WorldWideScience

Sample records for warmest sst region

  1. ASSESSING GLOBAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY UNDER COLDEST AND WARMEST PERIODS AT DIFFERENT LATITUDINAL REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Runtunuwu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of climate change on water balance will play a key role in the biosphere system. To study the global climate change impact on water balance during 95-year period (1901-1995, long-term grid climatic data including global mean monthly temperature and precipitation at 0.5 x 0.5 degree resolution were analysed. The trend and variation of climate change, the time series of monthly air temperature and precipitation data were aggregated into annual arithmetic means for two extreme periods (1901-1920 and 1990-1995. The potential evapotranspiration (Eo was calculated using Thornthwaite method.The changes in mean annual value were obtained by subtracting the maximum period data from 1990 to 1995 (Max with the minimum period data from 1901 to 1920 (Min. The results revealed that over 95-year period, mean global air temperature increased by 0.57oC. The temperature increase varied greatly in Asia, with more than 3.0oC, especially at 45-70oN, as well over the northern part of America (60-65oN and Europe (55- 75oN. In low latitude across Asia, Africa, and South America, the variation was less than 1.5oC. In 80-85ºN region, the variation was relatively small and at higher latitudes it increasedsignificantly. Precipitation varied temporally and spatially. In the 40-45ºN and 40-45ºS regions, increasing precipitation of more than 100 mm occurred during the June-August andSeptember-November, especially in the northern hemisphere. The Eo increase of 2000 mm during 95 years occurred in the tropical northern America, middle Africa, and South-East Asia. A grid in Central Java of Indonesia showed that the Eo increase of 2500 mm during 95 years resulted in the decrease of growing period by 100 days. In coping with climate change, adjustment of cropping calendar is imperative.

  2. Analysis of Pathfinder SST algorithm for global and regional conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SST algorithms to improve the present accuracy of surface temperature measurements ... regions, except in the North Atlantic and adjacent seas, where the residuals are always positive. ..... the stratosphere causing significant contamination of.

  3. Characterisation and quantification of regional diurnal SST cycles from SEVIRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    seas. Six years of SST fields from SEVIRI are validated against the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) Reprocessed for Climate (ARC) data set. The overall SEVIRI–AATSR bias is −0.07 K, and the standard deviation is 0.51 K, based on more than 53×106 matchups. Identification of the diurnal...... in the tropics. Longer diurnal warming duration is identified in the high latitudes compared to the tropics. The maximum monthly mean diurnal signal can be up to 0.5K in specific regions....

  4. ESA STSE “SST Diurnal Variability: Regional Extend - Implications in Atmospheric Modelling”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    The diurnal variability of SST, driven by the coincident occurrence of low enough wind and solar heating, has been observed in various regions of the global ocean [4, 5, 6]. Atmospheric, oceanic and climate models are not adequately resolving the daily SST cycle, resulting in biases of the total...

  5. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  6. When Does the Warmest Water Reach Greenland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grist, J. P.; Josey, S. A.; Boehme, L.; Meredith, M. P.; Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Kovacs, K. M.; Lydersen, C.; Davidson, F. J. M.; Stenson, G. B.; Hammill, M. O.; Marsh, R.; Coward, A.

    2016-02-01

    The warmest water reaching the east and west coast of Greenland is found between 200 and 600 m, in the warm Atlantic Water Layer (WL). Temperature changes within the WL have been highlighted as a possible cause of accelerated melting of tidewater glaciers and therefore are an important consideration for understanding global sea level rise. However, a limited number of winter observations of the WL have prohibited determining its seasonal variability. To address this, temperature data from Argo profiling floats, a range of sources within the World Ocean Database, and unprecedented coverage from marine-mammal borne sensors have been analyzed for the period 2002-2011. A significant seasonal range in temperature ( 1-2°C) is found in the warm layer, in contrast to most of the surrounding ocean. The magnitude of the seasonal cycle is thus comparable with the 1990s warming that was associated with an increased melt rate in a marine terminating glacier of West Greenland. The phase of the seasonal cycle exhibits considerable spatial variability; with high-resolution ocean model trajectory analysis suggesting it is determined by the time taken for waters to be advected from the subduction site in the Irminger Basin. For western Greenland, the annual temperature maximum occurs near or after the turn of the calendar year. This is significant because a recent study suggested that it is in the non-summer months when fjord-shelf exchanges allow the WL to most strongly influence glacier melt rate. However this is also the time of the year when the WL is least well observed. It is therefore clear that year-round subsurface temperature measurements are still required for a complete description of the WL seasonality, and in particular to ensure that the ice-melting potential of the WL is not underestimated.

  7. NCEP SST Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization Search Go Search Polar Go MMAB SST Analysis Main page About MMAB Our Mission Our Personnel EMC Branches Global Climate & Weather Modeling Mesoscale Modeling Marine Modeling and Analysis Contact EMC (RTG_SST_HR) analysis For a regional map, click the desired area in the global SST analysis and anomaly maps

  8. Analysis of the Warmest Arctic Winter, 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Lim, Young-Kwon; Boisvert, Linette N.; Brucker, Ludovic; Lee, Jae N.; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.

    2016-01-01

    December through February 2015-2016 defines the warmest winter season over the Arctic in the observational record. Positive 2m temperature anomalies were focused over regions of reduced sea ice cover in the Kara and Barents Seas and southwestern Alaska. A third region is found over the ice-covered central Arctic Ocean. The period is marked by a strong synoptic pattern which produced melting temperatures in close proximity to the North Pole in late December and anomalous high pressure near the Taymyr Peninsula. Atmospheric teleconnections from the Atlantic contributed to warming over Eurasian high-latitude land surfaces, and El Niño-related teleconnections explain warming over southwestern Alaska and British Columbia, while warm anomalies over the central Arctic are associated with physical processes including the presence of enhanced atmospheric water vapor and an increased downwelling longwave radiative flux. Preconditioning of sea ice conditions by warm temperatures affected the ensuing spring extent.

  9. A dipole-like SST trend in the Somalia region during the monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; deCastro, M.; Días, J. M.

    2015-02-01

    SST trends measured in the Somalia region during the southwest monsoon season over the period 1982-2013 have shown the existence of a warming-cooling dipole. The positive spot, with a warming trend on the order of 0.37°C dec-1, is centered around 5.1°N-50.3°E and the negative one, with a trend on the order of -0.43°C dec-1, around 11.1°N-52.2°E. The migration of the Great Whirl (GW) over the last three decades at a speed of -0.3°C dec-1 in longitude and -0.6°C dec-1 in latitude was considered as the possible origin of the SST dipole. The displacement of the GW produces changes in the geostrophic currents which, in turn, generate changes in the amount of advected water from and to coast.

  10. G1SST, 1km blended SST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (also known as ultra-high resolution) by the JPL ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System)...

  11. The Role of Indian Ocean SST Anomalies in Modulating Regional Rainfall Variability and Long-term Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, C. C.; Sen Gupta, A.; England, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    In a series of atmospheric general circulation model simulations, the potential impact of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in modulating low- to mid-latitude precipitation around the Indian Ocean rim countries is explored. The relative importance of various characteristic tropical and subtropical Indian Ocean SST poles, both individually and in combination, to regional precipitation changes is quantified. A mechanism for the rainfall modulation is proposed, by which the SST anomalies induce changes in the thermal properties of the atmosphere, resulting in a reorganization of the large-scale atmospheric circulation across the Indian Ocean basin. Across western and southern regions of Australia, rainfall anomalies are found to be due to modulations in the meridional thickness gradient, thermal wind, and baroclinicity, leading to changes in the moisture flux onto the continent. The pattern of large-scale circulation changes over the tropical Indian Ocean and adjacent land masses is consistent with an anomalous strengthening of the Walker cell, leading to variations in precipitation of opposite sign across western and eastern regions of the basin. Links between long-term changes in Indian Ocean surface properties and regional precipitation changes in Indian Ocean rim countries are also discussed in a broader context with implications for water management and seasonal forecasting.

  12. Using CAM3 and the Alkenone Method to Understand how Pliocene SST's Affect California and Other Climates Adjacent to Upwelling Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searles, Z. A.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Dekens, P. S.

    2008-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change fourth assessment report established with 90% confidence that anthropogenic climate change will result in a warmer world. In order to more fully understand possible future climate, past analogues of warm periods should be analyzed. The early Pliocene is an appropriate analogue because the continental configuration was similar to today and CO2 levels were comparable to present (~100ppm higher than pre-anthropogenic levels). This project has two objectives: 1.To test the atmospheric sensitivity to USGS PRISM2 dataset revised to better approximate proxy data indicating warmer SST's in upwelling regions and 2. To provide early-Pliocene (2.7- 3.5 Ma) SST estimates for ODP site 1018 on the California Margin (36°59.4'N, 123°16.5'W) using the UK'37 SST proxy. Recent UK'37 proxy data reveals that PRISM2 underestimates SST's in Pacific and Atlantic coastal upwelling regions. The sensitivity of the atmosphere to significantly warmer SST's in upwelling regions was tested using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model, version 3 (CAM3). Initial conditions were supplied by the USGS PRISM2 project and include Pliocene SST's, vegetation cover, sea level height, topography, marine and continental ice extent. Pliocene SST's along the Californian, Peruvian, North African and South African margin were modified to reflect proxy observations from 4 sites. The lack of observational coverage (1 data point per region) required interpolation of the areal extent of the SST warming anomaly indicated by the proxies. Experiment results show increased cumulative precipitation and humidity in regions where the original PRISM2 predicted drying. The predicted North American increase in precipitation is in better agreement with geologic proxies indicating wetter conditions. Warmer SST's also causes weaker wind velocities along the North American, Peruvian, and North African margins, and stronger winds along the

  13. Preliminary results from the ESA STSE project on SST diurnal variability, its regional extent and implications in atmospheric modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents some preliminary results of the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). Comparisons of SEVIRI SST with AATSR...

  14. GHRSST Level 4 REMO_OI_SST_5km Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature (SST) analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the...

  15. Two-dimensional finite difference model to study temperature distribution in SST regions of human limbs immediately after physical exercise in cold climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Babita; Adlakha, Neeru

    2015-02-01

    Thermoregulation is a complex mechanism regulating heat production within the body (chemical thermoregulation) and heat exchange between the body and the environment (physical thermoregulation) in such a way that the heat exchange is balanced and deep body temperatures are relatively stable. The external heat transfer mechanisms are radiation, conduction, convection and evaporation. The physical activity causes thermal stress and poses challenges for this thermoregulation. In this paper, a model has been developed to study temperature distribution in SST regions of human limbs immediately after physical exercise under cold climate. It is assumed that the subject is doing exercise initially and comes to rest at time t = 0. The human limb is assumed to be of cylindrical shape. The peripheral region of limb is divided into three natural components namely epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues (SST). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on the physical conditions of the problem. Finite difference has been employed for time, radial and angular variables. The numerical results have been used to obtain temperature profiles in the SST region immediately after continuous exercise for a two-dimensional unsteady state case. The results have been used to analyze the thermal stress in relation to light, moderate and vigorous intensity exercise.

  16. The first experiments in SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S.; Khan, Z.; Tanna, V. L.; Sharma, A. N.; Doshi, K. J.; Prasad, U.; Masand, H.; Kumar, Aveg; Patel, K. B.; Bhandarkar, M. K.; Dhongde, J. R.; Shukla, B. K.; Mansuri, I. A.; Varadarajulu, A.; Khristi, Y. S.; Biswas, P.; Gupta, C. N.; Sharma, D. K.; Raval, D. C.; Srinivasan, R.; Pandya, S. P.; Atrey, P. K.; Sharma, P. K.; Patel, P. J.; Patel, H. S.; Santra, P.; Parekh, T. J.; Dhanani, K. R.; Paravastu, Y.; Pathan, F. S.; Chauhan, P. K.; Khan, M. S.; Tank, J. K.; Panchal, P. N.; Panchal, R. N.; Patel, R. J.; George, S.; Semwal, P.; Gupta, P.; Mahesuriya, G. I.; Sonara, D. P.; Jayswal, S. P.; Sharma, M.; Patel, J. C.; Varmora, P. P.; Patel, D. J.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D. R.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Babu, G. R.; Panchal, A. G.; Vora, M. M.; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, R.; Raju, D.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Kumar, M.; Manchanda, R.; Joisa, S.; Tahiliani, K.; Pathak, S. K.; Patel, K. M.; Nimavat, H. D.; Shah, P. R.; Chudasma, H. H.; Raval, T. Y.; Sharma, A. L.; Ojha, A.; Parghi, B. R.; Banaudha, M.; Makwana, A. R.; Chowdhuri, M. B.; Ramaiya, N.; kumar, A.; Raval, J. V.; Gupta, S.; Purohit, S.; Kaur, R.; Adhiya, A. N.; Jha, R.; Kumar, S.; Nagora, U. C.; Siju, V.; Thomas, J.; Chaudhari, V. R.; Patel, K. G.; Ambulkar, K. K.; Dalakoti, S.; Virani, C. G.; Parmar, P. R.; Thakur, A. L.; Das, A.; Bora, D.; the SST-1 Team

    2015-10-01

    A steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) has been commissioned after the successful experimental and engineering validations of its critical sub-systems. During the ‘engineering validation phase’ of SST-1; the cryostat was demonstrated to be leak-tight in all operational scenarios, 80 K thermal shields were demonstrated to be uniformly cooled without regions of ‘thermal runaway and hot spots’, the superconducting toroidal field magnets were demonstrated to be cooled to their nominal operational conditions and charged up to 1.5 T of the field at the major radius. The engineering validations further demonstrated the assembled SST-1 machine shell to be a graded, stress-strain optimized and distributed thermo-mechanical device, apart from the integrated vacuum vessel being validated to be UHV compatible etc. Subsequently, ‘field error components’ in SST-1 were measured to be acceptable towards plasma discharges. A successful breakdown in SST-1 was obtained in SST-1 in June 2013 assisted with electron cyclotron pre-ionization in the second harmonic mode, thus marking the ‘first plasma’ in SST-1 and the arrival of SST-1 into the league of contemporary steady state devices. Subsequent to the first plasma, successful repeatable plasma start-ups with E ˜ 0.4 V m-1, and plasma current in excess of 70 kA for 400 ms assisted with electron cyclotron heating pre-ionization at a field of 1.5 T have so far been achieved in SST-1. Lengthening the plasma pulse duration with lower hybrid current drive, confinement and transport in SST-1 plasmas and magnetohydrodynamic activities typical to large aspect ratio SST-1 discharges are presently being investigated in SST-1. In parallel, SST-1 has uniquely demonstrated reliable cryo-stable high field operation of superconducting TF magnets in the two-phase cooling mode, operation of vapour-cooled current leads with cold gas instead of liquid helium and an order less dc joint resistance in superconducting magnet winding

  17. Analysis of the Effects of SST and Model Resolutions on the Identification of the 1993 Superstorm Using an Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Regional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, D.; Velissariou, P.; Chassignet, E.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The non-tropical storm, the 12-14 March 1993 Superstorm, which called the Storm of the Century had a wide reaching effect on the Northern Gulf of Mexico region and the East Coast of the United States. Previous studies show that the initial development of the storm could not be simulated accurately enough to represent the intensity and the evolution of the storm over the Gulf of Mexico region. The aim of this study is to identify the effects of the air-sea fluxes, the sea surface temperature (SST) and the model resolution on determining the intensity and the track of the storm more accurately. To this end, the outputs from two-way coupled model runs were examined to analyze the storm characteristics. Model configurations have been set within a coupled system framework that includes the atmospheric model Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF) and the ocean model Regional Ocean Model (ROMS). Three WRF domains assigned 15 km, 5 km and ~1.6 km resolutions, respectively and an 8 km resolution ROMS domain were used in the coupled system. The initial and boundary conditions for WRF were extracted from the NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) products and the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) generated SSTs while, the conditions for ROMS were extracted from HYCOM. Comparisons were performed against NOAA buoys and GridSAT brightness temperatures. Minimum mean sea level pressure (MSLP), maximum wind speed and storm locations were examined. Time series for MSLP and wind speed were used to illustrate how air-sea interaction and resolution changes storm intensity along the track. The results showing the RMS differences on the storm location and intensity of the storm are also presented.

  18. Thermal carrying capacity for a thermally-sensitive species at the warmest edge of its range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ayllón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic environmental change is causing unprecedented rates of population extirpation and altering the setting of range limits for many species. Significant population declines may occur however before any reduction in range is observed. Determining and modelling the factors driving population size and trends is consequently critical to predict trajectories of change and future extinction risk. We tracked during 12 years 51 populations of a cold-water fish species (brown trout Salmo trutta living along a temperature gradient at the warmest thermal edge of its range. We developed a carrying capacity model in which maximum population size is limited by physical habitat conditions and regulated through territoriality. We first tested whether population numbers were driven by carrying capacity dynamics and then targeted on establishing (1 the temperature thresholds beyond which population numbers switch from being physical habitat- to temperature-limited; and (2 the rate at which carrying capacity declines with temperature within limiting thermal ranges. Carrying capacity along with emergent density-dependent responses explained up to 76% of spatio-temporal density variability of juveniles and adults but only 50% of young-of-the-year's. By contrast, young-of-the-year trout were highly sensitive to thermal conditions, their performance declining with temperature at a higher rate than older life stages, and disruptions being triggered at lower temperature thresholds. Results suggest that limiting temperature effects were progressively stronger with increasing anthropogenic disturbance. There was however a critical threshold, matching the incipient thermal limit for survival, beyond which realized density was always below potential numbers irrespective of disturbance intensity. We additionally found a lower threshold, matching the thermal limit for feeding, beyond which even unaltered populations declined. We predict that most of our study

  19. Improved VIIRS and MODIS SST Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Gladkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS radiometers, flown onboard Terra/Aqua and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS satellites, are capable of providing superior sea surface temperature (SST imagery. However, the swath data of these multi-detector sensors are subject to several artifacts including bow-tie distortions and striping, and require special pre-processing steps. VIIRS additionally does two irreversible data reduction steps onboard: pixel aggregation (to reduce resolution changes across the swath and pixel deletion, which complicate both bow-tie correction and destriping. While destriping was addressed elsewhere, this paper describes an algorithm, adopted in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO SST system, to minimize the bow-tie artifacts in the SST imagery and facilitate application of the pattern recognition algorithms for improved separation of ocean from cloud and mapping fine SST structure, especially in the dynamic, coastal and high-latitude regions of the ocean. The algorithm is based on a computationally fast re-sampling procedure that ensures a continuity of corresponding latitude and longitude arrays. Potentially, Level 1.5 products may be generated to benefit a wide range of MODIS and VIIRS users in land, ocean, cryosphere, and atmosphere remote sensing.

  20. Global 1-km Sea Surface Temperature (G1SST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL OurOcean Portal: A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (also known as ultra-high resolution) by the JPL ROMS (Regional Ocean...

  1. ANALYSIS OF SST IMAGES BY WEIGHTED ENSEMBLE TRANSFORM KALMAN FILTER

    OpenAIRE

    Sai , Gorthi; Beyou , Sébastien; Memin , Etienne

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a novel, efficient scheme for the analysis of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) ocean images. We consider the estimation of the velocity fields and vorticity values from a sequence of oceanic images. The contribution of this paper lies in proposing a novel, robust and simple approach based onWeighted Ensemble Transform Kalman filter (WETKF) data assimilation technique for the analysis of real SST images, that may contain coast regions or large areas of ...

  2. NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) SST V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The optimum interpolation (OI) sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is produced weekly on a one-degree grid. The analysis uses in situ and satellite SST's plus...

  3. The Relationships between Tropical Pacific and Atlantic SST and Northeast Brazil Monthly Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Repelli, Carlos A.; Zebiak, Stephen E.; Kushnir, Yochanan

    1998-04-01

    The monthly patterns of northeast Brazil (NEB) precipitation are analyzed in relation to sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, using singular value decomposition. It is found that the relationships between precipitation and SST in both basins vary considerably throughout the rainy season (February-May). In January, equatorial Pacific SST is weakly correlated with precipitation in small areas of southern NEB, but Atlantic SST shows no significant correlation with regional precipitation. In February, Pacific SST is not well related to precipitation, but south equatorial Atlantic SST is positively correlated with precipitation over the northern Nordeste, the latter most likely reflecting an anomalously early (or late) southward migration of the ITCZ precipitation zone. During March, equatorial Pacific SST is negatively correlated with Nordeste precipitation, but no consistent relationship between precipitation and Atlantic SST is found. Atlantic SST-precipitation correlations for April and May are the strongest found among all months or either ocean. Precipitation in the Nordeste is positively correlated with SST in the south tropical Atlantic and negatively correlated with SST in the north tropical Atlantic. These relationships are strong enough to determine the structure of the seasonal mean SST-precipitation correlations, even though the corresponding patterns for the earlier months of the season are quite different. Pacific SST-precipitation correlations for April and May are similar to those for March. Extreme wet (dry) years for the Nordeste occur when both Pacific and Atlantic SST patterns for April and May occur simultaneously. A separate analysis reinforces previous findings in showing that SST in the tropical Pacific and the northern tropical Atlantic are positively correlated and that tropical Pacific-south Atlantic correlations are negligible.Time-lagged analyses show the potential for forecasting either seasonal mean

  4. Upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) from Satellite-tracked drifting buoys (drifters) as part of the Global Drifter Program for Hawaii region 1980/02/01 - 2009/03/31 (NODC Accession 0063296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite-tracked drifting buoys ("drifters") collect measurements of upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) around the world as part of the Global...

  5. 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT and somatostatin receptor (sst1-sst5) expression in normal human tissue: correlation of sst2 mRNA and SUVmax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, Christian; Poeppel, Thorsten D.; Jentzen, Walter; Brandau, Wolfgang; Bockisch, Andreas; Heusner, Till A.; Antoch, Gerald; Redmann-Bischofs, Anja; Unger, Nicole; Mann, Klaus; Petersenn, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    By targeting somatostatin receptors (sst) radiopeptides have been established for both diagnosis and therapy. For physiologically normal human tissues the study provides a normative database of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) and sst mRNA. A total of 120 patients were subjected to diagnostic 68 Ga-DOTATOC positron emission tomography (PET)/CT (age range 19-83 years). SUV max values were measured in physiologically normal tissues defined by normal morphology, absence of surgical intervention and absence of metastatic spread during clinical follow-up. Expression of sst subtypes (sst1-sst5) was measured independently in pooled adult normal human tissue by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). SUV max revealed a region-specific pattern (e.g., mean ± SD, spleen 31.1 ± 10.9, kidney 16.9 ± 5.3, liver 12.8 ± 3.6, stomach 7.0 ± 3.1, head of pancreas 6.2 ± 2.3, small bowel 4.8 ± 1.8, thyroid 4.7 ± 2.2, bone 3.9 ± 1.3, large bowel 2.9 ± 0.8, muscle 2.1 ± 0.5, parotid gland 1.9 ± 0.6, axillary lymph node 0.8 ± 0.3 and lung 0.7 ± 0.3). SUV max was age independent. Gender differences were evident within the thyroid (female/male: 3.7 ± 1.6/5.5 ± 2.4, p max values exclusively correlated with sst2 expression (r = 0.846, p max with the expression of the other four subtypes. In normal human tissues 68 Ga-DOTATOC imaging has been related to the expression of sst2 at the level of mRNA. The novel normative database may improve diagnostics, monitoring and therapy of sst-expressing tumours or inflammation on a molecular basis. (orig.)

  6. Vessel eddy current characteristics in SST-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Subrata; Pradhan, Subrata, E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Dhongde, Jasraj; Masand, Harish

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Eddy current distribution in the SST-1 vacuum vessel. • Circuit model analysis of eddy current. • A comparison of the field lines with and without the plasma column in identical conditions. • The influence of eddy current in magnetic NULL dynamics. - Abstract: Eddy current distribution in the vacuum vessel of the Steady state superconducting (SST-1) tokamak has been determined from the experimental data obtained using an array of internal voltage loops (flux loop) installed inside the vacuum vessel. A simple circuit model has been employed. The model takes into account the geometric and constructional features of SST-1 vacuum vessel. SST-1 vacuum vessel is a modified ‘D’ shaped vessel having major axis of 1.285 m and minor axis of 0.81 m and has been manufactured from non-magnetic stainless steel. The Plasma facing components installed inside the vacuum vessel are graphite blocks mounted on Copper Chromium Zirconium (CuCrZr) heat sink plates on inconel supports. During discharge of the central solenoid, eddy currents get generated in the vacuum vessel and passive supports on it. These eddy currents influence the early magnetic NULL dynamics and plasma break-down and start-up characteristics. The computed results obtained from the model have been benchmarked against experimental data obtained in large number of SST-1 plasma shots. The results are in good agreement. Once bench marked, the calculated eddy current based on flux loop signal and circuit equation model has been extended to the reconstruction of the overall B- field contours of SST-1 tokamak in the vessel region. A comparison of the field lines with and without the plasma column in identical conditions of the central solenoid and equilibrium field profiles has also been done with an aim to quantify the diagnostics responses in vacuum shots.

  7. Interannual to Decadal SST Variability in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Newman, M.; Han, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Indian Ocean has received increasing attention in recent years for its large impacts on regional and global climate. However, due mainly to the close interdependence of the climate variation within the Tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean, the internal sea surface temperature (SST) variability within the Indian Ocean has not been studied extensively on longer time scales. In this presentation we will show analysis of the interannual to decadal SST variability in the Tropical Indian Ocean in observations and Linear Inverse Model (LIM) results. We also compare the decoupled Indian Ocean SST variability from the Pacific against fully coupled one based on LIM integrations, to test the factors influence the features of the leading SST modes in the Indian Ocean. The result shows the Indian Ocean Basin (IOB) mode, which is strongly related to global averaged SST variability, passively responses to the Pacific variation. Without tropical Indo-Pacific coupling interaction, the intensity of IOB significantly decreases by 80%. The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode demonstrates its independence from the Pacific SST variability since the IOD does not change its long-term characteristics at all without inter-basin interactions. The overall SSTA variance decreases significantly in the Tropical Indian Ocean in the coupling restricted LIM runs, especially when the one-way impact from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean is turned off, suggesting that most of the variability in the Indian Ocean comes from the Pacific influence. On the other hand, the Indian Ocean could also transport anomalies to the Pacific, making the interaction a complete two-way process.

  8. On the influence of simulated SST warming on rainfall projections in the Indo-Pacific domain: an AGCM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huqiang; Zhao, Y.; Moise, A.; Ye, H.; Colman, R.; Roff, G.; Zhao, M.

    2018-02-01

    Significant uncertainty exists in regional climate change projections, particularly for rainfall and other hydro-climate variables. In this study, we conduct a series of Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) experiments with different future sea surface temperature (SST) warming simulated by a range of coupled climate models. They allow us to assess the extent to which uncertainty from current coupled climate model rainfall projections can be attributed to their simulated SST warming. Nine CMIP5 model-simulated global SST warming anomalies have been super-imposed onto the current SSTs simulated by the Australian climate model ACCESS1.3. The ACCESS1.3 SST-forced experiments closely reproduce rainfall means and interannual variations as in its own fully coupled experiments. Although different global SST warming intensities explain well the inter-model difference in global mean precipitation changes, at regional scales the SST influence vary significantly. SST warming explains about 20-25% of the patterns of precipitation changes in each of the four/five models in its rainfall projections over the oceans in the Indo-Pacific domain, but there are also a couple of models in which different SST warming explains little of their precipitation pattern changes. The influence is weaker again for rainfall changes over land. Roughly similar levels of contribution can be attributed to different atmospheric responses to SST warming in these models. The weak SST influence in our study could be due to the experimental setup applied: superimposing different SST warming anomalies onto the same SSTs simulated for current climate by ACCESS1.3 rather than directly using model-simulated past and future SSTs. Similar modelling and analysis from other modelling groups with more carefully designed experiments are needed to tease out uncertainties caused by different SST warming patterns, different SST mean biases and different model physical/dynamical responses to the same underlying

  9. Sensitive study of the climatological SST by using ATSR global SST data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Lawrence, Sean P.; Llewellyn-Jones, David T.

    1995-12-01

    Climatological sea surface temperature (SST) is an initial step for global climate processing monitoring. A comparison has been made by using Oberhuber's SST data set and two years monthly averaged SST from ATSR thermal band data to force the OGCM. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, these make only a small difference to model SST. In the western Pacific Ocean, the use of Oberhuber's data set gives higher climatological SST than that using ATSR data. The SSTs were also simulated for 1992 using climatological SSTs from two years monthly averaged ATSR data and Oberhuber data. The forcing with SST from ATSR data was found to give better SST simulation than that from Oberhuber's data. Our study has confirmed that ATSR can provide accurate monthly averaged global SST for global climate processing monitoring.

  10. Gas Fuelling System for SST-1Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanani, Kalpesh; Raval, D. C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Khan, M. S.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    SST-1 Tokamak, the first Indian Steady-state Superconducting experimental device is at present under operation in the Institute for Plasma Research. For plasma break down & initiation, piezoelectric valve based gas feed system is implemented as a primary requirement due to its precise control, easy handling, low construction and maintenance cost and its flexibility in the selection of the working gas. Hydrogen gas feeding with piezoelectric valve is used in the SST-1 plasma experiments. The piezoelectric valves used in SST-1 are remotely driven by a PXI based platform and are calibrated before each SST-1 plasma operation with precise control. This paper will present the technical development and the results of the gas fuelling system of SST-1.

  11. SST algorithms in ACSPO reanalysis of AVHRR GAC data from 2002-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, B.; Ignatov, A.; Kihai, Y.; Zhou, X.; Stroup, J.

    2014-05-01

    In response to a request from the NOAA Coral Reef Watch Program, NOAA SST Team initiated reprocessing of 4 km resolution GAC data from AVHRRs flown onboard NOAA and MetOp satellites. The objective is to create a longterm Level 2 Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) SST product, consistent with NOAA operations. ACSPO-Reanalysis (RAN) is used as input in the NOAA geo-polar blended Level 4 SST and potentially other Level 4 SST products. In the first stage of reprocessing (reanalysis 1, or RAN1), data from NOAA-15, -16, -17, -18, -19, and Metop-A and -B, from 2002-present have been processed with ACSPO v2.20, and matched up with quality controlled in situ data from in situ Quality Monitor (iQuam) version 1. The ~12 years time series of matchups were used to develop and explore the SST retrieval algorithms, with emphasis on minimizing spatial biases in retrieved SSTs, close reproduction of the magnitudes of true SST variations, and maximizing temporal, spatial and inter-platform stability of retrieval metrics. Two types of SST algorithms were considered: conventional SST regressions, and recently developed incremental regressions. The conventional equations were adopted in the EUMETSAT OSI-SAF formulation, which, according to our previous analyses, provide relatively small regional biases and well-balanced combination of precision and sensitivity, in its class. Incremental regression equations were specifically elaborated to automatically correct for model minus observation biases, always present when RTM simulations are employed. Improved temporal stability was achieved by recalculation of SST coefficients from matchups on a daily basis, with a +/-45 day window around the current date. This presentation describes the candidate SST algorithms considered for the next round of ACSPO reanalysis, RAN2.

  12. Initial results in SST-1 after up-gradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S.; Khan, Z.; Tanna, V. L.; Prasad, U.; Paravastu, Y.; Raval, D. C.; Masand, H.; Kumar, Aveg; Dhongde, J. R.; Jana, S.; Kakati, B.; Patel, K. B.; Bhandarkar, M. K.; Shukla, B. K.; Ghosh, D.; Patel, H. S.; Parekh, T. J.; Mansuri, I. A.; Dhanani, K. R.; Varadharajulu, A.; Khristi, Y. S.; Biswas, P.; Gupta, C. N.; George, S.; Semwal, P.; Sharma, D. K.; Gulati, H. K.; Mahajan, K.; Praghi, B. R.; Banaudha, M.; Makwana, A. R.; Chudasma, H. H.; Kumar, M.; Manchanda, R.; Joisa, Y. S.; Asudani, K.; Pandya, S. N.; Pathak, S. K.; Banerjee, S.; Patel, P. J.; Santra, P.; Pathan, F. S.; Chauhan, P. K.; Khan, M. S.; Thankey, P. L.; Prakash, A.; Panchal, P. N.; Panchal, R. N.; Patel, R. J.; Mahsuria, G. I.; Sonara, D. P.; Patel, K. M.; Jayaswal, S. P.; Sharma, M.; Patel, J. C.; Varmora, P.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D. R.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Babu, G. R.; Panchal, A. G.; Vora, M. M.; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, R.; Nimavat, H. D.; Shah, P. R.; Purwar, G.; Raval, T. Y.; Sharma, A. L.; Ojha, A.; Kumar, S.; Ramaiya, N. K.; Siju, V.; Gopalakrishna, M. V.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, P. K.; Atrey, P. K.; Kulkarni, SV; Ambulkar, K. K.; Parmar, P. R.; Thakur, A. L.; Raval, J. V.; Purohit, S.; Mishra, P. K.; Adhiya, A. N.; Nagora, U. C.; Thomas, J.; Chaudhari, V. K.; Patel, K. G.; Dalakoti, S.; Virani, C. G.; Gupta, S.; Kumar, Ajay; Chaudhari, B.; Kaur, R.; Srinivasan, R.; Raju, D.; Kanabar, D. H.; Jha, R.; Das, A.; Bora, D.

    2017-04-01

    SST-1 Tokamak has recently completed the 1st phase of up-gradation with successful installation and integration of all its First Wall components. The First Wall of SST-1 comprises of ∼ 3800 high heat flux compatible graphite tiles being assembled and installed on 132 CuCrZr heat sink back plates engraved with ∼ 4 km of leak tight baking and cooling channels in five major sub groups equipped with ∼ 400 sensors and weighing ∼ 6000 kg in total in thirteen isolated galvanic and six isolated hydraulic circuits. The phase-1 up-gradation spectrum also includes addition of Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) both on the in-board and out-board side, installation of fast reciprocating probes, adding some edge plasma probe diagnostics in the SOL region, installation and integration of segmented and up-down symmetric radial coils aiding/controlling plasma rotations, introduction of plasma position feedback and density controls etc. Post phase-I up-gradation spanning from Nov 2014 till June 2016, initial plasma experiments in up-graded SST-1 have begun since Aug 2016 after a brief engineering validation period in SST-1. The first experiments in SST-1 have revealed interesting aspects on the ‘eddy currents in the First Wall support structures’ influencing the ‘magnetic Null evolution dynamics’ and the subsequent plasma start-up characteristics after the ECH pre-ionization, the influence of the first walls on the ‘field errors’ and the resulting locked modes observed, the magnetic index influencing the evolution of the equilibrium of the plasma column, low density supra-thermal electron induced discharges and normal ohmic discharges etc. Presently; repeatable ohmic discharges regimes in SST-1 having plasma currents in excess of 65 KA (qa ∼ 3.8, BT = 1.5 T) with a current ramp rates ∼ 1.2 MA/s over a duration of ∼ 300 ms with line averaged densities ∼ 0.8 × 1019 and temperatures ∼ 200 eV with copious MHD signatures have been experimentally

  13. Optimization design for SST-1 Tokamak insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanbin; Pan Wanjiang

    2012-01-01

    With the help of ANSYS FEA technique, high voltage and cryogenic proper- ties of the SST-1 Tokamak insulators were obtained, and the structure of the insulators was designed and modified by taking into account the simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the optimization structure has better high voltage insulating property and cryogenic mechanics property, and also can fulfill the qualification criteria of the SST-1 Tokamak insulators. (authors)

  14. Impacts of SST Patterns on Rapid Intensification of Typhoon Megi (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, Sachie; Tsujino, Satoki; Aiki, Hidenori; Yoshioka, Mayumi K.; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Tsuboki, Kazuhisa; Takayabu, Izuru

    2017-12-01

    Typhoon Megi (2010), a very intense tropical cyclone with a minimum central pressure of 885 hPa, was characterized by especially rapid intensification. We investigated this intensification process by a simulation experiment using a high-resolution (0.02° × 0.02°) three-dimensional atmosphere-ocean coupled regional model. We also performed a sensitivity experiment with a time-fixed sea surface temperature (SST). The coupled model successfully simulated the minimum central pressure of Typhoon Megi, whereas the fixed SST experiment simulated an excessively low minimum central pressure of 839 hPa. The simulation results also showed a close relationship between the radial SST profiles and the rapid intensification process. Because the warm sea increased near-surface water vapor and hence the convective available potential energy, the high SST in the eye region facilitated tall and intense updrafts inside the radius of maximum wind speed and led to the start of rapid intensification. In contrast, high SST outside this radius induced local secondary updrafts that inhibited rapid intensification even if the mean SST in the core region exceeded 29.0°C. These secondary updrafts moved inward and eventually merged with the primary eyewall updrafts. Then the storm intensified rapidly when the high SST appeared in the eye region. Thus, the changes in the local SST pattern around the storm center strongly affected the rapid intensification process by modulating the radial structure of core convection. Our results also show that the use of a high-resolution three-dimensional atmosphere-ocean coupled model offers promise for improving intensity forecasts of tropical cyclones.

  15. Recent SST trends and Flood Disasters in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiki, Y.; Behera, S. K.; Inoue, S.; Netrananda, S.; Silva, R. D.; Takara, K. T.; Yamagata, T.

    2010-12-01

    We analyzed recent variations in the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans to understand their roles in extreme discharge of Amazon River Basin. In general, higher than monthly average discharge appears when La Niña condition forms and lower than monthly average discharge appears when El Niño condition forms. We also investigated the relationship between SST anomalies and recent floods in Brazil during the period of 1980-2010. Most severe floods (e.g. 2003 and 2010 Rio de Janeiro-São Paulo Flood) in austral summer occurred when El Niño Modoki appears in the Pacific Ocean. In addition, warm waters in tropical South Atlantic Ocean between American and African Coast also helped the moisture convergence to the affected region. Floods in some other locations (for example, Itaipava flood occurred in Maranhao State in 2008) occurred when a La Niña Modoki appeared in Pacific Ocean. These flood disasters in Brazil associated with climate phenomena may increase due to warmer SST trend under the global warming stress.

  16. Gas fueling system for SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Khan, Mohammad Shoaib; Pradhan, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    SST-1 Tokamak, the first Indian Steady-state Superconducting experimental device is at present under operation in Institute for Plasma Research. For plasma break down and initiation, the piezoelectric valve based gas feed system is implemented as primary requirement due to its precise control, easy handling, low costs for both construction and maintenance and its flexibility in working gas selection. The main functions of SST-1 gas feed system are to feed the required amount of ultrahigh purity hydrogen gas for specified period into the vessel during plasma operation and ultrahigh helium gas for glow discharge cleaning. In addition to these facilities, the gas feed system is used to feed a mixture gas of hydrogen and helium as well as other gases like nitrogen and Argon during divertor cooling etc. The piezoelectric valves used in SST-1 are remotely driven by a PXI based platform and are calibrated before the plasma operation during each SST-1 plasma operation with precise control. This paper will present the technical development and the results of gas fueling in SST-1. (author)

  17. Superconducting magnets of SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrata Pradhan; Saxena, Y.C.; Sarkar, B.; Bansal, G.; Sharma, A.N.; Thomas, K.J.; Bedakihale, V.; Doshi, B.; Dhard, C.P.; Prasad, U.; Rathod, P.; Bahl, R.; Varadarajulu, A.; Mankani, A.

    2005-01-01

    Magnet System of SST-1 comprises of sixteen superconducting D-shaped Toroidal Field (TF) coils, nine superconducting Poloidal Field (PF) coils and a pair of resistive PF coils inside the vacuum vessel. TF magnets generate the basic 3.0 T field at the major radius of 1.1 m. Low resistance lap inter-pancake joints within and inter-coil joints between the coils have been made. Magnets are cooled with supercritical helium at 4 bar and 4.5 K, which is fed at the high field region in the middle of each of the double pancake over a hydraulic path length of 47 m. Voltage taps across joints and termination location are used for quench detection. The quench detection front-end electronics ensures fail proof quench detection based on subtraction logic. Quench detection system sends the quench trigger to the power supply system directly on a dedicated fiber optic link. Flow meters at the inlet of the TF and PF magnets, temperature sensors at the critical joint locations and at the outlet of the flow paths for enthalpy estimation, hall probes for field direction and magnitude measurements are the other sensors. A 20 V, 10 kA power supply will excite the TF magnets whereas the PF power supplies have voltages from few volts to in excess of 100 V to cater the fast current ramp-up of the PF magnets during start-up scenarios. All power supplies have been equipped with dump resisters of appropriate ratings in parallel with a series combination of DC circuit interrupters and pyro-breakers. (author)

  18. Plasma position control in SST1 tokamak

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    also placed inside the vessel, however the controller would ignore fast but insignificant changes in radius arising ... poloidal cross-sectional view of the SST1 plasma along with the stabilizers are shown in figure 1 and ... [1] model which has shown excellent agreement with control experiments in TCV tokamak and also with ...

  19. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration NAR16 SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The EUMETSAT OSI-SAF NAR SST products are SST fields derived from NOAA/AVHRR data and available over 6 pre-defined zones, 4 times per day. After acquisition and...

  20. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration NAR18 SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The EUMETSAT OSI-SAF NAR SST products are SST fields derived from NOAA/AVHRR data and available over 6 pre-defined zones, 4 times per day. After acquisition and...

  1. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration NAR17 SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The EUMETSAT OSI-SAF NAR SST products are SST fields derived from NOAA/AVHRR data and available over 6 pre-defined zones, 4 times per day. After acquisition and...

  2. Immunohistochemical detection of somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 and sst2A in human somatostatin receptor positive tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); Q. Liu; P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); J. Zuijderwijk; F. van der Ham (Frieda); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald); A. Schonbrunn; S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAlthough in situ hybridization has been used to examine the distribution of messenger RNA for somatostatin receptor subtypes (sst) in human tumors, the cellular localization of sst1 and sst2A receptors has not been reported. In this study, we describe the

  3. SST and OLR relationship during Indian summer monsoon: a coupled climate modelling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Hazra, Anupam; Pokhrel, Samir; Chakrabarty, Chandrima; Saha, Subodh Kumar; Sreenivas, P.

    2018-04-01

    The study mainly investigates sea surface temperature (SST) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) relationships in coupled climate model. To support the analysis, high-level cloud and OLR relationship is also investigated. High-level cloud and OLR relationship depicts significant negative correlation over the entire monsoon regime. Coupled climate model is able to produce the same. SST and OLR relationship in observation also depicts significant negative relationship, in particular, over the Equatorial Eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) region. Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) is able to portray the negative relationship over EIO region; however, it is underestimated as compared to observation. Significant negative correlations elucidate that local SSTs regulate the convection and further it initiates Bjerknes feedback in the central Indian Ocean. It connotes that SST anomalies during monsoon period tend to be determined by oceanic forcing. The heat content of the coastal Bay of Bengal shows highest response to EIO SST by a lag of 1 month. It suggests that the coastal region of the Bay of Bengal is marked by coastally trapped Kelvin waves, which might have come from EIO at a time lag of 1 month. Sea surface height anomalies, depth at 20 °C isotherms and depth at 26 isotherms also supports the above hypothesis. Composite analysis based on EIO index and coupled climate model sensitivity experiments also suggest that the coastal Bay of Bengal region is marked by coastally trapped Kelvin waves, which are propagated from EIO at a time lag of 1 month. Thus, SST and OLR relationship pinpoints that the Bay of Bengal OLR (convection) is governed by local ocean-atmospheric coupling, which is influenced by the delayed response from EIO brought forward through oceanic planetary waves at a lag of 1 month. These results have utmost predictive value for seasonal and extended range forecasting. Thus, OLR and SST relationship can constitute a pivotal role in investigating the

  4. SST: Single-Stream Temporal Action Proposals

    KAUST Repository

    Buch, Shyamal; Escorcia, Victor; Shen, Chuanqi; Ghanem, Bernard; Niebles, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Our paper presents a new approach for temporal detection of human actions in long, untrimmed video sequences. We introduce Single-Stream Temporal Action Proposals (SST), a new effective and efficient deep architecture for the generation of temporal action proposals. Our network can run continuously in a single stream over very long input video sequences, without the need to divide input into short overlapping clips or temporal windows for batch processing. We demonstrate empirically that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art on the task of temporal action proposal generation, while achieving some of the fastest processing speeds in the literature. Finally, we demonstrate that using SST proposals in conjunction with existing action classifiers results in improved state-of-the-art temporal action detection performance.

  5. SST: Single-Stream Temporal Action Proposals

    KAUST Repository

    Buch, Shyamal

    2017-11-09

    Our paper presents a new approach for temporal detection of human actions in long, untrimmed video sequences. We introduce Single-Stream Temporal Action Proposals (SST), a new effective and efficient deep architecture for the generation of temporal action proposals. Our network can run continuously in a single stream over very long input video sequences, without the need to divide input into short overlapping clips or temporal windows for batch processing. We demonstrate empirically that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art on the task of temporal action proposal generation, while achieving some of the fastest processing speeds in the literature. Finally, we demonstrate that using SST proposals in conjunction with existing action classifiers results in improved state-of-the-art temporal action detection performance.

  6. First experiments with SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    SST-1, a steady state superconducting tokamak, is undergoing commissioning tests at the Institute for Plasma Research. The objectives of SST-1 include studying the physics of the plasma processes in a tokamak under steady state conditions and learning technologies related to the steady state operation of the tokamak. These studies are expected to contribute to the tokamak physics database for very long pulse operations. Superconducting (SC) magnets are deployed for both the toroidal and poloidal field coils in SST-1. An Ohmic transformer is provided for plasma breakdown and initial current ramp up. SST-1 deploys a fully welded ultra high vacuum vessel. Liquid nitrogen cooled radiation shield are deployed between the vacuum vessel and SC magnets as well as SC magnets and cryostat, to minimize the radiation losses at the SC magnets. The auxiliary current drive is based on 1.0 MW of Lower Hybrid current drive (LHCD) at 3.7 GHz. Auxiliary heating systems include 1 MW of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency system (ICRF) at 22 MHz to 91 MHz, 0.2 MW of Electron Cyclotron Resonance heating at 84 GHz and a Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system with peak power of 0.8 MW (at 80 keV) with variable beam energy in range of 10-80 keV. The ICRF system would also be used for initial breakdown and wall conditioning experiments. Detailed commissioning tests on the cryogenic system and experiments on the hydraulic characters and cool down features of single TF coils have been completed prior to the cool down of the entire superconducting system. Results of the single TF magnet cool down, and testing of the magnet system are presented. First experiments related to the breakdown and the current ramp up will subsequently be carried out. (author)

  7. Identifying role of subtropical southeast Pacific SST anomalies on precipitation dynamics in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, D.; Garreaud, R.

    2014-12-01

    Central Chile (CC, western South America coasts, 28°S- 38°S) is the heartland of Chile with the highest population and important economic activities. The region is characterized by semiarid Mediterranean climate with a marked precipitation gradient along the coast from north to south, mostly due to the positioning of the South Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone and the midlatitude westerlies belt. Although there are several diagnostic studies that focus on the impact of tropical Pacific SST on CC precipitation variability via atmospheric teleconnections, less attention has been placed on impacts of subtropical southeast (SE) Pacific SST on precipitation. The later region is immediately adjacent to CC and it interferes with the overpassing atmospheric systems. In particular we want to assess the impact of a consistent cooling over the SE Pacific during the last 30 years. This study is being tackled by a combination of observational and reanalysis datasets together with numerical simulations. Observational dataset includes gridded dataset of CRU, TRMM and GPCP. Moreover, Reynolds SST data V2 based on AVHRR infrared satellite SST data is used for analyzing spatial and temporal changes in SST. Current modelling experiment includes a control simulation, used as reference, and sensitivity simulation that involves perturbations to SST over subtropical SE Pacific for a normal year austral winter (2001) season. A number of simulations with different initial conditions have been carried out by employing ICTP-RegCM4. The domain for simulations was centered at 82oW and 32oW with 288x288 grid cells on 20 km spatial resolution. Preliminary results indicate that the response of precipitation in CC to SST anomalies in the subtropical SE Pacific exhibits more or less linear behavior. In the colder SST experiments, drier conditions dominate over CC, which is possibly related with the intensification of South Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone (SPSA) or a reduction in the available

  8. Operation of SST-1 TF power supply during SST-1 campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Vora, Murtuza M.; Ojha, Amit; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Bhavsar, Chirag

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SST-1 TF power supply is 12 pulse SCR converter circuit. • TF power supply protection, measurement and control scheme are explained. • Quench, emergency and normal shot process is explained and results of SST-1 campaigns are shown. • Dynamic control of TF current. • The paper shows the results of last ten SST-1 campaigns. - Abstract: SST-1 TF power supply provides the direct current for the required magnetic field of TF coil. TF power supply includes transformer, 12-pulse converter, bus bar, water-cooled cable, protection and measuring equipments, and isolator, VME DAC system and GUI software. TF power supply is operated through GUI software built in TCL/Tk. VME DAC system monitors the parameters, provides On/Off commands, voltage and current references and initiates predefined reference to emergency shutdown. The emergency shutdown is hardwired to TF power supply from central control. During quench power supply converter opens DCCB and dump resistor is connected in the circuit and VME DAC system acquires bus bar voltage, dump voltage and dump current. Operation of TF power supply also requires monitoring of SCR and transformer temperature and water flow rate of water-cooled cable during high current long pulse shot. Before start up of TF power supply a quench simulation is performed to check the readiness of protection. This paper describes pre startup operation, normal shot operation, emergency and quench process, dynamic control and complete shutdown operation of TF power supply.

  9. Operation of SST-1 TF power supply during SST-1 campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, E-mail: dinesh@ipr.res.in; Vora, Murtuza M.; Ojha, Amit; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Bhavsar, Chirag

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • SST-1 TF power supply is 12 pulse SCR converter circuit. • TF power supply protection, measurement and control scheme are explained. • Quench, emergency and normal shot process is explained and results of SST-1 campaigns are shown. • Dynamic control of TF current. • The paper shows the results of last ten SST-1 campaigns. - Abstract: SST-1 TF power supply provides the direct current for the required magnetic field of TF coil. TF power supply includes transformer, 12-pulse converter, bus bar, water-cooled cable, protection and measuring equipments, and isolator, VME DAC system and GUI software. TF power supply is operated through GUI software built in TCL/Tk. VME DAC system monitors the parameters, provides On/Off commands, voltage and current references and initiates predefined reference to emergency shutdown. The emergency shutdown is hardwired to TF power supply from central control. During quench power supply converter opens DCCB and dump resistor is connected in the circuit and VME DAC system acquires bus bar voltage, dump voltage and dump current. Operation of TF power supply also requires monitoring of SCR and transformer temperature and water flow rate of water-cooled cable during high current long pulse shot. Before start up of TF power supply a quench simulation is performed to check the readiness of protection. This paper describes pre startup operation, normal shot operation, emergency and quench process, dynamic control and complete shutdown operation of TF power supply.

  10. Impact of the Gulf of California SST on simulating precipitation and crop productivity in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, J.; Prasad, A. K.; Stack, D. H.; El-Askary, H. M.; Kafatos, M.

    2012-12-01

    Like other ecosystems, agricultural productivity is substantially affected by climate factors. Therefore, accurate climatic data (i.e. precipitation, temperature, and radiation) is crucial to simulating crop yields. In order to understand and anticipate climate change and its impacts on agricultural productivity in the Southwestern United States, the WRF regional climate model (RCM) and the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) were employed for simulating crop production. 19 years of WRF RCM output show that there is a strong dry bias during the warm season, especially in Arizona. Consequently, the APSIM crop model indicates very low crop yields in this region. We suspect that the coarse resolution of reanalysis data could not resolve the relatively warm Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Gulf of California (GC), causing the SST to be up to 10 degrees lower than the climatology. In the Southwestern United States, a significant amount of precipitation is associated with North American Monsoon (NAM). During the monsoon season, the low-level moisture is advected to the Southwestern United States via the GC, which is known to be the dominant moisture source. Thus, high-resolution SST data in the GC is required for RCM simulations to accurately represent a reasonable amount of precipitation in the region, allowing reliable evaluation of the impacts on regional ecosystems.and evaluate impacts on regional ecosystems. To evaluate the influence of SST on agriculture in the Southwestern U.S., two sets of numerical simulations were constructed: a control, using unresolved SST of GC, and daily updated SST data from the MODIS satellite sensor. The meteorological drivers from each of the 6 year RCM runs were provided as input to the APSIM model to determine the crop yield. Analyses of the simulated crop production, and the interannual variation of the meteorological drivers, demonstrate the influence of SST on crop yields in the Southwestern United States.

  11. Overview of data acquisition system for SST-1 diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manika; Mansuri, Imran; Raval, Tushar; Sharma, A.L; Pradhan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An account of architecture and data acquisition activities of SST-1 data acquisition system (DAS) for SST-1 diagnostics and subsystems. • PXI based Data acquisition system and CAMAC based Data acquisition system for slow and fast plasma diagnostics. • SST-1 DAS interface and its communication with SST-1 central control system. Integration of SST-1 DAS with timing system. • SST-1 DAS data archival and data analysis. - Abstract: The recent first phase operations of SST-1 in short pulse mode have provided an excellent opportunity for the essential initial tests and benchmark of the SST-1 Data Acquisition System. This paper describes the SST-1 Data Acquisition systems (DAS), which with its heterogeneous composition and distributed architecture, aims to cover a wide range of slow to fast channels interfaced with a large set of diagnostics. The DAS also provides the essential user interface for data acquisition to cater both on and off-line data usage. The central archiving and retrieval service is based on a dual step architecture involving a combination of Network Attached Server (NAS) and a Storage Area Network (SAN). SST-1 Data Acquisition Systems have been reliably operated in the SST-1 experimental campaigns. At present different distributed DAS caters the need of around 130 channels from different SST-1 diagnostics and its subsystems. PXI based DAS and CAMAC based DAS have been chosen to cater the need, with sampling rates varying from 10Ksamples/sec to 1Msamples/sec. For these large sets of channels acquiring from individual diagnostics and subsystems has been a combined setup, subjected to a gradual phase of optimization and tests resulting into a series of improvisations over the recent operations. In order to facilitate a reliable data acquisition, the model further integrates the objects of the systems with the Central Control System of SST-1 using the TCP/IP communication. The associated DAS software essentially addresses the

  12. Overview of data acquisition system for SST-1 diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Manika, E-mail: bithi@ipr.res.in; Mansuri, Imran; Raval, Tushar; Sharma, A.L; Pradhan, S.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An account of architecture and data acquisition activities of SST-1 data acquisition system (DAS) for SST-1 diagnostics and subsystems. • PXI based Data acquisition system and CAMAC based Data acquisition system for slow and fast plasma diagnostics. • SST-1 DAS interface and its communication with SST-1 central control system. Integration of SST-1 DAS with timing system. • SST-1 DAS data archival and data analysis. - Abstract: The recent first phase operations of SST-1 in short pulse mode have provided an excellent opportunity for the essential initial tests and benchmark of the SST-1 Data Acquisition System. This paper describes the SST-1 Data Acquisition systems (DAS), which with its heterogeneous composition and distributed architecture, aims to cover a wide range of slow to fast channels interfaced with a large set of diagnostics. The DAS also provides the essential user interface for data acquisition to cater both on and off-line data usage. The central archiving and retrieval service is based on a dual step architecture involving a combination of Network Attached Server (NAS) and a Storage Area Network (SAN). SST-1 Data Acquisition Systems have been reliably operated in the SST-1 experimental campaigns. At present different distributed DAS caters the need of around 130 channels from different SST-1 diagnostics and its subsystems. PXI based DAS and CAMAC based DAS have been chosen to cater the need, with sampling rates varying from 10Ksamples/sec to 1Msamples/sec. For these large sets of channels acquiring from individual diagnostics and subsystems has been a combined setup, subjected to a gradual phase of optimization and tests resulting into a series of improvisations over the recent operations. In order to facilitate a reliable data acquisition, the model further integrates the objects of the systems with the Central Control System of SST-1 using the TCP/IP communication. The associated DAS software essentially addresses the

  13. Impacts of SST anomalies on the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation: a case study for the northern winter 1995/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losada, T.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departmento de Geofisica y Meteorologia, Madrid (Spain); Mechoso, C.R.; Ma, H.Y. [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The present paper selects the northern winter of December 1995-February 1996 for a case study on the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic and Western Europe. In the Atlantic, the selected winter was characterized by positive SST anomalies over the northern subtropics and east of Newfoundland, and negative anomalies along the US coast. A weak La Nina event developed in the Pacific. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was low, precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa was anomalously high, and precipitation over northern Europe was anomalously low. The method of study consists of assessing the sensitivity of ensemble simulations by the UCLA atmospheric general circulation model (UCLA AGCM) to SST anomalies from the observation, which are prescribed either in the World Oceans, the Atlantic Ocean only, or the subtropical North Atlantic only. The results obtained are compared with a control run that uses global, time-varying climatological SST. The ensemble simulations with global and Atlantic-only SST anomalies both produce results that resemble the observations over the North Atlantic and Western Europe. It is suggested that the anomalous behavior of the atmosphere in the selected winter over those regions, therefore, was primarily determined by conditions within the Atlantic basin. The simulated fields in the tropical North Atlantic show anomalous upward motion and lower (upper) level convergence (divergence) in the atmosphere overlying the positive SST anomalies. Consistently, the subtropical jet intensifies and its core moves equatorward, and precipitation increases over northern Africa and southern Europe. The results also suggest that the SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic only do not suffice to produce the atmospheric anomalies observed in the basin during the selected winter. The extratropical SST anomalies would provide a key contribution through increased

  14. Remote SST Forcing and Local Land-Atmosphere Moisture Coupling as Drivers of Amazon Temperature and Carbon Cycle Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, P. A.; Xu, M.; Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Interannual variability of climatic conditions in the Amazon rainforest is associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and ocean-atmosphere interactions in the North Atlantic. Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in these remote ocean regions drive teleconnections with Amazonian surface air temperature (T), precipitation (P), and net ecosystem production (NEP). While SST-driven NEP anomalies have been primarily linked to T anomalies, it is unclear how much the T anomalies result directly from SST forcing of atmospheric circulation, and how much result indirectly from decreases in precipitation that, in turn, influence surface energy fluxes. Interannual variability of P associated with SST anomalies lead to variability in soil moisture (SM), which would indirectly affect T via partitioning of turbulent heat fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. To separate the direct and indirect influence of the SST signal on T and NEP, we performed a mechanism-denial experiment to decouple SST and SM anomalies. We used the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACMEv0.3), with version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model and version 4.5 of the Community Land Model. We forced the model with observed SSTs from 1982-2016. We found that SST and SM variability both contribute to T and NEP anomalies in the Amazon, with relative contributions depending on lag time and location within the Amazon basin. SST anomalies associated with ENSO drive most of the T variability at shorter lag times, while the ENSO-driven SM anomalies contribute more to T variability at longer lag times. SM variability and the resulting influence on T anomalies are much stronger in the eastern Amazon than in the west. Comparing modeled T with observations demonstrate that SST alone is sufficient for simulating the correct timing of T variability, but SM anomalies are necessary for simulating the correct magnitude of the T variability. Modeled NEP indicated that variability in carbon fluxes

  15. The TaSST: Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, G.; Darriba Frederiks, A.; van Dijk, B.; Heylen, D.; Kröse, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we outline the design process of the TaSST (Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch), a touch-sensitive vibrotactile arm sleeve. The TaSST was designed to enable two people to communicate different types of touch over a distance. The touch-sensitive surface of the sleeve consists of a grid of

  16. The TaSST: Tactile sleeve for social touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs; Darriba Frederiks, Aduén; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Krose, Ben

    In this paper we outline the design process of the TaSST (Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch), a touch-sensitive vibrotactile arm sleeve. The TaSST was designed to enable two people to communicate different types of touch over a distance. The touch-sensitive surface of the sleeve consists of a grid of

  17. The TaSST - Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs; Darriba Frederiks, Aduén; Van Dijk, Betsy; Heylen, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we outline the design process of TaSST (Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch), a touch-sensitive vibrotactile arm sleeve. The TaSST was designed to enable two people to communicate different types of touches over a distance. The touch-sensitive surface of the sleeve consists of a grid of

  18. Nitrogen Gas Heating and Supply System for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Pathan, Firozkhan; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Bindu, Hima; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Pradhan, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Steady State Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel baking as well as baking of the first wall components of SST-1 are essential to plasma physics experiments. Under a refurbishment spectrum of SST-1, the nitrogen gas heating and supply system has been fully refurbished. The SST-1 vacuum vessel consists of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible eight modules and eight sectors. Rectangular baking channels are embedded on each of them. Similarly, the SST-1 plasma facing components (PFC) are comprised of modular graphite diverters and movable graphite based limiters. The nitrogen gas heating and supply system would bake the plasma facing components at 350°C and the SST-1 vacuum vessel at 150°C over an extended duration so as to remove water vapour and other absorbed gases. An efficient PLC based baking facility has been developed and implemented for monitoring and control purposes. This paper presents functional and operational aspects of a SST-1 nitrogen gas heating and supply system. Some of the experimental results obtained during the baking of SST-1 vacuum modules and sectors are also presented here. (fusion engineering)

  19. Preliminary analysis of accident in SST-1 current feeder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Swati; Kanabar, Deven; Garg, Atul; Singh, Amit; Tanna, Vipul; Prasad, Upendra; Srinivasan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Steady-state Tokamak-1 (SST-1) has 16 superconducting Toroidal field (TF) and 9 superconducting poloidal field (PF) coils rated for 10kA DC. All the TF are connected in series and are operated in DC condition whereas PF coils are individually operated in pulse mode during SST-1 campaigns. SST-1 current feeder system (CFS) houses 9 pairs of PF current leads and 1 pair of TF current leads. During past SST-1 campaign, there were arcing incidents within SST-1 CFS chamber which caused significant damage to PF superconducting current leads as well as its Helium cooling lines of the current leads. This paper brings out the preliminary analysis of the mentioned arcing incident, possible reasons and its investigation thereby laying out the sequence of events. From this analysis and observations, various measures to avoid such arcing incidents have also been proposed. (author)

  20. Design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of PFC baking for SST-1 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh E-mail: paritosh@ipr.res.in; Reddy, D. Chenna; Khirwadkar, S.; Prakash, N. Ravi; Santra, P.; Saxena, Y.C

    2001-09-01

    The Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium-size tokamak with super-conducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of the SST-1, consisting of divertors, passive stabilisers, baffles, and poloidal limiters, are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. Except for the poloidal limiters, all other PFC are structurally continuous in the toroidal direction. As SST-1 is designed to run double-null divertor plasmas, these components also have up-down symmetry. A closed divertor configuration is chosen to produce high recycling and high pumping speed in the divertor region. The passive stabilisers are located close to the plasma to provide stability against the vertical instability of the elongated plasma. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m{sup 2}. In addition to removing high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at 350 deg. C. Different flow parameters and various tube layouts have been examined to select the optimum thermal-hydraulic parameters and tube layout for different PFC of SST-1. Thermal response of the PFC during baking has been performed analytically (using a Fortran code) and two-dimensional finite element analysis using ANSYS. The detailed thermal hydraulics and thermal responses of PFC baking is presented in this paper.

  1. Design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of PFC baking for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Reddy, D. Chenna; Khirwadkar, S.; Prakash, N. Ravi; Santra, P.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2001-01-01

    The Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium-size tokamak with super-conducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of the SST-1, consisting of divertors, passive stabilisers, baffles, and poloidal limiters, are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. Except for the poloidal limiters, all other PFC are structurally continuous in the toroidal direction. As SST-1 is designed to run double-null divertor plasmas, these components also have up-down symmetry. A closed divertor configuration is chosen to produce high recycling and high pumping speed in the divertor region. The passive stabilisers are located close to the plasma to provide stability against the vertical instability of the elongated plasma. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m 2 . In addition to removing high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at 350 deg. C. Different flow parameters and various tube layouts have been examined to select the optimum thermal-hydraulic parameters and tube layout for different PFC of SST-1. Thermal response of the PFC during baking has been performed analytically (using a Fortran code) and two-dimensional finite element analysis using ANSYS. The detailed thermal hydraulics and thermal responses of PFC baking is presented in this paper

  2. Recent predictors of Indian summer monsoon based on Indian and Pacific Ocean SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Namendra Kumar; Rai, Shailendra; Mishra, Nishant

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) of various geographical locations of Indian and Pacific Ocean with the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) to identify possible predictors of ISMR. We identified eight SST predictors based on spatial patterns of correlation coefficients between ISMR and SST of the regions mentioned above during the time domain 1982-2013. The five multiple linear regression (MLR) models have been developed by these predictors in various combinations. The stability and performance of these MLR models are verified using cross-validation method and other statistical methods. The skill of forecast to predict observed ISMR from these MLR models is found to be substantially better based on various statistical verification measures. It is observed that the MLR models constructed using the combination of SST indices in tropical and extra tropical Indian and Pacific is able to predict ISMR accurately for almost all the years during the time domain of our study. We tried to propose the physical mechanism of the teleconnection through regression analysis with wind over Indian subcontinent and the eight predictors and the results are in the conformity with correlation coefficient analysis. The robustness of these models is seen by predicting the ISMR during recent independent years of 2014-2017 and found the model 5 is able to predict ISMR accurately in these years also.

  3. Vacuum system of SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Pathan, Firozkhan; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Ramesh, Gattu; Himabindu, Manthena; Pradhan, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Air leaks developed during ongoing SST-1 cooldown campaign were detected online using RGA. ► The presence of N 2 and O 2 gases with the ratio of their partial pressures with ∼3.81:1 confirmed the air leaks. ► Baking of SST-1 was done efficiently by flowing hot N 2 gas in C-channels welded on inner surfaces without any problem. ► In-house fabricated demountable bull nose couplers were demonstrated for high temperature and pressure applications. ► Cryopumping effect was observed when liquid helium cooled superconducting magnets reached below 63 K. -- Abstract: Vacuum chambers of Steady State Superconducting (SST-1) Tokamak comprises of the vacuum vessel and the cryostat. The plasma will be confined inside the vacuum vessel while the cryostat houses the superconducting magnet systems (TF and PF coils), LN 2 cooled thermal shields and hydraulics for these circuits. The vacuum vessel is an ultra-high (UHV) vacuum chamber while the cryostat is a high-vacuum (HV) chamber. In order to achieve UHV inside the vacuum vessel, it would be baked at 150 °C for longer duration. For this purpose, U-shaped baking channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. The baking will be carried out by flowing hot nitrogen gas through these channels at 250 °C at 4.5 bar gauge pressure. During plasma operation, the pressure inside the vacuum vessel will be raised between 1.0 × 10 −4 mbar and 1.0 × 10 −5 mbar using piezoelectric valves and control system. An ultimate pressure of 4.78 × 10 −6 mbar is achieved inside the vacuum vessel after 100 h of pumping. The limitation is due to the development of few leaks of the order of 10 −5 mbar l/s at the critical locations of the vacuum vessel during baking which was confirmed with the presence of nitrogen gas and oxygen gas with the ratio of ∼3.81:1 indicating air leak. Similarly an ultimate vacuum of 2.24 × 10 −5 mbar is achieved inside the cryostat. Baking of the vacuum vessel up to 110 °C with ±10

  4. Vacuum system of SST-1 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Ziauddin, E-mail: ziauddin@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Pathan, Firozkhan; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Ramesh, Gattu; Himabindu, Manthena; Pradhan, Subrata [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Air leaks developed during ongoing SST-1 cooldown campaign were detected online using RGA. ► The presence of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gases with the ratio of their partial pressures with ∼3.81:1 confirmed the air leaks. ► Baking of SST-1 was done efficiently by flowing hot N{sub 2} gas in C-channels welded on inner surfaces without any problem. ► In-house fabricated demountable bull nose couplers were demonstrated for high temperature and pressure applications. ► Cryopumping effect was observed when liquid helium cooled superconducting magnets reached below 63 K. -- Abstract: Vacuum chambers of Steady State Superconducting (SST-1) Tokamak comprises of the vacuum vessel and the cryostat. The plasma will be confined inside the vacuum vessel while the cryostat houses the superconducting magnet systems (TF and PF coils), LN{sub 2} cooled thermal shields and hydraulics for these circuits. The vacuum vessel is an ultra-high (UHV) vacuum chamber while the cryostat is a high-vacuum (HV) chamber. In order to achieve UHV inside the vacuum vessel, it would be baked at 150 °C for longer duration. For this purpose, U-shaped baking channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. The baking will be carried out by flowing hot nitrogen gas through these channels at 250 °C at 4.5 bar gauge pressure. During plasma operation, the pressure inside the vacuum vessel will be raised between 1.0 × 10{sup −4} mbar and 1.0 × 10{sup −5} mbar using piezoelectric valves and control system. An ultimate pressure of 4.78 × 10{sup −6} mbar is achieved inside the vacuum vessel after 100 h of pumping. The limitation is due to the development of few leaks of the order of 10{sup −5} mbar l/s at the critical locations of the vacuum vessel during baking which was confirmed with the presence of nitrogen gas and oxygen gas with the ratio of ∼3.81:1 indicating air leak. Similarly an ultimate vacuum of 2.24 × 10{sup −5} mbar is achieved inside the cryostat. Baking of the

  5. Quantifying uncertainty in coral Sr/Ca-based SST estimates from Orbicella faveolata: A basis for multi-colony SST reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. N.; Flannery, J. A.; Toth, L. T.; Kuffner, I. B.; Poore, R. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The Sr/Ca in massive corals can be used as a proxy for sea surface temperature (SST) in shallow tropical to sub-tropical regions; however, the relationship between Sr/Ca and SST varies throughout the ocean, between different species of coral, and often between different colonies of the same species. We aimed to quantify the uncertainty associated with the Sr/Ca-SST proxy due to sample handling (e.g., micro-drilling or analytical error), vital effects (e.g., among-colony differences in coral growth), and local-scale variability in microhabitat. We examine the intra- and inter-colony reproducibility of Sr/Ca records extracted from five modern Orbicella faveolata colonies growing in the Dry Tortugas, Florida, USA. The average intra-colony absolute difference (AD) in Sr/Ca of the five colonies during an overlapping interval (1997-2008) was 0.055 ± 0.044 mmol mol-1 (0.96 ºC) and the average inter-colony Sr/Ca AD was 0.039 ± 0.01 mmol mol-1 (0.51 ºC). All available Sr/Ca-SST data pairs from 1997-2008 were combined and regressed against the HadISST1 gridded SST data set (24 ºN and 82 ºW) to produce a calibration equation that could be applied to O. faveolata specimens from throughout the Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean/Atlantic region after accounting for the potential uncertainties in Sr/Ca-derived SSTs. We quantified a combined error term for O. faveolata using the root-sum-square (RMS) of the analytical, intra-, and inter-colony uncertainties and suggest that an overall uncertainty of 0.046 mmol mol-1 (0.81 ºC, 1σ), should be used to interpret Sr/Ca records from O. faveolata specimens of unknown age or origin to reconstruct SST. We also explored how uncertainty is affected by the number of corals used in a reconstruction by iteratively calculating the RMS error for composite coral time-series using two, three, four, and five overlapping coral colonies. Our results indicate that maximum RMS error at the 95% confidence interval on mean annual SST estimates is 1.4 º

  6. Assessment of Global Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM) using new satellite SST data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione Kenov, Isabella; Sykes, Peter; Fiedler, Emma; McConnell, Niall; Ryan, Andrew; Maksymczuk, Jan

    2016-04-01

    There is an increased demand for accurate ocean weather information for applications in the field of marine safety and navigation, water quality, offshore commercial operations, monitoring of oil spills and pollutants, among others. The Met Office, UK, provides ocean forecasts to customers from governmental, commercial and ecological sectors using the Global Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM), an operational modelling system which covers the global ocean and runs daily, using the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) ocean model with horizontal resolution of 1/4° and 75 vertical levels. The system assimilates salinity and temperature profiles, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and sea ice concentration observations on a daily basis. In this study, the FOAM system is updated to assimilate Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) SST data. Model results from one month trials are assessed against observations using verification tools which provide a quantitative description of model performance and error, based on statistical metrics, including mean error, root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient, and Taylor diagrams. A series of hindcast experiments is used to run the FOAM system with AMSR2 and SEVIRI SST data, using a control run for comparison. Results show that all trials perform well on the global ocean and that largest SST mean errors were found in the Southern hemisphere. The geographic distribution of the model error for SST and temperature profiles are discussed using statistical metrics evaluated over sub-regions of the global ocean.

  7. Long range forecasting of summer monsoon rainfall from SST in the central equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y; Murthy, T.V.R.

    of summer monsoon rainfall from SST in the central equatorial Indian ocean Y. Sadhuram and T. V. Ramana Murthy National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176, Lawson's Bay Colony, . Visakhapatnam-530017 ABSTRACT Severalprediction tedmiques have... and droughts associated with strong and weak monsoons greatly influence the economy of the country. Most of the droughts and floods are associated with EI-Nino and La- Nina respectively (Webster andYang3 and krishna Kumar et al\\. The relationship between ENSO...

  8. The impact of the subtropical South Atlantic SST on South American precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Taschetto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Community Climate Model (CCM3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR is used to investigate the effect of the South Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST anomalies on interannual to decadal variability of South American precipitation. Two ensembles composed of multidecadal simulations forced with monthly SST data from the Hadley Centre for the period 1949 to 2001 are analysed.

    A statistical treatment based on signal-to-noise ratio and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF is applied to the ensembles in order to reduce the internal variability among the integrations. The ensemble treatment shows a spatial and temporal dependence of reproducibility. High degree of reproducibility is found in the tropics while the extratropics is apparently less reproducible. Austral autumn (MAM and spring (SON precipitation appears to be more reproducible over the South America-South Atlantic region than the summer (DJF and winter (JJA rainfall. While the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ region is dominated by external variance, the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ over South America is predominantly determined by internal variance, which makes it a difficult phenomenon to predict. Alternatively, the SACZ over western South Atlantic appears to be more sensitive to the subtropical SST anomalies than over the continent.

    An attempt is made to separate the atmospheric response forced by the South Atlantic SST anomalies from that associated with the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Results show that both the South Atlantic and Pacific SSTs modulate the intensity and position of the SACZ during DJF. Particularly, the subtropical South Atlantic SSTs are more important than ENSO in determining the position of the SACZ over the southeast Brazilian coast during DJF. On the other hand, the ENSO signal seems to influence the intensity of the SACZ not only in DJF but especially its oceanic branch during MAM. Both local and

  9. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Indonesia, Daytime

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  10. Quench detection, protection and simulation studies on SST-1 magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Aashoo N.; Khristi, Yohan; Pradhan, Subrata; Doshi, Kalpesh; Prasad, Upendra; Banaudha, Moni; Varmora, Pankaj; Praghi, Bhadresh R.

    2015-01-01

    Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) is India's first tokamak with superconducting toroidal field (TF) and Poloidal Field (PF) magnets. These magnets are made with NbTi based Cable-In-Conduit-Conductors. The quench characteristic of SST-1 CICC has been extensively studied both analytically and using simulation codes. Dedicated experiments like model coil test program, TF coil test program and laboratory experiments were conducted to fully characterize the performance of the CICC and the magnets made using this CICC. Results of quench experiments performed during these tests have been used to design the SST-1 quench detection and protection system. Simulation results of TF coil quenches and slow propagation quench of TF busbars have been used to further optimize these systems during the SST-1 tokamak operation. Redundant hydraulic based quench detection is also proposed for the TF coil quench detection. This paper will give the overview of these development and simulation activities. (author)

  11. Daily MUR SST, Interim near-real-time (nrt) product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (MUR, or Multi-scale ultra-high resolution Temperature) by the JPL sciengists Drs. Mike...

  12. GHRSST Level 2P USA NAVOCEANO GOES11 SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SST calculated from the IR channels of GOES-11 at full resolution on a half hourly basis. In raw satellite projection, vertically adjacent pixels averaged and read...

  13. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration SEVIRI SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SST calculated from the IR channels of MSG at full resolution on a hourly basis. Remapping is made by space averaging, the production of the 3-hourly data is made by...

  14. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  15. COBE-SST2 Sea Surface Temperature and Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A new sea surface temperature (SST) analysis on a centennial time scale is presented. The dataset starts in 1850 with monthly 1x1 means and is periodically updated....

  16. Seasonal Mean SST images of Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Average seasonal sea surface temperatures http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/ Naming Convention: XXXX_SSSYYYY_SST.tif XXXX=location (Stell) SSS=season (FAL=fall, SPR=spring,...

  17. Monthly SST images of Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Average monthy Sea Surfact Temperature http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/ Naming Convention: XXXX_YYYYMM_SST.tif XXXX=location (Stell) YYYY=year MM=month Example filename:...

  18. GHRSST Level 4 Denmark DMI Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L4 analysis is based upon nighttime GHRSST L2P subskin SST observations from several satellites and instruments such as: AMSRE, ATS_NR_2P, AVHRR18_G,...

  19. GHRSST Level 4 Denmark DMI North Sea Baltic SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L4 analysis is based upon nighttime GHRSST L2P subskin SST observations from several satellites and instruments such as: AMSRE, ATS_NR_2P, AVHRR18_G,...

  20. GHRSST Level 2P USA NAVOCEANO GOES12 SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SST calculated from the IR channels of GOES-12 at full resolution on a half hourly basis. In raw satellite projection, vertically adjacent pixels averaged and read...

  1. Influence of Kuroshio SST front in the East China Sea on the climatological evolution of Meiyu rainband

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mimi; Xu, Haiming; Ren, Huijun

    2018-02-01

    The influence of Kuroshio sea surface temperature (SST) front in the East China Sea (ECS) on the temporal evolution of climatological Meiyu rainband was investigated using a suite of high-resolution satellite observations and a reanalysis dataset from 2000 to 2011. During the northward seasonal march of Meiyu rainband from the warmer flank of the SST front to the colder flank, the climatological rainband strength weakened substantially despite large-scale environment became more conducive to intensify precipitation. A sharp reduction in occurrence frequency of precipitation with relatively shallower depth and smaller intensity was responsible for the weakening of Meiyu rainband. During the northward migration of Meiyu rainband, individual precipitation events became deeper and more intensive, and the contribution of convective precipitation to the rainband was enhanced, associated with the seasonal northward extension of high convective instability region over the ECS. The characteristics of Meiyu rainband evolution were generally supported by cloud observations. When Meiyu rainband was located on the warmer flank of the SST front, local enhanced mean surface wind convergence and variance of convergence at synoptic timescale by the warm SST of the Kuroshio favored strong surface convergence that may trigger precipitation. A detailed moisture budget analysis revealed that the major part of moisture for Meiyu precipitation was supplied by low-level wind convergence, with much smaller contribution from moisture advection. The variation of climatological precipitation associated with Meiyu northward migration depended on SST modulation of both surface evaporation and low-level moisture convergence over the ECS.

  2. Leading El-Niño SST Oscillations around the Southern South American Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Hsu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The inter-annual variations in the sea surface temperatures (SSTs of the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean have been widely investigated, largely due to their importance in achieving the sustainable development of marine ecosystems under a changing climate. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a widely recognized variability. In the subpolar region in the southern hemisphere, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC is one of the main sources of the Peru Current. A change in the SST in the Southern Ocean may change the physical properties of the seawater in the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean. However, the variations in the SST in the Southern Ocean have rarely been addressed. This study uses a 147-year (1870–2016 dataset from the Met Office Hadley Centre to show that the SST anomalies (SSTAs in the oceans west and east of South America and the Antarctic Peninsula have strong positive (R = 0.56 and negative (R = −0.67 correlations with the Niño 3.4 SSTA, respectively. Such correlations are likely related to the changes in circulations of the ACC. We further show that, statistically, the temporal variations in the SSTAs of the ACC lead the Niño 3.4 SSTA by four to six months. Such findings imply that change in the strength of ENSO or circulation under the changing climate could change the climate in regions at higher latitudes as well.

  3. Design of plasma facing components for the SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, S.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Choudhury, P.; Khirwadkar, S.; Pragash, R.; Santra, P.; Saxena, Y.C.; Sinha, P.

    2000-01-01

    Steady state Superconducting Tokamak, SST-1, is a medium sized tokamak with major and minor radii of 1.10 m and 0.20 m respectively. Elongated plasma operation with double null poloidal divertor is planned with a maximum input power of 1 MW. The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) like Divertors and Baffles, Poloidal limiters and Passive stabilizers form the first material boundary around the plasma and hence receive high heat and particle fluxes. The PFC design should ensure efficient heat and particle removal during steady state tokamak operation. A closed divertor geometry is adopted to ensure high neutral pressure in the divertor region (and hence high recycling) and less impurity influx into the core plasma. A set of poloidal limiters are provided to assist break down, current ramp-up and current ramp down phases and for the protection of the in-vessel components. Two pairs of Passive stabilizers, one on the inboard and the other on the outboard side of the plasma, are provided to slow down the vertical instability growth rates of the shaped plasma column. All PFCs are actively cooled to keep the plasma facing surface temperature within the design limits. The PFCs have been shaped/profiled so that maximum steady state heat flux on the surface is less than 1 MW/m 2 . (author)

  4. Unsteady Simulations of the Flow in a Channel Flow and a Ventilated Room Using the SST-SAS Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, Lars; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The SAS model (Scale Adapted Simulation) was invented by Menter and his co-workers. The idea behind the SST-SAS model is to add an additional production term - the SAS term - in the w equation which is sensitive to resolved (i.e. unsteady) fluctuations. In regions where the flow is on the limit...

  5. El Niño indices based on subareas of SST in Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wanjiao; Dong, Qing; Xue, Cunjin; Hou, Xueyan; Qin, Lijuan

    2014-11-01

    El Niño continues the most important coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon to cause global climate variability on seasonal to inter annual time scales. The first independent spatial mode which carried out by EOF analysis of tropical and north Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) for the period of 1985-2009 in AVHRR dataset is found to be associated with well-known regional climate phenomena: the El Niño. This paper addresses the need for a reliable El Niño index that allows for the historical definition of El Niño events in the instrumental record back to 1985-2009 with a new perspective. For quantitative purposes, possible definitions are explored that match the El Niño identified historically in 1985-2009, and it is suggested that an El Niño can be said to occur if difference of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies between the tropical and north Pacific exceeds 0.6 times standard deviation for 5 months or more. An advantage of such a definition is that it combines the characteristics between tropical and north Pacific. Through seasonal analysis of SST in El Niño event, we found that the El Niño events are almost beginning in boreal spring or perhaps boreal summer and peak from November to February. It provides a more complete and flexible description of the El Niño phenomenon than single area in tropical Pacific.

  6. Tropical impacts of SST forcing: A case study for 1987 versus 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Hastenrath, Stefan

    1994-01-01

    The response of the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model (GCM) to large tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies is investigated by evaluating model simulations of the particularly contrasting summer monsoon seasons 1987 and 1988. These years are representative of the warm and cold phases, respectively, of a recent El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. An ensemble averaging the results of three simulations was considered for each season, using monthly mean observed SST anomalies for June-August 1987 and 1988 as lower boundary forcing. Consistent with the European Center for Medium Weather Forecast (ECMWF)-analyzed winds, the simulations based on 1988 as compared to 1987 SST exhibit stronger upper-tropospheric irrotational circulation between the monsoon regions and the Southern Hemispheric sub-tropical anticyclones, a stronger Pacific Walker cell and a weaker subtropical westerly jet over the South Pacific. In the same vein, the modeled precipitation, indicating a more northerly position of the Pacific Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in 1988 compared with 1987, is supported by satellite observations of outgoing longwave radiation and highly reflective clouds.

  7. Engineering design and thermal hydraulics of plasma facing components of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pragash, N. Ravi; Chaudhuri, P.; Santra, P.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Khirwadkar, S.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2001-01-01

    SST-1 is a medium size tokamak with super conducting magnetic field coils. All the subsystems of SST-1 are designed for quasi steady state (∼1000 s) operation. Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) of SST-1 consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and poloidal limiters are also designed to be compatible for steady state operation. As SST-1 is designed to run double null divertor plasmas, these components also have up-down symmetry. A closed divertor configuration is chosen to produce high recycling and high pumping speed in the divertor region. All the PFC are made of copper alloys (CuCrZr and CuZr) on which graphite tiles are mechanically attached. These copper alloy back plates are actively cooled with water flowing in the channels grooved on them with the main consideration in the design of PFCs as the steady state heat removal of about 1.0 MW/m 2 . In addition to be able to remove high heat fluxes, the PFCs are also designed to be compatible for baking at 350 degree sign C. Extensive studies, involving different flow parameters and various cooling layouts, have been done to select the final cooling parameters and layout. Thermal response of the PFCs and vacuum vessel during baking, has been calculated using a FORTRAN code and a 2-D finite element analysis. The PFCs and their supports are also designed to withstand large electro-magnetic forces. Finite element analysis using ANSYS software package is used in this and other PFCs design. The engineering design including thermal hydraulics for cooling and baking of all the PFCs is completed. Poloidal limiters are being fabricated. The remaining PFCs, viz. divertors, stabilizers and baffles are likely to go for fabrication in the next few months. The detailed engineering design, the finite element calculations in the structural and thermal designs are presented in this paper

  8. Changes in the interannual SST-forced signals on West African rainfall. AGCM intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohino, Elsa [LOCEAN/IPSL, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Dpto. Geofisica y Meteorologia, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM), Madrid (Spain); Losada, Teresa [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Dpto. Geofisica y Meteorologia, Madrid (Spain); Gervois, Sebastien [LOCEAN/IPSL, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Janicot, Serge [LOCEAN/IPSL, IRD, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Bader, Juergen [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Ruti, Paolo [Progetto Speciale Clima Globale, Ente Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e l' Ambiente, Rome (Italy); Chauvin, Fabrice [GAME/CNRM, Meteo-France/CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-11-15

    Rainfall over West Africa shows strong interannual variability related to changes in Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Nevertheless, this relationship seem to be non-stationary. A particular turning point is the decade of the 1970s, which witnessed a number of changes in the climatic system, including the climate shift of the late 1970s. The first aim of this study is to explore the change in the interannual variability of West African rainfall after this shift. The analysis indicates that the dipolar features of the rainfall variability over this region, related to changes in the Atlantic SST, disappear after this period. Also, the Pacific SST variability has a higher correlation with Guinean rainfall in the recent period. The results suggest that the current relationship between the Atlantic and Pacific El Nino phenomena is the principal responsible for these changes. A fundamental goal of climate research is the development of models simulating a realistic current climate. For this reason, the second aim of this work is to test the performance of Atmospheric General Circulation models in simulating rainfall variability over West Africa. The models have been run with observed SSTs for the common period 1957-1998 as part of an intercomparison exercise. The results show that the models are able to reproduce Guinean interannual variability, which is strongly related to SST variability in the Equatorial Atlantic. Nevertheless, problems in the simulation of the Sahelian interannual variability appear: not all models are able to reproduce the observed negative link between rainfall over the Sahel and El Nino-like anomalies in the Pacific, neither the positive correlation between Mediterranean SSTs and Sahelian rainfall. (orig.)

  9. Quench detection electronics testing protocol for SST-1 magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaudha, Moni; Varmora, Pankaj; Parghi, Bhadresh; Prasad, Upendra

    2017-01-01

    Quench Detection (QD) system consisting 204 signal channels has been successfully installed and working well during plasma experiment of SST-1 Tokamak. QD system requires testing, validation and maintenance in every SST-1 campaign for better reliability and maintainability of the system. Standalone test of each channel of the system is essential for hard-ware validation. The standard Testing Protocol follow in every campaign which validate each section of QD electronics as well as voltage tap signal cables which are routed inside the cryostat and then extended outside of the SST-1 machine up-to the magnet control room. Fiber link for Quench signal transmission to the SST-1 magnet power supply is also test and validate before every plasma campaign. Precise instrument used as a dummy source of quench signal and for manual quench generation to test the each channel and Master Quench Logic. Each signal Integrated with the magnet DAQ system, signal observed at 1Hz and 50Hz configuration to validate the logging data, compare with actual and previous test data. This paper describes the testing protocol follow in every campaign to validate functionality of QD electronics, limitation of testing, test results and overall integration of the quench detection system for SST-1 magnet. (author)

  10. Using a 1-D model to reproduce diurnal SST signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2014-01-01

    The diurnal variability of SST has been extensively studied as it poses challenges for validating and calibrating satellite sensors, merging SST time series, oceanic and atmospheric modelling. As heat is significantly trapped close to the surface, the diurnal signal’s maximum amplitude is best...... captured by radiometers. The availability of infra-red retrievals from a geostationary orbit allows the hourly monitoring of the diurnal SST evolution. When infra-red SSTs are validated with in situ measurements a general mismatch is found, associated with the different reference depth of each type...... of measurement. A generally preferred approach to bridge the gap between in situ and remotely obtained measurements is through modelling of the upper ocean temperature. This ESA supported study focuses on the implementation of the 1 dimensional General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM), in order to resolve...

  11. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  12. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

  13. Coral Records of 20th Century Central Tropical Pacific SST and Salinity: Signatures of Natural and Anthropogenic Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhati, I. S.; Cobb, K.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate forecasts of regional climate changes in many regions of the world largely depend on quantifying anthropogenic trends in tropical Pacific climate against its rich background of interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. However, the strong natural climate variability combined with limited instrumental climate datasets have obscured potential anthropogenic climate signals in the region. Here, we present coral-based sea-surface temperature (SST) and salinity proxy records over the 20th century (1898-1998) from the central tropical Pacific - a region sensitive to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) whose variability strongly impacts the global climate. The SST and salinity proxy records are reconstructed via coral Sr/Ca and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater (δ18Osw), respectively. On interannual (2-7yr) timescales, the SST proxy record tracks both eastern- and central-Pacific flavors of ENSO variability (R=0.65 and R=0.67, respectively). Interannual-scale salinity variability in our coral record highlights profound differences in precipitation and ocean advections during the two flavors of ENSO. On decadal (8yr-lowpassed) timescales, the central tropical Pacific SST and salinity proxy records are controlled by different sets of dynamics linked to the leading climate modes of North Pacific climate variability. Decadal-scale central tropical Pacific SST is highly correlated to the recently discovered North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO; R=-0.85), reflecting strong dynamical links between the central Pacific warming mode and extratropical decadal climate variability. Whereas decadal-scale salinity variations in the central tropical Pacific are significantly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO; R=0.54), providing a better understanding on low-frequency salinity variability in the region. Having characterized natural climate variability in this region, the coral record shows a +0.5°C warming trend throughout the last century

  14. Determining the Pixel-to-Pixel Uncertainty in Satellite-Derived SST Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wu

    2017-08-01

    results and the less stringent preprocessing requirements, the variogram is the preferred method, although there is a suggestion that this approach overestimates the noise for high quality data in dynamically quiet regions. Finally, simulations of the impact of noise on the determination of SST gradients show that on average the gradient magnitude for typical ocean gradients will be accurately estimated with VIIRS but substantially overestimated with AVHRR.

  15. Overall behaviour of PFC integrated SST-1 vacuum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip C.; Paravasu, Yuvakiran; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; George, Siju; Shoaib, Mohammad; Prakash, Arun; Babu, Gattu R.; Thankey, Prashant; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    As a part of phase-I up-gradation of Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1), Graphite Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been integrated inside SST-1 vacuum vessel as a first wall (FW) during Nov 14 and May 2015. The SST-1 FW has a total surface area of the installed PFCs exposed to plasma is ∼ 40 m2 which is nearly 50% of the total surface area of stainless steel vacuum chamber (∼75 m2). The volume of the vessel within the PFCs is ∼ 16 m3. After the integration of PFCs, the entire vessel as well as the PFC cooling/baking circuits has been qualified with an integrated helium leak tightness of baked at 250 °C for nearly 20 hours employing hot nitrogen gas to remove the absorbed water vapours. Thereafter, Helium glow discharges cleaning were carried out towards the removal of surface impurities. The pump down characteristics of SST-1 vacuum chamber and the changes in the residual gaseous impurities after the installation of the PFCs will be discussed in this paper.

  16. Comparative assessment of seller's staining test (SST) and direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the only standard method. Objective: This study was designed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the SST in relation to the 'gold standard' dFAT in diagnosis of rabies in Nigeria. Methods: A total of 88 animal specimens submitted to the Rabies National Reference Laboratory, Nigeria were routinely tested for rabies by ...

  17. Are North Atlantic Multidecadal SST Anomalies Westward Propagating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Qingyi; Dijkstra, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The westward propagation of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies is one of the main characteristics of one of the theories of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Here we use techniques from complex network modeling to investigate the existence of the westward propagation in the North Atlantic

  18. The effect of SST emissions on the earth's ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, R. C.; Turco, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    The work presented here is directed toward assessment of environmental effects of the supersonic transport (SST). The model used for the purpose includes vertical eddy transport and the photochemistry of the O-H-N system. It is found that the flight altitude has a pronounced effect on ozone depletion. The largest ozone reduction occurs for NO deposition above an altitude of 20 km.

  19. Cryogenic operation strategy for the SST-1 device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanna, V.L.; Pradhan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The SST-1 has been operated since 2012 as part of its engineering commissioning and almost 5 experimental campaigns have been successfully completed. Before final assembling, cool-down and current excitation tests for the Toroidal field coils and PF 3 (Upper) coil were demonstrated successfully as part of validation under coils test program. These superconducting coils consist of a cable-in-conduit conductor, (CICC) is cooled by the forced-flow Two-phase flow as well as supercritical helium conditions. During the recent campaigns, hydraulic characteristics of whole superconducting magnets along with the TF case cooling were studied as an integral system. Based on the experimental observations, efforts have been made to cryo stable conditions of the SST-1 superconducting magnets system in order to produce steady state TF magnetic field of 1.5 T at the plasma center. Optimization of Helium plant related processes have been worked out and implemented to realize the successful SST-1 device operation over a week. In order to have long experimental campaign, an intermediate temperature cooling down philosophy has been adopted. The complete superconducting coils flow distribution among their cooling channels and pressure head requirements were studied from the measurements. In this paper, we will highlight the recent cool-down results, flow distribution and temperature uniformity aspects while cooling down the SST-1 magnets system. (author)

  20. Interannual SST Variability in the Japan/East Sea and Relationship with Environmental Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Soya Strait (SS), and Tartar Strait (TTS). (b) Regional geography. Interannual SST Variability in the Japan/East Sea 117 200 interruptions due to...caused by differential seasonal forcing. During the summer strong solar radiation penetrates into the entire Longitude(oE) La tit ud e( o N ) 50 50 100...1988.6 1988.8 1989 1989.2 1989.4 1989.6 1989.8 1990 1990.2 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Time(year) Te m pe ra tu re (o C ) Longitude(oE) La tit ud e( o N ) (a) 5

  1. Remote and Local Influences in Forecasting Pacific SST: a Linear Inverse Model and a Multimodel Ensemble Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiani Dias, D.; Subramanian, A. C.; Zanna, L.; Miller, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific sector is well known to vary on time scales from seasonal to decadal, and the ability to predict these SST fluctuations has many societal and economical benefits. Therefore, we use a suite of statistical linear inverse models (LIMs) to understand the remote and local SST variability that influences SST predictions over the North Pacific region and further improve our understanding on how the long-observed SST record can help better guide multi-model ensemble forecasts. Observed monthly SST anomalies in the Pacific sector (between 15oS and 60oN) are used to construct different regional LIMs for seasonal to decadal prediction. The forecast skills of the LIMs are compared to that from two operational forecast systems in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) revealing that the LIM has better skill in the Northeastern Pacific than NMME models. The LIM is also found to have comparable forecast skill for SST in the Tropical Pacific with NMME models. This skill, however, is highly dependent on the initialization month, with forecasts initialized during the summer having better skill than those initialized during the winter. The forecast skill with LIM is also influenced by the verification period utilized to make the predictions, likely due to the changing character of El Niño in the 20th century. The North Pacific seems to be a source of predictability for the Tropics on seasonal to interannual time scales, while the Tropics act to worsen the skill for the forecast in the North Pacific. The data were also bandpassed into seasonal, interannual and decadal time scales to identify the relationships between time scales using the structure of the propagator matrix. For the decadal component, this coupling occurs the other way around: Tropics seem to be a source of predictability for the Extratropics, but the Extratropics don't improve the predictability for the Tropics. These results indicate the importance of temporal

  2. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: prototype technologies goals and strategies for the future SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Busatta, Andrea; Giacomel, Stefano; Folla, Ivan; Valsecchi, Marco; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Cascone, Enrico; Conconi, Paolo; Fiorini, Mauro; Giro, Enrico; La Palombara, Nicola; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Sironi, Giorgia; Stringhetti, Luca; Toso, Giorgio; Tosti, Gino; Pellicciari, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will represent the next generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope. Using a combination of large-, medium-, and small-scale telescopes (LST, MST, SST, respectively), it will explore the Very High Energy domain from a few tens of GeVup to about few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging quality. In this framework, the Italian ASTRI program, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) developed a 4-meter class telescope, which will adopt an aplanatic, wide-field, double-reflection optical layout in a Schwarzschild- Couder configuration. Within this program INAF assigned to the consortium between Galbiati Group and EIE Group the construction, assembly and tests activities of the prototype named ASTRI SST-2M. On the basis of the lesson learnt from the prototype, other telescopes will be produced, starting from a re-design phase, in order to optimize performances and the overall costs and production schedule for the CTA-SST telescope. This paper will firstly give an overview of the concept for the SST prototype mount structure. In this contest, the technologies adopted for the design, manufacturing and tests of the entire system will be presented. Moreover, a specific focus on the challenges of the prototype and the strategies associated with it will be provided, in order to outline the near future performance goals for this type of Cherenkov telescopes employed for Gamma ray science.

  3. Mechanical design of SST-GATE, a dual-mirror telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Huet, Jean-Michel; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Delphine; Laporte, Philippe; Sol, Hélène; Blake, Simon

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project aims to create the next generation Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray telescope array. It will be devoted to the observation of gamma rays over a wide band of energy, from a few tens of GeV to more than 100 TeV. Two sites are foreseen to view the whole sky where about 100 telescopes, composed of three different classes, related to the specific energy region to be investigated, will be installed. Among these, the Small Size class of Telescopes, SSTs, are devoted to the highest energy region, to beyond 100 TeV. Due to the large number of SSTs, their unit cost is an important parameter. At the Observatoire de Paris, we have designed a prototype of a Small Size Telescope named SST-GATE, based on the dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optical formula, which has never before been implemented in the design of a telescope. Over the last two years, we developed a mechanical design for SST-GATE from the optical and preliminary mechanical designs made by the University of Durham. The integration of this telescope is currently in progress. Since the early stages of mechanical design of SST-GATE, finite element method has been used employing shape and topology optimization techniques to help design several elements of the telescope. This allowed optimization of the mechanical stiffness/mass ratio, leading to a lightweight and less expensive mechanical structure. These techniques and the resulting mechanical design are detailed in this paper. We will also describe the finite element analyses carried out to calculate the mechanical deformations and the stresses in the structure under observing and survival conditions.

  4. Predicting summer monsoon of Bhutan based on SST and teleconnection indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Singay; Herath, Srikantha; Mishra, Binaya Kumar; Chophel, Ugyen

    2018-02-01

    The paper uses a statistical method of predicting summer monsoon over Bhutan using the ocean-atmospheric circulation variables of sea surface temperature (SST), mean sea-level pressure (MSLP), and selected teleconnection indices. The predictors are selected based on the correlation. They are the SST and MSLP of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea and the MSLP of Bangladesh and northeast India. The Northern Hemisphere teleconnections of East Atlantic Pattern (EA), West Pacific Pattern (WP), Pacific/North American Pattern, and East Atlantic/West Russia Pattern (EA/WR). The rainfall station data are grouped into two regions with principal components analysis and Ward's hierarchical clustering algorithm. A support vector machine for regression model is proposed to predict the monsoon. The model shows improved skills over traditional linear regression. The model was able to predict the summer monsoon for the test data from 2011 to 2015 with a total monthly root mean squared error of 112 mm for region A and 33 mm for region B. Model could also forecast the 2016 monsoon of the South Asia Monsoon Outlook of World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for Bhutan. The reliance on agriculture and hydropower economy makes the prediction of summer monsoon highly valuable information for farmers and various other sectors. The proposed method can predict summer monsoon for operational forecasting.

  5. Atlantic water variability on the SE Greenland continental shelf and its relationship to SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, D. A.; Straneo, F.; Rosing-Asvid, A.; Stenson, G.; Davidson, F. J.; Hammill, M.

    2012-12-01

    Interaction of warm, Atlantic-origin water (AW) and colder, polar origin water (PW) advecting southward in the East Greenland Current (EGC) influences the heat content of water entering Greenland's outlet glacial fjords. Here we use depth and temperature data derived from deep-diving seals to map out water mass variability across the continental shelf and to augment existing bathymetric products. We find two dominant modes in the vertical temperature structure: a cold mode, with the typical AW/PW layering observed in the EGC, and a warm mode, where AW is present throughout the water column. The prevalence of these modes varies seasonally and spatially across the continental shelf, implying distinct AW pathways. In addition, we find that satellite sea surface temperatures (SST) correlate significantly with temperatures in the upper 50 m (R=0.54), but this correlation decreases with depth (R=0.22 at 200 m), and becomes insignificant below 250 m. Thus, care must be taken in using SST as a proxy for heat content, as AW mainly resides in these deeper layers. Regional map showing the location of all seal tracks originating from Canada and Greenland (stars). Tracks passing inside (red) or outside (blue) the SE Greenland region (black) were subdivided into continental shelf regions (green boxes) near Sermilik Fjord (SF), Cape Farewell (CF) and Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord (KG). GEBCO bathymetry is contoured at 200, 1000, 2000, and 3000 m.

  6. Pattern Analysis of El Nino and La Nina Phenomenon Based on Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Rainfall Intensity using Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) in West Java Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Yudo; Nabilah, Farras

    2017-12-01

    Climate change occurs in 1998-2016 brings significant alteration in the earth surface. It is affects an extremely anomaly temperature such as El Nino and La Nina or mostly known as ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation). West Java is one of the regions in Indonesia that encounters the impact of this phenomenon. Climate change due to ENSO also affects food production and other commodities. In this research, processing data method is conducted using programming language to process SST data and rainfall data from 1998 to 2016. The data are sea surface temperature from NOAA satellite, SST Reynolds (Sea Surface Temperature) and daily rainfall temperature from TRMM satellite. Data examination is done using analysis of rainfall spatial pattern and sea surface temperature (SST) where is affected by El Nino and La Nina phenomenon. This research results distribution map of SST and rainfall for each season to find out the impacts of El Nino and La Nina around West Java. El Nino and La Nina in Java Sea are occurring every August to February. During El Nino, sea surface temperature is between 27°C - 28°C with average temperature on 27.71°C. Rainfall intensity is 1.0 mm/day - 2.0 mm/day and the average are 1.63 mm/day. During La Nina, sea surface temperature is between 29°C - 30°C with average temperature on 29.06°C. Rainfall intensity is 9.0 mm/day - 10 mm/day, and the average is 9.74 mm/day. The correlation between rainfall and SST is 0,413 which is expresses a fairly strong correlation between parameters. The conclusion is, during La Nina SST and rainfall increase. While during El Nino SST and rainfall decrease. Hopefully this research could be a guideline to plan disaster mitigation in West Java region that is related extreme climate change.

  7. On the warm nearshore bias in Pathfinder monthly SST products over Eastern Boundary upwelling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dufois, F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using in situ sea surface temperature (SST) data and MODIS/TERRA SST, the monthly AVHRR Pathfinder (version 5.0 and 5.2) SST product was evaluated within the four main Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. A warm bias in the monthly Pathfinder data...

  8. Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and its atmospheric teleconnection over the western North Pacific (WNP) toward the North Pacific/North America during boreal winter are investigated. First, we defined the WNP mode as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies over the WNP region (100-165°E, 0-35°N), of which the principle component time-series are significantly correlated with several well-known climate modes such as the warm pool mode which is the second EOF mode of the tropical to North Pacific SST anomalies, North Pacific oscillation (NPO), North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO), and central Pacific (CP)-El Niño at 95% confidence level, but not correlated with the eastern Pacific (EP)-El Niño. The warm phase of the WNP mode (sea surface warming) is initiated by anomalous southerly winds through reduction of wind speed with the background of northerly mean winds over the WNP during boreal winter, i.e., reduced evaporative cooling. Meanwhile, the atmospheric response to the SST warming pattern and its diabatic heating further enhance the southerly wind anomaly, referred to the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback. Thus, the WNP mode is developed and maintained through winter until spring, when the northerly mean wind disappears. Furthermore, it is also known that anomalous upper-level divergence associated with WNP mode leads to the NPO-like structure over the North Pacific and the east-west pressure contrast pattern over the North America through Rossby wave propagation, impacting the climate over the North Pacific and North America.

  9. AVHRR GAC SST Reanalysis Version 1 (RAN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ignatov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In response to its users’ needs, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA initiated reanalysis (RAN of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR Global Area Coverage (GAC; 4 km sea surface temperature (SST data employing its Advanced Clear Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO retrieval system. Initially, AVHRR/3 data from five NOAA and two Metop satellites from 2002 to 2015 have been reprocessed. The derived SSTs have been matched up with two reference SSTs—the quality controlled in situ SSTs from the NOAA in situ Quality Monitor (iQuam and the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC L4 SST analysis—and analyzed in the NOAA SST Quality Monitor (SQUAM online system. The corresponding clear-sky ocean brightness temperatures (BT in AVHRR bands 3b, 4 and 5 (centered at 3.7, 11, and 12 µm, respectively have been compared with the Community Radiative Transfer Model simulations in another NOAA online system, Monitoring of Infrared Clear-sky Radiances over Ocean for SST (MICROS. For some AVHRRs, the time series of “AVHRR minus reference” SSTs and “observed minus model” BTs are unstable and inconsistent, with artifacts in the SSTs and BTs strongly correlated. In the official “Reanalysis version 1” (RAN1, data from only five platforms—two midmorning (NOAA-17 and Metop-A and three afternoon (NOAA-16, -18 and -19—were included during the most stable periods of their operations. The stability of the SST time series was further improved using variable regression SST coefficients, similarly to how it was done in the NOAA/NASA Pathfinder version 5.2 (PFV5.2 dataset. For data assimilation applications, especially those blending satellite and in situ SSTs, we recommend bias-correcting the RAN1 SSTs using the newly developed sensor-specific error statistics (SSES, which are reported in the product files. Relative performance of RAN1 and PFV5.2 SSTs is discussed. Work is underway to improve the calibration of AVHRR/3s and

  10. Modelling the diurnal variability of SST and its vertical extent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.; Donlon, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    of the water column where most of the heat is absorbed and where the exchange of heat and momentum with the atmosphere occurs. During day-time and under favourable conditions of low winds and high insolation, diurnal warming of the upper layer poses challenges for validating and calibrating satellite sensors......Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is a key variable in air-sea interactions, partly controlling the oceanic uptake of CO2 and the heat exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, amongst others. Satellite SSTs are representative of skin and sub-skin temperature, i.e. in the upper millimetres...... and merging SST time series. When radiometer signals, typically from satellites, are validated with in situ measurements from drifting and moored buoys a general mismatch is found, associated with the different reference depth of each type of measurement. A generally preferred approach to bridge the gap...

  11. Electronics and instrumentation for the SST-1 superconducting magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristi, Yohan; Pradhan, Subrata; Varmora, Pankaj; Banaudha, Moni; Praghi, Bhadresh R.; Prasad, Upendra

    2015-01-01

    Steady State Superconducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India is now in operation phase. The SST-1 magnet system consists of sixteen superconducting (SC), D-shaped Toroidal Field (TF) coils and nine superconducting Poloidal Field (PF) coils together with a pair of resistive PF coils, inside the vacuum vessel of SST-1. The magnets were cooled down to 4.5 K using either supercritical or two-phase helium, after which they were charged up to 10 kA of transport current. Precise quench detection system, cryogenic temperature, magnetic field, strain, displacement, flow and pressure measurements in the Superconducting (SC) magnet were mandatory. The Quench detection electronics required to protect the SC magnets from the magnet Quench therefore system must be reliable and prompt to detect the quench from the harsh tokamak environment and high magnetic field interference. A ∼200 channels of the quench detection system for the TF magnet are working satisfactorily with its design criteria. Over ∼150 channels Temperature measurement system was implemented for the several locations in the magnet and hydraulic circuits with required accuracy of 0.1K at bellow 30K cryogenic temperature. Whereas the field, strain and displacement measurements were carried out at few predefined locations on the magnet. More than 55 channels of Flow and pressure measurements are carried out to know the cooling condition and the mass flow of the liquid helium (LHe) coolant for the SC Magnet system. This report identifies the different in-house modular signal conditioning electronics and instrumentation systems, calibration at different levels and the outcomes for the SST-1 TF magnet system. (author)

  12. Operational and troubleshooting experiences in the SST-1 cryogenic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesuria, G.; Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.; Sonara, D.; Gupta, N. C.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Patel, K.; Shah, P.; Nimavat, H.; Sharma, R.; Patel, J. C.; Tank, J.; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the cooldown and current charging campaign have been carried out towards the demonstration of the first successful plasma discharge in the steady state superconducting Tokomak (SST-1). The SST-1 machine consists of cable-in-conduit wound superconducting toroidal as well as poloidal coils, cooled using 1.3 kW at 4.5 K helium refrigerator -cum- liquefier (HRL) system. The cryo system provides the two-phase helium at 0.13 MPa at 4.5 K as well as forced-flow pressurized helium at 0.4 MPa and in addition to 7 g-s-1 liquefaction capacity required for the current leads and other cold mass at 4.5 K. The entire integrated cold masses having different thermo hydraulic resistances cooled with the SST-1 HRL in optimised process parameters. In order to maintain different levels of temperatures and to facilitate smooth and reliable cooldown, warm-up, normal operations as well as to handle abnormal events such as, quench or utilities failures etc., exergy efficient process are adopted for the helium refrigerator-cum-liquefier (HRL) with an installed equivalent capacity of 1.3 kW at 4.5 K. Using the HRL, the cold mass of about 40 tons is being routinely cooled down from ambient temperature to 4.5 K with an average cooldown rate of 0.75 - 1 K-h-1. Long-term cryogenic stable conditions were obtained within 15 days in the superconducting coils and their connecting feeders. Afterwards, all of the cold mass is warmed-up in a controlled manner to ambient temperature. In this paper, we report the recent operational results of the cryogenic system during the first plasma discharge in SST-1 as well as the troubleshooting experiences of the cryogenic plant related hardware.

  13. Baking of SST-1 vacuum vessel modules and sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, Firozkhan S; Khan, Ziauddin; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Manthena, Himabindu; Shah, Virendrakumar; Raval, Dilip C; Thankey, Prashant L; Dhanani, Kalpesh R; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-01-01

    SST-1 Tokamak is a steady state super-conducting tokamak for plasma discharge of 1000 sec duration. The plasma discharge of such long time duration can be obtained by reducing the impurities level, which will be possible only when SST-1 vacuum chamber is pumped to ultra high vacuum. In order to achieve UHV inside the chamber, the baking of complete vacuum chamber has to be carried out during pumping. For this purpose the C-channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. During baking of vacuum vessel, these welded channels should be helium leak tight. Further, these U-channels will be in accessible under operational condition of SST-1. So, it will not possible to repair if any leak is developed during experiment. To avoid such circumstances, a dedicated high vacuum chamber is used for baking of the individual vacuum modules and sectors before assembly so that any fault during welding of the channels will be obtained and repaired. This paper represents the baking of vacuum vessel modules and sectors and their temperature distribution along the entire surface before assembly.

  14. Experience of superconducting current feeders system of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.C.; Garg, A.; Sonara, D.

    2014-01-01

    The superconducting current feeder system for SST-1 which has been installed and commissioned recently along with SST-1, felicitates to energize the SST-1. The CFS consists of ten pairs of 10,000 Ampere (A) rating helium vapor cooled conventional current leads, interconnecting Cu-SC joints, three numbers of cryo-compatible SC feeders ducts, current leads assembly chamber, hydraulic network and three numbers of joint boxes operated at different current rating to charge Toroidal Field and Poloidal Field coils separately. During the last three campaigns, it was possible to achieve a controlled cool down up to 4 K and showed its rated operational performance. Actively cooled liquid nitrogen shield showed temperature profile in the temperature range of 80-85K and the whole system was evacuated up to 6x10 -6 mbar. The measured LHe consumption rates from TF VCCL were 0.3 g/s and 0.35 g/s at zero current and 1 kA respectively. (author)

  15. Comparison of the Northeast Arctic cod year class strength (at the age of 3+) with the SST anomalies in main spawning ground (the Norwegian Shelf Waters) by results of analysis satellite monitoring data during last years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyushin, George

    2015-04-01

    Continuous long-term database (1998-2014) on the sea surface temperature (SST) comprising results of regional satellite monitoring (the Norwegian and the Barents seas) is used to resolve several applied problems. Authors have analyzed indirect influence the SST (the NOAA satellite data) on modern cod total stock biomass (abundance of the Northeast Arctic cod at age 3+). In this study, we went on the consideration of the relationship between the SST anomalies for March-April in the main spawning ground of the cod off the Lofoten islands in the Norwegian Shelf Waters and forecasting assessment of future cod generation success and its future abundance of 3 year old. Mean monthly SST and SST anomalies are computed for the selected area on the basis of the weekly SST maps which made by using the NOAA satellites data for the period 1998-2014. Comparison of the SST anomalies in the main spawning ground with abundance of the cod year class at age 3+ shows that survival of the cod generations was inhibited on the whole as negative (below -0,1C) well as positive SST anomalies (above +1,3C) during March and April. Finally, the results indicate that poor and low middle generations of cod at age 3+ (2002, 2004, 2010) occurred in years with negative or extremely high positive the SST anomalies in the spawning area. The SST anomalies in years which were close to normal significances provide conditions for appearance middle or strong generations of cod (2001-2003, 2005-2009, 2011-2013). So, the SST and SST anomalies (by the NOAA satellite data) characterize of increase in input of warm Atlantic waters which form numerous eddies along the main stream thus creating favorable conditions for spawning and development of the cod larvae and fry and provide them with food stock, finally direct influence on forming total stock biomass of cod and helping its population forecast. Key words: satellite monitoring of SST, the Northeast Arctic cod, spawning ground, forecast of the cod year class

  16. Evaporation/SST Sensitivity Over the Tropical Oceans During ENSO Events as Estimated from the da Silva, Young, Levitus Surface Marine Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Fitzjarrald, D. E.; Sohn, B.-J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The da Silva, Young and Levitus Surface Marine Atlas, based on observations from the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) Release 1, has been used to investigate the relationship between evaporation and sea-surface temperature (SST) over the global oceans. For the period 1950 to 1987 SST, surface latent heat flux, and other related variables have been filtered to minimize data uncertainties and to focus upon interannual variations associated with warm (El Nino) and cold (La Nina) ENSO events. Compositing procedures have enabled identification of systematic variations in latent heat fluxes accompanying these events and the relationship to spatial anomalies in ocean surface wind speed and humidity. The evaporation response associated with ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) variability is systematic in nature and composed of offsetting contributions from the surface wind and humidity variations. During warm events exceeding 1.0 S.D. delta SST, increases in the surface humidity deficit, delta(qs-qa), between the surface and 2m height dominate regions of positive SST anomalies and lead to increases in evaporation of almost 2 Wm (exp -2) at deltaSST = 0.23 K. Despite the increases in specific humidity, relative humidity decreases slightly in regions of elevated SSTs. For the most part, variations in wind speed are consistent with previous investigations. Weakening of the equatorial easterlies (and generation of westerlies) between 160 degrees E and 140 degrees W dominates during the early phases of warm events. Elevated wind speeds in adjacent subtropical regions and in the eastern equatorial Pacific subsequently develop too. The net contribution of these winds, which reflect adjustments in Hadley and Walker circulation components is toward reduced evaporation. Results for cold periods are approximately similar, but opposite in sign to warm events, though evidence of different temporal evolution is noted.

  17. Test results on systems developed for SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, D.

    2003-01-01

    Steady state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a large aspect ratio tokamak, configured to run double null diverted plasmas with significant elongation (κ) and triangularity Superconducting (SC) magnets are deployed for both the toroidal and poloidal field coils in SST-1. A NbTi based cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) has been fabricated by M/S Hitachi Cables Ltd., Japan under specification and supervision of IPR. The suitability of this CICC for the SST-1 magnets has been validated through test carried out on a model coil (MC) wound from this CICC. Toroidal and poloidal SC magnets have been fabricated and factory acceptance tests have been performed. SC magnets require liquid helium (LHe) cooled current leads, electrical isolators at LHe temperature, superconducting bus bars and LHe transfer lines. Full scale prototypes of these have been developed and tested successfully. SC magnets will be cooled to 4.5K by forced flow of supercritical Helium through the CICC. A 1 kW grade liquefier/refrigerator has been installed and is in final stages of commissioning at IPR. SST-1 deploys a fully welded ultra high vacuum vessel, made up of 16 vessel sectors having ports and 16 rings with D-shaped cross-section. To establish the fabrication methodology for this, a full scale proto-type of the vessel with two vessel sectors and three rings has been fabricated and tested successfully. Based on this the fabrication of the vessel sectors and rings is in final stage of fabrication. Liquid nitrogen cooled radiation shield are deployed between the vacuum vessel and SC magnets as well as SC magnets and cryostat, to minimize the radiation losses at the SC magnets. SST-1 will have three different high power radio frequency (RF) systems to additionally heat and non-inductively drive plasma current to sustain the plasma in steady state for a duration of up to 1000 sec. Ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) and electron cyclotron resonance frequency (ECRF) systems will primarily be

  18. Southern Indian Ocean SST as a modulator for the progression of Indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Namendra Kumar; Rai, Shailendra; Mishra, Nishant

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of southern Indian Ocean (SIO) sea surface temperature (SST) as a modulator for the early phase of Indian summer monsoon and its possible physical mechanism. A dipole-like structure is obtained from the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis which is similar to an Indian Ocean subtropical dipole (IOSD) found earlier. A subtropical dipole index (SDI) is defined based on the SST anomaly over the positive and negative poles. The regression map of rainfall over India in the month of June corresponding to the SDI during 1983-2013 shows negative patterns along the Western Ghats and Central India. However, the regression pattern is insignificant during 1952-1982. The multiple linear regression models and partial correlation analysis also indicate that the SDI acts as a dominant factor to influence the rainfall over India in the month of June during 1983-2013. The similar result is also obtained with the help of composite rainfall over the land points of India in the month of June for positive (negative) SDI events. It is also observed that the positive (negative) SDI delays (early) the onset dates of Indian monsoon over Kerala during the time domain of our study. The study is further extended to identify the physical mechanism of this impact, and it is found that the heating (cooling) in the region covering SDI changes the circulation pattern in the SIO and hence impacts the progression of monsoon in India.

  19. An Entropy-Assisted Shielding Function in DDES Formulation for the SST Turbulence Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The intent of shielding functions in delayed detached-eddy simulation methods (DDES is to preserve the wall boundary layers as Reynolds-averaged Navier–Strokes (RANS mode, avoiding possible modeled stress depletion (MSD or even unphysical separation due to grid refinement. An entropy function fs is introduced to construct a DDES formulation for the k-ω shear stress transport (SST model, whose performance is extensively examined on a range of attached and separated flows (flat-plate flow, circular cylinder flow, and supersonic cavity-ramp flow. Two more forms of shielding functions are also included for comparison: one that uses the blending function F2 of SST, the other which adopts the recalibrated shielding function fd_cor of the DDES version based on the Spalart-Allmaras (SA model. In general, all of the shielding functions do not impair the vortex in fully separated flows. However, for flows including attached boundary layer, both F2 and the recalibrated fd_cor are found to be too conservative to resolve the unsteady flow content. On the other side, fs is proposed on the theory of energy dissipation and independent on from any particular turbulence model, showing the generic priority by properly balancing the need of reserving the RANS modeled regions for wall boundary layers and generating the unsteady turbulent structures in detached areas.

  20. Evaluating the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) on spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a concentration in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenxu; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Cheng, Qiuming; Tsou, JinYeu; Jiang, Tingchen; Liang, X. San

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we analyze spatial and temporal sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophylla (Chl-a) concentration in the East China Sea (ECS) during the period 2003-2016. Level 3 (4 km) monthly SST and Chl-a data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Satellite (MODIS-Aqua) were reconstructed using the data interpolation empirical orthogonal function (DINEOF) method and used to evaluated the relationship between the two variables. The approaches employed included correlation analysis, regression analysis, and so forth. Our results show that certain strong oceanic SSTs affect Chl-a concentration, with particularly high correlation seen in the coastal area of Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. The mean temperature of the high correlated region was 18.67 °C. This finding may suggest that the SST has an important impact on the spatial distribution of Chl-a concentration in the ECS.

  1. Mechanisms controlling the intra-annual mesoscale variability of SST and SPM in the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Julie D.; de Boer, Gerben J.; Eleveld, Marieke A.

    2011-04-01

    Thermal and optical remote sensing data were used to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of sea surface temperature (SST) and of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the southern North Sea. Monthly SST composites showed pronounced seasonal warming of the southern North Sea and delineated the English coastal and continental coastal waters. The East-Anglia Plume is the dominant feature of the English coastal waters in the winter and autumn SPM composites, and the Rhine region of freshwater influence (ROFI), including the Flemish Banks, is the dominant feature of the continental waters. These mesoscale spatial structures are also influenced by the evolution of fronts, such as the seasonal front separating well-mixed water in the southern Bight, from the seasonally stratified central North Sea waters. A harmonic analysis of the SST and SPM images showed pronounced seasonal variability, as well as spring-neap variations in the level of tidal mixing in the East Anglia Plume, the Rhine ROFI and central North Sea. The harmonic analysis indicates the important role played by the local meteorology and tides in governing the SST and near-surface SPM concentrations in the southern North Sea. In the summer, thermal stratification affects the visibility of SPM to satellite sensors in the waters to the north of the Flamborough and Frisian Fronts. Haline stratification plays an important role in the visibility of SPM in the Rhine ROFI throughout the year. When stratified, both regions typically exhibit low surface SPM values. A numerical model study, together with the harmonic analysis, highlights the importance of tides and waves in controlling the stratification in the southern North Sea and hence the visibility of SPM.

  2. Roles of tropical SST patterns during two types of ENSO in modulating wintertime rainfall over southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Huang, Qing-Lan; Tam, Chi-Yung; Wang, Weiqiang; Chen, Sheng; Zhu, Congwen

    2018-03-01

    The impacts of the eastern-Pacific (EP) and central-Pacific (CP) El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the southern China wintertime rainfall (SCWR) have been investigated. Results show that wintertime rainfall over most stations in southern China is enhanced (suppressed) during the EP (CP) El Niño, which are attributed to different atmospheric responses in the western North Pacific (WNP) and South China Sea (SCS) during two types of ENSO. When EP El Niño occurs, an anomalous low-level anticyclone is present over WNP/the Philippines region, resulting in stronger-than-normal southwesterlies over SCS. Such a wind branch acts to suppress East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) and enhance moisture supply, implying surplus SCWR. During CP El Niño, however, anomalous sinking and low-level anticyclonic flow are found to cover a broad region in SCS. These circulation features are associated with moisture divergence over the northern part of SCS and suppressed SCWR. General circulation model experiments have also been conducted to study influence of various tropical sea surface temperature (SST) patterns on the EAWM atmospheric circulation. For EP El Niño, formation of anomalous low-level WNP anticyclone is jointly attributed to positive/negative SST anomalies (SSTA) over the central-to-eastern/ western equatorial Pacific. However, both positive and negative CP Niño-related-SSTA, located respectively over the central Pacific and WNP/SCS, offset each other and contribute a weak but broad-scale anticyclone centered at SCS. These results suggest that, besides the vital role of SST warming, SST cooling over SCS/WNP during two types of El Niño should be considered carefully for understanding the El Niño-EAWM relationship.

  3. Overview of data acquisition and central control system of steady state superconducting Tokamak (SST-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, S.; Mahajan, K.; Gulati, H.K.; Sharma, M.; Kumar, A.; Patel, K.; Masand, H.; Mansuri, I.; Dhongde, J.; Bhandarkar, M.; Chudasama, H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper gives overview on SST-1 data acquisition and central control system and future upgrade plans. • The lossless PXI based data acquisition of SST-1 is capable of acquiring around 130 channels with sampling frequency ranging from 10 KHz to 1 MHz sampling frequency. • Design, architecture and technologies used for central control system (CCS) of SST-1. • Functions performed by CCS. - Abstract: Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) has been commissioned successfully and has been carrying out limiter assisted ohmic plasma experiments since the beginning of 2014 achieving a maximum plasma current of 75 kA at a central field of 1.5 T and the plasma duration ∼500 ms. In near future, SST-1 looks forward to carrying out elongated plasma experiments and stretching plasma pulses beyond 1 s. The data acquisition and central control system (CCS) for SST-1 are distributed, modular, hierarchical and scalable in nature The CCS has been indigenously designed, developed, implemented, tested and validated for the operation of SST-1. The CCS has been built using well proven technologies like Redhat Linux, vxWorks RTOS for deterministic control, FPGA based hardware implementation, Ethernet, fiber optics backbone for network, DSP for real-time computation & Reflective memory for high-speed data transfer etc. CCS in SST-1 controls & monitors various heterogeneous SST-1 subsystems dispersed in the same campus. The CCS consists of machine control system, basic plasma control system, GPS time synchronization system, storage area network (SAN) for centralize data storage, SST-1 networking system, real-time networks, SST-1 control room infrastructure and many other supportive systems. Machine Control System (MCS) is a multithreaded event driven system running on Linux based servers, where each thread of the software communicates to a unique subsystem for monitoring and control from SST-1 central control room through network programming. The CCS hardware

  4. Overview of data acquisition and central control system of steady state superconducting Tokamak (SST-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, S., E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Mahajan, K.; Gulati, H.K.; Sharma, M.; Kumar, A.; Patel, K.; Masand, H.; Mansuri, I.; Dhongde, J.; Bhandarkar, M.; Chudasama, H.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The paper gives overview on SST-1 data acquisition and central control system and future upgrade plans. • The lossless PXI based data acquisition of SST-1 is capable of acquiring around 130 channels with sampling frequency ranging from 10 KHz to 1 MHz sampling frequency. • Design, architecture and technologies used for central control system (CCS) of SST-1. • Functions performed by CCS. - Abstract: Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) has been commissioned successfully and has been carrying out limiter assisted ohmic plasma experiments since the beginning of 2014 achieving a maximum plasma current of 75 kA at a central field of 1.5 T and the plasma duration ∼500 ms. In near future, SST-1 looks forward to carrying out elongated plasma experiments and stretching plasma pulses beyond 1 s. The data acquisition and central control system (CCS) for SST-1 are distributed, modular, hierarchical and scalable in nature The CCS has been indigenously designed, developed, implemented, tested and validated for the operation of SST-1. The CCS has been built using well proven technologies like Redhat Linux, vxWorks RTOS for deterministic control, FPGA based hardware implementation, Ethernet, fiber optics backbone for network, DSP for real-time computation & Reflective memory for high-speed data transfer etc. CCS in SST-1 controls & monitors various heterogeneous SST-1 subsystems dispersed in the same campus. The CCS consists of machine control system, basic plasma control system, GPS time synchronization system, storage area network (SAN) for centralize data storage, SST-1 networking system, real-time networks, SST-1 control room infrastructure and many other supportive systems. Machine Control System (MCS) is a multithreaded event driven system running on Linux based servers, where each thread of the software communicates to a unique subsystem for monitoring and control from SST-1 central control room through network programming. The CCS hardware

  5. AGCM hindcasts with SST and other forcings: Responses from global to agricultural scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kathryn Pierce; Rind, David; Druyan, Leonard; Lonergan, Patrick; Chandler, Mark

    2000-08-01

    Multiple realizations of the 1969-1998 time period have been simulated by the GISS AGCM to explore its responsiveness to accumulated forcings, particularly over sensitive agricultural regions. A microwave radiative transfer postprocessor has produced the AGCM lower tropospheric, tropospheric, and lower stratospheric brightness temperature (Tb) time series for correlations with microwave sounding unit (MSU) time series. AGCM regional surface air temperature and precipitation were also correlated with GISTEMP temperature data and with rain gage data. Seven realizations by the AGCM were forced solely by observed sea surface temperatures. Subsequent runs hindcast January 1969 through April 1998 with an accumulation of forcings: observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs), greenhouse gases, stratospheric volcanic aerosols, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric sulfate and black carbon aerosols. Lower stratospheric Tb correlations between the AGCM and the MSU for 1979-1998 reached as high as 0.93 globally given SST, greenhouse gases, volcanic aerosol, and stratospheric ozone forcings. Midtropospheric Tb correlations reached as high as 0.66 globally and 0.84 across the equatorial, 20°S-20°N band. Oceanic lower tropospheric Tb correlations were less high at 0.59 globally and 0.79 across the equatorial band. Of the sensitive agricultural areas considered, Nordeste in northeastern Brazil was simulated best with midtropospheric Tb correlations up to 0.80. The two other agricultural regions, in Africa and in the northern midlatitudes, suffered from higher levels of non-SST-induced variability. Zimbabwe had a maximum midtropospheric correlation of 0.54, while the U.S. Corn Belt reached only 0.25. Hindcast surface temperatures and precipitation were also correlated with observations, up to 0.46 and 0.63, respectively, for Nordeste. Correlations between AGCM and observed time series improved with addition of certain atmospheric forcings in zonal bands but not in

  6. Design and Architecture of SST-1 basic plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kirit, E-mail: kpatel@ipr.res.in; Raju, D.; Dhongde, J.; Mahajan, K.; Chudasama, H.; Gulati, H.; Chauhan, A.; Masand, H.; Bhandarkar, M.; Pradhan, S.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Reflective Memory network. • FPAG based Timing system for trigger distribution. • IRIG-B network for GPS time synchronization. • PMC based Digital Signal Processors and VME. • Simultaneous sampling ADC. - Abstract: Primary objective of SST-1 Plasma control system is to achieve Plasma position, shape and current profile control. Architecture of control system for SST-1 is distributed in nature. Fastest control loop time requirement of 100 μs is achieved using VME based simultaneous sampling ADCs, PMC based quad core DSP, Reflective Memory [RFM] based real-time network, VME based real-time trigger distribution network and Ethernet network. All the control loops for shape control, position control and current profile control share common signals from Magnetic diagnostic so it is planned to accommodate all the algorithms on the same PMC based quad core DSP module TS C-43. RFM based real-time data network replicate data from one node to next node in a ring network topology at sustained throughput rate of 13.4 MBps. Real-time Timing System network provides guaranteed trigger distribution in 3.8 μs from one node to all node of the network. Monitoring and configuration of different systems participating in the operation of SST-1 is done by Ethernet network. Magnetic sensors data is acquired using Pentek 6802 simultaneously sampling ADC card at the rate of 10KSPS. All the real-time raw data along with the control data will be archived using RFM network and SCSI HDD for the experiment duration of 1000 s. RFM network is also planned for real-time plotting of key parameter of Plasma during long experiment. After experiment this data is transferred to central storage server for archival purpose. This paper discusses the architecture and hardware implementation of the control system by describing all the involved hardware and software along with future plans for up-gradations.

  7. Indo-Pacific Variability on Seasonal to Multidecadal Time Scales. Part I: Intrinsic SST Modes in Models and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinska, Joanna; Giannakis, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    The variability of Indo-Pacific SST on seasonal to multidecadal timescales is investigated using a recently introduced technique called nonlinear Laplacian spectral analysis (NLSA). Through this technique, drawbacks associated with ad hoc pre-filtering of the input data are avoided, enabling recovery of low-frequency and intermittent modes not previously accessible via classical approaches. Here, a multiscale hierarchy of spatiotemporal modes is identified for Indo-Pacific SST in millennial control runs of CCSM4 and CM3 and in HadISST data. On interannual timescales, a mode with spatiotemporal patterns corresponding to the fundamental component of ENSO emerges, along with ENSO-modulated annual modes consistent with combination mode theory. The ENSO combination modes also feature prominent activity in the Indian Ocean, explaining significant fraction of the SST variance in regions associated with the Indian Ocean dipole. A pattern resembling the tropospheric biennial oscillation emerges in addition to ENSO and the associated combination modes. On multidecadal timescales, the dominant NLSA mode in the model data is predominantly active in the western tropical Pacific. The interdecadal Pacific oscillation also emerges as a distinct NLSA mode, though with smaller explained variance than the western Pacific multidecadal mode. Analogous modes on interannual and decadal timescales are also identified in HadISST data for the industrial era, as well as in model data of comparable timespan, though decadal modes are either absent or of degraded quality in these datasets.

  8. Superconducting magnets and cryogenics for the steady state superconducting tokamak SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Y.C.

    2000-01-01

    SST-1 is a steady state superconducting tokamak for studying the physics of the plasma processes in tokamak under steady state conditions and to learn technologies related to the steady state operation of the tokamak. SST-1 will have superconducting magnets made from NbTi based conductors operating at 4.5 K temperature. The design of the superconducting magnets and the cryogenic system of SST-1 tokamak are described. (author)

  9. Assembly and metrology of first wall components of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, Tejas; Santra, Prosenjit; Biswas, Prabal

    2015-01-01

    First Wall components (FWC) of SST-1 tokamak, which are in the immediate vicinity of plasma comprises of limiters, divertors, baffles, passive stabilizers are designed to operate long duration (1000 s) discharges of elongated plasma. All FWC consists of a copper alloy heat sink modules with SS cooling tubes brazed onto it, graphite tiles acting as armour material facing the plasma, and are mounted to the vacuum vessels with suitable Inconel support structures at ring and port locations. The FWC are very recently assembled and commissioned successfully inside the vacuum vessel of SST-1 under going a meticulous planning of assembly sequence, quality checks at every stage of the assembly process. This paper will present the metrology aspects and procedure of each FWC, both outside the vacuum vessel, and inside the vessel, assembly tolerances, tools, equipment and jig/fixtures, used at each stage of assembly, starting from location of support bases on vessel rings, fixing of copper modules on support structures, around 3800 graphite tile mounting on 136 copper modules with proper tightening torques, till final toroidal and poloidal geometry of the in-vessel components are obtained within acceptable limits, also ensuring electrical continuity of passive stabilizers to form a closed saddle loop, electrical isolation of passive stabilizers from vacuum vessel. (author)

  10. Assembly & Metrology of First Wall Components of SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Tejas; Santra, Prosenjit; Biswas, Prabal; Patel, Hiteshkumar; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Jaiswal, Snehal; Chauhan, Pradeep; Babu, Gattu Ramesh; A, Arun Prakash; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Raval, Dilip C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    First Wall Components (FWC) of SST-1 tokamak, which are in the immediate vicinity of plasma comprises of limiters, divertors, baffles, passive stabilizers are designed to operate long duration (1000 s) discharges of elongated plasma. All FWC consists of a copper alloy heat sink modules with SS cooling tubes brazed onto it, graphite tiles acting as armour material facing the plasma, and are mounted to the vacuum vessels with suitable Inconel support structures at ring & port locations. The FWC are very recently assembled and commissioned successfully inside the vacuum vessel of SST-1 undergoing a meticulous planning of assembly sequence, quality checks at every stage of the assembly process. This paper will present the metrology aspects & procedure of each FWC, both outside the vacuum vessel, and inside the vessel, assembly tolerances, tools, equipment and jig/fixtures, used at each stage of assembly, starting from location of support bases on vessel rings, fixing of copper modules on support structures, around 3800 graphite tile mounting on 136 copper modules with proper tightening torques, till final toroidal and poloidal geometry of the in-vessel components are obtained within acceptable limits, also ensuring electrical continuity of passive stabilizers to form a closed saddle loop, electrical isolation of passive stabilizers from vacuum vessel.

  11. Design of new central solenoid for SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Upendra; Pradhan, Subrata; Ghate, Mahesh; Raj, Piyush; Tanna, V. L.; Khan, Ziauddin; Roy, Swati; Santra, Prosenjit; Biswas, Prabal; Sharma, A. N.; Khristi, Yohan; Kanaber, Deven; Varmora, Pankaj

    2017-04-01

    The key role of central solenoid (CS) magnet of a Tokamak is for gas breakdown, ramp up and maintaining of plasma current. The magnetic flux change in CS along with other PF coils generates magnetic null and induces electric field in toroidal direction. The induced toroidal electric field accelerates the residual electrons which collide with the neutrals and an avalanche takes place which led to the net plasma in the vacuum vessel of a Tokamak. In order to maximize the CS volt-sec capability, the higher magnetic field with a greater magnetic flux linkage is necessary. In order to facilitate all these requirements of SST-1 a new superconducting CS has been designed for SST-1. The design of new central solenoid has two bases; first one is physics and second is smart engineering in limited bore diameter of ∼ 655 mm. The physics basis of the design includes volt-sec storage capacity of ∼ 0.8 volt-sec, magnetic field null around 0.2 m over major radius of 1.1 m and toroidal electric field of ∼ 0.3 volt/m. The engineering design of new CS consists of Nb3Sn cable in conduit conductor (CICC) of operating current of 14 kA @ 4.5 K at 6 T, consolidated winding pack, smart quench detection system, protection system, housing cryostat and conductor terminations and joint design. The winding pack consists of 576 numbers of turns distributed in four layers with 0.75 mm FRP tape soaked with cyanide Easter based epoxy resin turn insulation and 3 mm of ground insulation. The interlayer low resistance (∼1 nΩ) terminal praying hand joints at 14 kA at 4.5 K has been designed for making winding pack continuous. The total height of winding pack is 2500 mm. The stored energy of this winding pack is ∼ 3 MJ at 14 kA of operating current. The expected heat load at cryogenic temperature is ∼ 10 W per layer, which requires helium mass flow rate of 1.4 g/s at 1.4 bars @ 4.5 K. The typical diameter and height of housing cryostat are 650 mm and 2563 mm with 80 K shield respectively

  12. Design of new central solenoid for SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Upendra; Pradhan, Subrata; Ghate, Mahesh; Raj, Piyush; Tanna, V L; Khan, Ziauddin; Roy, Swati; Santra, Prosenjit; Biswas, Prabal; Sharma, A N; Khristi, Yohan; Kanaber, Deven; Varmora, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    The key role of central solenoid (CS) magnet of a Tokamak is for gas breakdown, ramp up and maintaining of plasma current. The magnetic flux change in CS along with other PF coils generates magnetic null and induces electric field in toroidal direction. The induced toroidal electric field accelerates the residual electrons which collide with the neutrals and an avalanche takes place which led to the net plasma in the vacuum vessel of a Tokamak. In order to maximize the CS volt-sec capability, the higher magnetic field with a greater magnetic flux linkage is necessary. In order to facilitate all these requirements of SST-1 a new superconducting CS has been designed for SST-1. The design of new central solenoid has two bases; first one is physics and second is smart engineering in limited bore diameter of ∼ 655 mm. The physics basis of the design includes volt-sec storage capacity of ∼ 0.8 volt-sec, magnetic field null around 0.2 m over major radius of 1.1 m and toroidal electric field of ∼ 0.3 volt/m. The engineering design of new CS consists of Nb3Sn cable in conduit conductor (CICC) of operating current of 14 kA @ 4.5 K at 6 T, consolidated winding pack, smart quench detection system, protection system, housing cryostat and conductor terminations and joint design. The winding pack consists of 576 numbers of turns distributed in four layers with 0.75 mm FRP tape soaked with cyanide Easter based epoxy resin turn insulation and 3 mm of ground insulation. The interlayer low resistance (∼1 nΩ) terminal praying hand joints at 14 kA at 4.5 K has been designed for making winding pack continuous. The total height of winding pack is 2500 mm. The stored energy of this winding pack is ∼ 3 MJ at 14 kA of operating current. The expected heat load at cryogenic temperature is ∼ 10 W per layer, which requires helium mass flow rate of 1.4 g/s at 1.4 bars @ 4.5 K. The typical diameter and height of housing cryostat are 650 mm and 2563 mm with 80 K shield respectively

  13. Design of new superconducting central solenoid of SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Upendra; Pradhan, Subrata; Ghate, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    The key role of the central solenoid (CS) magnet of a Tokamak is for gas breakdown, ramp up and maintaining of plasma current for longer duration. The magnetic flux change in CS along with other PF coils generates magnetic null and induces electric field in toroidal direction. The induced toroidal electric field accelerates the residual electrons which collide with the neutrals and an avalanche takes place which led to the net plasma in the vacuum vessel of a Tokamak. In order to maximize the CS volt-sec capability, the higher magnetic field with a greater magnetic flux linkage is necessary. In order to facilitate all these requirements of SST-1 a new superconducting CS has been designed for SST-1. The design of new central solenoid has two bases; first one is physics and second is smart engineering in limited bore diameter of ∼655 mm. The physics basis of the design includes volt-sec storage capacity of ∼0.8 volt-sec, magnetic field null around 0.2 m over major radius of 1.1 m and toroidal electric field of ∼0.3 volt/m.The engineering design of new CS consists of Nb 3 Sn cable in conduit conductor (CICC) of operating current of 14 kA @ 4.5 K at 6 T, consolidated winding pack, smart quench detection system, protection system, housing cryostat and conductor terminations and joint design. The winding pack consists of 576 numbers of turns distributed in four layers with 0.75 mm FRP tape soaked with cyanide Easter based epoxy resin turn insulation and 3 mm of ground insulation. The inter-layer low resistance (∼1 nΩ) at 14 kA @ 4.5 K terminal praying hand joints has been designed for making winding pack continuous. The total height of winding pack is 2500 mm. The stored energy of this winding pack is ∼3 MJ at 14 kA of operating current. The expected heat load at cryogenic temperature is ∼10 W per layer, which requires helium mass flow rate of 1.4 g/s at 1.4 bars @ 4.5 K. The typical diameter and height of housing cryostat are 650 mm and 2563 mm with 80 K

  14. SST and ice sheet impacts on the MIS-13 climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muri, Helene; Berger, Andre; Yin, Qiuzhen; Sundaram, Suchithra [Universite catholique de Louvain, Georges Lemaitre Centre for Earth and Climate Research (TECLIM), Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Louvain la Neuve (Belgium); Voldoire, Aurore; Melia, David Salas Y. [CNRM-GAME Meteo-France/CNRS, Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    As a first qualitative assessment tool, LOVECLIM has been used to investigate the interactions between insolation, ice sheets and the East Asian Monsoon at the Marine Isotopic Stage 13 (MIS-13) in work by Yin et al. (Clim Past 4:79-90, 2008, Clim Past 5:229-243, 2009). The results are in need of validation with a more sophisticated model, which is done in this work with the ARPEGE atmospheric general circulation model. As in the Earth system Model of Intermediate Complexity, LOVECLIM, ARPEGE shows that the northern hemispheric high insolation in summer leads to strong MIS-13 monsoon precipitation. Data from the Chinese Loess Plateau indicate that MIS-13 was locally a warm and humid period (Guo et al. in Clim Past 5:21-31, 2009; Yin and Guo in Chin Sci Bull 51(2):213-220, 2006). This is confirmed by these General Circulation Model (GCM) results, where the MIS-13 climate is found to be hotter and more humid both in the presence and absence of any added ice sheets. LOVECLIM found that the combined effects of the ice sheets and their accompanying SSTs contribute to more precipitation in eastern China, whilst in ARPEGE the impact is significant in northeastern China. Nonetheless the results of ARPEGE confirm the counter-intuitive results of LOVECLIM where ice sheets contribute to enhance monsoon precipitation. This happens through a topography induced wave propagating through Eurasia with an ascending branch over northeastern China. A feature which is also seen in LOVECLIM. The SST forcing in ARPEGE results in a strong zonal temperature gradient between the North Atlantic and east Eurasia, which in turn triggers an atmospheric gravity wave. This wave induces a blocking Okhotskian high, preventing the northwards penetration of the Meiyu monsoon front. The synergism between the ice sheets and SST is found through the factor separation method, yielding an increase in the Meiyu precipitation, though a reduction of the Changma precipitation. The synergism between the ice

  15. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  16. Concurrent Sr/Ca Ratios and Bomb Test 14C Records from a Porites evermanni Colony on Kure Atoll: SST, Climate Change, Ocean Circulation and Management Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, S.; Potts, D.; Siciliano, D.; Andrews, A.; Franks, R.

    2013-12-01

    Coral reefs near their latitudinal and ecological limits may be affected disproportionately by global climate changes, especially by changing sea surface temperatures (SST's). One such reef is Kure Atoll, the northernmost reef in the Hawaiian chain. Kure Atoll experiences dramatic temperature and seasonal differences throughout the year. Tracking these fluctuations is important for understanding recent physical forces affecting coral growth in such marginal reefs, and for predicting likely responses to future climate and oceanic changes. We used Sr/Ca ratios of a 50cm Porites evermanni coral core collected in Kure (September 2002) as a SST proxy for reconstructing a temperature timescale spanning the length of the core (~62 years). After cutting a 5 mm thick slab through the center growth axis and X-raying it to identify annual density banding, we extracted 4 equally-spaced samples from each annual increment to quantify, seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal SST patterns. We measured Sr and Ca concentrations by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). We then converted Sr/Ca ratios (mmol/mol) to SST using published equations, and calibrated the more recent SST estimates against satellite-based SST imagery and instrumental records from Midway Atoll (ca. 90 km to SE). We coupled the ICP-OES data with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) scans along the core to provide higher temporal resolution for interpreting intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal trends. Higher resolution of temperature dating can help us interpret strong inter-seasonal changes not readily seen with low resolution measurements, giving us the ability to track temperature anomalies at interannual and decadal timescales, such as El Niño/Southern Oscillation or La Niña/North Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Further, the SST signature from the Sr/Ca analyses are being used in conjunction with bomb radiocarbon signals in order to establish a complete

  17. The accuracy of SST retrievals from AATSR: An initial assessment through geophysical validation against in situ radiometers, buoys and other SST data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, G. K.; Barton, I. J.; Donlon, C. J.; Edwards, M. C.; Good, S. A.; Horrocks, L. A.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Merchant, C. J.; Minnett, P. J.; Nightingale, T. J.; Noyes, E. J.; O'Carroll, A. G.; Remedios, J. J.; Robinson, I. S.; Saunders, R. W.; Watts, J. G.

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) was launched on Envisat in March 2002. The AATSR instrument is designed to retrieve precise and accurate global sea surface temperature (SST) that, combined with the large data set collected from its predecessors, ATSR and ATSR-2, will provide a long term record of SST data that is greater than 15 years. This record can be used for independent monitoring and detection of climate change. The AATSR validation programme has successfully completed its initial phase. The programme involves validation of the AATSR derived SST values using in situ radiometers, in situ buoys and global SST fields from other data sets. The results of the initial programme presented here will demonstrate that the AATSR instrument is currently close to meeting its scientific objectives of determining global SST to an accuracy of 0.3 K (one sigma). For night time data, the analysis gives a warm bias of between +0.04 K (0.28 K) for buoys to +0.06 K (0.20 K) for radiometers, with slightly higher errors observed for day time data, showing warm biases of between +0.02 (0.39 K) for buoys to +0.11 K (0.33 K) for radiometers. They show that the ATSR series of instruments continues to be the world leader in delivering accurate space-based observations of SST, which is a key climate parameter.

  18. Trends in the number of extreme hot SST days along the Canary Upwelling System due to the influence of upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xurxo Costoya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trends in the number of extreme hot days (days with SST anomalies higher than the 95% percentile were analyzed along the Canary Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE over the period 1982- 2012 by means of SST data retrieved from NOAA OI1/4 Degree. The analysis will focus on the Atlantic Iberian sector and the Moroccan sub- region where upwelling is seasonal (spring and summer are permanent, respectively. Trends were analyzed both near coast and at the adjacent ocean where the increase in the number of extreme hot days is higher. Changes are clear at annual scale with an increment of 9.8±0.3 (9.7±0.1 days dec-1 near coast and 11.6±0.2 (13.5±0.1 days dec-1 at the ocean in the Atlantic Iberian sector (Moroccan sub-region. The differences between near shore and ocean trends are especially patent for the months under intense upwelling conditions. During that upwelling season the highest differences in the excess of extreme hot days between coastal and ocean locations (Δn(#days dec-1 occur at those regions where coastal upwelling increase is high. Actually, Δn and upwelling trends have shown to be significantly correlated in both areas, R=0.88 (p<0.01 at the Atlantic Iberian sector and R=0.67 (p<0.01 at the Moroccan sub-region.

  19. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution SST Climatology Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  20. Novel sst2-selective somatostatin agonists. Three-dimensional consensus structure by NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Christy Rani R.; Erchegyi, Judit; Koerber, Steven C.; Reubi, Jean Claude; Rivier, Jean; Riek, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The three-dimensional NMR structures of six octapeptide agonist analogues of somatostatin (SRIF) in the free form are described. These analogues, with the basic sequence H-DPhe/Phe2-c[Cys3-Xxx7-DTrp8-Lys9-Thr10-Cys14]-Thr-NH2 (the numbering refers to the position in native SRIF), with Xxx7 being Ala/Aph, exhibit potent and highly selective binding to human SRIF type 2 (sst2) receptors. The backbone of these sst2-selective analogues have the usual type-II’ β-turn reported in the literature for sst2/3/5-subtype-selective analogues. Correlating biological results and NMR studies led to the identification of the side chains of DPhe2, DTrp8 and Lys9 as the necessary components of the sst2 pharmacophore. This is the first study to show that the aromatic ring at position 7 (Phe7) is not critical for sst2 binding and that it plays an important role in sst3 and sst5 binding. This pharmacophore is therefore different from that proposed by others for sst2/3/5 analogues. PMID:16854054

  1. Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence Fiscal Year 2000 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARFIELD, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project (RPP) updated for Fiscal Year 2000. The SST retrieval sequence identifies the proposed retrieval order (sequence), the tank selection and prioritization rationale, and planned retrieval dates for Hanford SSTs. In addition, the tank selection criteria and reference retrieval method for this sequence are discussed

  2. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution SST Anomaly Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  3. Tasmaloum, Vanuatu Fossil Coral SST Reconstruction for 4200 YrBP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vanuatu Fossil Coral SST Reconstruction, 4200 YrBP. Paleobathymetry estimated at 10-15 m. SST reconstruction is based on the analysis of Sr/Ca and U/Ca ratios in...

  4. The role of SST on the South American atmospheric circulation during January, February and March 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Anita Rodrigues De Moraes; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2005-06-01

    Precipitation deficits were observed over southeastern, northeastern and Central Brazil during the 2001 Austral Summer. They contributed to the worsening of the energy crisis that was occurring in the country. A low-level anomalous anticyclonic circulation observed over eastern Brazil enhanced the deviation of moisture transport that usually occurs from the Amazon Basin to southeastern Brazil and inhibited the occurrence of South Atlantic Convergence Zone events in that period. However, an anomalous low-level northerly moisture flux was observed over the La Plata Basin, and positive precipitation anomalies occurred over Bolivia, Paraguay, northeastern Argentina and southern Brazil. Using the ensemble technique, a numerical study was carried out to investigate the role of different sea surface temperature (SST) forcings observed over this anomalous South American atmospheric circulation. Reynolds SST monthly means were used as boundary conditions to study the influence of South Atlantic, South Indian, South Pacific and Equatorial Pacific oceans. The simulations were run from September 2000 to April 2001 using the Community Climate Model version 3.6 General Circulation Model. Ten integrations using different initial conditions were done to each experiment. Numerical experiments suggested that the combined influence of South Pacific and Equatorial Pacific oceans could be responsible for the drought observed over Central Brazil. These experiments simulated the low-level anticyclonic anomaly observed over eastern Brazil. However, both experiments have poorly reproduced the intensity of the anomalous low-level northerly moisture flux observed over the La Plata Basin. Therefore, the intensity of the simulated precipitation anomalies over the subtropical regions was much weaker than observed.

  5. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. III. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS WITH IRIS AND SST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissers, G. J. M.; Voort, L. H. M. Rouppe van der; Rutten, R. J.; Carlsson, M.; Pontieu, B. De, E-mail: g.j.m.vissers@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-10-10

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are transient brightenings of the extended wings of the solar Balmer lines in emerging active regions. We describe their properties in the ultraviolet lines sampled by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), using simultaneous imaging spectroscopy in Hα with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) and ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for Ellerman bomb detection and identification. We select multiple co-observed EBs for detailed analysis. The IRIS spectra strengthen the view that EBs mark reconnection between bipolar kilogauss fluxtubes with the reconnection and the resulting bi-directional jet located within the solar photosphere and shielded by overlying chromospheric fibrils in the cores of strong lines. The spectra suggest that the reconnecting photospheric gas underneath is heated sufficiently to momentarily reach stages of ionization normally assigned to the transition region and the corona. We also analyze similar outburst phenomena that we classify as small flaring arch filaments and ascribe to reconnection at a higher location. They have different morphologies and produce hot arches in million-Kelvin diagnostics.

  6. Overview Of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity - 12123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, R.S.; Rinker, M.W.; Washenfelder, D.J.; Johnson, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford SSTs. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford SSTs is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS(reg s ign) The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford SSTs has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analyses of the remaining Hanford SSTs are scheduled for FY2013. Hanford SSTs are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of the concrete tank domes, looking for cracks and

  7. OVERVIEW OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY - 12123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

    2012-01-25

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford SSTs. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford SSTs is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS{reg_sign} The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford SSTs has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analyses of the remaining Hanford SSTs are scheduled for FY2013. Hanford SSTs are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of the concrete tank domes, looking for cracks and

  8. Influence of SST from Pacific and Atlantic Ocean and atmospheric circulation in the precipitation regime of basin from Brazilian SIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, M. D.; Ramos, C. G.; Madeira, P.; de Macedo, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The South American climate presents tropical, subtropical and extratropical features because of its territorial extension, being influenced by a variety of dynamical systems with different spatial and temporal scales which result in different climatic regimes in their subregions. Furthermore, the precipitation regime in South America is influenced by low-frequency phenomena as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic dipole and the Madden Julian Oscilation (MJO), in other words, is directly influenced by variations of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Due to the importance of the precipitation for many sectors including the planning of productive activities, such as agriculture, livestock and hydropower energy, many studies about climate variations in Brazil have tried to determine and explain the mechanisms that affect the precipitation regime. However, because of complexity of the climate system, and consequently of their impacts on the global precipitation regime, its interactions are not totally understood and therefore misrepresented in numerical models used to forecast climate. The precipitation pattern over hydrographic basin which form the Brasilian National Interconnected System (Sistema Interligado Nacional-SIN) are not yet known and therefore the climate forecast of these regions still presents considerable failure that need to be corrected due to its economic importance. In this context, the purpose here is to determine the precipitation patterns on the Brazilian SIN, based on SST and circulation observed data. In a second phase a forecast climate model for these regions will be produced. In this first moment 30 years (1983 to 2012) of SST over Pacific and Atlantic Ocean were analyzed, along with wind in 850 and 200 hPa and precipitation observed data. The precipitation patterns were analyzed through statistical analyses for interannual (ENSO) and intraseasonal (MJO) anomalies for these variables over the SIN basin. Subsequently, these

  9. On the relationship between Indian summer monsoon withdrawal and Indo-Pacific SST anomalies before and after 1976/1977 climate shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabeerali, C.T.; Rao, Suryachandra A. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India); Ajayamohan, R.S. [University of Victoria, Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Victoria, BC (Canada); Murtugudde, Raghu [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    A clear shift in the withdrawal dates of the Indian Summer Monsoon is observed in the long term time series of rainfall data. Prior (posterior) to the 1976/1977 climate shift most of the withdrawal dates are associated with a late (an early) withdrawal. As a result, the length of the rainy season (LRS) over the Indian land mass has also undergone similar changes (i.e., longer (shorter) LRS prior (posterior) to the climate shift). In this study, probable reasons for this significant shift in withdrawal dates and the LRS are investigated using reanalysis/observed datasets and also with the help of an atmospheric general circulation model. Reanalysis/observational datasets indicate that prior to the climate shift the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and the Arabian Sea exerted a strong influence on both the withdrawal and the LRS. After the climate shift, the influence of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean SST has decreased and surprisingly, the influence of the Arabian Sea SST is almost non-existent. On the other hand, the influence of the southeastern equatorial Indian Ocean has increased significantly. It is observed that the upper tropospheric temperature gradient over the dominant monsoon region has decreased and the relative influence of the Indian Ocean SST variability on the withdrawal of the Indian Summer Monsoon has increased in the post climate shift period. Sensitivity experiments with the contrasting SST patterns on withdrawal dates and the LRS in the pre- and post- climate shift scenarios, confirm the observational evidences presented above. (orig.)

  10. Instrumentation for NBI SST-1 cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Karishma; Patel, Paresh; Jana, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) System is one of the heating systems for Steady state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1). It is capable of generating a neutral hydrogen beam of power 0.5 MW at 30 kV. NBI system consists of following sub-systems: Ion source, Neutralizer, Deflection Magnet and Magnet Liner (ML), Ion Dump (ID), V-Target (VT), Pre Duct Scraper (PDS), Beam Transmission Duct (BTD) and Shine Through (ST). For better heat removal management purpose all the above sub-systems shall be equipped with Heat Transfer Elements (THE). During beam operation these sub-systems gets heated due to the received heat load which requires to be removed by efficient supplying water. The cooling water system along with the other systems (External Vacuum System, Gas Feed System, Cryogenics System, etc.) will be controlled by NBI Programmable Logic Control (PLC). In this paper instrumentation and its related design for cooling water system is discussed. The work involves flow control valves, transmitters (pressure, temperature and water flow), pH and conductivity meter signals and its interface with the NBI PLC. All the analog input, analog output, digital input and digital output signals from the cooling water system will be isolated and then fed to the NBI PLC. Graphical Users Interface (GUI) needed in the Wonderware SCADA for the cooling water system shall also be discussed. (author)

  11. Enhancing detection sensitivity of SST-1 Thomson scattering experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhari, Vishnu; Patel, Kiran; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai, E-mail: ajai@ipr.res.in

    2016-10-15

    Thomson Scattering System (TSS) is the main diagnostic to extract electron temperature and density of steady state superconducting (SST-1) tokamak plasma. Silicon avalanche photo diode is used with low noise and fast signal conditioning electronics (SCE) to detect incoming Thomson scattered laser photons. A stringent requirement for the measurement is to detect high speed and low level light signal (detection of 100 numbers of Thomson scattered photons for 50 ns pulse width at input of active area of detector) in the presence of wide band electro-magnetic interference (EMI) noise. The electronics and instruments for different sub-systems kept in laboratory contribute to the radiated and conductive noise in a complex manner to the experiment, which can degrade the resultant signal to noise ratio (SNR <1). In general a repeated trial method with flexible grounding scheme are used to improve system signal to noise ratio, which is time consuming and less efficient. In the present work a simple, robust, cost-effective instrumentation system is used for the measurement and monitoring with improved ground scheme and shielding method to minimize noise, isolating the internal sub-system generated noise and external interference which leads to an improved SNR.

  12. Integration of cryopump instrumentation for SST-1 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Laxmi Kant; Patel, Paresh J.; Prahlad, V.

    2015-01-01

    A positive ion neutral injector (PINI) capable in delivering 5MW (55kV, 90A) ion beam power is being operated for SST-1 neutral beam injection (NBI). The production and neutralization of the ion beams in the injector requires a gas throughput of 20 torr I/s in the plasma box and 50-100 torr I/s in the neutralizer section. It is necessary to maintain operating pressure of vessel at 10 -5 torr to reduce the re-ionization loss of beam within tolerable limits. Conventional Turbo molecular pumps cannot maintain this vacuum level at required gas feed rate so two cryo condensation pumps are being operated to achieve require vacuum in vessel. In order to monitor and optimize the performance of cryopumps, it is necessary to measure the temperature at various locations in LN 2 and LHe path. It is also required to monitor the level of LHe and LN 2 in cryopumps. Several temperature and level sensors are mounted at various places in cryopumps and integrated with PLC and SCADA based control system. This paper presents the details of sensor mounting, signals conditioning, scheme of their integration with PLC and SCADA and results in detail. (author)

  13. Systems Engineering Implementation Plan for Single Shell Tanks (SST) Retrieval Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEONARD, M.W.; HOFFERBER, G.A.

    2000-11-30

    This document communicates the planned implementation of the Systems Engineering processes and products for the SST retrieval projects as defined in the Systems Engineering Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor.

  14. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Nighttime (4 microns), Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  15. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, East US, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  16. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, West US, Day time (11 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  17. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Day time (11 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Terra Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  18. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (11 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  19. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Day time (11 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  20. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.025 degrees, Pacific Ocean, Daytime

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  1. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (4 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  2. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  3. SST, NOAA POES AVHRR, LAC, 0.0125 degrees, West US, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides sea surface temperature (SST) products derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data is provided at high...

  4. SST, Pathfinder Ver 5.0, Day and Night, 4.4 km, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AVHRR Pathfinder Oceans Project seeks to create a long-term, continuous sea surface temperature data series for use in climate research. The Pathfinder SST data...

  5. Systems Engineering Implementation Plan for Single-Shell Tanks (SST) Retrieval Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEONARD, M.W.; HOFFERBER, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This document communicates the planned implementation of the Systems Engineering processes and products for the SST retrieval projects as defined in the Systems Engineering Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor

  6. Daily SST fields produced by blending infrared and microwave radiometer estimates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, O.P.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) using satellite based sensors have matured during the last decade. The infrared measurements, using the AVHRR sensor, flown onboard the NOAA satellites, have been used for the generation of high...

  7. SST Anomaly, NOAA POES AVHRR, Casey and Cornillon Climatology, 0.1 degrees, Global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes SST anomaly data using a combination of the POES AVHRR Global Area Coverage data, and data from a climatological database by Casey and...

  8. SST, Aqua AMSR-E, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA OceanWatch provides sea surface temperature (SST) products derived from microwave sensors, which can measure ocean temperatures even in the presence of clouds....

  9. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Terra Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  10. SST, Pathfinder Ver 5.0, Day, 4.4 km, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AVHRR Pathfinder Oceans Project seeks to create a long-term, continuous sea surface temperature data series for use in climate research. The Pathfinder SST data...

  11. SST, Pathfinder Ver 5.0, Night, 4.4 km, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AVHRR Pathfinder Oceans Project seeks to create a long-term, continuous sea surface temperature data series for use in climate research. The Pathfinder SST data...

  12. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (11 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Terra Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  13. SST, Terra MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Nighttime (4 microns), Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  14. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Daytime, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  15. GHRSST Level 2P USA NAVOCEANO AVHRR17 Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-Channel SST retreivals generated in real-time from NOAA-17 AVHRR Global Area Coverage data. Used operationally in Navy oceanographic analyses and forecasts.

  16. GHRSST Level 2P USA NAVOCEANO AVHRR METOP-A Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-Channel SST retreivals generated in real-time from METOP-A AVHRR Global Area Coverage data. Used operationally in Navy oceanographic analyses and forecasts.

  17. GHRSST Level 2P USA NAVOCEANO AVHRR18 Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-Channel SST retreivals generated in real-time from NOAA-18 AVHRR Global Area Coverage data. Used operationally in Navy oceanographic analyses and forecasts.

  18. Rarotonga Sr/Ca and SST Reconstruction Data for 1726 to 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 271 year record of Sr/Ca variability in a coral from Rarotonga in the South Pacific gyre. Calibration with monthly sea surface temperature (SST) from satellite and...

  19. SST, NOAA POES AVHRR, GAC, 0.1 degrees, Global, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides sea surface temperature (SST) products derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data provides global area...

  20. Heat flux exchange estimation by using ATSR SST data in TOGA area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Lawrence, Sean P.; Llewellyn-Jones, David T.

    1995-12-01

    The study of phenomena such as ENSO requires consideration of the dynamics and thermodynamics of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The dynamic and thermal properties of the atmosphere and ocean are directly affected by air-sea transfers of fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture. In this paper, we present results of turbulent heat fluxes calculated by using two years (1992 and 1993) monthly average TOGA data and ATSR SST data in TOGA area. A comparison with published results indicates good qualitative agreement. Also, we compared the results of heat flux exchange by using ATSR SST data and by using the TOGA bucket SST data. The ATSR SST data set has been shown to be useful in helping to estimate the large space scale heat flux exchange.

  1. Asymmetric Response of the Equatorial Pacific SST to Climate Warming and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fukai [Physical Oceanography Laboratory/Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, and Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China; Luo, Yiyong [Physical Oceanography Laboratory/Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, and Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China; Lu, Jian [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Garuba, Oluwayemi [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Wan, Xiuquan [Physical Oceanography Laboratory/Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, and Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China

    2017-09-01

    The response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to heat fluxes of equal amplitude but opposite sign is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Results show a strong asymmetry in SST changes. In the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP), the warming responding to the positive forcing exceeds the cooling to the negative forcing; while in the western equatorial Pacific (WEP), it is the other way around and the cooling surpasses the warming. This leads to a zonal dipole asymmetric structure, with positive values in the east and negative values in the west. A surface heat budget analysis suggests that the SST asymmetry is mainly resulted from the oceanic horizontal advection and vertical entrainment, with both of their linear and nonlinear components playing a role. For the linear component, its change appears to be more significant over the EEP (WEP) in the positive (negative) forcing scenario, favoring the seesaw pattern of the SST asymmetry. For the nonlinear component, its change acts to warm (cool) the EEP (WEP) in both scenarios, also favorable for the development of the SST asymmetry. Additional experiments with a slab ocean confirm the dominant role of ocean dynamical processes for this SST asymmetry. The net surface heat flux, in contrast, works to reduce the SST asymmetry through its shortwave radiation and latent heat flux components, with the former being related to the nonlinear relationship between SST and convection, and the latter being attributable to Newtonian damping and air-sea stability effects. The suppressing effect of shortwave radiation on SST asymmetry is further verified by partially coupled overriding experiments.

  2. Interdecadal change in the summer SST-precipitation relationship around the late 1990s over the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiepeng; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Wen; Wen, Zhiping

    2017-11-01

    An interdecadal change in the air-sea interaction over the South China Sea (SCS) after the late 1990s has been identified using a local contemporaneous precipitation-sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation-SST tendency relationship. During 1979-1998, there is a negative precipitation-SST relationship over the SCS, with a larger magnitude over the northeastern SCS (NESCS) than over the southwestern SCS (SWSCS). The remote effect of warmer SST over the tropical Indian Ocean plays a crucial role in a strong anticyclone and suppressed rainfall over the SCS and western North Pacific. Due to greater mixed-layer depth over the SWSCS than over the NESCS, entrainment heat flux makes a larger contribution to a positive precipitation-SST tendency over the SWSCS than over the NESCS. The cloud-radiation effect has a dominant and positive contribution to the SST tendency over the NESCS, whereas it has a negative contribution to SST tendency over the SWSCS. In contrast, the precipitation-SST correlation becomes weakly negative over the NESCS and significantly positive over the SWSCS during 1999-2013. The CESM-CAM5 model demonstrates that cooler SST over the tropical central-eastern Pacific (TCEP) triggers a weak anticyclone, slightly suppressing rainfall over the SCS. The cloud-radiation effect still contributes mostly to a positive SST tendency over the NESCS. Warmer SST over the SWSCS induces an increase in surface evaporation and low-level moisture convergence and causes enhanced rainfall. That offsets the remote effect of TCEP SST and results in a negative precipitation-SST tendency with negative cloud-radiation feedback. The interdecadal change in remote forcing to SCS rainfall around the late 1990s is related to the evolution of TCEP SST anomalies from the preceding winter to summer, which is possibly modulated by the phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  3. Influence of Atlantic SST anomalies on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kestenare

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of observational data suggest that Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector in early winter and in spring. After reviewing this work and showing that the spring signal is part of a global air-sea interaction, we analyze for comparison an ensemble of simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model in T42 resolution forced by the observed distribution of SST and sea ice, and a simulation with the ECHAM4/OPA8 coupled model in T30 resolution. In the two cases, a significant influence of the Atlantic on the atmosphere is detected in the Atlantic-European sector. In the forced mode, ECHAM4 responds to SST anomalies from early spring to late summer, and also in early winter. The forcing involves SST anomalies not only in the tropical Atlantic, but also in the whole tropical band, suggesting a strong ENSO influence. The modeled signal resembles that seen in the observations in spring, but not in early winter. In the coupled mode, the Atlantic SST only has a significant influence on the atmosphere in summer. Although the SST anomaly is confined to the Atlantic, the summer signal shows some similarity with that seen in the forced simulations. However, there is no counterpart in the observations.

  4. Conditioning of SST-1 Tokamak Vacuum Vessel by Baking and Glow Discharge Cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Raval, Dilip C.; Babu, Gattu Ramesh; Khan, Mohammed Shoaib; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SST-1 Tokamak was successfully commissioned. • Vacuum vessel was pumped down to 4.5 × 10"–"8 mbar after baking and continuous GDC. • GDC reduced the water vapour by additional 57% while oxygen was reduced by 50%. • Under this condition, an initial plasma breakdown with current of 40 kA for 75 ms was achieved. - Abstract: Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel (VV) adopts moderate baking at 110 ± 10 °C and the limiters baking at 250 ± 10 °C for ∼ 200 h followed by glow discharge cleaning in hydrogen (GDC-H) with 0.15 A/m"2 current density towards its conditioning prior to plasma discharge experiment. The baking in SST-1 reduces the water (H_2O) vapor by 95% and oxygen (O_2) by 60% whereas the GDC reduces the water vapor by an additional 57% and oxygen by another 50% as measured with residual gas analyzer. The minimum breakdown voltage for H-GDC in SST-1 tokamak was experimentally observed to 300 V at 8 mbar cm. As a result of these adherences, SST-1 VV achieves an ultimate of 4.5 × 10"−"8 mbar with two turbo-molecular pumps with effective pumping speed of 3250 l/s. In the last campaign, SST-1 has achieved successful plasma breakdown, impurity burn through and a plasma current of ∼ 40 kA for 75 ms.

  5. An overview of SST-1 diagnostics and results from recent campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ajai; Adhiya, Asha N.; Joshi, Hemchandra C.

    2015-01-01

    SST-1 is a large aspect ratio tokomak with superconducting magnets designed to operate in steady-state mode for around 1000 seconds. All essential diagnostics for the machine operation and advance diagnostics are commissioned in SST-1 during the different phases of its operation. This report describes the various diagnostics in SST-1 and the results of recent SST-1 campaign with Plasma Facing components. The chord averaged electron density of SST-1 plasma is recorded in the range of 2-5 x 10 12 /cc and the electron temperature is estimated around 100 eV. Various spectral line emissions from plasma and temporal evolutions of some of them have been recorded by spectroscopy diagnostics to understand the impurity behaviour in the SST-1 plasma. The radiation power loss and the power deposited on limiter has been estimated using bolometry and IR thermography respectively. Plasma evolution recorded using visible imaging diagnostics. The energy distribution of non-thermal electron has been characterised using LaBr spectrometer and NaI detector. This article will also be discussing about the possible additions and modification planned for the near future. (author)

  6. Design of mass flow rate measurement system for SST-1 superconducting magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varmora, P., E-mail: pvamora@ipr.res.in; Sharma, A.N.; Khristi, Y.; Prasad, U.; Patel, D.; Doshi, K.; Pradhan, S.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Design of Venturi meter for SST-1 magnet system. • Details of Helium mass flow measurement system used in SST-1. • Instruments and measurement techniques for flow measurement. • VME based data acquisition system details and flow calculation and results from SST-1 campaigns. - Abstract: Superconducting Magnet System (SCMS) of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak – 1 (SST-1) is forced-flow cooled by a closed cycle 1.3 kW (at 4.5 K) class Helium Refrigerator cum Liquefier (HRL) system. An accurate measurement of helium mass flow rate in different coils is required to ensure the uniform cooling of the cold mass in the entire range of operating temperature (300 K to 4.5 K) and pressure (0.9–0.4 MPa). To meet this requirement, indigenously designed and fabricated venturi meters are installed on 27 different coils of SST-1 SCMS. A VME based Data Acquisition System (DAS) has been developed and used to acquire the flow measurement data from different flowmeters. The details of the design of venturi meter, its different measurement and signal conditioning components, the data acquisition system and the mass flow rate calculation method are described in this paper. The mass flow rate measurement data from cryogenic acceptance and SST-1 magnet commissioning experiments are also presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. Quench characterization and thermo hydraulic analysis of SST-1 TF magnet busbar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.N., E-mail: ansharma@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India); Pradhan, S. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India); Duchateau, J.L. [CEA Cadarache, 13108 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Khristi, Y.; Prasad, U.; Doshi, K.; Varmora, P.; Tanna, V.L.; Patel, D.; Panchal, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Details of SST-1 TF busbar quench detection. • Simulation of slow propagating normal zone. • Thermo hydraulic analyses of TF busbar in current feeder system. - Abstract: Toroidal field (TF) magnet system of steady-state superconducting tokamak-1 (SST-1) has 16 superconducting coils. TF coils are cooled with forced flow supercritical helium at 0.4 MPa, at 4.5 K and operate at nominal current of 10,000 A. Prior to TF magnet system assembly in SST-1 tokamak, each TF coil was tested individually in a test cryostat. During these tests, TF coil was connected to a pair of conventional helium vapor cooled current leads. The connecting busbar was made from the same base cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) of SST-1 superconducting magnet system. Quenches experimentally observed in the busbar sections of the single coil test setups have been analyzed in this paper. A steady state thermo hydraulic analysis of TF magnet busbar in actual SST-1 tokamak assembly has been done. The experimental observations of quench and results of relevant thermo hydraulic analyses have been used to predict the safe operation regime of TF magnet system busbar during actual SST-1 tokamak operational scenarios.

  8. Atmospheric Simulations Using OGCM-Assimilation SST: Influence of the Wintertime Japan Sea on Monthly Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamamoto Naoki Hirose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature data for the Japan Sea obtained from ocean data assimilation modeling is applied to atmospheric simulations of monthly precipitation for January 2005. Because the volume of flow of the Tsushima Warm Current was large during the winter season, the sea surface temperature (SST and coastal precipitation were higher in comparison with those in 2003. In order to evaluate influence of SST on monthly precipitation, we use surface temperatures of the Japan Sea in 2003 and 2005 for comparative simulations of precipitation for January 2005. The precipitation in experiment C (using cool SST data in 2003 is smaller than that in experiment W (using warm SST data in 2005 in a large part of the sea area, since the small evaporation results from the low SST over the upstream area of northwesterly winter monsoon. In the domain of 33.67 - 45.82°N and 125.89 - 142.9°E, the averaged evaporation and precipitation in experiment C are 10% and 13% smaller than those in experiment W, respectively. About half of the difference between the precipitations observed for January 2003 and 2005 in a heavy snow area is equal to the difference between the two simulations. Our results show that the mesoscale SST difference between 2003 and 2005 is related to the local difference of monthly precipitation.

  9. Design of mass flow rate measurement system for SST-1 superconducting magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varmora, P.; Sharma, A.N.; Khristi, Y.; Prasad, U.; Patel, D.; Doshi, K.; Pradhan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of Venturi meter for SST-1 magnet system. • Details of Helium mass flow measurement system used in SST-1. • Instruments and measurement techniques for flow measurement. • VME based data acquisition system details and flow calculation and results from SST-1 campaigns. - Abstract: Superconducting Magnet System (SCMS) of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak – 1 (SST-1) is forced-flow cooled by a closed cycle 1.3 kW (at 4.5 K) class Helium Refrigerator cum Liquefier (HRL) system. An accurate measurement of helium mass flow rate in different coils is required to ensure the uniform cooling of the cold mass in the entire range of operating temperature (300 K to 4.5 K) and pressure (0.9–0.4 MPa). To meet this requirement, indigenously designed and fabricated venturi meters are installed on 27 different coils of SST-1 SCMS. A VME based Data Acquisition System (DAS) has been developed and used to acquire the flow measurement data from different flowmeters. The details of the design of venturi meter, its different measurement and signal conditioning components, the data acquisition system and the mass flow rate calculation method are described in this paper. The mass flow rate measurement data from cryogenic acceptance and SST-1 magnet commissioning experiments are also presented and discussed in this paper.

  10. Overview of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rast, Richard S.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2013-11-14

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford Single-Shell Tanks. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS. The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford Single-Shell Tanks has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analysis of the remaining Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is scheduled for FY2014. Hanford Single-Shell Tanks are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of

  11. Overview of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, Richard S.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford Single-Shell Tanks. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS. The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford Single-Shell Tanks has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analysis of the remaining Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is scheduled for FY2014. Hanford Single-Shell Tanks are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of

  12. Development of the Wintertime Sr/Ca-SST Record from Red Sea Corals as a Proxy for the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, W. N.; Hughen, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is one of the most pronounced and influential patterns in winter atmospheric circulation variability. This meridional redistribution of atmospheric mass across the Atlantic Ocean produces large changes in the intensity, number and direction of storms generated within the basin, and the regional climate of surrounding continents. The NAO exerts a significant impact on society, through influences on agriculture, fisheries, water management, energy generation and coastal development. NAO effects on climate extend from eastern North America across Europe to the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. Changes in NAO behavior during the late 20th century have been linked to global warming; yet despite its importance, the causes and long-term patterns of NAO variability in the past remain poorly understood. In order to better predict the influence of the NAO on climate in the future, it is critical to examine multi-century NAO variability. The Red Sea is an excellent location from which to generate long NAO records for two reasons. First, patterns of wintertime sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) in the Red Sea are highly correlated with NAO variability (Visbeck et al. 2001; Hurrell et al. 2003). Second, the tropical/subtropical Red Sea region contains fast growing long-lived massive Porites spp. corals with annually banded skeletons. These corals are ideal for generating well-dated high-resolution paleoclimatic records that extend well beyond the instrumental period. Here we present a study of winter SST and NAO variability in the Red sea region based on coral Sr/Ca data. In 2008, we collected multiple drill cores ranging in length from 1 to 4.1 meters from Porites corals at six sites spanning a large SST gradient. Sr/Ca measurements from multiple corals will be regressed against 23 years of satellite SST data, expanding the SST range over which we calibrate. A sampling resolution of 0.5mm will yield greater than bi

  13. Novel, potent, and radio-iodinatable somatostatin receptor 1 (sst1) selective analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erchegyi, Judit; Cescato, Renzo; Grace, Christy Rani R; Waser, Beatrice; Piccand, Véronique; Hoyer, Daniel; Riek, Roland; Rivier, Jean E; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2009-05-14

    The proposed sst(1) pharmacophore (J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 523-533) derived from the NMR structures of a family of mono- and dicyclic undecamers was used to design octa-, hepta-, and hexamers with high affinity and selectivity for the somatostatin sst(1) receptor. These compounds were tested for their in vitro binding properties to all five somatostatin (SRIF) receptors using receptor autoradiography; those with high SRIF receptor subtype 1 (sst(1)) affinity and selectivity were shown to be agonists when tested functionally in a luciferase reporter gene assay. Des-AA(1,4-6,10,12,13)-[DTyr(2),DAgl(NMe,2naphthoyl)(8),IAmp(9)]-SRIF-Thr-NH(2) (25) was radio-iodinated ((125)I-25) and specifically labeled sst(1)-expressing cells and tissues. 3D NMR structures were calculated for des-AA(1,4-6,10,12,13)-[DPhe(2),DTrp(8),IAmp(9)]-SRIF-Thr-NH(2) (16), des-AA(1,2,4-6,10,12,13)-[DAgl(NMe,2naphthoyl)(8),IAmp(9)]-SRIF-Thr-NH(2) (23), and des-AA(1,2,4-6,10,12,13)-[DAgl(NMe,2naphthoyl)(8),IAmp(9),Tyr(11)]-SRIF-NH(2) (27) in DMSO. Though the analogues have the sst(1) pharmacophore residues at the previously determined distances from each other, the positioning of the aromatic residues in 16, 23, and 27 is different from that described earlier, suggesting an induced fit mechanism for sst(1) binding of these novel, less constrained sst(1)-selective family members.

  14. A Tropical View of Atlantic Multidecadal SST Variability over the Last Two Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, J. B.; Black, D. E.; Thunell, R.; Peterson, L. C.; Tappa, E. J.; Rahman, S.

    2011-12-01

    Instrumental and proxy-reconstructions show the existence of a 60-80 year periodicity in Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST), known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The AMO is correlated with circum-tropical Atlantic climate phenomena such as Sahel and Nordeste rainfall, as well as Atlantic hurricane patterns. Though it has been suggested that the AMO is controlled by thermohaline circulation, much debate exists as to whether the SST fluctuations are a result of anthropogenic forcing or natural climate variability. Our ability to address this issue has been limited by instrumental SST records that rarely extend back more than 50-100 years and proxy reconstructions that are largely terrestrial-based. Here we present a high-resolution marine sediment-derived reconstruction of seasonal tropical Atlantic SSTs from the Cariaco Basin spanning the past two millennia that is correlated with instrumental SSTs and the AMO for the period of overlap. The full record demonstrates that seasonality is largely controlled by variations in winter/spring SST. Wavelet analysis of the proxy data suggest that variability in the 60-80 year band evolved 250 years ago, while 40-60 year periodicities dominate earlier parts of the record. At least over the last millennia, multidecadal- and centennial- scale SST variability in the tropical Atlantic appears related to Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) fluctuations and its associated northward heat transport that in turn may be driven by solar variability. An inverse correlation between the tropical proxy annual average SST record and Δ14C indicates that the tropics experienced positive SST anomalies during times of reduced solar activity, possibly as a result of decreased AMOC strength (Figure 1).

  15. Development and Integration of a Data Acquisition System for SST-1 Phase-1 Plasma Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Amit K; Sharma, Manika; Mansuri, Imran; Sharma, Atish; Raval, Tushar; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-01-01

    Long pulse (of the order of 1000 s or more) SST-1 tokamak experiments demand a data acquisition system that is capable of acquiring data from various diagnostics channels without losing useful data (and hence physics information) while avoiding unnecessary generation of a large volume data. SST-1 Phase-1 tokamak operation has been envisaged with data acquisition of several essential diagnostics channels. These channels demand data acquisition at a sampling rate ranging from 1 kilo samples per second (KSPS) to 1 mega samples per second (MSPS). Considering the technical characteristics and requirements of the diagnostics, a data acquisition system based on PXI and CAMAC has been developed for SST-1 plasma diagnostics. Both these data acquisition systems are scalable. Present data acquisition needs involving slow plasma diagnostics are catered by the PXI based data acquisition system. On the other hand, CAMAC data acquisition hardware meets all requirements of the SST-1 Phase-1 fast plasma diagnostics channels. A graphical user interface for both data acquisition systems (PXI and CAMAC) has been developed using LabVIEW application development software. The collected data on the local hard disk are directly streaming to the central server through a dedicated network for post-shot data analysis. This paper describes the development and integration of the data acquisition system for SST-1 Phase-1 plasma diagnostics. The integrated testing of the developed data acquisition system has been performed using SST-1 central control and diagnostics signal conditioning units. In the absence of plasma shots, the integrated testing of the data acquisition system for the initial diagnostics of SST-1 Phase-1 operation has been performed with simulated physical signals. The primary engineering objective of this integrated testing is to validate the performance of the developed data acquisition system under simulated conditions close to that of actual tokamak operation. The data

  16. Impact of Air Temperature and SST Variability on Cholera Incidence in Southeastern Africa, 1971-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Shlomit

    2010-05-01

    The most important climatic parameter related to cholera outbreaks is the temperature, especially of the water bodies and the aquatic environment. This factor governs the survival and growth of V. cholerae, since it has a direct influence on its abundance in the environment, or alternatively, through its indirect influence on other aquatic organisms to which the pathogen is found to attach. Thus, the potential for cholera outbreaks may rise, parallel to the increase in ocean surface temperature. Indeed, recent studies indicate that global warming might create a favorable environment for V. cholerae and increase its incidence in vulnerable areas. Africa is vulnerable to climate variability. According to the recent IPCC report on Africa, the air temperature has indicated a significant warming trend since the 1960s. In recent years, most of the research into disease vectors in Africa related to climate variability has focused on malaria. The IPCC indicated that the need exists to examine the vulnerabilities and impacts of climatic factors on cholera in Africa. In light of this, the study uses a Poisson Regression Model to analyze the possible association between the cholera rates in southeastern Africa and the annual variability of air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) at regional and hemispheric scales, for the period 1971-2006. Data description is as follows: Number of cholera cases per year in Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique. Source: WHO Global Health Atlas - cholera. Seasonal and annual temperature time series: Regional scale: a) Air temperature for southeastern Africa (30° E-36° E, 5° S-17° S), source: NOAA NCEP-NCAR; b) Sea surface temperature, for the western Indian Ocean (0-20° S, 40° E-45° E), source: NOAA, Kaplan SST dataset. Hemispheric scale (for the whole Southern Hemisphere): a) Air temperature anomaly; b) Sea surface temperature anomaly. Source: CRU, University of East Anglia. The following

  17. The Mg - SST relationship in mollusc shells: is there a rule? Examples from three tropical species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, C. E.; Guzmán, N.; Lecornec, F.; Cabioch, G.; Ortlieb, L.

    2009-04-01

    The geochemistry of mollusc shells is currently viewed as a powerful tool for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Indeed, molluscs are ubiquitous animals, with a worldly geographical and environmental distribution, providing various environmental records. Moreover, mollusc shells are abundantly found in fossil and archaeological settings. In the paleoclimatic reconstructions, the sea-surface temperatures (SST) are a key parameter. If shell stable oxygen isotope signatures can provide accurate SST records, this proxy is also influenced by the water isotopic composition. To find another tracer which would depend on the SST solely, the relationship between Mg content changes in mollusc shell and SST has been investigated for a few years. Nevertheless, if the reliability of shell Mg as SST tracer has been proven in some species, this is clearly not a "universal" and definitive rule. To reconstruct the past tropical SSTs, Mg calibration studies were undertaken on Concholepas concholepas (gastropod, South America), Protothaca thaca (bivalve, South America) and Tridacna squamosa (bivalve, New Caledonia). The very high-resolution (infra-daily) analyses of the C. concholepas gastropod revealed a significant metabolism control, at the nyctemeral scale, on the Mg incorporation into the calcite shell layer. Over a two months period, the Mg fluctuations in C. concholepas shell do not match with the SST instrumental measurements. Mg content changes along the aragonitic shell growth axis of several living P. thaca from a same Peruvian site are significantly different indicating no relationship between Mg and SST. The Mg variations measured in a Chilean P. thaca shell are, surprisingly, similar to variations of the instrumental SST. Unless this quite reliable relationship between P. thaca shell and SST is confirmed, and that the inter-site difference in Mg response to environmental forcing is understood, P. thaca shell Mg cannot be used as SST proxy. Lastly, a preliminary work

  18. Relationship of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation intensity over the tropical western North Pacific to tropical Indo-Pacific SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renguang; Cao, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The present study contrasts interannual variations in the intensity of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) over the tropical western North Pacific and their factors. A pronounced difference is found in the relationship of the two ISOs to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The 10-20-day ISO intensity is enhanced during El Niño developing summer, whereas the 30-60-day ISO intensity is enhanced during La Niña decaying summer. The above different relationship is interpreted as follows. The equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies modify vertical wind shear, lower-level moisture, and vertical motion in a southeast-northwest oriented band from the equatorial western Pacific to the tropical western North Pacific where the 10-20-day ISOs originate and propagate. These background field changes modulate the amplitude of 10-20-day ISOs. Preceding equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies induce SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean in summer, which in turn modify vertical wind shear and vertical motion over the tropical western North Pacific. The modified background fields influence the amplitude of the 30-60-day ISOs when they reach the tropical western North Pacific from the equatorial region. A feedback of ISO intensity on local SST change is identified in the tropical western North Pacific likely due to a net effect of ISOs on surface heat flux anomalies. This feedback is more prominent from the 10-20-day than the 30-60-day ISO intensity change.

  19. Moisture dynamics of the northward and eastward propagating boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations: possible role of tropical Indo-west Pacific SST and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Prasanth A.; Sahai, A. K.

    2016-08-01

    Boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) has complex spatial structure due to the co-existence of equatorial eastward and off-equatorial northward propagation in the equatorial Indian Ocean. As a result, equatorial Indian Ocean convection has simultaneous northward and eastward (NE), northward only (N-only) and eastward only (E-only) propagations. It is well established that the convection propagates in the direction of increasing moist static energy (MSE). The moisture and MSE budget analysis reveals that the horizontal advection of anomalous MSE contributes to positive MSE tendency, which is in agreement with the horizontal advection of column integrated moisture anomaly. Northward movement of warm SST and the anomalous moisture advected by zonal wind are the major initiative for the northward propagation of convection from the equatorial Indian Ocean in both NE and N-only category. At the same time warm SST anomaly in the equatorial west Pacific along with moisture advection caused by anomalous meridional wind is important for the equatorial eastward branch of NE propagation. As these anomalies in the west Pacific moves northward, equatorial Indian Ocean convection establishes over the equatorial west Pacific. The absence of these processes confines the BSISO in northward direction for N-only category. In the case of E-only movement, warm SST anomaly and moisture advection by zonal component of wind causes the eastward propagation of convection. Boundary layer moisture convergence always remains east of convection center in E-only propagation, while it coincides with convection centre in other two categories. Thus the present study concludes that the difference in underlying SST and atmospheric circulation in tropical Indo-west Pacific oceanic regions encourage the differential propagation of BSISO convection through moisture dynamics.

  20. Upgradation in SCADA and PLC of existing LN_2 control system for SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, Pradip; Mahesuria, Gaurang; Panchal, Rohit; Patel, Rakesh; Sonara, Dashrath; Pitroda, Dipen; Nimavat, Hiren; Tanna, Vipul; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The control system of LN_2 Management System of SST-1 is designed on PLC and SCADA. • The implementation and results of up-gradation in PLC and SCADA are reported. • The up-gradation in PLC and SCADA has improved the reliability & availability of SST-1 LN_2 system. - Abstract: Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier system of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) incorporates Liquid Nitrogen (LN_2) pre-cooling system. LN_2 is used for 80 K thermal shields of SST-1, current feeder system and integrated flow distribution and control system. The LN_2 management system is distributed system and requires automatic control. Initially LN_2 control system had Citect based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Koyo make Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). With the passage of time and due to unavailability of their hardware, it is being obsoleted. So, the requirements of new PLC and SCADA systems have been envisaged to make uninterruptable operation of SST-1 cryogenic system. Therefore, Wonderware SCADA and Schneider Electric make PLC is programmed to replace Citect SCADA and Koyo PLC. New control features have been added in upgraded control system for better management of LN_2 system. This upgradation of SCADA and PLC is completed, tested successfully and in operation. Operational performance highlights of the new upgraded system are presented in this paper.

  1. The role of SST variability in the simulation of the MJO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Cristiana

    2017-12-01

    The sensitivity of the Madden-Julian Oscillation to high-frequency variability (period 1-5 days) of sea surface temperature (SST) is investigated using numerical experiments with the super-parameterized Community Climate System Model. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of air-sea interactions in the simulation of the MJO, and stress the necessity of an accurate representation of ocean variability on short time scales. Eliminating 1-5-day variability of surface boundary forcing reduces the intraseasonal variability (ISV) of the tropics during the boreal winter. The ISV spectrum becomes close to the red noise background spectrum. The variability of atmospheric circulation shifts to longer time scales. In the absence of high-frequency variability of SST the MJO power gets confined to wavenumbers 1-2 and the magnitude of westward power associated with Rossby waves increases. The MJO convective activity propagating eastward from the Indian Ocean does not cross the Maritime Continent, and convection in the western Pacific Ocean is locally generated. In the Indian Ocean convection tends to follow the meridional propagation of SST anomalies. The response of the MJO to 1-5-day variability in the SST is through the charging and discharging mechanisms contributing to the atmospheric column moist static energy before and after peak MJO convection. Horizontal advection and surface fluxes show the largest sensitivity to SST perturbations.

  2. Upgradation in SCADA and PLC of existing LN{sub 2} control system for SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, Pradip, E-mail: pradip@ipr.res.in; Mahesuria, Gaurang; Panchal, Rohit; Patel, Rakesh; Sonara, Dashrath; Pitroda, Dipen; Nimavat, Hiren; Tanna, Vipul; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The control system of LN{sub 2} Management System of SST-1 is designed on PLC and SCADA. • The implementation and results of up-gradation in PLC and SCADA are reported. • The up-gradation in PLC and SCADA has improved the reliability & availability of SST-1 LN{sub 2} system. - Abstract: Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier system of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) incorporates Liquid Nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) pre-cooling system. LN{sub 2} is used for 80 K thermal shields of SST-1, current feeder system and integrated flow distribution and control system. The LN{sub 2} management system is distributed system and requires automatic control. Initially LN{sub 2} control system had Citect based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Koyo make Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). With the passage of time and due to unavailability of their hardware, it is being obsoleted. So, the requirements of new PLC and SCADA systems have been envisaged to make uninterruptable operation of SST-1 cryogenic system. Therefore, Wonderware SCADA and Schneider Electric make PLC is programmed to replace Citect SCADA and Koyo PLC. New control features have been added in upgraded control system for better management of LN{sub 2} system. This upgradation of SCADA and PLC is completed, tested successfully and in operation. Operational performance highlights of the new upgraded system are presented in this paper.

  3. Conditioning of SST-1 Tokamak Vacuum Vessel by Baking and Glow Discharge Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Ziauddin, E-mail: ziauddin@ipr.res.in; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Raval, Dilip C.; Babu, Gattu Ramesh; Khan, Mohammed Shoaib; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • SST-1 Tokamak was successfully commissioned. • Vacuum vessel was pumped down to 4.5 × 10{sup –8} mbar after baking and continuous GDC. • GDC reduced the water vapour by additional 57% while oxygen was reduced by 50%. • Under this condition, an initial plasma breakdown with current of 40 kA for 75 ms was achieved. - Abstract: Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel (VV) adopts moderate baking at 110 ± 10 °C and the limiters baking at 250 ± 10 °C for ∼ 200 h followed by glow discharge cleaning in hydrogen (GDC-H) with 0.15 A/m{sup 2} current density towards its conditioning prior to plasma discharge experiment. The baking in SST-1 reduces the water (H{sub 2}O) vapor by 95% and oxygen (O{sub 2}) by 60% whereas the GDC reduces the water vapor by an additional 57% and oxygen by another 50% as measured with residual gas analyzer. The minimum breakdown voltage for H-GDC in SST-1 tokamak was experimentally observed to 300 V at 8 mbar cm. As a result of these adherences, SST-1 VV achieves an ultimate of 4.5 × 10{sup −8} mbar with two turbo-molecular pumps with effective pumping speed of 3250 l/s. In the last campaign, SST-1 has achieved successful plasma breakdown, impurity burn through and a plasma current of ∼ 40 kA for 75 ms.

  4. MHD mode evolutions prior to minor and major disruptions in SST-1 plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhongde, Jasraj; Pradhan, Subrata, E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Bhandarkar, Manisha

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Observation of different regimes of MHD phenomena in SST-1 plasma. • MHD mode (m/n = 1/1, m/n = 2/1) evolutions prior to minor and major disruptions in SST-1 plasma. • MHD mode characteristics such as mode frequency, mode number, island width etc. in different regimes. - Abstract: Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size Tokamak (R{sub 0} = 1.1 m, a = 0.2 m, B{sub T} = 1.5T, Ip ∼ 110 kA) in operation at the Institute for Plasma Research, India. SST-1 uniquely experiments large aspect ratio (∼5.5) plasma in different operation regimes. In these experiments, repeatable characteristic MHD phenomena have been consistently observed. As the large aspect ratio plasma pulse progresses, these MHD phenomena display minor-major disruptions ably indicated in Mirnov oscillations, Mirnov oscillations with saw teeth and locked modes etc. Even though somewhat similar observations have been found in some other machines, these observations are found for the first time in large aspect ratio plasma of SST-1. This paper elaborates the magnetic field perturbations and mode evolutions due to MHD activities from Mirnov coils (poloidal and toroidal), Soft X-ray diagnostics, ECE diagnostics etc. This work further, for the first time reports quantitatively different regimes of MHD phenomena observed in SST-1 plasma, their details of mode evolutions characteristics as well as the subsequently observed minor, major disruptions supported with the physical explanations. This study will help developing disruption mitigation and avoidance scenarios for having better confinement plasma experiments.

  5. GRASS-SST, Fission Products Gas Release and Fuel Swelling in Steady-State and Transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawadzki, S.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: GRASS-SST is a comprehensive, mechanistic model for the prediction of fission-gas behaviour in UO 2 -base fuels during steady-state and transient conditions. GRASS-SST treats fission-gas release and fuel swelling on an equal basis and simultaneously treats all major mechanisms that influence fission-gas behaviour. Models are included for intra- and inter-granular fission-gas bubble behaviour as well as a mechanistic description of the role of grain-edge inter-linked porosity on fission-gas release and swelling. GRASS-SST calculations include the effects of gas production from fissioning uranium atoms, bubble nucleation, a realistic equation of state for xenon, lattice bubble diffusivities based on experimental observations, bubble migration, bubble coalescence, re-solution, temperature and temperature gradients, inter-linked porosity, and fission-gas interaction with structural defects (dislocations and grain boundaries) on both the distribution of fission-gas within the fuel and on the amount of fission-gas released from the fuel. GRASS-SST includes the effects of the degree of nonequilibrium in the UO 2 lattice on fission-gas bubble mobility and bubble coalescence and also accounts for the observed formation of grain-surface channels. GRASS-SST also includes mechanistic models for grain-growth/grain boundary sweeping and for the behaviour of fission gas during liquefaction/dissolution and fuel melting conditions. 2 - Method of solution: A system of coupled equations for the evolution of the fission-gas bubble-size distributions in the lattice, on dislocations, on grain faces, and grain edges is derived based on the GRASS-SST models. Given a set of operating conditions, GRASS-SST calculates the bubble radii for the size classes of bubbles under consideration using a realistic equation of state for xenon as well as a generalised capillary relation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of : 1 axial section

  6. Caribbean Sea rainfall variability during the rainy season and relationship to the equatorial Pacific and tropical Atlantic SST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Renguang [Institute of Global Environment and Society, Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Kirtman, Ben P. [University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Miami, FL (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The present study investigates the Caribbean Sea rainfall variability during the early and late rainy seasons and its association with sea surface temperature (SST) and air-sea interaction based on observational estimates, the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) and Global Forecast System (GFS) simulations, and the CFS retrospective forecasts. Analysis of the observational estimates indicates that air-sea interaction is important over the Caribbean Sea, whereas the atmospheric forcing of SST dominates over the Gulf of Mexico. The CFS simulation captures the basic elements of this observed air-sea relationship. The GFS simulation produces spurious SST forcing of the atmosphere over the Gulf of Mexico largely due to prescribing SST. The CFS forecasts capture the air-sea relationship in the late rainy season (August-October), but cannot reproduce the SST forcing of atmosphere over the Caribbean Sea in the early rainy season (May-July). An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis indicates that the leading modes of percent anomalies of the rainy season precipitation have the largest loading in the southern Caribbean Sea in observations. The model simulations and forecasts skillfully reproduce the spatial pattern, but not the temporal evolution. The Caribbean Sea rainfall variability in the early rainy season is mainly due to the tropical North Atlantic (TNA) SST anomalies in observations, is contributed by both the TNA and eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) SST anomalies in the CFS simulation, and has an overly large impact from the EEP SST anomalies in the GFS simulation and the CFS forecasts. The observed Caribbean Sea rainfall variability in the late rainy season has a leading impact from the EEP SST anomalies, with a secondary contribution from the TNA SST anomalies. In comparison, the model simulations and forecasts overestimate the impacts of the EEP SST anomalies due to an earlier development and longer duration of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in the CFS

  7. Impact of global SST gradients on the Mediterranean runoff changes across the Plio-Pleistocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleoni, Florence; Cherchi, Annalisa; Masina, Simona; Brierley, Christopher M.

    2015-06-01

    This work explores the impact of the development of global meridional and zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradients on the Mediterranean runoff variability during the Plio-Pleistocene transition, about 3 Ma. Results show that total annual mean Pliocene Mediterranean runoff is about 40% larger than during the preindustrial period due to more increased extratropical specific humidity. As a consequence of a weakened and extended Hadley cell, the Pliocene northwest Africa hydrological network produces a discharge 30 times larger than today. Our results support the conclusion that during the Pliocene, the Mediterranean water deficit was reduced relative to today due to a larger river discharge. By means of a stand-alone atmospheric general circulation model, we simulate the separate impact of extratropical and equatorial SST cooling on the Mediterranean runoff. While cooling the equatorial SST does not imply significant changes to the Pliocene Mediterranean hydrological budget, the extratropical SST cooling increases the water deficit due to a decrease in precipitation and runoff. Consequently, river discharge from this area reduces to preindustrial levels. The main teleconnections acting upon the Mediterranean area today, i.e., the North Atlantic Oscillation during winter and the "monsoon-desert" mechanism during summer already have a large influence on the climate of our Pliocene simulations. Finally, our results also suggest that in a climate state significantly warmer than today, changes of the Hadley circulation could potentially lead to increased water resources in northwest Africa.

  8. Edge transport and fluctuation induced turbulence characteristics in early SST-1 plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakati, B., E-mail: bharat.kakati@ipr.res.in; Pradhan, S., E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Dhongde, J.; Semwal, P.; Yohan, K.; Banaudha, M.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Anomalous particle transport during the high MHD activity at SST-1. • Electrostatic turbulence is modulated by MHD activity at SST-1 tokamak. • Edge floating potential fluctuations shows poloidal long-range cross correlation. - Abstract: Plasma edge transport characteristics are known to be heavily influenced by the edge fluctuation induced turbulences. These characteristics play a critical role towards the confinement of plasma column in a Tokamak. The edge magnetic fluctuations and its subsequent effect on electrostatic fluctuations have been experimentally investigated for the first time at the edge of the SST-1 plasma column. This paper reports the correlations that exist and is experimentally been observed between the edge densities and floating potential fluctuations with the magnetic fluctuations. The edge density and floating potential fluctuations have been measured with the help of poloidally separated Langmuir probes, whereas the magnetic fluctuations have been measured with poloidally spaced Mirnov coils. Increase in magnetic fluctuations associated with enhanced MHD activities has been found to increase the floating potential and ion saturation current. These observations indicate electrostatic turbulence getting influenced with the MHD activities and reveal the edge anomalous particle transport during SST-1 tokamak discharge. Large-scale coherent structures have been observed in the floating potential fluctuations, indicating long-distance cross correlation in the poloidal directions. From bispectral analysis, a strong nonlinear coupling among the floating potential fluctuations is observed in the low-frequency range about 0–15 kHz.

  9. Non-inductive current drive and RF heating in SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) machine is being developed for 1000 sec operation at different operating parameters. Radio Frequency (RF) and neutral beam injection (NBI) methods are planned in SST-1 for noninductive current drive and heating. In this paper, we describe the non-inductive current drive and RF heating methods that are being developed for this purpose. SST-1 is a large aspect ratio tokamak configured to run double-null divertor plasmas with significant elongation (κ = 1.7-1.9) and triangularity (δ = 0.4-0.7). SST-1 has a major radius of 1.1 in and minor radius of 0.2 m. Circular and shaped plasma experiments would be conducted at 1.5 and 3 T toroidal magnetic field in three different phases with I p = 110 kA and 220 kA. Two main factors have been considered during the development of auxiliary systems, namely, high heat flux (1 MW/m 2 ) incident on the plasma facing antennae components and fast feedback for constant power input due to small energy confinement time (∼ 10 ms). (author)

  10. Apocrypha of standard scattering theory (SST) and quantum mechanics of the de Broglie wave packet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, V.K.

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that the Standard Scattering Theory (SST) does not correspond to the principles of Standard Quantum Mechanics (SQM). A more consistent theory is formulated. Some new results are obtained. Reflection and transmission of the de Broglie wave packet by thin layers of matter is considered

  11. PXIe based data acquisition and control system for ECRH systems on SST-1 and Aditya tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Jatinkumar J., E-mail: jatin@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Shukla, B.K.; Rajanbabu, N.; Patel, H.; Dhorajiya, P.; Purohit, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Mankadiya, K. [Optimized Solutions Pvt. Ltd (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Data Aquisition and control system (DAQ). • PXIe hardware–(PXI–PCI bus extension for Instrumention Express). • RHVPS–Regulated High Voltage Power supply. • SST1–Steady state superconducting tokamak. - Abstract: In Steady State Superconducting (SST-1) tokamak, various RF heating sub-systems are used for plasma heating experiments. In SST-1, Two Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) systems have been installed for pre-ionization, heating and current drive experiments. The 42 GHz gyrotron based ECRH system is installed and in operation with SST-1 plasma experiments. The 82.6 GHz gyrotron delivers 200 kW CW power (1000 s) while the 42 GHz gyrotron delivers 500 kW power for 500 ms duration. Each gyrotron system consists of various auxiliary power supplies, the crowbar unit and the water cooling system. The PXIe (PCI bus extension for Instrumentation Express)bus based DAC (Data Acquisition and Control) system has been designed, developed and under implementation for safe and reliable operation of the gyrotron. The Control and Monitoring Software applications have been developed using NI LabView 2014 software with real time support on windows platform.

  12. The high-resolution global SST forecast set of the CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available -RESOLUTION GLOBAL SST FORECAST SET OF THE CSIR Willem A. Landman Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa David G. DeWitt and Dong-Eun Lee International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Lamont...

  13. Cryogenic system of steady state superconducting Tokamak SST-1: Operational experience and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, B.; Tank, Jignesh; Panchal, Pradip; Sahu, A.K.; Bhattacharya, Ritendra; Phadke, Gaurang; Gupta, N.C.; Gupta, Girish; Shah, Nitin; Shukla, Pawan; Singh, Manoj; Sonara, Dasarath; Sharma, Rajiv; Saradha, S.; Patel, J.C.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2006-01-01

    The cryogenic system of SST-1 consists of the helium cryogenic system and the nitrogen cryogenic system. The main components of the helium cryogenic system are (a) 1.3 kW helium refrigerator/liquefier (HRL) and (b) warm gas management system (WGM), where as, the nitrogen cryogenic system called as liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) management system consists of storage tanks and a distribution system. The helium flow distribution and control to different sub-systems is achieved by the integrated flow distribution and control (IFDC) system. The HRL has been commissioned and operated for performing a single toroidal field coil test as well as for the first commissioning of SST-1 superconducting-magnets up to 68 K. Analysis of the results shows that the compressor and turbine parameters of the HRL, namely, the speed and pressure are very stable during operation of the HRL, confirming to the reliability in control of thermo-dynamic parameters of the system. The thermal shield of the SST-1 cryostat consists of ten different types of panels, which have been cooled down to the minimum temperature of 80 K and maintained during the first commissioning of SST-1. The operation and controls of the LN2 management system have been found to be as per the design consideration

  14. GHRSST Level 4 Australian Bureau of Meteorology GAMSSA_28km Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GAMSSA v1.0 system blends NAVOCEANO's GAC 9.9 km x 4.4 km resolution AVHRR L2P SST1m data (NOAA-17, NOAA-18 and METOP-A), European Space Agency's 0.17 AATSR skin...

  15. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, Pratibha; Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 X 10 -5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium (He) glow discharge cleaning (GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nanometers from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.48. In this paper, the results of effect of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail. (author)

  16. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 Tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, P; Khan, Z; Raval, D C; Dhanani, K R; George, S; Paravastu, Y; Prakash, A; Thankey, P; Ramesh, G; Khan, M S; Saikia, P; Pradhan, S

    2017-01-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside the SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 × 10 -5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of this water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium glow discharge cleaning (He-GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nano-meters from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.24. In this paper the results of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail. (paper)

  17. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 Tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, P.; Khan, Z.; Raval, D. C.; Dhanani, K. R.; George, S.; Paravastu, Y.; Prakash, A.; Thankey, P.; Ramesh, G.; Khan, M. S.; Saikia, P.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-04-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside the SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 × 10-5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of this water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium glow discharge cleaning (He-GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nano-meters from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.24. In this paper the results of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail.

  18. Characterization and commissioning of the SST-1M camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aguilar, J.A.; Bilnik, W.; Blocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Borkowski, J.; Bulik, T.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; Curylo, M.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Favre, Y.; Frankowski, A.; Grudnik, L.; Grudzinska, M.; Heller, M.; Idzkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Lyard, E.; Mach, E.; Mandát, Dušan; Marszalek, A.; Medina Miranda, L. D.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Pasko, P.; Pech, Miroslav; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Schioppa, E.; Schovánek, Petr; Seweryn, K.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Sowinski, M.; Stawarz, L.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wiecek, M.; Zagdanski, A.; Zietara, K.; Zychowski, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 845, Feb (2017), s. 350-354 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : SiPM * G-APD * CTA * SST-1 M * Gamma-ray Astronomy * FPGA * PhotoDetection * high-speed electronics * ADC Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  19. Overview of time synchronization system of steady state superconducting tokamak SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A., E-mail: aveg@ipr.res.in; Masand, H.; Dhongde, J.; Patel, K.; Mahajan, K.; Gulati, H.; Bhandarkar, M.; Chudasama, H.; Pradhan, S.

    2016-11-15

    The Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) consists of many distributed and heterogeneous plant/experiment systems viz. Water-Cooling, Power Supplies, Cryogenics, Vacuum, Magnets, Auxiliary-Heating sources, Diagnostics, Front End Electronics (FEE) & Data Acquisition systems, having their own data acquisition & control systems and control & monitor by Central Control System (CCS) during the machine operation. With distributed computing and interdependent systems, it is essential that all the data/event acquired must be with disciplined & precise time-base, so as to make the co-relation of the data/event from various plant and experiment systems easy. Hence it is important to have accurate and precise Time Synchronization in place. The two systems fulfill the requirement of the time synchronization in SST-1. The VME based Timing System (TS) provides synchronization amongst various experiment systems during the plasma discharges and works as discharge control system (DCS) while the GPS based Time Synchronization System (TSS) caters the requirement of synchronization during the continuous operation of various plant systems by feeding a central clock to all the plant systems. This paper presents the Time Synchronization System of SST-1, the results of the integrated testing and engineering validation with various SST-1 subsystems.

  20. Thermo hydraulic and quench propagation characteristics of SST-1 TF coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.N., E-mail: ansharma@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India); Pradhan, S. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India); Duchateau, J.L. [CEA Cadarache, 13108 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Khristi, Y.; Prasad, U.; Doshi, K.; Varmora, P.; Patel, D.; Tanna, V.L. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Details of SST-1 TF coils, CICC. • Details of SST-1 TF coil cold test. • Quench analysis of TF magnet. • Flow changes following quench. • Predictive analysis of assembled magnet system. - Abstract: SST-1 toroidal field (TF) magnet system is comprising of sixteen superconducting modified ‘D’ shaped TF coils. During single coil test campaigns spanning from June 10, 2010 till January 24, 2011; the electromagnetic, thermal hydraulic and mechanical performances of each TF magnet have been qualified at its respective nominal operating current of 10,000 A in either two-phase or supercritical helium cooling conditions. During the current charging experiments, few quenches have initiated either as a consequence of irrecoverable normal zones or being induced in some of the TF magnets. Quench evolution in the TF coils have been analyzed in detail in order to understand the thermal hydraulic and quench propagation characteristics of the SST-1 TF magnets. The same were also simulated using 1D code Gandalf. This paper elaborates the details of the analyses and the quench simulation results. A predictive quench propagation analysis of 16 assembled TF magnets system has also been reported in this paper.

  1. PXIe based data acquisition and control system for ECRH systems on SST-1 and Aditya tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Jatinkumar J.; Shukla, B.K.; Rajanbabu, N.; Patel, H.; Dhorajiya, P.; Purohit, D.; Mankadiya, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Data Aquisition and control system (DAQ). • PXIe hardware–(PXI–PCI bus extension for Instrumention Express). • RHVPS–Regulated High Voltage Power supply. • SST1–Steady state superconducting tokamak. - Abstract: In Steady State Superconducting (SST-1) tokamak, various RF heating sub-systems are used for plasma heating experiments. In SST-1, Two Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) systems have been installed for pre-ionization, heating and current drive experiments. The 42 GHz gyrotron based ECRH system is installed and in operation with SST-1 plasma experiments. The 82.6 GHz gyrotron delivers 200 kW CW power (1000 s) while the 42 GHz gyrotron delivers 500 kW power for 500 ms duration. Each gyrotron system consists of various auxiliary power supplies, the crowbar unit and the water cooling system. The PXIe (PCI bus extension for Instrumentation Express)bus based DAC (Data Acquisition and Control) system has been designed, developed and under implementation for safe and reliable operation of the gyrotron. The Control and Monitoring Software applications have been developed using NI LabView 2014 software with real time support on windows platform.

  2. On the diurnal ranges of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Solomon and Jin 2005). The diurnal change in. SST has also been examined to study the possible feedbacks on the atmosphere (Clayson and Chen. 2002; Bernie et al 2007). Solar heating of the sea surface in low-wind conditions can lead to the development of a stable warm layer of a few meters thickness at the surface.

  3. Demonstration of SST value as EBVs descriptor in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, E.; Filipponi, F.; Nguyen Xuan, A.; Taramelli, A.

    2017-12-01

    Sea Surface Temperature is an Essential Climate and Ocean Variable (ECV - EOV) able to capture critical scales in the seascape warming patterns and to highlight the exceeding of thresholds. This presentation addresses the changes of the SST in the last three decades over the Mediterranean Sea, a "Large Marine Ecosystem (LME)", in order to speculate the value of such powerful variable, as proxy for the assessment of ecosystem state in terms of ecosystem structures, functions and composition key descriptor. Time series of daily SST for the period 1982-2016, estimated from multi-sensor satellite data and provided by Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS-EU) are used to perform different statistical analysis on common fish species. Results highlight the critical conditions, the general trends as well as the spatial and temporal patterns, in terms of thermal growth, vitality and stress influence on selected fish species. Results confirm a constant increasing trend in SST with an average rise of 1.4° C in the past thirty years. The variance associated to the average trend is not constant across the entire Mediterranean Sea opening the way to multiple scenarios for fish growth and vitality in the diverse sub-basins. A major effort is oriented in addressing the cross-scale ecological interactions to assess the feasibility of using SST as descriptor for Essential Biodiversity Variables, able to prioritize areas and to feed operational tools for planning and management in the Mediterranean LME.

  4. Criticality in the fabrication of ion extraction system for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, M.R.; Mattoo, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    For the heating of plasma in steady-state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) (Y.C. Saxena, SST-1 Team, Present status of the SST-1 project, Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 1069-1082; D. Bora, SST-1 Team, Test results on systems developed for the SST-1 tokamak, Nucl. Fusion 43 (2003) 1748-1758), a neutral beam injector is provided to raise the ion temperature to ∼1 keV. This injector has a capability of injecting hydrogen beam with the power of 0.5 MW at 30 keV. For the upgrade of SST-1, power of 1.7 MW at 55 KeV is required. Further, beam power is to be provided for a pulse length of 1000S. We have designed a neutral beam injector (S.K. Mattoo, A.K. Chakraborty, U.K. Baruah, P.K. Jayakumar, M. Bandyopadhyay, N. Bisai, Ch. Chakrapani, M.R. Jana, R. Onali, V. Prahlad, P.J. Patel, G.B. Patel, B. Prajapati, N.V.M. Rao, S. Rambabu, C. Rotti, S.K. Sharma, S. Shah, V. Sharma, M.J. Singh, Engineering design of the steady-state neutral beam injector for SST-1, Fusion Eng. Des. 56 (2001) 685-691; A.K. Chakraborty, N. Bisai, M.R. Jana, P.K. Jayakumar, U.K. Baruah, P.J. Patel, K. Rajasekar, S.K. Mattoo, Neutral beam injector for steady-state superconducting tokamak, Fusion Technol. (1996) 657-660; P.K. Jayakumar, M.R. Jana, N. Bisai, M. Bajpai, N.P. Singh, U.K. Baruah, A.K. Chakraborty, M. Bandyopadhyay, C. Chrakrapani, D. Patel, G.B. Patel, P. Patel, V. Prahlad, N.V.M. Rao, C. Rotti, V. Sreedhar, S.K. Mattoo, Engineering issues of a 1000S neutral beam ion source, Fusion Technol. 1 (1998) 419-422) satisfying the requirements for both SST-1 and its upgrade. Since intense power is to be transported to SST-1 situated at a distance of several meters from the ion source, the optical quality of the beam becomes a primary concern. This in turn, is determined by the uniformity of the ion source plasma and the extractor geometry. To obtain the desired optical quality of the beam, stringent tolerances are to be met during the fabrication of ion extractor system. SST-1 neutral beam injector is

  5. Thermal structural analysis of SST-1 vacuum vessel and cryostat assembly using ANSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Prosenjit; Bedakihale, Vijay; Ranganath, Tata

    2009-01-01

    Steady state super-conducting tokamak-1 (SST-1) is a medium sized tokamak, which has been designed to produce a 'D' shaped double null divertor plasma and operate in quasi steady state (1000 s). SST-1 vacuum system comprises of plasma chamber (vacuum vessel, interconnecting rings, baking and cooling channels), and cryostat all made of SS 304L material designed to meet ultra high vacuum requirements for plasma generation and confinement. Prior to plasma shot and operation the vessel assembly is baked to 250/150 deg. C from room temperature and discharge cleaned to remove impurities/trapped gases from wall surfaces. Due to baking the non-uniform temperature pattern on the vessel assembly coupled with atmospheric pressure loading and self-weight give rise to high thermal-structural stresses, which needs to be analyzed in detail. In addition the vessel assembly being a thin shell vessel structure needs to be checked for critical buckling load caused by atmospheric and baking thermal loads. Considering symmetry of SST-1, 1/16th of the geometry is modeled for finite element (FE) analysis using ANSYS for different loading scenarios, e.g. self-weight, pressure loading considering normal operating conditions, and off-normal loads coupled with baking of vacuum vessel from room temperature 250 deg. C to 150 deg. C, buckling and modal analysis for future dynamic analysis. The paper will discuss details about SST-1 vacuum system/cryostat, solid and FE model of SST-1, different loading scenarios, material details and the stress codes used. We will also present the thermal structural results of FE analysis using ANSYS for various load cases being investigated and our observations under different loading conditions.

  6. Global atmospheric response to specific linear combinations of the main SST modes. Part I: numerical experiments and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Trzaska

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates through numerical experiments the controversial question of the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomena on climate according to large-scale and regional-scale interhemispheric thermal contrast. Eight experiments (two considering only inversed Atlantic thermal anomalies and six combining ENSO warm phase with large-scale interhemispheric contrast and Atlantic anomaly patterns were performed with the Météo-France atmospheric general circulation model. The definition of boundary conditions from observed composites and principal components is presented and preliminary results concerning the month of August, especially over West Africa and the equatorial Atlantic are discussed. Results are coherent with observations and show that interhemispheric and regional scale sea-surface-temperature anomaly (SST patterns could significantly modulate the impact of ENSO phenomena: the impact of warm-phase ENSO, relative to the atmospheric model intercomparison project (AMIP climatology, seems stronger when embedded in global and regional SSTA patterns representative of the post-1970 conditions [i.e. with temperatures warmer (colder than the long-term mean in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere]. Atlantic SSTAs may also play a significant role.

  7. Seasonal variation of sea surface temperature in the Bay of Bengal during 1992 as derived from NOAA-AVHRR SST data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Rao, L.V.G.; Reddy, G.V.

    . The spatial variation of Standard Deviation of SST bias was particularly high (less than 0.7) in the western Bay when compared to other parts of the Bay of Bengal. The monthly maps of AVHRR SST clearly depicted the seasonal cycle of SST showing the well known...

  8. Enhanced Influence of the Tropical Atlantic SST on the Western North Pacific Subtropical High after late 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) in boreal summer shows a remarkable enhancement after the late 1970s. Whereas the sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) and the equatorial eastern Pacific (EEP) had been noted to have remarkable local or remote effects on enhancing the WNPSH, the influence of the Atlantic SST, so far, is hardly explored. This article reports a new finding: enhanced relationship between the tropical Atlantic (TA)-SST and the WNPSH after the late 1970s. Regression study suggests that the warm TA-SST produced a zonally overturning circulation anomaly, with descending over the central equatorial Pacific and ascending over the tropical Atlantic/eastern Pacific. The anomalous descending over the central equatorial Pacific likely induced low-level anticyclonic anomaly to the west and therefore enhanced the WNPSH. One implication of this new finding is for predictability. The well-known "spring predictability barrier" (i.e., the influence of El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) falls dramatically during boreal spring) does not apply to the TA-SST/WNPSH relationship. Conversely, the TA-SST shows consistently high correlation starting from boreal spring when the ENSO influence continues declining. The TA-SST pushes the predictability of the WNPSH in boreal summer approximately one season earlier to boreal spring.

  9. INITIAL SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The ''Initial Single-Shell Tank System Performance Assessment for the Hanford Site [1] (SST PA) presents the analysis of the long-term impacts of residual wastes assumed to remain after retrieval of tank waste and closure of the SST farms at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SST PA supports key elements of the closure process agreed upon in 2004 by DOE, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The SST PA element is defined in Appendix I of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) [2], the document that establishes the overall closure process for the SST and double-shell tank (DST) systems. The approach incorporated in the SST PA integrates substantive features of both hazardous and radioactive waste management regulations into a single analysis. The defense-in-depth approach used in this analysis defined two major engineering barriers (a surface barrier and the grouted tank structure) and one natural barrier (the vadose zone) that will be relied on to control waste release into the accessible environment and attain expected performance metrics. The analysis evaluates specific barrier characteristics and other site features that influence contaminant migration by the various pathways. A ''reference'' case and a suite of sensitivity/uncertainty cases are considered. The ''reference case'' evaluates environmental impacts assuming central tendency estimates of site conditions. ''Reference'' case analysis results show residual tank waste impacts on nearby groundwater, air resources; or inadvertent intruders to be well below most important performance objectives. Conversely, past releases to the soil, from previous tank farm operations, are shown to have groundwater impacts that re significantly above most performance objectives. Sensitivity/uncertainty cases examine single and multiple parameter variability along with plausible alternatives

  10. Simulation study of induced EMFs and the suppression during SST-1 start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, V., E-mail: vishal@ipr.res.in; Sharma, D.; Vardhrajulu, A.; Gupta, C.N.; Srinivasan, R.; Daniel, R.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Induced EMFs study in PF coils during SST-1 start up using MATlab simulink. • Integration of wave shaping network to generate practical OT current profile. • This study would protect coil insulation with identifying RC circulating network. • Study of MOV technique for circulation of current through RC. - Abstract: Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) comprises of various copper and superconducting coils for generating magnetic field for initiation, providing equilibrium and shaping of plasma in tokamak. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the induced EMF in superconducting poloidal field coils (PF coils) due to fast ramp down of current in ohmic transformer copper coils (OT coils) for SST-1 plasma initiation. The fast ramp down of current, from few kA to zero amperes in just 50–100 ms in OT coils, is required to achieve plasma breakdown and ramp up of plasma current in tokamak. However, it induces nearly 5 kV EMF in one of the SST-1 PF coils that can damage the coil insulation and also bias negatively the electronic switching of power supply. It is necessary to maintain induced EMF below 1 kV in all PF coils for safe operation of SST-1. The induced EMF up to 1 kV can be clamped without any need of protection and circulating current. If the induced EMF is in excess of 1 kV, then it has to allow the circulation of current through RC network for coil protection from overvoltage. These circulating currents in PF coils will affect the shaping of plasma. In this paper, the induced EMF in PF coils are simulated using MATlab simulink for a typical SST-1 current profile of OT coils. Further, this simulation study is used to design the protection system for PF coils. In this paper, the worst-case induced EMF scenario is considered by excluding the effect of passive elements like vacuum vessel and cryostat on mutual coupling parameters. However, the implementation of the EMF suppression scheme need more elaborated study with considering

  11. Probing the earth's gravity field using Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1976-01-01

    Satellite-to-Satellite (SST) tests, namely: (a) the ATS-6/GEOS-3 and (b) the ATS-6/Apollo-Soyuz experiment and some of the results obtained are described. The main purpose of these two experiments was first to track via ATS-6 the GEOS-3 as well as the Apollo-Soyuz and to use these tracking data to determine (a) both orbits, that is, ATS-6, GEOS-3 and/or the Apollo-Soyuz orbits at the same time; (b) each of these orbits alone; and (c) test the ATS-6/GEOS-3 and/or Apollo-Soyuz SST link to study local gravity anomalies; and, second, to test communications, command, and data transmission from the ground via ATS-6 to these spacecraft and back again to the ground. The Apollo-Soyuz Geodynamics Experiment is discussed in some detail.

  12. Development of lab scale fast gas injection system for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, F.S.; Banaudha, Moni; Khristi, Yohan; Khan, M.S.; Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, D.C.; Khirwadkar, Samir

    2017-01-01

    The plasma density control plays an important role in Tokamak operation. The factors that influence plasma density in a Tokamak device are working gas injection, pumping, ionization rate and the recycle coefficient representing the wall conditions. Among these factors, gas injection is relatively convenient to be controlled. Hence, the most frequently adopted method to control the plasma density is to control the fast gas injection. This paper describes the design and experimental work carried out towards the development of Fast Gas Injection System for SST-1 Tokamak. Laboratory based test setup was successfully established for Fast Gas Injection System that can feed predefined quantity of gas in a controlled manner into vacuum chamber. Further, this FGIS system will be implemented in SST-1 Tokamak environment with online density feedback signal

  13. Modeling SST gradient changes, the hydrological cycle response, and deep water formation in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, N.; Ford, H. L.; Fedorov, A. V.; Jahn, A.; Jacobs, P.

    2017-12-01

    The absence of deep-water formation and a deep meridional overturning cell in the modern North Pacific has been attributed to the relatively fresh surface conditions in the subarctic. These conditions are, in turn, best explained by the local excess of precipitation over evaporation in the northern Pacific due to net moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific and/or moisture transport associated with the Asian monsoon. Some studies link the lack of deep-water formation in the Pacific directly to its occurrence in the Atlantic via the Atlantic-Pacific seesaw effect and idealized experiments indicate that the smaller width of the Atlantic predisposes it to higher salinity and deep-water formation. We have conducted a series of coupled model experiments across which global mean temperatures and large-scale meridional SST gradients are varied. We perturb either atmospheric CO2 concentrations or the meridional gradient in cloud radiative forcing and run each experiment out to 3000 years so that the deep ocean has equilibrated. As the strength of the meridional temperature gradient decreases across our experiments, a Pacific Meridional Overturning Circulation develops. The strength of this Pacific Meridional Overturning Circulation generally increases as the gradient weakens. In one of these experiments where the meridional SST gradient most closely resembles Pliocene reconstructions, a PMOC exists of comparable in strength to the modern AMOC. We will describe how the hydrological cycle response to reduced meridional SST gradients acts to increase the strength of the PMOC across our sensitivity experiments. Additionally, we will discuss our effort to include carbon isotopes in our Pliocene-like simulation for data-model comparisons. Calcium carbonate accumulation data from Subarctic North Pacific Site 882 and new and previously published carbon isotope records from the Pacific appear to support our modelling results suggesting that weaker meridonal SST gradients

  14. CORBA-based solution for remote participation in SST-1 tokamak control and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, Kirti [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)]. E-mail: kirti@ipr.res.in; Ravikiran, M. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Gulati, Hitesh [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Dave, H.J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Kumar, Neeraj [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Patel, Kirit [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Kumar, Aveg [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Raju, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Bhandarkar, M. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Chudasama, H. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Kulkarni, S.V. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Saxena, Y.C. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2006-07-15

    The steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) central control system is a distributed heterogeneous process communication system built on socket programming. It consists of machine, experiment and discharge control plus timing and a database. The software controls and monitors SST-1 subsystems: water-cooling, power supplies, cryogenics and vacuum over a local area network (LAN). The SST-1 control room is the place where all the activities like session announcement, machine control, experiment control, discharge control and monitoring are performed. We have realized that, instead of having a single monitoring place, we should have multiple monitoring points and it should be made possible to control the experiment from any PC over the LAN. In order to meet such requirements for remote participation in tokamak operation, we are upgrading the existing software. The upgraded software is based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology. The software is utilizing CORBA-services such as event service, naming services, interface repository and security services. The inherent features of CORBA make the software, platform and language independent. The software supports a variety of communication paradigms including publish-subscribe, peer-to-peer, and request-reply. Based on this software, one can participate in SST-1 tokamak operation from the LAN, or a wide area network (WAN) connection anywhere on the Internet. Each user can customize plasma parameters and diagnostics data that he wants to monitor, at any time without any change in the software and a copy of these parameters will be available to him. This paper focuses on the publish-subscribe communication paradigm and its application for a machine monitoring system.

  15. CORBA-based solution for remote participation in SST-1 tokamak control and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Kirti; Ravikiran, M.; Gulati, Hitesh; Dave, H.J.; Kumar, Neeraj; Patel, Kirit; Kumar, Aveg; Raju, D.; Bhandarkar, M.; Chudasama, H.; Kulkarni, S.V.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2006-01-01

    The steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) central control system is a distributed heterogeneous process communication system built on socket programming. It consists of machine, experiment and discharge control plus timing and a database. The software controls and monitors SST-1 subsystems: water-cooling, power supplies, cryogenics and vacuum over a local area network (LAN). The SST-1 control room is the place where all the activities like session announcement, machine control, experiment control, discharge control and monitoring are performed. We have realized that, instead of having a single monitoring place, we should have multiple monitoring points and it should be made possible to control the experiment from any PC over the LAN. In order to meet such requirements for remote participation in tokamak operation, we are upgrading the existing software. The upgraded software is based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology. The software is utilizing CORBA-services such as event service, naming services, interface repository and security services. The inherent features of CORBA make the software, platform and language independent. The software supports a variety of communication paradigms including publish-subscribe, peer-to-peer, and request-reply. Based on this software, one can participate in SST-1 tokamak operation from the LAN, or a wide area network (WAN) connection anywhere on the Internet. Each user can customize plasma parameters and diagnostics data that he wants to monitor, at any time without any change in the software and a copy of these parameters will be available to him. This paper focuses on the publish-subscribe communication paradigm and its application for a machine monitoring system

  16. Update to the Fissile Materials Disposition program SST/SGT transportation estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Didlake

    1999-01-01

    This report is an update to ''Fissile Materials Disposition Program SST/SGT Transportation Estimation,'' SAND98-8244, June 1998. The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition requested this update as a basis for providing the public with an updated estimation of the number of transportation loads, load miles, and costs associated with the preferred alternative in the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  17. Design of vessel baking system and thermal radiation shields for SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, E.R.; Nagabhushana, S.; Pathak, H.A.; Panigrahi, S.; Nath, T.R.; Babu, A.V.S; Gangradey, R.; Patel, R.J.; Saxena, Y.C. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    1998-07-01

    SST-1 is a Steady State Tokamak with a major radius of 1.1 m, minor radius of 0.2 m and toroidal field of 3.0 T. The toroidal and poloidal field coils of SST-1 are superconducting. One of the main objectives of SST-1 is to demonstrate steady state particle removal and active plasma density control which states the necessity of wall conditioning. The vacuum vessel will be baked up to 525 K by passing hot nitrogen gas through the U - channels welded on the inner surface of vacuum vessel. The required mass flow rate at 5 bar is 0.712 Kg/s to maintain 525 K wall temperature in steady state. Superconducting coils operating at 4.5 K will be protected against thermal radiation from hot surfaces using liquid nitrogen cooled panels operating at 87 K. Maximum 1200 litres/hour liquid nitrogen is required during vessel baking. The design of vacuum vessel baking system and thermal radiation shields and related flow analysis are presented here. (authors)

  18. Design of vessel baking system and thermal radiation shields for SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, E.R.; Nagabhushana, S.; Pathak, H.A.; Panigrahi, S.; Nath, T.R.; Babu, A.V.S; Gangradey, R.; Patel, R.J.; Saxena, Y.C.

    1998-01-01

    SST-1 is a Steady State Tokamak with a major radius of 1.1 m, minor radius of 0.2 m and toroidal field of 3.0 T. The toroidal and poloidal field coils of SST-1 are superconducting. One of the main objectives of SST-1 is to demonstrate steady state particle removal and active plasma density control which states the necessity of wall conditioning. The vacuum vessel will be baked up to 525 K by passing hot nitrogen gas through the U - channels welded on the inner surface of vacuum vessel. The required mass flow rate at 5 bar is 0.712 Kg/s to maintain 525 K wall temperature in steady state. Superconducting coils operating at 4.5 K will be protected against thermal radiation from hot surfaces using liquid nitrogen cooled panels operating at 87 K. Maximum 1200 litres/hour liquid nitrogen is required during vessel baking. The design of vacuum vessel baking system and thermal radiation shields and related flow analysis are presented here. (authors)

  19. Understanding of impurity behavior in SST-1 plasmas using visible spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchanda, Ranjana; Ramaiya, Nilam; Chowdhuri, Malay Bikas; Banerjee, Santanu; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Studies of impurity behavior in SST-1 plasma have been carried out using visible spectroscopic systems installed on the tokomak. This has been carried out using a low resolution and broadband survey spectrometer covering a 350-900 nm wavelength range, 0.5 m visible spectrometer having 600 and 1200 grooves/mm grating coupled with CCD camera and interference filter and photomultiplier (PMT) tube based systems. Temporal evolution of the hydrogen (H α , H β ) and impurities emissions like, C II, C III, O I, O II, O III, O V and a visible Continuum at 536.0 nm have been monitored using the PMT based system to understand impurity charge state evolution during plasma discharges. All systems are absolutely calibrated for impurity influx and plasma parameter estimations. Observed spectral lines in the visible range have been identified to recognize the presence of various impurities in the SST-1 plasmas. Comparison of impurities emission has been made for different plasma currents and toroidal magnetic fields. An analysis has been carried out to understand the impurities activities in plasmas of SST-1 tokomak in presence and absence of installed plasma facing components (PFC). Significantly higher carbon emissions have been observed indicating higher carbon content in the plasma with graphite PFCs installed. (author)

  20. Design and implementation of quench detection instrumentation for TF magnet system of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristi, Y.; Sharma, A.N.; Doshi, K.; Banaudha, M.; Prasad, U.; Varmora, P.; Patel, D.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Steady State Superconducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India is now in engineering validation phase. The assembled Toroidal Field (TF) magnet system of SST-1 will be operated at 10 kA of nominal current at helium cooled condition of 4.5 K. A reliable and fail proof quench detection (QD) system is essential for the safety and the investment protection requirements of the magnets. This QD system needs to continuously monitor all the superconducting coils, which include 16 TF magnets, return-loop, bus bars and current leads. In case of any event initiating the normal resistive zone and reaching thermal run-away, the QD system needs to trigger the magnet protection circuits. Precision instrumentation and control system with 204 signal channels had been developed for detection of quench anywhere in the entire TF magnet system. In the present configuration of quench detection scheme, the voltage drop across each double pancake (DP) of each TF coil are compared with its two adjacent DPs for the detection of normal zone and cancelation of inductive couples. Two identical redundant systems with one out of two configurations are successfully commissioned and tested at IPR. This paper describes the design and implementation of the QD system, Installation experience, validation test and initial results from the recent SST-1 magnet system charging

  1. Predictability experiments for the Asian summer monsoon impact of SST anomalies on interannual and intraseasonal variability

    CERN Document Server

    Molteni, F; Ferranti, L; Slingo, J M

    2003-01-01

    The effects of SST anomalies on the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the Asian summer monsoon have been studied by multivariate statistical analyses of 850-hPa wind and rainfall fields simulated in a set of ensemble integrations of the ECMWF atmospheric GCM, referred to as the PRISM experiments. The simulations used observed SSTs (PRISM-O), covering 9 years characterised by large variations of the ENSO phenomenon in the 1980's and the early 1990's. A parallel set of simulations was also performed with climatological SSTs (PRISM-C), thus enabling the influence of SST forcing on the modes of interannual and intraseasonal variability to be investigated. As in observations, the model's interannual variability is dominated by a zonally-oriented mode which describes the north-south movement of the tropical convergence zone (TCZ). This mode appears to be independent of SST forcing and its robustness between the PRISM-O and PRISM-C simulations suggests that it is driven by internal atmospheric dynamics. O...

  2. Internal structure of the upwelling events at Punta Gallinas (Colombian Caribbean) from modis-sst imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J.; Blázquez, E.; Isaza-Toro, E.; Vidal, J.

    2015-10-01

    The upwelling at Punta Gallinas in the Guajira Peninsula (Colombian Caribbean) was studied from the point of view of the Mathematical Morphology using 10 years of monthly composite MODIS-SST imagery. Among all the morphological operators, the skeleton is widely used to compute the axis of the of the SST fields for the observed upwelling events. The skeleton is characterized by means of the Geometrical Theory of Measurement using the fractal dimension. The upwelling in the area is driven by the dynamic of the ITCZ (InterTropical Convergence Zone) and the relationship between the area and the East-West component of the trade winds has a lag of about 4 months. It has been found that the fractal dimension of the skeleton and the area of the upwelling are related. Some relationship was found between the fractal dimension of the skeleton (its complexity) and the Southern Oscillation Index by means of linear regression and cross-spectral analysis finding coherent energy at 1 year, 6 months and in the low frequency band. Finally, a sensitivity analysis between fractal dimension and threshold SST points out to take an extreme care at the time of fixing the last one.

  3. Conceptual design of plasma position control of SST-1 tokamak using vertical field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Hitesh Kumar; Patel, Kiritkumar B.; Dhongde, Jasraj

    2015-01-01

    SST-1 (Steady State Superconducting Tokamak) is a plasma confinement device in Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) India. SST-1 has been commissioned successfully and has been carrying out plasma experiments since the beginning of 2014 achieved a maximum plasma current of 75 kA at a central field of 1.5 T and the plasma duration ∼ 500 ms. SST-1 looks forward to carrying out elongated plasma experiments and stretching plasma pulses beyond 1s. Based on the solution of Grad-Shafranov equation the shift of plasma column center from geometrical centre of vacuum chamber is measured using various magnetic probes and flux loops installed in the machine. The closed feedback loop uses plasma current (Ip), Delta R as feedback signal and manipulate the vertical field current (Ivf). The discharge starts with feed forward loop using initially provided reference then the active feedback starts after discharge by few msec once plasma column is completely formed. The feedback loop time is of the order of 10 msec. The primary objective is to acquire plasma position control related signals, compute plasma position and generate position correction signal for VF coil power supply, communicate correction to VF coil power supply and modify VF power supply output in a deterministic time span. In this we present the methodology used for plasma horizontal displacement control using vertical field and discuss the preliminary results. (author)

  4. Thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical design of plasma facing components for SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Santra, P.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Parashar, S.K.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are one of the major sub-systems of ssT-1 tokamak. PFC of ssT-1 consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and limiters are designed to be compatible for steady state operation. The main consideration in the design of the PFC cooling is the steady state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m 2 . The PFC has been designed to withstand the peak heat fluxes and also without significant erosion such that frequent replacement of the armor is not necessary. Design considerations included 2-D steady state and transient tile temperature distribution and resulting thermal loads in PFC during baking, and cooling, coolant parameters necessary to maintain optimum thermal-hydraulic design, and tile fitting mechanism. Finite Element (FE) models using ANSYS have been developed to carry out the heat transfer and stress analyses of the PFC to understand its thermal and mechanical behaviors. The results of the calculation led to a good understanding of the coolant flow behavior and the temperature distribution in the tube wall and the different parts of the PFC. Thermal analysis of the PFC is carried out with the purpose of evaluating the thermal mechanical behavior of PFCs. The detailed thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical designs of PFCs of ssT-1 are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  5. Process optimization of helium cryo plant operation for SST-1 superconducting magnet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.; Mahesuriya, G.; Sonara, D.; Srikanth G, L. N.; Garg, A.; Christian, D.; Bairagi, N.; Sharma, R.; Patel, K.; Shah, P.; Nimavat, H.; Purwar, G.; Patel, J.; Tanna, V.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-02-01

    Several plasma discharge campaigns have been carried out in steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1). SST-1 has toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) superconducting magnet system (SCMS). The TF coils system is cooled to 4.5 - 4.8 K at 1.5 - 1.7 bar(a) under two phase flow condition using 1.3 kW helium cryo plant. Experience revealed that the PF coils demand higher pressure heads even at lower temperatures in comparison to TF coils because of its longer hydraulic path lengths. Thermal run away are observed within PF coils because of single common control valve for all PF coils in distribution system having non-uniform lengths. Thus it is routine practice to stop the cooling of PF path and continue only TF cooling at SCMS inlet temperature of ˜ 14 K. In order to achieve uniform cool down, different control logic is adopted to make cryo stable system. In adopted control logic, the SCMS are cooled down to 80 K at constant inlet pressure of 9 bar(a). After authorization of turbine A/B, the SCMS inlet pressure is gradually controlled by refrigeration J-T valve to achieve stable operation window for cryo system. This paper presents process optimization for cryo plant operation for SST-1 SCMS.

  6. Supervisory control and data acquisition system development for superconducting current feeder system of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.; Mahesuria, G.; Gupta, N.C.; Sonara, D.; Panchal, R.; Panchal, P.; Tanna, V.L.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Current Feeders System (CFS) is essentially an optimized bridge between the power supply at room temperature and Super Conducting Magnet System (SCMS) of the SST-1 machine at 4.5 K.CFS is a complex electrical and cryogenic network which consists of ten pairs of 10 KA rating helium Vapor cooled Conventional Current Leads (VCCLs), superconducting (SC) current feeder and associated components. For the safe and reliable operation of CFS, it is equipped with different physical process parameters measuring instruments like flow, pressure, temperature, level, vacuum, voltage taps and final control element like control valves, heaters, vacuum pumps etc. PLC program is developed in ladder language for acquiring and controlling the process parameters. Independent SCADA applications developed in WonderwareIntouch software for data communication from PLC, front-end Graphical User Interface (GUI), auto-manual interface, real time trends, history trends, events and alarm pages. Time synchronized communication established between CFS control system and Industrial SQL server (InSQL) Historian for centralized storage of CFS process parameters which intern provides the CFS process data to SST-1 central control room. SCADA based data acquisition and data retrieval system is found to be satisfactory during the recent SST-1 cool down experiment. This paper describes the SCADA and PLC application development and their communication to InSQL server. (author)

  7. On the sea surface temperature high in the Lakshadweep Sea before the onset of the southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    The north Indian Ocean becomes the warmest area of the world oceans prior to the onset of southwest monsoon in June. During this period a zonal band of high sea surface temperature (SST), the ``thermal equator'' (TE), moves over this region...

  8. Archiving and retrieval of experimental data using SAN based centralized storage system for SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandarkar, Manisha, E-mail: manisha@ipr.res.in; Masand, Harish; Kumar, Aveg; Patel, Kirit; Dhongde, Jasraj; Gulati, Hitesh; Mahajan, Kirti; Chudasama, Hitesh; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • SAN (Storage Area Network) based centralized data storage system of SST-1 has envisaged to address the need of centrally availability of SST-1 storage system to archive/retrieve experimental data for the authenticated users for 24 × 7. • The SAN based data storage system has been designed/configured with 3-tiered architecture and GFS cluster file system with multipath support. • The adopted SAN based data storage for SST-1 is a modular, robust, and allows future expandability. • Important considerations has been taken like, Handling of varied Data writing speed from different subsystems to central storage, Simultaneous read access of the bulk experimental and as well as essential diagnostic data, The life expectancy of data, How often data will be retrieved and how fast it will be needed, How much historical data should be maintained at storage. - Abstract: SAN (Storage Area Network, a high-speed, block level storage device) based centralized data storage system of SST-1 (Steady State superconducting Tokamak) has envisaged to address the need of availability of SST-1 operation & experimental data centrally for archival as well as retrieval [2]. Considering the initial data volume requirement, ∼10 TB (Terabytes) capacity of SAN based data storage system has configured/installed with optical fiber backbone with compatibility considerations of existing Ethernet network of SST-1. The SAN based data storage system has been designed/configured with 3-tiered architecture and GFS (Global File System) cluster file system with multipath support. Tier-1 is of ∼3 TB (frequent access and low data storage capacity) comprises of Fiber channel (FC) based hard disks for optimum throughput. Tier-2 is of ∼6 TB (less frequent access and high data storage capacity) comprises of SATA based hard disks. Tier-3 will be planned later to store offline historical data. In the SAN configuration two tightly coupled storage servers (with cluster configuration) are

  9. Archiving and retrieval of experimental data using SAN based centralized storage system for SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandarkar, Manisha; Masand, Harish; Kumar, Aveg; Patel, Kirit; Dhongde, Jasraj; Gulati, Hitesh; Mahajan, Kirti; Chudasama, Hitesh; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SAN (Storage Area Network) based centralized data storage system of SST-1 has envisaged to address the need of centrally availability of SST-1 storage system to archive/retrieve experimental data for the authenticated users for 24 × 7. • The SAN based data storage system has been designed/configured with 3-tiered architecture and GFS cluster file system with multipath support. • The adopted SAN based data storage for SST-1 is a modular, robust, and allows future expandability. • Important considerations has been taken like, Handling of varied Data writing speed from different subsystems to central storage, Simultaneous read access of the bulk experimental and as well as essential diagnostic data, The life expectancy of data, How often data will be retrieved and how fast it will be needed, How much historical data should be maintained at storage. - Abstract: SAN (Storage Area Network, a high-speed, block level storage device) based centralized data storage system of SST-1 (Steady State superconducting Tokamak) has envisaged to address the need of availability of SST-1 operation & experimental data centrally for archival as well as retrieval [2]. Considering the initial data volume requirement, ∼10 TB (Terabytes) capacity of SAN based data storage system has configured/installed with optical fiber backbone with compatibility considerations of existing Ethernet network of SST-1. The SAN based data storage system has been designed/configured with 3-tiered architecture and GFS (Global File System) cluster file system with multipath support. Tier-1 is of ∼3 TB (frequent access and low data storage capacity) comprises of Fiber channel (FC) based hard disks for optimum throughput. Tier-2 is of ∼6 TB (less frequent access and high data storage capacity) comprises of SATA based hard disks. Tier-3 will be planned later to store offline historical data. In the SAN configuration two tightly coupled storage servers (with cluster configuration) are

  10. Genome-Scale Analysis Reveals Sst2 as the Principal Regulator of Mating Pheromone Signaling in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasse, Scott A.; Flanary, Paul; Parnell, Stephen C.; Hao, Nan; Cha, Jiyoung Y.; Siderovski, David P.; Dohlman, Henrik G.

    2006-01-01

    A common property of G protein-coupled receptors is that they become less responsive with prolonged stimulation. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS proteins) are well known to accelerate G protein GTPase activity and do so by stabilizing the transition state conformation of the G protein α subunit. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae there are four RGS-homologous proteins (Sst2, Rgs2, Rax1, and Mdm1) and two Gα proteins (Gpa1 and Gpa2). We show that Sst2 is the only RGS protein that binds selectively to the transition state conformation of Gpa1. The other RGS proteins also bind Gpa1 and modulate pheromone signaling, but to a lesser extent and in a manner clearly distinct from Sst2. To identify other candidate pathway regulators, we compared pheromone responses in 4,349 gene deletion mutants representing nearly all nonessential genes in yeast. A number of mutants produced an increase (sst2, bar1, asc1, and ygl024w) or decrease (cla4) in pheromone sensitivity or resulted in pheromone-independent signaling (sst2, pbs2, gas1, and ygl024w). These findings suggest that Sst2 is the principal regulator of Gpa1-mediated signaling in vivo but that other proteins also contribute in distinct ways to pathway regulation. PMID:16467474

  11. Decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and southeast Australia surface air temperature in austral summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaqing; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Sen; Mao, Jiangyu; Dong, Di; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Austral summer (December-February) surface air temperature over southeast Australia (SEA) is found to be remotely influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Atlantic at decadal time scales. In austral summer, warm SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic induce concurrent above-normal surface air temperature over SEA. This decadal-scale teleconnection occurs through the eastward propagating South Atlantic-Australia (SAA) wave train triggered by SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic. The excitation of the SAA wave train is verified by forcing experiments based on both linear barotropic and baroclinic models, propagation pathway and spatial scale of the observed SAA wave train are further explained by the Rossby wave ray tracing analysis in non-uniform basic flow. The SAA wave train forced by southwest South Atlantic warming is characterized by an anomalous anticyclone off the eastern coast of the Australia. Temperature diagnostic analyses based on the thermodynamic equation suggest anomalous northerly flows on western flank of this anticyclone can induce low-level warm advection anomaly over SEA, which thus lead to the warming of surface air temperature there. Finally, SST-forced atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments also demonstrate that SST forcing in the South Atlantic is associated with the SAA teleconnection wave train in austral summer, this wave train then modulate surface air temperature over SEA on decadal timescales. Hence, observations combined with numerical simulations consistently demonstrate the decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and summertime surface air temperature over SEA.

  12. Identification of the receptors for somatostatin (SST) and cortistatin (CST) in chickens and investigation of the roles of cSST28, cSST14, and cCST14 in inhibiting cGHRH1-27NH2-induced growth hormone secretion in cultured chicken pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fengyan; Huang, Guian; Gao, Shunyu; Li, Juan; Yan, Zhenxin; Wang, Yajun

    2014-03-25

    Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are proposed to mediate the actions of somatostatin (SST) and its related peptide, cortistatin (CST), in vertebrates. However, the identity, functionality, and tissue expression of these receptors remain largely unknown in most non-mammalian vertebrates including birds. In this study, five SSTRs (named cSSTR1, cSSTR2, cSSTR3, cSSTR4, cSSTR5) were cloned from chicken brain by RT-PCR. Using a pGL3-CRE-luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated that activation of each cSSTR expressed in CHO cells by cSST28, cSST14 and cCST14 treatment could inhibit forskolin-induced luciferase activity of CHO cells, indicating the functional coupling of all cSSTRs to Gi protein(s). Interestingly, cSSTR1-4 expressed in CHO cells could be activated by cSST28, cSST14 and cCST14 with high potencies, suggesting that they may function as the receptors common for these peptides. In contrast, cSSTR5 could be potently activated by cSST28 only, indicating that it is a cSST28-specific receptor. Using RT-PCR, wide expression of cSSTRs was detected in chicken tissues including pituitary. In accordance with their expression in pituitary, cSST28, cSST14, and cCST14 were demonstrated to inhibit basal and novel cGHRH1-27NH2-induced GH secretion in cultured chicken pituitary cells dose-dependently (0-10nM) by Western blot analysis, suggesting the involvement of cSSTR(s) common for these peptides in mediating their inhibitory actions. Collectively, our study establishes a molecular basis to elucidate the roles of SST/CST in birds and provide insights into the roles of SST/CST in vertebrates, such as their conserved actions on pituitary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relation between Ocean SST Dipoles and Downwind Continental Croplands Assessed for Early Management Using Satellite-based Photosynthesis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Daijiro

    2015-04-01

    Crop-monitoring systems with the unit of carbon-dioxide sequestration for environmental issues related to climate adaptation to global warming have been improved using satellite-based photosynthesis and meteorological conditions. Early management of crop status is desirable for grain production, stockbreeding, and bio-energy providing that the seasonal climate forecasting is sufficiently accurate. Incorrect seasonal forecasting of crop production can damage global social activities if the recognized conditions are unsatisfied. One cause of poor forecasting related to the atmospheric dynamics at the Earth surface, which reflect the energy budget through land surface, especially the oceans and atmosphere. Recognition of the relation between SST anomalies (e.g. ENSO, Atlantic Niño, Indian dipoles, and Ningaloo Niño) and crop production, as expressed precisely by photosynthesis or the sequestrated-carbon rate, is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms related to poor production. Solar radiation, surface air temperature, and water stress all directly affect grain vegetation photosynthesis. All affect stomata opening, which is related to the water balance or definition by the ratio of the Penman potential evaporation and actual transpiration. Regarding stomata, present data and reanalysis data give overestimated values of stomata opening because they are extended from wet models in forests rather than semi-arid regions commonly associated with wheat, maize, and soybean. This study applies a complementary model based on energy conservation for semi-arid zones instead of the conventional Penman-Monteith method. Partitioning of the integrated Net PSN enables precise estimation of crop yields by modifying the semi-closed stomata opening. Partitioning predicts production more accurately using the cropland distribution already classified using satellite data. Seasonal crop forecasting should include near-real-time monitoring using satellite-based process crop models to avoid

  14. South Asian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Variability and Trend: Its Links to Indo-Pacific SST Anomalies and Moist Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, V.

    2016-06-01

    The warm (cold) phase of El Niño (La Niña) and its impact on all Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall (AISMR) relationship is explored for the past 100 years. The 103-year (1901-2003) data from the twentieth century reanalysis datasets (20CR) and other major reanalysis datasets for southwest monsoon season (JJAS) is utilized to find out the simultaneous influence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-AISMR relationship. Two cases such as wet, dry monsoon years associated with ENSO(+) (El Niño), ENSO(-) (La Niña) and Non-ENSO (neutral) events have been discussed in detail using observed rainfall and three-dimensional 20CR dataset. The dry and wet years associated with ENSO and Non-ENSO periods show significant differences in the spatial pattern of rainfall associated with three-dimensional atmospheric composite, the 20CR dataset has captured the anomalies quite well. During wet (dry) years, the rainfall is high (low), i.e. 10 % above (below) average from the long-term mean and this wet or dry condition occur both during ENSO and Non-ENSO phases. The Non-ENSO year dry or wet composites are also focused in detail to understand, where do the anomalous winds come from unlike in the ENSO case. The moisture transport is coherent with the changes in the spatial pattern of AISMR and large-scale feature in the 20CR dataset. Recent 50-year trend (1951-2000) is also analyzed from various available observational and reanalysis datasets to see the influence of Indo-Pacific SST and moist processes on the South Asian summer monsoon rainfall trend. Apart from the Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST), the moisture convergence and moisture transport among India (IND), Equatorial Indian Ocean (IOC) and tropical western pacific (WNP) is also important in modifying the wet or dry cycles over India. The mutual interaction among IOC, WNP and IND in seasonal timescales is significant in modifying wet and dry cycles over the Indian region and the seasonal anomalies.

  15. Seasonal predictions of equatorial Atlantic SST in a low-resolution CGCM with surface heat flux correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippe, Tina; Greatbatch, Richard; Ding, Hui

    2016-04-01

    The dominant mode of interannual variability in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is the Atlantic Niño or Zonal Mode. Akin to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Pacific sector, it is able to impact the climate both of the adjacent equatorial African continent and remote regions. Due to heavy biases in the mean state climate of the equatorial-to-subtropical Atlantic, however, most state-of-the-art coupled global climate models (CGCMs) are unable to realistically simulate equatorial Atlantic variability. In this study, the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) is used to investigate the impact of a simple bias alleviation technique on the predictability of equatorial Atlantic SSTs. Two sets of seasonal forecasting experiments are performed: An experiment using the standard KCM (STD), and an experiment with additional surface heat flux correction (FLX) that efficiently removes the SST bias from simulations. Initial conditions for both experiments are generated by the KCM run in partially coupled mode, a simple assimilation technique that forces the KCM with observed wind stress anomalies and preserves SST as a fully prognostic variable. Seasonal predictions for both sets of experiments are run four times yearly for 1981-2012. Results: Heat flux correction substantially improves the simulated variability in the initialization runs for boreal summer and fall (June-October). In boreal spring (March-May), however, neither the initialization runs of the STD or FLX-experiments are able to capture the observed variability. FLX-predictions show no consistent enhancement of skill relative to the predictions of the STD experiment over the course of the year. The skill of persistence forecasts is hardly beat by either of the two experiments in any season, limiting the usefulness of the few forecasts that show significant skill. However, FLX-forecasts initialized in May recover skill in July and August, the peak season of the Atlantic Niño (anomaly correlation

  16. Dynamical diagnostics of the SST annual cycle in the eastern equatorial Pacific: Part II analysis of CMIP5 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a simple coupled framework established in Part I is utilized to investigate inter-model diversity in simulating the equatorial Pacific SST annual cycle (SSTAC). It demonstrates that the simulated amplitude and phase characteristics of SSTAC in models are controlled by two internal dynamical factors (the damping rate and phase speed) and two external forcing factors (the strength of the annual and semi-annual harmonic forcing). These four diagnostic factors are further condensed into a dynamical response factor and a forcing factor to derive theoretical solutions of amplitude and phase of SSTAC. The theoretical solutions are in remarkable agreement with observations and CMIP5 simulations. The great diversity in the simulated SSTACs is related to the spreads in these dynamic and forcing factors. Most models tend to simulate a weak SSTAC, due to their weak damping rate and annual harmonic forcing. The latter is due to bias in the meridional asymmetry of the annual mean state of the tropical Pacific, represented by the weak cross-equatorial winds in the cold tongue region.

  17. Implementation of time synchronized cryogenics control system network architecture for SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rakesh J., E-mail: rpatel@ipr.res.in; Mahesuria, Gaurang; Panchal, Pradip; Panchal, Rohit; Sonara, Dasarath; Tanna, Vipul; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • SST-1 cryogenics sub-systems are 1.3 kW HRL, LN2 distribution system, current feeders system and 80 K booster system. • GUI developed in SCADA and control program developed in PLC for automation of the above sub-systems. • Implemented the cryogenics control system network to communicate all systems to InSQL server. • InSQL server configured for real time centralized process data acquisition from all connected sub-systems control nodes. • Acquired the process parameters coming from different systems at same time stamp. - Abstract: Under the SST-1 mission mandate, the several cryogenic sub-systems have been developed, upgraded and procured in prior to the SST-1 operation. New developments include 80 K Bubble type thermal shields, LN2 distribution system, LN2 booster system and current feeders system (CFS).Graphical User Interface (GUI) program developed in Wonderware SCADA and control logic program developed in Schneider make PLC for the above sub-systems. Industrial SQL server (InSQL) configured for centralized storage of real time process data coming from various control nodes of cryogenics sub-systems. The cryogenics control system network for communicating all cryogenics sub-system control nodes to InSQL server for centralized data storage and time synchronization among cryogenic sub-systems with centralized InSQL server is successfully implemented. Due to implemented time synchronization among sub-systems control nodes, it is possible to analyze the process parameters coming from different sub-systems at same time stamp. This paper describes the overview of implemented cryogenics control system network architecture for real time cryogenic process data monitor, storage and retrieval.

  18. An innovative telescope control system architecture for SST-GATE telescopes at the CTA Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasola, Gilles; Mignot, Shan; Laporte, Philippe; Abchiche, Abdel; Buchholtz, Gilles; Jégouzo, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) is a 4-metre telescope designed as a prototype for the Small Size Telescopes (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a major facility for the very high energy gamma-ray astronomy of the next three decades. In this 100-telescope array there will be 70 SSTs, involving a design with an industrial view aiming at long-term service, low maintenance effort and reduced costs. More than a prototype, SST-GATE is also a fully functional telescope that shall be usable by scientists and students at the Observatoire de Meudon for 30 years. The Telescope Control System (TCS) is designed to work either as an element of a large array driven by an array controller or in a stand-alone mode with a remote workstation. Hence it is built to be autonomous with versatile interfacing; as an example, pointing and tracking —the main functions of the telescope— are managed onboard, including astronomical transformations, geometrical transformations (e.g. telescope bending model) and drive control. The core hardware is a CompactRIO (cRIO) featuring a real-time operating system and an FPGA. In this paper, we present an overview of the current status of the TCS. We especially focus on three items: the pointing computation implemented in the FPGA of the cRIO —using CORDIC algorithms— since it enables an optimisation of the hardware resources; data flow management based on OPCUA with its specific implementation on the cRIO; and the use of an EtherCAT field-bus for its ability to provide real-time data exchanges with the sensors and actuators distributed throughout the telescope.

  19. Implementation of time synchronized cryogenics control system network architecture for SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Rakesh J.; Mahesuria, Gaurang; Panchal, Pradip; Panchal, Rohit; Sonara, Dasarath; Tanna, Vipul; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SST-1 cryogenics sub-systems are 1.3 kW HRL, LN2 distribution system, current feeders system and 80 K booster system. • GUI developed in SCADA and control program developed in PLC for automation of the above sub-systems. • Implemented the cryogenics control system network to communicate all systems to InSQL server. • InSQL server configured for real time centralized process data acquisition from all connected sub-systems control nodes. • Acquired the process parameters coming from different systems at same time stamp. - Abstract: Under the SST-1 mission mandate, the several cryogenic sub-systems have been developed, upgraded and procured in prior to the SST-1 operation. New developments include 80 K Bubble type thermal shields, LN2 distribution system, LN2 booster system and current feeders system (CFS).Graphical User Interface (GUI) program developed in Wonderware SCADA and control logic program developed in Schneider make PLC for the above sub-systems. Industrial SQL server (InSQL) configured for centralized storage of real time process data coming from various control nodes of cryogenics sub-systems. The cryogenics control system network for communicating all cryogenics sub-system control nodes to InSQL server for centralized data storage and time synchronization among cryogenic sub-systems with centralized InSQL server is successfully implemented. Due to implemented time synchronization among sub-systems control nodes, it is possible to analyze the process parameters coming from different sub-systems at same time stamp. This paper describes the overview of implemented cryogenics control system network architecture for real time cryogenic process data monitor, storage and retrieval.

  20. Simulation of scenarios of LHCD antenna for pre-ionization in SST1 machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.K.; Ambulkar, K.K.; Dalakoti, S.; Virani, C.G.; Parmar, P.R.; Thakur, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    SST1 machine has a continuous vacuum vessel, which inhibits the penetration of Ohmic electric field in to the vessel thereby reducing the peak loop voltage in the machine required for Ohmic breakdown. Alternatively, electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) preionization technique is used for preionization, to assist plasma start-up with lower available loop voltages. In early eighties, lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system, was also used in PLT machine, for preionization and start-up purpose. The PLT LHCD system was based on 800MHz source and could have provided electric field across large distances because of longer wavelength, thereby assisting gas breakdown. In SST1 machine, the LHCD system is based on 3.7 GHz klystron sources and may not produce favourable conditions for gas breakdown owing to its shorter wavelength. In this paper, we have proposed a novel way to excite LHCD antenna so that electric field variation is created over large spatial distances, conducive for gas breakdown studies. In this scenario, all the elements of the grill antenna are not energized. Out of 32 elements of the grill antenna, only 16 elements are energized. In this special configuration, a periodic arrangement of four adjacent active elements is realized, leaving another set of four elements, adjacent to it, without any power. The CST microwave studio, commercially available software, is used to simulate the above scenario to study the behaviour of electric field produced in this configuration. In this paper we present the modelling aspect of the antenna and the results obtained from the simulation analysis is discussed in details for proposing and planning of preionization experiments on SST1 machine. (author)

  1. Monitoring and trend mapping of sea surface temperature (SST) from MODIS data: a case study of Mumbai coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Samee; Agarwadkar, Yogesh; Bhattacharya, Mohor; Apte, Mugdha; Inamdar, Arun B

    2015-04-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the most important parameters in monitoring ecosystem health in the marine and coastal environment. Coastal ecosystem is largely dependent on ambient temperature and temperature fronts for marine/coastal habitat and its sustainability. Hence, thermal pollution is seen as a severe threat for ecological health of coastal waters across the world. Mumbai is one of the largest metropolises of the world and faces severe domestic and industrial effluent disposal problem, of which thermal pollution is a major issue with policy-makers and environmental stakeholders. This study attempts to understand the long-term SST variation in the coastal waters off Mumbai, on the western coast of India, and to identify thermal pollution zones. Analysis of SST trends in the near-coastal waters for the pre- and post-monsoon seasons from the year 2004 to the year 2010 has been carried out using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) Thermal Infra-red (TIR) bands. SST is calculated with the help of bands 31 and 32 using split window method. Several statistical operations were then applied to find the seasonal averages in SST and the standard deviation of SST in the study area. Maximum variation in SST was found within a perpendicular distance of 5 km from the shoreline during the study period. Also, a warm water mass was found to form consistently off coast during the winter months. Several anthropogenic sources of thermal pollution could be identified which were found to impact various locations along the coast.

  2. Dosimetric significance of cosmic radiation in the altitude of SST and in free space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allkofer, O C [Kiel Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Reine und Angewandte Kernphysik

    1977-01-01

    The integral cosmic-ray flux, and hence the dose rate, increases with altitude. At the cruising altitude of the subsonic jets, about 10 km, the dose rate is already about a factor 70 higher than at sea level. At the higher altitudes of SST the situation is different because the composition of the galactic component differs from that at the subsonic level, the solar flares are more efficient, and a small number of heavy nuclei are still present. In free space an additional radiation hazard appears when the radiation belts have to be crossed.

  3. Illumination technique for the relative calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Segreto, Alberto; De Caprio, Vincenzo; Giro, Enrico; Lessio, Luigi; Conconi, Paolo; Canestrari, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    We present a new illumination technique for the camera relative gain calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov telescope. The camera illumination is achieved by means of an optical fiber that diffuses the light inside a protective PMMA window above the focal plane. We report the encouraging results of the development tests carried out on two PMMA window prototypes illuminated by a standard optical fiber. We checked also the reliability of the method by a series of ray tracing simulations for different scattering models and PMMA window shapes finding good agreement with experimental results

  4. Illumination technique for the relative calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodeghiero, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.rodeghiero@studenti.unipd.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, 35100 PD (Italy); Catalano, Osvaldo; Segreto, Alberto [INAF IASF Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 PA (Italy); De Caprio, Vincenzo [INAF OACN, Salita Moiariello, 16, 80131 Napoli, NA (Italy); Giro, Enrico; Lessio, Luigi [INAF OAPD, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, 35100 PD (Italy); Conconi, Paolo; Canestrari, Rodolfo [INAF OAB, Via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy)

    2014-11-11

    We present a new illumination technique for the camera relative gain calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov telescope. The camera illumination is achieved by means of an optical fiber that diffuses the light inside a protective PMMA window above the focal plane. We report the encouraging results of the development tests carried out on two PMMA window prototypes illuminated by a standard optical fiber. We checked also the reliability of the method by a series of ray tracing simulations for different scattering models and PMMA window shapes finding good agreement with experimental results.

  5. Predictability experiments for the Asian summer monsoon: impact of SST anomalies on interannual and intraseasonal variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molteni, Franco; Corti, Susanna; Ferranti, Laura; Slingo, Julia M.

    2003-07-01

    The effects of SST anomalies on the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the Asian summer monsoon have been studied by multivariate statistical analyses of 850-hPa wind and rainfall fields simulated in a set of ensemble integrations of the ECMWF atmospheric GCM, referred to as the PRISM experiments. The simulations used observed SSTs (PRISM-O), covering 9 years characterised by large variations of the ENSO phenomenon in the 1980's and the early 1990's. A parallel set of simulations was also performed with climatological SSTs (PRISM-C), thus enabling the influence of SST forcing on the modes of interannual and intraseasonal variability to be investigated. As in observations, the model's interannual variability is dominated by a zonally-oriented mode which describes the north-south movement of the tropical convergence zone (TCZ). This mode appears to be independent of SST forcing and its robustness between the PRISM-O and PRISM-C simulations suggests that it is driven by internal atmospheric dynamics. On the other hand, the second mode of variability, which again has a good correspondence with observed patterns, shows a clear relationship with the ENSO cycle. Since the mode related to ENSO accounts for only a small part of the total variance, the notion of a quasi-linear superposition of forced and unforced modes of variability may not provide an appropriate interpretation of monsoon interannual variability. Consequently, the possibility of a non-linear influence has been investigated by exploring the relationship between interannual and intraseasonal variability. As in other studies, a common mode of interannual and intraseasonal variability has been found, in this case describing the north-south transition of the TCZ associated with monsoon active/break cycles. Although seasonal-mean values of the Principal Component (PC) timeseries associated with the leading intraseasonal mode shows no significant correlation with ENSO, the 2-dimensional probability

  6. Predictability experiments for the Asian summer monsoon: Impact of SST anomalies on interannual and intraseasonal variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molteni, F.; Corti, S.; Ferranti, L.; Slingo, J.M.

    2002-04-01

    The effects of SST anomalies on the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the Asian summer monsoon have been studied by multivariate statistical analyses of 850-hPa wind and rainfall yields simulated in a set of ensemble integrations of the ECMWF atmospheric GCM, referred to as the PRISM experiments. The simulations used observed SSTs (PRISM-O), covering 9 years characterised by large variations of the ENSO phenomenon in the 1980's and the early 1990's. A parallel set of simulations was also performed with climatological SSTs (PRISM-C), thus enabling the influence of SST forcing on the modes of interannual and intraseasonal variability to be investigated. As in observations, the model's interannual variability is dominated by a zonally-oriented mode which describes the north-south movement of the tropical convergence zone (TCZ). This mode appears to be independent of SST forcing and its robustness between the PRISM-O and PRISM-C simulations suggests that it is driven by internal atmospheric dynamics. On the other hand, the second mode of variability, which again has a good correspondence with observed patterns, shows a clear relationship with the ENSO cycle. Since the mode related to ENSO accounts for only a small part of the total variance, the notion of a quasi-linear superposition of forced and unforced modes of variability may not provide an appropriate interpretation of monsoon interannual variability. Consequently, the possibility of a non-linear influence has been investigated by exploring the relationship between interannual and intraseasonal variability. As in other studies, a common mode of interannual and intraseasonal variability has been found, in this case describing the north-south transition of the TCZ associated with monsoon active/break cycles. Although seasonal-mean values of the Principal Component (PC) timeseries associated with the leading intraseasonal mode shows no significant correlation with ENSO, the 2-dimensional probability

  7. Characterization and commissioning of the SST-1M camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J.A. [Université Libre Bruxelles, Faculté des Sciences, Avenue Franklin Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); DPNC - Université de Genéve, 24 Quai Ernest Ansermet, Genéve (Switzerland); Department of Information Technologies, Jagiellonian University, ul. prof. Stanisława Łojasiewicza 11, 30–348 Kraków (Poland); Bilnik, W. [AGH University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, Kraków (Poland); Department of Information Technologies, Jagiellonian University, ul. prof. Stanisława Łojasiewicza 11, 30–348 Kraków (Poland); Błocki, J. [Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej im. H. Niewodniczańskiego Polskiej Akademii Nauk, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31–342 Kraków (Poland); Department of Information Technologies, Jagiellonian University, ul. prof. Stanisława Łojasiewicza 11, 30–348 Kraków (Poland); Bogacz, L. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30–244 Kraków (Poland); Department of Information Technologies, Jagiellonian University, ul. prof. Stanisława Łojasiewicza 11, 30–348 Kraków (Poland); and others

    2017-02-11

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next generation very high energy gamma-rays observatory, will consist of three types of telescopes: large (LST), medium (MST) and small (SST) size telescopes. The SSTs are dedicated to the observation of gamma-rays with energy between a few TeV and a few hundreds of TeV. The SST array is expected to have 70 telescopes of different designs. The single-mirror small size telescope (SST-1 M) is one of the proposed telescope designs under consideration for the SST array. It will be equipped with a 4 m diameter segmented mirror dish and with an innovative camera based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). The challenge is not only to build a telescope with exceptional performance but to do it foreseeing its mass production. To address both of these challenges, the camera adopts innovative solutions both for the optical system and readout. The Photo-Detection Plane (PDP) of the camera is composed of 1296 pixels, each made of a hollow, hexagonal light guide coupled to a hexagonal SiPM designed by the University of Geneva and Hamamatsu. As no commercial ASIC would satisfy the CTA requirements when coupled to such a large sensor, dedicated preamplifier electronics have been designed. The readout electronics also use an innovative approach in gamma-ray astronomy by adopting a fully digital approach. All signals coming from the PDP are digitized in a 250 MHz Fast ADC and stored in ring buffers waiting for a trigger decision to send them to the pre-processing server where calibration and higher level triggers will decide whether the data are stored. The latest generation of FPGAs is used to achieve high data rates and also to exploit all the flexibility of the system. As an example each event can be flagged according to its trigger pattern. All of these features have been demonstrated in laboratory measurements on realistic elements and the results of these measurements will be presented in this contribution.

  8. A change in the relationship between tropical central Pacific SST variability and the extratropical atmosphere around 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jin-Yi; Kim, Seon Tae; Lu, Mong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A newly released reanalysis dataset covering the period 1979–2009 is analyzed to show that the sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the tropical central Pacific is more closely related to the SST variability in the tropical eastern Pacific before 1990 but more closely related to sea level pressure (SLP) variations associated with the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) after 1990. Only during the period after 1990 can the NPO excite large SST variability in the tropical central Pacific. Related to this change, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) SST anomalies tend to spread from the eastern to central tropical Pacific before 1990 in a pattern resembling that associated with the Eastern Pacific (EP) type of ENSO, but are more closely connected to SST variability in the subtropical north Pacific after 1990 with a pattern resembling that of the Central Pacific (CP) type of ENSO. This study concludes that the increased influence of the NPO on the tropical Pacific is a likely reason for the increasing occurrence of the CP type of ENSO since 1990. An analysis of the mean atmospheric circulation during these two periods suggests that the increased NPO influence is associated with a strengthening Hadley circulation after 1990. (letter)

  9. Cool Down Experiences with the SST-1 Helium Cryogenics System before and after Current Feeders System Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R.; Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Tank, J.; Mahesuriya, G.; Sonara, D.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Christian, D.; Patel, K.; Shah, P.; Nimavat, H.; Sharma, R.; Patel, J. C.; Gupta, N. C.; Prasad, U.; Sharma, A. N.; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    The SST-1 machine comprises a superconducting magnet system (SCMS), which includes TF and PF magnets. In order to charge the SCMS, we need superconducting current feeders consisting of SC feeders and vapor cooled current leads (VCCLs). We have installed all 10 (+/-) pairs of VCCLs for the TF and PF systems. While conducting initial engineering validation of the SST-1 machine, our prime objective was to produce circular plasma using only the TF system. During the SST-1 campaign I to VI, we have to stop the PF magnets cooling in order to get the cryo- stable conditions for current charging of the TF magnets system. In that case, the cooling of the PF current leads is not essential. It has been also observed that after aborting the PF system cooling, there was a limited experimental window of TF operation. Therefore, in the recent SST-1 campaign-VII, we removed the PF current leads (9 pairs) and kept only single (+/-) pair of the 10,000 A rated VCCLs to realize the charging of the TF system for the extended window of operation. We have observed a better cryogenic stability in the TF magnets after modifications in the CFS. In this paper, we report the comparison of the cool down performance for the SST-1 machine operation before and after modifications of the current feeders system.

  10. Carboxyl-terminal multi-site phosphorylation regulates internalization and desensitization of the human sst2 somatostatin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Kliewer, Andrea; Schütz, Dagmar; Nagel, Falko; Stumm, Ralf; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-04-25

    The somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2) is the pharmacological target of somatostatin analogs that are widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of human neuroendocrine tumors. We have recently shown that the stable somatostatin analogs octreotide and pasireotide (SOM230) stimulate distinct patterns of sst2 receptor phosphorylation and internalization. Like somatostatin, octreotide promotes the phosphorylation of at least six carboxyl-terminal serine and threonine residues namely S341, S343, T353, T354, T356 and T359, which in turn leads to a robust receptor endocytosis. Unlike somatostatin, pasireotide stimulates a selective phosphorylation of S341 and S343 of the human sst2 receptor followed by a partial receptor internalization. Here, we show that exchange of S341 and S343 by alanine is sufficient to block pasireotide-driven internalization, whereas mutation of T353, T354, T356 and T359 to alanine is required to strongly inhibited both octreotide- and somatostatin-induced internalization. Yet, combined mutation of T353, T354, T356 and T359 is not sufficient to prevent somatostatin-driven β-arrestin mobilization and receptor desensitization. Replacement of all fourteen carboxyl-terminal serine and threonine residues by alanine completely abrogates sst2 receptor internalization and β-arrestin mobilization in HEK293 cells. Together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that agonist-selective sst2 receptor internalization is regulated by multi-site phosphorylation of its carboxyl-terminal tail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictive value of serum sST2 in preschool wheezers for development of asthma with high FeNO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, M E; van de Kant, K D; Dijk, F N; Klaassen, E M; Grotenboer, N S; Nawijn, M C; Dompeling, E; Koppelman, G H

    2017-11-01

    Wheezing is common in childhood. However, current prediction models of pediatric asthma have only modest accuracy. Novel biomarkers and definition of subphenotypes may improve asthma prediction. Interleukin-1-receptor-like-1 (IL1RL1 or ST2) is a well-replicated asthma gene and associates with eosinophilia. We investigated whether serum sST2 predicts asthma and asthma with elevated exhaled NO (FeNO), compared to the commonly used Asthma Prediction Index (API). Using logistic regression modeling, we found that serum sST2 levels in 2-3 years-old wheezers do not predict doctors' diagnosed asthma at age 6 years. Instead, sST2 predicts a subphenotype of asthma characterized by increased levels of FeNO, a marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. Herein, sST2 improved the predictive value of the API (AUC=0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.84), but had also significant predictive value on its own (AUC=0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.79). Our study indicates that sST2 in preschool wheezers has predictive value for the development of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic children at school age. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  12. Quality control of FWC during assembly and commissioning in SST-1 Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hitesh; Santra, Prosenjit; Parekh, Tejas; Biswas, Prabal; Jayswal, Snehal; Chauhan, Pradeep; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Thankey, Prashant; Ramesh, Gattu; Prakash, Arun; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Raval, D. C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    First Wall Components (FWC) of SST-1 tokamak, which are in the immediate vicinity of plasma, comprises of limiters, divertors, baffles, passive stabilizers designed to operate long duration (∼1000 s) discharges of elongated plasma. All FWC consist of copper alloy heat sink modules with SS cooling tubes brazed onto it, graphite tiles acting as armour material facing the plasma, and are mounted to the vacuum vessels with suitable Inconel support structures at inter-connected ring & port locations. The FWC are very recently assembled and commissioned successfully inside the vacuum vessel of SST-1 undergoing a rigorous quality control and checks at every stage of the assembly process. This paper will present the quality control aspects and checks of FWC from commencement of assembly procedure, namely material test reports, leak testing of high temperature baked components, assembled dimensional tolerances, leak testing of all welded joints, graphite tile tightening torques, electrical continuity and electrical isolation of passive stabilizers from vacuum vessel, baking and cooling hydraulic connections inside vacuum vessel.

  13. Bridge joint fabrication and validation for SST-1 PF coil winding pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Upendra; Sharma, A.N.; Patel, D.; Doshi, K.; Varmora, P.; Khristi, Y.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Prototype of bridge type joints fabricated and validated successfully. • Bridge type joints fabricated and validated on one of the SST-1 PF#3T coil successfully. • Joint resistance was measured with precision nano volt meter and PXI based data acquisition system. • Leak tightness of joint box was better than 3 × 10 −6 Pa m 3 s −1 . • The measured joint resistance of bridge type joint was ∼1.6 nano ohm. - Abstract: A novel concept of bridge joint for Poloidal field (PF) magnet of SST-1 with damaged winding pack has been realized. This joint has been fabricated on 5th and 6th layers of PF#3T coil winding pack (WP) after validation at 10 kA at liquid helium temperature of 4.2 K in current lead test chamber. The joint resistance of bridge joint was measured ∼1.6 nΩ at flat top DC current of 10 kA. This type of joint could be economically useful for revival of a shorted and damaged WP superconducting PF magnets of Tokamaks. In this paper, details of bridge joint design, fabrication and validations are discussed

  14. Quality control of FWC during assembly/commissioning on SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Hiteshkumar; Santra, Prosenjit; Jaiswal, Snehal

    2015-01-01

    First Wall components (FWC) of SST-1 tokamak, which are in the immediate vicinity of plasma comprises of limiters, divertors, baffles, passive stabilizers are designed to operate long duration (1000 s) discharges of elongated plasma. All FWC consists of a copper alloy heat sink modules with SS cooling tubes brazed onto it, graphite tiles acting as armour material facing the plasma, and are mounted to the vacuum vessels with suitable Inconel support structures at ring and port locations. The FWC are very recently assembled and commissioned successfully inside the vacuum vessel of SST-1 under going a rigorous quality control and checks at every stage of the assembly process. This paper will present the quality control and checks of FWC from commencement of assembly procedure, namely material test reports, leak testing of high temperature baked components, assembled dimensional tolerances, leak testing of all welded joints, graphite tile tightening torques, electrical continuity of passive stabilizers, and electrical isolation of passive stabilizers from vacuum vessel, baking and cooling hydraulic connections inside vacuum vessel. (author)

  15. Study of radiation heat transfer between PFC and vacuum vessel during SST-1 baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh E-mail: paritosh@ipr.res.in; Chenna Reddy, D.; Santra, P.; Khirwadkar, S.; Ravi Pragash, N.; Saxena, Y.C

    2003-01-01

    Steady-state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with superconducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of SST-1 are placed inside the vacuum vessel (VV) of the tokamak and are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m{sup 2}. In addition to remove high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at high temperature. Since it is difficult to calculate the radiation heat loads between PFC and VV in a 3-D irregular geometry, a simplified model of concentric cylinders has been chosen for the purpose of estimation of the power requirements and the thermal responses of PFC and VV during their bakeout phases. Thermal responses of the PFC and VV have been analysed and the analytical results have been compared with 2-D finite element analysis using ANSYS. The radiation losses between PFC and VV also have been evaluated on the actual model containing all PFC inside the VV.

  16. Long pulse characteristics of 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, M.R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)], E-mail: mukti@ipr.res.in; Mattoo, S.K.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Baruah, U.K.; Patel, G.B.; Jayakumar, P.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2008-10-15

    We present characteristics of a 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector. Before the source could be tested for its performance, it was conditioned by 480 arc discharges of 1 s and beam extraction of hydrogen species at various beam voltages ranging between 19 kV and 56 kV. Breakdown free beam extraction could be secured only after about 3000 beam second extraction. The ion source is capable of delivering 1.7 MW of neutral beam power at 55 kV with horizontal and vertical focal length of 5.4 m and 7 m respectively. Beam divergence is {approx}0.97 deg. Steady-state beam energy of 31 MJ at 41 kV was achieved during 14 s long beam extraction. We have not noticed any deterioration of beam parameters, including beam divergence during long pulse operation. These results indicate that 0.5 MW of neutral beam power at 30 kV required for heating of plasma in SST-1 can be delivered.

  17. Long pulse characteristics of 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, M.R.; Mattoo, S.K.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Baruah, U.K.; Patel, G.B.; Jayakumar, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    We present characteristics of a 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector. Before the source could be tested for its performance, it was conditioned by 480 arc discharges of 1 s and beam extraction of hydrogen species at various beam voltages ranging between 19 kV and 56 kV. Breakdown free beam extraction could be secured only after about 3000 beam second extraction. The ion source is capable of delivering 1.7 MW of neutral beam power at 55 kV with horizontal and vertical focal length of 5.4 m and 7 m respectively. Beam divergence is ∼0.97 deg. Steady-state beam energy of 31 MJ at 41 kV was achieved during 14 s long beam extraction. We have not noticed any deterioration of beam parameters, including beam divergence during long pulse operation. These results indicate that 0.5 MW of neutral beam power at 30 kV required for heating of plasma in SST-1 can be delivered.

  18. Camera calibration strategy of the SST-1M prototype of the Cherenokov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Prandini, E; Lyard, E.; Schioppa, E. jr.; Neronov, A.; Bilnik, W.; Błocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; Curyło, M.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Favre, Y.; Frankowski, A.; Grudnik, Ł.; Grudzińska, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Marszałek, A.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Porcelli, A.; Rameez, M.; Rajda, P.; Schovanek, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Sowiński, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Pujadas, I. Troyano; Walter, R.; Więcek, M.; Zagdański, A.; Ziętara, K.; Żychowski, P.

    2015-01-01

    The SST-1M telescope is one of the prototypes under construction proposed to be part of the future Cherenkov Telescope Array. It uses a standard Davis-Cotton design for the optics and telescope structure, with a dish diameter of 4 meters and a large field-of-view of 9 degrees. The innovative camera design is composed of a photo-detection plane with 1296 pixels including entrance window, light concentrators, Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), and pre-amplifier stages together with a fully digital readout and trigger electronics, DigiCam. In this contribution we give a general description of the analysis chain designed for the SST-1M prototype. In particular we focus on the calibration strategy used to convert the SiPM signals registered by DigiCam to the quantities needed for Cherenkov image analysis. The calibration is based on an online feedback system to stabilize the gain of the SiPMs, as well as dedicated events (dark count, pedestal, and light flasher events) to be taken during the normal operation of the...

  19. Soft-X ray electronics for temperature measurement in SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, Praveena; Raval, Jayesh V.; Chauhan, Harsad; Hansalia, C.J.; Joisa, Y.S.; Rajpal, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    Soft-X ray diagnostic is used for the measurement of core temperature of plasma in tokamak. Signal conditioning electronics is designed, developed and tested for Soft-X ray measurement in SST-1. Silicon Surface Barrier Detectors (SBD) are used for detection of Soft -X ray. The detector is very sensitive and have a large leakage current (1-10) nA/cm"2. The preamplifier is designed to measure (10-100) nA of current signal. Virtual bias is supplied to detector through preamplifier. The front end electronics are mounted directly on the feed through in air side. Detectors are interfaced with feed through by 2-wire shielded cable. In the way of getting good results, problems are identified and troubleshooted. Soft-X ray signals are observed consistently in SST-1 campaign XIII. Different scheme were tested during the plasma experimental shots to get better measurement. This poster will describe the design details, interfacing with detector, problem faced, remedy and results. (author)

  20. Adaptation of fast responding power supply for radial position control in SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Patel, Kiritkumar B.; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Dhongde, Jasraj

    2013-01-01

    A high current, fast responding power supply was installed in 2005 for vertical stabilization of elongated plasmas in SST-1 tokamak. Presently, during initial experiments of SST-1 tokamak the need for radial control during current build-up was envisaged. For this purpose the existing power supply was suitable and the same was re-commissioned and control adaptations were carried as per experimental requirements. This paper highlights the capabilities of the power supply and details the modifications in the control interfaces and test programs for the radial control purpose. Details of the operation of the power supply along with control interfaces with performance measurements are provided. The re-commissioning provided an opportunity in the trouble shooting methods and sequential operation of the system. With the operational use on the actual coil the mutual effects are understood better and appropriate test programs are prepared. The power supply provided satisfactory performance for the intended use. In additional the system is suitable to simulate a plasma current loop to enable the testing and calibration of Rogowski coil used for plasma current measurement. (author)

  1. Instrumentation for status monitoring and protection of SST-1 superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.N., E-mail: aashoo.sharma@yahoo.com; Prasad, U.; Doshi, K.; Varmora, P.; Khristi, Y.; Patel, D.; Pradhan, S.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Details of status monitoring instrumentation are presented. • Protection instrumentation details are presented. • Instrumentation installation details, signal conditioning and DAQ system details and the results during SST-1 operation are presented. - Abstract: Superconducting magnets of SST-1 are extensively instrumented to continuously monitor the health of magnets during machine cool-down, plasma experiments and also during the machine warm-up phase. These instrumentations include temperature sensors, flow meters, hall probes, strain gages, displacement sensors, pressure sensors and voltage taps. The number of sensors and their locations has been optimized to systematically monitor all important magnet parameters to ensure its safety. In-house developed modular signal conditioning cards have been developed for these instrumentations. The data is acquired on a Versa Module Europa bus based data acquisition system (VME DAQ). This paper gives an overview of selection, installation, laboratory scale validations, and distribution logics of these instrumentations. Results during plasma campaigns and the up-gradation aspects of these instrumentations are also discussed in this paper.

  2. On the joint inversion of SGG and SST data from the GOCE mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ditmar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The computation of spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth’s gravity field from satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST data and satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG data is considered. As long as the functional model related to SST data contains nuisance parameters (e.g. unknown initial state vectors, assembling of the corresponding normal matrix must be supplied with the back-substitution operation, so that the nuisance parameters are excluded from consideration. The traditional back-substitution algorithm, however, may result in large round-off errors. Hence an alternative approach, back-substitution at the level of the design matrix, is implemented. Both a stand-alone inversion of either type of data and a joint inversion of both types are considered. The conclusion drawn is that the joint inversion results in a much better model of the Earth’s gravity field than a standalone inversion. Furthermore, two numerical techniques for solving the joint system of normal equations are compared: (i the Cholesky method based on an explicit computation of the normal matrix, and (ii the pre-conditioned conjugate gradient method (PCCG, for which an explicit computation of the entire normal matrix is not needed. The comparison shows that the PCCG method is much faster than the Cholesky method.Key words. Earth’s gravity field, GOCE, satellite-tosatellite tracking, satellite gravity gradiometry, backsubstitution

  3. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCCARTHY, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Corrective Action Program (RCAP) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the US. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) initiated the RCAP to address the impacts of past and potential future tank waste releases to the environment. This work plan defines RCAP activities for the four SST waste management areas (WMAs) at which releases have contaminated groundwater. Recognizing the potential need for future RCAP activities beyond those specified in this master work plan, DOE has designated the currently planned activities as ''Phase 1.'' If a second phase of activities is needed for the WMAs addressed in Phase 1, or if releases are detected at other SST WMAs, this master work plan will be updated accordingly

  4. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation & Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCARTHY, M.M.

    1999-08-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Corrective Action Program (RCAP) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the US. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) initiated the RCAP to address the impacts of past and potential future tank waste releases to the environment. This work plan defines RCAP activities for the four SST waste management areas (WMAs) at which releases have contaminated groundwater. Recognizing the potential need for future RCAP activities beyond those specified in this master work plan, DOE has designated the currently planned activities as ''Phase 1.'' If a second phase of activities is needed for the WMAs addressed in Phase 1, or if releases are detected at other SST WMAs, this master work plan will be updated accordingly.

  5. The impact of summertime north Indian Ocean SST on tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiayu; Wu, Qiaoyan; Guo, Yipeng; Zhao, Sen

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of interannual variability of boreal summertime (June-September) north Indian Ocean (NIO) sea surface temperature (SST) on the distribution of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) using observational datasets. In the boreal summers with warm (cold) SST in the NIO, fewer (more) than normal TCs form over the entire WNP, with fewer (more) TCs forming north of 10°N and more (fewer) TCs forming south of 10°N. The warm (cold) SST in the NIO induces anomalous anticyclonic (cyclonic) vorticity north of 10°N and cyclonic (anticyclonic) vorticity south of 10°N, which contributes to the meridional seesaw-like distribution of WNP TC genesis. This study provides a new perspective to understand TC activities over the WNP and may help seasonal TC prediction.

  6. The role of ocean-atmosphere interaction in Typhoon Sinlaku (2008) using a regional coupled data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Akiyoshi; Kunii, Masaru

    2017-05-01

    For improving analyses of tropical cyclone (TC) and sea surface temperature (SST) and thereby TC simulations, a regional mesoscale strongly coupled atmosphere-ocean data assimilation system was developed with the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) implemented with the Japan Meteorological Agency's nonhydrostatic model (NHM) coupled with a multilayer ocean model and the third-generation ocean wave model. The NHM-LETKF coupled data assimilation system was applied to Typhoon Sinlaku (2008) along with the original NHM-LETKF system to investigate the sensitivity of Sinlaku to SST assimilation with the Level 2 Pre-processed (L2P) standard product of satellite SST. SST calculated in the coupled-assimilation experiment with the coupled data assimilation system and the satellite SST (CPL) showed a better correlation with Optimally Interpolated SST than SST used in the control experiment with the original NHM-LETKF (CNTL) and SST calculated in the succession experiment with the coupled system without satellite SST (SUCC). The time series in the CPL experiment well captured the variation in the SST observed at the Kuroshio Extension Observation buoy site. In addition, TC-induced sea surface cooling was analyzed more realistically in the CPL experiment than that in the CNTL and SUCC experiments. However, the central pressure analyzed in each three experiments was overestimated compared with the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center Tokyo best-track central pressure, mainly due to the coarse horizontal resolution of 15 km. The 96 h TC simulations indicated that the CPL experiment provided more favorable initial and boundary conditions than the CNTL experiment to simulate TC tracks more accurately.

  7. An Assessment of the SST Simulation Using the Climate Forecast System Coupled to the SSiB Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Xue, Y.; Huang, B.; Lee, J.; De Sales, F.

    2016-12-01

    A long term simulation has been conducted using the Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) coupled to the SSiB-2 land model, which consists of the Global Forecast System atmospheric model (GFS) and the Modular Ocean model - version 4 (MOM4) as the ocean component. This study evaluates the model's performance in simulating sea surface temperature (SST) mean state, trend, and inter-annual and decadal variabilities. The model is able to produce the reasonable spatial distribution of the SST climatology; however, it has prominent large scale biases. In the middle latitude of the Northern Hemisphere, major cold biases is close to the warm side of the large SST gradients, which may be associated with the weaker Kuroshio and Gulf Stream extensions that diffuse the SST gradient. IN addition, warm biases extend along the west coast of the North America continent to the high latitude, which may be related with excessive Ekman down-welling and solar radiation fluxes reaching to the surface due to the lack of cloud there. Warm biases also exist over the tropical cold tough areas in the Pacific and Atlantic. The global SST trend and interannual variations are well captured except for that in the south Hemisphere after year 2000, which is mainly contributed by the bias from the southern Pacific Ocean. Although the model fails to accurately produce ENSO events in proper years, it does reproduce the ENSO frequency well; they are skewed toward more warm events after 1990. The model also shows ability in SST decadal variation, such as the so-called inter-decadal Pacific oscillation (IPO); however, its phases seem to go reversely compared with the observation.

  8. The prognostic value of sST2 and galectin-3 considering different aetiologies in non-ischaemic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binas, David; Daniel, Hanna; Richter, Anette; Ruppert, Volker; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Schieffer, Bernhard; Pankuweit, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Several studies indicate a prognostic value of sST2 and galectin-3 in heart failure (HF). While previous studies focused on ischaemic cause of HF, we investigated the role of sST2 and galectin-3 in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). sST2 and galectin-3 serum concentrations were measured in 262 subjects with DCM. Survival rates were determined for all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiac mortality (CM). In a univariate model, sST2 as a continuous variable was a predictor of ACM (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.07, PACM (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.17, PACM (HR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07, P=0.019) was significant. In a multivariate model, the prognostic value of the sST2 main group remained intact for ACM (HR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, P=0.003).Univariate and multivariate analysis of galectin-3 as continuous variable did not show any significant result. However, in a quartile model, intermediate values of galectin-3 were significantly associated with a lower event rate of ACM and CM. The study revealed that sST2 predicts ACM and CM in patients with non-ischaemic HF and could be useful especially in patients with inflammatory background. Our findings that intermediate levels of galectin-3 allow for better prognosis were new and different to other investigations. NCT03090425; Results.

  9. Tropical Ocean Evaporation/SST Sensitivity and It's Link to Water and Energy Budget Variations During ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Marshall, Susan; Oglesby, Robert; Roads, John; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The continuing debate over feedback mechanisms governing tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and tropical climate in general has highlighted the diversity of potential checks and balances within the climate system. Competing feedbacks due to changes in surface evaporation, water vapor, and cloud long- and shortwave radiative properties each may serve critical roles in stabilizing or destabilizing the climate system. It is also intriguing that even those climate variations having origins internal to the climate system - changes in ocean heat transport for example, apparently require complementary equilibrating effects by changes in atmospheric energy fluxes. Perhaps the best observational evidence of this is the relatively invariant nature of tropically averaged net radiation exiting the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) as measured by broadband satellite sensors over the past two decades. Thus, analyzing how these feedback mechanisms are operating within the context of current interannual variability may offer considerable insight for anticipating future climate change. In this paper we focus primarily on interannual variations of ocean evaporative fluxes and their significance for coupled water and energy cycles within the tropical climate system. In particular, we use both the da Silva estimates of surface fluxes (based on the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set, COADS) and numerical simulations from several global climate models to examine evaporation sensitivity to perturbations in SST associated with warm and cold ENSO events. The specific questions we address are as follows: (1) What recurring patterns of surface wind and humidity anomalies are present during ENSO and how do they combine to yield systematic evaporation anomalies?, (2) What is the resulting tropical ocean mean evaporation-SST sensitivity associated with this climate perturbation?, and (3) What role does this evaporation play in tropical heat and water balance over tropical oceanic regions? We

  10. Modeling of Eddy current distribution and equilibrium reconstruction in the SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Sharma, Deepti; Radhakrishnana, Srinivasan; Daniel, Raju; Shankara Joisa, Y.; Atrey, Parveen Kumar; Pathak, Surya Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Toroidal continuity of the vacuum vessel and the cryostat leads to the generation of large eddy currents in these passive structures during the Ohmic phase of the steady state superconducting tokamak SST-1. This reduces the magnitude of the loop voltage seen by the plasma as also delays its buildup. During the ramping down of the Ohmic transformer current (OT), the resultant eddy currents flowing in the passive conductors play a crucial role in governing the plasma equilibrium. Amount of this eddy current and its distribution has to be accurately determined such that this can be fed to the equilibrium reconstruction code as an input. For the accurate inclusion of the effect of eddy currents in the reconstruction, the toroidally continuous conducting structures like the vacuum vessel and the cryostat with large poloidal cross-section and any other poloidal field (PF) coil sitting idle on the machine are broken up into a large number of co-axial toroidal current carrying filaments. The inductance matrix for this large set of toroidal current carrying conductors is calculated using the standard Green's function and the induced currents are evaluated for the OT waveform of each plasma discharge. Consistency of this filament model is cross-checked with the 11 in-vessel and 12 out-vessel toroidal flux loop signals in SST-1. Resistances of the filaments are adjusted to reproduce the experimental measurements of these flux loops in pure OT shots and shots with OT and vertical field (BV). Such shots are taken routinely in SST-1 without the fill gas to cross-check the consistency of the filament model. A Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation solver, named as IPREQ, has been developed in IPR to reconstruct the plasma equilibrium through searching for the best-fit current density profile. Ohmic transformer current (OT), vertical field coil current (BV), currents in the passive filaments along with the plasma pressure (p) and current (I p ) profiles are used as inputs to the IPREQ

  11. Differences in coastal and oceanic SST trends north of Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, R.; Costoya, X.; Enriquez, C.; Santos, F.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.

    2018-06-01

    The coastal area north of Yucatan has experienced a cooling SST trend from 1982 to 2015 during the upwelling season (May-September) that contrasts with the warming observed at the adjacent ocean area. Different drivers were analyzed to identify the possible causes of that unusual coastal cooling. Changes in coastal upwelling and in sea-atmosphere heat fluxes are not consistent with the observed coastal cooling. The eastward shift of the Yucatan Current observed over the last decades is hypothesized as the most probable cause of coastal cooling. This shift enhances the vertical transport of cold deeper water to the continental shelf from where it is pumped to the surface by upwelling favorable westerly winds.

  12. Progress of the Enhanced Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venetz, Theodore J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Washenfelder, Dennis J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Boomer, Kayle D. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Jeremy M. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Castleberry, Jim L. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-07

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. In late 2010, seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement.

  13. Helium leak testing of superconducting magnets, thermal shields and cryogenic lines of SST -1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thankey, P.L.; Joshi, K.S.; Semwal, P.; Pathan, F.S.; Raval, D.C.; Khan, Z.; Patel, R.J.; Pathak, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tokamak SST - 1 is under commissioning at Institute for Plasma Research. It comprises of a toroidal doughnut shaped plasma chamber, surrounded by liquid helium cooled superconducting magnets, housed in a cryostat chamber. The cryostat has two cooling circuits, (1) liquid nitrogen cooling circuit operating at 80 K to minimize the radiation heat load on the magnets, and (2) liquid helium cooling circuit to cool magnets and cold mass support structure to 4.5 K. In this paper we describe (a) the leak testing of copper - SS joints, brazing joints, interconnecting joints of the superconducting magnets, and (b) the leak testing of the liquid nitrogen cooling circuit, comprising of the main supply header, the thermal shields, interconnecting pipes, main return header and electrical isolators. All these tests were carried out using both vacuum and sniffer methods. (author)

  14. OVERVIEW OF ENHANCED HANFORD SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) INTEGRITY PROJECT - 12128

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VENETZ TJ; BOOMER KD; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

    2012-01-25

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The change package identified two phases of work for SST integrity. The initial phase has been focused on efforts to envelope the integrity of the tanks. The initial phase was divided into two primary areas of investigation: structural integrity and leak integrity. If necessary based on the outcome from the initial work, a second phase would be focused on further definition of the integrity of the concrete and liners. Combined these two phases are designed to support the formal integrity assessment of the Hanford SSTs in 2018 by Independent Qualified Registered Engineer. The work to further define the DOE's understanding of the structural integrity SSTs involves preparing a modern Analysis of Record using a finite element analysis program. Structural analyses of the SSTs have been conducted since 1957, but these analyses used analog calculation, less rigorous models, or focused on individual structures. As such, an integrated understanding of all of the SSTs has not been developed to modern expectations. In support of this effort, other milestones will address the visual inspection of the tank concrete and the collection of concrete core samples from the tanks for analysis

  15. Overview Of Enhanced Hanford Single-Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project - 12128

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venetz, T.J.; Boomer, K.D.; Washenfelder, D.J.; Johnson, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The change package identified two phases of work for SST integrity. The initial phase has been focused on efforts to envelope the integrity of the tanks. The initial phase was divided into two primary areas of investigation: structural integrity and leak integrity. If necessary based on the outcome from the initial work, a second phase would be focused on further definition of the integrity of the concrete and liners. Combined these two phases are designed to support the formal integrity assessment of the Hanford SSTs in 2018 by Independent Qualified Registered Engineer. The work to further define the DOE's understanding of the structural integrity SSTs involves preparing a modern Analysis of Record using a finite element analysis program. Structural analyses of the SSTs have been conducted since 1957, but these analyses used analog calculation, less rigorous models, or focused on individual structures. As such, an integrated understanding of all of the SSTs has not been developed to modern expectations. In support of this effort, other milestones will address the visual inspection of the tank concrete and the collection of concrete core samples from the tanks for analysis of

  16. Application of automatic gain control for radiometer diagnostic in SST-1 tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Foram R; Siju, Varsha; Edappala, Praveenlal; Pathak, S K

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the characterisation of a negative feedback type of automatic gain control (AGC) circuit that will be an integral part of the heterodyne radiometer system operating at a frequency range of 75-86 GHz at SST-1 tokamak. The developed AGC circuit is a combination of variable gain amplifier and log amplifier which provides both gain and attenuation typically up to 15 dB and 45 dB, respectively, at a fixed set point voltage and it has been explored for the first time in tokamak radiometry application. The other important characteristics are that it exhibits a very fast response time of 390 ns to understand the fast dynamics of electron cyclotron emission and can operate at very wide input RF power dynamic range of around 60 dB that ensures signal level within the dynamic range of the detection system.

  17. Geophysical Global Modeling for Extreme Crop Production Using Photosynthesis Models Coupled to Ocean SST Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, D.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change appears to have manifested itself along with abnormal meteorological disasters. Instability caused by drought and flood disasters is producing poor harvests because of poor photosynthesis and pollination. Fluctuations of extreme phenomena are increasing rapidly because amplitudes of change are much greater than average trends. A fundamental cause of these phenomena derives from increased stored energy inside ocean waters. Geophysical and biochemical modeling of crop production can elucidate complex mechanisms under seasonal climate anomalies. The models have progressed through their combination with global climate reanalysis, environmental satellite data, and harvest data on the ground. This study examined adaptation of crop production to advancing abnormal phenomena related to global climate change. Global environmental surface conditions, i.e., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. Basic streams of the concepts of modeling rely upon continental energy flow and carbon circulation among crop vegetation, land surface atmosphere combining energy advection from ocean surface anomalies. Global environmental surface conditions, e.g., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. The method of validating the modeling relies upon carbon partitioning in biomass and grains through carbon flow by photosynthesis using carbon dioxide unit in photosynthesis. Results of computations done for this study show global distributions of actual evaporation, stomata opening, and photosynthesis, presenting mechanisms related to advection effects from SST anomalies in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans on global and continental croplands. For North America, climate effects appear clearly in severe atmospheric phenomena, which have caused drought and forest fires

  18. SAFETY EVALUATION OF OXALIC ACID WASTE RETRIEVAL IN SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) 241-C-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the safety evaluation of the process of retrieving sludge waste from single-shell tank 241-C-106 using oxalic acid. The results of the HAZOP, safety evaluation, and control allocation/decision are part of the report. This safety evaluation considers the use of oxalic acid to recover residual waste in single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106. This is an activity not addressed in the current tank farm safety basis. This evaluation has five specific purposes: (1) Identifying the key configuration and operating assumptions needed to evaluate oxalic acid dissolution in SST 241-C-106. (2) Documenting the hazardous conditions identified during the oxalic acid dissolution hazard and operability study (HAZOP). (3) Documenting the comparison of the HAZOP results to the hazardous conditions and associated analyzed accident currently included in the safety basis, as documented in HNF-SD-WM-TI-764, Hazard Analysis Database Report. (4) Documenting the evaluation of the oxalic acid dissolution activity with respect to: (A) Accident analyses described in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), and (B) Controls specified in HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (TSR). (5) Documenting the process and results of control decisions as well as the applicability of preventive and/or mitigative controls to each oxalic acid addition hazardous condition. This safety evaluation is not intended to be a request to authorize the activity. Authorization issues are addressed by the unreviewed safety question (USQ) evaluation process. This report constitutes an accident analysis

  19. On the suitability of global algorithms for the retrieval of SST from the north Indian Ocean using NOAA/AVHRR

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.

    using satellite-sea-truth matchups for NOAA-9 and NOAA-11. The trends associated with the SST retrievals with respect to various independent parameters and simple statistics are analysed to assess the performance of the algorithms. The MCSST and NLSST...

  20. A Comparison Between SST and AOT Derived from AVHRR and MODIS Data in the Frame of the CREPAD Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Gonzalez, Cristina; Fernandez-Renau, Alix; Lopez Gordillo, Noelia; Sevilla, Angel Garcia; Suarez, Juana Santana

    2010-12-01

    Since 1997, the INTA-CREPAD (Centre for REception, Processing, Archiving and Dissemination of Earth Observation Data) program distributes freely some of the most demanded low-resolution remote sensing products: SST, Ocean Chl-a, NDVI, AOD... The data input for such products are captured at the Canary Space Station (Centro Espacial de Canarias, CEC). The data sensors received at the station and used in the CREPAD program are AVHRR, SEAWIFS and MODIS. In this study SST and AOD retrieved by CREPAD algorithms from AVHRR and the SEADAS derived SST and AOD from MODIS have compared. SST values agree very well within 0.1±0.5oC and the coefficient of correlation of the images is 0.9. AOD validation gives good results taking into account the differences in the algorithms used. Mean AOD difference at 0.630 μm is 0.01±0.05 and the correlation coefficient is 0.6.

  1. SKENARIO TENGGANG WAKTU SST NINO 3.4 TERHADAP CURAH HUJAN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN AKURASI PREDIKSI KALMAN FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Tresnawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediksi curah hujan bulanan menggunakan prediktor SST (Sea Surface Temperature Nino 3.4 harus diketahui apakah secara langsung dalam waktu bersamaan mempengaruhi curah hujan. Pada penelitian ini, skenario tenggang waktu (time lag diujicobakan untuk meningkatkan akurasi prediksi curah hujan bulanan dengan Kalman Filter. Pada tahap pertama, SST Nino 3.4 pada lag 0, lag 1, lag 2 diprediksi menggunakan ARIMA. Kemudian hasil ini digunakan sebagai salah satu prediktor dalam Kalman Filter. Penelitian diujicobakan terhadap validasi prediksi curah hujan bulanan di daerah Purbalingga selama periode tiga tahun kebelakang (hindcast 2006, 2007, 2008. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa tenggang waktu diperlukan dalam prediksi.   Monthly rainfall forecasting using Sea Surface Temperature (SST Nino 3.4 as predictor must be known of how directly effect on rainfall. In this paper, time lag scenarios are proposed for increase prediction accurately of Kalman Filter. First, SST Nino 3.4 on lag 0, lag 1, and lag 2 are predicted by ARIMA. Then, this result is used as one of predictor in the Kalman Filter Prediction. This method is attempted for validation of monthly rainfall forecasting in Purbalingga by three-year period (2006,2007,2009 of hind cast. Experimental results show that time lag are needed in Monthly rainfall forecasting.

  2. Improving Satellite Retrieved Infrared Sea Surface Temperatures in Aerosol-Contaminated Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Minnett, P. J.; Szczodrak, G.; Kilpatrick, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Infrared satellite observations of sea surface temperature (SST) have become essential for many applications in meteorology, climatology, and oceanography. Applications often require high accuracy SST data: for climate research and monitoring an absolute uncertainty of 0.1K and stability of better than 0.04K per decade are required. Tropospheric aerosol concentrations increase infrared signal attenuation and prevent the retrieval of accurate satellite SST. We compare satellite-derived skin SST with measurements from the Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) deployed on ships during the Aerosols and Ocean Science Expeditions (AEROSE) and with quality-controlled drifter temperatures. After match-up with in-situ SST and filtering of cloud contaminated data, the results indicate that SST retrieved from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have negative (cool) biases compared to shipboard radiometric measurements. There is also a pronounced negative bias in the Saharan outflow area that can introduce SST errors >1 K at aerosol optical depths > 0.5. In this study, we present a new method to derive night-time Saharan Dust Index (SDI) algorithms based on simulated brightness temperatures at infrared wavelengths of 3.9, 10.8 and 12.0 μm, derived using RTTOV. We derived correction coefficients for Aqua MODIS measurements by regression of the SST errors against the SDI. The biases and standard deviations are reduced by 0.25K and 0.19K after the SDI correction. The goal of this study is to understand better the characteristics and physical mechanisms of aerosol effects on satellite retrieved infrared SST, as well as to derive empirical formulae for improved accuracies in aerosol-contaminated regions.

  3. Understanding the effect of an excessive cold tongue bias on projecting the tropical Pacific SST warming pattern in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Huang, Ping; Lian, Tao; Tan, Hongjian

    2018-05-01

    An excessive cold tongue is a common bias among current climate models, and considered an important source of bias in projections of tropical Pacific climate change under global warming. Specifically, the excessive cold tongue bias is closely related to the tropical Pacific SST warming (TPSW) pattern. In this study, we reveal that two processes are the critical mechanisms by which the excessive cold tongue bias influences the projection of the TPSW pattern, based on 32 models from phase 5 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Projection (CMIP5). On the one hand, by assuming that the shortwave (SW) radiation to SST feedback is linearly correlated to the cold tongue SST, the excessive cold tongue bias can induce an overly weak negative SW-SST feedback in the central Pacific, which can lead to a positive SST warming bias in the central to western Pacific (around 150°E-140°W). Moreover, the overly weak local atmospheric dynamics response to SST is a key process of the overly weak SW-SST feedback, compared with the cloud response to atmospheric dynamics and the SW radiation response to cloud. On the other hand, the overly strong ocean zonal overturning circulation associated with the excessive cold tongue bias results in an overestimation of the ocean dynamical thermostat effect, with enhanced ocean stratification under global warming, leading to a negative SST warming bias in the central and eastern Pacific (around 170°W-120°W). These two processes jointly form a positive SST warming bias in the western Pacific, contributing to a La Niña-like warming bias. Therefore, we suggest a more realistic climatological cold tongue SST is needed for a more reliable projection of the TPSW pattern.

  4. Performance test results of ion beam transport for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, M R; Mattoo, S K [Institute for Plasma Research Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428, Gujarat (India); Uhlemann, R, E-mail: mukti@ipr.res.i [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute fur Energieforschung IEF-4, Plasmaphysik D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2010-02-01

    A neutral beam injector is built at IPR to heat the plasma of SST-1 and its upgrade. It delivers a maximum beam power of 1.7 MW for 55 kV Hydrogen beam or 80 kV Deuterium beam. At lower beam voltage, the delivered power falls to 500 kW at 30 kV Hydrogen beam which is adequate to heat SST-1 plasma ions to {approx} 1 keV. Process of acceleration of ions to the required beam voltage, conversion of ions to neutrals and removal of un-neutralized ions and the beam diagnostic systems occupy a large space. The consequence is that linear extent of the neutral beam injector is at least a few meters. Also, port access provides a very narrow duct. Even a very good injector design and fabrication practices keep beam divergence at a very low but finite value. The result is beam transport becomes an important issue. Since a wide area beam is constructed by hundreds of beam lets, it becomes essential they be focused in such a way that beam transport loss is minimized. Horizontal and vertical focal lengths are two parameters, in addition to beam divergence, which give a description of the beam transport. We have obtained these two parameters for our injector by using beam transport code; making several hundred simulation runs by varying optical parameters of the beam. The selected parameters set has been translated into the engineering features of the extractor grid set of the ion source. Aperture displacement technique is used to secure the horizontal beam focusing at 5.4 m. Combination of both aperture displacement and inclining of two grid halves to {approx} 17 mrad are secured for vertical beam focusing at 7 m from earth grid of the ion source. The gaps between the design, engineered and performance tested values usually arise due to lack of exercising control over fabrication processes or due to inaccuracies in the assumption made in the model calculations of beam optics and beam transport. This has been the case with several injectors, notably with JET injector. To overcome

  5. Engineering and thermal-hydraulic design of water cooled PFC for SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paritosh Chaudhuri; Santra, P.; Rabi Prakash, N.; Khirwadkar, S.; Arun Prakash, A.; Ramash, G.; Dubey, S.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Steady state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with superconducting magnetic field coils. It is a large aspect ratio tokamak with a major radius of 1.1 m and minor radius of 0.20 m. SST-1 is designed for plasma discharge duration of ∼1000 seconds to obtain fully steady state plasma with total input power up to 1.0 MW. First Wall or Plasma Facing Components (PFC) is one or the major sub-systems of SST-1 tokamak consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles, and poloidal limiters are designed to be compatible for steady state operation. All the PFC has the same basic configuration: graphite tiles are mechanically attached to a back plate made of high strength copper alloy, and SS tubes are embedded in the groove made in the back plate. Same tube will be used for cooling during plasma operation and baking during wall conditioning. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m 2 . In addition to remove high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for high temperature baking at 350 deg. C. Water was chosen as the coolant because of its appropriate thermal properties, and while baking, hot nitrogen gas would flow through these tubes to bake the PFC at high temperature. Extensive studies, involving different flow parameters and various cooling layouts, has been done to select the final cooling parameters and layout, compatible for cooling and baking. During steady state operation, divertor and passive stabilizer heat loads are expected to be 0.6 and 0.25 MW/m 2 . The PFC also has been design to withstand the peak heat fluxes without significant erosion such that frequent replacement is not necessary. Since the tile must be mechanically attached to the back plate (heat sink), the fitting technique must provide the highest mechanical stress so that thermal transfer efficiency is maximized. Proper brazing of cooling tube on the copper back

  6. GHRSST Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  7. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  8. Design and performance of main vacuum pumping system of SST-1 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Ziauddin, E-mail: ziauddin@ipr.res.in; Pathan, Firozkhan; George, Siju; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Semwal, Pratibha; Pradhan, Subrata

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •SST-1 Tokamak was successfully commissioned. •Vacuum vessel and cryostat were pumped down to 6.3 × 10{sup −7} mbar and 1.3 × 10{sup −5} mbar. •Leaks developed during baking were detected in-situ by RGA and confirmed later on. •Cryo-pumping effect was observed when LN2 thermal shields reached below 273 K. •Non-standard aluminum wire-seals have shown leak tightness < 1.0 × 10{sup −9} mbar l/s. -- Abstract: Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) was installed and it is commissioning for overall vacuum integrity, magnet systems functionality in terms of successful cool down to 4.5 K and charging up to 10 kA current was started from August 2012. Plasma operation of 100 kA current for more than 100 ms was also envisaged. It is comprised of vacuum vessel (VV) and cryostat (CST). Vacuum vessel, an ultra-high (UHV) vacuum chamber with net volume of 23 m{sup 3} was maintained at the base pressure of 6.3 × 10{sup −7} mbar for plasma confinement. Cryostat, a high-vacuum (HV) chamber with empty volume 39 m{sup 3} housing superconducting magnet system, bubble thermal shields and hydraulics for these circuits, maintained at 1.3 × 10{sup −5} mbar in order to provide suitable environment for these components. In order to achieve these ultimate vacuums, two numbers of turbo-molecular pumps (TMP) are installed in vacuum vessel while three numbers of turbo-molecular pumps are installed in cryostat. Initial pumping of both the chambers was carried out by using suitable Roots pumps. PXI based real time controlled system is used for remote operation of the complete pumping operation. In order to achieve UHV inside the vacuum vessel, it was baked at 150 °C for longer duration. Aluminum wire-seals were used for all non-circular demountable ports and a leak tightness < 1.0 × 10{sup −9} mbar l/s were achieved.

  9. Operation and control of high power Gyrotrons for ECRH systems in SST-1 and Aditya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, B.K., E-mail: shukla@ipr.res.in; Bora, D.; Jha, R.; Patel, Jatin; Patel, Harshida; Babu, Rajan; Dhorajiya, Pragnesh; Dalakoti, Shefali; Purohit, Dharmesh

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Operation and control of high power Gyrotrons. • Data acquisition and control (DAQ) for Gyrotron system. • Ignitron based crowbar protection. • VME and PXI based systems. - Abstract: The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system is an important heating system for the reliable start-up of tokamak. The 42 GHz and 82.6 GHz ECRH systems are used in tokamaks SST-1 and Aditya to carry out ECRH related experiments. The Gyrotrons are high power microwave tubes used as a source for ECRH systems. The Gyrotron is a delicate microwave tube, which deliver megawatt level power at very high voltage ∼40–50 kV with the current requirement ∼10 A–50 A. The Gyrotrons are associated with the subsystems like: High voltage power supplies (Beam voltage and anode voltage), dedicated crowbar system, magnet, filament and ion pump power supplies, cooling, interlocks and a dedicated data acquisition & control (DAC) system. There are two levels of interlocks used for the protection of Gyrotron: fast interlocks (arcing, beam over current, dI/dt, anode voltage and anode over current etc.) operate within 10 μs and slow interlocks (cooling, filament, silence of Gyrotron, ion pump and magnet currents) operate within 100 ms. Two Gyrotrons (42 GHz/500 kW/500 ms and 82.6 GHz/200 kW/1000 s) have been commissioned on dummy load for full parameters. The 42 GHz ECRH system has been integrated with SST-1 & Aditya tokamak and various experiments have been carried out related to ECRH assisted breakdown and start-up of tokamak at fundamental and second harmonic. These Gyrotrons are operated with VME based data acquisition and control (DAC) system. The DAC system is capable to acquire 64 digital and 32 analog signals. The system is used to monitor & acquire the data and also used for slow interlocks for the protection of Gyrotron. The data acquired from the system are stored online on VME system and after the shot stored in a file in binary format. The MDSPlus, a set of

  10. Reflective and antireflective coatings for the optical chain of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Stringhetti, Luca

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. One of the main aims of the ASTRI Project is the design, construction and on-field verification of a dual mirror (2M) end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype is designed according to the Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, and adopts a camera based on Silicon Photo Multipliers (SiPM); it will be assembled at the INAF astronomical site of Serra La Nave on mount Etna (Catania, Italy) in the second half of 2014, and will start scientific validation phase soon after. With its 4m wide primary dish, the telescope will be sensitive to multi-TeV Very High Energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV and above, with a point spread function of ~2 arcminutes and a wide (semiaperture 4.8°) corrected field of view. The peculiarities of the optical design and of the SiPM bandpass pushed towards specifically optimized choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. Fully dielectric multi-layer coatings have been developed and tested as an option for the primary mirror, aiming to filter out the large Night Sky Background contamination at wavelengths λ>~700 nm. On the other hand, for the large monolithic secondary mirror a simpler design with quartz-overcoated aluminium has been optimized for incidences far from normality. The conformation of the ASTRI camera in turn pushed towards the design of a reimaging system based on thin pyramidal light guides, that could be optionally integrated in the focal surface, aiming to increase the fill factor. An anti-reflective coating optimized for a wide range of incident angles faraway from normality was specifically developed to enhance the UV-optical transparency of these elements. The issues, strategy, simulations and experimental results are thoroughly

  11. Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Project Plan for Tank 241-C-104 Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEFIGH PRICE, C.

    2000-01-01

    In support of the SST Interim Closure Project, Project W-523 ''Tank 241-C-104 Waste Retrieval System'' will provide systems for retrieval and transfer of radioactive waste from tank 241-C-104 (C-104) to the DST staging tank 241-AY-101 (AY-101). At the conclusion of Project W-523, a retrieval system will have been designed and tested to meet the requirements for Acceptance of Beneficial Use and been turned over to operations. Completion of construction and operations of the C-104 retrieval system will meet the recently proposed near-term Tri-Party Agreement milestone, M-45-03F (Proposed Tri-Party Agreement change request M-45-00-01A, August, 30 2000) for demonstrating limits of retrieval technologies on sludge and hard heels in SSTs, reduce near-term storage risks associated with aging SSTs, and provide feed for the tank waste treatment plant. This Project Plan documents the methodology for managing Project W-523; formalizes responsibilities; identifies key interfaces required to complete the retrieval action; establishes the technical, cost, and schedule baselines; and identifies project organizational requirements pertaining to the engineering process such as environmental, safety, quality assurance, change control, design verification, testing, and operational turnover

  12. Spatio-Temporal Interpolation of Cloudy SST Fields Using Conditional Analog Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Fablet

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing geophysical data streams pouring from earth observation satellite missions and numerical simulations along with the development of dedicated big data infrastructure advocate for truly exploiting the potential of these datasets, through novel data-driven strategies, to deliver enhanced satellite-derived gapfilled geophysical products from partial satellite observations. We here demonstrate the relevance of the analog data assimilation (AnDA for an application to the reconstruction of cloud-free level-4 gridded Sea Surface Temperature (SST. We propose novel AnDA models which exploit auxiliary variables such as sea surface currents and significantly reduce the computational complexity of AnDA. Numerical experiments benchmark the proposed models with respect to state-of-the-art interpolation techniques such as optimal interpolation and EOF-based schemes. We report relative improvement up to 40%/50% in terms of RMSE and also show a good parallelization performance, which supports the feasibility of an upscaling on a global scale.

  13. Engineering and thermal-hydraulics design of PFC cooling for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Reddy, D. Chenna; Santra, P.; Khiwadkar, S.; Prakash, N. Rabi; Ramash, G.; Dubey, Santosh; Prakash, Arun; Saxena, Y. C.

    2003-01-01

    The main consideration in the design of the PFC cooling for SST-1 tokamak is the steady state heat removal of upto 1MW/m2. The PFC also has been design to withstand the peak heat fluxes without significant erosion such that frequent replacement is not necessary. Proper brazing of cooling tube on the copper back plate is necessary for the efficient heat transfer from the tube to the back plate. Design considerations included 2-D steady state and transient tile temperature distribution and resulting thermal loads in PFC during baking, and cooling, coolant parameters necessary to maintain optimum thermal-hydraulic design, and tile fitting mechanism. Finite Element (FE) models using ANSYS have been developed to conduct the heat transfer and stress analyses of the PFC to understand its thermal and mechanical behaviors. The temperature distribution results for different PFC obtained by FE results were assessed by comparison with 2-D Finite Difference code. The results of the calculation led to a good understanding of the coolant flow behavior and the temperature distribution in the tube wall and the different parts of the PFC. The contact at the brazed joint of the tube to the backplate is critical for the above application. The manufactured modules need to be evaluated for the quality of brazed joint. Using an infra-red-camera, spatial and temporal evaluation of the temperature profile is studied under various flow parameters. These results of this study will be presented in details in this paper

  14. Control system for 5 MW neutral beam ion source for SST1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, G. B.; Onali, Raja; Sharma, Vivek; Suresh, S.; Tripathi, V.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, N. P.; Thakkar, Dipal; Gupta, L. N.; Singh, M. J.; Patel, P. J.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Baruah, U. K.; Mattoo, S. K.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the control system for a 5MW ion source of the NBI (neutral beam injector) for steady-state superconducting tokamak-1 (SST-1). The system uses both hardware and software solutions. It comprises a DAS (data acquisition system) and a control system. The DAS is used to read the voltage and current signals from eight filament heater power supplies and 24 discharge power supplies. The control system is used to adjust the filament heater current in order to achieve an effective control on the discharge current in the plasma box. The system consists of a VME (Verse Module Eurocard) system and C application program running on a VxWorks™ real-time operating system. A PID (proportional, integral, and differential) algorithm is used to control the filament heater current. Experiments using this system have shown that the discharge current can be controlled within 1% accuracy for a PID loop time of 20ms. Response of the control system to the pressure variation of the gas in the chamber has also been studied and compared with the results obtained from those of an uncontrolled system. The present approach increases the flexibility of the control system. It not only eases the control of the plasma but also allows an easy changeover to various operation scenarios.

  15. Fabrication of new joints for SST-1 TF coil winding packs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Upendra; Sharma, A.N.; Patel, Dipak; Doshi, Kalpesh; Khristi, Yohan; Varmora, Pankaj; Chauhan, Pradeep; Jadeja, S.J.; Gupta, Pratibha; Pradhan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We have carried out work related with sub-nanoohm joints for superconducting Tokamak winding packs. • We have established fine tune QA/QC procedures for sub-nanoohm joints fabrication. • We have optimised welding parameters for cable in conduit conductors for fusion relevant magnets. • We have established precised measurement data acquisition system for low resistance measurements at cryogenic temperature. -- Abstract: The Toroidal Field (TF) magnet system of SST-1 has sixteen NbTi/Cu based coils with about one hundred Inter-Pancake (IP) and Inter-Coil (IC) joints. New box type helium leak tight, low DC resistance joints have been designed, fabricated and tested at 5 K temperature and 10 kA DC transport current. The prototype of this joint has been validated in laboratory as well as on spare TF coil winding pack. Moreover, the performance of these joints has been realised and validated on actual sixteen TF winding packs, the joint resistance of ∼0.5 nΩ repeatedly measured on hundreds of IP joints. The quality of terminations and joints was ensured at various stages of fabrication. The quality of joint box material was ensured by visual inspection, chemical analysis, radiography test, ultrasonic test, eddy current test, etc. This paper describes joint design drivers, joint design detail, prototype joint fabrication processes, quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) adopted during prototype and actual joint fabrication process, joint resistance measurement on actual TF coils and analysis of measured joint resistance in detail

  16. Up gradation of VME based data acquisition for SST-1 superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varmora, Pankaj; Parghi, Bhadresh; Banaudha, Moni; Prasad, Upendra

    2017-01-01

    SST-1 magnet system consists of sixteen Toroidal Field (TF) coils and nine Poloidal Field (PF) superconducting coils along with a pair of vertical field coils and air core ohmic transformer. These magnets are instrumented with various cryogenic compatible sensors and voltage taps for its monitoring, operation, protection, and control during different machine operational scenarios like cryogenic cool down, current charging cycles including ramp up, flat top, plasma breakdown, dumping/ramp down and warm up. A VME hardware based data acquisition system has been developed for data monitoring, acquisition and control of magnet operation. A java platform based client and server utility has been developed for this data acquisition system. Upgradation of this java software utility has been carried out with enhance features, fast operating performance and new tools additions. Upgradation features includes larger data file sizes, highlights of critical data indicators, new file generation, online mass flow calculations etc. This poster describes basis hardware details, upgradation of previous software utility, testing and troubleshooting during software development. (author)

  17. Conceptual design of dump resistor for superconducting CS of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Swati; Pradhan, Subrata; Panchal, Arun

    2015-01-01

    During the upgradation of SST-1, the resistive central solenoid (CS) coil has been planned to be replaced with Nb 3 Sn based superconducting coil. The superconducting CS will store upto 3.5MJ of magnetic energy per operation cycle with operating current upto 14kA. In case of coil quench, the energy stored in the coils is to be extracted rapidly with a time constant of 1.5s. This will be achieved by inserting a 20m Ohm dump resistor in series with the superconducting CS which is normally shorted by circuit breakers. As a vital part of the superconducting CS quench protection system, a conceptual design of the 20m Ohm dump resistor has been proposed. In this paper, the required design aspects and a dimensional layout of the dump resistor for the new superconducting CS has been presented. Natural air circulation is proposed as cooling method for this dump resistor. The basic structure of the proposed dump resistor comprises of stainless steel grids connected in series in the shape of meander to minimize the stray inductance and increase the surface area for cooling. The entire dump resistor will be an array of such grids connected in series and parallel to meet electrical as well as thermal parameters. The maximum temperature of the proposed dump resistor is upto 350 °C during dump 3.5MJ energy. The proposed design permits indigenous fabrication of the dump resistor using commercially available welding techniques. (author)

  18. Conceptual design of Dump resistor for Superconducting CS of SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swati; Raj, Piyush; Panchal, Arun; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    Under upgradation activities for SST-1, the existing resistive central solenoid (CS) coil will be replaced with Nb3Sn based superconducting coil. Design of Central solenoid had been completed and some of the initiative has already taken for its manufacturing. The superconducting CS will store upto 3 MJ of magnetic energy per operation cycle with operating current upto 14 kA. During quench, energy stored in the coils has to be extracted rapidly with a time constant of 1.5 s by inserting a 20 mΩ dump resistor in series with the superconducting CS which is normally shorted by circuit breakers. As a critical part of the superconducting CS quench protection system, a conceptual design of the 20 mΩ dump resistor has been proposed. The required design aspects and a dimensional layout of the dump resistor for the new superconducting CS has been presented and discussed. The basic structure of the proposed dump resistor comprises of stainless steel grids connected in series in the form of meander to minimize the stray inductance and increase the surface area for cooling. Such an array of grids connected in series and parallel will cater to the electrical as well as thermal parameters. It will be cooled by natural convection. During operation, the estimated maximum temperature of the proposed dump resistor will raise upto 600 K.

  19. Operational experience of SST1 NBI control system with prototype Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V B; Patel, P J; Singh, N P; Tripathi, V; Thakkar, D; Gupta, L N; Prahlad, V; Sharma, S K; Bandyopadyay, M; Chakraborty, A K; Baruah, U K; Mattoo, S K; Patel, G B; Onali, Raja

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents operational experience of integrated control of the arc-filament and High-voltage power supply of Steady State Tokamak (SST)-1 NBI system using Versa Module Europa (VME) system on prototype Ion source. The control algorithm is implemented on the VxWorks operating system using 'C' language. This paper also describes the operating sequence and controls on power supply system. Discharge and Filament power supplies are controlled in such a way so that necessary discharge current can be available in Ion Source. The discharge current is controlled by manipulating the filament current. Close loop control is implemented on each filament power supply with feedback from Discharge Current to control the overall discharge inside the ion source. Necessary actions for shut OFF and subsequent Turn ON are also taken during breakdowns between the Grids of the ion source. Total numbers of breakdowns are also monitored. Shot is terminated, if the breakdown count is higher than the set value. This control system can be programmed to restart High-voltage power supply within 5mS after breakdown occurs. This control system is capable to handle the all types of dynamics in the system. This paper also presents results of experiment.

  20. Impact of global warming on tropical cyclone genesis in coupled and forced simulations: role of SST spatial anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Jean-François; Chauvin, Fabrice; Daloz, Anne-Sophie

    2010-05-01

    The response of tropical cyclones (TC) activity to global warming has not yet reached a clear consensus in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) or in the recent scientific literature. Observed series are neither long nor reliable enough for a statistically significant detection and attribution of past TC trends, and coupled climate models give widely divergent results for the future evolution of TC activity in the different ocean basins. The potential importance of the spatial structure of the future SST warming has been pointed out by Chauvin et al. (2006) in simulations performed at CNRM with the ARPEGE-Climat GCM. The current presentation describes a new set of simulations that have been performed with the ARPEGE-Climat model to try to understand the possible role of SST patterns in the TC cyclogenesis response in 15 CMIP3 coupled simulations analysed by Royer et al (2009). The new simulations have been performed with the atmospheric component of the ARPEGE-Climat GCM forced in 10 year simulations by the SST patterns from each of 15 CMIP3 simulations with different climate model at the end of the 21st century according to scenario A2. The TC analysis is based on the computation of a Convective Yearly Genesis Parameter (CYGP) and the Genesis Potential Index (GPI). The computed genesis indices for each of the ARPEGE-Climat forced simulations is compared with the indices computed directly from the initial coupled simulation. The influence of SST patterns can then be more easily assessed since all the ARPEGE-Climat simulations are performed with the same atmospheric model, whereas the original simulations used models with different parameterization and resolutions. The analysis shows that CYGP or GPI anomalies obtained with ARPEGE are as variable between each other as those obtained originally by the different IPCC models. The variety of SST patterns used to force ARPEGE explains a large part of

  1. A GIS Approach to Wind,SST(Sea Surface Temperature) and CHL(Chlorophyll) variations in the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkhalili, Seyedhamzeh

    2016-07-01

    Chlorophyll is an extremely important bio-molecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light. At the base of the ocean food web are single-celled algae and other plant-like organisms known as Phytoplankton. Like plants on land, Phytoplankton use chlorophyll and other light-harvesting pigments to carry out photosynthesis. Where Phytoplankton grow depends on available sunlight, temperature, and nutrient levels. In this research a GIS Approach using ARCGIS software and QuikSCAT satellite data was applied to visualize WIND,SST(Sea Surface Temperature) and CHL(Chlorophyll) variations in the Caspian Sea.Results indicate that increase in chlorophyll concentration in coastal areas is primarily driven by terrestrial nutrients and does not imply that warmer SST will lead to an increase in chlorophyll concentration and consequently Phytoplankton abundance.

  2. Quantitative study of sniffer leak rate and pressure drop leak rate of liquid nitrogen panels of SST-1 tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, F. S.; Khan, Z.; Semwal, P.; Raval, D. C.; Joshi, K. S.; Thankey, P. L.; Dhanani, K. R.

    2008-05-01

    Steady State Super-conducting (SST-1) Tokamak is in commissioning stage at Institute for Plasma Research. Vacuum chamber of SST-1 Tokamak consists of 1) Vacuum vessel, an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber, 2) Cryostat, a high vacuum (HV) chamber. Cryostat encloses the liquid helium cooled super-conducting magnets (TF and PF), which require the thermal radiation protection against room temperature. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooled panels are used to provide thermal shield around super-conducting magnets. During operation, LN2 panels will be under pressurized condition and its surrounding (cryostat) will be at high vacuum. Hence, LN2 panels must have very low leak rate. This paper describes an experiment to study the behaviour of the leaks in LN2 panels during sniffer test and pressure drop test using helium gas.

  3. Quantitative study of sniffer leak rate and pressure drop leak rate of liquid nitrogen panels of SST-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathan, F S; Khan, Z; Semwal, P; Raval, D C; Joshi, K S; Thankey, P L; Dhanani, K R [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar - 382 428, Gujarat (India)], E-mail: firose@ipr.res.in

    2008-05-01

    Steady State Super-conducting (SST-1) Tokamak is in commissioning stage at Institute for Plasma Research. Vacuum chamber of SST-1 Tokamak consists of 1) Vacuum vessel, an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber, 2) Cryostat, a high vacuum (HV) chamber. Cryostat encloses the liquid helium cooled super-conducting magnets (TF and PF), which require the thermal radiation protection against room temperature. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooled panels are used to provide thermal shield around super-conducting magnets. During operation, LN{sub 2} panels will be under pressurized condition and its surrounding (cryostat) will be at high vacuum. Hence, LN{sub 2} panels must have very low leak rate. This paper describes an experiment to study the behaviour of the leaks in LN{sub 2} panels during sniffer test and pressure drop test using helium gas.

  4. Quantitative study of sniffer leak rate and pressure drop leak rate of liquid nitrogen panels of SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, F S; Khan, Z; Semwal, P; Raval, D C; Joshi, K S; Thankey, P L; Dhanani, K R

    2008-01-01

    Steady State Super-conducting (SST-1) Tokamak is in commissioning stage at Institute for Plasma Research. Vacuum chamber of SST-1 Tokamak consists of 1) Vacuum vessel, an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber, 2) Cryostat, a high vacuum (HV) chamber. Cryostat encloses the liquid helium cooled super-conducting magnets (TF and PF), which require the thermal radiation protection against room temperature. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooled panels are used to provide thermal shield around super-conducting magnets. During operation, LN 2 panels will be under pressurized condition and its surrounding (cryostat) will be at high vacuum. Hence, LN 2 panels must have very low leak rate. This paper describes an experiment to study the behaviour of the leaks in LN 2 panels during sniffer test and pressure drop test using helium gas

  5. DOTA-derivatives of octreotide dicarba-analogues with high affinity for somatostatin sst2,5 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, Alessandro; Ginanneschi, Mauro; Lumini, Marco; Papini, Anna M.; Novellino, Ettore; Brancaccio, Diego; Carotenuto, Alfonso

    2017-02-01

    In vivo somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is a valuable method for the visualization of human endocrine tumours and their metastases. In fact, peptide ligands of somatostatin receptors (sst’s) conjugated with chelating agents are in clinical use. We have recently developed octreotide dicarba-analogues, which show interesting binding profiles at sst’s. In this context, it was mandatory to explore the possibility that our analogues could maintain their activity also upon conjugation with DOTA. In this paper, we report and discuss the synthesis, binding affinity and conformational preferences of three DOTA-conjugated dicarba-analogues of octreotide. Interestingly, two conjugated analogues exhibited nanomolar affinities on sst2 and sst5 somatostatin receptor subtypes.

  6. Preliminary Inter-Comparison between AHI, VIIRS and MODIS Clear-Sky Ocean Radiances for Accurate SST Retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingming Liang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clear-sky brightness temperatures (BT in five bands of the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI; flown onboard Himawari-8 satellite centered at 3.9, 8.6, 10.4, 11.2, and 12.3 µm (denoted by IR37, IR86, IR10, IR11, and IR12, respectively are used in the NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO sea surface temperature (SST retrieval system. Here, AHI BTs are preliminarily evaluated for stability and consistency with the corresponding VIIRS and MODIS BTs, using the sensor observation minus model simulation (O-M biases and corresponding double differences. The objective is to ensure accurate and consistent SST products from the polar and geo sensors, and to prepare for the launch of the GOES-R satellite in 2016. All five AHI SST bands are found to be largely in-family with their polar counterparts, but biased low relative to the VIIRS and MODIS (which, in turn, were found to be stable and consistent, except for Terra IR86, which is biased high by 1.5 K. The negative biases are larger in IR37 and IR12 (up to ~−0.5 K, followed by the three remaining longwave IR bands IR86, IR10, and IR11 (from −0.3 to −0.4 K. These negative biases may be in part due to the uncertainties in AHI calibration and characterization, although uncertainties in the coefficients of the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM, used to generate the “M” term may also contribute. Work is underway to add AHI analyses in the NOAA Monitoring of IR Clear-Sky Radiances over Oceans for SST (MICROS system and improve AHI BTs by collaborating with the sensor calibration and CRTM teams. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI analyses will be also added in MICROS when GOES-R is launched in late 2016 and the ABI IR data become available.

  7. Do clouds save the great barrier reef? satellite imagery elucidates the cloud-SST relationship at the local scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah M Leahy

    Full Text Available Evidence of global climate change and rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs is now well documented in the scientific literature. With corals already living close to their thermal maxima, increases in SSTs are of great concern for the survival of coral reefs. Cloud feedback processes may have the potential to constrain SSTs, serving to enforce an "ocean thermostat" and promoting the survival of coral reefs. In this study, it was hypothesized that cloud cover can affect summer SSTs in the tropics. Detailed direct and lagged relationships between cloud cover and SST across the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR shelf were investigated using data from satellite imagery and in situ temperature and light loggers during two relatively hot summers (2005 and 2006 and two relatively cool summers (2007 and 2008. Across all study summers and shelf positions, SSTs exhibited distinct drops during periods of high cloud cover, and conversely, SST increases during periods of low cloud cover, with a three-day temporal lag between a change in cloud cover and a subsequent change in SST. Cloud cover alone was responsible for up to 32.1% of the variation in SSTs three days later. The relationship was strongest in both El Niño (2005 and La Niña (2008 study summers and at the inner-shelf position in those summers. SST effects on subsequent cloud cover were weaker and more variable among study summers, with rising SSTs explaining up to 21.6% of the increase in cloud cover three days later. This work quantifies the often observed cloud cooling effect on coral reefs. It highlights the importance of incorporating local-scale processes into bleaching forecasting models, and encourages the use of remote sensing imagery to value-add to coral bleaching field studies and to more accurately predict risks to coral reefs.

  8. The Pacific SST response to volcanic eruptions over the past millennium based on the CESM-LME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, W.; Zuo, M.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of the northern hemispheric, tropical and southern hemispheric volcanic eruptions on the Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and its mechanism are investigated using the Community Earth System Model Last Millennium Ensemble. Analysis of the simulations indicates that the Pacific SST features a significant El Niño-like pattern a few months after the northern hemispheric and tropical eruptions, and with a weaker such tendency after the southern hemispheric eruptions. Furthermore, the Niño3 index peaks lagging one and a half years after the northern hemispheric and tropical eruptions. Two years after all three types of volcanic eruptions, a La Niña-like pattern over the equatorial Pacific is observed, which seems to form an El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. In addition, the westerly anomalies at 850 hPa over the western-to-central Pacific appear ahead of the warm SST; hence, the El Niño-like warming over the eastern Pacific can be attributed to the weakening of the trade winds. We further examined the causes of westerly anomalies and find that a shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) can explain the El Niño-like response to the northern hemispheric eruptions, which is not applicable for tropical or southern hemispheric eruptions. Instead, the reduction in the zonal equatorial SST gradient through the ocean dynamical thermostat mechanism, combined with the land-sea thermal contrast between the Maritime Continent (MC) and the surrounding ocean and the divergent wind induced by the decreased precipitation over the MC, can trigger the westerly anomalies over the equatorial Pacific, which is applicable for all three types of eruptions.

  9. Sea surface temperature 1871-2099 in 38 cells in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Charles; Rioja-Nieto, Rodolfo

    2005-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) data with monthly resolution are provided for 38 cells in the Caribbean Sea and Bahamas region, plus Bermuda. These series are derived from the HadISST1 data set for historical time (1871-1999) and from the HadCM3 coupled climate model for predicted SST (1950-2099). Statistical scaling of the forecast data sets are performed to produce confluent SST series according to a now established method. These SST series are available for download. High water temperatures in 1998 killed enormous amounts of corals in tropical seas, though in the Caribbean region the effects at that time appeared less marked than in the Indo-Pacific. However, SSTs are rising in accordance with world-wide trends and it has been predicted that temperature will become increasingly important in this region in the near future. Patterns of SST rise within the Caribbean region are shown, and the importance of sub-regional patterns within this biologically highly interconnected area are noted.

  10. A DAB Converter with Common-Point-Connected Winding Transformers Suitable for a Single-Phase 5-Level SST System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeok-Jin Yun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main disadvantages of the multi-level solid-state transformer (SST system is the voltage imbalance on the output of the rectifier modules. This voltage imbalance can be caused by parameter mismatch of the active and passive components, different loads, and the floating structure of the high voltage DC-links. Some studies have been done to solve this voltage imbalance problem. A common way to avoid this imbalance is to balance the voltage of DC-links at the AC/DC conversion stage and balance the power between the modules at the DC/DC conversion stage. Most of these methods require a complex balancing controller or additional circuits. This paper proposes a novel dual active bridge (DAB converter specialized in power balancing in a single-phase 5-level SST system. The proposed DAB converter does not require any additional balancing controllers or techniques for power balancing. The performance of the proposed DAB converter was verified by simulation and experiments using a 3 kW 5-level SST prototype system.

  11. Decadal climate predictability in the southern Indian Ocean captured by SINTEX-F using a simple SST-nudging scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Yushi; Doi, Takeshi; Behera, Swadhin K

    2018-01-26

    Decadal climate variability in the southern Indian Ocean has great influences on southern African climate through modulation of atmospheric circulation. Although many efforts have been made to understanding physical mechanisms, predictability of the decadal climate variability, in particular, the internally generated variability independent from external atmospheric forcing, remains poorly understood. This study investigates predictability of the decadal climate variability in the southern Indian Ocean using a coupled general circulation model, called SINTEX-F. The ensemble members of the decadal reforecast experiments were initialized with a simple sea surface temperature (SST) nudging scheme. The observed positive and negative peaks during late 1990s and late 2000s are well reproduced in the reforecast experiments initiated from 1994 and 1999, respectively. The experiments initiated from 1994 successfully capture warm SST and high sea level pressure anomalies propagating from the South Atlantic to the southern Indian Ocean. Also, the other experiments initiated from 1999 skillfully predict phase change from a positive to negative peak. These results suggest that the SST-nudging initialization has the essence to capture the predictability of the internally generated decadal climate variability in the southern Indian Ocean.

  12. Comparison of two Centennial-scale Sea Surface Temperature Datasets in the Regional Climate Change Studies of the China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingyuan, Wang; Yanan, Wang; Yiwei, Liu

    2017-08-01

    Two widely used sea surface temperature (SST) datasets are compared in this article. We examine characteristics in the climate variability of SST in the China Seas.Two series yielded almost the same warming trend for 1890-2013 (0.7-0.8°C/100 years). However, HadISST1 series shows much stronger warming trends during 1961-2013 and 1981-2013 than that of COBE SST2 series. The disagreement between data sets was marked after 1981. For the hiatus period 1998-2013, the cooling trends of HadISST1 series is much lower than that of COBE SST2. These differences between the two datasets are possibly caused by the different observations which are incorporated to fill with data-sparse regions since 1982. Those findings illustrate that there are some uncertainties in the estimate of SST warming patterns in certain regions. The results also indicate that the temporal and spatial deficiency of observed data is still the biggest handicap for analyzing multi-scale SST characteristics in regional area.

  13. Preliminary investigation into the impacts of assimilating SST and SLA on the surface velocities in a HYCOM of the Agulhas Current

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rapeti, T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Data assimilative ocean models play crucial roles in furthering the understanding, and providing forecasts of the Agulhas Current system. This study investigates the impact that assimilating sea surface temperatures (SST) combined with sea level...

  14. [99mTc]Demotate 2 in the detection of sst2-positive tumours: a preclinical comparison with [111In]DOTA-tate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold A.; Cordopatis, Paul; Bernard, Bert F.; Breeman, Wout A.P.; Gameren, Arthur van; Berg, Ria van den; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de; Reubi, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate [ 99m Tc]Demotate 2 ([ 99m Tc-N 4 0-1 ,Asp 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate) as a candidate for in vivo imaging of sst 2 -positive tumours and to compare it with [ 111 In]DOTA-tate ([ 111 In-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate). Labelling of Demotate 2 with 99m Tc was performed at room temperature using SnCl 2 as reductant in the presence of citrate at alkaline pH. Radiochemical analysis involved ITLC and HPLC methods. Peptide conjugate affinities for sst 2 were determined by receptor autoradiography on rat brain cortex sections using [DOTA 0 , 125 I-Tyr 3 ]octreotate as the radioligand. The affinity profile of Demotate 2 for human sst 1 -sst 5 was studied by receptor autoradiography in cell preparations using the universal somatostatin radioligand [ 125 I][Leu 8 ,(D)Trp 22 ,Tyr 25 ]somatostatin-28. The internalisation rates of [ 99m Tc]Demotate 2 and [ 111 In]DOTA-tate were compared in sst 2 -positive and -negative control cell lines. Biodistribution of radiopeptides was studied in male Lewis rats bearing CA20948 tumours. Peptide conjugates showed selectivity and a high affinity binding for sst 2 (Demotate 2 IC 50 =3.2 nM and DOTA-tate IC 50 =5.4 nM). [ 99m Tc]Demotate 2, like [ 111 In]DOTA-tate, internalised rapidly in all sst 2 -positive cells tested, but not in sst 2 -negative control cells. After injection in CA20948 tumour-bearing rats both radiopeptides showed high and specific uptake in the sst 2 -positive organs and in the implanted tumour and rapid excretion from non-target tissues via the kidneys. [ 99m Tc]Demotate 2, similarly to the known sst 2 -targeting agent [ 111 In]DOTA-tate, showed promising biological qualities for application in the scintigraphy of sst 2 -positive tumours. (orig.)

  15. A simple in-vessel/FW component viewing system for SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Prosenjit; Biswas, Prabal; Vasava, Kirit R.; Jaiswal, Snehal; Parekh, Tejas; Chauhan, Pradeep; Patel, Hiteshkumar; Pradhan, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    A simple compact system is being proposed for in-situ visual inspection of around 3800 First Wall (FW) graphite (armour) tiles in the vacuum vessel of SST-1 tokamak. The 2 DOF, manual driven system (permanently stationed inside vacuum vessel behind outer passive stabilizer) at top and bottom mid-plane locations consist of a rack and pinion mechanism operating a arm with a CCD camera/LED mounted on it, moving over a cam profile to cover approximately 1/8 th of the toroidal span of the vacuum vessel both at interior top/bottom locations with in the FW modules. The camera and LED light should withstand the ultrahigh vacuum conditions, prolonged baking temperatures of around 200°C along with high electromagnetic forces inside the vessel. This system can be operated remotely in-between shots from outside the VV through a linear motion feed through providing linear moment to a rack and pinion mechanism connected to the arm. This mechanism provides a better viewing of the inside FW components and vessel wall surface of tokamak with simple engineering and operational effort. Any information can be acquired from system regarding damages to FWC due to interaction with plasma as well as damage of other support structures inside VV. In comparison to more complicated and complex inspection system used in other tokamaks, this mechanism can be used for frequent in vessel visual inspection, which limits the system to be small, simple, occupying less space and custom made. This system is cheap with a minimum time for realization of the concept. The paper will present the conceptual and engineering design aspect of the in-viewing system, CAD images, its advantages and limitations, camera and LED details, data acquisition and the present status of realization of the project. (author)

  16. Process control plan for Single Shell Tank (SST) Saltcake Dissolution Proof of Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESTEY, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the process controls for the tank 241-U-107 (U-107) saltcake dissolution proof-of-concept operations. Saltcake dissolution is defined as a method by which water-soluble salts will be retrieved from the Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks utilizing dissolution as the mobilizing mechanism. The proof-of-concept operations will monitor the retrieval process and transfer at least 100 kgal of fluid from tank U-107 to the double-shell tank (DST) system during the performance period. Tank U-107 has been identified as posing the highest long-term risk to the Columbia River of all single shell tanks (SSTs). This is because of the high content of mobile, long-lived radionuclides mostly in the saltcake waste in the tank. To meet current contractual and consent decree commitments, tank U-107 is being prepared for interim stabilization in August 2001. It is currently scheduled for saltcake retrieval in 2023, near the end of the SST retrieval campaign because of a lack of infrastructure in U-Farm. The proof-of-concept test will install a system to dissolve and retrieve a portion of the saltcake as part of, and operating in parallel with, the standard interim stabilization system to be installed on tank U-107. This proof-of-concept should provide key information on spray nozzle selection and effective spray patterns, leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) and in-tank saltcake solubility data that will help in the design of a full-tank retrieval demonstration system

  17. Organic and TRU screening for 200 West Area SST interim stabilization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estey, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This SD documents the preliminary work performed during the effort to better understand the magnitude and nature of transuranic (TRU) and/or complexed wastes contained in the 200 West Area single shell tank (SSTs). This preliminary work identified which of the SST interstitial liquids in question had adequate characterizations and performed a limited compatibility assessment based upon those characterizations. This allowed a determination of the TRU activity in the liquid and the waste type which describes the liquid. The waste type, complexed or non-complexed, was determined by a calculated total organic carbon (TOC) concentration when the waste containing the measured TOC value is evaporated to the composition of double-shell slurry feed (DSSF). DSSF was defined as the concentration at which aluminum bearing solids begin to precipitate (the sodium aluminate boundary), or when the OH concentration reached 8.0 as determined by the PREDICT evaporator simulation program. Two sets of results are presented. The first set identified only those tanks with adequate characterization data, and listed the remaining tanks as unknowns. These results have the higher level of confidence. The second result set used engineering judgement to estimate applicable characterization data where none existed. This allowed a tentative classification to be made for all but one of the tanks considered unknowns from the first result set. These results may have utility if decisions must be made in the absence additional, improved waste characterizations. This information was used in developing the follow-on laboratory testing to more precisely defined the magnitude and specifics of the compatibility problems

  18. Ultra high vacuum compatible microwave beam launcher for ECRH in SST - 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, B.K.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Biswas, P.; Pragnesh, D.; Bora, D.

    2005-01-01

    Microwave beam launcher for Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system is used to focus the microwave beam at plasma center of SST -1. The beam launcher consists of an ultra high vacuum (UHV) compatible mirror box with two mirrors mounted in it. One mirror is focusing mirror while other one is a plane mirror. The total volume of the launcher is ∼ 60000 cc and the total surface area exposed to UHV is around ∼ 1.0x10 4 cm 2 . The mirrors are cooled with water for high power and long pulse operation. UHV compatible SS hoses provide flexible cooling connection to the mirrors. Flexible cooling connection helps in adjustment and steering of the mirrors. SS hoses are welded at both the ends and this is necessary to avoid any flange connection inside ultra high vacuum. The system has been tested for UHV compatibility. The leak rate is checked with helium leak detector and found better than l x 10 -9 mbar.lt/s. The system has been baked to 150 deg C for ∼14 hours and the ultimate vacuum achieved with turbomolecular pump (TMP) is ∼ 5x10 -9 mbar. The mirror assembly is tested for leak in pressurized condition using a sniffer probe. The mirrors of the launcher along with the welded bellow are pressurized with helium gas up to a water equivalent pressure of ∼3kg/cm 2 . No increase in the background (∼-10 -6 mbar.lt/s) of the sniffer probes has been observed during the test. The plane mirror is connected with two UHV linear motion feedthroughs with suitable hinges and smooth movement is checked in vacuum. (author)

  19. Design and implementation of data acquisition system for magnets of SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, K., E-mail: pushpuk@ipr.res.in; Pradhan, S.; Masand, H.; Khristi, Y.; Dhongde, J.; Sharma, A.; Parghi, B.; Varmora, P.; Prasad, U.; Patel, D.

    2014-05-15

    The magnet system of the Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak-1 at the Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, India, consists of sixteen toroidal field and nine poloidal field. Superconducting coils together with a pair of resistive PF coils, an air core ohmic transformer and a pair of vertical field coils. These magnets are instrumented with various cryogenic compatible sensors and voltage taps for its monitoring, operation, protection, and control during different machine operational scenarios like cryogenic cool down, current charging cycles including ramp up, flat top, plasma breakdown, dumping/ramp down and warm up. The data acquisition system for these magnet instrumentation have stringent requirement regarding operational flexibility, reliability for continuous long term operation and data visualization during operations. A VME hardware based data acquisition system with ethernet based remote system architecture is implemented for data acquisition and control of the complete magnet operation. Software application is developed in three parts namely an embedded VME target, a network server and a remote client applications. A target board application implemented with real time operating system takes care of hardware configuration and raw data transmission to server application. A java server application manages several activities mainly multiple client communication over ethernet, database interface and data storage. A java based platform independent desktop client application is developed for online and offline data visualization, remote hard ware configuration and many other user interface tasks. The application has two modes of operation to cater to different needs of cool-down and charging operations. This paper describes application architecture, installation and commissioning and operational experience from the recent campaigns of SST-1.

  20. Constraining the models' response of tropical low clouds to SST forcings using CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, G.; Del Genio, A. D.; Ackerman, A. S.; Brient, F.; Fridlind, A. M.; Kelley, M.; Elsaesser, G.

    2017-12-01

    Low-cloud response to a warmer climate is still pointed out as being the largest source of uncertainty in the last generation of climate models. To date there is no consensus among the models on whether the tropical low cloudiness would increase or decrease in a warmer climate. In addition, it has been shown that - depending on their climate sensitivity - the models either predict deeper or shallower low clouds. Recently, several relationships between inter-model characteristics of the present-day climate and future climate changes have been highlighted. These so-called emergent constraints aim to target relevant model improvements and to constrain models' projections based on current climate observations. Here we propose to use - for the first time - 10 years of CALIPSO cloud statistics to assess the ability of the models to represent the vertical structure of tropical low clouds for abnormally warm SST. We use a simulator approach to compare observations and simulations and focus on the low-layered clouds (i.e. z fraction. Vertically, the clouds deepen namely by decreasing the cloud fraction in the lowest levels and increasing it around the top of the boundary-layer. This feature is coincident with an increase of the high-level cloud fraction (z > 6.5km). Although the models' spread is large, the multi-model mean captures the observed variations but with a smaller amplitude. We then employ the GISS model to investigate how changes in cloud parameterizations affect the response of low clouds to warmer SSTs on the one hand; and how they affect the variations of the model's cloud profiles with respect to environmental parameters on the other hand. Finally, we use CALIPSO observations to constrain the model by determining i) what set of parameters allows reproducing the observed relationships and ii) what are the consequences on the cloud feedbacks. These results point toward process-oriented constraints of low-cloud responses to surface warming and environmental

  1. ESA STSE Project “Sea Surface Temperature Diurnal Variability: Regional Extend – Implications in Atmospheric Modelling”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    of the vertical extend of diurnal signals. Drifting buoys provide measurements close to the surface but are not always available. Moored buoys are generally not able to resolve the daily SST signal, which strongly weakens with depth within the upper water column. For such reasons, the General Ocean Turbulence......, atmospheric and oceanic modelling, bio-chemical processes and oceanic CO2 studies. The diurnal variability of SST, driven by the coincident occurrence of low enough wind and solar heating, is currently not properly understood. Atmospheric, oceanic and climate models are currently not adequately resolving...... the daily SST variability, resulting in biases of the total heat budget estimates and therefore, demised model accuracies. The ESA STSE funded project SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M. aimed at characterising the regional extend of diurnal SST signals and their impact in atmospheric modelling. This study will briefly...

  2. GHRSST Level 2P Regional 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-19 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  3. Mean-state SST Response to global warming caused by the ENSO Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, T.; Hartmann, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of the models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) exhibit El Niño-like trends under global warming. GFDL-ESM2M, however, is an exception that exhibits a La Niña-like response with strengthened trade winds. Our previous studies have shown that this La Niña-like trend could be a physically consistent warming response, and we proposed the Nonlinear ENSO Warming Suppression (NEWS) mechanism to explain this La Niña-like response to global warming. The most important necessary condition of NEWS is the ENSO skewness (El Niños are stronger than La Niñas). Most CMIP5 models do not reproduce the observed ENSO skewness, while GFDL-ESM2M exhibits the realistic ENSO skewness, which suggests that, despite being in the minority, the La Niña-like trend of GFDL-ESM2M could be a plausible equatorial Pacific response to warming. In this study, we introduce another interesting outlier, MIROC5, which reproduces the observed skewness, yet exhibits an El Niño-like response. By decomposing the source of the ENSO nonlinearity into the following three components: "SST anomalies modulate winds", "winds excite oceanic waves", and "oceanic waves modulate the subsurface temperature", we show that the large inter-model spread of the third component appears to explain the most important cause of the poor reproducibility of the ENSO nonlinearity in CMIP5 models. It is concluded that the change in the response of subsurface temperature to oceanic waves is the primary explanation for the different warming response of GFDL-ESM2M and MIROC5. Our analyses suggest that the difference of the warming response are caused by difference in the climatological thermal stratification. This study may shed new light on the fundamental question of why observed ENSO has a strong skewness and on the implications of this skewed ENSO for the mean-state sea surface temperature response to global warming.

  4. Extracting Leading Nonlinear Modes of Changing Climate From Global SST Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, D.; Gavrilov, A.; Loskutov, E. M.; Feigin, A. M.; Kurths, J.

    2017-12-01

    Data-driven modeling of climate requires adequate principal variables extracted from observed high-dimensional data. For constructing such variables it is needed to find spatial-temporal patterns explaining a substantial part of the variability and comprising all dynamically related time series from the data. The difficulties of this task rise from the nonlinearity and non-stationarity of the climate dynamical system. The nonlinearity leads to insufficiency of linear methods of data decomposition for separating different processes entangled in the observed time series. On the other hand, various forcings, both anthropogenic and natural, make the dynamics non-stationary, and we should be able to describe the response of the system to such forcings in order to separate the modes explaining the internal variability. The method we present is aimed to overcome both these problems. The method is based on the Nonlinear Dynamical Mode (NDM) decomposition [1,2], but takes into account external forcing signals. An each mode depends on hidden, unknown a priori, time series which, together with external forcing time series, are mapped onto data space. Finding both the hidden signals and the mapping allows us to study the evolution of the modes' structure in changing external conditions and to compare the roles of the internal variability and forcing in the observed behavior. The method is used for extracting of the principal modes of SST variability on inter-annual and multidecadal time scales accounting the external forcings such as CO2, variations of the solar activity and volcanic activity. The structure of the revealed teleconnection patterns as well as their forecast under different CO2 emission scenarios are discussed.[1] Mukhin, D., Gavrilov, A., Feigin, A., Loskutov, E., & Kurths, J. (2015). Principal nonlinear dynamical modes of climate variability. Scientific Reports, 5, 15510. [2] Gavrilov, A., Mukhin, D., Loskutov, E., Volodin, E., Feigin, A., & Kurths, J. (2016

  5. Intraseasonal SST-precipitation coupling during the Indian Summer Monsoon, and its modulation by the Indian Ocean Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongaramrungruang, S.; Seo, H.; Ummenhofer, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) plays a crucial role in shaping the large proportion of the total precipitation over the Indian subcontinent each year. The ISM rainfall exhibits a particularly strong intraseasonal variability, that has profound socioeconomic consequences, such as agricultural planning and flood preparation. However, our understanding of the variability on this time scale is still limited due to sparse data availability in the past. In this study, we used a combination of state-of-the-art high-resolution satellite estimate of rainfall, objectively analyzed surface flux, as well as atmospheric reanalysis product to investigate the nature of the ISM intraseasonal rainfall variability and how it varies year to year. The emphasis is placed on the Bay of Bengal (BoB) where the intraseasonal ocean-atmosphere coupling is most prominent. Results show that the maximum warming of SST leads the onset of heavy precipitation event by 3-5 days, and that surface heat flux and surface wind speed are weak prior to the rain but amplifies and peaks after the rain reaches its maximum. Furthermore, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) significantly affects the observed intraseasonal SST-precipitation relationship. The pre-convection SST warming is stronger and more pronounced during the negative phase of the IOD, while the signal is weaker and less organized in the positive phase. This is explained by the column-integrated moisture budget analysis which reveals that, during the ISM heavy rainfall in the BoB, there is more moisture interchange in the form of enhanced vertical advection from the ocean to atmosphere in negative IOD years as compared to positive IOD years. Knowing the distinction of ISM variabilities during opposite phases of the IOD will help contribute to a more reliable prediction of ISM activities.

  6. LakeSST: Lake Skin Surface Temperature in French inland water bodies for 1999-2016 from Landsat archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Jordi; Reynaud, Nathalie; Rebière, Delphine; Peroux, Tiphaine; Tormos, Thierry; Danis, Pierre-Alain

    2018-04-01

    The spatial and temporal coverage of the Landsat satellite imagery make it an ideal resource for the monitoring of water temperature over large territories at a moderate spatial and temporal scale at a low cost. We used Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 archive images to create the Lake Skin Surface Temperature (LakeSST) data set, which contains skin water surface temperature data for 442 French water bodies (natural lakes, reservoirs, ponds, gravel pit lakes and quarry lakes) for the period 1999-2016. We assessed the quality of the satellite temperature measurements by comparing them to in situ measurements and taking into account the cool skin and warm layer effects. To estimate these effects and to investigate the theoretical differences between the freshwater and seawater cases, we adapted the COARE 3.0 algorithm to the freshwater environment. We also estimated the warm layer effect using in situ data. At the reservoir of Bimont, the estimated cool skin effect was about -0.3 and -0.6 °C most of time, while the warm layer effect at 0.55 m was negligible on average, but could occasionally attain several degrees, and a cool layer was often observed in the night. The overall RMSE of the satellite-derived temperature measurements was about 1.2 °C, similar to other applications of satellite images to estimate freshwater surface temperatures. The LakeSST data can be used for studies on the temporal evolution of lake water temperature and for geographical studies of temperature patterns. The LakeSST data are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1193745" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1193745.

  7. Characterization and distribution of GHRH, PACAP, TRH, SST and IGF1 mRNAs in the green iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Urban-Sosa, Valeria; Carranza, Martha; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The somatotropic axis (SA) regulates numerous aspects of vertebrate physiology such as development, growth, and metabolism and has influence on several tissues including neural, immune, reproductive and gastric tract. Growth hormone (GH) is a key component of SA, it is synthesized and released mainly by pituitary somatotrophs, although now it is known that virtually all tissues can express GH, which, in addition to its well-described endocrine roles, also has autocrine/paracrine/intracrine actions. In the pituitary, GH expression is regulated by several hypothalamic neuropeptides including GHRH, PACAP, TRH and SST. GH, in turn, regulates IGF1 synthesis in several target tissues, adding complexity to the system since GH effects can be exerted either directly or mediated by IGF1. In reptiles, little is known about the SA components and their functional interactions. The aim of this work was to characterize the mRNAs of the principal SA components in the green iguana and to develop the tools that allow the study of the structural and functional evolution of this system in reptiles. By employing RT-PCR and RACE, the cDNAs encoding for GHRH, PACAP, TRH, SST and IGF1 were amplified and sequenced. Results showed that these cDNAs coded for the corresponding protein precursors of 154, 170, 243, 113, and 131 amino acids, respectively. Of these, GHRH, PACAP, SST and IGF1 precursors exhibited a high structural conservation with respect to its counterparts in other vertebrates. On the other hand, iguana's TRH precursor showed 7 functional copies of mature TRH (pyr-QHP-NH 2 ), as compared to 4 and 6 copies of TRH in avian and mammalian proTRH sequences, respectively. It was found that in addition to its primary production site (brain for GHRH, PACAP, TRH and SST, and liver for IGF1), they were also expressed in other peripheral tissues, i.e. testes and ovaries expressed all the studied mRNAs, whereas TRH and IGF1 mRNAs were observed ubiquitously in all tissues considered. These

  8. Influences of two types of El Niño event on the Northwest Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean SST anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Wu, Qigang; Wu, Zepeng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the HadISST1 and NCEP datasets, we investigated the influences of the central Pacific El Niño event (CP-EL) and eastern Pacific El Niño event (EP-EL) on the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies of the Tropical Indian Ocean. Considering the remote effect of Indian Ocean warming, we also discussed the anticyclone anomalies over the Northwest Pacific, which is very important for the South China precipitation and East Asian climate. Results show that during the El Niño developing year of EP-EL, cold SST anomalies appear and intensify in the east of tropical Indian Ocean. At the end of that autumn, all the cold SST anomaly events lead to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events. Basin uniform warm SST anomalies exist in the Indian Ocean in the whole summer of EL decaying year for both CP-and EP-ELs. However, considering the statistical significance, more significant warm SST anomalies only appear in the North Indian Ocean among the June and August of EP-EL decaying year. For further research, EP-EL accompany with Indian Ocean Basin Warming (EPI-EL) and CP El Niño accompany with Indian Ocean Basin Warming (CPI-EL) events are classified. With the remote effects of Indian Ocean SST anomalies, the EPI-and CPI-ELs contribute quite differently to the Northwest Pacific. For the EPI-EL developing year, large-scale warm SST anomalies arise in the North Indian Ocean in May, and persist to the autumn of the El Niño decaying year. However, for the CPI-EL, weak warm SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean maintain to the El Niño decaying spring. Because of these different SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean, distinct zonal SST gradient, atmospheric anticyclone and precipitation anomalies emerge over the Northwest Pacific in the El Niño decaying years. Specifically, the large-scale North Indian Ocean warm SST anomalies during the EPI-EL decaying years, can persist to summer and force anomalous updrafts and rainfall over the North Indian Ocean. The atmospheric

  9. Investigation of the UK37' vs. SST relationship for Atlantic Ocean suspended particulate alkenones: An alternative regression model and discussion of possible sampling bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jessica; Kienast, Markus; Dowd, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Alkenone unsaturation, expressed as the UK37' index, is closely related to growth temperature of prymnesiophytes, thus providing a reliable proxy to infer past sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here we address two lingering uncertainties related to this SST proxy. First, calibration models developed for core-top sediments and those developed for surface suspended particulates organic material (SPOM) show systematic offsets, raising concerns regarding the transfer of the primary signal into the sedimentary record. Second, questions remain regarding changes in slope of the UK37' vs. growth temperature relationship at the temperature extremes. Based on (re)analysis of 31 new and 394 previously published SPOM UK37' data from the Atlantic Ocean, a new regression model to relate UK37' to SST is introduced; the Richards curve (Richards, 1959). This non-linear regression model provides a robust calibration of the UK37' vs. SST relationship for Atlantic SPOM samples and uniquely accounts for both the fact that the UK37' index is a proportion, and so must lie between 0 and 1, as well as for the observed reduction in slope at the warm and cold ends of the temperature range. As with prior fits of SPOM UK37' vs. SST, the Richards model is offset from traditional regression models of sedimentary UK37' vs. SST. We posit that (some of) this offset can be attributed to the seasonally and depth biased sampling of SPOM material.

  10. Coral bleaching pathways under the control of regional temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, C. E.; Lenton, A.; Heron, S. F.; Evenhuis, C.; Sen Gupta, A.; Brown, J. N.; Kuchinke, M.

    2017-11-01

    Increasing sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are predicted to adversely impact coral populations worldwide through increasing thermal bleaching events. Future bleaching is unlikely to be spatially uniform. Therefore, understanding what determines regional differences will be critical for adaptation management. Here, using a cumulative heat stress metric, we show that characteristics of regional SST determine the future bleaching risk patterns. Incorporating observed information on SST variability, in assessing future bleaching risk, provides novel options for management strategies. As a consequence, the known biases in climate model variability and the uncertainties in regional warming rate across climate models are less detrimental than previously thought. We also show that the thresholds used to indicate reef viability can strongly influence a decision on what constitutes a potential refugia. Observing and understanding the drivers of regional variability, and the viability limits of coral reefs, is therefore critical for making meaningful projections of coral bleaching risk.

  11. Dynamical diagnostics of the SST annual cycle in the eastern equatorial Pacific: part I a linear coupled framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2018-03-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific has a pronounced westward propagating SST annual cycle resulting from ocean-atmosphere interactions with equatorial semiannual solar forcing and off-equatorial annual solar forcing conveyed to the equator. In this two-part paper, a simple linear coupled framework is proposed to quantify the internal dynamics and external forcing for a better understanding of the linear part of the dynamics annual cycle. It is shown that an essential internal dynamical factor is the SST damping rate which measures the coupled stability in a similar way as the Bjerknes instability index for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. It comprises three major negative terms (dynamic damping due to the Ekman pumping feedback, mean circulation advection, and thermodynamic feedback) and two positive terms (thermocline feedback and zonal advection). Another dynamical factor is the westward-propagation speed that is mainly determined by the thermodynamic feedback, the Ekman pumping feedback, and the mean circulation. The external forcing is measured by the annual and semiannual forcing factors. These linear internal and external factors, which can be estimated from data, determine the amplitude of the annual cycle.

  12. Conceptual & Engineering Design of Plug-in Cryostat Cylinder for Super-Conducting Central Solenoid of SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Prabal; Santra, Prosenjit; Vasava, Kirit; Jayswal, Snehal; Parekh, Tejas; Chauhan, Pradeep; Patel, Hitesh; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    SST-1, country’s first indigenously built steady state super-conducting tokamak is planned to be equipped with an Nb3Sn based superconducting central solenoid, which will replace the existing copper conductor TR1 coil for the purpose of Ohmic breakdown. This central solenoid (CS) of four layers with each layer having 144 turns with an OD of 573 mm, ID of 423 mm length of 2483 mm will be housed inside a high vacuum, CRYO compatible plug-in cryostat thin shell having formed from SS 304L plate duly rolled and welded to form cylinder along with necessary accessories like LN2 bubble panel, current lead chamber, coil and cylinder support structure etc. This paper will present the design drivers, material selection, advantages and constraints of the plug-in cryostat concept, sub-systems of plug-in cryostat, its conceptual and engineering design, CAD models, finite element analysis using ANSYS, safety issues and diagnostics, on-going works about fabrication, quality assurance/control and assembly/integration aspects with in the existing SST-1 machine bore.

  13. Using Discrete Event Simulation for Programming Model Exploration at Extreme-Scale: Macroscale Components for the Structural Simulation Toolkit (SST).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Jeremiah J [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kenny, Joseph P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Discrete event simulation provides a powerful mechanism for designing and testing new extreme- scale programming models for high-performance computing. Rather than debug, run, and wait for results on an actual system, design can first iterate through a simulator. This is particularly useful when test beds cannot be used, i.e. to explore hardware or scales that do not yet exist or are inaccessible. Here we detail the macroscale components of the structural simulation toolkit (SST). Instead of depending on trace replay or state machines, the simulator is architected to execute real code on real software stacks. Our particular user-space threading framework allows massive scales to be simulated even on small clusters. The link between the discrete event core and the threading framework allows interesting performance metrics like call graphs to be collected from a simulated run. Performance analysis via simulation can thus become an important phase in extreme-scale programming model and runtime system design via the SST macroscale components.

  14. Evaluation of NASA GEOS-ADAS Modeled Diurnal Warming Through Comparisons to SEVIRI and AMSR2 SST Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentemann, C. L.; Akella, S.

    2018-02-01

    An analysis of the ocean skin Sea Surface Temperature (SST) has been included in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) - Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (ADAS), Version 5 (GEOS-ADAS). This analysis is based on the GEOS atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) that simulates near-surface diurnal warming and cool skin effects. Analysis for the skin SST is performed along with the atmospheric state, including Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite radiance observations as part of the data assimilation system. One month (September, 2015) of GEOS-ADAS SSTs were compared to collocated satellite Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) SSTs to examine how the GEOS-ADAS diurnal warming compares to the satellite measured warming. The spatial distribution of warming compares well to the satellite observed distributions. Specific diurnal events are analyzed to examine variability within a single day. The dependence of diurnal warming on wind speed, time of day, and daily average insolation is also examined. Overall the magnitude of GEOS-ADAS warming is similar to the warming inferred from satellite retrievals, but several weaknesses in the GEOS-AGCM simulated diurnal warming are identified and directly related back to specific features in the formulation of the diurnal warming model.

  15. Tropical cyclone cooling combats region-wide coral bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Adam D; Puotinen, Marji

    2014-05-01

    Coral bleaching has become more frequent and widespread as a result of rising sea surface temperature (SST). During a regional scale SST anomaly, reef exposure to thermal stress is patchy in part due to physical factors that reduce SST to provide thermal refuge. Tropical cyclones (TCs - hurricanes, typhoons) can induce temperature drops at spatial scales comparable to that of the SST anomaly itself. Such cyclone cooling can mitigate bleaching across broad areas when well-timed and appropriately located, yet the spatial and temporal prevalence of this phenomenon has not been quantified. Here, satellite SST and historical TC data are used to reconstruct cool wakes (n=46) across the Caribbean during two active TC seasons (2005 and 2010) where high thermal stress was widespread. Upon comparison of these datasets with thermal stress data from Coral Reef Watch and published accounts of bleaching, it is evident that TC cooling reduced thermal stress at a region-wide scale. The results show that during a mass bleaching event, TC cooling reduced thermal stress below critical levels to potentially mitigate bleaching at some reefs, and interrupted natural warming cycles to slow the build-up of thermal stress at others. Furthermore, reconstructed TC wave damage zones suggest that it was rare for more reef area to be damaged by waves than was cooled (only 12% of TCs). Extending the time series back to 1985 (n = 314), we estimate that for the recent period of enhanced TC activity (1995-2010), the annual probability that cooling and thermal stress co-occur is as high as 31% at some reefs. Quantifying such probabilities across the other tropical regions where both coral reefs and TCs exist is vital for improving our understanding of how reef exposure to rising SSTs may vary, and contributes to a basis for targeting reef conservation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Research on climatic factors of ecology suitability regionalization of atractylodis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhe-tian; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Shou-dong; Yan, Yu-ping; Guo, Lan-ping; Zheng, Yu-guang

    2015-11-01

    Through study on the correlation between atractylodis lactones ingredient content and climatic factors, we research regionalization from climatic of five main producing provinces of the country, in order to provide a scientific basis for atractylodis' conscious cultivation. By sampling from 40 origins which from five main producing provinces of the country, we use SPSS to analysis variation of atractylodis lactones ingredient content in different conditions of climatic factors and the effect of each factors. Then according to the relationship between atractylodis lactones ingredient content and climatic factors, we use ArcGIS to conduct ecological suitability regionalization based on climatic factors. The most suitable climatic condition for cultivation of atractylodis: the wettest month precipitation 220-230 mm, the warmest average temperature 25 degrees C, the average temperature of driest season 10 degrees C.

  17. Evaluation of Enhanced High Resolution MODIS/AMSR-E SSTs and the Impact on Regional Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, Luke D.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Case, Jonathan L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been generating a 1-km sea surface temperature (SST) composite derived from retrievals of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for use in operational diagnostics and regional model initialization. With the assumption that the day-to-day variation in the SST is nominal, individual MODIS passes aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Terra satellites are used to create and update four composite SST products each day at 0400, 0700, 1600, and 1900 UTC, valid over the western Atlantic and Caribbean waters. A six month study from February to August 2007 over the marine areas surrounding southern Florida was conducted to compare the use of the MODIS SST composite versus the Real-Time Global SST analysis to initialize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Substantial changes in the forecast heat fluxes were seen at times in the marine boundary layer, but relatively little overall improvement was measured in the sensible weather elements. The limited improvement in the WRF model forecasts could be attributed to the diurnal changes in SST seen in the MODIS SST composites but not accounted for by the model. Furthermore, cloud contamination caused extended periods when individual passes of MODIS were unable to update the SSTs, leading to substantial SST latency and a cool bias during the early summer months. In order to alleviate the latency problems, the SPoRT Center recently enhanced its MODIS SST composite by incorporating information from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) instruments as well as the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis. These enhancements substantially decreased the latency due to cloud cover and improved the bias and correlation of the composites at available marine point observations. While these enhancements improved upon the modeled cold bias using the original MODIS SSTs

  18. Separating the Effects of Tropical Atlantic and Pacific SST-driven Climate Variability on Amazon Carbon Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, J.; Keppel-Aleks, G.

    2016-12-01

    Amazon forests store an estimated 25% percent of global terrestrial carbon per year1, 2, but the responses of Amazon carbon uptake to climate change is highly uncertain. One source of this uncertainty is tropical sea surface temperature variability driven by teleconnections. El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a key driver of year-to-year Amazon carbon exchange, with associated temperature and precipitation changes favoring net carbon storage in La Nina years, and net carbon release during El Nino years3. To determine how Amazon climate and terrestrial carbon fluxes react to ENSO alone and in concert with other SST-driven teleconnections such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), we force the atmosphere (CAM5) and land (CLM4) components of the CESM(BGC) with prescribed monthly SSTs over the period 1950—2014 in a Historical control simulation. We then run an experiment (PAC) with time-varying SSTs applied only to the tropical equatorial Pacific Ocean, and repeating SST seasonal cycle climatologies elsewhere. Limiting SST variability to the equatorial Pacific indicates that other processes enhance ENSO-driven Amazon climate anomalies. Compared to the Historical control simulation, warming, drying and terrestrial carbon loss over the Amazon during El Nino periods are lower in the PAC simulation, especially prior to 1990 during the cool phase of the AMO. Cooling, moistening, and net carbon uptake during La Nina periods are also reduced in the PAC simulation, but differences are greater after 1990 during the warm phase of the AMO. By quantifying the relationships among climate drivers and carbon fluxes in the Historical and PAC simulations, we both assess the sensitivity of these relationships to the magnitude of ENSO forcing and quantify how other teleconnections affect ENSO-driven Amazon climate feedbacks. We expect that these results will help us improve hypotheses for how Atlantic and Pacific climate trends will affect future Amazon carbon carbon

  19. Timeslice experiments for understanding regional climate projections: applications to the tropical hydrological cycle and European winter circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Robin; Douville, Hervé; Skinner, Christopher B.

    2017-11-01

    A set of atmosphere-only timeslice experiments are described, designed to examine the processes that cause regional climate change and inter-model uncertainty in coupled climate model responses to CO_2 forcing. The timeslice experiments are able to reproduce the pattern of regional climate change in the coupled models, and are applied here to two cases where inter-model uncertainty in future projections is large: the tropical hydrological cycle, and European winter circulation. In tropical forest regions, the plant physiological effect is the largest cause of hydrological cycle change in the two models that represent this process. This suggests that the CMIP5 ensemble mean may be underestimating the magnitude of water cycle change in these regions, due to the inclusion of models without the plant effect. SST pattern change is the dominant cause of precipitation and circulation change over the tropical oceans, and also appears to contribute to inter-model uncertainty in precipitation change over tropical land regions. Over Europe and the North Atlantic, uniform SST increases drive a poleward shift of the storm-track. However this does not consistently translate into an overall polewards storm-track shift, due to large circulation responses to SST pattern change, which varies across the models. Coupled model SST biases influence regional rainfall projections in regions such as the Maritime Continent, and so projections in these regions should be treated with caution.

  20. The role of the SST-thermocline relationship in Indian Ocean Dipole skewness and its response to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju; Walsh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    A positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tends to have stronger cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the eastern Indian Ocean with greater impacts than warm SSTAs that occur during its negative phase. Two feedbacks have been suggested as the cause of positive IOD skewness, a positive Bjerknes feedback and a negative SST-cloud-radiation (SCR) feedback, but their relative importance is debated. Using inter-model statistics, we show that the most important process for IOD skewness is an asymmetry in the thermocline feedback, whereby SSTAs respond to thermocline depth anomalies more strongly during the positive phase than negative phase. This asymmetric thermocline feedback drives IOD skewness despite positive IODs receiving greater damping from the SCR feedback. In response to global warming, although the thermocline feedback strengthens, its asymmetry between positive and negative IODs weakens. This behaviour change explains the reduction in IOD skewness that many models display under global warming. PMID:25112717

  1. A numerical study of linear and nonlinear kinematic models in fish swimming with the DSD/SST method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang-Bao

    2015-03-01

    Flow over two fish (modeled by two flexible plates) in tandem arrangement is investigated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically with the DSD/SST method to understand the differences between the geometrically linear and nonlinear models. In the simulation, the motions of the plates are reconstructed from a vertically flowing soap film tunnel experiment with linear and nonlinear kinematic models. Based on the simulations, the drag, lift, power consumption, vorticity and pressure fields are discussed in detail. It is found that the linear and nonlinear models are able to reasonably predict the forces and power consumption of a single plate in flow. Moreover, if multiple plates are considered, these two models yield totally different results, which implies that the nonlinear model should be used. The results presented in this work provide a guideline for future studies in fish swimming.

  2. A decade of cost-reduction in very large telescopes - The SST as prototype of special-purpose telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1989-10-01

    Many design and technical innovations over the past ten or fifteen years have reduced the costs of very large telescopes by nearly an order of magnitude over those of classical designs. Still a further order of magnitude reduction is possible if the telescope is specialized for on-axis spectroscopy, giving up especially the luxuries of wide field, multiple focal positions, and access to all the sky at will. The SST (Spectroscopic Survey Telescope) will use eighty-five 1-m circular mirrors mounted in a steel frame composed of hundreds of interlocking tetrahedrons, keeping a fixed elevation angle of 60 deg with rotation only in azimuth. Using an optical fiber it will feed as much light to spectrographs as can be done by a conventional 8-m telescope, yet has a target basic completion cost of only $6 million.

  3. Using SST and land cover data from EO Missions for improved mesoscale modelling of the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Lea, Guillaume

    was to evaluate the uncertainty of the modelled wind in the coastal zone and further improve it. Moreover LIDAR measurements were used to evaluate the wind speed retrieval from high resolution SAR systems (Sentinel-1 and TerraSAR-X). The WRF model used a high-resolution satellite SST reanalysis product from...... be implemented in the meso-scale model to better represent the actual conditions in the study area. Such improvements are expected to strengthen the model’s ability to represent land- sea and air-sea interactions, the atmospheric stability and the local topographic features that partly affect the coastal zone......Existing wind measurements in near-shore and offshore areas are sparse and scarce, therefore simulations from state-of-the-art meso-scale models are used for wind resource predictions. In coastal and near-shore areas, models are inaccurate and uncertain, mainly because of numerical approximations...

  4. Adopted Methodology for Cool-Down of SST-1 Superconducting Magnet System: Operational Experience with the Helium Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, A. K.; Sarkar, B.; Panchal, P.; Tank, J.; Bhattacharya, R.; Panchal, R.; Tanna, V. L.; Patel, R.; Shukla, P.; Patel, J. C.; Singh, M.; Sonara, D.; Sharma, R.; Duggar, R.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2008-03-01

    The 1.3 kW at 4.5 K helium refrigerator / liquefier (HRL) was commissioned during the year 2003. The HRL was operated with its different modes as per the functional requirements of the experiments. The superconducting magnets system (SCMS) of SST-1 was successfully cooled down to 4.5 K. The actual loads were different from the originally predicted boundary conditions and an adjustment in the thermodynamic balance of the refrigerator was necessary. This led to enhanced capacity, which was achieved without any additional hardware. The required control system for the HRL was tuned to achieve the stable thermodynamic balance, while keeping the turbines' operating parameters at optimized conditions. An extra mass flow rate requirement was met by exploiting the margin available with the compressor station. The methodology adopted to modify the capacity of the HRL, the safety precautions and experience of SCMS cool down to 4.5 K, are discussed.

  5. Development of the optical system for the SST-1M telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Ostrowski, Michael; Błocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; Curyło, M.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Favre, Y.; Frankowski, A.; Grudnik, Ł.; Grudzińska, M.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Lyard, E.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Marszałek, A.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Pueschel, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Schioppa, E. jr; Schovanek, P.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Sowiński, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wiȩcek, M.; Zagdański, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Żychowski, P.; Barciński, T.; Karczewski, M.; Kukliński, J. Nicolau; Płatos, Ł.; Rataj, M.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.

    2016-01-01

    The prototype of a Davies-Cotton small size telescope (SST-1M) has been designed and developed by a consortium of Polish and Swiss institutions and proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory. The main purpose of the optical system is to focus the Cherenkov light emitted by extensive air showers in the atmosphere onto the focal plane detectors. The main component of the system is a dish consisting of 18 hexagonal mirrors with a total effective collection area of 6.47 m2 (including the shadowing and estimated mirror reflectivity). Such a solution was chosen taking into account the analysis of the Cherenkov light propagation and based on optical simulations. The proper curvature and stability of the dish is ensured by the mirror alignment system and the isostatic interface to the telescope structure. Here we present the design of the optical subsystem together with the performance measurements of its components.

  6. Role of the upper ocean structure in the response of ENSO-like SST variability to global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Sang-Wook [Hanyang University, Department of Environmental Marine Science, Ansan (Korea); Dewitte, Boris [Laboratoire d' Etude en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Yim, Bo Young; Noh, Yign [Yonsei University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Global Environmental Laboratory, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    The response of El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like variability to global warming varies comparatively between the two different climate system models, i.e., the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Coupled General Circulation Models (CGCMs). Here, we examine the role of the simulated upper ocean temperature structure in the different sensitivities of the simulated ENSO variability in the models based on the different level of CO{sub 2} concentrations. In the MRI model, the sea surface temperature (SST) undergoes a rather drastic modification, namely a tendency toward a permanent El Nino-like state. This is associated with an enhanced stratification which results in greater ENSO amplitude for the MRI model. On the other hand, the ENSO simulated by GFDL model is hardly modified although the mean temperature in the near surface layer increases. In order to understand the associated mechanisms we carry out a vertical mode decomposition of the mean equatorial stratification and a simplified heat balance analysis using an intermediate tropical Pacific model tuned from the CGCM outputs. It is found that in the MRI model the increased stratification is associated with an enhancement of the zonal advective feedback and the non-linear advection. In the GFDL model, on the other hand, the thermocline variability and associated anomalous vertical advection are reduced in the eastern equatorial Pacific under global warming, which erodes the thermocline feedback and explains why the ENSO amplitude is reduced in a warmer climate in this model. It is suggested that change in stratification associated with global warming impacts the equatorial wave dynamics in a way that enhances the second baroclinic mode over the gravest one, which leads to the change in feedback processes in the CGCMs. Our results illustrate that the upper ocean vertical structure simulated in the CGCMs is a key parameter of the sensitivity of ENSO

  7. Coherent response of the Indo-African boreal summer monsoon to Pacific SST captured in Ethiopian rain δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, M.; Palliyil, L. R.; Ramesh, R.

    2017-12-01

    Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) plays an important role in the inter-annual to inter-decadal variability of boreal monsoons. We identified a common mode of inter annual variability in the Indian and African boreal summer monsoon (June to September) rainfalls, which is linked to Pacific SSTs, using Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. Temporal coefficients (Principle component: PC1) of the leading mode of variability (EOF-1) is well correlated with the Indian summer monsoon rainfall and Sahel rainfall. About forty year long monthly observations of δ18O (and δD) at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia show a strong association with PC1 (r=0.69 for δ18O and r=0.75 for δD). Analysis of SST, sea level pressure and lower tropospheric winds suggest that 18O depletion in Ethiopian rainfall (and wet phases of PC1) is associated with cooler eastern tropical Pacific and warmer western Pacific and strengthening of Pacific subtropical high in both the hemispheres. Associated changes in the trade winds cause enhanced westerly moisture transport into the Indian subcontinent and northern Africa and cause enhanced rainfall. The intrusion of Atlantic westerly component of moisture transport at Addis Ababa during wet phases of PC1 is clearly recorded in δ18O of rain. We also observe the same common mode of variability (EOF1) of Indo-African boreal summer monsoon rain on decadal time scales. A 100 year long δ18O record of actively growing speleothem from the Mechara cave, Ethiopia, matches very well with the PC1 on the decadal time scale. This highlights the potential of speleothem δ18O and leaf wax δD from Ethiopia to investigate the natural variability and teleconnections of Indo-African boreal monsoon.

  8. Connection of the stratospheric QBO with global atmospheric general circulation and tropical SST. Part II: interdecadal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen [Climate Prediction Center (Room 605), NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Huang, Bohua; Kinter, James L. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); George Mason University, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences, College of Science, Fairfax, VA (United States); Wu, Zhaohua [Florida State University, Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Science, and Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Kumar, Arun [Climate Prediction Center (Room 605), NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The interdecadal variation of the association of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) with tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies (SSTA) and with the general circulation in the troposphere and lower stratosphere is examined using the ERA40 and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, as well as other observation-based analyses. It is found that the relationship between the QBO and tropical SSTA changed once around 1978-1980, and again in 1993-1995. During 1966-1974, negative correlation between the QBO and NINO3.4 indices reached its maximum when the NINO3.4 index lagged the QBO by less than 6 months. Correspondingly, the positive correlations were observed when the NINO3.4 index led the QBO by about 11-13 months or lagged by about 12-18 months. However, maximum negative correlations were shifted from the NINO3.4 index lagging the QBO by about 0-6 months during 1966-1974 to about 3-12 months during 1985-1992. During 1975-1979, both the negative and positive correlations were relatively small and the QBO and ENSO were practically unrelated to each other. The phase-based QBO life cycle composites also confirm that, on average, there are two phase (6-7 months) delay in the evolution of the QBO-associated anomalous Walker circulation, tropical SST, atmospheric stability, and troposphere and lower stratosphere temperature anomalies during 1980-1994 in comparison with those in 1957-1978. The interdecadal variation of the association between the QBO and the troposphere variability may be largely due to the characteristic change of El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The irregularity of the QBO may play a secondary role in the interdecadal variation of the association. (orig.)

  9. Recent run-time experience and investigation of impurities in turbines circuit of Helium plant of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the key sub-systems of Steady State superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is cryogenic 1.3 kW at 4.5 K Helium refrigerator/liquefier system. The helium plant consists of 3 nos. of screw compressors, oil removal system, purifier and cold-box with 3 turbo expanders (turbines) and helium cold circulator. During the recent SST-1 plasma campaigns, we observed high pressure drop of the order of 3 bar between the wheel outlet of turbine A and the wheel inlet of turbine - B. This was significant higher values of pressures drop across turbines, which reduced the speed of turbine A and B and in turn reduced the overall plant capacity. The helium circuits in the plant have 10-micron filter at the mouth of turbine - B. Initially, major suspects of such high blockage are assumed to be air-impurity, dust particles or collapse of filter. Several breaks in plant operation have been taken to warm up the turbines circuits up to 90 K to remove condensation of air-impurities at filter. Still this exercise did not solve blockage of filter in turbine circuits. A detailed investigation exercise with air/water regeneration and rinsing of cold box as well as purification of helium gas in buffer tanks are carried out to remove air impurities from cold-box. A trial run of cold box was executed in liquefier mode with turbines up to cryogenic temperatures and solved blockage in turbine circuits. The paper describes run-time experience of helium plant with helium impurity in turbine circuits, methods to remove impurity, demonstration of turbine performance and lessons learnt during this operation. (author)

  10. An objective algorithm for reconstructing the three-dimensional ocean temperature field based on Argo profiles and SST data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaojie; Ding, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Jungang; Ma, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    While global oceanic surface information with large-scale, real-time, high-resolution data is collected by satellite remote sensing instrumentation, three-dimensional (3D) observations are usually obtained from in situ measurements, but with minimal coverage and spatial resolution. To meet the needs of 3D ocean investigations, we have developed a new algorithm to reconstruct the 3D ocean temperature field based on the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) profiles and sea surface temperature (SST) data. The Argo temperature profiles are first optimally fitted to generate a series of temperature functions of depth, with the vertical temperature structure represented continuously. By calculating the derivatives of the fitted functions, the calculation of the vertical temperature gradient of the Argo profiles at an arbitrary depth is accomplished. A gridded 3D temperature gradient field is then found by applying inverse distance weighting interpolation in the horizontal direction. Combined with the processed SST, the 3D temperature field reconstruction is realized below the surface using the gridded temperature gradient. Finally, to confirm the effectiveness of the algorithm, an experiment in the Pacific Ocean south of Japan is conducted, for which a 3D temperature field is generated. Compared with other similar gridded products, the reconstructed 3D temperature field derived by the proposed algorithm achieves satisfactory accuracy, with correlation coefficients of 0.99 obtained, including a higher spatial resolution (0.25° × 0.25°), resulting in the capture of smaller-scale characteristics. Finally, both the accuracy and the superiority of the algorithm are validated.

  11. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, F.; Tacchini, A.; Leto, G.; Martinetti, E.; Bruno, P.; Bellassai, G.; Conforti, V.; Gallozzi, S.; Mastropietro, M.; Tanci, C.; Malaguti, G.; Trifoglio, M.

    2016-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) represents the next generation of ground-based observatories for very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. The CTA will consist of two arrays at two different sites, one in the northern and one in the southern hemisphere. The current CTA design foresees, in the southern site, the installation of many tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes of three different classes, namely large, medium and small, so defined in relation to their mirror area; the northern hemisphere array would consist of few tens of the two larger telescope types. The Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) is developing the Cherenkov Small Size Telescope ASTRI SST- 2M end-to-end prototype telescope within the framework of the International Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project. The ASTRI prototype has been installed at the INAF observing station located in Serra La Nave on Mt. Etna, Italy. Furthermore a mini-array, composed of nine of ASTRI telescopes, has been proposed to be installed at the Southern CTA site. Among the several different infrastructures belonging the ASTRI project, the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment is dedicated to operations of computing and data storage, as well as the control of the entire telescope, and it is designed to achieve the maximum efficiency for all performance requirements. Thus a complete and stand-alone computer centre has been designed and implemented. The goal is to obtain optimal ICT equipment, with an adequate level of redundancy, that might be scaled up for the ASTRI mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. In this contribution we present the ICT equipment currently installed at the Serra La Nave observing station where the ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be operated. The computer centre and the control room are described with particular emphasis on the Local Area Network scheme, the computing and data storage system, and the

  12. Modelled and Observed Diurnal SST Signals: "SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M." Project Preliminary Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob; LeBorgne, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This study presents some of the preliminary results from the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). During this phase of the proj......This study presents some of the preliminary results from the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). During this phase...

  13. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  14. Association between premonsoonal SST anomaly field in the eastern Arabian Sea and subsequent monsoon rainfall over the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; RameshBabu, V.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sarma, M.S.S.

    -September) summer monsoon rainfall over the central west coast of India. Premonsoonal warm SST anomaly seems to be mainly the result of higher atmospheric subsidence over the ocean and may not be considered as predictor for a good ensuing monsoon, emphasizing...

  15. Multi-scale impacts of the Pacific SST and PDO on the summer precipitation of North-Central China from 1870 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shuoben; Qu, Ying; Bi, Shengjie; Wu, Weiting; Jiang, Tingting

    2018-05-01

    Climate variability has become a hot topic worldwide in recent years. Although large numbers of climate data series have been reconstructed based on hundreds to thousands, or even tens of thousands, of years, our understanding of this problem is still controversial. We use the precipitation index (PI) series to study the periodicity of the precipitation in northern China from 1870 to 2002 and explore the climate variability on a large timescale. The analysis shows that the precipitation has periods of 2.27-3.03, 7.14, 10.00, 11.11, 12.50, 14.29, 16.67, 20.00, and 25.00 a. Based on complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD), the Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and Pacific interdecadal oscillation (PDO) are decomposed into different frequencies. The results show that the SST and PDO have interannual to interdecadal periodicity. To determine the impact of the Pacific SST and PDO on the PI, we make use of the cross wavelet power spectrum and wavelet coherency spectrum to analyze their period relation and reveal their periodic change characteristics; it is found that different bands of the Pacific SST, PDO, and PI have high power.

  16. Design and Investigation of SST/nc-Si:H/M (M = Ag, Au, Ni and M/nc-Si:H/M Multifunctional Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Qasrawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenated nanocrystalline Silicon thin films prepared by the very high frequency chemical vapor deposition technique (VHF-CVD on stainless steel (SST substrates are used to design Schottky point contact barriers for the purpose of solar energy conversion and passive electronic component applications. In this process, the contact performance between SST and M (M = Ag, Au, and Ni and between Ag, Au, and Ni electrodes was characterized by means of current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and light intensity dependence of short circuit ( current and open circuit voltage ( of the contacts. Particularly, the devices ideality factors, barrier heights were evaluated by the Schottky method and compared to the Cheung's. Best Schottky device performance with lowest ideality factor suitable for electronic applications was observed in the SST/nc-Si:H/Ag structure. This device reflects a of 229 mV with an of 1.6 mA/cm2 under an illumination intensity of ~40 klux. On the other hand, the highest being 9.0 mA/cm2 and the of 53.1 mV were observed for Ni/nc-Si:H/Au structure. As these voltages represent the maximum biasing voltage for some of the designed devices, the SST/nc-Si:H/M and M/nc-Si:H/M can be regarded as multifunctional self-energy that provided electronic devices suitable for active or passive applications.

  17. Data Assimilation of the High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Obtained from the Aqua-Terra Satellites (MODIS-SST Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Waseda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop an assimilation method of high horizontal resolution sea surface temperature data, provided from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-SST sensors boarded on the Aqua and Terra satellites operated by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, focusing on the reproducibility of the Kuroshio front variations south of Japan in February 2010. Major concerns associated with the development are (1 negative temperature bias due to the cloud effects, and (2 the representation of error covariance for detection of highly variable phenomena. We treat them by utilizing an advanced data assimilation method allowing use of spatiotemporally varying error covariance: the Local Ensemble Transformation Kalman Filter (LETKF. It is found that the quality control, by comparing the model forecast variable with the MODIS-SST data, is useful to remove the negative temperature bias and results in the mean negative bias within −0.4 °C. The additional assimilation of MODIS-SST enhances spatial variability of analysis SST over 50 km to 25 km scales. The ensemble spread variance is effectively utilized for excluding the erroneous temperature data from the assimilation process.

  18. Performance Evaluation of CRW Reef-Scale and Broad-Scale SST-Based Coral Monitoring Products in Fringing Reef Systems of Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaazia S. Mohammed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST is used to monitor coral bleaching through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Coral Reef Watch (CRW Decision Support System (DSS. Since 2000, a broad-scale 50 km SST was used to monitor thermal stress for coral reefs globally. However, some discrepancies were noted when applied to small-scale fringing coral reefs. To address this, CRW created a new DSS, specifically targeted at or near reef scales. Here, we evaluated the new reef-scale (5 km resolution products using in situ temperature data and coral bleaching surveys which were also compared with the heritage broad-scale (50 km for three reefs (Buccoo Reef, Culloden and Speyside of the southern Caribbean island of Tobago. Seasonal and annual biases indicated the new 5 km SST generally represents the conditions at these reefs more accurately and more consistently than the 50 km SST. Consistency between satellite and in situ temperature data influences the performance of anomaly-based predictions of bleaching: the 5 km DHW product showed better consistency with bleaching observations than the 50 km product. These results are the first to demonstrate the improvement of the 5 km products over the 50 km predecessors and support their use in monitoring thermal stress of reefs in the southern Caribbean.

  19. The role of the intra-daily SST variability in the Indian monsoon variability and monsoon-ENSO-IOD relationships in a global coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terray, Pascal; Kamala, Kakitha; Masson, Sebastien; Madec, Gurvan [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, CNRS/IRD/UPMC/MNHN, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sahai, A.K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India); Luo, Jing-Jia; Yamagata, Toshio [RIGC, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    The impact of diurnal SST coupling and vertical oceanic resolution on the simulation of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and its relationships with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events are studied through the analysis of four integrations of a high resolution Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), but with different configurations. The only differences between the four integrations are the frequency of coupling between the ocean and atmosphere for the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) parameter (2 vs. 24 h coupling) and/or the vertical oceanic resolution (31 vs. 301 levels) in the CGCM. Although the summer mean tropical climate is reasonably well captured with all the configurations of the CGCM and is not significantly modified by changing the frequency of SST coupling from once to twelve per day, the ISM-ENSO teleconnections are rather poorly simulated in the two simulations in which SST is exchanged only once per day, independently of the vertical oceanic resolution used in the CGCM. Surprisingly, when 2 h SST coupling is implemented in the CGCM, the ISM-ENSO teleconnection is better simulated, particularly, the complex lead-lag relationships between the two phenomena, in which a weak ISM occurs during the developing phase of an El Nino event in the Pacific, are closely resembling the observed ones. Evidence is presented to show that these improvements are related to changes in the characteristics of the model's El Nino which has a more realistic evolution in its developing and decaying phases, a stronger amplitude and a shift to lower frequencies when a 2-hourly SST coupling strategy is implemented without any significant changes in the basic state of the CGCM. As a consequence of these improvements in ENSO variability, the lead relationships between Indo-Pacific SSTs and ISM rainfall resemble the observed patterns more closely, the ISM-ENSO teleconnection is strengthened during boreal summer and ISM rainfall power spectrum

  20. Unprecedented drought over tropical South America in 2016: significantly under-predicted by tropical SST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian, Amir; Wang, Guiling; Fomenko, Lori

    2017-07-19

    Tropical and sub-tropical South America are highly susceptible to extreme droughts. Recent events include two droughts (2005 and 2010) exceeding the 100-year return value in the Amazon and recurrent extreme droughts in the Nordeste region, with profound eco-hydrological and socioeconomic impacts. In 2015-2016, both regions were hit by another drought. Here, we show that the severity of the 2015-2016 drought ("2016 drought" hereafter) is unprecedented based on multiple precipitation products (since 1900), satellite-derived data on terrestrial water storage (since 2002) and two vegetation indices (since 2004). The ecohydrological consequences from the 2016 drought are more severe and extensive than the 2005 and 2010 droughts. Empirical relationships between rainfall and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the tropical Pacific and Atlantic are used to assess the role of tropical oceanic variability in the observed precipitation anomalies. Our results indicate that warmer-than-usual SSTs in the Tropical Pacific (including El Niño events) and Atlantic were the main drivers of extreme droughts in South America, but are unable to explain the severity of the 2016 observed rainfall deficits for a substantial portion of the Amazonia and Nordeste regions. This strongly suggests potential contribution of non-oceanic factors (e.g., land cover change and CO2-induced warming) to the 2016 drought.

  1. Role of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Ion Channel and Somatostatin sst4 Receptor in the Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Sodium Polysulfide and Dimethyl Trisulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Z. Bátai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1 non-selective ligand-gated cation channels are mostly expressed in primary sensory neurons. Polysulfides (POLYs are Janus-faced substances interacting with numerous target proteins and associated with both protective and detrimental processes. Activation of TRPA1 in sensory neurons, consequent somatostatin (SOM liberation and action on sst4 receptors have recently emerged as mediators of the antinociceptive effect of organic trisulfide dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS. In the frame of the present study, we set out to compare the participation of this mechanism in antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of inorganic sodium POLY and DMTS in carrageenan-evoked hind-paw inflammation. Inflammation of murine hind paws was induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan (3% in 30 µL saline. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with POLY (17 µmol/kg or DMTS (250 µmol/kg or their respective vehicles 30 min prior paw challenge and six times afterward every 60 min. Mechanical pain threshold and swelling of the paws were measured by dynamic plantar aesthesiometry and plethysmometry at 2, 4, and 6 h after initiation of inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in the hind paws were detected 6 h after challenge by luminescent imaging. Mice genetically lacking TRPA1 ion channels, sst4 receptors and their wild-type counterparts were used to examine the participation of these proteins in POLY and DMTS effects. POLY counteracted carrageenan-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia in a TRPA1 and sst4 receptor-dependent manner. POLY did not influence paw swelling and MPO activity. DMTS ameliorated all examined inflammatory parameters. Mitigation of mechanical hyperalgesia and paw swelling by DMTS were mediated through sst4 receptors. These effects were present in TRPA1 knockout animals, too. DMTS inhibited MPO activity with no participation of the sensory neuron–SOM axis. While antinociceptive effects of

  2. Drought and Heat Waves: The Role of SST and Land Surface Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Drought occurs on a wide range of time scales, and within a variety of different types of regional climates. At the shortest time scales it is often associated with heat waves that last only several weeks to a few months but nevertheless can have profound detrimental impacts on society (e.g., heat-related impacts on human health, desiccation of croplands, increased fire hazard), while at the longest time scales it can extend over decades and can lead to long term structural changes in many aspects of society (e.g., agriculture, water resources, wetlands, tourism, population shifts). There is now considerable evidence that sea surface temperatures (SSTs) play a leading role in the development of drought world-wide, especially at seasonal and longer time scales, though land-atmosphere feedbacks can also play an important role. At shorter (subseasonal) time scales, SSTs are less important, but land feedbacks can play a critical role in maintaining and amplifying the atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves and short-term droughts. This talk reviews our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that drive precipitation and temperature variations on subseasonal to centennial time scales. This includes an assessment of predictability, prediction skill, and user needs at all time scales.

  3. Observed Local Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Feedbacks within the Context of Remote SST Anomalies: Lessons From Recent Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, A. B.; Dirmeyer, P.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The existence and possible transition from positive to negative soil moisture-atmosphere feedbacks is explored in this presentation using collocated flux tower measurements (Ameriflux) and atmospheric profiles from reanalysis. The focus is on the series of physical processes that lead to these local feedbacks connecting remote sea surface temperature changes (SST anomalies) to local soil moisture and boundary layer responses. Seasonal and Agricultural droughts are particularly useful test beds for examining these feedback processes because they are typically characterized by prolonged stretches of rain-free days followed by some termination condition. To quantify the full process-chain across these distinct spatial scales, complimentary information from several well-established land-atmosphere coupling metrics are used including, but not limited to, Mixing Diagram approaches, Soil Moisture Memory, and the Heated Condensation Framework. Preliminary analysis shows that there may be transitions from negative and positive soil moisture-atmosphere feedbacks as droughts develop. This is largely instigated by persistent atmospheric forcing that initially promotes increased surface latent heat flux, which limits boundary layer depth and dry air entrainment. However, if stagnant synoptic conditions continue eventually soil moisture is depleted to the point of shutting off surface latent heat flux producing deep boundary layers and increased dry air entrainment thus deepening drought stress. A package of standardized Fortran 90 modules called the Coupling Metrics Toolkit (CoMeT; https://github.com/abtawfik/coupling-metrics) used to calculate these land-atmosphere coupling metrics is also briefly presented.

  4. Residual gas analysis of a cryostat vacuum chamber during the cool down of SST - 1 superconducting magnet field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, P.; Joshi, K.S.; Thankey, P.L.; Pathan, F.S.; Raval, D.C.; Patel, R.J.; Pathak, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important feature of Steady state Superconducting Tokamak -1 (SST-l) is the Nb-Ti superconducting magnet field coils. The coils will be kept in a high vacuum chamber (Cryostat) and liquid Helium will be flown through it to cool it down to its critical temperature of 4.5K. The coil along with its hydraulics has four types of joints (1) Stainless Steel (S.S.) to Copper (Cu) weld joints (2) S. S. to S. S. weld joints (3) Cu to Cu brazed joints and (4) G-10 to S. S. joints with Sti-cast as the binding material. The joints were leak tested with a Helium mass spectrometer leak detector in vacuum as well as in sniffer mode. However during the cool-down of the coil, these joints may develop leaks. This would deteriorate the vacuum inside the cryostat and coil cool-down would subsequently become more difficult. To study the effect of cooling on the vacuum condition of the Cryostat, a dummy Cryostat chamber was fabricated and a toroidal Field (TF) magnet was kept inside this chamber and cooled down to 4.5 K.A residual gas analyzer (RGA) was connected to the Cryostat chamber to study the behaviour of major gases inside this chamber with temperature. An analysis of the RGA data acquired during the coo-down has been presented in this chamber. (author)

  5. Numerical investigation of turbulent flow past a four-bladed helicopter rotor using k - ω SST model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.; Khalid, M.

    2002-01-01

    In a previous study of the laminar flow over a four-bladed helicopter rotor, abnormal Cp distributions were observed on the upper surfaces of the blades. To address this problem, the aerodynamic performance of the same rotor is investigated using the k - ω SST turbulence model, as contained in the WIND code. The rotor is configured as a Chimera moving grid in a quasi-steady flow field. The rotor rotation schedule and the blade twisting are implemented as specified in the wind tunnel testing of a RoBin generic helicopter. More realistic Cp distributions on the blade surfaces are thus obtained. The aerodynamic load distributions in the radial direction of the rotor plane are generated by integrating the pressure on each blade surfaces along the blade chordwise direction. The analyses of these load distributions in the azmuthal direction provide a critical insight into the rotor model, which is based on the actuator-disc assumption. Also, some preliminary results for the flow past a full helicopter configuration, including the rotor and the RoBin fuselage, are presented. The current paper demonstrates the Chimera grid topologies and the Chimera grid generation technique for both blade and fuselage configuration. This would provide a powerful tool to simulate flow past an entire helicopter and to study the rotor-fuselage flow interaction. (author)

  6. The extreme 2014 flood in south-western Amazon basin: the role of tropical-subtropical South Atlantic SST gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Marengo, José Antonio; Ronchail, Josyane; Carpio, Jorge Molina; Flores, Luís Noriega; Guyot, Jean Loup

    2014-01-01

    Unprecedented wet conditions are reported in the 2014 summer (December–March) in South-western Amazon, with rainfall about 100% above normal. Discharge in the Madeira River (the main southern Amazon tributary) has been 74% higher than normal (58 000 m 3 s −1 ) at Porto Velho and 380% (25 000 m 3 s −1 ) at Rurrenabaque, at the exit of the Andes in summer, while levels of the Rio Negro at Manaus were 29.47 m in June 2014, corresponding to the fifth highest record during the 113 years record of the Rio Negro. While previous floods in Amazonia have been related to La Niña and/or warmer than normal tropical South Atlantic, the 2014 rainfall and flood anomalies are associated with warm condition in the western Pacific-Indian Ocean and with an exceptionally warm Subtropical South Atlantic. Our results suggest that the tropical and subtropical South Atlantic SST gradient is a main driver for moisture transport from the Atlantic toward south-western Amazon, and this became exceptionally intense during summer of 2014. (letter)

  7. Commissioning and Operational Experience with 1 kW Class Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier for SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhard, C. P.; Sarkar, B.; Misra, Ruchi; Sahu, A. K.; Tanna, V. L.; Tank, J.; Panchal, P.; Patel, J. C.; Phadke, G. D.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2004-06-01

    The helium refrigerator/liquefier (R/L) for the Steady State Super conducting Tokamak (SST-1) has been developed with very stringent specifications for the different operational modes. The total refrigeration capacity is 650 W at 4.5 K and liquefaction capacity of 200 l/h. A cold circulation pump is used for the forced flow cooling of 300 g/s supercritical helium (SHe) for the magnet system (SCMS). The R/L has been designed also to absorb a 200 W transient heat load of the SCMS. The plant consists of a compressor station, oil removal system, on-line purifier, Main Control Dewar (MCD) with associated heat exchangers, cold circulation pump and warm gas management system. An Integrated Flow Control and Distribution System (IFDCS) has been designed, fabricated and installed for distribution of SHe in the toroidal and poloidal field coils as well as liquid helium for cooling of 10 pairs of current leads. A SCADA based control system has been designed using PLC for R/L as well as IFDCS. The R/L has been commissioned and required parameters were achieved confirming to the process. All the test results and commissioning experiences are discussed in this paper.

  8. CFD SIMULATION OF THE HEAT TRANSFER PROCESS IN A CHEVRON PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER USING THE SST TURBULENCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Skočilas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation of the heat transfer process during turbulent hot water flow between two chevron plates in a plate heat exchanger. A three-dimensional model with the simplified geometry of two cross-corrugated channels provided by chevron plates, taking into account the inlet and outlet ports, has been designed for the numerical study. The numerical model was based on the shear-stress transport (SST k-! model. The basic characteristics of the heat exchanger, as values of heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, have been investigated. A comparative analysis of analytical calculation results, based on experimental data obtained from literature, and of the results obtained by numerical simulation, has been carried out. The coefficients and the exponents in the design equations for the considered plates have been arranged by using simulation results. The influence on the main flow parameters of the corrugation inclination angle relative to the flow direction has been taken into account. An analysis of the temperature distribution across the plates has been carried out, and it has shown the presence of zones with higher heat losses and low fluid flow intensity.

  9. Evaluation of the optical cross talk level in the SiPMs adopted in ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov Camera using EASIROC front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impiombato, D; Giarrusso, S; Mineo, T; Agnetta, G; Biondo, B; Catalano, O; Gargano, C; Rosa, G La; Russo, F; Sottile, G; Belluso, M; Billotta, S; Bonanno, G; Garozzo, S; Marano, D; Romeo, G

    2014-01-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana), is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end prototype of the Small Size of Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, will adopt a wide field dual mirror optical system in a Schwarzschild-Couder configuration to explore the VHE range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The camera at the focal plane is based on Silicon Photo-Multipliers detectors which is an innovative solution for the detection astronomical Cherenkov light. This contribution reports some preliminary results on the evaluation of the optical cross talk level among the SiPM pixels foreseen for the ASTRI SST-2M camera

  10. Intrahippocampal injection of Cortistatin-14 impairs recognition memory consolidation in mice through activation of sst2, ghrelin and GABAA/B receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinhong; Peng, Yali; He, Zhen; Wei, Lijuan; Jin, Weidong; Wang, Xiaoli; Chang, Min

    2017-07-01

    Cortistatin-14 (CST-14), a neuropeptide related to somatostatin, is primarily localized within the cortex and hippocampus. In the hippocampus, CST-14 inhibits CA1 neuronal pyramidal cell firing and co-exists with GABA. However, its role in cognitive is still not clarified. The first aim of our study was to elucidate the role of CST-14 signaling in consolidation and reconsolidation of recognition memory in mice, using novel object recognition task. The results showed that central CST-14 induced in impairment of long-term and short-term recognition memory, indicating memory consolidation impairment effect. Similarly, we found that CST-14 did not impaired long-term and short-term reconsolidation recognition memory. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of CST-14 in memory process, we used cyclosomatostatin (c-SOM, a selective sst 1-5 receptor antagonist), cyanamid154806 (a selective sst 2 receptor antagonist), ODN-8 (a high affinity and selectivity compound for sst 3 receptor), [d-Lys 3 ]GHRP-6 (a selective ghrelin receptor antagonist), picrotoxin (PTX, a GABA A receptor antagonist), and sacolfen (a GABA B receptor antagonist) to research its effects in recognition. Our results firstly indicated that the memory-impairing effects of CST-14 were significantly reversed by c-SOM, cyanamid154806, [d-Lys 3 ]GHRP-6, PTX and sacolfen, but not ODN-8, suggesting that the blockage of recognition memory consolidation induced by CST-14 involves sst 2 , ghrelin and GABA system. The present study provides a potential strategy to regulate memory processes, providing new evidence that reconsolidation is not a simple reiteration of consolidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  12. Role of the ocean mixed layer processes in the response of the North Pacific winter SST and MLD to global warming in CGCMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Bo Young; Noh, Yign [Yonsei University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Global Environmental Laboratory, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeh, Sang-Wook [Hanyang University, Department of Environmental Marine Science, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    It is investigated how the changes of winter sea surface temperature (SST) and mixed layer depth (MLD) under climate change projections are predicted differently in the North Pacific depending on the coupled general circulation models (CGCMs), and how they are related to the dynamical property of the simulated ocean mixed layer. For this purpose the dataset from eleven CGCMs reported to IPCC's AR4 are used, while detailed analysis is given to the MRI and MIROC models. Analysis of the CGCM data reveals that the increase of SST and the decrease of MLD in response to global warming tend to be smaller for the CGCM in which the ratio of ocean heat transport (OHT) to surface heat flux (SHF), R (=OHT/SHF), is larger in the heat budget of the mixed layer. The negative correlation is found between the changes of OHT and SHF under global warming, which may weaken the response to global warming in the CGCM with larger R. It is also found that the models with low horizontal resolution tend to give broader western boundary currents, larger R, and the smaller changes of SST and MLD under global warming. (orig.)

  13. On the relationship between the early spring Indian Ocean's sea surface temperature (SST) and the Tibetan Plateau atmospheric heat source in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenxu; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Cheng, Qiuming; Li, Yu; Jiang, Tingchen; San Liang, X.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of springtime Indian Ocean's sea surface temperature (SST) on the Tibetan Plateau's role as atmospheric heat source (AHS) in summer. The SST data of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature data set (HadISST) and the reanalysis data of the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for 33 years (from 1979 to 2011) were used to analyze the relationship between the Indian Ocean SST and the Tibetan Plateau's AHS in summer, using the approaches that include correlation analysis, and lead-lag analysis. Our results show that some certain strong oceanic SSTs affect the summer plateau heat, specially finding that the early spring SSTs of the Indian Ocean significantly affect the plateau's ability to serve as a heat source in summer. Moreover, the anomalous atmospheric circulation and transport of water vapor are related to the Plateau heat variation.

  14. Implementation of a Single-Phase SST for the Interface between a 13.2 kV MVAC Network and a 750 V Bipolar DC Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeok-Jin Yun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a single-phase solid-state transformer (SST for the interface between a 13.2 kV medium voltage alternative current (MVAC network and a 750 V bipolar DC distribution. The SST has ten cascaded subunits in consideration of the device rating and modulation index (MI. Each subunit consists of an AC/DC stage and a DC/DC stage with a high frequency isolated transformer (HFIT. The AC/DC stage consists of cascaded H-bridges (CHBs to cope with the MVAC. The DC/DC stage employs a triple active bridge (TAB converter for bipolar DC distribution. Topology analysis and controller design for this specific structure are discussed. In addition, the insulation of HFIT used in DC/DC converters is also discussed. A simple balancing controller at the AC/DC stage and a current sharing controller at the DC/DC stage are used to prevent DC-link voltage unbalance caused by the cascaded structure. The discussions are validated using a 150 kW single-phase 21-level SST prototype at the laboratory level.

  15. 4DVAR data Assimilation with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Impact on the Water Mass Distributions in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Ho; Kim, Taekyun; Pang, Ig-Chan; Moon, Jae-Hong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we evaluate the performance of the recently developed incremental strong constraint 4-dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation applied to the Yellow Sea (YS) using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Two assimilation experiments are compared: assimilating remote-sensed sea surface temperature (SST) and both the SST and in-situ profiles measured by shipboard CTD casts into a regional ocean modeling from January to December of 2011. By comparing the two assimilation experiments against a free-run without data assimilation, we investigate how the assimilation affects the hydrographic structures in the YS. Results indicate that the SST assimilation notably improves the model behavior at the surface when compared to the nonassimilative free-run. The SST assimilation also has an impact on the subsurface water structure in the eastern YS; however, the improvement is seasonally dependent, that is, the correction becomes more effective in winter than in summer. This is due to a strong stratification in summer that prevents the assimilation of SST from affecting the subsurface temperature. A significant improvement to the subsurface temperature is made when the in-situ profiles of temperature and salinity are assimilated, forming a tongue-shaped YS bottom cold water from the YS toward the southwestern seas of Jeju Island.

  16. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; NWHI, LAY; Long: -171.74252, Lat: 25.77290 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.33m; Data Range: 20030724-20040923.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.56228, Lat: -14.28372 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.33m; Data Range: 20060218-20080223.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.76310, Lat: -14.36667 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.19m; Data Range: 20070616-20080115.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.34327, Lat: 28.41817 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.19m; Data Range: 20080929-20090916.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.83339, Lat: -14.32838 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.19m; Data Range: 20050806-20060221.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.34322, Lat: 28.41813 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.19m; Data Range: 20090916-20100918.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoy; NWHI, LAY; Long: -171.74250, Lat: 25.77240 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.33m; Data Range: 20040924-20060910.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Buoys provide a time series of...

  3. High - Resolution SST Record Based on Mg/Ca Ratios of Late Holocene Planktonic Foraminifers From the Great Bahama Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A.; Reijmer, J. J.; Roth, S.

    2001-12-01

    We analyzed five different planktic foraminifera species in the high resolution core MD 992201 off the Great Bahama Bank (79° 16.34 W; 25° 53.49 N) in 290 m water depth. This 38.05 m long core comprises a 7,000 year long Holocene record. The selected species were Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides sacculifer, Globorotalia menardii and Globigerinella aequilateralis, which live in the upper 200 m of the water column. The Mg/Ca ratios of these different foraminifers show species-specific values, which represent a distinct habitat depth. With this species-specific Mg/Ca ratios we can reconstruct a temperature profile through the water column. The lowest Mg/Ca are shown by G. menardii (2.5 - 4 mmol/mol), followed by G. sacculifer (4.2 - 5.6 mmol/mol), G. ruber (5.1 - 7.2 mmol/mol) and G. aequilateralis (5.5 - 8.7 mmol/mol). Highest are shown by O. universa (6 - 14 mmol/mol). During the Little Ice Age, the Mg/Ca ratios of all species except for the deeper dwelling G. menardii, became more variable and showed lower ratios. The shallow dwelling species like G. ruber and G. sacculifer display an increase in the Mg/Ca ratios during the Medieval Warm Period. Our data show that transferring Mg/Ca ratios into SST based calibration curves known from literature needs re-evaluation. Species-specific calibration seems to be necessary to achieve reliable results.

  4. Latitudinal variation in the symbiotic dinoflagellateSymbiodiniumof the common reef zoantharianPalythoa tuberculosaon the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Reimer, James D.; Herrera Sarrias, Marcela; Gatins, Remy; Roberts, May B.; Parkinson, John E.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Main conclusions Multinomial logistic regression analyses established that predictions based on the combination of temperature, chlorophyll-a and salinity accurately reflected symbiont distributions in the central and northern Red Sea. Palythoa tuberculosa host Pt-1-a in the coldest region, the Gulf of Aqaba (annual average SST = 24.5–25.0 °C), while immediately to the south Pt-3-a dominates (SST = 26.0–26.5 °C), with warmest southern sites dominated by Pt-3-b (SST > 26.5 °C). The Gulf of Aqaba is a unique environment, and more research on Symbiodinium outside the Gulf is required to understand symbiont diversity patterns within the Red Sea.

  5. The atmospheric wet pool: definition and comparison with the oceanic warm pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Caiyun; CHEN Ge

    2008-01-01

    The oceanic warm pool (OWP) defined by sea surface temperature (SST) is known as the "heat reservoir" in the ocean. The warmest portion in the ocean mirrors the fact that the wettest region with the largest accumulation of water vapor (WV) in the atmosphere, termed atmospheric wet pool (AWP), should be identified because of the well-known Clausius-Clapeyron relationship between SST and WV. In this study, we used 14-year simultaneous observations of WV and SST from January 1988 to December 2001 to define the AWP and investigate its coupling and co-variations with the OWP. The joint examination of the area variations, centroid locations, and zonal migrations of the AWP and OWP lead to a number of interesting findings. The results hopefully can contribute to our understanding of the air-sea interaction in general and characterization of El Nifio/La Nina events in particular.

  6. Identification of novel candidate target genes, including EPHB3, MASP1 and SST at 3q26.2–q29 in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji Un; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kwon, Kye Chul; Park, Jong Woo; Kim, Jin Man

    2009-01-01

    The underlying genetic alterations for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) carcinogenesis are largely unknown. High-resolution array- CGH was performed to identify the differences in the patterns of genomic imbalances between SCC and AC of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). On a genome-wide profile, SCCs showed higher frequency of gains than ACs (p = 0.067). More specifically, statistically significant differences were observed across the histologic subtypes for gains at 2q14.2, 3q26.2–q29, 12p13.2–p13.33, and 19p13.3, as well as losses at 3p26.2–p26.3, 16p13.11, and 17p11.2 in SCC, and gains at 7q22.1 and losses at 15q22.2–q25.2 occurred in AC (P < 0.05). The most striking difference between SCC and AC was gains at the 3q26.2–q29, occurring in 86% (19/22) of SCCs, but in only 21% (3/14) of ACs. Many significant genes at the 3q26.2–q29 regions previously linked to a specific histology, such as EVI1,MDS1, PIK3CA and TP73L, were observed in SCC (P < 0.05). In addition, we identified the following possible target genes (> 30% of patients) at 3q26.2–q29: LOC389174 (3q26.2),KCNMB3 (3q26.32),EPHB3 (3q27.1), MASP1 and SST (3q27.3), LPP and FGF12 (3q28), and OPA1,KIAA022,LOC220729, LOC440996,LOC440997, and LOC440998 (3q29), all of which were significantly targeted in SCC (P < 0.05). Among these same genes, high-level amplifications were detected for the gene, EPHB3, at 3q27.1, and MASP1 and SST, at 3q27.3 (18, 18, and 14%, respectively). Quantitative real time PCR demonstrated array CGH detected potential candidate genes that were over expressed in SCCs. Using whole-genome array CGH, we have successfully identified significant differences and unique information of chromosomal signatures prevalent between the SCC and AC subtypes of NSCLC. The newly identified candidate target genes may prove to be highly attractive candidate molecular markers for the classification of NSCLC histologic subtypes, and could potentially contribute to the

  7. Long-term impacts of coral bleaching events on the world's warmest reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, John; Al-Harthi, Suaad; Al-Cibahy, Ashraf

    2011-10-01

    The southern Arabian Gulf houses some of the most thermally tolerant corals on earth, but severe bleaching in the late 1990s caused widespread mortality. More than a decade later, corals still dominated benthos (mean: 40 ± 3% cover on 10 sites spanning > 350 km; range: 11.0-65.6%), but coral communities varied spatially. Sites to the west generally had low species richness and coral cover (mean: 3.2 species per transect, 31% cover), with Porites dominated communities (88% of coral) that are distinct from more diverse and higher cover eastern sites (mean: 10.3 species per transect, 62% cover). These patterns reflect both the more extreme bleaching to the west in the late 1990s as well as the higher faviid dominated recruitment to the east in subsequent years. There has been limited recovery of the formerly dominant Acropora, which now represents bleaching can have substantial long-term impacts on coral communities, even in areas with corals tolerant to environmental extremes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-04

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity.

  9. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-01

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity

  10. Could the changes in regional crop yields be a pointer of climatic change?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, M; Brázdil, R; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the changes in the yield stability of winter wheat and spring barley over the past 140 years and changes in the weather–yield relationships. The study area is located in the Czech Republic in eastern Central Europe between 48°37′–49°30′N and 15°29′–17°55′E and includes 4900 km...... (i.e., compared with the yield level), it showed no change or insignificant increases in the warmest and driest regions. The study also found that the sensitivity to inter-seasonal temperature increase was much more pronounced during 1961–2007 than at the end of the 19th century and that an increase...

  11. Integration of -70kV, 22A high voltage power supply with solid state crowbar and the LHCD system of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Babu, N.; Virani, C.G.; Dalakoti, S.; Sharma, P.K.; Ambulkar, K.K.; Parmar, P.R.; Thakur, A.L.; Dhorajiya, Pragnesh

    2015-01-01

    LHCD system is a important system for the steady state operation of the SST-1 machine. Four numbers of klystrons of 3.7 GHz are used as a microwave source to produce 2 MW of microwave power. This power is launched into the machine to achieve the steady state operation of the SST-1 Machine. A -70kV, 22A high voltage power supply and a solid-state crowbar are procured and tested and validated for its performance separately. Both of the system are integrated and tested for its integrated performance for the safe and reliable test of the klystron tube. A 10J wire test is conducted for the optimum value of the series resistor. This test will validate the integrated performance of power supply, Crowbar and the interlocking circuit. This paper details the optimization of the ballast resistor from 150 ohms to 40 ohms and its successful integration with the klystron tube for its 500kW CW operation. Some operational experience is also shared

  12. On Parametric Sensitivity of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes SST Turbulence Model: 2D Hypersonic Shock-Wave Boundary Layer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Examined is sensitivity of separation extent, wall pressure and heating to variation of primary input flow parameters, such as Mach and Reynolds numbers and shock strength, for 2D and Axisymmetric Hypersonic Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer interactions obtained by Navier-Stokes methods using the SST turbulence model. Baseline parametric sensitivity response is provided in part by comparison with vetted experiments, and in part through updated correlations based on free interaction theory concepts. A recent database compilation of hypersonic 2D shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer experiments extensively used in a prior related uncertainty analysis provides the foundation for this updated correlation approach, as well as for more conventional validation. The primary CFD method for this work is DPLR, one of NASA's real-gas aerothermodynamic production RANS codes. Comparisons are also made with CFL3D, one of NASA's mature perfect-gas RANS codes. Deficiencies in predicted separation response of RANS/SST solutions to parametric variations of test conditions are summarized, along with recommendations as to future turbulence approach.

  13. Future changes in tropical cyclone activity projected by multi-physics and multi-SST ensemble experiments using the 60-km-mesh MRI-AGCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)/Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Mizuta, Ryo; Shindo, Eiki [Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Climate Research Department, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Uncertainties in projected future changes in tropical cyclone (TC) activity are investigated using future (2075-2099) ensemble projections of global warming under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B scenario. Twelve ensemble experiments are performed using three different cumulus convection schemes and four different assumptions for prescribed future sea surface temperatures (SSTs). All ensemble experiments consistently project significant reductions in global and hemispheric TC genesis numbers as well as reductions in TC frequency of occurrence (TCF) and TC genesis frequency (TGF) in the western North Pacific, South Indian Ocean, and South Pacific Ocean. TCF and TGF are projected to increase over the central Pacific which is consistent with the findings of Li et al. (2010). Inter-experimental variations of projected future changes in TGF and TC genesis number are caused mainly by differences in large-scale dynamical parameters and SST anomalies. Thermodynamic parameters are of secondary importance for variations in TGF and TC genesis number. These results imply that differences in SST spatial patterns can cause substantial variations and uncertainties in projected future changes of TGF and TC numbers at ocean-basin scales. (orig.)

  14. Relação entre as vazões médias mensais do rio Piancó e as anomalias de temperatura da superfície dos oceanos Atlântico e Pacífico tropical Relationhips between monthly mean stream flow for the Pianco river and tropical Atlantic and Pacific sst anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel F. Gomes Filho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se, neste trabalho, uma análise estatística baseada em correlações entre as temperaturas globais da superfície do mar (TSM e as descargas do Rio Piancó, no sertão da Paraíba, principal contribuinte do reservatório de Coremas, na região. Os coeficientes globais de correlação foram obtidos entre as temperaturas médias da superfície do mar, para os trimestres de novembro a janeiro e de fevereiro a abril, e as descargas do Rio Piancó no reservatório de Coremas, para cada mês de fevereiro até maio, que compreendem a estação chuvosa na bacia hidrográfica do reservatório. Os resultados mostram correlações significativas entre as TSM das regiões NINO1+2 e NINO3 no Oceano Pacífico. Na área do Atlântico não existe um padrão de correlações bem definido.This paper presents a statistical analysis based on the correlation between the Global Sea Surface Temperatures (SST and the discharge of Piancó river the principal contributor to the Coremas reservoir in the Paraíba State. The global correlation coefficients were obtained between the mean Sea Surface Temperatures (SST for the November to January and February to April trimesters and the volume of water discharged by the Piancó river in the Coremas reservoir for each of the individual months from February to May, the rainy season in the region of the reservoir. The results show the existence of a strong negative correlation between the SST's of the Nino1+2 and Nino3 regions of the Pacific Ocean. For the Atlantic area no well defined pattern of correlation was found.

  15. Do three massive coral species from the same reef record the same SST signal? A test from the Dry Tortugas, Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, K.L.; Poore, R.Z.; Reich, C.D.; Flannery, J.A.; Maupin, Christopher R.; Quinn, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Paleoclimatologists have reconstructed century-long records of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific using the Sr/Ca of massive corals, whereas similar reconstructions in the Atlantic have not proceeded at the same pace. Past research in the Florida Keys has focused on Montastrea spp., an abundant and fast-growing massive coral, thus a good candidate for climate reconstructions. However, coral records from the Florida Keys are complicated by freshwater flux, which varies the Sr/Ca in seawater, thus confounding the Sr/Ca to SST signal. In this research, we compared the monthly Sr/Ca variations in three massive corals species (Montastraea faveolata, Diploria strigosa, and Siderastrea siderea) from the same reef in the nearly pristine Dry Tortugas National Park (24.70N, 82.80W) at the southwestern extent of the Florida Keys. This location is ideal for a calibration study as hourly water temperature records are available and the remote reef is far from mainland freshwater influence. These corals experienced the same environmental conditions (water depth, clarity, Sr/Ca of seawater, etc.) but differ in the mean annual growth rates (0.86 ±0.10 (1σ) cm/year M. faveolata; 0.67 ±0.04 (1σ) cm/year D. strigosa; 0.44 ±0.04 (1σ) cm/year S. siderea). The mean Sr/Ca values are not the same but decrease with mean annual growth rates (9.201 ±0.091 (1σ) mmol/mol M. faveolata; 9.177 ±0.081 (1σ) mmol/mol D. strigosa; 8.964 ±0.12 (1σ) mmol/mol S. siderea), thus supporting the “vital effect” or biological differences during calcification between coral species. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle in Sr/Ca varies with the slower growing S. sidereahaving the largest mean amplitude and D. strigosa the smallest (0.340 mmol/mol S. siderea; 0.284 mmol/mol M. faveolata; 0.238 mmol/mol D. strigosa). We confirmed our sampling methods by conducting several intracolony and intercolony coral Sr/Ca replication tests and found a high correlation in all tests (>0.95

  16. Warming off southwestern Japan linked to distributional shifts of subtidal canopy-forming seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kouki; Taino, Seiya; Haraguchi, Hiroko; Prendergast, Gabrielle; Hiraoka, Masanori

    2012-11-01

    To assess distributional shifts of species in response to recent warming, historical distribution records are the most requisite information. The surface seawater temperature (SST) of Kochi Prefecture, southwestern Japan on the western North Pacific, has significantly risen, being warmed by the Kuroshio Current. Past distributional records of subtidal canopy-forming seaweeds (Laminariales and Fucales) exist at about 10-year intervals from the 1970s, along with detailed SST datasets at several sites along Kochi's >700 km coastline. In order to provide a clear picture of distributional shifts of coastal marine organisms in response to warming SST, we observed the present distribution of seaweeds and analyzed the SST datasets to estimate spatiotemporal SST trends in this coastal region. We present a large increase of 0.3°C/decade in the annual mean SST of this area over the past 40 years. Furthermore, a comparison of the previous and present distributions clearly showed the contraction of temperate species' distributional ranges and expansion of tropical species' distributional ranges in the seaweeds. Although the main temperate kelp Ecklonia (Laminariales) had expanded their distribution during periods of cooler SST, they subsequently declined as the SST warmed. Notably, the warmest SST of the 1997-98 El Niño Southern Oscillation event was the most likely cause of a widespread destruction of the kelp populations; no recovery was found even in the present survey at the formerly habitable sites where warm SSTs have been maintained. Temperate Sargassum spp. (Fucales) that dominated widely in the 1970s also declined in accordance with recent warming SSTs. In contrast, the tropical species, S. ilicifolium, has gradually expanded its distribution to become the most conspicuously dominant among the present observations. Thermal gradients, mainly driven by the warming Kuroshio Current, are presented as an explanation for the successive changes in both temperate and

  17. Identificação de práticas de gestão da SST em obras de construção civil

    OpenAIRE

    Engler Bridi, Marcelle; Torres Formoso, Carlos; Pellicer Armiñana, Eugenio; Fabro, Fabiana; Viguer Castelló, María Encarnación; Soares Echeveste, Marcia Elisa

    2013-01-01

    O setor da construção civil apresenta índices de acidentes de trabalho mais elevados em relação à maioria dos demais setores industriais. Melhorias nas práticas atuais de gestão da segurança e saúde no trabalho (SST) podem trazer benefícios como a preservação da vida humana e o aumento da competitividade das empresas no mercado com a redução dos custos decorrentes de acidentes, multas e embargos. Este artigo apresenta um levantamento e uma avaliação do grau de implementação das práticas de ge...

  18. Field Observations of Changes in SST, Chlorophyll and POC Flux in the Southern East China Sea Before and After the Passage of Typhoon Jangmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yen Shih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe tropical storms play an important role in triggering phytoplankton blooms, yet direct field observation of evidence of the effects of a typhoon is very rare. Sea surface temperature (SST, nitrate concentration, chlorophyll a (chl a concentration, and particulate organic carbon (POC flux were measured before and shortly after Typhoon Jangmi which affected the southern East China Sea (SECS on September 28 ~ 29, 2008. In situ SST (27.5 ~ 28.0°C on September 19 ~ 21, decreased to ~24.0°C (October 3 ~ 6 in the SECS 4 ~ 7 days after the passage of Typhoon Jangmi. In situ nitrate and chl a concentrations 7-days (on October 6 after the passage of Jangmi were 1.9 μM and 1.61 mg m-3, respectively, much higher than those (nitrate: 0.3 μM and chl a: 0.73 mg m-3 concentrations before the typhoon (September 21. The enhanced chl a concentration is thus caused by a nutrient supply via vertical mixing or upwelling in the euphotic zone. The POC flux 7-days after Jangmi¡¦s passage was 552 ± 28 mg-C m-2 d-1, a ~2.5-fold increases before the typhoon (224 ± 33 mg-C m-2 d-1, on September 21. Our results suggest that typhoons indeed can stimulate efficient POC export out of the euphotic zone, while it is still poorly understood with regard to the total effects of a typhoon on nutrient dynamics and detailed carbon sequestration due to sampling difficulty. Therefore, successional sea-going observations ought to be conducted in the affected area after the passage of typhoons.

  19. Software design and code generation for the engineering graphical user interface of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Antolini, Elisa; Gambini, Giorgio F.; Bruno, Pietro; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Conforti, Vito; Lombardi, Saverio; Russo, Federico; Sangiorgi, Pierluca; Scuderi, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    ASTRI is an on-going project developed in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). An end- to-end prototype of a dual-mirror small-size telescope (SST-2M) has been installed at the INAF observing station on Mt. Etna, Italy. The next step is the development of the ASTRI mini-array composed of nine ASTRI SST-2M telescopes proposed to be installed at the CTA southern site. The ASTRI mini-array is a collaborative and international effort carried on by Italy, Brazil and South-Africa and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. To control the ASTRI telescopes, a specific ASTRI Mini-Array Software System (MASS) was designed using a scalable and distributed architecture to monitor all the hardware devices for the telescopes. Using code generation we built automatically from the ASTRI Interface Control Documents a set of communication libraries and extensive Graphical User Interfaces that provide full access to the capabilities offered by the telescope hardware subsystems for testing and maintenance. Leveraging these generated libraries and components we then implemented a human designed, integrated, Engineering GUI for MASS to perform the verification of the whole prototype and test shared services such as the alarms, configurations, control systems, and scientific on-line outcomes. In our experience the use of code generation dramatically reduced the amount of effort in development, integration and testing of the more basic software components and resulted in a fast software release life cycle. This approach could be valuable for the whole CTA project, characterized by a large diversity of hardware components.

  20. The interdecadal change in the intensity of interannual variation of spring precipitation over southern China and its relationship with the SST anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Y.; Xu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the observed precipitation data from 756 China stations, ERA-interim reanalysis dataset, and HadISST dataset for 1979-2014, this paper investigates the intensity of interannual variation (IIV) of spring precipitation over southern China during 1979-2014 and related large-scale atmospheric and oceanic signal through empirical orthogonal function (EOF) method and other statistical analysis methods. The results show that the IIV of spring precipitation over South China (SC) was stronger during 1979-1994, which is related to the spring western Pacific (WP) sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) and the previous winter South Pacific tripole (SPT) pattern of SSTA. Anomalous cooler (warmer) WP SSTA triggers anomalous descending (ascending) motion and lower-level anticyclone (cyclone), which in turn induces anomalous ascent (descent) over SC through an anomalous vertical circulation. The SPT can influence the spring precipitation over SC by impacting WP SST. The stronger IIV of WP SST and SPT led to an intensified IIV of spring rainfall over SC. The IIV of spring precipitation over middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (YZR) was more intense during 1995-2006. The intensified interannual variability of spring rainfall over YZR is interrelated with the increase in the amplitude of the spring southern Indian Ocean dipole (SIOD) in early 1990s. During the positive (negative) SIOD, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) is stronger (weaker), which is favorable (unfavorable) for the transportation of vapor from Pacific to YZR. At the same time, the pressure ridge over Siberia and East Asian trough is weaker (stronger), enhancing (weakening) the spring precipitation over YZR.

  1. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  2. Using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS to improve the sea surface temperature predictions of the MERCATOR Ocean System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global models are generally capable of reproducing the observed trends in the globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST. However, the global models do not perform as well on regional scales. Here, we present an ocean forecast system based on the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, the boundary conditions come from the MERCATOR ocean system for the North Atlantic (1/6° horizontal resolution. The system covers the region of the northwestern Iberian Peninsula with a horizontal resolution of 1/36°, forced with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The ocean model results from the regional ocean model are validated using real-time SST and observations from the MeteoGalicia, INTECMAR and Puertos Del Estado real-time observational networks. The validation results reveal that over a one-year period the mean absolute error of the SST is less than 1°C, and several sources of measured data reveal that the errors decrease near the coast. This improvement is related to the inclusion of local forcing not present in the boundary condition model.

  3. Study of the global and regional climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude using SPEEDY AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Kucharski, Fred; Azharuddin, Syed

    2017-01-01

    ENSO is considered as a strong atmospheric teleconnection that has pronounced global and regional circulation effects. It modifies global monsoon system, especially, Asian and African monsoons. Previous studies suggest that both the frequency and magnitude of ENSO events have increased over the last few decades resulting in a need to study climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude both at global and regional scales. Hence, to better understand the impact of ENSO amplitude over the tropical and extratropical regions focussing on the Asian and African domains, ENSO sensitivity experiments are conducted using ICTPAGCM (‘SPEEDY’). It is anticipated that the tropical Pacific SST forcing will be enough to produce ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns; therefore, the model is forced using NINO3.4 regressed SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific only. SPEEDY reproduces the impact of ENSO over the Pacific, North and South America and African regions very well. However, it underestimates ENSO teleconnection patterns and associated changes over South Asia, particularly in the Indian region, which suggests that the tropical Pacific SST forcing is not sufficient to represent ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns over South Asia. Therefore, SST forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean together with air–sea coupling is also required for better representation of ENSO-induced changes in these regions. Moreover, results obtained by this pacemaker experiment show that ENSO impacts are relatively stronger over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) compared to extratropics and high latitude regions. The positive phase of ENSO causes weakening in rainfall activity over African tropical rain belt, parts of South and Southeast Asia, whereas, the La Niña phase produces more rain over these regions during the summer season. Model results further reveal that ENSO magnitude has a stronger impact over African Sahel and South Asia, especially over the Indian region because of its significant

  4. Study of the global and regional climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude using SPEEDY AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar

    2017-03-09

    ENSO is considered as a strong atmospheric teleconnection that has pronounced global and regional circulation effects. It modifies global monsoon system, especially, Asian and African monsoons. Previous studies suggest that both the frequency and magnitude of ENSO events have increased over the last few decades resulting in a need to study climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude both at global and regional scales. Hence, to better understand the impact of ENSO amplitude over the tropical and extratropical regions focussing on the Asian and African domains, ENSO sensitivity experiments are conducted using ICTPAGCM (‘SPEEDY’). It is anticipated that the tropical Pacific SST forcing will be enough to produce ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns; therefore, the model is forced using NINO3.4 regressed SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific only. SPEEDY reproduces the impact of ENSO over the Pacific, North and South America and African regions very well. However, it underestimates ENSO teleconnection patterns and associated changes over South Asia, particularly in the Indian region, which suggests that the tropical Pacific SST forcing is not sufficient to represent ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns over South Asia. Therefore, SST forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean together with air–sea coupling is also required for better representation of ENSO-induced changes in these regions. Moreover, results obtained by this pacemaker experiment show that ENSO impacts are relatively stronger over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) compared to extratropics and high latitude regions. The positive phase of ENSO causes weakening in rainfall activity over African tropical rain belt, parts of South and Southeast Asia, whereas, the La Niña phase produces more rain over these regions during the summer season. Model results further reveal that ENSO magnitude has a stronger impact over African Sahel and South Asia, especially over the Indian region because of its significant

  5. Long-range forecast of monthly rainfall over India during summer monsoon season using SST in the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    only SS T. Utilizing the rainfall data of Pa r tha - sarathy et al. 6 and SSTA data (5 ? 5 d e- gree grids) of Kaplan et al. 8 , it is found that the SSTA over the AS du r ing winter (DJF ? 1/0 year) in the region 15 ? 20 ?N; 60 ? 70 ?E... and b ). The corr e lations are almost zero du r ing April and May, which is not shown. SSTA during fall in the CEIO is strongly and positively corr e lated with the seasonal and monthly rai n fall. It is w eak during other months (Figure 1 c...

  6. Performance of Regional Climate Model in Simulating Monsoon Onset Over Indian Subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatla, R.; Mandal, B.; Verma, Shruti; Ghosh, Soumik; Mall, R. K.

    2018-06-01

    The performance of various Convective Parameterization Schemes (CPSs) of Regional Climate Model version 4.3 (RegCM-4.3) for simulation of onset phase of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) over Kerala was studied for the period of 2001-2010. The onset date and its associated spatial variation were simulated using RegCM-4.3 four core CPS, namely Kuo, Tiedtke, Emanuel and Grell; and with two mixed convection schemes Mix98 (Emanuel over land and Grell over ocean) and Mix99 (Grell over land and Emanuel over ocean) on the basis of criteria given by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) (Pai and Rajeevan in Indian summer monsoon onset: variability and prediction. National Climate Centre, India Meteorological Department, 2007). It has been found that out of six CPS, two schemes, namely Tiedtke and Mix99 simulated the onset date properly. The onset phase is characterized with several transition phases of atmosphere. Therefore, to study the thermal response or the effect of different sea surface temperature (SST), namely ERA interim (ERSST) and weekly optimal interpolation (OI_WK SST) on Indian summer monsoon, the role of two different types of SST has been used to investigate the simulated onset date. In addition, spatial atmospheric circulation pattern during onset phase were analyzed using reanalyze dataset of ERA Interim (EIN15) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), respectively, for wind and outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) pattern. Among the six convective schemes of RegCM-4.3 model, Tiedtke is in good agreement with actual onset dates and OI_WK SST forcing is better for simulating onset of ISM over Kerala.

  7. Global equatorial sea-surface temperatures over the last 150,000 years: An update from foraminiferal elemental analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.

    for the warmest waters. However, how the equatorial SST affects global climate, is still not clear. Long-term past seawater temperature records are required to understand the effect of temporal changes in equatorial SST on the global climate. Various techniques...

  8. Intraseasonal variability in the far-east pacific: investigation of the role of air-sea coupling in a regional coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, R.J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Jacobs Technology, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States); University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Center, POST 401, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Center, POST 401, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of Hawaii, Department of Meteorology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Maloney, Eric D. [Colorado State University, Department of Atmospheric Science, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Szoeke, Simon P. de [Oregon State University, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Corvallis, OR (United States); Miyama, Toru [Frontier Research for Global Change, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Intraseasonal variability in the eastern Pacific warm pool in summer is studied, using a regional ocean-atmosphere model, a linear baroclinic model (LBM), and satellite observations. The atmospheric component of the model is forced by lateral boundary conditions from reanalysis data. The aim is to quantify the importance to atmospheric deep convection of local air-sea coupling. In particular, the effect of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on surface heat fluxes is examined. Intraseasonal (20-90 day) east Pacific warm-pool zonal wind and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) variability in the regional coupled model are correlated at 0.8 and 0.6 with observations, respectively, significant at the 99% confidence level. The strength of the intraseasonal variability in the coupled model, as measured by the variance of outgoing longwave radiation, is close in magnitude to that observed, but with a maximum located about 10 further west. East Pacific warm pool intraseasonal convection and winds agree in phase with those from observations, suggesting that remote forcing at the boundaries associated with the Madden-Julian oscillation determines the phase of intraseasonal convection in the east Pacific warm pool. When the ocean model component is replaced by weekly reanalysis SST in an atmosphere-only experiment, there is a slight improvement in the location of the highest OLR variance. Further sensitivity experiments with the regional atmosphere-only model in which intraseasonal SST variability is removed indicate that convective variability has only a weak dependence on the SST variability, but a stronger dependence on the climatological mean SST distribution. A scaling analysis confirms that wind speed anomalies give a much larger contribution to the intraseasonal evaporation signal than SST anomalies, in both model and observations. A LBM is used to show that local feedbacks would serve to amplify intraseasonal convection and the large-scale circulation. Further

  9. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  10. Quantifying climate change impacts emphasises the importance of managing regional threats in the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mattern

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global issue with effects that are difficult to manage at a regional scale. Yet more often than not climate factors are just some of multiple stressors affecting species on a population level. Non-climatic factors—especially those of anthropogenic origins—may play equally important roles with regard to impacts on species and are often more feasible to address. Here we assess the influence of climate change on population trends of the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes over the last 30 years, using a Bayesian model. Sea surface temperature (SST proved to be the dominating factor influencing survival of both adult birds and fledglings. Increasing SST since the mid-1990s was accompanied by a reduction in survival rates and population decline. The population model showed that 33% of the variation in population numbers could be explained by SST alone, significantly increasing pressure on the penguin population. Consequently, the population becomes less resilient to non-climate related impacts, such as fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and human disturbance. However, the extent of the contribution of these factors to declining population trends is extremely difficult to assess principally due to the absence of quantifiable data, creating a discussion bias towards climate variables, and effectively distracting from non-climate factors that can be managed on a regional scale to ensure the viability of the population.

  11. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  12. Distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 in surface water (pCO2w) between Japan and the Hawaiian Islands: pCO2w-SST relationship in the winter and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Ishii, Masao; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Kawano, Takeshi; Murata, Akihiko; Takasugi, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of measurements of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in surface seawater (pCO 2 w) between Japan and the Hawaiian Islands in winter and summer, we examined the relationship between pCO 2 w and the sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). In winter, pCO 2 w correlated well with the SST (0.14-0.24%/deg C), suggesting a monotonous change in the carbonate system. However, in summer, five different pCO 2 w-SST relationships were found in the NPSG (including the Kuroshio Extension) due to changes in the relative contribution of ocean dynamics (upwelling, vertical mixing and advection), biological activity in the absence (very low level) of macro-nutrients and thermodynamics. The increase in pCO 2 w corresponding to a unit increase in the SST from January to July was low (<2.5%/deg C) west (leeward side) of the Hawaiian Islands (19-22 deg N, 158-168 deg W) and in the Kuroshio Extension (33-35 deg N, 140-165deg E), and high (3%/deg C) south of the Kuroshio Extension (25-30 deg N, 180-165 deg W) and the Hawaiian Islands (15-19 deg N, 157-162 deg W). This suggested that the drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon was affected by the enhanced biological activity due to upwelling events associated with eddies and/or the transport of dissolved nutrients from gyre edges to the interior

  13. An investigation of tropical Atlantic bias in a high-resolution coupled regional climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricola, Christina M.; Saravanan, R.; Hsieh, Jen-Shan [Texas A and M University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College Station, TX (United States); Li, Mingkui; Xu, Zhao [Texas A and M University, Department of Oceanography, College Station, TX (United States); Ocean University of China, Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography of Ministry of Education, Qingdao (China); Chang, Ping [Texas A and M University, Department of Oceanography, College Station, TX (United States); Ocean University of China, Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography of Ministry of Education, Qingdao (China); Second Institute of Oceanography, State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2012-11-15

    Coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) commonly fail to simulate the eastern equatorial Atlantic boreal summer cold tongue and produce a westerly equatorial trade wind bias. This tropical Atlantic bias problem is investigated with a high-resolution (27-km atmosphere represented by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, 9-km ocean represented by the Regional Ocean Modeling System) coupled regional climate model. Uncoupled atmospheric simulations test climate sensitivity to cumulus, land-surface, planetary boundary layer, microphysics, and radiation parameterizations and reveal that the radiation scheme has a pronounced impact in the tropical Atlantic. The CAM radiation simulates a dry precipitation (up to -90%) and cold land-surface temperature (up to -8 K) bias over the Amazon related to an over-representation of low-level clouds and almost basin-wide westerly trade wind bias. The Rapid Radiative Transfer Model and Goddard radiation simulates doubled Amazon and Congo Basin precipitation rates and a weak eastern Atlantic trade wind bias. Season-long high-resolution coupled regional model experiments indicate that the initiation of the warm eastern equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) bias is more sensitive to the local rather than basin-wide trade wind bias and to a wet Congo Basin instead of dry Amazon - which differs from AOGCM simulations. Comparisons between coupled and uncoupled simulations suggest a regional Bjerknes feedback confined to the eastern equatorial Atlantic amplifies the initial SST, wind, and deepened thermocline bias, while barrier layer feedbacks are relatively unimportant. The SST bias in some CRCM simulations resembles the typical AOGCM bias indicating that increasing resolution is unlikely a simple solution to this problem. (orig.)

  14. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  15. Increased SST and Frequent Occurrence of Rough Sea Events in the Bay of Bengal: Implications for livelihoods of Coastal Populace in Bangladesh (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. U.

    2010-12-01

    Bangladesh is a densely populated low-lying deltaic country, widely known to be highly vulnerable to climate change. High vulnerability is caused mainly by geophysical factors, compounded by a number of social and economic factors such as large population, high incidence of poverty and malnutrition, glaring social inequity, and poor governance. The coastal zone facing the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to hazards such as sea level rise, salinity intrusion, high wave interaction and erosion, saline water-logging, and cyclonic storm surges. The sea surface temperature (SST) in the northern Indian Ocean has recently been exhibiting a general increasing trend, with a net rise of about 0.45°C over the past four decades. This has been attributed to climate change. The warming, identified by marked increase in SST, has been causing a significant increase in the formation of ‘low pressures’ to ‘deep depressions’ in the bay. Consequently, the tidal activities on the surface have become rough and turbulent, triggering a number of problems for the livelihoods of coastal population of Bangladesh. The coastal fisherfolk communities represent poorest of the poor, who can hardly earn a livelihood from traditional fishing practices. Their prime fishing period coincides with Monsoon and post-monsoon seasons combined, when the bay becomes rough, turbulent, and unsuitable for artisanal fishing. With increasing frequency of occurrence of ‘rough sea events’, the coastal fishermen are forced to stay out of action in anticipation of complete loss of investment made for fishing trips or forced to abandon incomplete fishing trips - the latter causing heavy financial losses. As a consequence of too many incomplete fishing trips and scanty return from subsequent investments, livelihoods of coastal fisherfolk have been devastated. Coastal farmers have been maintaining their livelihoods, where the state invested for building surge protecting embankments to offer

  16. Correlation and SVD Analysis of Anomalous Spring Precipitation in Northwest China and Sea Surface Temperature in Key Region in Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the relationship between spring precipitation anomaly in Northwest China and sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in Key region in recent 50 years. [Method] Based on monthly average precipitation in Northwest China and global monthly sea surface temperature (SST) grid data, the effects of SSTA in equatorial central and eastern Pacific on spring precipitation in Northwest China were discussed by means of correlation and SVD analysis. [Result] For spring precipitation in Nor...

  17. An assessment of TropFlux and NCEP air-sea fluxes on ROMS simulations over the Bay of Bengal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Dipanjan; Sil, Sourav; Jana, Sudip; Pramanik, Saikat; Pandey, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents an assessment of the TropFlux and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis air-sea fluxes in simulating the surface and subsurface oceanic parameters over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) region during 2002-2014 using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The assessment has been made by comparing the simulated fields with in-situ and satellite observations. The simulated surface and subsurface temperatures in the TropFlux forced experiment (TropFlux-E) show better agreement with the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis (RAMA) and Argo observations than the NCEP forced experiment (NCEP-E). The BoB domain averaged sea surface temperature (SST) simulated in the NCEP-E is consistently cooler than the satellite SST, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.79 °C. Moreover, NCEP-E shows a limitation in simulating the observed seasonal cycle of the SST due to substantial underestimation of the pre-monsoon SST peak. These limitations are mostly due to the lower values of the NCEP net heat flux. The seasonal and interannual variations of SST in the TropFlux-E are better comparable to the observations with correlations and skills more than 0.80 and 0.90 respectively. However, SST is overestimated during summer monsoon periods mainly due to higher net heat flux. The superiority of TropFlux forcing over the NCEP reanalysis can also be seen when simulating the interannual variabilities of the magnitude and vertical extent of Wyrtki jets at two equatorial RAMA buoy locations. The jet is weaker in the NCEP-E relative to the TropFlux-E and observations. The simulated sea surface height anomalies (SSHA) from both the experiments are able to capture the regions of positive and negative SSHA with respect to satellite-derived altimeter data with better performance in the TropFlux-E. The speed of the westward propagating Rossby wave along 18°N in the TropFlux-E is found to be about 4.7 cm/s, which is close to

  18. Design of the 3.7 GHz, 500 kW CW circulator for the LHCD system of the SST-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Harish V., E-mail: hvdixit48@yahoo.com [Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400019 (India); Jadhav, Aviraj R. [Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400019 (India); Jain, Yogesh M. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Cheeran, Alice N. [Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400019 (India); Gupta, Vikas [Vidyavardhini' s College of Engineering and Technology, Vasai, Maharashtra 401202 (India); Sharma, P.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Design of a 500 kW CW circulator for LHCD system at 3.7 GHz. • Mechanism for thermal management of ferrite tile. • Scheme for uniform magnetisation of the ferrite tiles. • Design of high CW power CW quadrature and 180 ° hybrid coupler. - Abstract: Circulators are used in high power microwave systems to protect the vacuum source against reflection. The Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system of SST-1 tokamak commissioned at IPR, Gandhinagar in India comprises of four high power circulators to protect klystrons (supplying 500 kW CW each at 3.7 GHz) which power the system. This paper presents the design of a Differential Phase Shift Circulator (DPSC) capable of handling 500 kW CW power at 3.7 GHz so that four circulators can be used to protect the four available klystrons. As the DPSC is composed by three main components, viz., magic tee, ferrite phase shifter and 3 dB hybrid coupler, the designing of each of the proposed components is described. The design of these components is carried out factoring various multiphysics aspects of RF, heating due to high CW power and magnetic field requirement of the ferrite phase shifter. The primary objective of this paper is to present the complete RF, magnetic and thermal design of a high CW power circulator. All the simulations have been carried out in COMSOL Multiphysics. The designed circulator exhibits an insertion loss of 0.13 dB with a worst case VSWR of 1.08:1. The total length of the circulator is 3 m.

  19. Polish and European SST Assets: the Solaris-Panoptes Global Network of Robotic Telescopes and the Borowiec Satellite Laser Ranging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konacki, M.; Lejba, P.; Sybilski, P.; Pawłaszek, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Suchodolski, T.; Litwicki, M.; Kolb, U.; Burwitz, V.; Baader, J.; Groot, P.; Bloemen, S.; Ratajczak, M.; Helminiak, K.; Borek, R.; Chodosiewicz, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present the assets of the Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Space Research Center (both of the Polish Academy of Sciences), two Polish companies Sybilla Technologies, Cillium Engineering and a non-profit research foundation Baltic Institute of Technology. These assets are enhanced by telescopes belonging to The Open University (UK), the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and in the future the Radboud University. They consist of the Solaris-Panoptes global network of optical robotic telescopes and the satellite laser ranging station in Borowiec, Poland. These assets will contribute to the Polish and European Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) program. The Solaris component is composed of four autonomous observatories in the Southern Hemisphere. Solaris nodes are located at the South African Astronomical Observatory (Solaris-1 and Solaris-2), Siding Spring Observatory, Australia (Solaris-3) and Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, Argentina (Solaris-4). They are equipped with 0.5-m telescopes on ASA DDM-160 direct drive mounts, Andor iKon-L cameras and housed in 3.5-m Baader Planetarium (BP) clamshell domes. The Panoptes component is a network of telescopes operated by software from Sybilla Technologies. It currently consists of 4 telescopes at three locations, all on GM4000 mounts. One 0.36-m (Panoptes-COAST, STL- 1001E camera, 3.5 BP clamshell dome) and one 0.43-m (Panoptes-PIRATE, FLI 16803 camera, 4.5-m BP clamshell dome, with planned exchange to 0.63-m) telescope are located at the Teide Observatory (Tenerfie, Canary Islands), one 0.6-m (Panoptes-COG, SBIG STX 16803 camera, 4.5-m BP clamshell dome) telescope in Garching, Germany and one 0.5-m (Panoptes-MAM, FLI 16803 camera, 4.5-m BP slit dome) in Mammendorf, Germany. Panoptes-COAST and Panoptes-PIRATE are owned by The Open University (UK). Panoptes-COG is owned by the Max Planck Institute

  20. Análise dos índices de extremos para o semi-árido do Brasil e suas relações com TSM e IVDN Analysis of indices of extremes for the semi-arid of Brazil and its relations with SST and NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva verificar as tendências de índices de detecção de mudanças climáticas, dependentes da precipitação pluvial diária, nos estados do RN e PB e analisar suas relações com o IVDN e anomalias de TSM nas regiões de Niño 1+2, Niño 3, Atlântico Tropical Norte (ATN e Atlântico Tropical Sul (ATS. Utilizou-se dados de precipitação de 44 postos, no período de 1935 a 2000, representando todas as microrregiões dos dois Estados; de IVDN, obtidos da NOAA/AVHRR, no período de 1980 a 2000 e de anomalias de TSM, cedidos pela NOAA, de 1950 a 2000. Observou-se uma tendência de aumento das condições de umidade sobre os dois estados. O índice dias consecutivos secos apresentou correlação estatisticamente significativa com as anomalias de TSM das áreas ATN e ATS. Enquanto, os índices dias muito úmidos e quantidade máxima de chuva em cinco dias mostraram correlações significativas com as regiões dos Niño 1+2 e 3 e com a TNA. Em geral, observou-se que o IVDN da Caatinga é mais dependente dos extremos de precipitação do que os da Mata Atlântica. De acordo com os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que as mudanças climáticas detectadas pelos índices são resultantes tanto dos fatores de grande escala como de escala local. Outro resultado obtido foi influência do ENOS sobre os índices extremos de chuva e consequentemente sobre clima e a dinâmica da vegetação do Semi-árido.The objective this paper is verify the tendencies of indexes of detection of climate changes, dependent of the daily precipitation, in the states of RN and PB and to analyze your relationships with NDVI and anomalies of SST in the areas of Niño 1+2, Niño 3, North Tropical Atlantic Ocean (TNA and South Tropical Atlantic Ocean (TSA. It was used data of precipitation of 44 locations, in the period from 1935 to 2000, representing all the regions of two States; of IVDN, obtained of NOAA/AVHRR, in the period from 1980 to 2000 and of anomalies of

  1. RAF 7015: Strengthening Regional Capacities for Marine Risk Assessment Using Nuclear and Related Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuku, E.; Mwangi, S.

    2017-01-01

    To develop and implement harmonized and integrated regional sea food safety monitoring in the MS through the application of nuclear techniques for enhanced sustainability of marine resource. Rapid urbanization and industrialization are causing alterations of the characteristics of marine environment thus threatening the ecosystem health and sustainability of marine environment and Affects public health, recreational water quality and economic viability.Threats to marine ecosystem include Over-exploitation, habitat destruction, Global warming- rise in SST, HABs and invasive species, Ocean acidification and Marine pollution

  2. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  3. Local population and regional environmental drivers of cholera in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escamilla Veronica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional environmental factors have been shown to be related to cholera. Previous work in Bangladesh found that temporal patterns of cholera are positively related to satellite-derived environmental variables including ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC. Methods This paper investigates whether local socio-economic status (SES modifies the effect of regional environmental forces. The study area is Matlab, Bangladesh, an area of approximately 200,000 people with an active health and demographic surveillance system. Study data include (1 spatially-referenced demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population; (2 satellite-derived variables for sea surface temperature (SST, sea surface height (SSH, and OCC; and (3 laboratory confirmed cholera case data for the entire population. Relationships between cholera, the environmental variables, and SES are measured using generalized estimating equations with a logit link function. Additionally two separate seasonal models are built because there are two annual cholera epidemics, one pre-monsoon, and one post-monsoon. Results SES has a significant impact on cholera occurrence: the higher the SES score, the lower the occurrence of cholera. There is a significant negative association between cholera incidence and SSH during the pre-monsoon period but not for the post-monsoon period. OCC is positively associated with cholera during the pre-monsoon period but not for the post-monsoon period. SST is not related to cholera incidence. Conclusions Overall, it appears cholera is influenced by regional environmental variables during the pre-monsoon period and by local-level variables (e.g., water and sanitation during the post-monsoon period. In both pre- and post-monsoon seasons, SES significantly influences these patterns, likely because it is a proxy for poor water quality and sanitation in poorer households.

  4. Efeito da aplicação foliar de boro e zinco sobre a produção e os teores de SST e ATT dos frutos da Pereira-Japonesa e da pinheira Leaf spray fertilization of boron and zinc on production, SST and ATT in fruits of pear and sugar apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulverizações foliares com produtos contendo micronutrientes, dentre os quais os produtos quelatizados, são utilizadas com relativa freqüência em frutíferas, sem o embasamento científico adequado, principalmente entre os agricultores mais tecnificados. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da aplicação via foliar de B e Zn sobre a produção e os teores de SST e ATT dos frutos da Pereira-Japonesa e da Pinheira. O experimento foi conduzido numa área irrigada, situada no cinturão verde do município de Ilha Solteira-SP. O solo da área foi classificado como Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro. Foram utilizadas plantas de Pereira-Japonesa, cultivar Okussankichi e de Pinheira. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1. apenas água; T2. ácido bórico; T3. sulfato de zinco; T4. T2 + T3; T5. ácido bórico + uréia + ácido cítrico + EDTA; T6. sulfato de zinco + uréia + ácido cítrico + EDTA; T7. T5 + T6; T8. ácido bórico + uréia + ácido cítrico + EDTA + molibdato de sódio + enxofre + cloreto de cálcio; T9. sulfato de zinco + ácido cítrico + EDTA + sulfato de Fe + sulfato de Mn + sulfato de Mg, e T10. T8+T9. Foram utilizadas doses de 110 g ha-1 de B e 250 g ha-1 de Zn, em cada aplicação. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e, para comparação de médias, foi utilizado o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: 1 a produção e os teores de SST e ATT dos frutos da pereira-japonesa e da pinheira não foram influenciados pela aplicação foliar de B e de Zn; b a mistura de ácido bórico com quelatos foi eficiente no fornecimento de B às plantas de pereira- japonesa, o mesmo não ocorrendo para pinheira, c o sulfato de zinco + produtos quelatizantes foram eficientes no aumento dos teores foliares de Zn somente na pereira.Leaf spray using liquid products with micronutrients, among them, quelates are usual in fruit trees. However, there

  5. Assessment of sea water inundation along Daboo creek area in Indus Delta Region, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Ibrahim; Zafar, Hina; Shahzad, Muhammad I.; Meraj, Mohsin; Kazmi, Jamil H.

    2017-12-01

    Indus Deltaic Region (IDR) in Pakistan is an erosion vulnerable coast due to the high deep water wave energy. Livelihood of millions of people depends on the fisheries and mangrove forests in IDR. IDR consists of many creeks where Daboo is a major creek located at southeast of the largest city of Pakistan, Karachi. Unfortunately, there has been no detailed study to analyze the damages of sea water intrusion at a large temporal and spatial scale. Therefore, this study is designed to estimate the effects of sea water inundation based on changing sea water surface salinity and sea surface temperature (SST). Sea surface salinity and SST data from two different surveys in Daboo creek during 1986 and 2010 are analyzed to estimate the damages and extent of sea water intrusion. Mean salinity has increased 33.33% whereas mean SST decreased 13.79% from 1987 to 2010. Spatio-temporal analysis of creek area using LANDSAT 5 Thematic mapper (TM) data for the years 1987 and 2010 shows significant amount of erosion at macro scale. Creek area has increased approximately 9.93% (260.86 m2 per year) which is roughly equal to 60 extensive sized shrimp farms. Further Land Use Land Cover (LULC) analyses for years 2001 and 2014 using LANDSAT 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has indicated 42.3% decrease in cultivated land. Wet mud flats have spread out at the inner mouth of creek with enormous increase of 123.3%. Significant sea water intrusion has increased the area of barren land by 37.9%. This also resulted in overall decrease of 6.7% in area covered by mangroves. Therefore, this study recorded a significant evidence of sea water intrusion in IDR that has caused serious damages to community living in the area, economical losses. Additionally, it has also changed the environment by reducing creek biological productivity as reported by earlier studies over other regions of the world.

  6. Assessing the influence of watershed characteristics on chlorophyll a in waterbodies at global and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelmer, Whitney; Kao, Yu-Chun; Bunnell, David B.; Deines, Andrew M.; Bennion, David; Rogers, Mark W.; Brooks, Colin N.; Sayers, Michael J.; Banach, David M.; Grimm, Amanda G.; Shuchman, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of primary production of lentic water bodies (i.e., lakes and reservoirs) is valuable to researchers and resource managers alike, but is very rarely done at the global scale. With the development of remote sensing technologies, it is now feasible to gather large amounts of data across the world, including understudied and remote regions. To determine which factors were most important in explaining the variation of chlorophyll a (Chl-a), an indicator of primary production in water bodies, at global and regional scales, we first developed a geospatial database of 227 water bodies and watersheds with corresponding Chl-a, nutrient, hydrogeomorphic, and climate data. Then we used a generalized additive modeling approach and developed model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables for all 227 water bodies and for 51 lakes in the Laurentian Great Lakes region in the data set. Our best global model contained two hydrogeomorphic variables (water body surface area and the ratio of watershed to water body surface area) and a climate variable (average temperature in the warmest model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables quarter) and explained ~ 30% of variation in Chl-a. Our regional model contained one hydrogeomorphic variable (flow accumulation) and the same climate variable, but explained substantially more variation (58%). Our results indicate that a regional approach to watershed modeling may be more informative to predicting Chl-a, and that nearly a third of global variability in Chl-a may be explained using hydrogeomorphic and climate variables.

  7. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the contribution of school curriculum committee in facilitating and coordinating ... schools of Amhara Region' ln undertaking the study the descriptive survey method was used. .... pupil and the teacher are available. ... prepared for each level and grade has ..... the principals have the opinion that the.

  8. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  9. A Simple Technique for Creating Regional Composites of Sea Surface Temperature from MODIS for Use in Operational Mesoscale NWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knievel, Jason C.; Rife, Daran L.; Grim, Joseph A.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hacker, Joshua P.; Ge, Ming; Fisher, Henry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for creating regional, high-resolution, daytime and nighttime composites of sea surface temperature (SST) for use in operational numerical weather prediction (NWP). The composites are based on observations from NASA s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua and Terra. The data used typically are available nearly in real time, are applicable anywhere on the globe, and are capable of roughly representing the diurnal cycle in SST. The composites resolution is much higher than that of many other standard SST products used for operational NWP, including the low- and high-resolution Real-Time Global (RTG) analyses. The difference in resolution is key because several studies have shown that highly resolved SSTs are important for driving the air sea interactions that shape patterns of static stability, vertical and horizontal wind shear, and divergence in the planetary boundary layer. The MODIS-based composites are compared to in situ observations from buoys and other platforms operated by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) off the coasts of New England, the mid-Atlantic, and Florida. Mean differences, mean absolute differences, and root-mean-square differences between the composites and the NDBC observations are all within tenths of a degree of those calculated between RTG analyses and the NDBC observations. This is true whether or not one accounts for the mean offset between the skin temperatures of the MODIS dataset and the bulk temperatures of the NDBC observations and RTG analyses. Near the coast, the MODIS-based composites tend to agree more with NDBC observations than do the RTG analyses. The opposite is true away from the coast. All of these differences in point-wise comparisons among the SST datasets are small compared to the 61.08C accuracy of the NDBC SST sensors. Because skin-temperature variations from land to water so strongly affect the development and life cycle of the sea breeze, this

  10. Sensitivity of Horn of Africa Rainfall to Regional Sea Surface Temperature Forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu T. Segele

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP version 4.4 Regional Climate Model (RegCM4 is used to investigate the rainfall response to cooler/warmer sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA forcing in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The effect of SSTA forcing in a specific ocean basin is identified by ensemble, averaging 10 individual simulations in which a constant or linearly zonally varying SSTA is prescribed in individual basins while specifying the 1971–2000 monthly varying climatological sea surface temperature (SST across the remaining model domain. The nonlinear rainfall response to SSTA amplitude also is investigated by separately specifying +1K, +2K, and +4K SSTA forcing in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The simulation results show that warm SSTs over the entire Indian Ocean produce drier conditions across the larger Blue Nile catchment, whereas warming ≥ +2K generates large positive rainfall anomalies exceeding 10 mm·day−1 over drought prone regions of Northeastern Ethiopia. However, the June–September rainy season tends to be wetter (drier when the SST warming (cooling is limited to either the Northern or Southern Indian Ocean. Wet rainy seasons generally are characterized by deepening of the monsoon trough, east of 40°E, intensification of the Mascarene high, strengthening of the Somali low level jet and the tropical easterly jet, enhanced zonal and meridional vertically integrated moisture fluxes, and steeply vertically decreasing moist static energy. The opposite conditions hold for dry monsoon seasons.

  11. Nesting phenology of marine turtles: insights from a regional comparative analysis on green turtle (Chelonia mydas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayeul Dalleau

    Full Text Available Changes in phenology, the timing of seasonal activities, are among the most frequently observed responses to environmental disturbances and in marine species are known to occur in response to climate changes that directly affects ocean temperature, biogeochemical composition and sea level. We examined nesting seasonality data from long-term studies at 8 green turtle (Chelonia mydas rookeries that include 21 specific nesting sites in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO. We demonstrated that temperature drives patterns of nesting seasonality at the regional scale. We found a significant correlation between mean annual Sea Surface Temperature (SST and dates of peak nesting with rookeries exposed to higher SST having a delayed nesting peak. This supports the hypothesis that temperature is the main factor determining peak nesting dates. We also demonstrated a spatial synchrony in nesting activity amongst multiple rookeries in the northern part of the SWIO (Aldabra, Glorieuses, Mohéli, Mayotte but not with the eastern and southern rookeries (Europa, Tromelin, differences which could be attributed to females with sharply different adult foraging conditions. However, we did not detect a temporal trend in the nesting peak date over the study period or an inter-annual relation between nesting peak date and SST. The findings of our study provide a better understanding of the processes that drive marine species phenology. The findings will also help to predict their ability to cope with climate change and other environmental perturbations. Despite demonstrating this spatial shift in nesting phenology, no trend in the alteration of nesting dates over more than 20 years was found.

  12. Which complexity of regional climate system models is essential for downscaling anthropogenic climate change in the Northwest European Shelf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Moritz; Elizalde, Alberto; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2018-04-01

    Climate change impact studies for the Northwest European Shelf (NWES) make use of various dynamical downscaling strategies in the experimental setup of regional ocean circulation models. Projected change signals from coupled and uncoupled downscalings with different domain sizes and forcing global and regional models show substantial uncertainty. In this paper, we investigate influences of the downscaling strategy on projected changes in the physical and biogeochemical conditions of the NWES. Our results indicate that uncertainties due to different downscaling strategies are similar to uncertainties due to the choice of the parent global model and the downscaling regional model. Downscaled change signals reveal to depend stronger on the downscaling strategy than on the model skills in simulating present-day conditions. Uncoupled downscalings of sea surface temperature (SST) changes are found to be tightly constrained by the atmospheric forcing. The incorporation of coupled air-sea interaction, by contrast, allows the regional model system to develop independently. Changes in salinity show a higher sensitivity to open lateral boundary conditions and river runoff than to coupled or uncoupled atmospheric forcings. Dependencies on the downscaling strategy for changes in SST, salinity, stratification and circulation collectively affect changes in nutrient import and biological primary production.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Induced Changes in the Seasonal Cycle of the Amazon Basin in Coupled Climate-Vegetation Regional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Justino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work suggests that changes in seasonality could lead to a 70% reduction in the extent of the Amazon rainforest. The primary cause of the dieback of the rainforest is a lengthening of the dry season due to a weakening of the large-scale tropical circulation. Here we examine these changes in the seasonal cycle. Under present day conditions the Amazon climate is characterized by a zonal separation of the dominance of the annual and semi-annual seasonal cycles. This behavior is strongly modified under greenhouse warming conditions, with the annual cycle becoming dominant throughout the Amazon basin, increasing differences between the dry and wet seasons. In particular, there are substantial changes in the annual cycle of temperature due to the increase in the temperature of the warmest month, but the lengthening of the dry season is believed to be particularly important for vegetation-climate feedbacks. Harmonic analysis performed to regional climate model simulations yields results that differ from the global climate model that it is forced from, with the regional model being more sensitive to changes in the seasonal cycle.

  14. Effects of the Changiang river discharge on the change in ocean and atmosphere over the East Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. H.; Lim, Y. J.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, B. J.; Cho, C.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of freshwater from the Changiang river basin over the East Asian region for summer season. To do this, we simulated global seasonal forecasting system (GloSea5) of KMA (Korea Meteorology Administration). GloSea5 consists of atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and land model. Also, it has river routing model (TRIP), which links between land and ocean using freshwater. It is very important component in long-term forecast because of be able to change the air-sea interaction. To improve more the freshwater performance over the East Asian region, we realistically modified the river mouth, direction and storage around Changiang river basin of TRIP in GloSea5. Here, the comparison study among the no freshwater forcing experiment to ocean model (TRIP-OFF), the operated original file based freshwater coupled experiment (TRIP-ON) and the improved one (TRIP-MODI) has been carried out and the results are evaluated against the reanalysis data. As a result, the amount of fresh water to the Yellow Sea increase in TRIP-ON experiment and it attributes to the improvement of bias and RMSE of local SST over the East Asia. The implementation of the realistic river related ancillary files (TRIP-MODI) improves the abnormal salinity distribution around the Changjiang river gate and its related SST reduces cold bias about 0.37˚C for July over the East Sea. Warm SST over this region is caused by barrier layer (BL). Freshwater flux and salinity changes can create a pronounced salinity-induced mixed layer (ML) above the top of the thermocline. The layer between the base of the ML and the top of the thermocline is called a barrier layer (BL), because it isolates the warm surface water from cold deep water. In addition, the improved fresh water forcing can lead to the change in the local volume transport from the Kuroshio to the Strait of Korea and Changed the transport and SST over the Straits of Korea have correlation 0.57 at 95% confidence level. For the

  15. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  16. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  17. Sea-surface temperatures for the last 7200 years from the eastern Sunda Shelf, South China Sea: Climatic inferences from planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Anna Lee; Leorri, Eduardo; Culver, Stephen J.; Mallinson, David J.; Parham, Peter R.; Thunell, Robert C.; Vijayan, V. R.; Curtis, Scott

    2017-06-01

    To test whether low latitude shallow shelf deposits can provide high resolution paleoclimatic records, we utilized two cores from the Holocene sedimentary fill of incised valleys on the Sunda Shelf off Sarawak, Malaysia. We developed a new sea-surface temperature (SST) record based on planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca for the last 7200 years. This record reveals several significant shifts between warmer and colder conditions. Temperatures averaged 27.5 °C ca. 7200 cal. years BP, then climbed to 28.2 °C from 6500 to 5500 cal. years BP. At 5500-4500 cal. years BP we identified the coldest period (26.8 °C) of the analyzed period. For the last 4500 years SST again averaged 27.5 °C but the profile is rather variable. The last ca. 1000 years recorded the warmest SST averaging 28.5 °C. We record, for the first time in this region, a cool interval, ca. 1000 years in duration, centered on 5000 cal years BP concomitant with a wet period recorded in Borneo. The record also reflects a warm interval from ca. 1000 to 500 cal years BP that may represent the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Variations in the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) and solar activity are considered as potential drivers of SST trends. However, hydrology changes related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability, shifts of the Western Pacific Warm Pool and migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone are more likely to have impacted our SST temporal trend. Our findings indicate that climatic patterns in the region might be in phase with ENSO and out of phase with the EAM.

  18. Global and regional climate change: new evidences between two IPCC reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mika, J. [Eszterhazy Karoly College, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Geography

    2011-07-01

    The climate of our planet has never been constant, but the recent changes are by two orders of magnitude faster than the natural changes since the appearance of anthropogenic effects. The discernable global warming started in the 19th century and after speeding up in the 20th century, it has reached about 0.8 K. This fact and the realization of the likely reasons for the changes, plus rapid development of computer technology have resulted in systematic investigations of climate science. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) finalized its Fourth Assessment Report in 2007. The present paper suveys some recent moments of global and regional climate change issued after the Report. Even the economic crisis was not strong enough to deflect the anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing for more than one year. It tends to develop at the upper edge of the IPCC (2007) projection band of uncertainties. The part of the emitted carbon dioxide remaining in the atmosphere is increasing due to weakening of both the biospheric- and the oceanic sinks of this greenhouse gas. The new radiation balance estimations must admit the imbalance between the atmosphere and the oceans indicating the fact that the greenhouse warming definitely takes place. The year 2010 became most likely the warmest one on the global temperature record. The sea-level rise also follows the most rapid track among the foreseen scenarios. In the meantime modelling effort to better estimate regional features of the changes also develop in their full strength. The ENSEMBLES Project ended in December 2009 and published a lot of maps with 25 km model resolution. These results, however, do not show convergence in the estimations for many regions, including Central Europe.

  19. The 2010-2015 megadrought in central Chile: impacts on regional hydroclimate and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garreaud, René D.; Alvarez-Garreton, Camila; Barichivich, Jonathan; Boisier, Juan Pablo; Christie, Duncan; Galleguillos, Mauricio; LeQuesne, Carlos; McPhee, James; Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio

    2017-12-01

    Since 2010 an uninterrupted sequence of dry years, with annual rainfall deficits ranging from 25 to 45 %, has prevailed in central Chile (western South America, 30-38° S). Although intense 1- or 2-year droughts are recurrent in this Mediterranean-like region, the ongoing event stands out because of its longevity and large extent. The extraordinary character of the so-called central Chile megadrought (MD) was established against century long historical records and a millennial tree-ring reconstruction of regional precipitation. The largest MD-averaged rainfall relative anomalies occurred in the northern, semi-arid sector of central Chile, but the event was unprecedented to the south of 35° S. ENSO-neutral conditions have prevailed since 2011 (except for the strong El Niño in 2015), contrasting with La Niña conditions that often accompanied past droughts. The precipitation deficit diminished the Andean snowpack and resulted in amplified declines (up to 90 %) of river flow, reservoir volumes and groundwater levels along central Chile and westernmost Argentina. In some semi-arid basins we found a decrease in the runoff-to-rainfall coefficient. A substantial decrease in vegetation productivity occurred in the shrubland-dominated, northern sector, but a mix of greening and browning patches occurred farther south, where irrigated croplands and exotic forest plantations dominate. The ongoing warming in central Chile, making the MD one of the warmest 6-year periods on record, may have also contributed to such complex vegetation changes by increasing potential evapotranspiration. We also report some of the measures taken by the central government to relieve the MD effects and the public perception of this event. The understanding of the nature and biophysical impacts of the MD helps as a foundation for preparedness efforts to confront a dry, warm future regional climate scenario.

  20. The 2010–2015 megadrought in central Chile: impacts on regional hydroclimate and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Garreaud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 an uninterrupted sequence of dry years, with annual rainfall deficits ranging from 25 to 45 %, has prevailed in central Chile (western South America, 30–38° S. Although intense 1- or 2-year droughts are recurrent in this Mediterranean-like region, the ongoing event stands out because of its longevity and large extent. The extraordinary character of the so-called central Chile megadrought (MD was established against century long historical records and a millennial tree-ring reconstruction of regional precipitation. The largest MD-averaged rainfall relative anomalies occurred in the northern, semi-arid sector of central Chile, but the event was unprecedented to the south of 35° S. ENSO-neutral conditions have prevailed since 2011 (except for the strong El Niño in 2015, contrasting with La Niña conditions that often accompanied past droughts. The precipitation deficit diminished the Andean snowpack and resulted in amplified declines (up to 90 % of river flow, reservoir volumes and groundwater levels along central Chile and westernmost Argentina. In some semi-arid basins we found a decrease in the runoff-to-rainfall coefficient. A substantial decrease in vegetation productivity occurred in the shrubland-dominated, northern sector, but a mix of greening and browning patches occurred farther south, where irrigated croplands and exotic forest plantations dominate. The ongoing warming in central Chile, making the MD one of the warmest 6-year periods on record, may have also contributed to such complex vegetation changes by increasing potential evapotranspiration. We also report some of the measures taken by the central government to relieve the MD effects and the public perception of this event. The understanding of the nature and biophysical impacts of the MD helps as a foundation for preparedness efforts to confront a dry, warm future regional climate scenario.

  1. Expression of the 1-SST and 1-FFT genes and consequent fructan accumulation in Agave tequilana and A. inaequidens is differentially induced by diverse (a)biotic-stress related elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-González, Edgar Martín; López, Mercedes G; Délano-Frier, John P; Gómez-Leyva, Juan Florencio

    2014-02-15

    The expression of genes coding for sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; EC 2.4.1.99) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT; EC 2.4.1.100), both fructan biosynthesizing enzymes, characterization by TLC and HPAEC-PAD, as well as the quantification of the fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) accumulating in response to the exogenous application of sucrose, kinetin (cytokinin) or other plant hormones associated with (a)biotic stress responses were determined in two Agave species grown in vitro, domesticated Agave tequilana var. azul and wild A. inaequidens. It was found that elicitors such as salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid methyl ester (MeJA) had the strongest effect on fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) accumulation. The exogenous application of 1mM SA induced a 36-fold accumulation of FOS of various degrees of polymerization (DP) in stems of A. tequilana. Other treatments, such as 50mM abscisic acid (ABA), 8% Sucrose (Suc), and 1.0 mg L(-1) kinetin (KIN) also led to a significant accumulation of low and high DP FOS in this species. Conversely, treatment with 200 μM MeJA, which was toxic to A. tequilana, induced an 85-fold accumulation of FOS in the stems of A. inaequidens. Significant FOS accumulation in this species also occurred in response to treatments with 1mM SA, 8% Suc, and 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG). Maximum yields of 13.6 and 8.9 mg FOS per g FW were obtained in stems of A. tequilana and A. inaequidens, respectively. FOS accumulation in the above treatments was tightly associated with increased expression levels of either the 1-FFT or the 1-SST gene in tissues of both Agave species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Air-sea heat fluxes associated to mesoscale eddies in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and their dependence on different regional conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyba, Inés M.; Saraceno, Martín; Solman, Silvina A.

    2017-10-01

    Heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere largely represent the link between the two media. A possible mechanism of interaction is generated by mesoscale ocean eddies. In this work we evaluate if eddies in Southwestern Atlantic (SWA) Ocean may significantly affect flows between the ocean and the atmosphere. Atmospherics conditions associated with eddies were examined using data of sea surface temperature (SST), sensible (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) from NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. On average, we found that NCEP-CFSR reanalysis adequately reflects the variability expected from eddies in the SWA, considering the classical eddy-pumping theory: anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies cause maximum positive (negative) anomalies with maximum mean anomalies of 0.5 °C (-0.5 °C) in SST, 6 W/m2 (-4 W/m2) in SHF and 12 W/m2 (-9 W/m2) in LHF. However, a regional dependence of heat fluxes associated to mesoscale cyclonic eddies was found: in the turbulent Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC) region they are related with positive heat flux anomaly (ocean heat loss), while in the rest of the SWA they behave as expected (ocean heat gain). We argue that eddy-pumping do not cool enough the center of the cyclonic eddies in the BMC region simply because most of them trapped very warm waters when they originate in the subtropics. The article therefore concludes that in the SWA: (1) a robust link exists between the SST anomalies generated by eddies and the local anomalous heat flow between the ocean and the atmosphere; (2) in the BMC region cyclonic eddies are related with positive heat anomalies, contrary to what is expected.

  3. EMERGENCE OF GRANULAR-SIZED MAGNETIC BUBBLES THROUGH THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE. III. THE PATH TO THE TRANSITION REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Ada; Hansteen, Viggo H.; Pontieu, Bart De; Carlsson, Mats; Voort, Luc Rouppe van der [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Rubio, Luis Ramón Bellot [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apdo. 3040, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Rodríguez, Jaime de la Cruz, E-mail: ada@astro.uio.no [Institute for Solar Physics, Dept. of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-07-10

    We study, for the first time, the ascent of granular-sized magnetic bubbles from the solar photosphere through the chromosphere into the transition region and above. Such events occurred in a flux emerging region in NOAA 11850 on 2013 September 25. During that time, the first co-observing campaign between the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spacecraft was carried out. Simultaneous observations of the chromospheric H α 656.28 nm and Ca ii 854.2 nm lines, plus the photospheric Fe i 630.25 nm line, were made with the CRISP spectropolarimeter at the Spitzer Space Telescope ( SST ) reaching a spatial resolution of 0.″14. At the same time, IRIS was performing a four-step dense raster of the emerging flux region, taking slit jaw images at 133 (C ii, transition region), 140 (Si iv, transition region), 279.6 (Mg ii k, core, upper chromosphere), and 283.2 nm (Mg ii k, wing, photosphere). Spectroscopy of several lines was performed by the IRIS spectrograph in the far- and near-ultraviolet, of which we have used the Si iv 140.3 and the Mg ii k 279.6 nm lines. Coronal images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the Solar Dynamics Observatory were used to investigate the possible coronal signatures of the flux emergence events. The photospheric and chromospheric properties of small-scale emerging magnetic bubbles have been described in detail in Ortiz et al. Here we are able to follow such structures up to the transition region. We describe the properties, including temporal delays, of the observed flux emergence in all layers. We believe this may be an important mechanism of transporting energy and magnetic flux from subsurface layers to the transition region and corona.

  4. Low temperature and defoliation affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes in different regions of the rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; de Carvalho, Maria Angela M

    2008-10-09

    In addition to the storage function, fructans in Asteraceae from floras with seasonal growth have been associated with drought and freezing tolerance. Vernonia herbacea, native of the Brazilian Cerrado, bears underground reserve organs, rhizophores, accumulating inulin-type fructans. The rhizophore is a cauline branched system with positive geotropic growth, with the apex (distal region) presenting younger tissues; sprouting of new shoots occurs by development of buds located on the opposite end (proximal region). Plants induced to sprouting by excision of the aerial organs present increased 1-fructan exohydrolase (1-FEH) activity in the proximal region, while plants at the vegetative stage present high 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in the distal region. The aim of the present study was to analyze how low temperature (5 degrees C) could affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes and fructan composition in the different regions of the rhizophores of intact and excised plants. 1-SST and 1-fructan:fructan fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) were higher in the distal region decreasing towards the proximal region in intact plants at the vegetative phase, and were drastically diminished when cold and/or excision were imposed. In contrast, 1-FEH increased in the proximal region of treated plants, mainly in excised plants subjected to cold. The ratio fructo-oligo to fructo-polysaccharides was significantly higher in plants exposed to low temperature (1.17 in intact plants and 1.64 in excised plants) than in plants exposed to natural temperature conditions (0.84 in intact vegetative plants and 0.58 in excised plants), suggesting that oligosaccharides are involved in the tolerance of plants to low temperature via 1-FEH, in addition to 1-FFT. Principal component analysis indicated different response mechanisms in fructan metabolism under defoliation and low temperature, which could be interpreted as part of the strategies to undergo unfavorable environmental conditions

  5. The Roles of Climate Change and Climate Variability in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Kovach, Robin; Molod, Andrea M.; Pawson, Steven

    2018-01-01

    The 2017 hurricane season was extremely active with six major hurricanes, the third most on record. The sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) over the eastern Main Development Region (EMDR), where many tropical cyclones (TCs) developed during active months of August/September, were approximately 0.96 degrees Centigrade above the 1901-2017 average (warmest on record): about 0.42 degrees Centigrade from a long-term upward trend and the rest (around 80 percent) attributed to the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM). The contribution to the SST from the North Atlantic Oscillation over the EMDR was a weak warming, while that from ENSO was negligible. Nevertheless, ENSO, the NAO, and the AMM all contributed to favorable wind shear conditions, while the AMM also produced enhanced atmospheric instability. Compared with the strong hurricane years of 2005-2010, the ocean heat content (OHC) during 2017 was larger across the tropics, with higher SST anomalies over the EMDR and Caribbean Sea. On the other hand, the dynamical/thermodynamical atmospheric conditions, while favorable for enhanced TC activity, were less prominent than in 2005-2010 across the tropics. The results suggest that unusually warm SST in the EMDR together with the long fetch of the resulting storms in the presence of record-breaking OHC were key factors in driving the strong TC activity in 2017.

  6. Marine species in ambient low-oxygen regions subject to double jeopardy impacts of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stortini, Christine H; Chabot, Denis; Shackell, Nancy L

    2017-06-01

    We have learned much about the impacts of warming on the productivity and distribution of marine organisms, but less about the impact of warming combined with other environmental stressors, including oxygen depletion. Also, the combined impact of multiple environmental stressors requires evaluation at the scales most relevant to resource managers. We use the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, characterized by a large permanently hypoxic zone, as a case study. Species distribution models were used to predict the impact of multiple scenarios of warming and oxygen depletion on the local density of three commercially and ecologically important species. Substantial changes are projected within 20-40 years. A eurythermal depleted species already limited to shallow, oxygen-rich refuge habitat (Atlantic cod) may be relatively uninfluenced by oxygen depletion but increase in density within refuge areas with warming. A more stenothermal, deep-dwelling species (Greenland halibut) is projected to lose ~55% of its high-density areas under the combined impacts of warming and oxygen depletion. Another deep-dwelling, more eurythermal species (Northern shrimp) would lose ~4% of its high-density areas due to oxygen depletion alone, but these impacts may be buffered by warming, which may increase density by 8% in less hypoxic areas, but decrease density by ~20% in the warmest parts of the region. Due to local climate variability and extreme events, and that our models cannot project changes in species sensitivity to hypoxia with warming, our results should be considered conservative. We present an approach to effectively evaluate the individual and cumulative impacts of multiple environmental stressors on a species-by-species basis at the scales most relevant to managers. Our study may provide a basis for work in other low-oxygen regions and should contribute to a growing literature base in climate science, which will continue to be of support for resource managers as climate change

  7. Impact assessment of El Nino and La Nina episodes on local/regional monsoon rainfall in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sureuder; Rao, V.U.M.; Shigh, Diwan

    2002-08-01

    Large scale atmospheric circulation's and climatic anomalies have been shown to have a significant impact on seasonal weather over many parts of the world. In the present paper an attempt has been made to examine regional monsoon dynamics in relation with El Nino and La Nina episodes. The investigation was earned out for the meteorological sub- division's comprising the areas of Haryana, Delhi and Chandigarh in India. The monthly monsoon rainfall data of different locations in the region and corresponding data on El Nino and La Nina episodes for the period of 30 years (1970-99) were used for this investigation. During the El Nino episodes, various locations experienced excess rainfall in monsoon ranged between 11 and 22 percent. Under the influence of La Nina episodes, the probability of excess monsoon rainfall at different locations in the sub-division ranged between 13 and 25 percent. However, many locations viz., Hisar, Bhiwani, Gurgaon, Delhi and Chandigarh received deficient monsoon rainfall which was contrary to the global belief of the association between SST anomalies and rainfall distribution. No significant association was observed between El Nino and La Nina and monsoon rainfall at different locations in the entire sub-division. However, there was a strong relationship between these SST anomalies and all India monsoon rainfall over the period under study (1970-99). (author)

  8. Regional to Global Assessments of Phytoplankton Dynamics From The SeaWiFS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David; Behrenfeld, Michael; Maritorena, Stephanie; McClain, Charles R.; Antoine, David; Bailey, Sean W.; Bontempi, Paula S.; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Dierssen, Heidi M.; Doney, Scott C.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic production of organic matter by microscopic oceanic phytoplankton fuels ocean ecosystems and contributes roughly half of the Earth's net primary production. For 13 years, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission provided the first consistent, synoptic observations of global ocean ecosystems. Changes in the surface chlorophyll concentration, the primary biological property retrieved from SeaWiFS, have traditionally been used as a metric for phytoplankton abundance and its distribution largely reflects patterns in vertical nutrient transport. On regional to global scales, chlorophyll concentrations covary with sea surface temperature (SST) because SST changes reflect light and nutrient conditions. However, the oceanmay be too complex to be well characterized using a single index such as the chlorophyll concentration. A semi-analytical bio-optical algorithm is used to help interpret regional to global SeaWiFS chlorophyll observations from using three independent, well-validated ocean color data products; the chlorophyll a concentration, absorption by CDM and particulate backscattering. First, we show that observed long-term, global-scale trends in standard chlorophyll retrievals are likely compromised by coincident changes in CDM. Second, we partition the chlorophyll signal into a component due to phytoplankton biomass changes and a component caused by physiological adjustments in intracellular chlorophyll concentrations to changes in mixed layer light levels. We show that biomass changes dominate chlorophyll signals for the high latitude seas and where persistent vertical upwelling is known to occur, while physiological processes dominate chlorophyll variability over much of the tropical and subtropical oceans. The SeaWiFS data set demonstrates complexity in the interpretation of changes in regional to global phytoplankton distributions and illustrates limitations for the assessment of phytoplankton dynamics using chlorophyll

  9. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  10. Regional drought in the southern of South America: physical aspects Seca regional no sul da América do Sul: aspectos físicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonidas Minetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From the indices of monthly and annual climatic drought in six regions in southern South America and their associations with seventeen predictors, the probable physical causes of droughts are analyzed. These indices are used in operational climate monitoring and describe the atmospheric temperature and sea surface temperature (SST near South America. Subtropical anticyclone activity over both coasts of South America is one of the main predictors, together with its interaction with the continental depression and SST at the coast of Brazil. The highest predictability concentrates in November-December-May and the lowest in March, June and August. In the sub regional scale, the main predictors respond to atmospheric pressure anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean for Argentinean Northwest (NOA, SST in the Brazilian coast for Argentinean Northeast (NEA, anticyclonic conditions over the Pacific and Atlantic for the Central West (CO, the latter and their interaction with the continental depression for Humid Pampa (PH, anticyclonic activity over the Pacific for the Patagonia (PAT and trans cordillera circulation for Central Chile and Comahue (CHI.As causas físicas prováveis das secas em seis regiões no sul da América do Sul são analisadas, através de índices da seca climática mensal e em suas associações com dezessete preditores. Esses indices são usados no monitoramento operacional do clima, e descrevem a temperatura atmosférica e a temperatura de superfície do mar (TSM perto de América do Sul. A atividade do anticiclone subtropical sobre ambas as costas de América do Sul é um dos preditores principais, junto com sua interação com a depressão continental e a SST na costa do Brasil. A previsibilidade mais elevada concentra-se nos meses Novembro-Dezembro-Maio e a mais baixa, em março, junho e agosto. Na escala regional secundária, os principais preditores respondem às anomalias da pressão atmosférica sobre o Oceano Atlântico para

  11. An Emerging Wine Region in Nova Scotia, Canada: Terroir Trials and Tribulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, B. I.; Ketter, B. S.; Karakis, S.

    2012-12-01

    Nova Scotia, strategically located on Canada's east coast, is an emerging wine region, whose distinctive wines are garnering international acclaim. Nova Scotia has a long and rich tradition of growing grapes for wine dating back as far as 1611. Nova Scotia's mesoclimates, glacial soils, and proximity to the Atlantic Ocean form a complex alliance to create a unique and expressive terroir. Tidal Bay is a new appellation wine for Nova Scotia stylistically defined as a fresh, crisp and high-acid blend of white grapes. There are four main wine-growing regions in Nova Scotia, all influenced by the warming effects of the Bay of Fundy and Atlantic Ocean: Malagash Peninsula, Annapolis Valley, Bear River Valley and the South Shore. Nova Scotia currently has 14 producing wineries with many more in the development stage. Nova Scotia grape growers not only have had success developing mature and consistent hybrids, but in recent years several vinifera have flourished in this cool climate area. The white hybrids include L'Acadie Blanc, New York Muscat, Seyval Blanc, and Vidal Blanc. The white vinifera include chardonnay, riesling, pinot gris, and sauvignon blanc. Red hybrids are Baco Noir, Leon Millet, Lucie Kuhlmann, and Marechal Foch, whereas the only red vinifera is pinot noir. Nova Scotia has nearly perfect climatic conditions for making world class icewines and sparkling wines. A preliminary GIS analysis of climate, topographic, geology and soil data helps to define Nova Scotia's terroir. Annual precipiatation varies from 10 to 21.6 cm/year with a vast majority of the wineries located in regions with the lowest rainfall. Daily average temperature ranges from 5.5 to 7.5°C, degree growing days above 5°C from 1382 to 1991, and mean August temperature from 15.6 to 19.3 °C. Wineries cluster in the warmest regions based on these temperature measures to assist grape ripening. Soils in these diverse wine regions can range from silty, sandy and clay loams to more gravel-rich sandy

  12. Estimates of Active Region Area Coverage through Simultaneous Measurements of the He i λλ 5876 and 10830 Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andretta, Vincenzo; Covino, Elvira [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte Salita Moiariello, 16 I-80131 Naples (Italy); Giampapa, Mark S. [National Solar Observatory 950 N. Cherry Avenue Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reiners, Ansgar [Institut für Astrophysik Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1 D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Beeck, Benjamin, E-mail: andretta@oacn.inaf.it [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3 D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-04-20

    Simultaneous, high-quality measurements of the neutral helium triplet features at 5876 Å and 10830 Å in a sample of solar-type stars are presented. The observations were made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 088.D-0028(A) and MPG Utility Run for Fiber Extended-range Optical Spectrograph 088.A-9029(A). The equivalent widths of these features combined with chromospheric models are utilized to infer the fractional area coverage, or filling factor, of magnetic regions outside of spots. We find that the majority of the sample is characterized by filling factors less than unity. However, discrepancies occur among the coolest K-type and the warmest and most rapidly rotating F-type dwarf stars. We discuss these apparently anomalous results and find that in the case of K-type stars, they are an artifact of the application of chromospheric models best suited to the Sun than to stars with significantly lower T {sub eff}. The case of the F-type rapid rotators can be explained by the measurement uncertainties of the equivalent widths, but they may also be due to a non-magnetic heating component in their atmospheres. With the exceptions noted above, preliminary results suggest that the average heating rates in the active regions are the same from one star to the other, differing in the spatially integrated, observed level of activity due to the area coverage. Hence, differences in activity in this sample are mainly due to the filling factor of active regions.

  13. The Study of Turbulent Fluctuation Characteristics in a Small Rotary Engine with a Peripheral Port Based on the Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation Shear-Stress Transport (IDDES-SST Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved delayed detached eddy simulation method combined with shear-stress transport (SST model was used to study the three-dimensional turbulent characteristics in a small rotary engine with a peripheral port. The turbulent characteristics including instantaneous velocity, turbulent fluctuation, coherent structure and velocity circulation were analysed based on a dynamic model of the small rotary engine. Three sets of conclusions on the basis of computational results were obtained. First, it was found that large-scale vortex structures with high intensity were distributed in the center of the chamber in the intake process and broke into lots of small vortex structures in the compression process. Second, flow stability in the X direction decreased from the leading to the trailing in the small rotary engine. The fluctuation velocity of the Y direction showed the paraboloid feature and its peak position moved from the mid-back to the middle of the chamber during the operation process. Third, during the intake process, two vortices occurred in the cross section parallel to the covers and were located at the leading and trailing of the cross section, respectively. Compared to the intake process, more vortices occur at cross sections which were far away from the central section during the compression process.

  14. Response of the Arabian Sea to global warming and associated regional climate shift

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Roshin, R.P.; Narvekar, J.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Vivekanandan, E.

    -Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) (Woodruff et al., 2005) (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/cdc/data.coads.1deg.html), (2) NOAA SST data (Reynolds et al., 2002) and (3) Kaplan SST data (Kaplan et al., 1998), both provided by the NOAA/OAR/ERSL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA... from their website http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/in (Reynolds et al., 2002). From the monthly mean SST annual mean SST anomaly was computed for further analysis. The strong El Nino years (1972-73, 1982-83, 1991-92 and 1997- 98) (see http...

  15. Coupled ocean-atmosphere surface variability and its climate impacts in the tropical Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, B.; Janicot, Serge; Roucou, P.

    This study examines time evolution and statistical relationships involving the two leading ocean-atmosphere coupled modes of variability in the tropical Atlantic and some climate anomalies over the tropical 120°W-60°W region using selected historical files (75-y near global SSTs and precipitation over land), more recent observed data (30-y SST and pseudo wind stress in the tropical Atlantic) and reanalyses from the US National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis System on the period 1968-1997: surface air temperature, sea level pressure, moist static energy content at 850 hPa, precipitable water and precipitation. The first coupled mode detected through singular value decomposition of the SST and pseudo wind-stress data over the tropical Atlantic (30°N-20°S) expresses a modulation in the thermal transequatorial gradient of SST anomalies conducted by one month leading wind-stress anomalies mainly in the tropical north Atlantic during northern winter and fall. It features a slight dipole structure in the meridional plane. Its time variability is dominated by a quasi-decadal signal well observed in the last 20-30 ys and, when projected over longer-term SST data, in the 1920s and 1930s but with shorter periods. The second coupled mode is more confined to the south-equatorial tropical Atlantic in the northern summer and explains considerably less wind-stress/SST cross-covariance. Its time series features an interannual variability dominated by shorter frequencies with increased variance in the 1960s and 1970s before 1977. Correlations between these modes and the ENSO-like Nino3 index lead to decreasing amplitude of thermal anomalies in the tropical Atlantic during warm episodes in the Pacific. This could explain the nonstationarity of meridional anomaly gradients on seasonal and interannual time scales. Overall the relationships between the oceanic component of the coupled modes and the climate anomaly patterns denote thermodynamical

  16. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 4, which is comprised of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Geor...

  17. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe : Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 2, : which is comprised of Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexic...

  18. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 3, which is comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michiga...

  19. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  20. Regional-scale winter-spring temperature variability and chilling damage dynamics over the past two centuries in southeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Jianping; Zhang, Qi-Bin; Lv, Lixin; Zhang, Chao [Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Beijing (China)

    2012-08-15

    Winter-spring cold extreme is a kind of serious natural disaster for southeastern China. As such events are recorded in discrete documents, long and continuous records are required to understand their characteristics and driving forces. Here we report a regional-scale winter-spring (January-April) temperature reconstruction based on a tree-ring network of pine trees (Pinus massoniana) from five sampling sites over a large spatial scale (25-29 N, 111-115 E) in southeastern China. The regional tree-ring chronology explains 48.6% of the instrumental temperature variance during the period 1957-2008. The reconstruction shows six relatively warm intervals (i.e., {proportional_to}1849-1855, {proportional_to}1871-1888, {proportional_to}1909-1920, {proportional_to}1939-1944, {proportional_to}1958-1968, 1997-2007) and five cold intervals (i.e., {proportional_to}1860-1870, {proportional_to}1893-1908, {proportional_to}1925-1934, {proportional_to}1945-1957, {proportional_to}1982-1996) during 1849-2008. The last decade and the 1930s were the warmest and coldest decades, respectively, in the past 160 years. The composite analysis of 500-hPa geopotential height fields reveals that distinctly different circulation patterns occurred in the instrumental and pre-instrumental periods. The winter-spring cold extremes in southeastern China are associated with Ural-High ridge pattern for the instrumental period (1957-2008), whereas the cold extremes in pre-instrumental period (1871-1956) are associated with North circulation pattern. (orig.)

  1. Description and evaluation of the Earth System Regional Climate Model (RegCM-ES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Riccardo; Sitz, Lina; Di Sante, Fabio; Fuentes-Franco, Ramon; Coppola, Erika; Mariotti, Laura; Reale, Marco; Sannino, Gianmaria; Barreiro, Marcelo; Nogherotto, Rita; Giuliani, Graziano; Graffino, Giorgio; Solidoro, Cosimo; Giorgi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    The increasing availability of satellite remote sensing data, of high temporal frequency and spatial resolution, has provided a new and enhanced view of the global ocean and atmosphere, revealing strong air-sea coupling processes throughout the ocean basins. In order to obtain an accurate representation and better understanding of the climate system, its variability and change, the inclusion of all mechanisms of interaction among the different sub-components, at high temporal and spatial resolution, becomes ever more desirable. Recently, global coupled models have been able to progressively refine their horizontal resolution to attempt to resolve smaller-scale processes. However, regional coupled ocean-atmosphere models can achieve even finer resolutions and provide additional information on the mechanisms of air-sea interactions and feedbacks. Here we describe a new, state-of-the-art, Earth System Regional Climate Model (RegCM-ES). RegCM-ES presently includes the coupling between atmosphere, ocean, land surface and sea-ice components, as well as an hydrological and ocean biogeochemistry model. The regional coupled model has been implemented and tested over some of the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) domains. RegCM-ES has shown improvements in the representation of precipitation and SST fields over the tested domains, as well as realistic representations of coupled air-sea processes and interactions. The RegCM-ES model, which can be easily implemented over any regional domain of interest, is open source making it suitable for usage by the large scientific community.

  2. Linear trend and abrupt changes of climate indices in the arid region of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaijun; Pan, Yingping; Chen, Yaning; Ye, Zhengwei

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, climate extreme events have caused increasing direct economic and social losses in the arid region of northwestern China. Based on daily temperature and precipitation data from 1960 to 2010, this paper discussed the linear trend and abrupt changes of climate indices. The general evolution was obtained by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF), the Mann-Kendall test, and the distribution-free cumulative sum chart (CUSUM) test. The results are as follows: (1) climate showed a warming trend at annual and seasonal scale, with all temperature indices exhibiting statistically significant changes. The warm indices have increased, with 1.37%days/decade of warm days (TX90p), 0.17 °C/decade of warmest days (TXx) and 1.97 days/decade of warm spell duration indicator (WSDI), respectively. The cold indices have decreased, with - 1.89%days/decade, 0.65 °C/decade and - 0.66 days/decade for cold nights (TN10p), coldest nights (TNn) and cold spell duration indicator (CSDI), respectively. The precipitation indices have also increased significantly, coupled with the changes of magnitude (max 1-day precipitation amount (RX1day)), frequency (rain day (R0.1)), and duration (consecutive dry days (CDD)). (2) Abrupt changes of the annual regional precipitation indices and the minimum temperature indices were observed around 1986, and that of the maximum temperature indices were observed in 1996. (3) The EOF1 indicated the overall coherent distribution for the whole study area, and its principal component (PC1) was also observed, showing a significant linear trend with an abrupt change, which were in accordance with the regional observation results. EOF2 and EOF3 show contrasts between the southern and northern study areas, and between the eastern and western study areas, respectively, whereas no significant tendency was observed for their PCs. Hence, the climate indices have changed significantly, with linear trends and abrupt changes noted for all climate indices

  3. Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in Southeast Asia region and its relationship with atmosphere-ocean variations in Indo-Pacific sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneng, Liew; Tangang, Fredolin T. [Technology National University of Malaysia, Marine Science Program, School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2005-09-01

    The Southeast Asia rainfall (SEAR) anomalies depend strongly on phases of El Nino (La Nina). Using an extended empirical orthogonal function (EEOF) analysis, it is shown that the dominant EEOF mode of SEAR anomalies evolves northeastward throughout a period from the summer when El Nino develops to spring the following year when the event weakens. This evolution is consistent with northeastward migration of the ENSO-related anomalous out going radiation field. During boreal summer (winter), the strong ENSO-related anomaly tends to reside in regions south (north) of the equator. The evolution of dominant mode of SEAR anomalies is in tandem with the evolution of ENSO-related sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The strengthening and weakening of ''boomerang-shaped'' SST in western Pacific, the changing sign of anomalous SST in Java Sea and the warming in Indian Ocean and South China Sea are all part of ENSO-related changes and all are linked to SEAR anomaly. The anomalous low-level circulation associated with ENSO-related SEAR anomaly indicates the strengthening and weakening of two off-equatorial anticyclones, one over the Southern Indian Ocean and the other over the western North Pacific. Together with patterns of El Nino minus La Nina composites of various fields, it is proposed that the northeastward evolution of SEAR anomaly is basically part of the large-scale eastward evolution of ENSO-related signal in the Indo-Pacific sector. The atmosphere-ocean interaction plays an important role in this evolution. (orig.)

  4. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  5. Exploring the Links in Monthly to Decadal Variability of the Atmospheric Water Balance Over the Wettest Regions in ERA-20C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, M.

    2017-10-01

    Monthly-to-decadal variability of the regional precipitation over Intertropical Convergence Zone and north-Atlantic and north-Pacific storm tracks was investigated using ERA-20C reanalysis. Satellite-based precipitation (P) and evaporation (E) climatological patterns were well reproduced by ERA-20C. Regional P and E monthly time series displayed 20% differences, but these decreased rapidly with time scale ( 10% at yearly time scales). Spectral analysis showed good scale-by-scale statistical agreement between ERA-20C and observations. Using ERA-Interim showed no improvement despite the much wider range of information assimilated (including satellites). Remarkably high Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis coefficients (ρDCCA > 0.7 and often ρDCCA > 0.9) revealed tight links between the nonperiodic variability of P, moisture divergence (DIV), and pressure velocity (ω) at monthly-to-decadal time scales over all the wet regions. In contrast, ρDCCA was essentially nonsignificant between nonperiodic P and E or sea surface temperature (SST). Thus, the nonperiodic monthly-to-decadal variability of precipitation in these regions is almost fully controlled by dynamics and not by local E or SST (suggested by Clausius-Clapeyron relation). Analysis of regional nonperiodic standard deviations and power spectra (and respective spectral exponents, β) provided further robustness to this conclusion. Finally, clear transitions in β for P, DIV, and ω between tropical and storm track regions were found. The latter is dominated by transient storms, with energy accumulation at synoptic scales and β β values (0.2 to 0.4) were found in the tropics, implying longer-range autocorrelations and slower decreasing variability and information creation with time scale, consistent with the important forcing from internal modes of variability (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation).

  6. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 1, which is comprised of Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and H...

  7. Regionalization: A Story Map Lesson on Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    This lesson introduces the concept of regionalization and types of regions. After a brief introductory activity, students explore a story map to learn the material. The teacher can project the story map on a screen