining Who Are Handicapped Persons § 1151.12 Qualified handicapped person....

  4. An Early-Warning System for Volcanic Ash Dispersal: The MAFALDA Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, S.; Nannipieri, L.; Neri, A.

    2006-12-01

    Forecasts of the dispersal of volcanic ash is a fundamental goal in order to mitigate its potential impact on urbanized areas and transport routes surrounding explosive volcanoes. To this aim we developed an early- warning procedure named MAFALDA (Modeling And Forecasting Ash Loading and Dispersal in the Atmosphere). Such tool is able to quantitatively forecast the atmospheric concentration of ash as well as the ground deposition as a function of time over a 3D spatial domain.\\The main features of MAFALDA are: (1) the use of the hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian code VOL-CALPUFF able to describe both the rising column phase and the atmospheric dispersal as a function of weather conditions, (2) the use of high-resolution weather forecasting data, (3) the short execution time that allows to analyse a set of scenarios and (4) the web-based CGI software application (written in Perl programming language) that shows the results in a standard graphical web interface and makes it suitable as an early-warning system during volcanic crises.\\MAFALDA is composed by a computational part that simulates the ash cloud dynamics and a graphical interface for visualizing the modelling results. The computational part includes the codes for elaborating the meteorological data, the dispersal code and the post-processing programs. These produces hourly 2D maps of aerial ash concentration at several vertical levels, extension of "threat" area on air and 2D maps of ash deposit on the ground, in addition to graphs of hourly variations of column height.\\The processed results are available on the web by the graphical interface and the users can choose, by drop-down menu, which data to visualize. \\A first partial application of the procedure has been carried out for Mt. Etna (Italy). In this case, the procedure simulates four volcanological scenarios characterized by different plume intensities and uses 48-hrs weather forecasting data with a resolution of 7 km provided by the Italian Air Force.

  5. The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) - Application in Early Warning Systems for Natural Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, Matthias; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In conjunction with the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element (-DE) [2] these data formats can be used for warning message dissemination in early warning systems for natural hazards. Application took place in the DEWS (Distance Early Warning System) [3] project where CAP serves as central message format containing both human readable warnings and structured data for automatic processing by message receivers. In particular the spatial reference capabilities are of paramount importance both in CAP and EDXL. Affected areas are addressable via geo codes like HASC (Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Codes) [4] or UN/LOCODE [5] but also with arbitrary polygons that can be directly generated out of GML [6]. For each affected area standardized criticality values (urgency, severity and certainty) have to be set but also application specific key-value-pairs like estimated time of arrival or maximum inundation height can be specified. This enables - together with multilingualism, message aggregation and message conversion for different dissemination channels - the generation of user-specific tailored warning messages. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] EDXL-DE, http://docs.oasis-open.org/emergency/edxl-de/v1.0/EDXL-DE_Spec_v1.0.pdf [3] DEWS, http://www.dews-online.org [4] HASC, "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 Through 1998" ISBN 0-7864-0729-8 [5] UN/LOCODE, http://www.unece.org/cefact/codesfortrade/codes_index.htm [6] GML, http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/gml

  6. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. A Simple Early Warning System for Evaluating the Credit Portfolio's Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed the development of a vast literature devoted to the study of several phenomena like banking crises or episodes of vulnerability and distress, characterized by inadequate capitalization, impairment of the asset quality and of the credit institutions' rating. The purpose of this study is to design an early warning system in order to highlight at an earlier stage the likelihood of deterioration of the Romanian banking system credit portfolio's quality. We have applied an econometric model which constitutes a reference for this type of analysis, having as purpose the identification of a significant correlation between increasing weight of bad loans in total assets, on the one hand, and a number of macroeconomic variables and indicators of the banking system, on the other hand.

  8. Addressing the Safety of Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems: Development and Validation of a Verbal Warning Utility Scale for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important application of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS, advances in intelligent transportation systems (ITS improve driving safety by informing drivers of hazards with warnings in advance. The evaluation of the warning effectiveness is an important issue in facilitating communication of ITS. The goal of the present study was to develop a scale to evaluate the warning utility, namely, the effectiveness of a warning in preventing accidents in general. A driving simulator study was conducted to validate the Verbal Warning Utility Scale (VWUS in a simulated driving environment. The reliability analysis indicated a good split-half reliability for the VWUS with a Spearman-Brown Coefficient of 0.873. The predictive validity of VWUS in measuring the effectiveness of the verbal warnings was verified by the significant prediction of safety benefits indicated by variables, including reduced kinetic energy and collision rate. Compared to conducting experimental studies, this scale provides a simpler way to evaluate overall utility of verbal warnings in communicating associated hazards in intelligent transportation systems. This scale can be further applied to improve the design of warnings of ITS in order to improve transportation safety. The applications of the scale in nonverbal warning situations and limitations of the current scale are also discussed.

  9. The Knowledge of Nurses and Midwives Related to Mentally-Handicapped Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yildirim Sari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research is to determine the knowledge of nurses and midwives who are working at primary health care services. METHODS: The information regarding the research has been given to the nurses and midwives working at primary health centers of Manisa, and 70 nurses and midwives have accepted to attend the research. In collecting the data, two questionnaire forms prepared by the researchers have been used and these forms are composed of two parts. In the first part of the questionnaire, there are questions about the sociodemografhic characteristics of midwives and nurses; in the second one the questions are related to the symptoms and causes of mental-handicap and the attempts regarding the mentally-handicapped child and his family. RESULTS: The nurses and midwives have stated that the most important cause of mental handicap is marriages among relatives (92.9%. and that in a situation of not being able to fullfill mental motor skills in relation to age, they suspect mental handicap (90%. They have also stated that they mostly have or can have difficulty in communucating with the mentally-handicapped child (64%. CONCLUSION: As a result, the nurses and midwives have adequate knowledge about the causes and symptoms of mental handicap. On the other hand, their knowledge regarding the services to be planned in care of mentally-handicapped children is limited. At the primary health care services, educational studies can be planned in order to give better health service for mentally-handicapped individuals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 127-132

  10. The consequences of dioecy for seed dispersal: modeling the seed-shadow handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbuth, J C; Ilves, K L; Otto, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that clades of dioecious angiosperms have fewer extant species on average than those of cosexual (hermaphroditic and monoecious) relatives. Reasons for the decrease in speciation rates and/or increase in extinction rates are only beginning to be investigated. One possibility is that dioecious species suffer a competitive disadvantage with cosexuals because only half of the individuals in a dioecious population are seed bearing. When only females produce seed, offspring will be more spatially clumped and will experience more local resource competition than when every individual produces seed. We examine two spatially explicit models to determine the effect of a reduction in seed dispersers on the invasibility and persistence of dioecious populations. Even though dioecious females were allowed to produce twice as many seeds as cosexuals, our results show that a reduction in the number of seed dispersers causes a decrease in the ability of dioecious progeny to find uninhabited sites, thus reducing persistence times. These results suggest that the maintenance of dioecy in the presence of hermaphroditic competitors requires a substantial increase in relative fitness and/or a large dispersal advantage of dioecious seeds.

  11. An analysis of the early-warning system in emerging markets for reducing the financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangguang; Song, Xiaozhong

    2009-07-01

    The large number of financial crises in emerging markets over the past ten years has left many observers, both from academia and financial institutions, puzzled by an apparent lack of homogenous causal relations between endogenous economic variables and the bursting of large financial shocks. The frequency of financial crises in the last 20 years can be attributed to the lack of a comprehensive theory of financial regulation to guide policy makers. Existing theories fail to define the range of regulatory models, the causes of regulatory failure, and how to measure and prevent it. Faulty design of regulatory models, and the lack of ongoing performance monitoring incorporating early warning systems, is disrupting economic and social development. The main aim of this article is to propose an early warning system (EWS) which purposes issuing warning signal against the possible financial crisis in the emerging market, and makes the emerging market survived the first wave of the crisis be able to continue their operation in the following years.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 609 - Elderly and Handicapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elderly and Handicapped A Appendix A to Part 609..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FOR ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED PERSONS Pt. 609, App. A Appendix A to Part 609—Elderly and Handicapped The definitions of the term elderly and handicapped as applied...

  13. The Philosophy behind a (Danish) Voice-controlled Interface to Internet Browsing for motor-handicapped

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom

    2005-01-01

    criteria: learnability and memorability rather than naturalness, minimal need for maintenance after release, support for "all" web standards (not just HTML conforming to certain "recommendations"), independency of the language on the websites being browsed, allowance for multimodal control along...

  14. The investigation of early warning signs of aggression in forensic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof Berno van Meijel; Mirjan van Leeuwen; Mieke Grypdonck; Frans Fluttert; Bjørkly Stal

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives. The Forensic Early Warning Signs of Aggression Inventory (FESAI) was developed to assist nurses and patients in identifying early warning signs and constructing individual early detection plans (EDP) for the prevention of aggressive incidents. The aims of this research were as f

  15. The Ex Hoc Infrastructure - Enhancing Traffic Safety through LIfe WArning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Eskildsen, Toke

    2004-01-01

    New pervasive computing technologies for sensing and communication open up novel possibilities for enhancing traffic safety. We are currently designing and implementing the Ex Hoc infrastructure framework for communication among mobile and stationary units including vehicles. The infrastructure...... will connect sensing devices on vehicles with sensing devices on other vehicles and with stationary communication units placed alongside roads. The current application of Ex Hoc is to enable the collection and dissemination of information on road condition through LIfe Warning Systems (LIWAS) units....

  16. The Ex Hoc Infrastructure - Enhancing Traffic Safety through LIfe WArning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Eskildsen, Toke;

    2004-01-01

    New pervasive computing technologies for sensing and communication open up novel possibilities for enhancing traffic safety. We are currently designing and implementing the Ex Hoc infrastructure framework for communication among mobile and stationary units including vehicles. The infrastructure...... will connect sensing devices on vehicles with sensing devices on other vehicles and with stationary communication units placed alongside roads. The current application of Ex Hoc is to enable the collection and dissemination of information on road condition through LIfe Warning Systems (LIWAS) units....

  17. Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC) China survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zejun; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan; Hitchman, Sara C

    2017-05-19

    Health warnings labels (HWLs) have the potential to effectively communicate the health risks of smoking to smokers and non-smokers, and encourage smokers to quit. This study sought to examine whether non-smokers in China notice the current text-only HWLs and whether they support adding more health information and including pictures on HWLs. Adult non-smokers (n = 1324) were drawn from Wave 4 (September 2011-November 2012) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey. The proportion of non-smokers who noticed the HWLs, and supported adding more health information and pictures to the HWLs was examined. Additionally, the relation between non-smokers' demographic characteristics, including whether they had a smoking partner, their number of smoking friends, and noticing the HWLs and support for adding health information and pictures was examined. Because the HWLs changed during the survey period (April 2012), differences between non-smokers who completed the survey before and after the change were examined. 12.2% reported they noticed the HWLs often in the last month. The multivariate model, adjusting for demographics showed that respondents with a smoking partner (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.42-4.13, p = 0.001) noticed the HWLs more often. 64.8% of respondents agreed that the HWLs should have more information, and 80.2% supported including pictures. The multivariate model showed that non-smokers who completed the survey after the HWLs were implemented (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99, p = 0.04) were less likely to support adding more health information. The multivariate model showed a significant relation between having a smoking partner and supporting pictorial HWLs (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.24-3.33, p = 0.005). The findings indicate that the Chinese HWLs are noticed by a minority of non-smokers and that non-smokers strongly support strengthening the Chinese warning labels with more health information and pictures. Additionally, because the HWLs are noticed

  18. Learning Problems in Connection with Special Information Media for the Visually Handicapped - A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Ann-Mari; Lindqvist, Bengt

    The bibliography was compiled with the intent to cover areas of special interest with regard to a research program at the Teachers College of Uppsala, Sweden dealing with problems in connection with the special information media for the blind which serve as substitutes for ink-print. Entered in the first section - an introduction to blindness -…

  19. Voice-controlled Internet Browsing for Motor-handicapped Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom; Aaskoven, Erik

    2006-01-01

    with an advisory board of motor-handicapped (potential) end-users and underlies a number of a priori defined design criteria: learnability and memorability rather than naturalness, minimal need for maintenance after release, support for "all" web standards (not just HTML conforming to certain "recommendations...

  20. 农村社区康复问题研究%Investigation on the CBR services for the handicapped in rural Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李若旸; 齐鹏; 胡勇

    2013-01-01

    The CBR (Comprehensive Rehabilitation Services) services for the handicapped are currently carried out with an integrated rehabilitation mode based on the concepts of broad coverage, low cost and full service, so as to locally and conveniently provide the rehabilitation service on medical treatment, education, society and occupational to the handicapped. The implementing the rural comprehensive rehabilitation services is an effective supporting way to the highly destitute group from suburb Beijing. The major goal of CRS For All could be truly achieved by taking the handicapped as the centre and taking government support and social support as the major to establish a multi-entirety comprehensive-support network with multiple levels from health facilities to community to family, and doing best various rehabilitation service assurance systems, as well as solving effectively the problems that rehabilitation is hard to carry out to the handicapped in rural areas.%目前中国针对农村残障人士开展的社区康复服务,基于广覆盖、低成本、全方位的理念,采取一体化的康复模式,就近就便为残障人士提供医疗、教育、社会以及职业的康复服务.从京郊农村的实际来看,开展农村社区综合康复服务是针对这一特困群体的有效的扶助途径.只有以残障人士为中心,以政府和社会支持为主体,构建起医疗机构—社区家庭多层次、多元一体化的综合支持网络,健全多样化的康复服务保障体系,切实解决了农村残障人士的康复难问题,才能够达到全民享有康复服务的重要目标.

  1. Education of the Handicapped and Its Implications for Elementary Industrial Arts. ACESIA Monograph 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Clarence R., Jr.; Horvath, Lester J.

    The purpose of this monograph is to illustrate the implications of Public Law 94-142 on public education at the state and local levels. The first section illustrates the importance for all educators to be aware of the administrative design used in this piece of permanent legislation. The second section describes the major provisions of Public Law…

  2. Meteorological Integration for the Biological Warning and Incident Characterization (BWIC) System: General Guidance for BWIC Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, William J.; Wang, Weiguo; Rutz, Frederick C.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Xie, YuLong; Seiple, Timothy E.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2007-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is responsible for developing systems to detect the release of aerosolized bioagents in urban environments. The system that accomplishes this, known as BioWatch, is a robust first-generation monitoring system. In conjunction with the BioWatch detection network, DHS has also developed a software tool for cities to use to assist in their response when a bioagent is detected. This tool, the Biological Warning and Incident Characterization (BWIC) System, will eventually be deployed to all BioWatch cities to aid in the interpretation of the public health significance of indicators from the BioWatch networks. BWIC consists of a set of integrated modules, including meteorological models, that estimate the effect of a biological agent on a city’s population once it has been detected. For the meteorological models in BWIC to successfully calculate the distribution of biological material, they must have as input accurate meteorological data, and wind fields in particular. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for cities to use in identifying sources of good-quality local meteorological data that BWIC needs to function properly. This process of finding sources of local meteorological data, evaluating the data quality and gaps in coverage, and getting the data into BWIC, referred to as meteorological integration, is described. The good news for many cities is that meteorological measurement networks are becoming increasingly common. Most of these networks allow their data to be distributed in real time via the internet. Thus, cities will often only need to evaluate the quality of available measurements and perhaps add a modest number of stations where coverage is poor.

  3. Adapting the EDuMaP method to test the performance of the Norwegian early warning system for weather-induced landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piciullo, Luca; Dahl, Mads-Peter; Devoli, Graziella; Colleuille, Hervé; Calvello, Michele

    2017-06-01

    The Norwegian national landslide early warning system (LEWS), operational since 2013, is managed by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate and was designed for monitoring and forecasting the hydrometeorological conditions potentially triggering slope failures. Decision-making in the LEWS is based upon rainfall thresholds, hydrometeorological and real-time landslide observations as well as on landslide inventory and susceptibility maps. Daily alerts are issued throughout the country considering variable size warning zones. Warnings are issued once per day for the following 3 days and can be updated according to weather forecasts and information gathered by the monitoring network. The performance of the LEWS operational in Norway has been evaluated applying the EDuMaP method, which is based on the computation of a duration matrix relating number of landslides and warning levels issued in a warning zone. In the past, this method has been exclusively employed to analyse the performance of regional early warning models considering fixed warning zones. Herein, an original approach is proposed for the computation of the elements of the duration matrix in the case of early warning models issuing alerts on variable size areas. The approach has been used to evaluate the warnings issued in Western Norway, in the period 2013-2014, considering two datasets of landslides. The results indicate that the landslide datasets do not significantly influence the performance evaluation, although a slightly better performance is registered for the smallest dataset. Different performance results are observed as a function of the values adopted for one of the most important input parameters of EDuMaP, the landslide density criterion (i.e. setting the thresholds to differentiate among classes of landslide events). To investigate this issue, a parametric analysis has been conducted; the results of the analysis show significant differences among computed performances when

  4. Adapting the EDuMaP method to test the performance of the Norwegian early warning system for weather-induced landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Piciullo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian national landslide early warning system (LEWS, operational since 2013, is managed by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate and was designed for monitoring and forecasting the hydrometeorological conditions potentially triggering slope failures. Decision-making in the LEWS is based upon rainfall thresholds, hydrometeorological and real-time landslide observations as well as on landslide inventory and susceptibility maps. Daily alerts are issued throughout the country considering variable size warning zones. Warnings are issued once per day for the following 3 days and can be updated according to weather forecasts and information gathered by the monitoring network. The performance of the LEWS operational in Norway has been evaluated applying the EDuMaP method, which is based on the computation of a duration matrix relating number of landslides and warning levels issued in a warning zone. In the past, this method has been exclusively employed to analyse the performance of regional early warning models considering fixed warning zones. Herein, an original approach is proposed for the computation of the elements of the duration matrix in the case of early warning models issuing alerts on variable size areas. The approach has been used to evaluate the warnings issued in Western Norway, in the period 2013–2014, considering two datasets of landslides. The results indicate that the landslide datasets do not significantly influence the performance evaluation, although a slightly better performance is registered for the smallest dataset. Different performance results are observed as a function of the values adopted for one of the most important input parameters of EDuMaP, the landslide density criterion (i.e. setting the thresholds to differentiate among classes of landslide events. To investigate this issue, a parametric analysis has been conducted; the results of the analysis show significant differences among computed

  5. Managing Risks? Early Warning Systems for Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitati, A. M.; Zommers, Z. A.; Habilov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning systems are a tool with which to minimize risks posed by climate related hazards. Although great strides have been made in developing early warning systems most deal with one hazard, only provide short-term warnings and do not reach the most vulnerable. This presentation will review research results of the United Nations Environment Programme's CLIM-WARN project. The project seeks to identify how governments can better communicate risks by designing multi-hazard early warning systems that deliver actionable warnings across timescales. Household surveys and focus group discussions were conducted in 36 communities in Kenya, Ghana and Burkina Faso in order to identify relevant climate related hazards, current response strategies and early warning needs. Preliminary results show significant variability in both risks and needs within and between countries. For instance, floods are more frequent in rural western parts of Kenya. Droughts are frequent in the north while populations in urban areas face a range of hazards - floods, droughts, disease outbreaks - that sometimes occur simultaneously. The majority of the rural population, especially women, the disabled and the elderly, do not have access to modern media such as radio, television, or internet. While 55% of rural populace never watches television, 64% of urban respondents watch television on a daily basis. Communities have different concepts of how to design warning systems. It will be a challenge for national governments to create systems that accommodate such diversity yet provide standard quality of service to all. There is a need for flexible and forward-looking early warning systems that deliver broader information about risks. Information disseminated through the system could not only include details of hazards, but also long-term adaptation options, general education, and health information, thus increasingly both capabilities and response options.

  6. A Data Based Multidimensional Oral Hygiene Curriculum for the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David; Elliott, Thomas A.

    A multidimensional oral hygiene curriculum appropriate for the moderately to profoundly retarded and composed of tooth brushing, flossing, and gum stimulation/massage is proposed. Task analyses are included for manual tooth brushing, utilizing an oral irrigation appliance, manual flossing, and use of an adaptive aid for flossing. Also provided are…

  7. Information fusion diagnosis and early-warning method for monitoring the long-term service safety of high dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing LIU; Zhong-ru WU; Yang YANG; Jiang HU; Bo XU

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the service behavior of high dams and establishing early-warning systems for them have become increasingly important in ensuring their long-term service.Current analysis methods used to obtain safety monitoring data are suited only to single survey point data.Unreliable or even paradoxical results are inevitably obtained when processing large amounts of monitoring data,thereby causing difficulty in acquiring precise conclusions.Therefore,we have developed a new method based on multi-source information fusion for conducting a comprehensive analysis of prototype monitoring data of high dams.In addition,we propose the use of decision information entropy analysis for building a diagnosis and early-warning system for the long-term service of high dams.Data metrics reduction is achieved using information fusion at the data level.A Bayesian information fusion is then conducted at the decision level to obtain a comprehensive diagnosis.Early-warning outcomes can be released after sorting analysis results from multi-positions in the dam according to importance.A case study indicates that the new method can effectively handle large amounts of monitoring data from numerous survey points.It can likewise obtain precise real-time results and export comprehensive early-warning outcomes from multi-positions of high dams.

  8. Anatomy of Historical Tsunamis: Lessons Learned for Tsunami Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Y.; Kong, L.; Yamamoto, M.; McCreery, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Tsunamis are high-impact disasters that can cause death and destruction locally within a few minutes of their occurrence and across oceans hours, even up to a day, afterward. Efforts to establish tsunami warning systems to protect life and property began in the Pacific after the 1946 Aleutian Islands tsunami caused casualties in Hawaii. Seismic and sea level data were used by a central control center to evaluate tsunamigenic potential and then issue alerts and warnings. The ensuing events of 1952, 1957, and 1960 tested the new system, which continued to expand and evolve from a United States system to an international system in 1965. The Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ITSU) steadily improved through the decades as more stations became available in real and near-real time through better communications technology and greater bandwidth. New analysis techniques, coupled with more data of higher quality, resulted in better detection, greater solution accuracy, and more reliable warnings, but limitations still exist in constraining the source and in accurately predicting propagation of the wave from source to shore. Tsunami event data collected over the last two decades through international tsunami science surveys have led to more realistic models for source generation and inundation, and within the warning centers, real-time tsunami wave forecasting will become a reality in the near future. The tsunami warning system is an international cooperative effort amongst countries supported by global and national monitoring networks and dedicated tsunami warning centers; the research community has contributed to the system by advancing and improving its analysis tools. Lessons learned from the earliest tsunamis provided the backbone for the present system, but despite 45 years of experience, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami reminded us that tsunamis strike and kill everywhere, not just in the Pacific. Today, a global intergovernmental tsunami warning system is coordinated

  9. The Yellowstone Plan: Individualized Education Program for Emotionally Handicapped Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryngelson, Jim

    This paper presents an educational program for seriously emotionally disturbed students at the Yellowstone Ranch, a residential treatment facility and school focusing on the enhancement of each student's self esteem. Located in Montana, which in 1965 created a special school district to serve the needs of special needs children, the school has as…

  10. Relaxation Techniques for Handicapped Children: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Dvora

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses four major relaxation training approaches used with handicapped children: progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, yoga, and mental relaxation, which includes guided fantasy, imagery, and meditation. Descriptions of these techniques, the effects of their use with various populations, and reviews of recent studies of their…

  11. Effectiveness of text versus pictorial health warning labels and predictors of support for plain packaging of tobacco products within the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Filippidis, Filippos T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco product warning labels are a key health communication medium with plain packaging noted as the next step in the evolution of tobacco packaging. We assessed the self-reported impact of text versus pictorial health warnings and the determinants of support for plain packaging of tobacco products in the European Union (EU). The Special Eurobarometer 385 survey was analyzed for 26,566 adults from 27 EU countries in 2012. The self-reported impact of warning labels (text or pictorial) and determinants of EU-wide support for plain packaging were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Current smokers in countries where cigarette pictorial warnings were implemented had higher odds of reporting that health warning labels had any effect on their smoking behavior (making a quit attempt or reducing number of cigarettes smoked per day) compared to respondents in countries with text-only warning labels (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.10-1.56). Population support for plain packaging of tobacco packs was higher in countries where cigarette pictorial warnings already existed (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07-1.28). These findings indicate that the implementation of pictorial warnings at an EU level may have a positive behavioral impact among smokers and pave the way for population support for plain packaging in the EU.

  12. The State's "Project Workability" Has Improved the Coordination of Services for and the Employability of Handicapped Students. Report by the Office of the Auditor General to the Joint Legislative Audit Committee. P-281.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of the Auditor General, Sacramento.

    The report presents evaluation findings for California's Project Workability, designed to enable handicapped high schoolers to become more employable. The report focuses on the coordination among the three agencies involved in the project: the State Department of Education, the Department of Rehabilitation, and the Employment Development…

  13. A Multidimensional Oral Hygiene Curriculum for the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David; Elliott, Thomas A.

    1981-01-01

    The field tested, data based, criterion referenced curriculum includes procedures for individualized education programs, data collection and recording, formative and summative evaluation, a transdisciplinary component, as well as a comprehensive discussion of content and methodology. (Author)

  14. Evidence-Based Support for the Characteristics of Tsunami Warning Messages for Local, Regional and Distant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies since 2004 have documented the dissemination and receipt of risk information for local to distant tsunamis and factors influencing people's responses. A few earlier tsunami studies and numerous studies of other hazards provide additional support for developing effective tsunami messages. This study explores evidence-based approaches to developing such messages for the Pacific and National Tsunami Warning Centers in the US. It extends a message metric developed for the NWS Tsunami Program. People at risk to tsunamis receive information from multiple sources through multiple channels. Sources are official and informal and environmental and social cues. Traditionally, official tsunami messages followed a linear dissemination path through relatively few channels from warning center to emergency management to public and media. However, the digital age has brought about a fundamental change in the dissemination and receipt of official and informal communications. Information is now disseminated in very non-linear paths and all end-user groups may receive the same message simultaneously. Research has demonstrated a range of factors that influence rapid respond to an initial real or perceived threat. Immediate response is less common than one involving delayed protective actions where people first engage in "milling behavior" to exchange information and confirm the warning before taking protective action. The most important message factors to achieve rapid response focus on the content and style of the message and the frequency of dissemination. Previously we developed a tsunami message metric consisting of 21 factors divided into message content and style and receiver characteristics. Initially, each factor was equally weighted to identify gaps, but here we extend the work by weighting specific factors. This utilizes recent research that identifies the most important determinants of protective action. We then discuss the prioritization of message information

  15. 基于DSP和FPGA的汽车防撞高速数据采集系统%A high speed data acquisition system for automotive collision warning devices based on DSP-FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟

    2012-01-01

    With the continuous development of information technology, data acquisition technology has become an important modern tool, and is also expanding its scope of application. It has been widely used in communication, radar, medical, remote sensing and other fields. This data acquisition system designed is based on a high-speed DSP-FPGA data acquisition, primarily for high-speed acquisition and processing on laser radar echo signal in automotive collision warning devices.%随着信息技术的不断发展,数据采集技术已成为重要的现代化的工具,并且其应用范围也在不断扩大,在通信、雷达、医疗、遥测遥感等领域得到了广泛的应用。本文为了汽车防撞报警设备高速信号处理的目的.采用了DSP和FPGA处理器加上相关算法,实现了对激光雷达回波信号能够高速的采集和处理。

  16. FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162543.html FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under ... agency news release. She is director of the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. "Parents and ...

  17. A research on the anxiety levels of parents who have mentally handicapped children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Avşaroğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it is aimed to specify the anxiety levels of parents who have mentally handicapped children. For this purpose, the state anxiety levels of parents with mentally handicapped children that the parents will have when they spend time with their children in social environments (visiting neighbours, shopping centres, restaurants and communication in terms of reactions and the anxiety levels they always have are studied. In this study Spielberger’s “Trait-state Anxiety Inventory” and the Identity Survey developed by the researchers are used as data gathering devices. 264 mothers and 51 fathers, totally 315 parents, whose children attend a special education institution in Meram, Karatay and Selçuklu, the central districts of Konya, and Akşehir, Yunak, Ilgın, Doğanhisar and Kadınhanı, districts of Konya, form the sample of this study. According to the findings, it is seen that, state and trait anxiety levels of mothers are significantly higher than fathers’. In relation to the levels of education, there is a significant differentiation in level of state anxiety whereas there is not a significant difference in trait anxiety levels, in relation to the levels of income, there is a significant difference in trait anxiety and state anxiety.

  18. The potential of radar-based ensemble forecasts for flash-flood early warning in the southern Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Liechti, K.; L. Panziera; U. Germann; Zappa, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the limits of radar-based forecasting for hydrological runoff prediction. Two novel radar-based ensemble forecasting chains for flash-flood early warning are investigated in three catchments in the southern Swiss Alps and set in relation to deterministic discharge forecasts for the same catchments. The first radar-based ensemble forecasting chain is driven by NORA (Nowcasting of Orographic Rainfall by means of Analogues), an analogue-based heuristic nowca...

  19. The Focus of Attention Is on the Handicapped College Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, D. V.

    2010-01-01

    As a social institution, higher education constitutes one of the most important factors that enable an individual's mobility. In the past few years, both specialists and the broader public have been addressing the problem of how people with health limitations and handicaps can acquire an education. In part this is because society and the state…

  20. Providing a more appropriate education for severely handicapped persons: increasing and validating functional classroom tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D H; Parsons, M B; McCarn, J E; Green, C W; Phillips, J F; Schepis, M M

    1985-01-01

    We evaluated a teacher training and supervision program for increasing the involvement of severely handicapped adolescents and adults in functional educational tasks. The program, consisting of a brief in-service followed by supervisory prompts and feedback, was accompanied by large increases in functional tasks in three classrooms. In addition, generalized increases occurred during nontargeted times in the classroom and the changes during both the targeted and nontargeted times were maintained over a 44-45 week period. In two subsequent experiments, surveys provided social validation for the criteria for functional versus nonfunctional tasks in that: (a) relevant individuals reliably categorized functional tasks as representing typical living, work, social, and leisure situations and (b) experienced clinicians consistently rated tasks previously categorized as functional as being more useful for severely handicapped persons than tasks categorized as nonfunctional. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship of functional classroom tasks in the overall provision of appropriate educational services for severely handicapped students.

  1. The handicap principle and the argument of subversion from within

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the very disparate positions that various actors have taken towards the argument of subversion from within (a classical argument against the evolution of altruism by group selection) in a set of related debates on group selection, altruism and the handicap principle. Using thi...

  2. Warning labels. A source of toxicity information for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, B E; Klein-Schwartz, W; Oderda, G M; Lucy, J S

    1984-08-01

    The Hazardous Substances Act specifies that warning labels for household products contain specific signal words. This study was designed to determine whether this warning label format provides enough information for parents to accurately assess product toxicity. One hundred forty-two parents from two different sites (community health clinic, private pediatrician's office) were asked to rate the toxicity of four common household products (Crystal Drano, Lysol Basin/Tub and Tile Cleaner, Clorox Bleach, Tempera Poster Paint) and four imaginary products based on the warning labels found on them. Parents had a fairly accurate perception of the toxicity of products and the toxicity to be anticipated based on the warning label. There was considerable variability in response for products which were less toxic or nontoxic. Confusion was noted regarding the meaning of the term nontoxic.

  3. Development and Application of a Message Metric for NOAA NWS Tsunami Warnings and Recommended Guidelines for the NWS TsunamiReady Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Ricthie, L.; Meinhold, S.; Johnson, V.; Scott, C.; Farnham, C.; Houghton, B. F.; Horan, J.; Gill, D.

    2012-12-01

    Improving the quality and effectiveness of tsunami warning messages and the TsunamiReady community preparedness program of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service's (NWS), Tsunami Program are two key objectives of a three year project (Award NA10NWS4670015) to help integrate social science into the NWS' Tsunami Program and improve the preparedness of member states and territories of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Research was conducted in collaboration with state and local emergency managers. Based on findings from focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa), and upon review of research literature on behavioral response to warnings, we developed a warning message metric to help guide revisions to tsunami warning messages issued by the NWS' West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, Alaska and Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, Hawaii. The metric incorporates factors that predict response to warning information, which are divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the meaning of metric factors and assigning a maximum score of one point per factor. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. From focus groups that gathered information on the usefulness and achievability of tsunami preparedness actions, we developed recommendations for revisions to the proposed draft guidelines of the TsunamiReady Improvement Program. Proposed key revisions include the incorporation of community vulnerability to distant (far-field) versus local (near-field) tsunamis as a primary determinant of mandatory actions, rather than community population. Our team continues to work with

  4. Creating aesthetically resonant environments for the handicapped, elderly and rehabilitation: Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony; Hasselblad, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    ), Parkinson’s disease and the aged. The delimited focuses in this paper are the experiments involved in preparing, developing and authenticating ‘aesthetic resonance’ within the Swedish partners’ contribution. It reports on the authors’ input in development of the successful open architectural algorithm...... also briefly reports on the problems encountered that severely limited the research and ended up causing the project’s premature cessation....

  5. Disadvantages for the renewable energies; Course a handicap pour les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    If on the whole the Europe the renewable energies expand, some countries remain hesitant in their project of development. The author takes stock on the energy policies of some european countries and the investments to develop these clean energies. (A.L.B.)

  6. Simple Justice: A Case for Mainstreaming the Severely Emotionally Handicapped Bilingual Preschool Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Stephania; Levy, Linda

    The paper deals with a mental health program designed to treat the 2 1/2 to 5 year old Mexican American child with severe emotional or behavioral problems. Components of the program included a mutual agreement with Parent Child Centers (Headstart) in the community; staff who had expertise to evaluate, diagnose, design, and implement an individual…

  7. 30 CFR 75.1101-10 - Water sprinkler systems; fire warning devices at belt drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water sprinkler systems; fire warning devices at belt drives. 75.1101-10 Section 75.1101-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-10 Water...

  8. Warnings reduce false memories for missing aspects of events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrie, Matthew P; Garry, Maryanne

    2011-01-01

    When people see movies with some parts missing, they falsely recognize many of the missing parts later. In two experiments, we examined the effect of warnings on people's false memories for these parts. In Experiment 1, warning subjects about false recognition before the movie (forewarnings) reduced false recognition, but warning them after the movie (postwarnings) reduced false recognition to a lesser extent. In Experiment 2, the effect of the warnings depended on the nature of the missing parts. Forewarnings were more effective than postwarnings in reducing false recognition of missing noncrucial parts, but forewarnings and postwarnings were similarly effective in reducing false recognition of crucial missing parts. We use the source monitoring framework to explain our results.

  9. Nutritional ecology of insect-plant interactions: persistent handicaps and the need for innovative approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Casas, J.; Pincebourde, S.

    2005-01-01

    Quantifying the flow of matter and energy in food webs is indispensable when assessing the effects of increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, ozone level and temperature as a result of global climate change. In insect nutritional ecology, quantification of digestive and metabolic efficiency is perf

  10. Nutritional ecology of insect-plant interactions: persistent handicaps and the need for innovative approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Casas, J.; Pincebourde, S.

    2005-01-01

    Quantifying the flow of matter and energy in food webs is indispensable when assessing the effects of increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, ozone level and temperature as a result of global climate change. In insect nutritional ecology, quantification of digestive and metabolic efficiency is

  11. Curricula and Instruction for Young Handicapped Children: A Guideline for Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Rebecca; Kelley, Jean

    The paper examines the theoretical constructs that underlie currently used curricula for young handicapped children and suggests guidelines for selecting and evaluating curricula. Three developmental perspectives are reviewed: the age related developmental milestones identified by A. Gesell and adhered to by diagnostic prescriptive advocates, the…

  12. Intrinsic Motivation and Learning Performance: Implications for Individual Educational Programming for Learners with Mild Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzky, Harvey N.; Schultz, Geoffrey F.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of current theories of intrinsic motivation for educational practices for mildly handicapped learners are reviewed. The interaction of classroom demand environments, the effects of teacher reward and punishment, and individual differences in intrinsic motivation are discussed in relation to behavioral effectiveness and to academic…

  13. Early Warning Indicators for a Financial Crises. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SOVIANI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the early signs in the economy that has the ability to predict that a financial crisis is due to happen because of the macroeconomic indicators deterioration and how other economic indicator signals the distress in the state of the economy. We specify the macroeconomic indicators we follow and we identify the symptoms associated with the associated disorder, as it is described by the economic literature as indicators that use to predict some of the internal crisis (currency, banking, balance of payment, all crisis at once. We see the dynamics of this indicators and we compare them with the the dynamics of the best leading indicators for a crisis, that were able to predict a crisis nationally, regionally or globally. We choose 7 early warning indicators that provided in-time valid signals about a crises in Romania, and we define a composite indicator for showing the distress of the economy (as each indicator can give a particular signal of distress, while the composite indicator shows the imminence of the Romanian Financial Crises of 2008-2010.

  14. An 'Early Warning System' for the prevention of dredging potential impacts on sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Viviana; Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Bonamano, Simone; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Albani, Marta; Stefanì, Chiara; Madonia, Alice; Fersini, Giorgio; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems are increasingly subject to multiple pressures and stressors produced by the effects of human activities. Intense and frequent disturbances which affect marine environment can derive from dredging activity, which is a fundamental management for most ports and harbours. The potential environmental effects of dredging procedures are generally due to the excavation of material from the sea bottom and the relocation elsewhere for disposal, overflow from the dredger and loss of material from pipelines during transport. Depending on the location and the intensity of these activities the marine environment, particularly sensitive areas, may be affected by dredging. The main environmental effects can be associated with suspended sediments and increases in turbidity into the water column, which can have adverse effects on marine animals and plants by reducing light penetration and by physical disturbance. For this reason it is fundamental to implement a real time monitoring system to control and prevent negative effects, enabling a rapid response to adverse water quality conditions and a fast activation of mitigation procedures, in agreement with all the reference authorities. In this work we present the development of an innovative 'Early Warning System' based on fixed stations, ad hoc in situ surveys and forecasting models, which was applied to a dredging activity carried out in the Gulf of Gaeta (Latium, Italy). It represents an extension of the C-CEMS (Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System) network, which is operative in the Tyrrhenian sea since 2005.

  15. Air quality early-warning system for cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunzhen; Yang, Wendong; Wang, Jianzhou

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution has become a serious issue in many developing countries, especially in China, and could generate adverse effects on human beings. Air quality early-warning systems play an increasingly significant role in regulatory plans that reduce and control emissions of air pollutants and inform the public in advance when harmful air pollution is foreseen. However, building a robust early-warning system that will improve the ability of early-warning is not only a challenge but also a critical issue for the entire society. Relevant research is still poor in China and cannot always satisfy the growing requirements of regulatory planning, despite the issue's significance. Therefore, in this paper, a hybrid air quality early-warning system was successfully developed, composed of forecasting and evaluation. First, a hybrid forecasting model was proposed as an important part of this system based on the theory of "decomposition and ensemble" and combined with the advanced data processing technique, support vector machine, the latest bio-inspired optimization algorithm and the leave-one-out strategy for deciding weights. Afterwards, to intensify the research, fuzzy evaluation was performed, which also plays an indispensable role in the early-warning system. The forecasting model and fuzzy evaluation approaches are complementary. Case studies using daily air pollution concentrations of six air pollutants from three cities in China (i.e., Taiyuan, Harbin and Chongqing) are used as examples to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the developed air quality early-warning system. Experimental results demonstrate that both the accuracy and the effectiveness of the developed system are greatly superior for air quality early warning. Furthermore, the application of forecasting and evaluation enables the informative and effective quantification of future air quality, offering a significant advantage, and can be employed to develop rapid air quality early-warning systems.

  16. The Marriott Philosophy at Work: A Study of Corporate Success with the Handicapped. Project TROPHY. Transition Research on Problems of Handicapped Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Charles; Zhu, Guangli

    This monograph examines the Marriott Corporation, which has won numerous awards for its involvement in creating employment situations for the handicapped. Part 1 examines the Marriott Corporation in its wider economic, political, and religious contexts, including its founding by a Mormon family. Part 2 addresses central features of the Marriott…

  17. Genetic Circuit for the Early Warning of Lung Cancer using iBioSim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of molecular biology and gene-engineering technology, gene diagnosis has been an emerging approach for modern life sciences. Biological marker, recognized as the hot topic in the molecular and gene fields, has important values in early diagnosis, malignant tumour stage, treatment and therapeutic efficacy evaluation. The design of markers detection genetic circuit system for lung cancer is presented as a new method to provide basis for early warning and therapy. The system consists of three single-marker detection circuits and an integration circuit. The single-marker detection circuit provides an instantaneous low level when target marker’s concentration reaches the threshold. The integration circuit uses gene and gate to complete the output data fusion from single-marker detection circuit through logic operations to finish the combined detection. All the structure is modelled and analyzed by iBioSim through the biochemical reactions of different gene circuits. The experimental result indicates that the whole lung cancer detection system can realize joint detection of tumor markers with good stability and sensitivity.

  18. Development and characterization of scintillation based detectors for the use in radiological early warning networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, P.; Dombrowski, H.; Neumaier, S.

    2016-02-01

    To detect radiological incidents, all members of the European Union have installed nationwide radiological early warning networks. Most of the installed detector systems supply only dosimetric information. Novel spectrometry systems are considered to be good candidates for a new detector generation for environmental radiation monitoring because they will supply both nuclide-specific information and ambient dose equivalent rate values. Four different detector types were chosen and compared with each other (LaBr3, CeBr3, SrI2 scintillation detectors, and CdZnTe, a semiconductor detector). As a first step, the inherent background of these detectors was measured in the low background underground laboratory UDO II of PTB. As a second step, the relative detection sensitivity between the various detectors was determined at different energies. Finally, the detectors were exposed to a 4π-radiation field of radon progeny in PTB's radon chamber. The obtained results show that the investigated detectors are well suited for environmental radiation monitoring.

  19. Demonstration of the Cascadia G‐FAST geodetic earthquake early warning system for the Nisqually, Washington, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Brendan; Schmidt, David; Bodin, Paul; Vidale, John; Gomberg, Joan S.; Hartog, Renate; Kress, Victor; Melbourne, Tim; Santillian, Marcelo; Minson, Sarah E.; Jamison, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    A prototype earthquake early warning (EEW) system is currently in development in the Pacific Northwest. We have taken a two‐stage approach to EEW: (1) detection and initial characterization using strong‐motion data with the Earthquake Alarm Systems (ElarmS) seismic early warning package and (2) the triggering of geodetic modeling modules using Global Navigation Satellite Systems data that help provide robust estimates of large‐magnitude earthquakes. In this article we demonstrate the performance of the latter, the Geodetic First Approximation of Size and Time (G‐FAST) geodetic early warning system, using simulated displacements for the 2001Mw 6.8 Nisqually earthquake. We test the timing and performance of the two G‐FAST source characterization modules, peak ground displacement scaling, and Centroid Moment Tensor‐driven finite‐fault‐slip modeling under ideal, latent, noisy, and incomplete data conditions. We show good agreement between source parameters computed by G‐FAST with previously published and postprocessed seismic and geodetic results for all test cases and modeling modules, and we discuss the challenges with integration into the U.S. Geological Survey’s ShakeAlert EEW system.

  20. Early Warning Signals for Regime Transition in the Stable Boundary Layer: A Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooijdonk, I. G. S.; Moene, A. F.; Scheffer, M.; Clercx, H. J. H.; van de Wiel, B. J. H.

    2017-02-01

    The evening transition is investigated in an idealized model for the nocturnal boundary layer. From earlier studies it is known that the nocturnal boundary layer may manifest itself in two distinct regimes, depending on the ambient synoptic conditions: strong-wind or overcast conditions typically lead to weakly stable, turbulent nights; clear-sky and weak-wind conditions, on the other hand, lead to very stable, weakly turbulent conditions. Previously, the dynamical behaviour near the transition between these regimes was investigated in an idealized setting, relying on Monin-Obukhov (MO) similarity to describe turbulent transport. Here, we investigate a similar set-up, using direct numerical simulation; in contrast to MO-based models, this type of simulation does not need to rely on turbulence closure assumptions. We show that previous predictions are verified, but now independent of turbulence parametrizations. Also, it appears that a regime shift to the very stable state is signaled in advance by specific changes in the dynamics of the turbulent boundary layer. Here, we show how these changes may be used to infer a quantitative estimate of the transition point from the weakly stable boundary layer to the very stable boundary layer. In addition, it is shown that the idealized, nocturnal boundary-layer system shares important similarities with generic non-linear dynamical systems that exhibit critical transitions. Therefore, the presence of other, generic early warning signals is tested as well. Indeed, indications are found that such signals are present in stably stratified turbulent flows.

  1. Enhancement of Delivery of Warning Messages for Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Sheng Tsai

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication systems have been studied extensively in recent years by transportation experts worldwide. Such systems enable the transmission of warning messages (alarms between vehicles without additional roadside infrastructure. Thus, messages can be sent faster than through base stations. Because of these advantages, researchers worldwide are exploring how this technology can improve traffic safety. However, the various V2V schemes proposed thus far share the same problem: (1 unnecessary repetition of warning messages and (2 transmission to inapplicable respondents. This study proposes a new method for delivering V2V warning messages which reduces the redundant messages common in current schemes. Here, three schemes to deliver alarms are considered. One is blind flooding to broadcast alarms. Warning messages are routed by AODV protocol. Another is called Two Lanes. The broadcasting region of alarms is limited in two traffic lanes nearby a traffic accident only. And the last one is the proposed strategy where a warning message received by a car will be simply checked the prime number carried within the alarm header and decided whether the car is responsible to deliver it. If necessary, it will be forwarded to the next nodes. Otherwise, the redundant warning message shall be discarded to release system load and avoid to suspend other normal transmission proceeding. The results reveal that minimizing the delays caused by such redundant messages enables warnings to be sent to drivers more rapidly. Also, it prioritizes warning messages so that drivers are apprised of the most serious and dangerous traffic accidents. Moreover, another key finding in this paper is that the radii of the broadcasting coverage shall be adjusted carefully and adaptively to optimize the system performance.

  2. What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cardiovascular Conditions What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke? Brain tissue affected by blockage Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in ... over 55 years old have more chance of stroke, and the risk gets greater as you get ...

  3. Forecasting database for the tsunami warning center for the western Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, A.; Hebert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hernandez, B.

    2011-12-01

    Improvements in the availability of sea-level observations and advances in numerical modeling techniques are increasing the potential for tsunami warnings to be based on numerical model forecasts. Numerical tsunami propagation and inundation models are well developed, but they present a challenge to run in real-time, partly due to computational limitations and also to a lack of detailed knowledge on the earthquake rupture parameters. A first generation model-based tsunami prediction system is being developed as part of the French Tsunami Warning Center that will be operational by mid 2012. It involves a pre-computed unit source functions database (i.e., a number of tsunami model runs that are calculated ahead of time and stored) corresponding to tsunami scenarios generated by a source of seismic moment 1.75E+19 N.m with a rectangular fault 25 km by 20 km in size and 1 m in slip. The faults of the unit functions are placed adjacent to each other, following the discretization of the main seismogenic faults bounding the western Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic basins. An authomatized composite scenarios calculation tool is implemented to allow the simulation of any tsunami propagation scenario (i.e., of any seismic moment). The strategy is based on linear combinations and scaling of a finite number of pre-computed unit source functions. The number of unit functions involved varies with the magnitude of the wanted composite solution and the combined wave heights are multiplied by a given scaling factor to produce the new arbitrary scenario. Uncertainty on the magnitude of the detected event and inaccuracy on the epicenter location are taken into account in the composite scenarios calculation. For one tsunamigenic event, the tool produces finally 3 warning maps (i.e., most likely, minimum and maximum scenarios) together with the rough decision matrix representation. A no-dimension code representation is chosen to show zones in the main axis of energy at the basin

  4. The SuperNova Early Warning System

    OpenAIRE

    Scholberg, K.

    2008-01-01

    A core collapse in the Milky Way will produce an enormous burst of neutrinos in detectors world-wide. Such a burst has the potential to provide an early warning of a supernova's appearance. I will describe the nature of the signal, the sensitivity of current detectors, and SNEWS, the SuperNova Early Warning System, a network designed to alert astronomers as soon as possible after the detected neutrino signal.

  5. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  6. Using Your Daily Newspaper to Teach the Mentally Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Mee Quai P.

    One of a series prepared by the Hawaii Newspaper Agency, this teaching guide offers suggestions on using the newspaper to teach the mentally handicapped. Classroom activities include the use of graffiti, pictures, comics, color, and charts, as well as speech activities, debate issues, history, creative or make up contests, anthropology,…

  7. Testing of the INGV Prototype Tsunami Early Warning System for the Coasts of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorito, Stefano; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the agreement between Italian Civil Protection and INGV (DPC-S3 project), we are studying the feasibility of a Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) for the coasts of Italy. The underlying concept is borrowed, as a starting point, from the Japan Meteorological Agency's TEWS. Some differences arise, however, due to the specificity of the Mediterranean context, as well as due to the reduced possibility of fast direct measurements of the tsunami waves eventually generated. The prototype system is based on a set of elementary submarine earthquake sources, plus a set of scaling laws of the tsunami height with respect to source parameters. In case of an earthquake, according to information released by the INGV seismic center (epicenter, depth, and magnitude), the pre-calculated wave heights produced by each elementary source must be interpolated to evaluate if a significant tsunami could have been generated, and where it will likely hit the coastlines more severely, in order to launch a proper alert. We start by considering a grid of nine epicenters on a 20x20 km square in front of the Algeria coast, and potentially threatening the southern Sardinia coast. At the moment, the geometry of the faults (strike, dip, rake) is keep fixed, while we consider for each of the epicenters several different depths and magnitudes. The (empirical) scaling laws that serve as a guidance for the interpolation are instead derived numerically for a wider range of earthquake parameters. The performances of the prototype have been evaluated both by means of synthetic earthquakes (by simulating hundreds of earthquakes falling in the prototype grid), and by using an ad-hoc database around the epicenter of a real earthquake, which generated a moderate tsunami in the western Mediterranean (the Mw=6.9 May 2003 Boumerdes-Zemmouri earthquake, Algeria). The synthetic tests also serve to assess the uncertainties that will be attached to the forecasts issued, directly descending from

  8. Design and evaluation of security multimedia warnings for children's smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Wiebke; Tuchscheerer, Sven; Fruth, Jana; Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana

    2012-02-01

    This article describes primarily the development and empiric validation of a design for security warning messages on smartphones for primary school children (7-10 years old). Our design approach for security warnings for children uses a specific character and is based on recommendations of a paediatrician expert. The design criteria are adapted to children's skills, e.g. their visual, acoustic, and haptic perception and their literacy. The developed security warnings are prototypically implemented in an iOS application (on the iPhone 3G/4G) where children are warned by a simulated anti-malware background service, while they are busy with another task. For the evaluation we select methods for empiric validation of the design approach from the field of usability testing ("think aloud" test, questionnaires, log-files, etc.). Our security warnings prototype is evaluated in an empiric user study with 13 primary school children, aged between 8 and 9 years and of different gender (5 girls, 8 boys). The evaluation analysis shows, that nearly all children liked the design of our security warnings. Surprisingly, on several security warning messages most of the children react in the right way after reading the warning, although the meaning couldn't be interpreted in the right way. Another interesting result is, that several children relate specific information, e.g. update, to a specific character. Furthermore, it could be seen that most of the primary school test candidates have little awareness of security threats on smartphones. It is a very strong argument to develop e.g. tutorials or websites in order to raise awareness and teach children how to recognize security threats and how to react to them. Our design approach of security warnings for children's smartphones can be a basis for warning on other systems or applications like tutorials, which are used by children. In a second investigation, we focus on webpages, designed for children since smartphones and webpages (the

  9. Synchronic Distance Education from the Perspective of a Handicapped Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karal, Hasan; Cebi, Ayca; Turgut, Yigit Emrah

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays knowledge and communication technologies are developing rapidly and changing people's lives. With the help of the developing technologies, people can access knowledge independent of time and place and distance education technologies offer handicapped students a range of opportunities in order that they may access a better level of…

  10. Know the Risks, Warning Signs of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163117.html Know the Risks, Warning Signs of Ovarian Cancer Older age, family history raise the odds for ... Women need to be aware their risk for ovarian cancer increases with age. Half of all cases affect ...

  11. An Early Warning System for Asteroid Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonry, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Earth is bombarded by meteors, occasionally by one large enough to cause a significant explosion and possible loss of life. It is not possible to detect all hazardous asteroids, and the efforts to detect them years before they strike are only advancing slowly. Similarly, ideas for mitigation of the danger from an impact by moving the asteroid are in their infancy. Although the odds of a deadly asteroid strike in the next century are low, the most likely impact is by a relatively small asteroid, and we suggest that the best mitigation strategy in the near term is simply to move people out of the way. With enough warning, a small asteroid impact should not cause loss of life, and even portable property might be preserved. We describe an early warning system that could provide a week’s notice of most sizeable asteroids or comets on track to hit the Earth. This may be all the mitigation needed or desired for small asteroids, and it can be implemented immediately for relatively low cost. This system, dubbed Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System (ATLAS), comprises two observatories separated by about 100 km that simultaneously scan the visible sky twice a night. Software automatically registers a comparison with the unchanging sky and identifies everything that has moved or changed. Communications between the observatories lock down the orbits of anything approaching the Earth, within one night if its arrival is less than a week. The sensitivity of the system permits detection of 140 m asteroids (100 Mton impact energy) three weeks before impact and 50 m asteroids a week before arrival. An ATLAS alarm, augmented by other observations, should result in a determination of impact location and time that is accurate to a few kilometers and a few seconds. In addition to detecting and warning of approaching asteroids, ATLAS will continuously monitor the changing universe around us: most of the variable stars in our Galaxy, many microlensing events from stellar

  12. Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of a rockfall warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bründl, Michael; Sättele, Martina; Krautblatter, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Rockslides and rockfalls can pose high risk to human settlements and traffic infrastructure. In addition to structural mitigation measures like rockfall nets, warning systems are increasingly installed to reduce rockfall risks. Whereas for structural mitigation measures with reducing effects on the spatial extent a structured evaluation method is existing, no or only few approaches to assess the effectiveness for warning systems are known. Especially for higher magnitude rockfalls structural mitigation measures are not effective, and reliable early warning systems will be essential in future. In response to that, we developed a classification and a framework to assess the reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems (Sättele et al, 2015a; 2016). Here, we demonstrate an application for the rockfall warning system installed in Preonzo prior to a major rockfall in May 2012 (Sättele et al., 2015b). We show that it is necessary to design such a warning system as fail-safe construction, which has to incorporate components with low failure probabilities, high redundancy, low warning thresholds, and additional control systems. With a hypothetical probabilistic analysis, we investigate the effect of the risk attitude of decision makers and of the number of sensors on the probability of detecting an event and on initiating a timely evacuation, as well as on related intervention cost. We conclude that it is possible to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of warning systems, which helps to optimize mitigation strategies against rockfall events. References Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Reliability and effectiveness of warning systems for natural hazards: concept and application to debris flow warning, Rel. Eng. Syst. Safety, 142, 192-202, 2015a. Sättele, M., Krautblatter, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Forecasting rock slope failure: How reliable and effective are warning systems?, Landslides, 605, 1-14, 2015b. Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and

  13. The Education of the Handicapped Adolescent: The Transition from School to Working Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This report is the second to appear in a series of studies carried out by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) during the past 5 years. The first report concerned the integration of handicapped young people into ordinary schools. The present report deals with what happens…

  14. Validation of the Swedish Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (Screening Version) and Evaluation of Its Effect in Hearing Aid Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öberg, Maria

    2016-03-23

    Self-reports of subjective hearing difficulties by people with hearing loss may be a useful complement to audiometry in hearing aid rehabilitation. To be useful, such self-reports need to be reliable. This study investigated the reliability and the validity of the Swedish Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (Screening Version; HHIE-S). Sixty-nine participants completed a questionnaire before hearing aid rehabilitation. Of these individuals, 49 completed hearing aid rehabilitation (aged between 23 and 94 years), and 41 of these 49 participants completed the questionnaire after completing the rehabilitation. The Swedish HHIE-S exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .77). The questionnaire was effective for evaluating hearing aid rehabilitation, and a statistically significant reduction in hearing difficulties was observed. The clinicians found the questionnaire easy to administer and effective in hearing aid rehabilitation. The findings from the study support the use of the HHIE-S in clinical practice.

  15. Relation between change of hearing and (modified) Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, AGW; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the test-retest distributions and the interval for true score change of the (modified) Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap [(m)AIAD], when the latter is used to measure the effect of an intervention. In a previous study the reliability and validity of the

  16. The Impact of Cigarette Plain Packaging on Health Warning Salience and Perceptions: Implications for Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auemaneekul, Naruemon; Silpasuwan, Pimpan; Sirichotiratana, Nithat; Satitvipawee, Pratana; Sompopcharoen, Malinee; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2015-11-01

    The study employed a mixed methods design using focus group interviews with 6 student groups and self-administered questionnaires with 1239 students. The participants were nonsmoking, current smokers, and quit-smoking teenagers from secondary schools and colleges. Focus group revealed that although nonsmoking teenagers perceived fear appeals to warning messages, current smokers did not perceive fear appeals to health. Black and white backgrounds of the cigarette package were chosen as the best color for plain packaging. However, most participants suggested various pictorials and a bigger size of pictorial warnings for greater and more effective fear appeal. Odds ratio showed that males had 2.43 times the odds to perceive intention not to smoke. Teenagers who had never smoked and those who had quit smoking had 13.27 and 3.61 times the odds, respectively, to perceive intention not to smoke.

  17. Materials on Creative Arts (Arts, Crafts, Dance, Drama, Music, Bibliotherapy) for Persons with Handicapping Conditions. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC. Information and Research Utilization Center.

    Intended as a resource guide for persons who include such subjects as arts, crafts, dance, and music in programs for the handicapped, resources are listed for printed materials, audiovisual materials, resource persons and organizations, and material and equipment suppliers. Brief literature reviews sum up the state of the art in the specific art…

  18. An Early Warning Model for EU banks with Detection of the Adverse Selection Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Brossard, Olivier; Frédéric DUCROZET (PSE - Crédit Agricole); Adrian ROCHE (EconomiX - Crédit Agricole)

    2007-01-01

    We estimate an early warning model of banks’ failure using a panel of 82 EU banks observed between 1991 and 2005. We make two contributions to the literature. Firstly, we construct a distance-to-default indicator and test its predictive power. The tests implemented here are very similar to those realized by Gropp, Vesala and Vulpes (2005), but our time dimension is four years longer and we use a more restrictive definition of banks’ “failure”. This first part of the paper establishes the accu...

  19. The Case for Requiring Graphic Warning Labels on Smokeless Tobacco Product Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhale, Smita; Samet, Jonathan; Folan, Patricia; Leone, Frank; White, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    On November 10, 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved, for the first time, the sale of smokeless tobacco products authorized under the new premarket tobacco application pathway. This Food and Drug Administration regulatory decision draws attention to the growing worldwide use of smokeless tobacco products in general. Use of these tobacco products is particularly popular in low- and middle-income countries of Asia. Due to aggressive and strategic marketing to children, young adults, and current smokers, rates of smokeless tobacco use in men of all ages are on the rise in United States and elsewhere. The tobacco industry also continues to market these products to current cigarette smokers for use in the growing number of "smoke-free environments." Smokeless tobacco products are associated with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, particularly the oral cavity, esophagus, and pancreas; cardiovascular diseases; small-for-gestational-age infants; premature births; increased risk of apnea; and stillbirth. There is no convincing evidence regarding the efficacy of smokeless tobacco, including snus, to promote smoking cessation. Rather, studies from Europe and the United States demonstrate that smokeless tobacco use may facilitate regular cigarette smoking by acting as a gateway drug, especially for children. Caution is warranted before proposing smokeless tobacco as a harm-reduction strategy, in part because of the potential for further promoting smokeless tobacco in low- and middle-income countries where use is already widespread. Continued vigilance through comprehensive surveillance is warranted. We strongly recommend the use of graphic warning labels as a "no regrets" strategy for all smokeless tobacco products marketed globally.

  20. Development of a flood-warning network and flood-inundation mapping for the Blanchard River in Ottawa, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Matthew T.

    2011-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps of the Blanchard River in Ottawa, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Village of Ottawa, Ohio. The maps, which correspond to water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Ottawa (USGS streamgage site number 04189260), were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning Network that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. Flood profiles were computed by means of a step-backwater model calibrated to recent field measurements of streamflow. The step-backwater model was then used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 12 flood stages with corresponding streamflows ranging from less than the 2-year and up to nearly the 500-year recurrence-interval flood. The computed flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate flood-inundation areas. Maps of the Village of Ottawa showing flood-inundation areas overlain on digital orthophotographs are presented for the selected floods. As part of this flood-warning network, the USGS upgraded one streamgage and added two new streamgages, one on the Blanchard River and one on Riley Creek, which is tributary to the Blanchard River. The streamgage sites were equipped with both satellite and telephone telemetry. The telephone telemetry provides dual functionality, allowing village officials and the public to monitor current stage conditions and enabling the streamgage to call village officials with automated warnings regarding flood stage and/or predetermined rates of stage increase. Data from the streamgages serve as a flood warning that emergency management personnel can use in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps by to determine a course of action when flooding is imminent.

  1. The Percentage of Amplitude Decrease Warning Criteria for Transcranial MEP Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journée, Henricus L; Berends, Hanneke I; Kruyt, Moyo C

    2017-01-01

    Muscle motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) became a standard technique for monitoring the motor functions of the brain and spinal cord at risk during spinal and brain surgery. However, a wide range of criteria based on the percentage of amplitude decrease is used in practice. A survey of the current literature on clinical outcome parameters reveals a variety of percentages in a range of 30% to 100% (50% to 100% spinal procedures) with no consensus. The interpretation of muscle MEPs is hampered by their sensitivity to many interfering factors. Trial-to-trial MEP variations may partly be reduced by controllable parameters of which TES parameters are in the hands of the neuromonitorist. We propose an operational model based on basic neurophysiologic knowledge to interpret the characteristics of MEP-TES voltage curves and predict the influences of the location on the sigmoid voltage curve on spontaneous MEP-variations and influences of factors affecting the voltage curve. The model predicts a correlation between the slope, expressed by a gain, and variations of muscle MEP amplitudes. This complies with two case examples. The limited specificity/sensitivity of warning criteria based on the percentage of amplitude reduction can possibly be improved by developing standards for set-up procedures of TES paradigms. These procedures include strategies for desensitizing MEPs for variations of controllable parameters. The TES voltage or current is a feasible controlling parameter and should be related to the motor threshold and the onset of the supramaximal level being landmarks of MEP-voltage functions. These parameters may offer a valuable addition to multicenter outcome studies.

  2. Developing the remote sensing-based early warning system for monitoring TSS concentrations in Lake Mead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imen, Sanaz; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Adjustment of the water treatment process to changes in water quality is a focus area for engineers and managers of water treatment plants. The desired and preferred capability depends on timely and quantitative knowledge of water quality monitoring in terms of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations. This paper presents the development of a suite of nowcasting and forecasting methods by using high-resolution remote-sensing-based monitoring techniques on a daily basis. First, the integrated data fusion and mining (IDFM) technique was applied to develop a near real-time monitoring system for daily nowcasting of the TSS concentrations. Then a nonlinear autoregressive neural network with external input (NARXNET) model was selected and applied for forecasting analysis of the changes in TSS concentrations over time on a rolling basis onward using the IDFM technique. The implementation of such an integrated forecasting and nowcasting approach was assessed by a case study at Lake Mead hosting the water intake for Las Vegas, Nevada, in the water-stressed western U.S. Long-term monthly averaged results showed no simultaneous impact from forest fire events on accelerating the rise of TSS concentration. However, the results showed a probable impact of a decade of drought on increasing TSS concentration in the Colorado River Arm and Overton Arm. Results of the forecasting model highlight the reservoir water level as a significant parameter in predicting TSS in Lake Mead. In addition, the R-squared value of 0.98 and the root mean square error of 0.5 between the observed and predicted TSS values demonstrates the reliability and application potential of this remote sensing-based early warning system in terms of TSS projections at a drinking water intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling of tidally affected river reaches with data assimilation for flood warning purposes: An example on the River Dee, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. J.; Beven, K.; Horsburgh, K.; Cullen, J.

    2012-04-01

    On rivers where the flow regime is influenced by a tidal signal the provision of accurate forecasts requires the careful coupling of predictive models for both the tidal signal and the rainfall driven river system. This paper discusses such a coupled modelling system constructed for the River Dee (UK). A series of parsimonious, physically interpretable time series models are used to represent the dynamics of the river water level at several gauging sites on the flood plain. These gauges are used operationally to help in determining the issuing of flood warnings. The simplified models are coupled and cast into a state space form. The assimilation of the observed water levels at the gauge sites to inform future forecasts is then a non-linear filter a solution to which is readily approximated. Assessment of the model forecasts against the observed data is carried out using a number of existing metrics. These suggest the model forecasts are a useful guide to the future water level. The representation of the forecast and its uncertainty to the operational staff is considered. A prototype of the sequential decision making process; based on the relative cost of 'true' or 'false' warnings; and designed to help guide the catchment manager in issuing warnings is presented.

  4. The Canadian Human Rights Act. Physical Handicap and Employment = Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne. Le handicap physique et l'emploi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Human Rights Commission, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet presents administrative criteria for implementation of the Canadian Human Rights Act to be used by the Canadian Human Rights Commission to evaluate employment decisions affecting physically handicapped individuals. They are of value to employers who need to know how the Commission will analyze employer arguments that they have not…

  5. Satellite detection, tracing, and early warning of harmful algal blooms (HABs) for the Asian waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D. L.

    Over the past two decades, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) appear to have increased in frequency, intensity and geographic distribution worldwide, and have caused large economic losses in aquacultured and wild fisheries in recent years. Understanding of the oceanic mechanisms is important for early warning of HAB events. The present study reported several extensive HABs in the Asian waters during 1998 to 2003 detected by satellite remote sensing data (SeaWiFS, NOAA AVHRR, and QuikScat) and in situ observations. An extensive HAB off southeastern Vietnamese waters during late June to July 2002 was detected and its related oceanographic features were analyzed. The HAB had high Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations (up to 4.5 mg m-3), occurring about 200 km off the coast and about 200 km northeast of the Mekong River mouth, for a period of about 6 weeks. The bloom was dominated by the harmful algae haptophyte Phaeocystis cf. globosa, and caused a very significant mortality of aquacultured fishes and other marine life. In the same period, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) imagery showed a coldwater plume extending from the coast to the open sea, and QuikScat data showed strong southwesterly winds blowing parallel with the coastline. It indicated the HAB was induced and supported by offshore upwelling that bring nutrients from the deep ocean to the surface and from coastal water to the offshore, and the upwelling was driven by strong wind through Ekman transport when winds were parallel with the coastline. This study demonstrated the possibility of utilizing a combination of satellite data of Chl-a, SST and wind velocity together with coastal bathymetric information and in situ observation to give a better understanding of the biological oceanography of HABs; these results may help for the early warming of HAB.

  6. Drought monitoring and assessment: Remote sensing and modeling approaches for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Budde, Michael; Young, Claudia; Rowland, James; Verdin, James

    2015-01-01

    Drought monitoring is an essential component of drought risk management. It is usually carried out using drought indices/indicators that are continuous functions of rainfall and other hydrometeorological variables. This chapter presents a few examples of how remote sensing and hydrologic modeling techniques are being used to generate a suite of drought monitoring indicators at dekadal (10-day), monthly, seasonal, and annual time scales for several selected regions around the world. Satellite-based rainfall estimates are being used to produce drought indicators such as standardized precipitation index, dryness indicators, and start of season analysis. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is being used to monitor vegetation condition. Several satellite data products are combined using agrohydrologic models to produce multiple short- and long-term indicators of droughts. All the data sets are being produced and updated in near-real time to provide information about the onset, progression, extent, and intensity of drought conditions. The data and products produced are available for download from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) data portal at http://earlywarning.usgs.gov. The availability of timely information and products support the decision-making processes in drought-related hazard assessment, monitoring, and management with the FEWS NET. The drought-hazard monitoring approach perfected by the U.S. Geological Survey for FEWS NET through the integration of satellite data and hydrologic modeling can form the basis for similar decision support systems. Such systems can operationally produce reliable and useful regional information that is relevant for local, district-level decision making.

  7. Adaptation and validation of the Malayalam pediatric voice handicap index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Usha; Dhanya, M; Gunjawate, Dhanshree

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to adapt and validate the English version of pediatric voice handicap index (pVHI) into Malayalam language. The English version of pediatric voice handicap index was translated into Malayalam language using parallel back translation. The translated version was content validated by three qualified speech language pathologists. The content familiarity was carried out by 10 parents of children with voice problems. This was distributed to 136 parents (57 parents of children with dysphonia, 79 parents of children with no voice problems). The internal consistency and test--retest reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient. Independent sample t-test was used to assess the difference in means. Kappa coefficient was used to determine the correlation between overall severity of the problem and total pVHI. Discriminant analysis was used to identify thresholds for differentiating between normal and dysphonic participants. The results obtained revealed that the Malayalam version of pVHI has an excellent internal consistency; total (α=0.974), functional (α=0.922), physical (α=0.953), and emotional (α=0.923). There was an excellent test-retest reliability; total (r=0.937), functional (r=0.954), physical (r=0.95), and emotional (r=0.929). The prediction probability of the dysphonics is 98.2% using the discriminant score function. The translated and validated pVHI tool can be effectively used in the assessment of children with voice problems. It can provide a better insight into the parents' perception of their child's voice problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 36 CFR 701.6 - Loans of library materials for blind and other physically handicapped persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consultation with persons, organizations, and agencies engaged in work for the blind and for other physically... for blind and other physically handicapped persons. 701.6 Section 701.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS PROCEDURES AND SERVICES § 701.6 Loans of library materials for blind and...

  9. Medical Device Development: the challenge for ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Jennifer L; Norris, Beverley J.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Crowe, John A.

    2008-01-01

    High quality, well designed medical devices are necessary to provide safe and effective clinical care for patients as well as to ensure the health and safety of professional and lay device users. Capturing the user requirements of users and incorporating these into design is an essential component of this. The field of ergonomics has an opportunity to assist, not only with this area, but also to encourage a more general consideration of the user during medical device development. A review ...

  10. Nursing-care dependency : Development of an assessment scale for demented and mentally handicapped patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Buist, Girbe; Dassen, T

    1996-01-01

    This article describing the first phase in the development of an assessment scale of nursing-care dependency (NCD) for Dutch demented and mentally handicapped patients focuses on the background to the study and the content validation of the nursing-care dependency scale. The scale aims to

  11. Evaluation on the Implementation of Early Warning System for Debris Flow in Merapi Area (Case Study at Boyong River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Cahyadi Achmad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of disasters caused by volcanic activity of Mount Merapi is secondary disaster. The disaster usually occurs after eruption and this volcanic activity produces volcanic and pyroclastic material deposit around the top of the mountain as a result of previous eruption. This material might collapse downward in the form of debris flow as it is affected by natural event such as high intensity rainfall. Therefore, a research is needed to analyze whether existing forecasting and early warning system are capable to provide information for the people living in hazardous area before the debris flood occur. This research was carried out using field survey, observation and interview method. Data analysis used qualitative descriptive method by making description of actual condition of the researched location general condition and qualitative analysis of telemetry system installed on Mount Merapi. The qualitative analysis of telemetry system covers network, hardware, software, power supply, security system, operation and maintenance, also human resources. Research analysis used primary and secondary data. Research results revealed that mean rainfall intensity above of 60 mm/hour might trigger debris flood. Early warning should be given at the rainfall intensity level of 50-55 mm/hour, and debris flood time travel from the upstream to the observed location in Pulowatu Village is 45 minute. Based on the analysis of the present forecasting and early warning system, it is known that some of the equipment is not well functioned, so that debris flow cannot be predicted and detected. This is caused by the lack of human resource quality of the officers in operating and maintaining the equipment. Concerning that matter, it is necessary to conduct some improvement to achieve better forecasting and early warning system in order to give information regarding occurrence of debris flow.

  12. Sounding the Alert: Designing an Effective Voice for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Given, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The USGS is working with partners to develop the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3083/) to protect life and property along the U.S. West Coast, where the highest national seismic hazard is concentrated. EEW sends an alert that shaking from an earthquake is on its way (in seconds to tens of seconds) to allow recipients or automated systems to take appropriate actions at their location to protect themselves and/or sensitive equipment. ShakeAlert is transitioning toward a production prototype phase in which test users might begin testing applications of the technology. While a subset of uses will be automated (e.g., opening fire house doors), other applications will alert individuals by radio or cellphone notifications and require behavioral decisions to protect themselves (e.g., "Drop, Cover, Hold On"). The project needs to select and move forward with a consistent alert sound to be widely and quickly recognized as an earthquake alert. In this study we combine EEW science and capabilities with an understanding of human behavior from the social and psychological sciences to provide insight toward the design of effective sounds to help best motivate proper action by alert recipients. We present a review of existing research and literature, compiled as considerations and recommendations for alert sound characteristics optimized for EEW. We do not yet address wording of an audible message about the earthquake (e.g., intensity and timing until arrival of shaking or possible actions), although it will be a future component to accompany the sound. We consider pitch(es), loudness, rhythm, tempo, duration, and harmony. Important behavioral responses to sound to take into account include that people respond to discordant sounds with anxiety, can be calmed by harmony and softness, and are innately alerted by loud and abrupt sounds, although levels high enough to be auditory stressors can negatively impact human judgment.

  13. A Pilot Study of Language Facilitation for Bilingual, Language-Handicapped Children: Theoretical and Intervention Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, Joseph A.

    1985-01-01

    A within-subject design involving three Spanish speaking and three English speaking preschoolers with language handicaps provided support for the practice of initial language intervention in the native language when bilingualism is a goal and for transference/facilitation theories of second language learning. (CL)

  14. EARLY DETECTION OF HANDICAPS OF PERSONS WITH TRISOMIA OF 21 CHROMOSOME IN THE CYTOGENETIC LABORATORY IN THE CENTER FOR MENTAL HEALTH FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN SKOPJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. APOSTOLOSKI

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors which contribute the appearance of handicaps are numerous and complex. By their nature they are inherited or determined by factors of outer environment, mostly as a result of interaction of both. In the broad sense the genetic factors are located in 46 chromosomes in the human cell, before all in the female and male fertilized cell e.i. the genes located in the chromosomes which determine the function of the central nervous system. The chromosome aberrations e.i. the visible aberrations of the chromosome structure presents the cause for the appearance of handicaps mostly together with some syndrome. That’s the case with Dawn’s syndrome( mongolism where we can find trisomy of 21 chromosome.Relatively, the great number of examinees (176 which we discovered in a period of 10 years from all the places of R. Macedonia confirm the need for further investigations. The newborns with this syndrome are children with prenatal development finished in not adequate way. The presence of different physical appearance on the birth and later on, more or less, speaks about indefinite mixture of pathological factors in the growth of the child and the difference. The symptoms that are discovered in these children indicate that they are retarded in their psychological and physical development from the normal children, and the further growth and development are on a lower level. The psychological, pediatrics and psychiatric researches show that the level of intelligence of our examinees is low, where as the social adjustment is far more better.The examination of our examinees was made up of taking an anamnesis from the parents, mostly from the mother. Every examine was under taken an caryological test. Ten of them showed an translocative type of Down’s syndrome where one of the parents is the carrier of the heterological balanced translocation. The heterological balanced translocations can be discovered only through affected newborn child. Our researches

  15. A spatial Bayesian network model to assess the benefits of early warning for urban flood risk to people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balbi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a novel methodology to assess flood risk to people by integrating people's vulnerability and ability to cushion hazards through coping and adapting. The proposed approach extends traditional risk assessments beyond material damages; complements quantitative and semi-quantitative data with subjective and local knowledge, improving the use of commonly available information; produces estimates of model uncertainty by providing probability distributions for all of its outputs. Flood risk to people is modeled using a spatially explicit Bayesian network model calibrated on expert opinion. Risk is assessed in terms of: (1 likelihood of non-fatal physical injury; (2 likelihood of post-traumatic stress disorder; (3 likelihood of death. The study area covers the lower part of the Sihl valley (Switzerland including the city of Zurich. The model is used to estimate the benefits of improving an existing Early Warning System, taking into account the reliability, lead-time and scope (i.e. coverage of people reached by the warning. Model results indicate that the potential benefits of an improved early warning in terms of avoided human impacts are particularly relevant in case of a major flood event: about 75 % of fatalities, 25 % of injuries and 18 % of post-traumatic stress disorders could be avoided.

  16. A spatial Bayesian network model to assess the benefits of early warning for urban flood risk to people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, Stefano; Villa, Ferdinando; Mojtahed, Vahid; Hegetschweiler, Karin Tessa; Giupponi, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a novel methodology to assess flood risk to people by integrating people's vulnerability and ability to cushion hazards through coping and adapting. The proposed approach extends traditional risk assessments beyond material damages; complements quantitative and semi-quantitative data with subjective and local knowledge, improving the use of commonly available information; and produces estimates of model uncertainty by providing probability distributions for all of its outputs. Flood risk to people is modeled using a spatially explicit Bayesian network model calibrated on expert opinion. Risk is assessed in terms of (1) likelihood of non-fatal physical injury, (2) likelihood of post-traumatic stress disorder and (3) likelihood of death. The study area covers the lower part of the Sihl valley (Switzerland) including the city of Zurich. The model is used to estimate the effect of improving an existing early warning system, taking into account the reliability, lead time and scope (i.e., coverage of people reached by the warning). Model results indicate that the potential benefits of an improved early warning in terms of avoided human impacts are particularly relevant in case of a major flood event.

  17. A Practicum-Based Teacher Training Program for Preschool Handicapped Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Ronald P.

    Described in the final report is a 3-year project which prepared 25 teachers at Master's degree level in a practicum based teacher training program for preschool handicapped children. Stressed are the program's objective of developing effective teachers able to cope with behavioral and educational problems irrespective of purported etiologies or…

  18. 49 CFR 571.125 - Standard No. 125; Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; (d) Salt spray (fog) test in accordance with American Society of Testing and Materials Standard B-117, Standard Method of Salt Spray (fog) testing, August 1964, except that the test shall be for 4 hours rather... flat magnesium oxide surface, and compute the quotient (percentage) of the luminance of the...

  19. On-site early-warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Bindi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of an on-site early warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan is outlined. Several low cost sensors equipped with MEMS accelerometers are installed in eight buildings distributed within the urban area. The different sensing units communicate each other via wireless links and the seismic data are streamed in real-time to the data center using internet. Since each single sensing unit has computing capabilities, software for data processing can be installed to perform decentralized actions. In particular, each sensing unit can perform event detection task and run software for on-site early warning. If a description for the vulnerability of the building is uploaded in the sensing unit, this piece of information can be exploited to introduce the expected probability of damage in the early-warning protocol customized for a specific structure.

  20. The benefit of high-resolution operational weather forecasts for flash flood warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Younis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean Europe, flash flooding is one of the most devastating hazards in terms of loss of human life and infrastructures. Over the last two decades, flash floods have caused damage costing a billion Euros in France alone. One of the problems of flash floods is that warning times are very short, leaving typically only a few hours for civil protection services to act. This study investigates if operationally available short-range numerical weather forecasts together with a rainfall-runoff model can be used for early indication of the occurrence of flash floods.

    One of the challenges in flash flood forecasting is that the watersheds are typically small, and good observational networks of both rainfall and discharge are rare. Therefore, hydrological models are difficult to calibrate and the simulated river discharges cannot always be compared with ground measurements. The lack of observations in most flash flood prone basins, therefore, necessitates the development of a method where the excess of the simulated discharge above a critical threshold can provide the forecaster with an indication of potential flood hazard in the area, with lead times of the order of weather forecasts.

    This study is focused on the Cévennes-Vivarais region in the Southeast of the Massif Central in France, a region known for devastating flash floods. This paper describes the main aspects of using numerical weather forecasting for flash flood forecasting, together with a threshold – exceedance. As a case study the severe flash flood event which took place on 8–9 September 2002 has been chosen.

    Short-range weather forecasts, from the Lokalmodell of the German national weather service, are used as input for the LISFLOOD model, a hybrid between a conceptual and physically based rainfall-runoff model. Results of the study indicate that high resolution operational weather forecasting combined with a rainfall-runoff model could be useful to

  1. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability

  2. Handicapped Infants and Euthanasia: A Challenge to Our Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David

    1985-01-01

    The issue of pediatric euthanasia for handicapped newborns is examined and contrasting viewpoints emphasizing the quality and the sanctity of life are considered. The author asserts that advocacy for handicapped children involves decisions regarding the euthanasia question. (CL)

  3. Handicapped Infants and Euthanasia: A Challenge to Our Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David

    1985-01-01

    The issue of pediatric euthanasia for handicapped newborns is examined and contrasting viewpoints emphasizing the quality and the sanctity of life are considered. The author asserts that advocacy for handicapped children involves decisions regarding the euthanasia question. (CL)

  4. Validation of the Italian Version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire, and the Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale for Peripheral and Central Vestibular Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colnaghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological measurements of the vestibular function for diagnosis and follow-up evaluations provide an objective assessment, which, unfortunately, does not necessarily correlate with the patients’ self-feeling. The literature provides many questionnaires to assess the outcome of rehabilitation programs for disequilibrium, but only for the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI is an Italian translation available, validated on a small group of patients suffering from a peripheral acute vertigo. We translated and validated the reliability and validity of the DHI, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire (SVQ, and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC in 316 Italian patients complaining of dizziness due either to a peripheral or to a central vestibular deficit, or in whom vestibular signs were undetectable by means of instrumental testing or clinical evaluation. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, the homogeneity index, and test–retest reproducibility, confirmed reliability of the Italian version of the three questionnaires. Validity was confirmed by correlation test between questionnaire scores. Correlations with clinical variables suggested that they can be used as a complementary tool for the assessment of vestibular symptoms. In conclusion, the Italian versions of DHI, SVQ, and ABC are reliable and valid questionnaires for assessing the impact of dizziness on the quality of life of Italian patients with peripheral or central vestibular deficit.

  5. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge C Billong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR, which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1 Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2 Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3 Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4 On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5 ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. RESULTS: THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40 for EWI(1, 20% (8/40 for EWI(2; 20% (8/40 for EWI(3; 0% (0/37 for EWI(4; and 45% (17/38 for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2, EWI(3, and EWI(4 was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. CONCLUSIONS: The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  6. History and evolution of warning labels for automotive friction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelovich, Luda M; Thuett, Kerry A; Chapman, Pamela S; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-04-01

    There have been claims over the years that asbestos-containing product manufacturers did not sufficiently warn end users early enough regarding the potential health hazards associated with their products (1930s-1990s). To address this issue, we compared the content of the warnings associated with asbestos-containing friction products (brakes, clutches, and gaskets) manufactured by the US automotive industries to what was expected by regulatory agencies during the time period in which an understanding of asbestos health hazards was being developed. We ended our evaluation around 1990, since asbestos-containing manufacturer supplied automotive products were functionally removed from commerce by 1985 in the United States. We assessed the warnings issued in users' manuals, technical service bulletins, product packaging materials, and labels placed on products themselves. Based on our evaluation, regulatory agencies had no guidelines regarding specific warning language for finished friction products, particularly when a product contained encapsulated asbestos fibers (i.e., modified by a bonding agent). Even today, federal regulations do not require labeling on encapsulated products when, based on professional judgment or sampling, user exposure is not expected to exceed the OSHA PEL. We concluded that, despite limited regulatory guidance, the US automotive industry provided adequate warnings with regards to its friction products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocean modelling and Early-Warning System for the Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Rego, Joao; Yan, Kun; Sisomphon, Piyamarn; Thanathanphon, Watin; Twigt, Daniel; Irazoqui Apecechea, Maialen

    2017-04-01

    Storm surges associated with severe tropical cyclones are among the most hazardous and damaging natural disasters to coastal areas. The Gulf of Thailand (GoT) has been periodically affected by typhoon induced storm surges in the past (e.g. storm Harriet in 1962, storm Gay in 1989 and storm Linda in 1997). Due to increased touristic / economic development and increased population density in the coastal zone, the combined effect and risk of high water level and increased rainfall / river discharge has dramatically increased and are expected to increase in future due to climate change effects. This presentation describes the development and implementation of the first real-time operational storm surge, wave and wave setup forecasting system in the GoT, a joint applied research initiative by Deltares in The Netherlands and the Hydro and Agro Informatics Institute (HAII) in Thailand. The modelling part includes a new hydrodynamic model to simulate tides and storm surges and two wave models (regional and local). The hydrodynamic model is based on Delft3D Flexible Mesh, capable of simulating water levels and detailed flows. The regional and the recently-developed local wave model are based on the SWAN model, a third-generation wave model. The operational platform is based on Delft-FEWS software, which coordinates all the data inputs, the modelling tasks and the automatic forecast exports including overland inundation in the upper Gulf of Thailand. The main objective of the Gulf of Thailand EWS is to provide daily accurate storm surge, wave and wave setup estimates automatically with various data exports possibilities to support this task. It adds a coastal component to HAII's existing practice of providing daily reports on fluvial flood forecasts, used for decision-support in issuing flood warnings for inland water systems in Thailand. Every day, three-day coastal forecasts are now produced based on the latest regional meteorological predictions. Examples are given to

  8. Earthquake Early Warning for the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake: Performance Evaluation of the Current System and Simulations of the Next-Generation Methods of the Japan Meteorological Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Y.; Saitou, J.; Hayashimoto, N.; Adachi, S.; Morimoto, M.; Nishimae, Y.; Hoshiba, M.

    2016-12-01

    The sequence of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (the Kumamoto earthquake) is extremely high seismic activity that occurred across Kumamoto and Oita prefectures in Japan since April 14, 2016 at 21:26 (JST). The Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) processed large amount of earthquake data and issued 19 warnings (higher grade alerts) and 175 forecasts (lower grade alerts) for the Kumamoto earthquake from April 14 to 30. Especially on April 14 and 16, the system operated under one of the highest workload conditions since JMA started its EEW service. We evaluated the system performance for cases where the warning was issued and/or the maximum seismic intensity of ≥5L (on the JMA scale) was actually observed, calculating prediction scores and lapse times from detection. The result shows that the system rapidly disseminated high accurate EEW announcements for most of the devastating earthquakes and did not miss or seriously under-predict strong motions. On the other hand, the system issued over-predicted warnings when multiple simultaneous earthquakes occurred within a short distance, comparable with the interval of the seismic observation network. We also simulated the Integrated Particle Filter (IPF) and Propagation of Local Undamped Motion (PLUM) methods, scheduled to be implemented in the JMA EEW system to minimize over-prediction with multiple simultaneous earthquakes and under-prediction with huge earthquakes (M> 8). The simulation results indicate that the IPF method is highly effective for the cases where the current system issued the over-predicted warnings, owing to its classification algorithm using amplitude data and its robust hypocenter determination against outliers among trigger data. The results also show that the PLUM method contributes to more rapid warning issuance for the devastating earthquakes, owing to its denser seismic observation network.

  9. Cannabis Users' Recommended Warnings for Packages of Legally Sold Cannabis: An Australia-Centered Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Johnson, Caitlin E; Rooke, Sally E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although cannabis use creates health risks, governments have recently been legalizing either medical use or leisure use. These governments can mandate health warnings on cannabis packages. Prior research examined recommended warnings of cannabis experts. The aim of this study was to obtain suggested cannabis health and safety warnings from cannabis users. Methods: We used a media release, Facebook postings, and announcements in university classes to seek individuals who had used cannabis at least once according to their own report. Using online data collection software that keeps participants anonymous, we asked the individuals to suggest a warning that governments could mandate on cannabis packages. Results: In total, 288 users suggested warnings. Categorizing the warnings into content categories led to six warning topics: (1) risk of harm to mental health and psychological functioning; (2) risk of operating machinery while under the influence; (3) short-term physical side effects; (4) responsible use; (5) long-term negative physical effects; and (6) dependence, addiction, or abuse. The user-suggested warnings overlapped with six expert-recommended warnings identified in prior survey research and included two content areas that did not feature in expert-recommended warnings: short-term physical side effects and the importance of responsible use. Conclusions: The results are consistent with prior findings that some youths perceive cannabis use as potentially harmful. The current findings provide possible new content for warnings on cannabis packages.

  10. Recasting the warning-response problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C.O.; Otto, F.; Brante, J.;

    2010-01-01

    , accepted, prioritized and responded to by policy-makers. This has led to a simplistic understanding of how communicative, cognitive and political processes involving a range of actors can influence both the perception as well as the response to warnings. The paper also criticizes that many normative...... judgments about the desirability of preventive action are suffering from hindsight bias and insufficient attention to balancing problems related to risk substitution, opportunity costs and moral hazard. In response to these deficits, the paper puts forward a modified model of warning as a persuasive process...

  11. A Walk through TRIDEC's intermediate Tsunami Early Warning System for the Turkish and Portuguese NEAMWave12 exercise tsunami scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Lendholt, Matthias; Reißland, Sven; Schulz, Jana

    2013-04-01

    On November 27-28, 2012, the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) and the Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA) joined other countries in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region as participants in an international tsunami response exercise. The exercise, titled NEAMWave12, simulated widespread Tsunami Watch situations throughout the NEAM region. It is the first international exercise as such, in this region, where the UNESCO-IOC ICG/NEAMTWS tsunami warning chain has been tested to a full scale for the first time with different systems. One of the systems is developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) and has been validated in this exercise among others by KOERI and IPMA. In TRIDEC new developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used to extend the existing platform realising a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems for deployment, e.g. in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing related challenges. The first and second phase system demonstrator, deployed at KOERI's crisis management room and deployed at IPMA has been designed and implemented, firstly, to support plausible scenarios for the Turkish NTWC and for the Portuguese NTWC to demonstrate the treatment of simulated tsunami threats with an essential subset of a NTWC. Secondly, the feasibility and the potentials of the implemented approach are demonstrated covering ICG/NEAMTWS standard operations as well as tsunami detection and alerting functions beyond ICG/NEAMTWS requirements. The demonstrator presented addresses information management and decision-support processes for hypothetical tsunami-related crisis situations in the context of

  12. The handicap process favors exaggerated, rather than reduced, sexual ornaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Why are traits that function as secondary sexual ornaments generally exaggerated in size compared to the naturally selected optimum, and not reduced? Because they deviate from the naturally selected optimum, traits that are reduced in size will handicap their bearer, and could thus provide an honest signal of quality to a potential mate. Thus if secondary sexual ornaments evolve via the handicap process, current theory suggests that reduced ornamentation should be as frequent as exaggerated ornamentation, but this is not the case. To try to explain this discrepancy, we analyze a simple model of the handicap process. Our analysis shows that asymmetries in costs of preference or ornament with regard to exaggeration and reduction cannot fully explain the imbalance. Rather, the bias toward exaggeration can be best explained if either the signaling efficacy or the condition dependence of a trait increases with size. Under these circumstances, evolution always leads to more extreme exaggeration than reduction: although the two should occur just as frequently, exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments are likely to be further removed from the naturally selected optimum than reduced ornaments.

  13. [Combined hepatitis A/B vaccination: evaluation of a vaccination schedule in facilities for handicapped people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, B; Müller, T; Ross, R S; Kundt, R; Roggendorf, M; Roggendorf, H

    2014-02-01

    People with mental and physical disabilities have a higher risk of infection with hepatitis viruses. Studies conducted so far show contradictory results on the success of vaccination in this population. These people live and work under special conditions and sometimes have immune defects. We investigated the antibody response after combined vaccination against hepatitis A and B in facilities for handicapped people in the city of Essen/Germany. Antibodies were determined in people with disabilities (n=949) and also in social workers taking care of handicapped people (n=115). Protective antibodies against hepatitis A were detected in 98.9% in people with disabilities and social workers. The seroconversion rate against hepatitis B in handicapped people was 90.2% and was comparable to the seroconversion rate in social workers (91.3%). Re-vaccinations were offered to all people with anti-HBs titres below 100 IU/L (28% of handicapped and 23.5% of social workers). In the group of low responders in handicapped people about 50% developed anti-HBs concentration above 100 IU/L. Non-responders showed 30-40% seroconversion rate after re-vaccination. Based on this study we would recommend serological tests about 4-8 weeks after vaccination to confirm seroconversion. By this procedure people who need a booster vaccination will be recognized and non-responders should be offered another HBV vaccination. In about 20% of the non-responders included in this study HBs antigen was detected. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Recreational drug use and fluctuating asymmetry: testing the handicap principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowska, Barbara; Pawlowski, Boguslaw

    2014-08-26

    Zahavi's handicap principle suggests that only organisms with good genetic quality can afford to engage in costly behaviors. Recreational drug use can be harmful to one's health and therefore might be viewed as a costly signal of one's genetic quality. One of the measurements of genetic quality is bodily symmetry assessed by fluctuating asymmetry. If unhealthy drug use is a behavioral example of Zahavi's handicap principle, then men who use different stimulants or recreational drugs should be more symmetrical than men who do not use them at all or use them only in low quantity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between drug use and fluctuating asymmetry. The subjects were 190 young women and 202 young men. Six bilaterally symmetrical traits were measured: length of II-V digits, wrist breadth, and ear height. Questionnaires included questions about smoking, alcohol drinking, drug use, and designer drug use. There was no relationship between bodily symmetry and smoking frequency, alcohol drinking frequency, drug or designer drug use, total substance use, age of smoking initiation, or reason of this initiation. The results indicate that drug use does not reflect genetic quality and does not necessarily relate to the handicap hypothesis.

  15. The Professional Education of Handicapped People in Moscow: Opportunities and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadova, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    In Moscow, one priority area of urban social policy has focused on the formation of equal opportunities for handicapped people and those with impaired health in the process of their integration into all spheres of life and activity, including professional education. The year 2009 was declared to be the Year of Equal Opportunities. The…

  16. GITEWS -- The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterjung, J.; Rudloff, A.

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this work is the implementation of an effective Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean. It is a component part of an Early Warning System that will also be capable of registering other natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The system integrates terrestrial observation networks of seismology und geodesy with marine measurements techniques and satellite observations. The required R & D work will be realized within the framework of a stage-plan, which will, within a short time span of 1-3 years, be able to provide effective warning on the one hand and, which will also allow for an integration of technological developments, currently undergoing further research. The initiative is coordinated by the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (HGF), represented by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ). In view of the geological situation one has to bear in mind that Indonesia especially, due to the fact that the main islands are located next to and above the Sunda seismogenic zone, could most frequently and most intensively in the future be prone to catastrophic Tsunami events. The envisaged Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean consists of different components as broadband seismometers, GPS, tide gauges, ocean-bottom pressure sensors and GPS-Buoys. On the basis of the data and recordings registered a warning can be generated. This presentation gives insight into the creation of the 26 December 2004 Tsunami, introduces the planned technical realization of the Early Warning System, shows first model scenarios and gives an overview of the planned realization of an Early Warning System in the Indian Ocean. http://www.gfz-potsdam.de

  17. Adapting ElarmS Earthquake Early Warnings for Cascadia: Development and Testing of ShakeAlerts in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, J. R.; Kress, V. C.; Thomas, T.; Malone, S. D.; Henson, I. H.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    As a first step in establishing an earthquake early warning system in Cascadia, we have installed the ElarmS component of the ShakeAlert system at the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. In Cascadia our initial focus is primarily on the development of a seismo-geodetic-based real-time finite fault rupture algorithm to detect and characterize a large plate-boundary rupture in progress (see Crowell et. al., this session). In this regard the goal of the purely seismic-data-based ElarmS implementation is to 'trigger' the finite fault rupture algorithm. At the same time, however, the Cascadian ElarmS will also produce warnings for smaller onshore crustal earthquakes. While warnings from these smaller and closer earthquakes will provide shorter warning times for communities, and for less dramatic earthquakes, we intend to use them for educational purposes, and to coordinate with our regional and collaborating partners. They will also help to guide us to shorten data latencies and learn where additional instrumentation is most needed to increase performance. The accuracy of ElarmS in Cascadia is another major concern, because the current ElarmS model presumes an initial focal depth for earthquakes of 8 km based on California experience, while in Cascadia earthquakes of major concern may be as deep as 50 km, and/or occur beyond the western fringe of the seismic network. To this purpose our testing protocol is aimed at determining what changes are required to ensure top performance of an ElarmS-based warning system in Cascadia. Because of Cascadia's relatively low seismicity rate, and the paucity of data from plate boundary earthquakes there of any size, we have prioritized the development of a test system. The test system permits us to: 1) replay segments of actual seismic waveform data recorded from the PNSN and contributing seismic network stations to represent both earthquakes and noise conditions, and 2) broadcast synthetic data into the system to simulate signals we

  18. Estimating the Costs of Educating Handicapped Children: A Resource-Cost Model Approach-Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.

    1981-01-01

    The resource cost model approach makes the programmatic aspects of special education explicit and links these with associated costs. It facilitates planning for education of handicapped children. An effective cost estimation plan was necessary because of recent political and legal mandates which established the educational rights of the…

  19. Exploratory factor analysis of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (German version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruin Eling D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI is a validated, self-report questionnaire which is widely used as an outcome measure. Previous studies supported the multidimensionality of the DHI, but not the original subscale structure. The objectives of this survey were to explore the dimensions of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory - German version, and to investigate the associations of the retained factors with items assessing functional disability and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Secondly we aimed to explore the retained factors according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Methods Patients were recruited from a tertiary centre for vertigo, dizziness or balance disorders. They filled in two questionnaires: (1 The DHI assesses precipitating physical factors associated with dizziness/unsteadiness and functional/emotional consequences of symptoms. (2 The HADS assesses non-somatic symptoms of anxiety and depression. In addition, patients answered the third question of the University of California Los Angeles-Dizziness Questionnaire which covers the impact of dizziness and unsteadiness on everyday activities. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed to explore the dimensions of the DHI. Associations were estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results One hundred ninety-four patients with dizziness or unsteadiness associated with a vestibular disorder, mean age (standard deviation of 50.6 (13.6 years, participated. Based on eigenvalues greater one respectively the scree plot we analysed diverse factor solutions. The 3-factor solution seems to be reliable, clinically relevant and can partly be explained with the ICF. It explains 49.2% of the variance. Factor 1 comprises the effect of dizziness and unsteadiness on emotion and participation, factor 2 informs about specific activities or effort provoking dizziness and unsteadiness, and factor 3 focuses on self

  20. EARLY DETECTION OF HANDICAPS OF PERSONS WITH TRISOMIA OF 21 CHROMOSOME IN THE CYTOGENETIC LABORATORY IN THE CENTER FOR MENTAL HEALTH FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN SKOPJE

    OpenAIRE

    B. APOSTOLOSKI; M. KJAEVA-PEJKOVSKA; S. NIKOLOVA

    1997-01-01

    Factors which contribute the appearance of handicaps are numerous and complex. By their nature they are inherited or determined by factors of outer environment, mostly as a result of interaction of both. In the broad sense the genetic factors are located in 46 chromosomes in the human cell, before all in the female and male fertilized cell e.i. the genes located in the chromosomes which determine the function of the central nervous system. The chromosome aberrations e.i. the visible aberratio...

  1. Nutritional Considerations for Severely Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, Dick

    Children and adults with severe disabilities may have nutritional problems due to the effects of the primary disability (including such syndromes as phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and Hurler's Disease), effects related to medications (including anticonvulsants, tranquilizers, and laxatives), effects of food preferences (restrictive food…

  2. Dynamic vibrotactile signals for forward collision avoidance warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Gray, Rob; Ho, Cristy; Ahtamad, Mujthaba; Spence, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted in order to assess the effectiveness of dynamic vibrotactile collision-warning signals in potentially enhancing safe driving. Auditory neuroscience research has demonstrated that auditory signals that move toward a person are more salient than those that move away. If this looming effect were found to extend to the tactile modality, then it could be utilized in the context of in-car warning signal design. The effectiveness of various vibrotactile warning signals was assessed using a simulated car-following task. The vibrotactile warning signals consisted of dynamic toward-/away-from-torso cues (Experiment 1), dynamic versus static vibrotactile cues (Experiment 2), looming-intensity- and constant-intensity-toward-torso cues (Experiment 3), and static cues presented on the hands or on the waist, having either a low or high vibration intensity (Experiment 4). Braking reaction times (BRTs) were significantly faster for toward-torso as compared to away-from-torso cues (Experiments 1 and 2) and static cues (Experiment 2). This difference could not have been attributed to differential responses to signals delivered to different body parts (i.e., the waist vs. hands; Experiment 4). Embedding a looming-intensity signal into the toward-torso signal did not result in any additional BRT benefits (Experiment 3). Dynamic vibrotactile cues that feel as though they are approaching the torso can be used to communicate information concerning external events, resulting in a significantly faster reaction time to potential collisions. Dynamic vibrotactile warning signals that move toward the body offer great potential for the design of future in-car collision-warning system. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  3. Building a Communication, Education, an Outreach Program for the ShakeAlert National Earthquake Early Warning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, R. M.; Strauss, J. A.; Given, D. D.; Cochran, E. S.; Burkett, E. R.; Long, K.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing an EEW system for the West Coast of the United States. To be an integral part of successful implementation, EEW engagement programs and materials must integrate with and leverage broader earthquake risk programs. New methods and products for dissemination must be multidisciplinary, cost effective, and consistent with existing hazards education efforts. Our presentation outlines how the USGS and its partners will approach this effort in the context of the EEW system through the work of a multistate and multiagency committee that participates in the design, implementation, and evaluation of a portfolio of programs and products. This committee, referred to as the ShakeAlert Joint Committee for Communication, Education, and Outreach (ShakeAlert CEO), is working to identify, develop, and cultivate partnerships with EEW stakeholders including Federal, State, academic partners, private companies, policy makers, and local organizations. Efforts include developing materials, methods for delivery, and reaching stakeholders with information on EEW, earthquake preparedness, and emergency protective actions. It is essential to develop standards to ensure information communicated via the EEW alerts is consistent across the public and private sector and achieving a common understanding of what actions users take when they receive an EEW warning. The USGS and the participating states and agencies acknowledge that the implementation of EEW is a collective effort requiring the participation of hundreds of stakeholders committed to ensuring public accessibility.

  4. The handicap principle and the argument of subversion from within

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2013-01-01

    connected to important epistemological differences related in part (but not solely) to their disciplinary background. Apart from conflicting evolutionary views concerning the theoretical feasibility of the handicap effect, these antagonists both differed in the confidence they ascribed to mathematical...... this set of debates as a case study, this paper argues that different applications of epistemic values were one of the factors behind the disagreements between John Maynard Smith and Amotz Zahavi over a number of important evolutionary issues. The paper also argues that these different applications were...

  5. Validation of the Italian Voice Handicap Index-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Stella; Amico, Marianna; Zambarbieri, Annamaria; Ciabatta, Annaclara; Assi, Cristiana; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Cantarella, Giovanna

    2014-03-01

    Time consuming is an important aspect in assessing dysphonic patients. So, the English version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-30), a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 30 items used to evaluate patients' self-perception of voice problems, was reduced to 10 items (VHI-10) for clinical purposes. In 2010, an Italian version of VHI-30 was validated, now the aims of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of an Italian version of VHI-10 and to evaluate its validity in a cohort of patients affected by organic or functional dysphonia. Cross-sectional study. The Italian version of the VHI-30 was submitted to 372 dysphonic participants and 120 healthy control subjects and was conducted again 2 weeks later. The 10 items constituting the VHI-10 were extracted from the VHI-30. For 73 dysphonic patients, the questionnaire was also administered after treatment. The scores of the control group were significantly lower with respect to all diagnostic subgroups (PItalian VHI-10. The ratio of the VHI-10 and VHI-30 scores was higher than 0.333 in all subgroups. This study demonstrated that the Italian VHI-10 is a robust tool that can adequately represent and replace the VHI-30. The reported results support the use of the VHI-10 for the Italian population in clinical settings owing to its validity and rapid and simple use. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  7. CyberShake-derived ground-motion prediction models for the Los Angeles region with application to earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, Maren; Graves, Robert W.; Gill, David; Callaghan, Scott; Maechling, Philip J.

    2014-09-01

    Real-time applications such as earthquake early warning (EEW) typically use empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) along with event magnitude and source-to-site distances to estimate expected shaking levels. In this simplified approach, effects due to finite-fault geometry, directivity and site and basin response are often generalized, which may lead to a significant under- or overestimation of shaking from large earthquakes (M > 6.5) in some locations. For enhanced site-specific ground-motion predictions considering 3-D wave-propagation effects, we develop support vector regression (SVR) models from the SCEC CyberShake low-frequency (415 000 finite-fault rupture scenarios (6.5 ≤ M ≤ 8.5) for southern California defined in UCERF 2.0. We use CyberShake to demonstrate the application of synthetic waveform data to EEW as a `proof of concept', being aware that these simulations are not yet fully validated and might not appropriately sample the range of rupture uncertainty. Our regression models predict the maximum and the temporal evolution of instrumental intensity (MMI) at 71 selected test sites using only the hypocentre, magnitude and rupture ratio, which characterizes uni- and bilateral rupture propagation. Our regression approach is completely data-driven (where here the CyberShake simulations are considered data) and does not enforce pre-defined functional forms or dependencies among input parameters. The models were established from a subset (˜20 per cent) of CyberShake simulations, but can explain MMI values of all >400 k rupture scenarios with a standard deviation of about 0.4 intensity units. We apply our models to determine threshold magnitudes (and warning times) for various active faults in southern California that earthquakes need to exceed to cause at least `moderate', `strong' or `very strong' shaking in the Los Angeles (LA) basin. These thresholds are used to construct a simple and robust EEW algorithm: to declare a warning, the

  8. New Device for the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Pentón García

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apart from the instruments used to work and develop adequate treatments, there are some other instruments in General Dentistry and in Orthodontics in particular, called auxiliary instruments or accessories that help to get a better view of surgical field. A capable surgeon appreciates good instruments and recognizes their urgent need in an efficient way. Objective: To show a new device to work in the oral cavity. Methods: the device which was made of 1,8 mm stainless steal wires is 0,61 meters long . For its construction universal forceps 003-180 for facial arcs and 003-233 heavy corrugated forceps were used. The elaboration of the device started on the one side of the lip retractor, then a first fold was done and after that another fold in the right angle was done in which the wire went down to continue forming a stainless steel strong crossbow-like pattern. After this has been done the lip retractor of the other side was done. Results: The device has a single size hence, it can be used in other fields of dentistry such as Dental Surgery and Endodontics. Although the device is a standard unit, it has three main parts: two lip retractors joined to a resort or crossbow –like pattern. Conclusions: This device makes easier the inspection of the oral cavity, has a standard size. It can be used in different fields of dentistry with great economic advantages.

  9. Hazard warnings and responses to evacuation orders: the case of Bangladesh's cyclone Sidr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bimal K; Dutt, Sohini

    2010-01-01

    On 15 November 2007 Cyclone Sidr, a category 4 storm, struck the southwestern coast of Bangladesh. Despite early cyclone warnings and evacuation orders for coastal residents, thousands of individuals stayed in their homes. This study examines dissemination of the warning, assesses the warning responses, and explores the reasons why many residents did not evacuate. Field data collected from 257 Sidr survivors in four severely affected coastal districts revealed that more than three-fourths of all respondents were aware of the cyclone warnings and evacuation orders. Despite the sincere efforts of the Bangladesh government, however, lapses in cyclone warnings and evacuation procedures occurred. Field data also revealed several reasons why evacuation orders were not followed. The reasons fell into three broad groups: those involving shelter characteristics; the attributes of the warning message itself; and the respondents' characteristics. Based on our findings, we recommend improved cyclone warnings and utilization of public shelters for similar events in the future.

  10. Adaptation and validation of the Italian Pediatric Voice Handicap Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Antonio; Tiddia, Cristiana; Ghidelli, Chiara; Nerone, Vincenza; Albera, Roberto; Ottaviani, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the internal consistency, reliability and clinical validity of the Italian version of the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI). The parents of 30 children with dysphonia and 43 asymptomatic children were included in the study. Each parent was asked to complete the Italian pVHI autonomously. The voice of each child was assessed perceptually through the GRB parameters of the GRBAS scale. Internal consistency was analyzed through Cronbach's α coefficient. For test-retest reliability analysis, the Italian pVHI was filled twice, with a 2-week interval, and the scores obtained were compared through the Pearson correlation test. Clinical validity was assessed comparing the scores obtained in the pathological and the control group using the Mann-Whitney test. Finally, the correlation between pVHI and the perceptual parameters was assessed. All of the parents filled in the entire questionnaire autonomously. An optimal internal consistency was found (α = 0.95); the test-retest reliability in the parents of both groups of children was high (r > 0.88). The control group scored significantly lower than the pathological group (p = 0.0001). The pVHI scores positively correlated with perceptual assessment of voice disorders. The Italian pVHI is easily administered, highly reproducible, and exhibits excellent clinical validity. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Flow ensemble prediction for flash flood warnings at ungauged basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demargne, Julie; Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Caseri, Angelica; Ramos, Maria-Helena; de Saint Aubin, Céline; Jurdy, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods, which are typically triggered by severe rainfall events, are difficult to monitor and predict at the spatial and temporal scales of interest due to large meteorological and hydrologic uncertainties. In particular, uncertainties in quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) and quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) need to be taken into account to provide skillful flash flood warnings with increased warning lead time. In France, the AIGA discharge-threshold flood warning system is currently being enhanced to ingest high-resolution ensemble QPFs from convection-permitting numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, as well as probabilistic QPEs, to improve flash flood warnings for small-to-medium (from 10 to 1000 km²) ungauged basins. The current deterministic AIGA system is operational in the South of France since 2005. It ingests the operational radar-gauge QPE grids from Météo-France to run a simplified hourly distributed hydrologic model at a 1-km² resolution every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). This produces real-time peak discharge estimates along the river network, which are subsequently compared to regionalized flood frequency estimates of given return periods. Warnings are then provided to the French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) and regional flood forecasting offices, based on the estimated severity of ongoing events. The calibration and regionalization of the hydrologic model has been recently enhanced to implement an operational flash flood warning system for the entire French territory. To quantify the QPF uncertainty, the COSMO-DE-EPS rainfall ensembles from the Deutscher Wetterdienst (20 members at a 2.8-km resolution for a lead time of 21 hours), which are available on the North-eastern part of France, were ingested in the hydrologic model of the AIGA system. Streamflow ensembles were produced and probabilistic flash flood warnings were derived for the Meuse and Moselle river basins and

  12. Steps Towards the Implementation of a Tsunami Detection, Warning, Mitigation and Preparedness Program for Southwestern Coastal Areas of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farreras, Salvador; Ortiz, Modesto; Gonzalez, Juan I.

    2007-03-01

    The highly vulnerable Pacific southwest coast of Mexico has been repeatedly affected by local, regional and remote source tsunamis. Mexico presently has no national tsunami warning system in operation. The implementation of key elements of a National Program on Tsunami Detection, Monitoring, Warning and Mitigation is in progress. For local and regional events detection and monitoring, a prototype of a robust and low cost high frequency sea-level tsunami gauge, sampling every minute and equipped with 24 hours real time transmission to the Internet, was developed and is currently in operation. Statistics allow identification of low, medium and extreme hazard categories of arriving tsunamis. These categories are used as prototypes for computer simulations of coastal flooding. A finite-difference numerical model with linear wave theory for the deep ocean propagation, and shallow water nonlinear one for the near shore and interaction with the coast, and non-fixed boundaries for flooding and recession at the coast, is used. For prevention purposes, tsunami inundation maps for several coastal communities, are being produced in this way. The case of the heavily industrialized port of Lázaro Cárdenas, located on the sand shoals of a river delta, is illustrated; including a detailed vulnerability assessment study. For public education on preparedness and awareness, printed material for children and adults has been developed and published. It is intended to extend future coverage of this program to the Mexican Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas.

  13. [The smokers voice self assessment based on Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2009-01-01

    Complex voice assessment due to European Laryngeal Society proposals (2000) contains voice self estimation based on the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This study focuses on the relation between voice handicap and smoking in dysphonic patients, who are using voice professionally. Thirty outpatient (25 female and 5 male, aged 40 to 55 years) voice department attendees suffering from professional dysphonia took part in this study. All patients after phoniatric examination completed the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The questions concern functional, emotional and physical complains due to dysphonia. Most of smokers did not complain of dysphonia related problems comparing to non smokers. Even the scores of functional and emotional scales of VHI in smokers shown better results (less handicap) than in nonsmokers. Smoking does not affect patients handicap due to dysphonia measured in the Voice Handicap Index.

  14. The EU Offshore Safety Directive and its potential effects. Opportunity or handicap?; Die EU Offshore Safety Directive und ihre moeglichen Auswirkungen. Chance oder Handicap?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwiederowski, Claudia [RWE Dea AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the EU Offshore Safety Directive, which took effect on 18 July 2013, is to define minimum requirements for the prevention of severe accidents in connection with offshore crude oil or natural gas activities of any kind and the containment of the follow-on effects of such accidents. This is without question a logical consequence of the offshore incidents seen around the globe over the past decades. An interesting question in this context is for whom the EU Offshore Safety Directive has become an opportunity and for whom a handicap. [German] Ziel der am 18. Juli 2013 in Kraft getretenen EU Offshore Safety Direktive ist die Festlegung von Mindestanforderungen fuer die Verhinderung schwerer Unfaelle bei Offshore-Erdoel- bzw. - Erdgasaktivitaeten und die Begrenzung etwaiger Unfallfolgen. Nach den weltweiten Offshore- Ereignissen der vergangenen Jahrzehnte ist dies ohne Zweifel eine logische Entwicklung. Nun stellt sich die Frage: Fuer wen entwickelt sich die EU Offshore Safety Directive zur Chance, fuer wen zum Handicap?.

  15. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sonke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured…

  16. An Early Warning System for Asteroid Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Tonry, John L

    2010-01-01

    Earth is bombarded by meteors, occasionally by one large enough to cause a significant explosion and possible loss of life. Although the odds of a deadly asteroid strike in the next century are low, the most likely impact is by a relatively small asteroid, and we suggest that the best mitigation strategy in the near term is simply to move people out of the way. We describe an "early warning" system that could provide a week's notice of most sizable asteroids or comets on track to hit the Earth. This system, dubbed "Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System" (ATLAS), comprises two observatories separated by about 100km that simultaneously scan the visible sky twice a night, and can be implemented immediately for relatively low cost. The sensitivity of ATLAS permits detection of 140m asteroids (100 Mton impact energy) three weeks before impact, and 50m asteroids a week before arrival. An ATLAS alarm, augmented by other observations, should result in a determination of impact location and time that is accura...

  17. 38 CFR 21.58 - Redetermination of employment handicap and serious employment handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employment handicap and serious employment handicap. 21.58 Section 21.58 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... of employment handicap and serious employment handicap. (a) Prior to induction into a program. A determination as to employment handicap, serious employment handicap, or eligibility for a program of...

  18. ECDC Round Table Report and ProMed-mail most useful international information sources for the Netherlands Early Warning Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijkerk, Paul; Monnier, Annelie A; Fanoy, Ewout B; Kardamanidis, Katina; Friesema, Ingrid Hm; Knol, Mirjam J

    2017-04-06

    The Netherlands Early Warning Committee (NEWC) aims to identify infectious diseases causing a potential threat to Dutch public health. Threats are assessed and published as (information) alerts for public health experts. To identify threats from abroad, the NEWC screens 10 sources reporting disease outbreaks each week. To identify the sources essential for complete and timely reporting, we retrospectively analysed 178 international alerts published between 31 January 2013 and 30 January 2014. In addition, we asked the four NEWC coordinators about the required time to scan the information sources. We documented the date and source in which the signal was detected. The ECDC Round Table (RT) Report and ProMED-mail were the most complete and timely sources, reporting 140 of 178 (79%) and 121 of 178 (68%) threats respectively. The combination of both sources reported 169 (95%) of all threats in a timely manner. Adding any of the other sources resulted in minor increases in the total threats found, but considerable additional time investment per additional threat. Only three potential relevant threats (2%) would have been missed by only using the ECDC RT Report and ProMed-mail. We concluded that using only the ECDC RT Report and ProMed-mail to identify threats from abroad maintains a sensitive Early Warning System. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  19. Earthquake early warning for the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake: performance evaluation of the current system and the next-generation methods of the Japan Meteorological Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Yuki; Saitou, Jun; Hayashimoto, Naoki; Adachi, Shimpei; Morimoto, Masahiko; Nishimae, Yuji; Hoshiba, Mitsuyuki

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Kumamoto earthquake sequence) is an extremely high-seismicity event that has been occurring across Kumamoto and Oita Prefectures in Japan since April 14, 2016 (JST). The earthquake early warning system of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued warnings for 19 events in the Kumamoto earthquake sequence from April 14 to 19, under some of the heaviest loading conditions since the system began operating in 2007. We analyzed the system performance for cases where a warning was issued and/or strong motion was actually observed. The results indicated that the system exhibited remarkable performance, especially for the most destructive earthquakes in the Kumamoto earthquake sequence. In addition, the system did not miss or seriously under-predict strong motion of any large earthquake from April 14 to 30. However, in four cases, the system issued over-predicted warnings due to the simultaneous occurrence of small earthquakes within a short distance, which implies a fundamental obstacle in trigger-data classifications based solely on arrival time. We also performed simulations using the integrated particle filter (IPF) and propagation of local undamped motion (PLUM) methods, which JMA plans to implement to address over-prediction for multiple simultaneous earthquakes and under-prediction for massive earthquakes with large rupture zones. The simulation results of the IPF method indicated that the IPF method is highly effective at minimizing over-prediction even for multiple simultaneous earthquakes within a short distance, since it adopts a trigger-data classification using velocity amplitude and hypocenter determinations using not-yet-arrived data. The simulation results of the PLUM method demonstrated that the PLUM method is capable of issuing warnings for destructive inland earthquakes more rapidly than the current system owing to the use of additional seismometers that can only be incorporated by this method.[Figure not available: see

  20. Cluster Based Message Dissemination for Broadcasting the Emergency/Warning Messages using a Novel Scheduling in VANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Berlin,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks are a special case of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. Unlike MANETs, VANET nodes are moving very fast. It becomes quite challenging to maintain a stable path for broadcasting Emergency and Warning (E/ W messages from a risk zone. So routing takes an important role in VANETs. Reducing network overhead, avoiding network congestion, traffic congestion andincreasing packet delivery ratio are the major issues of routing in VANETs. So it is essential to broadcast the risk notification (RN messages such as accident and injury prevention messages, congestion control messages, road condition and other emergency/ warning messages in time to the rear vehicles. In this paper we propose a novel approach to categorize the messages and to give priority for the E/ W messages using a scheduling algorithm. The neighboring vehicles broadcast the RN messages from the risk zone using inter- zone clusters and intra- zone clusters communication to the rear vehicle by applying the proposed scheduling algorithm. Our simulation results show that this approach performs well and produce less network overhead, congestion control and high packet delivery ratio. We compared our approach with the existing protocol.

  1. ForWarn: A Cross-Cutting Forest Resource Management and Decision Support System Providing the Capacity to Identify and Track Forest Disturbances Nationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Norman, S.; Christie, W.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. It has operated as a prototype since January 2010 and has provided useful information about the location and extent of disturbances detected during the 2011 growing season, including tornadoes, wildfires, and extreme drought. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in March 2012, initiated by a joint NASA and USDA press release. The ForWarn home page has had 2,632 unique visitors since rollout in March 2012, with 39% returning visits. ForWarn was used to map tornado scars from the historic April 27, 2011 tornado outbreak, and detected timber damage within more than a dozen tornado tracks across northern Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. ForWarn is the result of an ongoing, substantive cooperation among four different government agencies: USDA, NASA, USGS, and DOE. Disturbance maps are available on the

  2. A Video Camera Road Sign System of the Early Warning from Collision with the Wild Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuska Slavomir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a camera road sign system of the early warning, which can help to avoid from vehicle collision with the wild animals. The system consists of camera modules placed down the particularly chosen route and the intelligent road signs. The camera module consists of the camera device and the computing unit. The video stream is captured from video camera using computing unit. Then the algorithms of object detection are deployed. Afterwards, the machine learning algorithms will be used to classify the moving objects. If the moving object is classified as animal and this animal can be dangerous for safety of the vehicle, warning will be displayed on the intelligent road sings.

  3. A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform

  4. Ecosystems for Early Warning: Potential Use of Bioindicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zommers, Z. A.; Sitati, A. M.; Habilov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Bioindicators are biological processes, species or communities, which are used to assess changes in the environment or environmental quality. Theoretically, they could also be used to provide advanced warning of hazards. They are inexpensive, locally relevant, and can encourage stakeholder participation in early warning system development and maintenance. While bioindicators have been identified for environmental problems such as air pollution and water pollution, and have been used to assess health of ecosystems, little information is available on bioindicators for climate related hazards. This presentation reviews possible biodindicators for droughts, wildfires and tropical cyclones, based on the results of a literature review. It will also present results from a household survey of 36 communities in Kenya, Ghana and Burkina Faso. Indigenous knowledge offers a wealth of potential bioindicators; including animal and insect behavior, and plant phenology. Yet significant study is needed to verify these indicators and evaluate them against criteria such as specificity, variability, monotonicity, practicality and relevance. Bioindicators may not be specific to individual hazards and may provide limited advanced warning, as response often occurs after the actual onset of the hazard. Furthermore, indicators may become increasingly unreliable due to climate change itself. There is a need for a large-scale assessment of hazard bioindicators, which should also include forecasts of bioindicator change under global warming, and a cost-benefit analysis of the value of integrating bioindicators into early warning systems. Lessons can be drawn from ethnopharmacology. Coordinated research on this topic could contribute to the resilience of both ecosystems and human livelihoods.

  5. Estimating the benefits of single value and probability forecasting for flood warning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkade, J.S.; Werner, M.G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Flood risk can be reduced by means of flood forecasting, warning and response systems (FFWRS). These systems include a forecasting sub-system which is imperfect, meaning that inherent uncertainties in hydrological forecasts may result in false alarms and missed floods, or surprises. This forecasting

  6. Estimating the benefits of single value and probability forecasting for flood warning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkade, J.S.; Werner, M.G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Flood risk can be reduced by means of flood forecasting, warning and response systems (FFWRS). These systems include a forecasting sub-system which is imperfect, meaning that inherent uncertainties in hydrological forecasts may result in false alarms and missed events. This forecasting uncertainty d

  7. Estimating the benefits of single value and probability forecasting for flood warning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkade, J.S.; Werner, M.G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Flood risk can be reduced by means of flood forecasting, warning and response systems (FFWRS). These systems include a forecasting sub-system which is imperfect, meaning that inherent uncertainties in hydrological forecasts may result in false alarms and missed floods, or surprises. This forecasting

  8. Estimating the benefits of single value and probability forecasting for flood warning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkade, J.S.; Werner, M.G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Flood risk can be reduced by means of flood forecasting, warning and response systems (FFWRS). These systems include a forecasting sub-system which is imperfect, meaning that inherent uncertainties in hydrological forecasts may result in false alarms and missed events. This forecasting uncertainty

  9. Nutritional Needs of the Child with a Handicap or Chronic Illness. Manual II: Clinical Nutrition. Presentations from a National Interdisciplinary Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekvall, Shirley M.; Wheby, Elizabeth A.

    The following papers were presented at a symposium on clinical nutrition for the child who is chronically ill or handicapped: (1) "Food Allergy"; (2) "Anemia and the Chronically Ill or Handicapped Child"; (3) "Nutrition and Neurotransmitters--Clinical Implications"; (4) "The Importance of Lipid Type in the Diet after Burn Injury"; (5) "Advances of…

  10. A portable rehabilitation device for the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Jamshed; Tsagarakis, Nikos G; Fiorilla, Angelo E; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a direct driven under-actuated portable hand exoskeleton for rehabilitation. The design of the proposed Hand EXOskeleton SYStem (HEXOSYS) was driven by multi-objective optimisation strategy and inspiration from the human hand. The optimisation algorithm resulted in the choice of optimum link lengths of the device. The optimisation criteria are based on dexterity, isotropy and exertion of perpendicular forces on the finger digits. Furthermore, a series of experiments on the human hand using appropriate sensory instrumentation guided the selection of actuators thereby resulting in a rehabilitation device which is compatible with the human hand force capabilities. The provision of force as well as position feedback gives quantitative feedback to the therapist and would imply a more efficient rehabilitation process. The first prototype of the device has been designed and realized.

  11. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.259 Warning time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every 12 months and when the warning system...

  12. Warning system for hydrogeological hazards in Campania (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, Mauro; Cristiano, Luigi; Gentile, Salvatore; Gentilella, Matteo; Giannattasio, Maurizio; Napoli, Francesca

    2010-05-01

    Campania is the Italian region with the highest population density (419 inhabitants/km2). Almost 20% of its territory (13669 km2) is affected by significant hydrogeological hazards, with related loss scenarios in almost 12% of it. The most critical hydrogeological hazard scenarios are those triggered by extreme rainfall events with duration ranging from a few tens of minutes up 72 hours: flood loss scenarios are expected in catchments with spatial extent from a few Km2 up to 5000 km2; shallow landslides and mudflows are also triggered by rainfall events within a broad range of time scales. This study presents a warning system for hydrogeological hazards, which has been operating in Campania since 2005, designed for mitigating losses due to extreme rainfall events. The warning system is structured into two stages: the meteorological forecasting stage and the hydrological monitoring stage. In the first stage, after evaluating rainfall forecasts provided by numerical weather prediction models (with a forecasting time up to 48 hours), warning messages are issued to the local municipalities grouped in 8 warning zones. Critical rainfall events are identified by three different alert levels, according to their forecasted spatial and temporal extents, each corresponding to a category of expected hazard scenarios at regional level. During the second stage, the dynamic evolution of the hydrological events is monitored by a real-time network of river stage and rain gauges, which are employed to compute one or more precursors for each loss scenario. Loss scenarios have been classified according to the temporal and spatial scales of the corresponding precursors, in order to deal with the difficulties related to the occurrence of significantly different hazard scenarios during the same rainfall event. Three threshold values have been identified for each precursor, corresponding to given hazard and alert levels. As a precursor exceeds a threshold value, warning messages are

  13. 38 CFR 21.51 - Determining employment handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... handicap. 21.51 Section 21.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Initial and Extended Evaluation § 21.51 Determining employment handicap. For the purposes of § 21.50, an employment handicap will be found to exist only if a CP or VRC determines that...

  14. Near-field tsunami early warning and emergency planning in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerassimos A. Papadopoulos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The new European project Near-field Tsunami Early Warning and Emergency Planning in the Mediterranean Sea (NEARTOWARN faces the need to develop operational tsunami early warning systems in near-field (local conditions where the travel time of the first tsunami wave is very short, that is less than 30 min, which is a typical case in the North East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea region but also elsewhere around the globe. The operational condition that should be fulfilled is that the time of tsunami detection, plus the time of warning transmitting, plus the time of evacuation should not exceed the travel time of the first tsunami wave from its source to the closest evacuation zone. To this goal the time to detect of the causative earthquake should be compressed at the very minimum. In this context the core of the proposed system is a network of seismic early warning devices, which activate and send alert in a few seconds after the generation of a near-field earthquake, when a seismic ground motion exceeding a prescribed threshold is detected. Then civil protection mobilizes to manage the earthquake crisis but also to detect and manage a possible tsunami through a geographical risk management system. For the tsunami detection the system is supported by tide-gauges of radar type, a database of presimulated tsunami scenarios, and a local tsunami decision matrix. The island of Rhodes in the eastern termination of the Hellenic Arc and Trench has been selected for a pilot and operational development of the local tsunami warning system given that the island is a highly popular tourist destination, historically it was hit by large tsunamigenic earthquakes and was recently the master test-site for the pan-European FP6 tsunami research project Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region (TRANSFER.

  15. A European precipitation index for extreme rain-storm and flash flood early warning

    OpenAIRE

    ALFIERI LORENZO; THIELEN DEL POZO Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Extreme rain-storms are known for triggering devastating flash floods in various regions of Europe and particularly along the Mediterranean coasts. Despite recent notable advances in weather forecasting, most operational early warning systems for extreme rainstorms and flash floods are based on rainfall estimation, rather than on forecasts. As a result, warning lead times are bounded to few hours and warnings are usually issued when the event is already taking place. This work proposes a n...

  16. 广西残疾人竞技体育现状及发展对策研究%A Study on the Current Situation of Athletic Sports for Handicapped People in Guangxi and Measures for Its Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐飚; 唐枫; 钟文

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive analysis of the history and current situation of the development of handicapped sports in Guangxi, this paper points out that the handicapped sports in Guangxi is faced with a series of difficulties and crises, such as descending results, aging athletes, inadequate reserve forces, insufficient input, out-of-date training conditions, inferior quality of equipment, imperfect management, shortage of teachers and administering staff. It offers 7 proposals to promote the development of handicapped sports in Guangxi, e. G. Collecting funds, tapping event resources, innovating the administering system, inventing training system of physical education teachers for the handicapped and others.%通过对广西残疾人竞技体育的发展历史和现状的综合分析,指出了广西残疾人竞技体育正面临着成绩下滑、运动员队伍老化,后备力量跟不上、投入严重不足、训练条件滞后、运动器材科技含量不高、管理机构不健全、管理人才和体育师资严重短缺等一系列困难和危机,并提出了筹措资金、挖掘项目资源、创新残疾体育竞技管理体制、建立残疾体育师资培养体制等7项对策,以促进广西残疾人竞技体育的发展.

  17. [Handicapped patients and leisure sports--a chance for social integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, U

    2000-10-01

    Organizing leisure time in an active way with lots of experiences is getting more and more important in western society. Accordingly, sports activities and travelling as well as their combination, holiday sports activities, are in great demand. A general idea of the literature in that field with regard to the possibilities and difficulties of handicapped persons is that holiday sports activities are considered apt to offer outstanding prerequisites for handicapped and nonhandicapped people getting closer to each other. Starting out on this basis, this survey is mainly dedicated to the following questions: What is the situation for handicapped persons in holiday sports activities? Is holiday sporting in a position to meet the expectations of social integration, and to what extent? A questionnaire about these items was answered by wheelchair users, making it clear, on the one hand, that there are hardly any offers for disabled people to take part in holiday sporting activities. On the other hand, the survey confirms that holiday sports activities are well suited to answer major demands of the integration issue, i.e., communication and interaction as well as other factors conducive to social integration. Subsequently, the author formulates the request that access to and participation in holiday sporting activities be made easier for disabled people so that greater use can be made of these special opportunities for social integration.

  18. The spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm as a real-time early warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution events at alpine karst water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, H; Klock, E; Skritek, P; Mach, R L; Zerobin, W; Farnleitner, A H

    2010-01-01

    Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during event situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer events (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm (SAC254) as a real-time early warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for event triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper. Data analysis including on-line event characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n>800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful early warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied event situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and event-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated.

  19. The spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm as a real-time early warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution events at alpine karst water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, H.; Klock, E.; Skritek, P.; Mach, R.L.; Zerobin, W.; Farnleitner, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during event situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer events (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm (SAC254) as a real-time early warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for event triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper (Stadler et al., Wat. Sci. Technol. 58(4): 899-909, 2008). Data analysis including on-line event characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n > 800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful early warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied event situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and event-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated. PMID:20962406

  20. Historical telecommunication in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas: An ancient early warning system for glacier lake outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    Mountain societies are in a crucial transition phase in terms of the management of natural hazards. Advances in geographic technologies, such as a variety of remote-sensing tools and mobile communication systems, have drastically changed the way of early warning methods in difficult accessible high mountain environments compared to those of ancient times. In order to implement new natural hazard policies, it is essential to unravel the traditional ways of disaster management which is presented here by a case study from the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas. In the rugged relief of the Himalaya Region, the exchange of information was a labor-intensive and time-consuming task for remote high mountain villages before the infrastructural development and the introduction of modern communication systems. Therefore, early warning of natural hazards with long run-out distances seems to have been rather impossible. However, in the present study a historical optical long-distance and fast operating communication system over horizontal distances of several hundred kilometers was discovered during field investigations in the Hindukush-Karakoram and the transmission paths reconstructed in the following years. The so called Puberanch-system relied on a chain of fire signals as used by ancient societies in other mountain and coastal environments in the world. It was originally in use for the alert against war attacks from hostile neighboring communities. Later on, it served as an early warning system for glacier lake outbursts, which have been in the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century one of the most devastating natural hazards in the region. Remarkable is the fact that fire posts were located in extremely harsh environments at altitudes above 4000 m requiring a highly sophisticated supply system of fire wood and food. Interviews with local inhabitants, the evaluation of historical travel records and international newspapers proved, that the system has been

  1. Mainstreaming: Visually Handicapped Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ernestine; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A research project at Florida State University developed teaching materials for secondary home economics teachers faced with teaching hand and machine sewing and other clothing construction skills to visually handicapped students. The article gives some suggestions for presenting instructions and adapting equipment for cutting and sewing garments.…

  2. Voice handicap in singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Thomas; Zschommler, Anne; Prokop, Jan

    2009-05-01

    The study aimed to determine the differences in responses to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) between singers and nonsingers and to evaluate the ranked order differences of the VHI-10 statements for both groups. The VHI-10 was modified to include statements related to the singing voice for comparison to the original VHI-10. Thirty-five nonsingers with documented voice disorders responded to the VHI-10. A second group, consisting of 35 singers with voice complaints, responded to the VHI-10 with three statements added specifically addressing the singing voice. Data from both groups were analyzed in terms of overall subject self-rating of voice handicap and the rank order of statements from least to most important. The difference between the mean VHI-10 for the singers and nonsingers was not statistically significant, thus, supporting the validity of the VHI-10. However, the 10 statements were ranked differently in terms of their importance by both groups. In addition, when three statements related specifically to the singing voice were substituted in the original VHI-10, the singers judged their voice problem to be more severe than when using the original VHI-10. The type of statements used to assess self-perception of voice handicap may be related to the subject population. Singers with voice problems do not rate their voices to be more handicapped than nonsingers unless statements related specifically to singing are included.

  3. The Correlation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory with Depression and Anxiety in Veterans with Tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jinwei Hu; Jane Xu; Matthew Streelman; Helen Xu; O’neil Guthrie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The mechanisms of tinnitus are known to alter neuronal circuits in the brainstem and cortex, which are common to several comorbid conditions. This study examines the relationship between tinnitus and anxiety/depression. Subjects and Methods. Ninety-one male veterans with subjective tinnitus were enrolled in a Veterans Affairs Tinnitus Clinic. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was used to assess tinnitus severity. ICD-9 codes for anxiety/depression were used to determine their p...

  4. False alarms and missed events: the impact and origins of perceived inaccuracy in tornado warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G

    2015-01-01

    Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up question--Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are--in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn impact the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Earth Observations for Early Detection of Agricultural Drought: Contributions of the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M. E.; Funk, C.; Husak, G. J.; Peterson, P.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of supporting the use of Earth observation data for food security monitoring through its role as an implementing partner of the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) program. The use of remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pests, and changing climatic regimes has been a core activity in monitoring FEWS NET countries. In recent years, it has become a requirement that FEWS NET apply monitoring and modeling frameworks at global scales to assess emerging crises in regions that FEWS NET does not traditionally monitor. USGS FEWS NET, in collaboration with the University of California, Santa Barbara, has developed a number of new global applications of satellite observations, derived products, and efficient tools for visualization and analyses to address these requirements. (1) A 35-year quasi-global (+/- 50 degrees latitude) time series of gridded rainfall estimates, the Climate Hazards Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset, based on infrared satellite imagery and station observations. Data are available as 5-day (pentadal) accumulations at 0.05 degree spatial resolution. (2) Global actual evapotranspiration data based on application of the Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model using 10-day MODIS Land Surface Temperature composites at 1-km resolution. (3) Production of global expedited MODIS (eMODIS) 10-day NDVI composites updated every 5 days. (4) Development of an updated Early Warning eXplorer (EWX) tool for data visualization, analysis, and sharing. (5) Creation of stand-alone tools for enhancement of gridded rainfall data and trend analyses. (6) Establishment of an agro-climatology analysis tool and knowledge base for more than 90 countries of interest to FEWS NET. In addition to these new products and tools, FEWS NET has partnered with the GEOGLAM community to develop a Crop Monitor for Early Warning (CM4EW) which

  6. [Partnership and role of the psychiatrist beside the mentally handicapped persons and their families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuyer, R

    1995-01-01

    Partnership and role of the psychiatrist beside the mentally handicapped persons and their families. The author analyses his 35 years long collaboration with parents and their associations, and the follow up of mentally handicapped persons themselves. The author questions:--the generalisation of debatable theories without enough explicativity, which makes difficult the "therapeutic alliance" with the parents--the deficiency of educative projects--the doubtful reactions from the responsibles of parents associations in the scientifical spheres, and their refusal to make up their mind with some incomplete results of education. However, the collaboration with most of the parents is usually efficient and pleasant. It seems difficult to manage the psychopedagogy with the toddlers and the polyhandicapped persons without them. Finally, the author insists on the necessity of a patient psychological preparing of the handicapped person, in order he becomes conscience of his difference. Argument for a reflexion about each one role and responsibility, for a real partner-ship, with harmony and complementarity.

  7. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  8. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  9. Worse, Not Better?’ Reinvigorating Early Warning For Conflict Prevention In The Post Lisbon European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Franco, Chiara; Meyer, Christoph O.; Brante, John

    embraced the case for conflict prevention in policy documents as well as in the Lisbon Treaty itself, making it a hallmark of its approach to international security and conflict in contrast to conventional foreign policy. Yet, it has fallen significantly short in translating these aspirations...... into institutional practice and success on the ground. It suffers from the ‘missing middle’ syndrome between long-term structural prevention through instruments such as conditionality for EU accession and development policy, and short-term responses to erupting crisis through military and civilian missions...... for joint threat assessment and coherence in policy, the improved presence on the ground through EU delegations and the influx of experienced diplomats from Member States. At the same time, our paper draws on research into the warning-response problem to express two main concerns: first, key weaknesses...

  10. A comparison of different informative vibrotactile forward collision warnings: does the warning need to be linked to the collision event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob; Ho, Cristy; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that auditory and vibrotactile forward collision warnings presenting a motion signal (e.g., looming or apparent motion across the body surface) can facilitate speeded braking reaction times (BRTs). The purpose of the present study was to expand on this work by directly comparing warning signals in which the motion conveyed was constant across all collision events with signals in which the speed of motion was dependent on the closing velocity (CV). Two experiments were conducted using a simulated car-following task and BRTs were measured. In Experiment 1, increasing intensity (looming) vibrotactile signals were presented from a single tactor attached to the driver's waist. When the increase in intensity was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster as compared to a no-warning condition, however, they were not significantly different from constant intensity and CV-independent looming warnings. In Experiment 2, a vertical array of three tactors was used to create motion either towards (upwards) or away (downwards) from the driver's head. When the warning signal presented upwards motion that was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster than all other warning types. Downwards warnings led to a significantly higher number of brake activations in false alarm situations as compared to upwards moving warnings. The effectiveness of dynamic tactile collision warnings would therefore appear to depend on both the link between the warning and collision event and on the directionality of the warning signal.

  11. A comparison of different informative vibrotactile forward collision warnings: does the warning need to be linked to the collision event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gray

    Full Text Available Recent research demonstrates that auditory and vibrotactile forward collision warnings presenting a motion signal (e.g., looming or apparent motion across the body surface can facilitate speeded braking reaction times (BRTs. The purpose of the present study was to expand on this work by directly comparing warning signals in which the motion conveyed was constant across all collision events with signals in which the speed of motion was dependent on the closing velocity (CV. Two experiments were conducted using a simulated car-following task and BRTs were measured. In Experiment 1, increasing intensity (looming vibrotactile signals were presented from a single tactor attached to the driver's waist. When the increase in intensity was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster as compared to a no-warning condition, however, they were not significantly different from constant intensity and CV-independent looming warnings. In Experiment 2, a vertical array of three tactors was used to create motion either towards (upwards or away (downwards from the driver's head. When the warning signal presented upwards motion that was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster than all other warning types. Downwards warnings led to a significantly higher number of brake activations in false alarm situations as compared to upwards moving warnings. The effectiveness of dynamic tactile collision warnings would therefore appear to depend on both the link between the warning and collision event and on the directionality of the warning signal.

  12. The Development of Concepts of Handicap in Adolescence: A Cross-Cultural Study-Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jim; Obani, Tim

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of quasi-experimental study of 155 Nigerian and 151 British boys' and girls' understanding of handicaps. Presents information regarding the content of the questionnaire, which posed both direct and indirect questions regarding causality, effects, rehabilitation and interaction of handicapped persons. (JDH)

  13. Emergency management response to a warning-level Alaska-source tsunami impacting California: Chapter J in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin M.; Long, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is directed towards two audiences: Firstly, it targets nonemergency management readers, providing them with insight on the process and challenges facing emergency managers in responding to tsunami Warning, particularly given this “short fuse” scenario. It is called “short fuse” because there is only a 5.5-hour window following the earthquake before arrival of the tsunami within which to evaluate the threat, disseminate alert and warning messages, and respond. This action initiates a period when crisis communication is of paramount importance. An additional dynamic that is important to note is that within 15 minutes of the earthquake, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Weather Service (NWS) will issue alert bulletins for the entire Pacific Coast. This is one-half the time actually presented by recent tsunamis from Japan, Chile, and Samoa. Second, the chapter provides emergency managers at all levels with insights into key considerations they may need to address in order to augment their existing plans and effectively respond to tsunami events. We look at emergency management response to the tsunami threat from three perspectives:“Top Down” (Threat analysis and Alert/Warning information from the Federal agency charged with Alert and Warning) “Bottom Up” (Emergency management’s Incident Command approach to responding to emergencies and disasters based on the needs of impacted local jurisdictions) “Across Time” (From the initiating earthquake event through emergency response) We focus on these questions: What are the government roles, relationships, and products that support Tsunami Alert and Warning dissemination? (Emergency Planning and Preparedness.) What roles, relationships, and products support emergency management response to Tsunami Warning and impact? (Engendering prudent public safety response.) What are the key emergency management activities, considerations, and challenges brought

  14. Development of Early Warning Methods for Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    This thesis concerns the development of methods that can provide, in realtime, an early warning for an emerging blackout in electric power systems. The blackout in E-Denmark and S-Sweden on September 23, 2003 is the main motivation for the method development. The blackout was caused by occurrence...... methods, that could, in such situations, give an early warning for the emerging blackout. After investigation of data and plots taken from the time of the blackout, it was decided to focus the development on assessment of aperiodic small signal stability. In order to assess the system generators aperiodic...... small signal stability, expressions for stability boundaries were algebraically derived in the injection impedance plane. A method for detecting aperiodic small signal stability was established, which was based on one of the derived boundaries. The method carries out an element-wise assessment...

  15. Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quax, Rick; Kandhai, Drona; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-05-01

    In financial markets, participants locally optimize their profit which can result in a globally unstable state leading to a catastrophic change. The largest crash in the past decades is the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers which was followed by a trust-based crisis between banks due to high-risk trading in complex products. We introduce information dissipation length (IDL) as a leading indicator of global instability of dynamical systems based on the transmission of Shannon information, and apply it to the time series of USD and EUR interest rate swaps (IRS). We find in both markets that the IDL steadily increases toward the bankruptcy, then peaks at the time of bankruptcy, and decreases afterwards. Previously introduced indicators such as `critical slowing down' do not provide a clear leading indicator. Our results suggest that the IDL may be used as an early-warning signal for critical transitions even in the absence of a predictive model.

  16. Automated DNA sequence-based early warning system for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mellmann

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA usually requires the implementation of often rigorous infection-control measures. Prompt identification of an MRSA epidemic is crucial for the control of an outbreak. In this study we evaluated various early warning algorithms for the detection of an MRSA cluster. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 1998 and 2003, 557 non-replicate MRSA strains were collected from staff and patients admitted to a German tertiary-care university hospital. The repeat region of the S. aureus protein A (spa gene in each of these strains was sequenced. Using epidemiological and typing information for the period 1998-2002 as reference data, clusters in 2003 were determined by temporal-scan test statistics. Various early warning algorithms (frequency, clonal, and infection control professionals [ICP] alerts were tested in a prospective analysis for the year 2003. In addition, a newly implemented automated clonal alert system of the Ridom StaphType software was evaluated. A total of 549 of 557 MRSA were typeable using spa sequencing. When analyzed using scan test statistics, 42 out of 175 MRSA in 2003 formed 13 significant clusters (p < 0.05. These clusters were used as the "gold standard" to evaluate the various algorithms. Clonal alerts (spa typing and epidemiological data were 100% sensitive and 95.2% specific. Frequency (epidemiological data only and ICP alerts were 100% and 62.1% sensitive and 47.2% and 97.3% specific, respectively. The difference in specificity between clonal and ICP alerts was not significant. Both methods exhibited a positive predictive value above 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid MRSA outbreak detection, based on epidemiological and spa typing data, is a suitable alternative for classical approaches and can assist in the identification of potential sources of infection.

  17. The double whammy of a work handicap (differential) effects of health on working conditions and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbeek, Romy; Giesen, Femke B M; Ybema, Jan Fekke

    2009-08-01

    To determine the effect of health on working conditions and outcomes. Data were collected in the longitudinal Study on Health at Work (n = 1597 employees), using multiple regression analyses and focusing on three groups of employees: 1) healthy, 2) chronic health complaints without a work handicap, and 3) chronic health complaints with a work handicap. 1) Employees with a work handicap experienced less favorable working conditions and outcomes than other employees. 2) Employees with a work handicap experienced less favorable working conditions and outcomes over time. 3) Employees with chronic health complaints were more vulnerable to the influence of working conditions on outcomes, whereas employees with a work handicap, unexpectedly, benefited from high work pressure and low autonomy. 1) Employees with a work handicap differ considerably from employees with chronic health complaints. 2) Employees with a work handicap drift into less favorable working conditions and outcomes. 3) Healthy employees, employees with chronic health complaints, and employees with a work handicap, all are vulnerable to different working conditions.

  18. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral...

  19. The Construction of Early-warning Index System in Regional Circular Economy of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yanqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the model of early warning system for circular economy development system was studied, the early-warning system for circular economy provides a quantitative model to support the pollution control. Specifically, this paper built an early warning index system of regional circular economy, and put forward the measure model for the development of circular economy. In addition, this paper constructed prediction model of the circulation economy development. Finally, by the proposed early warning model, this paper analysed the circular economy of Henan province and targeted policy suggestions were put forward for the construction of circular economy of Henan province.

  20. Worse, Not Better?’ Reinvigorating Early Warning For Conflict Prevention In The Post Lisbon European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Franco, Chiara; Meyer, Christoph O.; Brante, John

    and slower responses due to growing information noise, excessively hierarchical relations as well as an even tighter bottleneck in information processing and decision-making at the top of the broader pyramidal structure. We argue that warning-response will always be a challenge and it is unrealistic to get......The number and lethality of conflicts has been declining significantly since the end of the Cold War, but five new armed conflicts still break out each year. While costly peace-making, stabilisation and reconstruction efforts have helped to end conflicts, no comparative efforts have gone...... embraced the case for conflict prevention in policy documents as well as in the Lisbon Treaty itself, making it a hallmark of its approach to international security and conflict in contrast to conventional foreign policy. Yet, it has fallen significantly short in translating these aspirations...

  1. Reactions to Graphic Health Warnings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Kamyab, Kian; Davis, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18-24…

  2. The PRESSCA operational early warning system for landslide forecasting: the 11-12 November 2013 rainfall event in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabatta, Luca; Brocca, Luca; Ponziani, Francesco; Berni, Nicola; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    The Umbria Region, located in Central Italy, is one of the most landslide risk prone area in Italy, almost yearly affected by landslides events at different spatial scales. For early warning procedures aimed at the assessment of the hydrogeological risk, the rainfall thresholds represent the main tool for the Italian Civil Protection System. As shown in previous studies, soil moisture plays a key-role in landslides triggering. In fact, acting on the pore water pressure, soil moisture influences the rainfall amount needed for activating a landslide. In this work, an operational physically-based early warning system, named PRESSCA, that takes into account soil moisture for the definition of rainfall thresholds is presented. Specifically, the soil moisture conditions are evaluated in PRESSCA by using a distributed soil water balance model that is recently coupled with near real-time satellite soil moisture product obtained from ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) and from in-situ monitoring data. The integration of three different sources of soil moisture information allows to estimate the most accurate possible soil moisture condition. Then, both observed and forecasted rainfall data are compared with the soil moisture-based thresholds in order to obtain risk indicators over a grid of ~ 5 km. These indicators are then used for the daily hydrogeological risk evaluation and management by the Civil Protection regional service, through the sharing/delivering of near real-time landslide risk scenarios (also through an open source web platform: www.cfumbria.it). On the 11th-12th November, 2013, Umbria Region was hit by an exceptional rainfall event with up to 430mm/72hours that resulted in significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties among the population. In this study, the results during the rainfall event of PRESSCA system are described, by underlining the model capability to reproduce, two days in advance, landslide risk scenarios in good spatial and temporal

  3. How does a collision warning system shape driver's brake response time? The influence of expectancy and automation complacency on real-life emergency braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Daniele; Ciceri, Maria Rita; Biassoni, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Brake Reaction Time (BRT) is an important parameter for road safety. Previous research has shown that drivers' expectations can impact RT when facing hazardous situations, but driving with advanced driver assistance systems, can change the way BRT are considered. The interaction with a collision warning system can help faster more efficient responses, but at the same time can require a monitoring task and evaluation process that may lead to automation complacency. The aims of the present study are to test in a real-life setting whether automation compliancy can be generated by a collision warning system and what component of expectancy can impact the different tasks involved in an assisted BRT process. More specifically four component of expectancy were investigated: presence/absence of anticipatory information, previous direct experience, reliability of the device, and predictability of the hazard determined by repeated use of the warning system. Results supply indication on perception time and mental elaboration of the collision warning system alerts. In particular reliable warning quickened the decision making process, misleading warnings generated automation complacency slowing visual search for hazard detection, lack of directed experienced slowed the overall response while unexpected failure of the device lead to inattentional blindness and potential pseudo-accidents with surprise obstacle intrusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Survey on Attitudes towards Accepting Regular Higher Education for the Youth with Visual Handicapped%视障青年对接受普通高等教育的态度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光华; 郭黎岩; 王峥

    2012-01-01

    To understand the attitude towards accepting Regular Higher Education of the youth with visual handicapped, questionnaires and interviews were used to study the 70 youth from Shenyang and Qingdao school for the visual handicapped. The results show as following, 1. The conflict between dream and reality restrict the subject choosing of youth with visual handicapped, more of them have to accept the subjects of Traditional Chinese Medicine or Music;2.Though most youth with visual handicapped confirm the significance of accepting regular higher education positively, they have little confidence to pass the examination, the factors affected their confidence is lacking of experience and information affording.%为了了解真正面临高考或就业选择的视障青年对于接受"普通高等教育"的态度和想法,我们采用问卷法、访谈法调查了沈阳盲校和青岛盲校的70名视力残疾青年,结果表明:1.在高等教育的专业选择上,现实的单一化与对未来职业的期望多元化之间的矛盾制约了更多的视障青年只能选择中医和音乐专业。2.尽管绝大部分视障青年积极地肯定了接受普通高等教育的重要意义,但是他们对于自己考上普通大学缺乏信心,客观的教育经验和充足的信息来源是影响其自信心的决定性因素。

  5. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  6. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  7. Self-Assessed Hearing Handicap in Older Adults with Poorer-than-Predicted Speech Recognition in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Mark A.; Matthews, Lois J.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Even older adults with relatively mild hearing loss report hearing handicap, suggesting that hearing handicap is not completely explained by reduced speech audibility. Method: We examined the extent to which self-assessed ratings of hearing handicap using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE; Ventry & Weinstein, 1982)…

  8. Self-Assessed Hearing Handicap in Older Adults with Poorer-than-Predicted Speech Recognition in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Mark A.; Matthews, Lois J.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Even older adults with relatively mild hearing loss report hearing handicap, suggesting that hearing handicap is not completely explained by reduced speech audibility. Method: We examined the extent to which self-assessed ratings of hearing handicap using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE; Ventry & Weinstein, 1982)…

  9. Lack of pregnancy warnings on over-the-counter dermatologic products containing potentially harmful hydroquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio, L L; Cies, J J

    2017-07-01

    To determine the presence of pregnancy warnings on over-the-counter (OTC) dermatologic products with hydroquinone, a potentially harmful ingredient. Data were obtained from the Food and Drug Administration National Drug Code Directory and Label Repository to identify OTC dermatologic products containing hydroquinone. Products were stratified based on pregnancy or general warning presence (WP) or absence (WA). Product characteristics were compared between groups: hydroquinone concentration, presence of external packaging, indication and warning statements. Of the 112 products studied, 21 had a pregnancy warning and 3 included a general warning against use: WP (n=24) and WA (n=88) group. External packaging was more prevalent in the WP group compared to WA (62.5% vs 29.5%, P=0.004). Majority of OTC dermatologic products containing hydroquinone did not have a pregnancy warning. This highlights the need for improved labeling and informs providers caring for pregnant women of OTC labeling limitations.

  10. Warning! fire in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Fabio; Iannuzzi, Michele; De Robertis, Edoardo; Piazza, Ornella; Servillo, Giuseppe; Tufano, Rosalba

    2014-06-01

    At 5:30 pm on December 17, 2010, shortly after a power failure, smoke filled the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Federico II University Hospital in Naples, Italy, triggering the hospital emergency alarm system. Immediately, staff began emergency procedures and alerted rescue teams. All patients were transferred without harm. The smoke caused pharyngeal and conjunctival irritation in some staff members. After a brief investigation, firefighters discovered the cause of the fire was a failure of the Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS).

  11. Capacity Building for Caribbean Tsunami Warnings: A Regional Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A.; Robertson, R.; Kong, L.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; McCreery, C.; Yamamoto, M.; Mooney, W. D.; Lynch, L.

    2007-12-01

    Between June 25 and June 30 the Seismic Research Unit (SRU) of the University of the West Indies (UWI) hosted a Caribbean regional training program in Seismology and Tsunami Warnings. A total of 43 participants from 21 countries and territories, representing meteorological, emergency management, and seismological institutions in the region, attended this training aimed at developing their understanding of the science of tsunamis, hazard and risk assessment, preparedness, education, and outreach, and operational best practices. As an outcome of the course the participants drafted six recommendations (outlined on the poster) that they felt were priority action items for expeditious realization of a Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System. The program was conducted under the UNESCO IOC banner in response to a call for such a training program at the Second Session of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS II), held in Cumanã, Venezuela, March 12-14, 2007. The majority of funding for the course was provided by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (ODFA) of the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Disaster Reduction Center of the UWI, and the US Geological Survey (USGS).

  12. Mobility of people and goods in the urban environment: mobility of the handicapped and elderly. Second year final report. [Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcocchio, J.; Santimataneedol, S.; Horwitz, L.; Stephanis, B.

    1976-09-01

    An evaluation methodology for the analysis of alternative transportation improvements for the handicapped and elderly is proposed. The approach is based on the ability to incorporate the qualitative attributes of transportation systems which are particularly significant to the handicapped and elderly groups. These attributes include comfort and convenience, security and safety, and accessibility. In addition, this study addresses the issues of demonstration projects planning and offers guidelines for the design of demonstration experiments which can produce results that are capable of objective analytical interpretation.

  13. The new Euskalmet coastal-maritime warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztelumendi, Santiago; Egaña, Joseba; Liria, Pedro; Gonzalez, Manuel; Aranda, José Antonio; Anitua, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    This work presents the main characteristics of the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) maritime-coastal risk warning system, with special emphasis on the latest updates, including a clear differentiation on specific warning messages addressing sea conditions for navigation purposes in the first 2 nautical miles, and expected coastal impacts. Some details of the warning bulletin for maritime and coastal risk situations are also presented, together with other communication products and strategies used in coastal and maritime severe episodes at the Basque coast. Today, three different aspects are included in the coastal-maritime risk warning system in Basque Country, related to the main potential severe events that affecting coastal activities. - "Galerna" risk relates to a sudden wind reversal that can severely affect coastal navigation and recreational activities. - "Navigation" risk relates to severe sea state conditions for 0-2 miles, affecting different navigation activities. - "Coastal impact" risk relates to adverse wave characteristics and tidal surges that induce flooding events and different impacts in littoral areas.

  14. 75 FR 69523 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... descriptive printed matter a brief statement of, among other things, the relevant warnings. Moreover, a.... Specifically, the new required warnings are designed to clearly and effectively convey the negative health... at p. 89; see also Ref. 19 at p. 158). Research has shown that some adolescents report symptoms of...

  15. Aurally Handicapped - Programs: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography, one in a series of over 50 similar listings related to handicapped and gifted children, contains 89 references selected from Exceptional Child Education Abstracts dealing with programs for the aurally handicapped. Bibliographic data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts are given for all…

  16. [Establishment of malaria early warning system in Jiangsu Province III effect of automatic early warning information system on the response of malaria elimination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ming; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Liu, Yao-Bao; Cao, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of automatic early warning information system on the response of malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province through the operation of the national automatic early warning system of infectious diseases. The malaria early warning information was collected from the automatic early warning information subsystem in the national information system for diseases control and prevention. Malaria early warning signals were analyzed from September 1 to December 31, 2012. The statistical analysis was conducted for the completion rates of case investigation within 3 days before and after the application of malaria early warning information system. Jiangsu Province received 85 mobile phone short messages (SMS) of malaria case from early warning system from September 1 to December 31, 2012. After judgments, 23 cases were deleted including 8 repeated cases and 15 cases that were excluded through the microscopy examination and epidemiological investigation by the confirmation of county CDC. From July to December in 2012, the monthly completion rates of case investigation within 3 days were 55.56%, 78.57%, 90.00%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The completion rates of case investigation within 3 days in July, August, September and October were significantly different by chi2 test ( chi2 = 10.66, P system. The malaria warning system from the national infectious diseases can effectively improve the response to malaria cases for primary CDC. It also plays an important role for the timely confirmation and diagnosis of malaria cases.

  17. Earthquake warning system for infrastructures : a scoping analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Nancy S.; O' Connor, Sharon L.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Fogleman, William E. (GRIT, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Vugrin, Eric D.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Brown, Theresa Jean

    2011-09-01

    This report provides the results of a scoping study evaluating the potential risk reduction value of a hypothetical, earthquake early-warning system. The study was based on an analysis of the actions that could be taken to reduce risks to population and infrastructures, how much time would be required to take each action and the potential consequences of false alarms given the nature of the action. The results of the scoping analysis indicate that risks could be reduced through improving existing event notification systems and individual responses to the notification; and production and utilization of more detailed risk maps for local planning. Detailed maps and training programs, based on existing knowledge of geologic conditions and processes, would reduce uncertainty in the consequence portion of the risk analysis. Uncertainties in the timing, magnitude and location of earthquakes and the potential impacts of false alarms will present major challenges to the value of an early-warning system.

  18. Landslide susceptibility and early warning model for shallow landslide in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ming; Wei, Lun-Wei; Chi, Chun-Chi; Chang, Kan-Tsun; Lee, Chyi-Tyi

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to development a regional susceptibility model and warning threshold as well as the establishment of early warning system in order to prevent and reduce the losses caused by rainfall-induced shallow landslides in Taiwan. For the purpose of practical application, Taiwan is divided into nearly 185,000 slope units. The susceptibility and warning threshold of each slope unit were analyzed as basic information for disaster prevention. The geological characteristics, mechanism and the occurrence time of landslides were recorded for more than 900 cases through field investigation and interview of residents in order to discuss the relationship between landslides and rainfall. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the landslide susceptibility and an I3-R24 rainfall threshold model was proposed for the early warning of landslides. The validations of recent landslide cases show that the model was suitable for the warning of regional shallow landslide and most of the cases can be warned 3 to 6 hours in advanced. We also propose a slope unit area weighted method to establish local rainfall threshold on landslide for vulnerable villages in order to improve the practical application. Validations of the local rainfall threshold also show a good agreement to the occurrence time reported by newspapers. Finally, a web based "Rainfall-induced Landslide Early Warning System" is built and connected to real-time radar rainfall data so that landslide real-time warning can be achieved. Keywords: landslide, susceptibility analysis, rainfall threshold

  19. Key Parameters Estimation and Adaptive Warning Strategy for Rear-End Collision of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rear-end collision warning system requires reliable warning decision mechanism to adapt the actual driving situation. To overcome the shortcomings of existing warning methods, an adaptive strategy is proposed to address the practical aspects of the collision warning problem. The proposed strategy is based on the parameter-adaptive and variable-threshold approaches. First, several key parameter estimation algorithms are developed to provide more accurate and reliable information for subsequent warning method. They include a two-stage algorithm which contains a Kalman filter and a Luenberger observer for relative acceleration estimation, a Bayesian theory-based algorithm of estimating the road friction coefficient, and an artificial neural network for estimating the driver’s reaction time. Further, the variable-threshold warning method is designed to achieve the global warning decision. In the method, the safety distance is employed to judge the dangerous state. The calculation method of the safety distance in this paper can be adaptively adjusted according to the different driving conditions of the leading vehicle. Due to the real-time estimation of the key parameters and the adaptive calculation of the warning threshold, the strategy can adapt to various road and driving conditions. Finally, the proposed strategy is evaluated through simulation and field tests. The experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  20. Tendency to self-handicapping in the situation of expected failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smederevac-Stokić Snežana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of this research is to determine what type of self-handicapping strategies subjects will use when they face potential failure, under the condition that they have the possibility of strategy choice. Another research objective is directed to the research of relation between the selected self-handicapping strategy and personality characteristics. 120 student of the second and third year of the Department of psychology, University of Novi Sad has been taken into sample. In the first research stage, all students administrated a series of personality self-report tests. In the second experiment stage, the participants were divided into four groups, on the basis of two criteria: the solvability of intelligence test tasks and the presence of hampering factors during task solving. The research results show that there are at least two types of self-handicapping strategies. One type is used by the majority of people when found in the situation where potential failure is expected. It refers to searching for alibis in external circumstances and it is probably the reflection of sound tendencies of facing possible consequences of information on one’s own incompetence. Another type of strategies presents consistent behaviour pattern, determined by the higher degree of adverse affectivity and negative image of oneself, and it is manifested in the use of poor psychophysical condition as the alibi for failure.

  1. Multi-Use Seismic Stations for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T.; Townsend, B.; Moores, A. O.; Bainbridge, G. S.; Easton, D.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning network performance improves with the number and density of sensing stations, quality of the sites, quality of strong-motion instrumentation, degree of coverage near at-risk populated areas and potential fault zones, and minimizing latency of signal processing and transmission. Seismic research tends to emphasize competing requirements: low-noise sites, high-performance broadband seismic instrumentation, and high-quality signal processing without regard for latency. Recent advances in instrumentation and processing techniques have made feasible the concept of a multi-use seismic station in which strong-motion and weak-motion seismometry are both cost-effectively served without compromising the performance demands of either. We present a concept for a multi-use seismic station that cost-effectively meets the needs of both earthquake early warning and high-quality seismic research. One significant enabler is a 6-channel dual-sensor instrument that combines a 120s broadband seismometer and a class A accelerometer in a single ultra-compact sonde suitable for direct burial. Combining two sensors into one effectively adds broadband capability to a station without increasing the already optimized site footprint, preparation and management costs associated with shallow direct-burial installations. The combined sensors also complement each other, simplifying and speeding installation (for example, the accelerometer provides real-time tilt readings useful to leveling the seismometer). Integration simplifies alignment to North, as there is only one instrument to orient. A dual-use 6-channel digitizer simultaneously provides two sets of independently processed streams from both sensors, one set optimized for low-latency earthquake warning, and the other set for high quality seismic research purposes. Such a dual-use seismic station can serve both seismic research and civil warning infrastructure objectives without adding significantly to the cost of a

  2. Regional Integrated Meteorological Forecasting and Warning Model for Geological Hazards Based on Logistic Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing; YANG Chi; ZHANG Guoping

    2007-01-01

    Information model is adopted to integrate factors of various geosciences to estimate the susceptibility of geological hazards. Further combining the dynamic rainfall observations, Logistic regression is used for modeling the probabilities of geological hazard occurrences, upon which hierarchical warnings for rainfall-induced geological hazards are produced. The forecasting and warning model takes numerical precipitation forecasts on grid points as its dynamic input, forecasts the probabilities of geological hazard occurrences on the same grid, and translates the results into likelihoods in the form of a 5-level hierarchy. Validation of the model with observational data for the year 2004 shows that 80% of the geological hazards of the year have been identified as "likely enough to release warning messages". The model can satisfy the requirements of an operational warning system, thus is an effective way to improve the meteorological warnings for geological hazards.

  3. 白城市下岗残疾人再就业问题的思考%The Consideration on the Handicapped Reemployment in Baicheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静波

    2012-01-01

    Caring for the handicapped is an important symbol for civilization and progress of the society.The handicapped,a disadvantaged group with special difficulties,need special support from the whole society.The supply and demand for employment of the handicapped is significantly imbalanced in the new era,social security and medical security are short,and the society is not enthusiastic enough for undertakings of the handicapped,so the whole society shall further create a dense atmosphere of helping the handicapped,and make efforts to solve the social security problem of the handicapped,intensify occupational skill training for the handicapped,expand the employment information channel of the handicapped,strengthen the incentive system,and develop undertakings of the handicapped and economy in harmony.%关心残疾人是社会文明进步的重要标志。新时期残疾人就业问题凸显,表现在缺少社会保障和医疗保障,社会对残疾人事业的热心不够等。全社会要进一步营造"扶残助残"的浓厚氛围,着力解决残疾人社会保障问题,加强残疾人职业技能培训,拓宽残疾人就业信息渠道,增强激励机制,推进残疾人事业与经济社会协调发展,

  4. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities’ preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities’ capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  5. Reliability and validity of the Dutch pediatric Voice Handicap Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veder, Laura; Pullens, Bas; Timmerman, Marieke; Hoeve, Hans; Joosten, Koen; Hakkesteegt, Marieke

    2017-05-01

    The pediatric voice handicap index (pVHI) has been developed to provide a better insight into the parents' perception of their child's voice related quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to validate the Dutch pVHI by evaluating its internal consistency and reliability. Furthermore, we determined the optimal cut-off point for a normal pVHI score. All items of the English pVHI were translated into Dutch. Parents of children in our dysphonic and control group were asked to fill out the questionnaire. For the test re-test analysis we used a different study group who filled out the pVHI twice as part of a large follow up study. Internal consistency was analyzed through Cronbach's α coefficient. The test-retest reliability was assessed by determining Pearson's correlation coefficient. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the scores of the questionnaire of the control group with the dysphonic group. By calculating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity and specificity we were able to set a cut-off point. We obtained data from 122 asymptomatic children and from 79 dysphonic children. The scores of the questionnaire significantly differed between both groups. The internal consistency showed an overall Cronbach α coefficient of 0.96 and an excellent test-retest reliability of the total pVHI questionnaire with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.90. A cut-off point for the total pVHI questionnaire was set at 7 points with a specificity of 85% and sensitivity of 100%. A cut-off point for the VAS score was set at 13 with a specificity of 93% and sensitivity of 97%. The Dutch pVHI is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of children with voice problems. By setting a cut-off point for the score of the total pVHI questionnaire of 7 points and the VAS score of 13, the pVHI might be used as a screening tool to assess dysphonic complaints and the pVHI might be a useful and complementary tool to identify children with dysphonia

  6. A spelling device for the paralysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbaumer, N.; Ghanayim, N.; Hinterberger, T.; Iversen, I.; Kotchoubey, B.; Kübler, A.; Perelmouter, J.; Taub, E.; Flor, H.

    1999-03-01

    When Jean-Dominique Bauby suffered from a cortico-subcortical stroke that led to complete paralysis with totally intact sensory and cognitive functions, he described his experience in The Diving-Bell and the Butterfly as ``something like a giant invisible diving-bell holds my whole body prisoner''. This horrifying condition also occurs as a consequence of a progressive neurological disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which involves progressive degeneration of all the motor neurons of the somatic motor system. These `locked-in' patients ultimately become unable to express themselves and to communicate even their most basic wishes or desires, as they can no longer control their muscles to activate communication devices. We have developed a new means of communication for the completely paralysed that uses slow cortical potentials (SCPs) of the electro-encephalogram to drive an electronic spelling device.

  7. A research on the anxiety levels of parents who have mentally handicapped children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Avşaroğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal Tablo"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} In this research, it is aimed to specify the anxiety levels of parents who have mentally handicapped children. For this purpose, the state anxiety levels of parents with mentally handicapped children that the parents will have when they spend time with their children in social environments (visiting neighbours, shopping centres, restaurants and communication in terms of reactions and the anxiety levels they always have are studied. In this study Spielberger’s “Trait-state Anxiety Inventory” and the Identity Survey developed by the researchers are used as data gathering devices. 264 mothers and 51 fathers, totally 315 parents, whose children attend a special education institution in Meram, Karatay and Selçuklu, the central districts of Konya, and Akşehir, Yunak, Ilgın, Doğanhisar and Kadınhanı, districts of Konya, form the sample of this study. According to the findings, it is seen that, state and trait anxiety levels of mothers are significantly higher than fathers’. In relation to the levels of education, there is a significant differentiation in level of state anxiety whereas there is not a significant difference in trait anxiety levels, in relation to the levels of income, there is a

  8. Desire versus efficacy in smokers' paradoxical reactions to pictorial health warnings for cigarettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Romer

    Full Text Available Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs create aversive emotional reactions to smoking and induce thoughts about quitting; however, contrary to models of health behavior change, they do not appear to alter intentions to quit smoking. We propose and test a novel model of intention to quit an addictive habit such as smoking (the efficacy-desire model that can explain this paradoxical effect. At the core of the model is the prediction that self-efficacy and desire to quit an addictive habit are inversely related. We tested the model in an online experiment that randomly exposed smokers (N = 3297 to a cigarette pack with one of three increasing levels of warning intensity. The results supported the model's prediction that despite the effects of warnings on aversion to smoking, intention to quit smoking is an inverted U-shape function of the smoker's self-efficacy for quitting. In addition, smokers with greater (lesser quit efficacy relative to smoking efficacy increase (decrease intentions to quit. The findings show that previous failures to observe effects of pictorial warning labels on quit intentions can be explained by the contradictory individual differences that warnings produce. Thus, the model explains the paradoxical finding that quit intentions do not change at the population level, even though smokers recognize the implications of warnings. The model suggests that pictorial warnings are effective for smokers with stronger quit-efficacy beliefs and provides guidance for how cigarette warnings and tobacco control strategies can be designed to help smokers quit.

  9. Early-Warning Signals for the onsets of Greenland Interstadials and the Younger Dryas-Preboreal transition

    CERN Document Server

    Rypdal, M

    2015-01-01

    The high-frequency band of the $\\delta^{18}\\mbox{O}$ variations in the North Greenland Ice Core Project displays fluctuation levels that increase as one approaches the onset of an interstadial (warm) period. For some of the events it is possible to establish statistical significance using Monte-Carlo simulations with a non-parametric null model with random phases and the same spectral density as the $\\delta^{18}\\mbox{O}$ record during the stadial periods. Similar results are found for the locally estimated Hurst exponent for the high-frequency fluctuations, and it is therefore natural to interpret these findings as so-called "critical slowing down" signatures, i.e. early-warning signs of tipping points. The observed "slowing down" is found to be similar (and perhaps even stronger) in the Younger Dryas, suggesting that there are some similarities between mechanisms of the Younger Dryas-Preboreal transition and the onsets of the Greenland interstadials. It is also verified that the temperature fluctuations duri...

  10. Calcineurin activity in children with Mental handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindu, L Hema; Rani, P Usha; Reddy, P P

    2007-09-01

    Calcineurin, a Ca(2+)-Calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase, is important for Ca(2+) mediated signal transduction. The main objective of this study was to examine the potential role of calcineurin in idiopathic mental handicap. Calcineurin levels were estimated in 20 children in the age group of 5-16 years with idiopathic mental handicap attending the Special. Education Centre for the Mentally Handicapped in Hyderabad. The results of the present study showed decreased activity of serum calcineurin in children with idiopathic mental handicap compared to those of normal subjects in the same age group. The observations thus suggest impaired calcineurin activity in children with mental handicap. Calcineurin that is involved in biosynthesis and release of neurotransmitters at the synaptic terminal brain is affected thereby causing brain damage and leading to mental handicap. Impaired calcineurin activity was already indicated in many human diseases such as Down's syndrome, Alzheimers, Brain ischemia, cardiac hypertrophy etc. It is therefore necessary to check the calcineurin levels in children with mental handicap to understand the role of calcineurin in the causation of Mental handicap.

  11. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  12. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  13. [Research of early-warning method for regional groundwater pollution based on risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-Ping; Wang, Ye-Yao; Guo, Yong-Li; Zhou, You-Ya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in China, and China's overall situation of groundwater pollution is not optimistic at present. Groundwater pollution risk evaluation and early-warning are the effective measures to prevent groundwater pollution. At present, research of groundwater early-warning method at home and abroad is still at the exploratory stage, and the sophisticated technology has not been developed for reference. This paper briefly described the data and technological demand of the early-warning method in different scales, and the main factors influencing the early-warning results of groundwater pollution were classified as protection performance of geological medium, characteristics of pollution sources, groundwater dynamics and groundwater value. Then the main early-warning indexes of groundwater pollution were screened to establish the early-warning model of regional or watershed scale by the index overlay method. At last, the established early-warning model was used in Baotou plain, and the different early-warning grades were zoned by the model. The research results could provide scientific support for the local management department to protect the groundwater resources.

  14. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, T.; Pandoe, W.; Mudita, I.; Roemer, S.; Illigner, J.; Zech, C.; Galas, R.

    2011-03-01

    On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements. The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (Rudloff et al., 2009) combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP) measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information. The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  15. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements.

    The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009 combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information.

    The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  16. Consensus Report of the XI Congress of the Spanish Society of Odontology for the Handicapped and Special Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Machuca Portillo, Guillermo; Cabrerizo Merino, María del Carmen; Cutando Soriano, Antonio; Giménez Prats, María José; Silvestre Donat, Francisco Javier; Tomás Carmona, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of consensus of the XI congress of the SEOEME. All of these conclusions are referring to the review articles responsible to the general rapporteurs in order to bringing up to date knowledge with regard to the use of implants in patients medically compromised and with special needs and, in the dental management of autism and cerebral palsy, in the dental treatment of patients with genetic and adquired haematological disorders, the dental implications of car...

  17. Consensus report of the XI Congress of the Spanish Society of Odontology for the handicapped and special patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca-Portillo, Guillermo; Cabrerizo-Merino, Carmen; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio; Giménez-Prats, María-José; Silvestre-Donat, Farncisco-Javier; Tomás-Carmona, Inmaculada

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes the findings of consensus of the XI congress of the SEOEME. All of these conclusions are referring to the review articles responsible to the general rapporteurs in order to bringing up to date knowledge with regard to the use of implants in patients medically compromised and with special needs and, in the dental management of autism and cerebral palsy, in the dental treatment of patients with genetic and adquired haematological disorders, the dental implications of cardiovascular disease and hospital dentistry.

  18. NEA Mitigation Studies for Short Warning Time Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent; Syal, Megan Bruck; Gisler, Galen

    2016-01-01

    This talk describes current collaborative research efforts between NASA GSFC and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) national labs (Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia) to design systems and frameworks for robust responses to short warning time near-Earth asteroid (NEA) scenarios, in which we would have less than 10 years to respond to an NEA on its way to impact the Earth.

  19. Early warnings and missed alarms for abrupt monsoon transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Z. A. Thomas; Kwasniok, F.; C. A. Boulton; Cox, P.M.; Jones, R. T.; Lenton, T. M.; C. S. M. Turney

    2015-01-01

    Palaeo-records from China demonstrate that the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) is dominated by abrupt and large magnitude monsoon shifts on millennial timescales, switching between periods of high and weak monsoon rains. It has been hypothesized that over these timescales, the EASM exhibits two stable states with bifurcation-type tipping points between them. Here we test this hypothesis by looking for early warning signals of past bifurcations in speleothem δ18O records fro...

  20. Utility of a brief assessment tool developed from the Dizziness Handicap Inventory to screen for Cervicogenic dizziness: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Susan A; Callister, Robin; Katekar, Michael G; Treleaven, Julia M

    2017-08-01

    Cervicogenic dizziness (CGD) is hard to diagnose as there is no objective test. Can a brief assessment tool be derived from the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) to assist in screening for CGD? Case-control study with split-sample analysis. 86 people with CGD and 86 people with general dizziness completed the DHI as part of the assessment of their dizziness. Descriptive statistics were used to assess how frequently each question on the DHI was answered 'yes' or 'sometimes' by participants with CGD and by participants with general dizziness. The questions that best discriminated between GCD and general dizziness were compiled into a brief assessment tool for CGD. Data from 80 participants (40 from each group) were used to generate a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to establish a cut-off score for that brief assessment tool. Then, data from the remaining 92 participants were used to try to validate the diagnostic ability of the brief assessment tool using that cut-off score. Questions 1, 9 and 11 were the most discriminatory and were combined to form the brief assessment tool. The ROC curve indicated an optimal threshold of 9. The diagnostic ability of the brief assessment tool among the remaining 46 participants from each group was: sensitivity 77% (95% CI: 67 to 84), specificity 66% (56-75), positive likelihood ratio 2.28 (1.66-3.13), and negative likelihood ratio 0.35 (0.23-0.53). A brief assessment tool of three questions appears to be helpful in screening for CGD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A Microseismic Method for Dynamic Warning of Rockburst Development Processes in Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guang-Liang; Feng, Xia-Ting; Chen, Bing-rui; Xiao, Ya-Xun; Yu, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Early warning of rockbursts remains a worldwide challenge in rock engineering. In this work, a microseismicity-based method of rockburst warning in tunnels is proposed to warn of and reduce the risk of rockburst. The method uses real-time microseismic data and an established rockburst warning formula to provide dynamic warning of rockburst risk during excavation of a tunnel. The establishment of the rockburst warning formula involves several key parts. These include a rockburst database, selection of typical rockburst cases, functional relationships between microseismicity and rockbursts, optimal weighting coefficients, and dynamic updating. By using the proposed method, the probability of strain and strain-structure slip rockbursts of different intensity (extremely intense, intense, moderate, slight, and none) can be warned of in real time. The method has been successfully applied to rockburst warning in deeply buried tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower project (about 11.6 km in total for D & B tunnels). This success illustrates the applicability of the proposed method. In addition, it is found that during the rockburst development process, the microseismic eigenvalues for strainbursts are bigger than in strain-structure slip rockbursts of the same intensity.

  2. Early warnings and missed alarms for abrupt monsoon transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Z. A.; Kwasniok, F.; Boulton, C. A.; Cox, P. M.; Jones, R. T.; Lenton, T. M.; Turney, C. S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Palaeo-records from China demonstrate that the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) is dominated by abrupt and large magnitude monsoon shifts on millennial timescales, switching between periods of high and weak monsoon rains. It has been hypothesized that over these timescales, the EASM exhibits two stable states with bifurcation-type tipping points between them. Here we test this hypothesis by looking for early warning signals of past bifurcations in speleothem δ18O records from Sanbao Cave and Hulu Cave, China, spanning the penultimate glacial cycle. We find that although there are increases in both autocorrelation and variance preceding some of the monsoon transitions during this period, it is only immediately prior to the abrupt monsoon shift at the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II) that statistically significant increases are detected. To supplement our data analysis, we produce and analyse multiple model simulations that we derive from these data. We find hysteresis behaviour in our model simulations with transitions directly forced by solar insolation. However, signals of critical slowing down, which occur on the approach to a bifurcation, are only detectable in the model simulations when the change in system stability is sufficiently slow to be detected by the sampling resolution of the data set. This raises the possibility that the early warning "alarms" were missed in the speleothem data over the period 224-150 kyr and it was only at the monsoon termination that the change in the system stability was sufficiently slow to detect early warning signals.

  3. Developing an automatic classification system of vegetation anomalies for early warning with the ASAP (Anomaly hot Spots of Agricultural Production) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, M.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Lemoine, G.

    2016-12-01

    Anomaly maps and time profiles of remote sensing derived indicators relevant to monitor crop and vegetation stress can be accessed online thanks to a rapidly growing number of web based portals. However, timely and systematic global analysis and coherent interpretation of such information, as it is needed for example for SDG 2 related monitoring, remains challenging. With the ASAP system (Anomaly hot Spots of Agricultural Production) we propose a two-step analysis to provide monthly warning of production deficits in water-limited agriculture worldwide. The first step is fully automated and aims at classifying each administrative unit (1st sub-national level) into a number of possible warning levels, ranging from "none" to "watch" and up to "extended alarm". The second step involves the verification of the automatic warnings and integration into a short national level analysis by agricultural analysts. In this paper we describe the methodological development of the automatic vegetation anomaly classification system. Warnings are triggered only during the crop growing season, defined by a remote sensing based phenology. The classification takes into consideration the fraction of the agricultural and rangelands area for each administrative unit that is affected by a severe anomaly of two rainfall-based indicators (the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), computed at 1 and 3-month scale) and one biophysical indicator (the cumulative NDVI from the start of the growing season). The severity of the warning thus depends on the timing, the nature and the number of indicators for which an anomaly is detected. The prototype system is using global NDVI images of the METOP sensor, while a second version is being developed based on 1km Modis NDVI with temporal smoothing and near real time filtering. Also a specific water balance model is under development to include agriculture water stress information in addition to the SPI. The monthly warning classification and crop

  4. Early Warning Models for Systemic Banking Crises in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Asanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to create an adequate early warning model for systemic banking crises in Montenegro. The probability of banking crisis occurrence is calculated using discrete dependent variable models, more precisely, estimating logit regression. Afterwards, seven simple logit regressions that individually have two explanatory variables are estimated. Adequate weights have been assigned to all seven regressions using the technique of Bayesian model averaging. The advantage of this technique is that it takes into account the model uncertainty by considering various combinations of models in order to minimize the author’s subjective judgment when determining reliable early warning indicators. The results of Bayesian model averaging largely coincide with the results of a previously estimated dynamic logit model. Indicators of credit expansion, thanks to their performances, have a dominant role in early warning models for systemic banking crises in Montenegro. The results have also shown that the Montenegrin banking system is significantly exposed to trends on the global level.

  5. Long Term Analysis for the BAM device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, D.; Gardiol, D.

    2011-02-01

    Algorithms aimed at the evaluation of critical quantities are based on models with many parameters, which values are estimated from data. The knowledge, with high accuracy, of these values and the control of their temporal evolution are important features. In this work, we focus on the latter subject, and we show a proposed pipeline for the BAM (Basic Angle Monitoring) Long Term Analysis, aimed at the study of the calibration parameters of the BAM device and of the Basic Angle variation, searching for unwanted trends, cyclic features, or other potential unexpected behaviours.

  6. Warning systems and public warning response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

  7. Development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for Disaster Early Warning and Mitigation in the Ecowas Subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, L. A.; Keita, M. S.; Akinyede, J. O.; Kufoniyi, O.; Erin, G.

    2015-08-01

    The West Africa Sub-region has been crisis and disaster ridden in recent times with enormous challenges for disaster mitigation. The crisis/disasters range from conflicts fuelled by political upheaval to epidemics that take their tolls on the population of some countries in the sub-region. The crisis and disaster events have overwhelming magnitudes and are highly dynamic, requiring a well-articulated plan for immediate response in order to mitigate their effects. A study carried out by the Early Warning Directorate (EWD) of the Economic Commission of West African States (ECOWAS) highlighted the risks and vulnerabilities of the region despite the considerable progress made in development and peace consolidation in some parts of the region. The study identified apparent institutional and infrastructural deficiencies, such as the lack of up-to-date geospatial data and information, and inadequate platforms for data gathering and data sharing among the relevant national agencies, which have made much of the region particularly vulnerable to the emerging threats. It is against the foregoing that the development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for EWD and the ECOWAS is being proposed. In addition to the resolution of the crucial need of reliable geospatial data capacity of member states, this initiative will spearhead the realisation of a Geospatial Data Infrastructure for ECOWAS Commission, through the appropriate policy formulation and implementation. Through the proper implementation of the Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services, ECOWAS will have the capacity to provide geospatial analysis and mapping support focusing on areas related to conflict prevention and resolution, regional planning for food security, early warning of viral diseases and epidemics, disaster preparedness, mitigation and response, infrastructural development and refugee resettlement, and a host of other vital projects/programmes for promoting ECOWAS regional integration

  8. Water-related fixtures specially designed for the elderly and the handicapped; Koreisha shogaisha wo hairyoshita mizumawari setsubi kiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuguchi, R. [Toto Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2000-01-05

    Thanks to the energetic practice for 'New Gold Plan' made by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, various institutions such as 'Special nursing homes', 'Senior health centers' and 'Sickbeds for medical treatment' have been established. Even after the introduction of 'Public Nursing Insurance' in 2000, the special policy tentatively named 'Super Gold Plan' will be practiced, and we are going to have more complete institutions of such kind in the near future. We have been seeing the remarkable improvement of medical institutions recently, and it is said that the innovation of water-related fixtures has been taking a great part in their improvement. Then, this time, we would like to introduce the latest trends on water-related fixtures specially designed for medical institutions. (author)

  9. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D,

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide NRT forest change products refreshed every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which

  10. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide near real time forest change products every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which

  11. The Failure of Legalization in Education: Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Steven S.

    1989-01-01

    A federal statute provided that parents may use the judicial process to challenge educators' decisions. Describes the intent of legalization; how reaction to an adversarial system led to the use of mediation in most states; and why this alternative model is not appropriate for resolving education questions. (MLF)

  12. Neural network strategies for issuing flood warning alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahart, R.; Dawson, C.; See, L.; Wilby, R.

    2003-04-01

    Most neural network hydrological forecasting involves modelling standard combinations of traditional rainfall-runoff variables in a supervised learning environment. These computational solutions have to date produced reasonable approximations but various problems still exist in the manner of input and output data inadequacies and weak deterministic hydrological relationships. The supervised learning model also puts an arduous burden on the instructor mechanism which requires a comprehensive set of meaningful real-world input-output situations. It is argued that the information content on either side of the equation must be modified if such tools are to achieve improved performance and that alternative relationships might be used to build superior modelling solutions e.g. to predict Fourier Series Parameters instead of Measured Hydrological Variables. This paper thus compares alternative strategies that can be used to deliver neural network flood warning alerts based on a six-hour forecasting horizon for the River Ouse in Yorkshire - a river that experiences major floods. The first solution uses a standard neural network modelling procedure to predict river level outputs which are then classified into four flood alert codes: ALL CLEAR; FLOOD WATCH; FLOOD WARNING; SEVERE FLOOD WARNING. The other solutions use identical data inputs to predict a simpler output function that is easier to learn; comprising the four individual event codes modelled as a set of categorical entities. The non-standard approaches that are considered consist of: [i] single-winner, [ii] thermometer method and [iii] a self-organising map.

  13. [The quality of integration and care in workshops for the handicapped--The path to TQM in the workshops of the Gemeinschaftswerks fu"r Be- hinderte GmbH, Landstuhl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, B; Seyl, K H

    1999-02-01

    Workshops for the Handicapped are exposed, as are other providers of social services, to powerful changes in social and economic conditions. Legal obligations (e.g. under the Federal Social Assistance Act BSHG), increasing customer demands and stronger competition make the ability to change a prerequisite, so that the quality and cost of providing services to the handicapped become a central theme. These changes in conditions have led the Gemeinschftswerk für Behinderte GmbH, Landstuhl, to intensively consider the themes Quality and Total Quality Management (TQM). The efforts to introduce TQM were concentrated initially on the DIN EN ISO 9000 certification of the production processes in the workshops. Currently, the themes of Integration and Care were examined. After the central processes had been identified the performance descriptions of system, structure, process, result, and steering committee were extended by process diagrams and responsibility matrixes. This paper describes the path that workshops of the Gemeinschaftswerk für Behinderte GmbH have taken towards TQM, with emphasis on presentation of the themes regarding quality of Integration and Care.

  14. Psychological distress longitudinally mediates the effect of vertigo symptoms on vertigo-related handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Thomas; Dinkel, Andreas; Schmid-Mühlbauer, Gabriele; Radziej, Katharina; Limburg, Karina; Pieh, Christoph; Lahmann, Claas

    2017-02-01

    Vertigo symptoms can lead to more or less vertigo-related handicap. This longitudinal study investigated whether depression, anxiety, and/or somatization mediate the relationship between vertigo symptoms and vertigo-related handicap. N=111 patients with vertigo/dizziness provided complete data on the following measures: Vertigo symptoms at baseline, depression at 6-month follow-up, anxiety at 6-month follow-up, somatization at 6-month follow-up, and vertigo handicap at 12-month follow-up. Mediation analyses with bootstrapping were performed to investigate the mediating role of anxiety, depression, and somatization in the relationship between vertigo symptoms and vertigo-related handicap. When the mediating role of anxiety, depression, and somatization was evaluated separately from each other in single mediation models, the effect vertigo symptoms at baseline exerted on vertigo-related handicap at 12-month follow-up was significantly mediated by depression at 6-month follow-up (pvertigo symptoms at baseline on vertigo-related handicap at 12-month follow-up (pvertigo symptoms lead to vertigo-related handicap. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. GEOFON, GITEWS and the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanka, W.; Saul, J.; Hoffmann, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    After the Mw=9.3 Sumatra earthquake of December 26, 2004, which generated a tsunami that affected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230,000 fatalities, the German government funded the German Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project. The GEOFON group of GFZ Potsdam was nominated to develop and implement the seismological component of the GITEWS system. This poster presentation describes the concept of the GITEWS Earthquake Monitoring System (EMS) and reports on its present status and progress of implementation. The major challenge for an EMS within a tsunami warning system is to determine earthquake source parameters in terms of location, size and possibly rupture propagation as quickly as possible, in order to allow counter measures before a potential tsunami may hit coastal areas. Tsunamigenic earthquakes usually occur along subduction zones, which are often close to coastal lines. In the Indian Ocean this is particularly true for the Sunda Trench off the shore of Indonesia and the Macran subduction zone off the shore of Iran. For an Indian Ocean monitoring system where short warning times are a requirement, a dense real-time network of seismic stations in Indonesia is therefore essential. It must be supplemented by a substantial number of stations in other countries surrounding the Indian Ocean. International cooperation and real-time data exchange across political boundaries are essential for successful tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean region. Within the GITEWS project, up to 40 new broadband and strong motion stations are being installed in the Indian Ocean region until 2010. Up to 22 new stations are set up in Indonesia and another 18 stations distributed over Sri Lanka, Maldives, Yemen, Kenya, Tanzania, Madagascar and Israel. Real-time communication is provided by private VSAT communication systems. Another challenging task within the GITEWS project is the design and implementation of efficient and fast acquisition

  16. Operational tsunami warning: A search for the ad hoc source parameters of rapid/normal/slow sources for tsunami forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Dominique; Jamelot, Anthony; Hyvernaud, Olivier; Rivera, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Tsunami modeling involves, as the first requirement, a realistic estimation of the initial coseismic displacement field; in the tsunami warning context, this latter is essentially calculated using Okada, 1992 formulae, that depend on the source dimensions, the focal geometry, the focal depth, and the medium rigidity. While the focal geometry and depth are routinely estimated from inversions of the seismic data, the source dimensions and the coseismic slip are the worst unknowns, because they are entirely lying on scaling and similarities laws between seismic moment and aspect ratio of the source. Our approach will use supplementary parameters given by source duration and its slowness parameter to infer abnormal rupture velocity, and consequently an abnormal rigidity modulus and fault length: a better estimation of the couple (µ, L) will lead to a better estimation of the coseimic slip. Numerical models of the tsunamis generated by the known and well identified slow/rapid sources will be compared to the available observations, showing the importance to take the slowness of the source into account during tsunami warning context.

  17. New devices for the bariatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debergh, Isabelle; Snauwaert, Christophe; Dillemans, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, the global prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically. This generates enormous costs for the health care system, since obesity is associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, coronary heart diseases, stroke, dyslipidemia, psychological problems, and cancer. Bariatric surgery has demonstrated to be the most effective and durable treatment option in the morbidly obese patient. Despite its evidence based efficacy, less than 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. The role of new, less-invasive devices for the bariatric patient needs to be defined. Are they situated in the gap between lifestyle modification and surgery for the obese patient, in the preoperative work-up of the super-obese patient, in patient groups that are currently excluded for surgery, and/or in the routine treatment of obesity as a chronic disease? This review will focus on emerging technologies for the bariatric patient that are currently in clinical practice or in an advanced development stage, with different modes of action: inducing stretch on the gastric wall (space-occupying or stitching devices), vagal neuromodulation, altering the absorption, or exclusion of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Exploring the evidence and the indication of different therapeutic approaches and innovations will be an interesting field of research in the near future.

  18. Design controls for the medical device industry

    CERN Document Server

    Teixeira, Marie B

    2013-01-01

    The second edition of a bestseller, Design Controls for the Medical Device Industry provides a comprehensive review of the latest design control requirements, as well as proven tools and techniques to ensure your company's design control program evolves in accordance with current industry practice. The text assists in the development of an effective design control program that not only satisfies the US FDA Quality System Regulation (QSR) and ISO 9001 and 13485 standards, but also meets today's third-party auditor/investigator expectations and saves you valuable time and money.The author's cont

  19. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at

  20. The potential of radar-based ensemble forecasts for flash-flood early warning in the southern Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Liechti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the limits of radar-based forecasting for hydrological runoff prediction. Two novel radar-based ensemble forecasting chains for flash-flood early warning are investigated in three catchments in the southern Swiss Alps and set in relation to deterministic discharge forecasts for the same catchments. The first radar-based ensemble forecasting chain is driven by NORA (Nowcasting of Orographic Rainfall by means of Analogues, an analogue-based heuristic nowcasting system to predict orographic rainfall for the following eight hours. The second ensemble forecasting system evaluated is REAL-C2, where the numerical weather prediction COSMO-2 is initialised with 25 different initial conditions derived from a four-day nowcast with the radar ensemble REAL. Additionally, three deterministic forecasting chains were analysed. The performance of these five flash-flood forecasting systems was analysed for 1389 h between June 2007 and December 2010 for which NORA forecasts were issued, due to the presence of orographic forcing. A clear preference was found for the ensemble approach. Discharge forecasts perform better when forced by NORA and REAL-C2 rather then by deterministic weather radar data. Moreover, it was observed that using an ensemble of initial conditions at the forecast initialisation, as in REAL-C2, significantly improved the forecast skill. These forecasts also perform better then forecasts forced by ensemble rainfall forecasts (NORA initialised form a single initial condition of the hydrological model. Thus the best results were obtained with the REAL-C2 forecasting chain. However, for regions where REAL cannot be produced, NORA might be an option for forecasting events triggered by orographic precipitation.

  1. Evidence Considerations for Mobile Devices in the Occupational Therapy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Erickson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile app-based device utilization, including smartphones and handheld tablets, suggests a need to evaluate evidence to guide selection and implementation of these devices in the occupational therapy process. The purpose of the research was to explore the current body of evidence in relation to mobile app-based devices and to identify factors in the use of these devices throughout the occupational therapy process. Following review of available occupational therapy profession guidelines, assistive technology literature, and available mobile device research, practitioners using mobile app-based devices in occupational therapy should consider three areas: client needs, practitioner competence, and device factors. The purpose of this guideline is to identify factors in the selection and use of mobile app-based devices throughout the occupational therapy process based on available evidence. Considerations for mobile device implementation during the occupational therapy process is addressed, including evaluating outcomes needs, matching device with the client, and identifying support needs of the client.

  2. Predicting the macroseismic intensity from early radiated P wave energy for on-site earthquake early warning in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondi, P.; Picozzi, M.; Emolo, A.; Zollo, A.; Mucciarelli, M.

    2015-10-01

    Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) are potentially effective tools for risk mitigation in active seismic regions. The present study explores the possibility of predicting the macroseismic intensity within EEW timeframes using the squared velocity integral (IV2) measured on the early P wave signals, a proxy for the P wave radiated energy of earthquakes. This study shows that IV2 correlates better than the peak displacement measured on P waves with both the peak ground velocity and the Housner Intensity, with the latter being recognized by engineers as a reliable proxy for damage assessment. Therefore, using the strong motion recordings of the Italian Accelerometric Archive, a novel relationship between the parameter IV2 and the macroseismic intensity (IM) has been derived. The validity of this relationship has been assessed using the strong motion recordings of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Strong Motion Data and Osservatorio Sismico delle Strutture databases, as well as, in the case of the MW 6, 29 May 2012 Emilia earthquake (Italy), comparing the predicted intensities with the ones observed after a macroseismic survey. Our results indicate that P wave IV2 can become a key parameter for the design of on-site EEWS, capable of proving real-time predictions of the IM at target sites.

  3. You Should be Dancin:! The Role of Performing Arts in the Lives of the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Mary Dean

    The manual presents a program planning framework and teaching units for teaching dance and movement to severely and profoundly handicapped individuals. The planning framework contains four components: (1) aesthetic perception/multisensory integration; (2) creative expression; (3) dance heritage/historical and cultural; and (4) aesthetic…

  4. Tornado Warning Perception and Response: Integrating the Roles of Visual Design, Demographics, and Hazard Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ronald L; Ash, Kevin D; Bowser, Gregg C

    2017-06-30

    Recent advancements in severe weather detection and warning dissemination technologies have reduced, but not eliminated, large-casualty tornado hazards in the United States. Research on warning cognition and behavioral response by the public has the potential to further reduce tornado-related deaths and injuries; however, less research has been conducted in this area compared to tornado research in the physical sciences. Extant research in this vein tends to bifurcate. One branch of studies derives from classic risk perception, which investigates cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors in relation to concern and preparation for uncertain risks. Another branch focuses on psychological, social, and cultural factors implicated in warning response for rapid onset hazards, with attention paid to previous experience and message design. Few studies link risk perceptions with cognition and response as elicited by specific examples of warnings. The present study unites risk perception, cognition, and response approaches by testing the contributions of hypothesized warning response drivers in one set of path models. Warning response is approximated by perceived fear and intended protective action as reported by survey respondents when exposed to hypothetical tornado warning scenarios. This study considers the roles of hazard knowledge acquisition, information-seeking behaviors, previous experience, and sociodemographic factors while controlling for the effects of the visual warning graphic. Findings from the study indicate the primacy of a user's visual interpretation of a warning graphic in shaping tornado warning response. Results also suggest that information-seeking habits, previous tornado experience, and local disaster culture play strong influencing roles in warning response. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Incorporating Low-Cost Seismometers into the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network for Earthquake Early Warning in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Yi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dense seismic network can increase Earthquake Early Warning (EEW system capability to estimate earthquake information with higher accuracy. It is also critical for generating fast, robust earthquake alarms before strong-ground shaking hits the target area. However, building a dense seismic network via traditional seismometers is too expensive and may not be practical. Using low-cost Micro-Electro Mechanical System (MEMS accelerometers is a potential solution to quickly deploy a large number of sensors around the monitored region. An EEW system constructed using a dense seismic network with 543 MEMS sensors in Taiwan is presented. The system also incorporates the official seismic network of _ Central Weather Bureau (CWB. The real-time data streams generated by the two networks are integrated using the Earthworm software. This paper illustrates the methods used by the integrated system for estimating earthquake information and evaluates the system performance. We applied the Earthworm picker for the seismograms recorded by the MEMS sensors (Chen et al. 2015 following new picking constraints to accurately detect P-wave arrivals and use a new regression equation for estimating earthquake magnitudes. An off-line test was implemented using 46 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from ML 4.5 - 6.5 to calibrate the system. The experimental results show that the integrated system has stable source parameter results and issues alarms much faster than the current system run by the CWB seismic network (CWBSN.

  6. Home teaching for pre-school handicapped children - a cognitive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, R

    1982-01-01

    A case study was carried out to investigate and evaluate a home-teaching scheme, with a cognitive bias, for parents of pre-school handicapped children. The scheme linked teaching at the pre-school assessment unit with teaching by the parents in the home. A speech therapist, acting as home-teacher, demonstrated activities to the parents of a Down's syndrome child during weekly visits. The follow-up assessment areas of development. As a result of this study the scheme is to be extended and finance sought.

  7. Connecting global change science with communities: About the conformation of a social network for early warnings in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, P. A.; Vidal, L. M.; Serna, A. M.; Vieira, C.; Machado, J.; Cadavid, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The risk associated with natural and social phenomena has notably increased in modern societies. On the other hand, socio-natural hazards have increased and diversified, in association with economic development. During 2010 and 2011, Colombia faced one of the most severe wet seasons in decades. One of the most significant impacts of this flood emergency was the demonstration of poor preparedness of communities, local authorities, and regional and national authorities to confront situations of large coverage. The emergencies occurred during 2010 and 2011, induced in association with a strong La Niña event, immediately demanded environmental and risk management authorities to provide communities with basic tools to understand the dynamics associated with excesses of rainfall and mitigate the possible impacts in their populations. For this reason, the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Central Antioquia, Colombia (CORANTIOQUIA) funded a project aimed to the design and conformation of a social network for early warnings of events associated to floods, torrential floods, and mass movements in 80 municipalities of the department of Antioquia, Colombia. For the execution of this project, the Corporation invited the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Antioquia. This talk aims to socialize this inititative that looked for integrating scientific and technical knowledge with popular knowledge in order to provide Latin American communities with tools to mitigate the possible impacts of global change.

  8. [Basis for information transmission with biosignals for development of technical communication aids for handicapped patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, P

    2000-01-01

    For the design of communication aids controlled by biosignals for the handicapped, an analysis of the aspects of the significance of information is mandatory. The definition of information in its five aspects statistics, syntax, semantics, pragmatics and apobetics, enables us to conclude that the transmission of information is possible only with voluntarily influenceable biosignal components. The voluntary influencing of the biosignal may be interpreted as a modulation of the amplitude density of the Fourier integral. By calculating the highest possible statistical information content of a biosignal, it is possible to estimate the technical complexity of a biosignal-based communication system. The construction of efficient communication aids is possible when many biosignal components that can be readily and rapidly controlled voluntarily are to be found.

  9. A NEW TSUNAMI RISK SCALE FOR WARNING SYSTEMS - APPLICATION TO THE BAY OF ALGIERS IN ALGERIA, WEST MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Amir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Algiers and the surrounding coastal areas in northern Algeria are vulnerable to earthquakes which range from moderate to severe. In 2006, using several possible earthquake scenarios for the Western Mediterranean, the Japan International Cooperation Agency and the Algerian National Seismic Engineering Research Center predicted that heavy damage could occur in the Algiers region. Algerian Civil Defense authorities are particularly concerned by the threat of near-field earthquakes, associated slides and rock falls, as well as for tsunamis that can be generated. The present study proposes a new tsunami risk scale that provides information about the exposed communities and infrastructure, which can be used for regional tsunami alerts and warnings. Furthermore, it evaluates the vulnerability along the Bay of Algiers from tsunamigenic earthquakes. The JMA seismic intensi