WorldWideScience

Sample records for warm fog properties

  1. Warm and Humid Air Blowing over Cold Water - Grand Banks Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P.; Weng, W.

    2016-12-01

    The condensation of water vapour into droplets and the formation of fog in the Earth's atmospheric boundary layer involves a complex balance between horizontal advection and vertical turbulent mixing of heat and water vapour, cloud microphysical processes and radiative transfers of heat, plus the impact of water droplets, and sometimes ice crystals, on visibility. It is a phenomenon which has been studied for many years in a variety of contexts. On land, surface cooling of the ground via long wave radiation at night is often the trigger and a number of 1-D (height and time dependent) radiative fog models have been developed. Over the waters offshore from Newfoundland a key factor is the advection of moist air from over warm gulf stream waters to colder Labrador current water - an internal boundary-layer problem. Some basic properties can be learned from a steady state 2-D (x-z) model.The WTS (Weng, Taylor and Salmon, 2010, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 98, 121-132 ) model of flow above changes in surface conditions has been used to investigate planetary boundary-layer flow over water with spatial changes in temperature, and to investigate situations leading to saturation and fog formation. Our turbulence closure includes the turbulent kinetic energy equation but we prefer to specify a height, surface roughness, Rossby number and local stability dependent, "master" length scale instead of a somewhat empirical dissipation or similar equation. Results show that fog can develop and extent to heights of order 100m in some conditions, depending on upstream profiles of wind, temperature and mixing ratio, and on solar radiation and the horizontal variations in water surface temperature.Next steps will involve validation against data being collected (by AMEC-Foster Wheeler in the Hibernia Management and Development Company Metocean project) over the Grand Banks and an interface with WRF and high resolution sea surface temperature data for forecasting fog conditions over the

  2. Fogs: Physical Basis, Characteristic Properties, and Impacts on the Environment and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Pérez-Díaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a selective overview of natural fogs in terms of fog types, forms and states of occurrence, physical, micro-physical, chemical and dynamic properties, basic characterizing parameters, etc. In focus are related achievements and contributions reported mainly during the last decade and a half, as a result of both laboratory studies and field observations. Processes of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation are analyzed in the aspects of condensation, nuclei diversity and specifics, as related to the activation, growth and deposition of fog droplets. The effect is highlighted of the water vapor’s partial pressure on the surface tension of the liquid water–air interface and the freezing point of the water droplets. Some problems and aspects of fog modeling, parameterization, and forecasting are outlined and discussed on the examples of newly developed relevant 1D/3D theoretical models. Important issues of fog impacts on the air quality, ecosystems, water basins, societal life, and human health are also addressed and discussed, particularly in cases of anthropogenically modified (chemical, radioactive, etc. fogs. In view of reducing the possible negative effects of fogs, conclusions are drawn concerning the new demands and challenges to fog characterization imposed by the changing natural and social environment and the needs for new data on and approaches to more adequate observations of fog-related events.

  3. Evaluation of physical and chemical properties and their interactions in fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin A; Jensen, Jeanette L; Gracz, Hanna S; Dancer, Jens; Keener, Kevin M

    2017-10-15

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) blockages in sewer systems are a substantial problem in the United States. It has been estimated that over 50% of sewer overflows are a result of FOG blockages. In this work, a thorough laboratory study was undertaken to examine key variables that contribute to FOG deposit formation under controlled conditions. Physical and chemical properties and their interactions were evaluated and conditions that generated deposits that mimicked field FOG deposits were identified. It was found that 96 of the of 128 reaction conditions tested in the laboratory formed FOG deposits with similar physical and chemical characteristics as field FOG deposits. It was also found that FOG deposits can be created through fatty acid crystallization and not just saponification. Furthermore FOG deposits were found to be more complex than previously documented and contain free fatty acids, fatty acid metal salts, triacylglycerol's, diacylglycerol's and, monoacylglycerol's. Lastly it was found that FOG deposits that only contained saturated fatty acids were on average 2.1 times higher yield strength than deposits that contained unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vertical distribution of microphysical properties in radiation fogs - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, S.; Maier, F.; Bendix, J.; Thies, B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the validity of a theoretical liquid water content (LWC) profile in fog layers currently used for satellite based ground fog detection, with a special focus on the temporal dynamics during fog life cycle. For this purpose, LWC profiles recorded during two different fog events by means of a tethered balloon borne measurement system are presented and discussed. The results indicate a good agreement in trend and gradient between measured and theoretical LWC profiles during the mature stage of the fog life cycle. The profile obtained during the dissipation stage shows less accordance with the theoretical profile. To improve the agreement between theoretical and measured LWC profiles, the evolutionary stages during the fog life cycle should be incorporated. However, the variability within the prenoted measurements points out that more LWC profiles during a great variety of different fog events have to be collected for a well-justified adaptation of the theoretical LWC profile, considering fog life cycle phases in the future. In general, this underlines the existing knowledge gap regarding the vertical distribution of microphysical properties in natural fogs.

  5. Implementation of warm-cloud processes in a source-oriented WRF/Chem model to study the effect of aerosol mixing state on fog formation in the Central Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-H. Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The source-oriented Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry model (SOWC was modified to include warm cloud processes and was applied to investigate how aerosol mixing states influence fog formation and optical properties in the atmosphere. SOWC tracks a 6-D chemical variable (X, Z, Y, size bins, source types, species through an explicit simulation of atmospheric chemistry and physics. A source-oriented cloud condensation nuclei module was implemented into the SOWC model to simulate warm clouds using the modified two-moment Purdue Lin microphysics scheme. The Goddard shortwave and long-wave radiation schemes were modified to interact with source-oriented aerosols and cloud droplets so that aerosol direct and indirect effects could be studied. The enhanced SOWC model was applied to study a fog event that occurred on 17 January 2011, in the Central Valley of California. Tule fog occurred because an atmospheric river effectively advected high moisture into the Central Valley and nighttime drainage flow brought cold air from mountains into the valley. The SOWC model produced reasonable liquid water path, spatial distribution and duration of fog events. The inclusion of aerosol–radiation interaction only slightly modified simulation results since cloud optical thickness dominated the radiation budget in fog events. The source-oriented mixture representation of particles reduced cloud droplet number relative to the internal mixture approach that artificially coats hydrophobic particles with hygroscopic components. The fraction of aerosols activating into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN at a supersaturation of 0.5 % in the Central Valley decreased from 94 % in the internal mixture model to 80 % in the source-oriented model. This increased surface energy flux by 3–5 W m−2 and surface temperature by as much as 0.25 K in the daytime.

  6. [Optical properties of aerosol during haze-fog episodes in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xing-Na; Li, Xin-Mei; Deng, Zen-Grandeng; De, Qing-Yangzong; Yuan, Shuai

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the optical properties of aerosol during haze-fog episodes in Beijing. The aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent (alpha), size distribution and single scattering albedo (omega) during haze-fog episodes were analyzed between 2002 and 2008 using AERONENT data. During haze-fog episodes, the aerosol optical depth showed a decreasing trend with wavelengths, and showed high values with an average 1.34 at 440 nm. The magnitude of Angstrom exponent was relatively high during haze-fog episodes and the mean values reached 1.11. The frequency distribution of alpha was up to 94% when alpha > 0.9, indicating the predominance of fine particles during haze-fog episodes in Beijing. The aerosol volume size distributions presented a bimodal structure (fine and coarse modes). The maxima (peaks) radius of fine mode showed an increasing trend with AOD, however, those of coarse mode showed a decreasing trend with AOD. The size distribution showed a distinct difference in dominant mode for the different AOD. The single scattering albedo showed an increasing trend with AOD during haze-fog episodes in Beijing. The mean value of omega was 0.89 at the four wavelengths and the omega exhibited a low sensitivity to wavelengths.

  7. Factors that influence properties of FOG deposits and their formation in sewer collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the formation of Fat, Oil, and Grease (FOG) deposits in sewer systems is critical to the sustainability of sewer collection systems since they have been implicated in causing sewerage blockages that leads to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Recently, FOG deposits in sewer systems displayed strong similarities with calcium-based fatty acid salts as a result of a saponification reaction. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors that may affect the formation of FOG deposits and their chemical and rheological properties. These factors included the types of fats used in FSEs, environmental conditions (i.e. pH and temperature), and the source of calcium in sewer systems. The results of this study showed that calcium content in the calcium based salts seemed to depend on the solubility limit of the calcium source and influenced by pH and temperature conditions. The fatty acid profile of the calcium-based fatty acid salts produced under alkali driven hydrolysis were identical to the profile of the fat source and did not match the profile of field FOG deposits, which displayed a high fraction of palmitic, a long chain saturated fatty acid. It is hypothesized that selective microbial metabolism of fats and/or biologically induced hydrogenation may contribute to the FOG deposit makeup in sewer system. Therefore, selective removal of palmitic in pretreatment processes may be necessary prior to the discharge of FSE wastes into the sewer collection system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fog-Harvesting Properties of Dryopteris marginata: Role of Interscalar Microchannels in Water-Channeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Sharma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several flora and fauna species found in arid areas have adapted themselves to collect water by developing unique structures and to intake the collected moisture. Apart from the capture of the moisture and fog on the surface, water transport and collection both play an important part in fog-harvesting systems as it prevents the loss of captured water through evaporation and makes the surface available for the capture of water again. Here, we report the remarkable fog collection and water-channeling properties of Dryopteris marginata. The surface of D. marginata has developed an integrated system of multiscale channels so that the water spreads quickly and is transported via these channels very efficiently. These integrated multiscale channels have also been replicated using a facile soft lithography technique to prepare biomimetic surfaces and it has been proved that it is the surface architecture that plays a role in the water transport rather than the material’s properties (waxes present on the surface of the leaves. Based on our studies, we infer that the microlevel hierarchy of the structures make the surface hydrophilic and the multiscale channels allow the efficient passage and transport of water. The understanding of the efficient and well-directed water transport and collection in D. marginata is expected to provide valuable insights to design efficient surfaces for fog-harvesting applications.

  9. Ecosystem properties self-organize in response to a directional fog-vegetation interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Daniel E; Armesto, Juan J; Hedin, Lars O

    2014-05-01

    Feedbacks between vegetation and resource inputs can lead to the local, self-organization of ecosystem properties. In particular, feedbacks in response to directional resources (e.g., coastal fog, slope runoff) can create complex spatial patterns, such as vegetation banding. Although similar feedbacks are thought to be involved in the development of ecosystems, clear empirical examples are rare. We created a simple model of a fog-influenced, temperate rainforest in central Chile, which allows the comparison of natural banding patterns to simulations of various putative mechanisms. We show that only feedbacks between plants and fog were able to replicate the characteristic distributions of vegetation, soil water, and soil nutrients observed in field transects. Other processes, such as rainfall, were unable to match these diagnostic distributions. Furthermore, fog interception by windward trees leads to increased downwind mortality, leading to progressive extinction of the leeward edge. This pattern of ecosystem development and decay through self-organized processes illustrates, on a relatively small spatial and temporal scale, the patterns predicted for ecosystem evolution.

  10. Marine fog: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koračin, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulation and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

  11. New method for evaluating high-quality fog protective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeremuszkin, Grzegorz; Latreche, Mohamed; Mendoza-Suarez, Guillermo

    2011-05-01

    Fogging is commonly observed when humid-warm air contacts the cold surface of a transparent substrate, i.e. eyewear lenses, making the observed image blurred and hazy. To protect from fogging, the lens inner surfaces are protected with Anti-Fog coatings, which render them hydrophilic and induce water vapor condensation as a smooth, thin and invisible film, which uniformly flows down on the lens as the condensation progresses. Coatings differ in protection level, aging kinetics, and susceptibility to contamination. Some perform acceptably in limited conditions, beyond which the condensing water film becomes unstable, nonuniform, and scatters light or shows refractory distortions, both affecting the observed image. Quantifying the performance of Anti-Fog coated lenses is difficult: they may not show classical fogging and the existing testing methods, based on fog detection, are therefore inapplicable. The presented method for evaluating and quantifying AF properties is based on characterizing light scattering on lenses exposed to controlled humidity and temperature. Changes in intensity of laser light scattered at low angles (1, 2 4 and 8 degrees), observed during condensation of water on lenses, provide information on the swelling of Anti-Fog coatings, formation of uniform water film, going from an unstable to a steady state, and on the coalescence of discontinuous films. Real time observations/measurements allow for better understanding of factors controlling fogging and fog preventing phenomena. The method is especially useful in the development of new coatings for military-, sport-, and industrial protective eyewear as well as for medical and automotive applications. It allows for differentiating between coatings showing acceptable, good, and excellent performance.

  12. Coastal fog, climate change, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; O'Brien, Travis A.; Faloona, Ian C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine fog, a characteristic feature of climates generated at the eastern boundaries of ocean basins worldwide, evokes different feelings in those who experience it (see Figure 1). Authors and poets use fog to represent mystery, bleakness, and confusion. Film directors seek out fog to shroud scenes in eerie gloominess. Tourists visiting beaches bemoan the cool and damp conditions that create a striking contrast to the sunny warm conditions typically found less than a few kilometers inland. Airline passengers delayed by fog impatiently wait for the skies to clear. Residents get used to the Sun “rising” in midday after fog dissipates.

  13. Unraveling the Mystery of the Blue Fog: Structure, Properties, and Applications of Amorphous Blue Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2017-12-01

    The amorphous blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals, also known as the "blue fog," are among the rising stars in materials science that can potentially be used to develop next-generation displays with the ability to compete toe-to-toe with disruptive technologies like organic light-emitting diodes. The structure and properties of the practically unobservable blue phase III have eluded scientists for more than a century since it was discovered. This progress report reviews the developments in this field from both fundamental and applied research perspectives. The first part of this progress report gives an overview of the 130-years-long scientific tour-de-force that very recently resulted in the revelation of the mysterious structure of blue phase III. The second part reviews progress made in the past decade in developing electrooptical, optical, and photonic devices based on blue phase III. The strong and weak aspects of the development of these devices are underlined and criticized, respectively. The third- and-final part proposes ideas for further improvement in blue phase III technology to make it feasible for commercialization and widespread use. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Evaluation of Fog and Low Stratus Cloud Microphysical Properties Derived from In Situ Sensor, Cloud Radar and SYRSOC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Dupont

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The microphysical properties of low stratus and fog are analyzed here based on simultaneous measurement of an in situ sensor installed on board a tethered balloon and active remote-sensing instruments deployed at the Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research (SIRTA observatory (south of Paris, France. The study focuses on the analysis of 3 case studies where the tethered balloon is deployed for several hours in order to derive the relationship between liquid water content (LWC, effective radius (Re and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC measured by a light optical aerosol counter (LOAC in situ granulometer and Bistatic Radar System for Atmospheric Studies (BASTA cloud radar reflectivity. The well-known relationship Z = α × (LWCβ has been optimized with α ϵ [0.02, 0.097] and β ϵ [1.91, 2.51]. Similar analysis is done to optimize the relationship Re = f(Z and CDNC = f(Z. Two methodologies have been applied to normalize the particle-size distribution measured by the LOAC granulometer with a visible extinction closure (R² ϵ [0.73, 0.93] and to validate the LWC profile with a liquid water closure using the Humidity and Temperature Profiler (HATPRO microwave radiometer (R² ϵ [0.83, 0.91]. In a second step, these relationships are used to derive spatial and temporal variability of the vertical profile of LWC, Re and CDNC starting from BASTA measurement. Finally, the synergistic remote sensing of clouds (SYRSOC algorithm has been tested on three tethered balloon flights. Generally, SYRSOC CDNC and Re profiles agreed well with LOAC in situ and BASTA profiles for the studied fog layers. A systematic overestimation of LWC by SYRSOC in the top half of the fog layer was found due to fog processes that are not accounted for in the cloud algorithm SYRSOC.

  15. [PM2.5 pollution and aerosol optical properties in fog and haze days during autumn and winter in Beijing area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiu-Juan; Pu, Wei-Wei; Meng, Wei; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Dong, Fan; He, Di

    2013-02-01

    A study on the PM2.5 pollution and aerosol optical properties in haze-fog days was carried out from Sep. 1st to Dec. 7th, 2011 in Beijing area by using PM2.5 concentration, aerosol scattering coefficient (sigma sca) and absorption coefficient (sigma abs) measured under urban and rural environment. The effect of weather condition on the PM25 pollution and aerosol optical properties was discussed as well. The results showed that the PM2.5 concentration, sigma sca and sigma abs, were evidently higher in haze-fog days than those in non-haze-fog days. The average PM2.5 concentrations in haze-fog days with values of 97.6 microg m-3 and 64.4 microg.m-3 were as 3.3 and 4.8 times as those in non-haze-fog days at urban and rural stations, respectively. The higher PM2.5 concentration in urban area resulted in the more frequent fog and haze phenomena than that in rural area. The PM25 concentration, sigma sca, and sigma abs were significantly higher in urban area than that in rural area in mist days, while relatively close in mist-haze days. This difference suggested that the effect of regional transport of pollution was relatively evident in mist-haze days but weak in mist day. In fog days the sigma sca showed no evident difference between urban and rural area, and was the highest in all types of fog and haze weather. The scattering property of aerosol was the strongest in fog days. The different weather conditions resulted in various characteristics of spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration, sigma sca and sigma abs, as well as the strength of PM2,5 pollution and aerosol extinction. The pollutants transported by the strong southwest wind above the boundary layer and subsided in the boundary layer companying with the local accumulation of pollutants due to the weak diffusion resulted in the most serious haze-fog episode with the strongest PM2.5 pollution and aerosol extinction.

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of cloud cover and fog inundation in coastal California: Ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Bharat; Williams, A. Park; Fischer, Douglas T.; Iacobellis, Sam F.; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Carvalho, Leila; Jones, Charles Leslie; Baguskas, Sara A.; Still, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of low-lying stratocumulus clouds and fog has been known to modify biophysical and ecological properties in coastal California where forests are frequently shaded by low-lying clouds or immersed in fog during otherwise warm and dry summer months. Summer fog and stratus can ameliorate summer drought stress and enhance soil water budgets, and often have different spatial and temporal patterns. Here we use remote sensing datasets to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of cloud cover over California’s northern Channel Islands. We found marine stratus to be persistent from May through September across the years 2001-2012. Stratus clouds were both most frequent and had the greatest spatial extent in July. Clouds typically formed in the evening, and dissipated by the following early afternoon. We present a novel method to downscale satellite imagery using atmospheric observations and discriminate patterns of fog from those of stratus and help explain patterns of fog deposition previously studied on the islands. The outcomes of this study contribute significantly to our ability to quantify the occurrence of coastal fog at biologically meaningful spatial and temporal scales that can improve our understanding of cloud-ecosystem interactions, species distributions and coastal ecohydrology.

  17. Fog Harvesting with Harps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiwei; Anderson, Mark J; Tulkoff, Joshua B; Kennedy, Brook S; Boreyko, Jonathan B

    2018-04-11

    Fog harvesting is a useful technique for obtaining fresh water in arid climates. The wire meshes currently utilized for fog harvesting suffer from dual constraints: coarse meshes cannot efficiently capture microscopic fog droplets, whereas fine meshes suffer from clogging issues. Here, we design and fabricate fog harvesters comprising an array of vertical wires, which we call "fog harps". Under controlled laboratory conditions, the fog-harvesting rates for fog harps with three different wire diameters were compared to conventional meshes of equivalent dimensions. As expected for the mesh structures, the mid-sized wires exhibited the largest fog collection rate, with a drop-off in performance for the fine or coarse meshes. In contrast, the fog-harvesting rate continually increased with decreasing wire diameter for the fog harps due to efficient droplet shedding that prevented clogging. This resulted in a 3-fold enhancement in the fog-harvesting rate for the harp design compared to an equivalent mesh.

  18. Influence of fat and oil type on the yield, physico-chemical properties, and microstructure of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mundo, Dann Marie N; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote

    2017-11-01

    Fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposit, in the form of calcium soap, was found to cause sanitary sewer overflows due to its adhesion on pipe walls. To address this problem, laboratory-prepared calcium soaps have been used to investigate the formation mechanisms of FOG deposits. However, the fats and oils previously utilized were limited and some soap characteristics were not examined. This research attempted to probe through the properties of calcium soaps prepared from calcium chloride and the fats and oils of chicken, pork, palm olein, soybean, olive, and coconut to further understand FOG formation and stability. Results revealed that FOG deposits may occur as smooth, paste-like material or coarse, semi-solid substance depending on their exposure to excess fat/oil and calcium. The smooth soaps with more excess fat/oil demonstrated high apparent viscosity and consistency index, while the coarse soaps with large levels of calcium signified higher melting endset. Moreover, a soap microstructure showing evident networks and lesser void area displayed higher heat and rheological stability, respectively. Overall, fats and oils with higher oleic to palmitic acid ratio such as palm olein oil, olive oil, chicken fat, and pork fat produced soaps with greater yield and degree of saponification. Hence, establishments and authorities should be alert in managing and monitoring these wastes. On the other hand, soybean oil high in linoleic acid and coconut oil high in lauric acid do not pose an immediate threat to the sewer system since they only produced soaps in small quantity. However, their soaps showed high melting endset which could pose a serious effect when accumulated at large amount. On the whole, the fatty acid profile of fats and oils, the presence of excess fat/oil, and calcium content mainly dictate the appearance, melting, rheology, and microstructure of calcium soaps. Their distinct properties can be used as criteria in predicting the condition and stability of FOG

  19. An assessment of acid fog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H 2 SO 4 was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H + concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ''clear air'') aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions

  20. An assessment of acid fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H{sup +} concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ``clear air``) aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions.

  1. Changes in column aerosol optical properties during extreme haze-fog episodes in January 2013 over urban Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xingna; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Lü, Rui; Ma, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Several dense haze-fog (HF) episodes were occurred in the North China Plain (NCP), especially over Beijing in January 2013 characterized by a long duration, a large influential region, and an extremely high PM 2.5 values (>500 μg m −3 ). In this study, we present the characteristics of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing using Cimel sun-sky radiometer measurements during HF and no haze-fog (NHF) episodes occurred over Beijing during 1–31 January, 2013. The respective maximum values of daily mean aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD 440 ) were observed to be 1.21, 1.43, 1.52, and 2.21 occurred on 12, 14 19, and 28 January. It was found that the Ångström exponent (AE) values were almost higher than 1.0 during all the days with its maximum on 26 January (1.53), suggests the dominance of fine-mode particles. The maximum (minimum) aerosol volume size distributions occurred during dense HF (NHF) days with larger particle volumes of fine-mode. The single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and complex refractive index values during HF events suggest the abundance of fine-mode particles from anthropogenic (absorbing) activities mixed with scattering dust particles. The average shortwave direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) values at the bottom-of-atmosphere (BOA) during HF and NHF days were estimated to be 112.29 ± 42.18 W m −2 and −58.61 ± 13.09 W m −2 , while at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) the forcing values were −45.78 ± 22.17 W m −2 and −18.64 ± 5.84 W m −2 , with the corresponding heating rate of 1.61 ± 0.48 K day −1 and 1.12 ± 0.31 K day −1 , respectively. The DARF values retrieved from the AERONET were in good agreement with the SBDART computed both at the TOA (r = 0.95) and the BOA (r = 0.97) over Beijing in January 2013. - Highlights: • Aerosol optical properties were reported during dense haze-fog (HF) episode. • High AE during HF episode observed dominance of fine mode

  2. A simple property of the contribution of double scattered radiation to the lidar returnes from homogeneous fogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruscaglioni, P.

    1979-01-01

    By using the formulas presented in a previous paper for the calculation of the ratio D/S between the contributions of doubly scattered and singly scattered radiation to lidar returns from homogeneous fogs, it is shown that the ratio D/S is proportional to the lidar range, indipendently from the particular model of fog, i.e. from the assumed phase scattering function

  3. Changes in column aerosol optical properties during extreme haze-fog episodes in January 2013 over urban Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingna; Kumar, K Raghavendra; Lü, Rui; Ma, Jia

    2016-03-01

    Several dense haze-fog (HF) episodes were occurred in the North China Plain (NCP), especially over Beijing in January 2013 characterized by a long duration, a large influential region, and an extremely high PM2.5 values (>500 μg m(-3)). In this study, we present the characteristics of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing using Cimel sun-sky radiometer measurements during HF and no haze-fog (NHF) episodes occurred over Beijing during 1-31 January, 2013. The respective maximum values of daily mean aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD440) were observed to be 1.21, 1.43, 1.52, and 2.21 occurred on 12, 14 19, and 28 January. It was found that the Ångström exponent (AE) values were almost higher than 1.0 during all the days with its maximum on 26 January (1.53), suggests the dominance of fine-mode particles. The maximum (minimum) aerosol volume size distributions occurred during dense HF (NHF) days with larger particle volumes of fine-mode. The single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and complex refractive index values during HF events suggest the abundance of fine-mode particles from anthropogenic (absorbing) activities mixed with scattering dust particles. The average shortwave direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) values at the bottom-of-atmosphere (BOA) during HF and NHF days were estimated to be 112.29 ± 42.18 W m(-2) and -58.61 ± 13.09 W m(-2), while at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) the forcing values were -45.78 ± 22.17 W m(-2) and -18.64 ± 5.84 W m(-2), with the corresponding heating rate of 1.61 ± 0.48 K day(-1) and 1.12 ± 0.31 K day(-1), respectively. The DARF values retrieved from the AERONET were in good agreement with the SBDART computed both at the TOA (r = 0.95) and the BOA (r = 0.97) over Beijing in January 2013. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Urban-rural fog differences in Belgrade area, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Dragana; Todorović, Nedeljko

    2018-02-01

    Urban/rural fog appearance during the last 27 years in the Belgrade region is analysed using hourly meteorological records from two meteorological stations: an urban station at Belgrade-Vračar (BV) and a rural station at Belgrade-Airport (BA). The effects of urban development on fog formation are discussed through analysis of fog frequency trends and comparison with a number of meteorological parameters. The mean annual and the mean annual minimum temperatures were greater at the urban BV station than at the rural BA station. The mean monthly relative humidity and the mean monthly water vapour pressure were greater at the rural than urban station. During the period of research (1988-2014), BA experiences 425 more days with fog than BV, which means that BV experiences fog for 62.68% of foggy days at BA. Trends in the number of days with fog were statistically non-significant. We analysed the fog occurrence during different types of weather. Fog in urban BV occurred more frequently during cyclonal circulation (in 52.75% of cases). In rural BA, the trend was the opposite and fog appeared more frequently during anticyclonic circulation (in 53.58% of cases). Fog at BV occurred most frequently in stable anticyclonic weather with light wind, when a temperature inversion existed (21.86% of cases). Most frequently, fog at BA occurred in the morning and only lasted a short time, followed by clearer skies during the anticyclonic warm and dry weather (22.55% of cases).

  5. A method of detecting sea fogs using CALIOP data and its application to improve MODIS-based sea fog detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dong; Lu, Bo; Zhang, Tianche; Yan, Fengqi

    2015-01-01

    A method to detect sea fogs from the measurement data acquired by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite is proposed in this paper. Because of the unique capability of vertical-resolved measurements, sea fogs and low clouds can be more easily distinguished in the CALIOP data compared with passive satellite measurements. Yellow Sea where sea fogs occur frequently is selected to test the method. Nine cases of daytime sea fog events from 2008 to 2011 in the Yellow Sea are studied intensively to characterize the remotely sensed radiation properties of various targets, such as clear-sky sea surface, sea fog, low cloud and high cloud. These fog cases are then used in an attempt to evaluate sea fogs identified from the MODIS measurements. The method proposed in this paper can also be used for nighttime cases. Multi-year sea fog dataset can be made from the CALIOP measurement and used to validate the MODIS sea fog detection. - Highlights: • A method of sea fog detection from the CALIOP measurements is proposed. • CALIOP VFM and 532-nm attenuated backscatter products are integrated used. • Sea fogs and low clouds can be more easily distinguished in the CALIOP data. • 9 Cases of daytime sea fog events in the Yellow Sea are selected to test the method. • The MODIS sea fog detections are evaluated using the collocated CALIOP data

  6. Fog-induced variations in aerosol optical and physical properties over the Indo-Gangetic Basin and impact to aerosol radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Das

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on the changes in aerosol physical and optical properties during fog events were made in December 2004 at Hissar (29.13° N, 75.70° E, a city located in the Indo-Gangetic basin. The visible aerosol optical depth was relatively low (0.3 during the initial days, which, however, increased (0.86 as the month progressed. The increasing aerosol amount, the decreasing surface temperature and a higher relative humidity condition were found favoring the formation of fog. The fog event is also found to alter the aerosol size distribution. An increase in the number concentration of the nucleation mode (radius<0.1 μm particles, along with a decrease in the mode radius showed the formation of freshly nucleated aerosols. In the case of accumulation mode (0.1 μmfog event which prolongs longer into the daytime has a stronger effect on the diurnally averaged aerosol radiative forcing than those events which are confined only to the early morning hours.

  7. Fog-induced variations in aerosol optical and physical properties over the Indo-Gangetic Basin and impact to aerosol radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K.; Misra, A. [Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India); Jayaraman, A. [National Atmospheric Research Lab., Gadanki (India)

    2008-07-01

    A detailed study on the changes in aerosol physical and optical properties during fog events were made in December 2004 at Hissar (29.13 N, 75.70 E), a city located in the Indo-Gangetic basin. The visible aerosol optical depth was relatively low (0.3) during the initial days, which, however, increased (0.86) as the month progressed. The increasing aerosol amount, the decreasing surface temperature and a higher relative humidity condition were found favoring the formation of fog. The fog event is also found to alter the aerosol size distribution. An increase in the number concentration of the nucleation mode (radius<0.1 {mu}m) particles, along with a decrease in the mode radius showed the formation of freshly nucleated aerosols. In the case of accumulation mode (0.1 {mu}mfog event which prolongs longer into the daytime has a stronger effect on the diurnally averaged aerosol radiative forcing than those events which are confined only to the early morning hours. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of multilayer anti-fog coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Pascale; Turgeon, Stéphane; Sarra-Bournet, Christian; Turcotte, Raphaël; Laroche, Gaétan

    2011-03-01

    Fog formation on transparent substrates constitutes a major challenge in several optical applications requiring excellent light transmission characteristics. Anti-fog coatings are hydrophilic, enabling water to spread uniformly on the surface rather than form dispersed droplets. Despite the development of several anti-fog coating strategies, the long-term stability, adherence to the underlying substrate, and resistance to cleaning procedures are not yet optimal. We report on a polymer-based anti-fog coating covalently grafted onto glass surfaces by means of a multistep process. Glass substrates were first activated by plasma functionalization to provide amino groups on the surface, resulting in the subsequent covalent bonding of the polymeric layers. The anti-fog coating was then created by the successive spin coating of (poly(ethylene-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) layers. PEMA acted as an interface by covalently reacting with both the glass surface amino functionalities and the PVA hydroxyl groups, while PVA added the necessary surface hydrophilicity to provide anti-fog properties. Each step of the procedure was monitored by XPS, which confirmed the successful grafting of the coating. Coating thickness was evaluated by profilometry, nanoindentation, and UV visible light transmission. The hydrophilic nature of the anti-fog coating was assessed by water contact angle (CA), and its anti-fog efficiency was determined visually and tested quantitatively for the first time using an ASTM standard protocol. Results show that the PEMA/PVA coating not only delayed the initial period required for fog formation but also decreased the rate of light transmission decay. Finally, following a 24 hour immersion in water, these PEMA/PVA coatings remained stable and preserved their anti-fog properties.

  9. International evolution of fat, oil and grease (FOG) waste management - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Thomas; Gibbons, David; O'Dwyer, Michael; Curran, Thomas P.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, issues relating to fat, oil and grease (FOG) in sewer systems have intensified. In the media, sewer blockages caused by FOG waste deposits, commonly referred to as 'fatbergs', are becoming a reminder of the problems that FOG waste can cause when left untreated. These FOG blockages lead to sanitary sewer overflows, property flooding and contamination of water bodies with sewage. Despite these financial and environmentally detrimental effects, a homogenous FOG waste management ...

  10. Substrate texture properties induce triatomine probing on bitten warm surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marcelo G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this work we initially evaluated whether the biting process of Rhodnius prolixus relies on the detection of mechanical properties of the substrate. A linear thermal source was used to simulate the presence of a blood vessel under the skin of a host. This apparatus consisted of an aluminium plate and a nickel-chrome wire, both thermostatized and presented at 33 and 36°C, respectively. To evaluate whether mechanical properties of the substrate affect the biting behaviour of bugs, this apparatus was covered by a latex membrane. Additionally, we evaluated whether the expression of probing depends on the integration of bilateral thermal inputs from the antennae. Results The presence of a latex cover on a thermal source induced a change in the biting pattern shown by bugs. In fact, with latex covered sources it was possible to observe long bites that were never performed in response to warm metal surfaces. The total number of bites was higher in intact versus unilaterally antennectomized insects. These bites were significantly longer in intact than in unilaterally antennectomized insects. Conclusions Our results suggest that substrate recognition by simultaneous input through thermal and mechanical modalities is required for triggering maxillary probing activity.

  11. Effect of Precuring Warming on Mechanical Properties of Restorative Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Nada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of prepolymerization warming on composites' mechanical properties, three composites were evaluated: Clearfil Majesty (CM (Kuraray, Z-100 (3M/ESPE, and Light-Core (LC (Bisco. Specimens were prepared from each composite at room temperature as control and 2 higher temperatures (37∘C and 54∘C to test surface hardness (SH, compressive strength (CS, and diametral tensile strength (DTS. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's LSD tests. Results revealed that prewarming CM and Z100 specimens significantly improved their SH mean values (P<0.05. Prewarming also improved mean CS values of Z100 specimens (P<0.05. Furthermore, DTS mean value of CM prepared at 52∘ was significantly higher than that of room temperature specimens (P<0.05. KHN, CS, and DTS mean values varied significantly among the three composites. In conclusion, Prewarming significantly enhanced surface hardness of 2 composites. Prewarming also improved bulk properties of the composites; however, this improvement was significant in only some of the tested materials.

  12. Coastal Fog in Atlantic Canada: Characterization and Projection in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, P.; Hartery, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Wheeler, M.; Miller, J.; Bhatia, S.; Chang, R. Y. W.

    2016-12-01

    Marine and coastal fog in Atlantic Canada is usually advective and favored by the meeting of the warm Gulf Stream and cold Labrador Current. As moist warm air moves over cold water, it cools down and becomes supersaturated. The interactions between microphysical, dynamical and radiative processes can also be a determining element in the formation and persistence of fog, which makes fog forecasting a highly challenging task. Current parameterizations within models suffer notably from unresolved microphysical problems such as neglecting droplet concentration, which leads to errors in droplet density predictions of up to 50%. In the scope of improving our understanding of fog and its characteristics, our research group conducted a field study on the coast of Nova Scotia in Eastern Canada during the fog season of 2016. Meteorological variables, droplet and aerosol size distributions, chemical speciation and fog water composition were measured. Results from this study will be presented, along with projections in a changing climate.

  13. Fog deposition to the Atacama desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbeld, A.; Klemm, O.; Griessbaum, F.; Sträter, E.; Larrain, H.; Osses, P.; Cereceda, P.

    2010-07-01

    of long, uninterrupted fog periods. On each of these days, turbulent upward fluxes occurred periodically. This leads to the assumption that there could have been a source of fog water near the surface. During the respective time periods, warm air was transported downward. The cold desert ground could have diminished the temperature of air layers at ground level, and therewith could have caused additional condensation. If there had been a source of droplets between the measuring height (5 m above ground) and the surface, deposition could have occurred while the instruments were measuring upward transport of fog droplets. Westbeld, A., Klemm, O., Griessbaum, F., Sträter, E., Larrain, H., Osses, P. & Cereceda, P. (2009) Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert. Annales Geophysicae 27, 3571-3576.

  14. Animal or plant: which is the better fog water collector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Ebner, Martin; Dacke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Occasional fog is a critical water source utilised by plants and animals in the Namib Desert. Fog basking beetles (Onymacris unguicularis, Tenebrionidae) and Namib dune bushman grass (Stipagrostris sabulicola, Poaceae) collect water directly from the fog. While the beetles position themselves optimally for fog water collection on dune ridges, the grass occurs predominantly at the dune base where less fog water is available. Differences in the fog-water collecting abilities in animals and plants have never been addressed. Here we place beetles and grass side-by-side in a fog chamber and measure the amount of water they collect over time. Based on the accumulated amount of water over a two hour period, grass is the better fog collector. However, in contrast to the episodic cascading water run-off from the grass, the beetles obtain water in a steady flow from their elytra. This steady trickle from the beetles' elytra to their mouth could ensure that even short periods of fog basking--while exposed to predators--will yield water. Up to now there is no indication of specialised surface properties on the grass leafs, but the steady run-off from the beetles could point to specific property adaptations of their elytra surface.

  15. Animal or plant: which is the better fog water collector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nørgaard

    Full Text Available Occasional fog is a critical water source utilised by plants and animals in the Namib Desert. Fog basking beetles (Onymacris unguicularis, Tenebrionidae and Namib dune bushman grass (Stipagrostris sabulicola, Poaceae collect water directly from the fog. While the beetles position themselves optimally for fog water collection on dune ridges, the grass occurs predominantly at the dune base where less fog water is available. Differences in the fog-water collecting abilities in animals and plants have never been addressed. Here we place beetles and grass side-by-side in a fog chamber and measure the amount of water they collect over time. Based on the accumulated amount of water over a two hour period, grass is the better fog collector. However, in contrast to the episodic cascading water run-off from the grass, the beetles obtain water in a steady flow from their elytra. This steady trickle from the beetles' elytra to their mouth could ensure that even short periods of fog basking--while exposed to predators--will yield water. Up to now there is no indication of specialised surface properties on the grass leafs, but the steady run-off from the beetles could point to specific property adaptations of their elytra surface.

  16. Cooling pond fog studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Fog Excess Water Index (FEWI) method of fog prediction has been verified by the use of data obtained at the Dresden cooling pond during 1976 and 1977 and by a reanalysis of observations made in conjunction with a study of cooling pond simulators during 1974. For applications in which the method is applied to measurements or estimates of bulk water temperature, a critical value of about 0.7 mb appears to be most appropriate. The present analyses confirm the earlier finding that wind speed plays little part in determining the susceptibility for fog generation

  17. Fog seal guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Fog seals are a method of adding asphalt to an existing pavement surface to improve sealing or waterproofing, prevent further stone loss by holding aggregate in place, or simply improve the surface appearance. However, inappropriate use can result in...

  18. The Torbay fog facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    A series of lighting sources are needed to help helicopters in their approaches to offshore oil platforms. The Torbay fog facility in Newfoundland was created in May 1998 and has been instrumental in studying different light sources. The facility has been used for fog characterization studies to determine the transmission of various light sources through fog up to a distance of 980 meters and correlating this with fog droplet size and concentration. The most cost effective method of increasing visibility is through high intensity searchlights. In this study, a 150 watt searchlight was set up on the south side of Torbay Bay and fog droplet size and concentration were measured. The main objective of the study was to characterize fog and precipitation (rain and snow) to enable daylight approaches to be made to the Hibernia platform in low visibility conditions. Different methods of measuring visibility were investigated to define a suitable sensor/detector which, when installed on the Hibernia platform, will allow a prediction of visibility to be made for flight operational purposes. 2 figs

  19. [Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

    2013-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background.

  20. Cool PDO phase leads to recent rebound in coastal southern California fog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witiw, Michael R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between coastal fog in southern California and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO is investigated during the last decade. Fog occurrence was examined at two locations in southern California: San Diego and Los Angeles international airports. Both locations are located near the Pacific coast with strong marine influences. The period looked at was 2001 through 2012. The cool season (October-March and warm season (April-September were examined separately because of the different types of fog that prevail in each season. Previous studies have shown a relation between fog and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO. However, a switch in polarity in the PDO in the mid-1970s (from a cool to a warm phase coupled with a sharp decrease in particulate concentrations calls into question the strong relationship shown. Further studies suggest that the decrease in dense fog seen from the 1960s through the 1990s was largely due to increasing urban heat island effects coupled with a decrease in atmospheric particulate matter. Since 1998, the PDO again changed polarity and fog frequencies began to rise. However, urban heat island and particulate effects were relatively constant making it easier to isolate any effects of the PDO on fog occurrence. Previous studies examined the occurrence of dense fog (visibility less than 400 meters, but because of the decrease in fog in this category, 800 meters was chosen this time. That also corresponds to the 0.5 mile visibility which triggers special reports at the California airports when visibility moves through this threshold. Although there was no strong relationship between fog and PDO in the most recent period, Pacific Ocean oscillations were found to show significant relationships with fog frequencies historically. Upwelling indices show a significant relationship with fog frequencies when examined by the phase of the PDO. Even stronger relationships are found when selecting La Niña and El Niño events.

  1. Winter Frost and Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  2. A heavy sea fog event over the Yellow Sea in March 2005: Analysis and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanhong; Lin, Hang; Shen, Biao; Fu, Gang

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, a heavy sea fog episode that occurred over the Yellow Sea on 9 March 2005 is investigated. The sea fog patch, with a spatial scale of several hundred kilometers at its mature stage, reduced visibility along the Shandong Peninsula coast to 100 m or much less at some sites. Satellite images, surface observations and soundings at islands and coasts, and analyses from the Japan Meteorology Agency (JMA) are used to describe and analyze this event. The analysis indicates that this sea fog can be categorized as advection cooling fog. The main features of this sea fog including fog area and its movement are reasonably reproduced by the Fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). Model results suggest that the formation and evolution of this event can be outlined as: (1) southerly warm/moist advection of low-level air resulted in a strong sea-surface-based inversion with a thickness of about 600 m; (2) when the inversion moved from the warmer East Sea to the colder Yellow Sea, a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) gradually formed at the base of the inversion while the sea fog grew in response to cooling and moistening by turbulence mixing; (3) the sea fog developed as the TIBL moved northward and (4) strong northerly cold and dry wind destroyed the TIBL and dissipated the sea fog. The principal findings of this study are that sea fog forms in response to relatively persistent southerly warm/moist wind and a cold sea surface, and that turbulence mixing by wind shear is the primary mechanism for the cooling and moistening the marine layer. In addition, the study of sensitivity experiments indicates that deterministic numerical modeling offers a promising approach to the prediction of sea fog over the Yellow Sea but it may be more efficient to consider ensemble numerical modeling because of the extreme sensitivity to model input.

  3. Extinction of Light during the Fog Life Cycle: a Result from the ParisFog Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, T.; Haeffelin, M.; Drobinski, P.; Gomes, L.; Rangognio, J.; Bergot, T.; Chazette, P.; Raut, J.-C.; Colomb, M.

    2009-01-01

    Data set acquired by five particle-dedicated instruments set up on the SIRTA experimental site during the ParisFog field campaign are exploited to document microphysical properties of particles contributing to extinction of visible radiation in variable situations. The case study is a 48-hour period when atmospheric conditions are highly variable: relative humidity changes between 50 and 100%, visibility ranges between 35000 and 65 m, the site is either downwind Paris area either under maritime influence. A dense and homogeneous fog formed by radiative cooling during the 18-19 February night. In 7 hours, visibility decreases from 26 000 m to 65 m, because of transported pollution (factor 3 in visibility reduction), aerosol hydration (factor 20) and aerosol activation (factor 6). According to Mie theory, extinction in clear-sky polluted and unpolluted regimes is due equally to Aitken and accumulation modes. Extinction in haze is due to hydrated aerosols distributed in the accumulation mode, for diameter smaller than 2 μm. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode still contribute to 20-30% extinction in the fog. Measurements show that fog droplets, with diameter included between 2 and 10 μm, contribute to 40% extinction during the first hours of the fog.

  4. An Alternative Transcript of the FOG-2 Gene Encodes a FOG-2 Isoform lacking the FOG Repression Motif

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Rodney M.; Remo, Benjamin F.; Svensson, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    The FOG family of transcriptional co-factors is composed of two members in mammals: FOG-1 and FOG-2. Both have been shown to bind to GATA factors and function as transcriptional co-repressors in specific cell and promoter contexts. We have previously defined a novel repression domain localized to the N-terminus of each FOG family member, the FOG Repression Motif, which is necessary for FOG-mediated transcriptional repression. In this report, we describe the identification and characterization...

  5. Outline of experimental schemes for measurements of thermophysical and transport properties in warm dense matter at GSI and FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauschwitz, Anna; Jacoby, Joachim; Maruhn, Joachim; Basko, Mikhail; Efremov, Vladimir; Iosilevskiy, Igor; Neumayer, Paul; Novikov, Vladimir; Tauschwitz, Andreas; Rosmej, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Different experimental schemes for investigation of warm dense matter produced with intense energetic ion beams are presented. The described target configurations allow direct measurements of thermophysical and transport properties of warm dense matter without hydrodynamic recalculations. The presented experiments will be realized at the current GSI synchrotron SIS-18 and the future FAIR facility in the framework of the WDM-collaboration.

  6. A pulsed power hydrodynamics approach to exploring properties of warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics, as an application of low-impedance, pulsed power, and high magnetic field technology developed over the last decade to study advanced hydrodynamic problems, instabilities, turbulence, and material properties, can potentially be applied to the study of the behavior and properties of warm dense matter (WDM) as well. Exploration of the properties, such as equation of state and conductivity, of warm dense matter is an emerging area of study focused on the behavior of matter at density near solid density (from 10% of solid density to a few times solid density) and modest temperatures ({approx}1-10 eV). Warm dense matter conditions can be achieved by laser or particle beam heating of very small quantities of matter on timescales short compared to the subsequent hydrodynamic expansion timescales (isochoric heating) and a vigorous community of researchers is applying these techniques using petawatt scale laser systems, but the microscopic size scale of the WDM produced in this way limits access to some physics phenomena. Pulsed power hydrodynamics techniques, either through high convergence liner compression of a large volume, modest density, low temperature plasma to densities approaching solid density or through the explosion and subsequent expansion of a conductor (wire) against a high pressure (density) gas background (isobaric expansion) techniques both offer the prospect for producing warm dense matter in macroscopic quantities. However, both techniques demand substantial energy, proper power conditioning and delivery, and an understanding of the hydrodynamic and instability processes that limit each technique. Similarly, liner compression of normal density material, perhaps using multiple reflected shocks can provide access to the challenging region above normal density -- again with the requirement of very large amounts of driving energy. In this paper we will provide an introduction to techniques that might be applied to explore this

  7. Warm-fluid description of intense beam equilibrium and electrostatic stability properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    A nonrelativistic warm-fluid model is employed in the electrostatic approximation to investigate the equilibrium and stability properties of an unbunched, continuously focused intense ion beam. A closed macroscopic model is obtained by truncating the hierarchy of moment equations by the assumption of negligible heat flow. Equations describing self-consistent fluid equilibria are derived and elucidated with examples corresponding to thermal equilibrium, the Kapchinskij endash Vladimirskij (KV) equilibrium, and the waterbag equilibrium. Linearized fluid equations are derived that describe the evolution of small-amplitude perturbations about an arbitrary equilibrium. Electrostatic stability properties are analyzed in detail for a cold beam with step-function density profile, and then for axisymmetric flute perturbations with ∂/∂θ=0 and ∂/∂z=0 about a warm-fluid KV beam equilibrium. The radial eigenfunction describing axisymmetric flute perturbations about the KV equilibrium is found to be identical to the eigenfunction derived in a full kinetic treatment. However, in contrast to the kinetic treatment, the warm-fluid model predicts stable oscillations. None of the instabilities that are present in a kinetic description are obtained in the fluid model. A careful comparison of the mode oscillation frequencies associated with the fluid and kinetic models is made in order to delineate which stability features of a KV beam are model-dependent and which may have general applicability. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  8. Warm mix asphalt: Chemical additives’ effects on bitumen properties and limestone aggregates mixture compactibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Pereira

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt industries consume large amounts of fuels and emit pollutant gases into the atmosphere. Warm mix asphalt is the most recognized way to minimize these negative impacts, which have given rise to numerous issues related to their performance and the materials used. In this study, the basic and rheological properties of three different bituminous binders, modified with two different chemical additives, were evaluated, determining their behaviour and susceptibility to modification. The results showed that, although chemical additives do not affect the binder by reducing its viscosity, they act on the mixture, allowing to improve its compactability and, consequently, reduce the required production and compaction temperatures. Keywords: Warm mix asphalt, Bitumen, Chemical additives, Behaviour, Additive-binder interaction, Road pavements

  9. Vertical profile of fog microphysics : a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnet, Frédéric; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Mazoyer, Marie; Bourrianne, Thierry; Etcheberry, Jean-Michel; Gaillard, Brigitte; Legain, Dominique; Tzanos, Diane; Barrié, Joel; Barrau, Sébastien; Defoy, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence and development of fogs result from the non-linear interaction of competing radiative, thermodynamic, microphysical and dynamical processes and the forecasting of their life cycle still remains a challenging issue. Several field campaigns have been carried out at the SIRTA observatory in the Paris suburb area (France). These experiments have shown that fog events exhibit large differences of the microphysical properties and various evolutions during their life cycle. To better understand relationships between the different processes and to validate numerical simulations it is necessary however to document the vertical profile of the fog microphysics. A CDP (Cloud Droplet Spectrometer) from DMT (Droplet Measurement Technology, Boulder, CO) has been modified to allow measurements of the droplet size distribution in fog layers with a tethered balloon. This instrumental set-up has been used during a field campaign during the winter 2013-214 in the Landes area in the South West of France. To validate the vertical profiles provided by the modified CDP, a mast was equipped with microphysical instruments at 2 altitude levels with an another CDP at 24 m and a Fog Monitor FM100 at 42 m. The instrumental set-up deployed during this campaign is presented. Data collected during a fog event that occurred during the night of 5-6 March 2014 are analysed. We show that microphysical properties such as droplet number concentration, LWC and mean droplet size, exhibit different time evolution during the fog life cycle depending on the altitude level. Droplet size distribution measurements are also investigated. They reveal sharp variations along the vertical close to the top of the fog layer. In addition it is shown that the shape of the size distributions at the top follows a time evolution typical of a quasi-adiabatic droplet growth.

  10. The Thermodynamic Structure of Arctic Coastal Fog Occurring During the Melt Season over East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Gaëlle F.; Jiskoot, Hester; Cassano, John J.; Gultepe, Ismail; James, Timothy D.

    2018-05-01

    An automated method to classify Arctic fog into distinct thermodynamic profiles using historic in-situ surface and upper-air observations is presented. This classification is applied to low-resolution Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) soundings and high-resolution Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) soundings in low- and high-Arctic coastal and pack-ice environments. Results allow investigation of fog macrophysical properties and processes in coastal East Greenland during melt seasons 1980-2012. Integrated with fog observations from three synoptic weather stations, 422 IGRA soundings are classified into six fog thermodynamic types based on surface saturation ratio, type of temperature inversion, fog-top height relative to inversion-base height and stability using the virtual potential temperature gradient. Between 65-80% of fog observations occur with a low-level inversion, and statically neutral or unstable surface layers occur frequently. Thermodynamic classification is sensitive to the assigned dew-point depression threshold, but categorization is robust. Despite differences in the vertical resolution of radiosonde observations, IGRA and ASCOS soundings yield the same six fog classes, with fog-class distribution varying with latitude and environmental conditions. High-Arctic fog frequently resides within an elevated inversion layer, whereas low-Arctic fog is more often restricted to the mixed layer. Using supplementary time-lapse images, ASCOS microwave radiometer retrievals and airmass back-trajectories, we hypothesize that the thermodynamic classes represent different stages of advection fog formation, development, and dissipation, including stratus-base lowering and fog lifting. This automated extraction of thermodynamic boundary-layer and inversion structure can be applied to radiosonde observations worldwide to better evaluate fog conditions that affect transportation and lead to improvements in numerical models.

  11. PHOTOSPHERIC PROPERTIES OF WARM EUV LOOPS AND HOT X-RAY LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, R. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ueda, K. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tsuneta, S., E-mail: ryouhei.kano@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2014-02-20

    We investigate the photospheric properties (vector magnetic fields and horizontal velocity) of a well-developed active region, NOAA AR 10978, using the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope specifically to determine what gives rise to the temperature difference between ''warm loops'' (1-2 MK), which are coronal loops observed in EUV wavelengths, and ''hot loops'' (>3 MK), coronal loops observed in X-rays. We found that outside sunspots, the magnetic filling factor in the solar network varies with location and is anti-correlated with the horizontal random velocity. If we accept that the observed magnetic features consist of unresolved magnetic flux tubes, this anti-correlation can be explained by the ensemble average of flux-tube motion driven by small-scale random flows. The observed data are consistent with a flux tube width of ∼77 km and horizontal flow at ∼2.6 km s{sup –1} with a spatial scale of ∼120 km. We also found that outside sunspots, there is no significant difference between warm and hot loops either in the magnetic properties (except for the inclination) or in the horizontal random velocity at their footpoints, which are identified with the Hinode X-Ray Telescope and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer. The energy flux injected into the coronal loops by the observed photospheric motion of the magnetic fields is estimated to be 2 × 10{sup 6} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}, which is the same for both warm and hot loops. This suggests that coronal properties (e.g., loop length) play a more important role in giving rise to temperature differences of active-region coronal loops than photospheric parameters.

  12. Mixing rules for optical and transport properties of warm, dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, Joel D.; Horner, Daniel A.; Collins, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    The warm, dense matter (WDM) regime requires a sophisticated treatment since neither ideal gas laws or fully ionized plasma models apply. Mixtures represent the predominant form of matter throughout the universe and the ability to predict the properties of a mixture, though direct simulation or from convolution of the properties of the constituents is both a challenging prospect and an important goal. Through quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), we accurately simulate WDM and compute equations of state, transport, and optical properties of such materials, including mixtures, in a self-consistent manner from a single simulation. With the ability to directly compute the mixture properties, we are able to validate mixing rules for combining the optical and dynamical properties of Li and H separately to predict the properties of lithium hydride (LiH). We have examined two such mixing rules and extend them to morphologies beyond a simple liquid alloy. We have also studied a mixture of polyethylene and aluminum at T = 1 eV.

  13. Foliar uptake of fog in the coast redwood ecosystem: a novel drought-alleviation strategy shared by most redwood forest plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Limm; Kevin Simonin; Tod. Dawson

    2012-01-01

    Fog inundates the coast redwood forests of northern California frequently during the summer months (May to September) when rainfall is largely absent (Azevedo and Morgan 1974, Byers 1953, Oberlander 1956). This maritime fog modifies otherwise warm and dry summer climate by increasing humidity, decreasing the air temperature, reducing solar radiation, and...

  14. Light scattering from superfluid fog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heetae; Lemieux, P.-A.Pierre-Anthony; Durian, Douglas; Williams, G.A.Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of the droplets of superfluid 4 He fog created by an ultrasonic transducer are investigated using a laser scattering technique. Diffusing-wave spectroscopy probes the motion of the droplets, which is found to be ballistic for times shorter than a characteristic viscous time τ v =10 -5 s. The average relative velocity between the droplets is small compared to the velocity that the droplets are ejected from the surface into the fog, but increases proportionally to it

  15. The effect warming time of mechanical properties and structural phase aluminum alloy nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husna Al Hasa, M.; Anwar Muchsin

    2011-01-01

    Ferrous aluminum alloys as fuel cladding will experience the process of heat treatment above the recrystallization temperature. Temperature and time of heat treatment will affect the nature of the metal. Heating time allows will affect change in mechanical properties, thermal and structure of the metal phase. This study aims to determine the effect of time of heat treatment on mechanical properties and phase metal alloys. Testing the mechanical properties of materials, especially violence done by the method of Vickers. Observation of microstructural changes made by metallographic-optical and phase structure were analyzed Based on the x-ray diffraction patterns Elemental analysis phase alloy compounds made by EDS-SEM. Test results show the nature of violence AlFeNiMg alloy by heating at 500°C with a warm-up time 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours respectively decreased range 94.4 HV, 87.6 HV and 85.1 HV. The nature of violence AlFeNi alloy showed a decrease in line with the longer heating time. Metallographic-optical observations show the microstructural changes with increasing heating time. Microstructure shows the longer the heating time trend equi axial shaped grain structure of growing and the results showed a trend analyst diffraction pattern formation and phase θ α phase (FeAl3) in the alloy. (author)

  16. An automated fog monitoring system for the Indo-Gangetic Plains based on satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dinesh; Chourey, Reema; Rizvi, Sarwar; Singh, Manoj; Gautam, Ritesh

    2016-05-01

    Fog is a meteorological phenomenon that causes reduction in regional visibility and affects air quality, thus leading to various societal and economic implications, especially disrupting air and rail transportation. The persistent and widespread winter fog impacts the entire the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), as frequently observed in satellite imagery. The IGP is a densely populated region in south Asia, inhabiting about 1/6th of the world's population, with a strong upward pollution trend. In this study, we have used multi-spectral radiances and aerosol/cloud retrievals from Terra/Aqua MODIS data for developing an automated web-based fog monitoring system over the IGP. Using our previous and existing methodologies, and ongoing algorithm development for the detection of fog and retrieval of associated microphysical properties (e.g. fog droplet effective radius), we characterize the widespread fog detection during both daytime and nighttime. Specifically, for the night time fog detection, the algorithm employs a satellite-based bi-spectral brightness temperature difference technique between two spectral channels: MODIS band-22 (3.9μm) and band-31 (10.75μm). Further, we are extending our algorithm development to geostationary satellites, for providing continuous monitoring of the spatial-temporal variation of fog. We anticipate that the ongoing and future development of a fog monitoring system would be of assistance to air, rail and vehicular transportation management, as well as for dissemination of fog information to government agencies and general public. The outputs of fog detection algorithm and related aerosol/cloud parameters are operationally disseminated via http://fogsouthasia.com/.

  17. Comparison of passive fog gauges for determining fog duration and fog interception by a Puerto Rican elfin cloud forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, F; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Scatena, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    Between 5 March and 10 May 2001, the performance of three types of passive fog gauges (wire harp WH, standard fog collector SC and Juvik gauge JU) was compared at a wind-exposed Puerto Rican elfin cloud forest site. The gauges were used to determine the timing and duration of fog, as well as

  18. Caltrans fog detection and warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has implemented a fog detection and warning system on Highway 99 near Fresno. The entire central valley region is susceptible to Tule fog, which can reduce visibility tremendously, sometimes to n...

  19. To what extent can global warming events influence scaling properties of climatic fluctuations in glacial periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The Earth's climate is an extremely unstable complex system consisting of nonlinear and still rather unknown interactions among atmosphere, land surface, ice and oceans. The system is mainly driven by solar irradiance, even if internal components as volcanic eruptions and human activities affect the atmospheric composition thus acting as a driver for climate changes. Since the extreme climate variability is the result of a set of phenomena operating from daily to multi-millennial timescales, with different correlation times, a study of the scaling properties of the system can evidence non-trivial persistent structures, internal or external physical processes. Recently, the scaling properties of the paleoclimate changes have been analyzed by distinguish between interglacial and glacial climates [Shao and Ditlevsen, 2016]. The results show that the last glacial record (20-120 kyr BP) presents some elements of multifractality, while the last interglacial period (0-10 kyr BP), say the Holocene period, seems to be characterized by a mono-fractal structure. This is associated to the absence of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events in the interglacial climate that could be the cause for the absence of multifractality. This hypothesis is supported by the analysis of the period between 18 and 27 kyr BP, i.e. during the Last Glacial Period, in which a single DO event have been registred. Through the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) we were able to detect a timescale separation within the Last Glacial Period (20-120 kyr BP) in two main components: a high-frequency component, related to the occurrence of DO events, and a low-frequency one, associated to the cooling/warming phase switch [Alberti et al., 2014]. Here, we investigate the scaling properties of the climate fluctuations within the Last Glacial Period, where abrupt climate changes, characterized by fast increase of temperature usually called Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, have been particularly pronounced. By using the

  20. 33 CFR 118.130 - Fog signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fog signals. 118.130 Section 118... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.130 Fog signals. On waterways where visibility is frequently reduced due to fog or other causes, the District Commander may require or authorize the installation of one or...

  1. Fog along the Meuse Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firket, J

    1936-01-01

    An account of a fog-pollution incident, 1 through 5 December 1930 was described. Many people were injured, several hundred were severely hampered by respiratory troubles, and 63 people died on December 4 and 5. Many cattle were slaughtered because of sickness. Symptoms coincided with the arrival and departure of fog. Medical conditions included: retrosternal pain, coughing fits, dypsnea similar to that accompanying asthma, cardiovascular collapse in those particularly susceptible (e.g., already crippled by asthma or cardiac insufficiency), irritation of respiratory membranes, and deposition of fine soot as far as alveoli. Retrospective observation and calculation pointed to SO/sub 2/ from burning of coal and sulfuric acid from fog-metal oxide-catalyzed conversion of SO/sub 2/ as the possible deadly pollutants. Maximum (calculated) SO/sub 2/ concentration was 100 mg/m/sup 3/.

  2. Light scattering from superfluid fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heetae; Lemieux, P.-A.Pierre-Anthony; Durian, Douglas; Williams, G.A.Gary A

    2003-05-01

    The dynamics of the droplets of superfluid {sup 4}He fog created by an ultrasonic transducer are investigated using a laser scattering technique. Diffusing-wave spectroscopy probes the motion of the droplets, which is found to be ballistic for times shorter than a characteristic viscous time {tau}{sub v}=10{sup -5} s. The average relative velocity between the droplets is small compared to the velocity that the droplets are ejected from the surface into the fog, but increases proportionally to it.

  3. Trends in coastal Arctic fog and its influence on the surface energy balance of glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiskoot, H.; Gueye, S.Y.; van Boxel, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Breakup of sea ice causes advection and steam fog, which can be persistent over oceans and coasts but diminishes inland. Arctic warming has increased summer sea ice decline and open water exposure, affecting heat and moisture fluxes and therefore cloud formation. Cloudiness has generally increased

  4. Further observations on London fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, R E; Lawther, P J

    1957-01-01

    The degree of illness in a group of people with bonchitis or emphysema residing in London during the winter of 1955--56 was monitored by personal diary methods. Concentration of smoke was related to degree of illness, with rapid response at onset and slow recovery. Wet fogs were no worse than dry ones.

  5. Numerical Simulations of an Inversion Fog Event in the Salt Lake Valley during the MATERHORN-Fog Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2018-01-01

    An advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is employed to simulate a wintertime inversion fog event in the Salt Lake Valley during the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations Program (MATERHORN) field campaign during January 2015. Simulation results are compared to observations obtained from the field program. The sensitivity of numerical simulations to available cloud microphysical (CM), planetary boundary layer (PBL), radiation, and land surface models (LSMs) is evaluated. The influence of differing visibility algorithms and initialization times on simulation results is also examined. Results indicate that the numerical simulations of the fog event are sensitive to the choice of CM, PBL, radiation, and LSM as well as the visibility algorithm and initialization time. Although the majority of experiments accurately captured the synoptic setup environment, errors were found in most experiments within the boundary layer, specifically a 3° warm bias in simulated surface temperatures compared to observations. Accurate representation of surface and boundary layer variables are vital in correctly predicting fog in the numerical model.

  6. Enhanced toxicity of aerosol in fog conditions in the Po Valley, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decesari, Stefano; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Hasheminassab, Sina; Sandrini, Silvia; Gilardoni, Stefania; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2017-06-01

    While numerous studies have demonstrated the association between outdoor exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, the actual chemical species responsible for PM toxicological properties remain a subject of investigation. We provide here reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity data for PM samples collected at a rural site in the Po Valley, Italy, during the fog season (i.e., November-March). We show that the intrinsic ROS activity of Po Valley PM, which is mainly composed of biomass burning and secondary aerosols, is comparable to that of traffic-related particles in urban areas. The airborne concentration of PM components responsible for the ROS activity decreases in fog conditions, when water-soluble species are scavenged within the droplets. Due to this partitioning effect of fog, the measured ROS activity of fog water was contributed mainly by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and secondary inorganic ions rather than by transition metals. We found that the intrinsic ROS activity of fog droplets is even greater (> 2.5 times) than that of the PM on which droplets are formed, indicating that redox-active compounds are not only scavenged from the particulate phase, but are also produced within the droplets. Therefore, even if fog formation exerts a scavenging effect on PM mass and redox-active compounds, the aqueous-phase formation of reactive secondary organic compounds can eventually enhance ROS activity of PM when fog evaporates. These findings, based on a case study during a field campaign in November 2015, indicate that a significant portion of airborne toxicity in the Po Valley is largely produced by environmental conditions (fog formation and fog processing) and not simply by the emission and transport of pollutants.

  7. Fabrication of Biomimetic Fog-Collecting Superhydrophilic-Superhydrophobic Surface Micropatterns Using Femtosecond Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Elisabeth; Stroj, Sandra; Kasemann, Stephan; Matylitsky, Victor; Domke, Matthias

    2018-03-06

    The exciting functionalities of natural superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces served as inspiration for a variety of biomimetic designs. In particular, the combination of both extreme wetting states to micropatterns opens up interesting applications, as the example of the fog-collecting Namib Desert beetle shows. In this paper, the beetle's elytra were mimicked by a novel three-step fabrication method to increase the fog-collection efficiency of glasses. In the first step, a double-hierarchical surface structure was generated on Pyrex wafers using femtosecond laser structuring, which amplified the intrinsic wetting property of the surface and made it superhydrophilic (water contact angle 150°). In the last step, the Teflon-like coating was selectively removed by fs-laser ablation to uncover superhydrophilic spots below the superhydrophobic surface, following the example of the Namib Desert beetle's fog-collecting elytra. To investigate the influence on the fog-collection behavior, (super)hydrophilic, (super)hydrophobic, and low and high contrast wetting patterns were fabricated on glass wafers using selected combinations of these three processing steps and were exposed to fog in an artificial nebulizer setup. This experiment revealed that high-contrast wetting patterns collected the highest amount of fog and enhanced the fog-collection efficiency by nearly 60% compared to pristine Pyrex glass. The comparison of the fog-collection behavior of the six samples showed that the superior fog-collection efficiency of surface patterns with extreme wetting contrast is due to the combination of water attraction and water repellency: the superhydrophilic spots act as drop accumulation areas, whereas the surrounding superhydrophobic areas allow a fast water transportation caused by gravity. The presented method enables a fast and flexible surface functionalization of a broad range of materials including transparent substrates, which offers exciting possibilities for

  8. Security and Privacy in Fog Computing: Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Mithun; Matam, Rakesh; Shu, Lei; Maglaras, Leandros; Ferrag, Mohamed Amine; Choudhry, Nikumani; Kumar, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    open access article Fog computing paradigm extends the storage, networking, and computing facilities of the cloud computing toward the edge of the networks while offloading the cloud data centers and reducing service latency to the end users. However, the characteristics of fog computing arise new security and privacy challenges. The existing security and privacy measurements for cloud computing cannot be directly applied to the fog computing due to its features, such as mobility, heteroge...

  9. Fog water collection effectiveness: Mesh intercomparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Daniel; Torregrosa, Alicia; Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Zhang, Bong June; Sorensen, Deckard; Cohen, Robert; McKinley, Gareth; Kleingartner, Justin; Oliphant, Andrew; Bowman, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    To explore fog water harvesting potential in California, we conducted long-term measurements involving three types of mesh using standard fog collectors (SFC). Volumetric fog water measurements from SFCs and wind data were collected and recorded in 15-minute intervals over three summertime fog seasons (2014–2016) at four California sites. SFCs were deployed with: standard 1.00 m2 double-layer 35% shade coefficient Raschel; stainless steel mesh coated with the MIT-14 hydrophobic formulation; and FogHa-Tin, a German manufactured, 3-dimensional spacer fabric deployed in two orientations. Analysis of 3419 volumetric samples from all sites showed strong relationships between mesh efficiency and wind speed. Raschel mesh collected 160% more fog water than FogHa-Tin at wind speeds less than 1 m s–1 and 45% less for wind speeds greater than 5 m s–1. MIT-14 coated stainless-steel mesh collected more fog water than Raschel mesh at all wind speeds. At low wind speeds of wind speeds of 4–5 m s–1, it collected 41% more. FogHa-Tin collected 5% more fog water when the warp of the weave was oriented vertically, per manufacturer specification, than when the warp of the weave was oriented horizontally. Time series measurements of three distinct mesh across similar wind regimes revealed inconsistent lags in fog water collection and inconsistent performance. Since such differences occurred under similar wind-speed regimes, we conclude that other factors play important roles in mesh performance, including in-situ fog event and aerosol dynamics that affect droplet-size spectra and droplet-to-mesh surface interactions.

  10. Fog water collection effectiveness: Mesh intercomparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Daniel; Torregrosa, Alicia; Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Zhang, Bong June; Sorensen, Deckard; Cohen, Robert; McKinley, Gareth; Kleingartner, Justin; Oliphant, Andrew; Bowman, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    To explore fog water harvesting potential in California, we conducted long-term measurements involving three types of mesh using standard fog collectors (SFC). Volumetric fog water measurements from SFCs and wind data were collected and recorded in 15-minute intervals over three summertime fog seasons (2014–2016) at four California sites. SFCs were deployed with: standard 1.00 m2 double-layer 35% shade coefficient Raschel; stainless steel mesh coated with the MIT-14 hydrophobic formulation; and FogHa-Tin, a German manufactured, 3-dimensional spacer fabric deployed in two orientations. Analysis of 3419 volumetric samples from all sites showed strong relationships between mesh efficiency and wind speed. Raschel mesh collected 160% more fog water than FogHa-Tin at wind speeds less than 1 m s–1 and 45% less for wind speeds greater than 5 m s–1. MIT-14 coated stainless-steel mesh collected more fog water than Raschel mesh at all wind speeds. At low wind speeds of steel mesh collected 3% more and at wind speeds of 4–5 m s–1, it collected 41% more. FogHa-Tin collected 5% more fog water when the warp of the weave was oriented vertically, per manufacturer specification, than when the warp of the weave was oriented horizontally. Time series measurements of three distinct mesh across similar wind regimes revealed inconsistent lags in fog water collection and inconsistent performance. Since such differences occurred under similar wind-speed regimes, we conclude that other factors play important roles in mesh performance, including in-situ fog event and aerosol dynamics that affect droplet-size spectra and droplet-to-mesh surface interactions.

  11. Intercomparison of fog water samplers

    OpenAIRE

    SCHELL, DIETER; GEORGII, HANS-WALTER; MASER, ROLF; JAESCHKE, WOLFGANG; ARENDS, BEATE G.; KOS, GERARD P. A.; WINKLER, PETER; SCHNEIDER, THOMAS; BERNER, AXEL; KRUISZ, CHRISTIAN

    2011-01-01

    During the Po Valley Fog Experiment 1989, 2 fogwater collectors were operated simultaneously at the ground and the results were compared to each other. The chemical analyses of the samples as well as the collection efficiencies showed remarkable differences between both collectors. Some differences in the solute concentrations in the samples of both collectors could be expected due to small differences in the 50% cut-off diameters (5 < d50 < 7 µm). The large differences in the collectio...

  12. Fog lamp regulation as a safety measure to reduce risk in fog conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1992-01-01

    This short note summarizes the relevant aspects for a decision concerning the fog lamp use regulation. Most motorway accidents in the Netherlands took place in fog conditions in the early morning hours. The safety problem in fog conditions is a serious problem caused by bad driving behaviour. The

  13. Mortality, fog and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A E; Bradley, W H

    1960-01-01

    A study was made associating climate and atmospheric pollution with excess mortality in greater London during the winter of 1958 and 1959. It was a particularly foggy winter with 6 major episodes, 4 of which resembled previous dangerous smogs. There were two additional periods of high pollution without fog. Excess mortality during these 8 periods ranged from 70 to 230. During one period, a flu epidemic accompanied the fog. In 4 to 6 foggy periods, morbidity (hospital bed demand) also increased. This small number of observations indicates mortality association: on 2/3 of days with high SO/sub 2/ (2.5 pphM) or high particulate soot (10 mg/m/sup 3/), and on all days with thick fog, there was an increase in mortality (20 deaths more than previous day) on that or the following day. Fifteen-day moving mortality index and bronchitis mortality index were significantly correlated with black suspended matter and SO/sub 2/; association with pneumonia was not significant. Also little or no relation between mortality and humidity, mean temperature, or barometric pressure was found. Rapid response of mortality to air pollution may indicate that pollution affects mostly those already ill.

  14. PERSPECTIVES FOR FOG COMPUTING IN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub PIZOŃ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses ongoing efforts to enable the fog computing vision in manufacturing. As a new paradigm of computing implementation of fog computing faces many challenges that open perspective of new applications within a field of manufacturing. It is expected that fog computing will be one of factors that will accelerate development of in forth industrial revolution. In this article we discuss the perspectives of manufacturing companies surrounded by new solutions of CPS, CPPS and CM in relation to fog computing.

  15. About Security Solutions in Fog Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Petac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The key for improving a system's performance, its security and reliability is to have the dataprocessed locally in remote data centers. Fog computing extends cloud computing through itsservices to devices and users at the edge of the network. Through this paper it is explored the fogcomputing environment. Security issues in this area are also described. Fog computing providesthe improved quality of services to the user by complementing shortages of cloud in IoT (Internet ofThings environment. Our proposal, named Adaptive Fog Computing Node Security Profile(AFCNSP, which is based security Linux solutions, will get an improved security of fog node withrich feature sets.

  16. Organic matter in central California radiation fogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Lee, Taehyoung; Trenary, Laurie; Kang, Gongunn; Chang, Hui; Collett, Jeffrey L

    2002-11-15

    Organic matter was studied in radiation fogs in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the California Regional Particulate Air Quality Study (CRPAQS). Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations ranged from 2 to 40 ppm of C. While most organic carbon was found in solution as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 23% on average was not dissolved inside the fog drops. We observe a clear variation of organic matter concentration with droplet size. TOC concentrations in small fog drops (fogwater, consistent with the enrichment of the organic matter in smaller fog drops with lower terminal settling velocities.

  17. Refreshing Music: Fog Harvesting with Harps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiwei; Anderson, Mark; Kennedy, Brook; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Fog harvesting is a useful technique for obtaining fresh water in arid climates. The wire meshes currently utilized for fog harvesting suffer from dual constraints: coarse meshes cannot efficiently capture fog, while fine meshes suffer from clogging issues. Here, we design a new type of fog harvester comprised of an array of vertical wires, which we call ``fog harps.'' To investigate the water collection efficiency, three fog harps were designed with different diameters (254 μm, 508 μm and 1.30 mm) but the same pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2. For comparison, three different size meshes were purchased with equivalent dimensions. As expected for the mesh structures, the mid-sized wires performed the best, with a drop-off in performance for the fine or coarse meshes. In contrast, the fog harvesting rate continually increased with decreasing wire diameter for the fog harps, due to its low hysteresis that prevented droplet clogging. This resulted in a 3-fold enhancement in the fog harvesting rate for the harp form factor compared to the mesh. The lack of a performance ceiling for the harps suggest that even greater enhancements could be achieved by scaling down to yet smaller sizes.

  18. Fog1 is required for cardiac looping in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, R. Zaak; Bruce, Ashley E.E.; Olivey, Harold E.; Najib, Khalid; Johnson, Vanitha; Earley, Judy U.; Ho, Robert K.; Svensson, Eric C.

    2006-01-01

    To further our understanding of FOG gene function during cardiac development, we utilized zebrafish to examine FOG’s role in the early steps of heart morphogenesis. We identified fragments of three fog genes in the zebrafish genomic database and isolated full-length coding sequences for each of these genes by using a combination of RT-PCR and 5′-RACE. One gene was similar to murine FOG-1 (fog1), while the remaining two were similar to murine FOG-2 (fog2a and fog2b). All Fog proteins were able...

  19. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a name given to a group of technologies that have the common purpose of reducing the viscosity : of the asphalt binders. This reduction in viscosity offers the advantage of producing asphalt-aggregate mixtures at lower mixin...

  20. Detection of ground fog in mountainous areas from MODIS (Collection 051) daytime data using a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hans Martin; Thies, Boris; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Bendix, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    The mountain cloud forest of Taiwan can be delimited from other forest types using a map of the ground fog frequency. In order to create such a frequency map from remotely sensed data, an algorithm able to detect ground fog is necessary. Common techniques for ground fog detection based on weather satellite data cannot be applied to fog occurrences in Taiwan as they rely on several assumptions regarding cloud properties. Therefore a new statistical method for the detection of ground fog in mountainous terrain from MODIS Collection 051 data is presented. Due to the sharpening of input data using MODIS bands 1 and 2, the method provides fog masks in a resolution of 250 m per pixel. The new technique is based on negative correlations between optical thickness and terrain height that can be observed if a cloud that is relatively plane-parallel is truncated by the terrain. A validation of the new technique using camera data has shown that the quality of fog detection is comparable to that of another modern fog detection scheme developed and validated for the temperate zones. The method is particularly applicable to optically thinner water clouds. Beyond a cloud optical thickness of ≈ 40, classification errors significantly increase.

  1. Equation of state and transport properties of warm dense helium via quantum molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-Guo [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Cheng, Yan [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, Qi-Feng, E-mail: chenqf01@gmail.com, E-mail: xrchen@scu.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chen, Xiang-Rong, E-mail: chenqf01@gmail.com, E-mail: xrchen@scu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The equation of state, self-diffusion, and viscosity coefficients of helium have been investigated by quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations in the warm dense matter regime. Our simulations are validated through the comparison with the reliable experimental data. The calculated principal and reshock Hugoniots of liquid helium are in good agreement with the gas-gun data. On this basis, we revisit the issue for helium, i.e., the possibility of the instabilities predicted by chemical models at around 2000 GPa and 10 g/cm{sup 3} along the pressure isotherms of 6309, 15 849, and 31 623 K. Our calculations show no indications of instability in this pressure-temperature region, which reconfirm the predictions of previous QMD simulations. The self-diffusion and viscosity coefficients of warm dense helium have been systematically investigated by the QMD simulations. We carefully test the finite-size effects and convergences of statistics, and obtain numerically converged self-diffusion and viscosity coefficients by using the Kubo-Green formulas. The present results have been used to evaluate the existing one component plasma models. Finally, the validation of the Stokes-Einstein relationship for helium in the warm dense regime is discussed.

  2. Evaluation of fog predictions and detection : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Fog can make driving conditions extremely hazardous. These hazards are further increased : at night and/or when combined with smoke. Nationally, about 38,000 fog-related highway : incidents occur each year, with over 600 fatalities. Florida ranks thi...

  3. Fog detection for interstate and state highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Fog is a common and recurrent phenomenon in West Virginia which is the cause of nearly 1.3% of all fatal crashes : occurring all over the state. All three types of fog are common in the state which results in lack visibility, limited : contrast, dist...

  4. Evaluation of fog predictions and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    On January 29, 2012 at about 4:00 am a thick fog and smoke caused a multiple car : crash just south of Gainesville, Florida. 11 people were killed and 18 were : hospitalized. Nationally there are about 38,000 fog related accidents which result in : a...

  5. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin

    2011-01-01

    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  6. On the fog variability over south Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, F.S. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Pakistan Meteorological Department, Islamabad (Pakistan); Koernich, H.; Tjernstroem, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, The Bert Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and therefore must be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant positive trends were found in the fog frequency but this increase is not gradual, as with the humidity, but comprises of two distinct regimes shifts, in 1990 and 1998, with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of ''cross-over temperature'' combined with boundary layer stability. This fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to analyze fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from the North Atlantic in the upper troposphere that when causing higher pressure over the region results in an increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards. (orig.)

  7. Prediction of mechanical properties of a warm compacted molybdenum prealloy using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Mansour; Vahdati Khaki, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ANNs and ANFIS fairly predicted UTS and YS of warm compacted molybdenum prealloy. ► Effects of composition, temperature, compaction pressure on output were studied. ► ANFIS model was in better agreement with experimental data from published article. ► Sintering temperature had the most significant effect on UTS and YS. -- Abstract: Predictive models using artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) were successfully developed to predict yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of warm compacted 0.85 wt.% molybdenum prealloy samples. To construct these models, 48 different experimental data were gathered from the literature. A portion of the data set was randomly chosen to train both ANN with back propagation (BP) learning algorithm and ANFIS model with Gaussian membership function and the rest was implemented to verify the performance of the trained network against the unseen data. The generalization capability of the networks was also evaluated by applying new input data within the domain covered by the training pattern. To compare the obtained results, coefficient of determination (R 2 ), root mean squared error (RMSE) and average absolute error (AAE) indexes were chosen and calculated for both of the models. The results showed that artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy system were both potentially strong for prediction of the mechanical properties of warm compacted 0.85 wt.% molybdenum prealloy; however, the proposed ANFIS showed better performance than the ANN model. Also, the ANFIS model was subjected to a sensitivity analysis to find the significant inputs affecting mechanical properties of the samples.

  8. A Wavelet-based method for processing signal of fog in strap-down inertial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D.; Xiong, C.; Liu, H. [Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-07-01

    Fibre optical gyroscopes (FOGs) have been applied widely in many fields in contrast, with their counterparts such as mechanical gyroscopes and ring laser gyroscopes. The precision of FOG is affected significantly by bias drift, angle random walk temperature effects and noises. Especially, uncertain disturbances resulting from road irregularities often affect accuracy of strap-down inertial system (SINS). Hence, eliminating, uncertain disturbances from outputs of it FOG plays a crucial role to improve accuracy of SINS. This paper presents a wavelet-based method for denoising signals of FOGs in SINS used for exploring and rescuing robots in coal mines. Property of road irregularities in mines is taken into account as a key factor resulting in uncertain disturbances in this research. Both frequency band and amplitude of uncertain disturbances are introduced to choose filtering thresholds. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method can efficiently eliminate uncertain disturbances due to road irregularities from outputs of FOGs and improve accuracy of surrogate data. It indicates that the proposed method has a significant potential in FOG-related applications.

  9. Research of HCR Gearing Properties from Warm Scuffing Damage Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Siniša

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of design and dimensioning of HCR gearing, particularly of the gearings with an internal engagement, it nowadays, especially in the design of hybrid cars drives, highly topical. This kind of gearing has many advantages in operation, but at the same time it is more complicated in stage of its design and load capacity calculation. Authors in this contribution present some results of temperature scuffing research of internal and external HCR gearing. There are given the equations for calculation of warm scuffing resistance of both external and internal HCR gearing derived according to the integral temperature criterion.

  10. Haloacetates in fog and rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römpp, A; Klemm, O; Fricke, W; Frank, H

    2001-04-01

    Atmospheric haloacetates can arise from photochemical degradation of halogenated hydrocarbons and from direct anthropogenic emissions. Furthermore, there is also evidence of natural sources although these are quantitatively uncertain. As haloacetates are highly soluble in water, hydrometeors are most significant for their deposition. Fogwater (96 samples) and rainwater samples (over 100 samples) were collected from July 1998 to March 1999 at an ecological research site in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. They were analyzed for monofluoroacetate (MFA), difluoroacetate (DFA), trifluoroacetate (TFA), monochloroacetate (MCA), dichloroacetate (DCA), trichloroacetate (TCA), monobromoacetate (MBA), and dibromoacetate (DBA). The major inorganic ions were also determined. High concentrations of up to 11 microg/L MCA, 5 microg/L DCA, 2 microg/L TCA, and 2 microg/L TFA were found in fogwater associated with westerly winds. Backward trajectories were calculated to determine the origin of the air masses. MBA and DBA have highest concentrations in fogwater advected with air originating from the Atlantic, suggesting the marine origin of these two compounds. All analyzed substances show higher average concentrations in fog than in rain. Estimates of the deposition of haloacetates suggest that the contribution of fog may be more important than rain for the total burden of a forest ecosystem.

  11. Grain refinement and mechanical properties of CP-Ti processed by warm accumulative roll bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, Justin L.; Abu-Farha, Fadi; Bunget, Cristina; Kurfess, Thomas; Hammond, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulative roll bonding (ARB), a severe plastic deformation technique, was used in this study to process commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) at 450 °C. Sheet samples were processed by seven consecutive ARB cycles, with an overall equivalent strain of 5.6. Mechanical characterization and microstructural examination were carried out on the processed material to track their changes and relationships with regard to one another. Electron microscopy, TEM in particular, revealed significant grain refinement in the material, with submicron microstructure achieved even after one cycle of warm processing. Further processing was shown to progressively fragment the highly elongated grains, ultimately producing a predominantly-equiaxed ultrafine grain structure with an average grain size of ∼100 nm. Tensile strength and microhardness of the material increased with the number of ARB cycles; the strength–grain size relationship followed the Hall–Petch equation. The overall grain refinement and strengthening levels observed here are close to those reported in the literature for ARB processing of CP-Ti at ambient temperatures. This demonstrates the ability of warm ARB can be as effective as cold ARB, while offering several advantages for industrial utilization.

  12. Hydrologic Effects and Biogeographic Impacts of Coastal Fog, Channel Islands, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D. T.; Still, C. J.; Williams, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    coastal endemic forests may be particularly susceptible to climate change, particularly if it leads to changes in the fog and low stratus cloud regime, in agreement with palynological and plant macrofossil evidence from the Santa Barbara basin showing the contraction of coastal pines during warm periods over the last 160 kyrs.

  13. Urbanization Causes Increased Cloud Base Height and Decreased Fog in Coastal Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Park; Schwartz, Rachel E.; Iacobellis, Sam; Seager, Richard; Cook, Benjamin I.; Still, Christopher J.; Husak, Gregory; Michaelsen, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Subtropical marine stratus clouds regulate coastal and global climate, but future trends in these clouds are uncertain. In coastal Southern California (CSCA), interannual variations in summer stratus cloud occurrence are spatially coherent across 24 airfields and dictated by positive relationships with stability above the marine boundary layer (MBL) and MBL height. Trends, however, have been spatially variable since records began in the mid-1900s due to differences in nighttime warming. Among CSCA airfields, differences in nighttime warming, but not daytime warming, are strongly and positively related to fraction of nearby urban cover, consistent with an urban heat island effect. Nighttime warming raises the near-surface dew point depression, which lifts the altitude of condensation and cloud base height, thereby reducing fog frequency. Continued urban warming, rising cloud base heights, and associated effects on energy and water balance would profoundly impact ecological and human systems in highly populated and ecologically diverse CSCA.

  14. Possible connection between the East Asian summer monsoon and a swing of the haze-fog-prone area in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Cao, Ziqi; Sheng, Lifang; Diao, Yina; Wang, Wencai; Zhou, Yang; Qiu, Jingyi

    2018-05-01

    The summer monsoon has recently been hypothesized to influence haze-fog events over China, but the detailed processes involved have yet to be determined. In the present study, we found that the haze-fog-prone area swings over eastern China during boreal summer (May to September), coinciding with the movement of the subtropical monsoon convergence belt (hereinafter referred to simply as the "convergence belt"). Further investigation showed that the convergence belt modulates the spatial distribution of the haze-fog-prone area by altering the regional atmospheric conditions. When the warm and wet summer monsoon air mass pushes northwards and meets with cold air, a frontal zone (namely, the convergence belt) forms. The ascent of warm and wet air along the front strengthens the atmospheric stability ahead of the frontal zone, while the descent of cold and dry air weakens the vertical diffusion at the same place. These processes result in an asymmetric distribution of haze-fog along the convergence belt. Based on the criterion of absolute stability and downdraft, these atmospheric conditions favorable for haze-fog are able to identify 57-79% of haze-fog-prone stations, and the anticipation accuracy is 61-71%. After considering the influence of air pollutants on haze-fog occurrence, the anticipation accuracy rises to 78-79%. Our study reveals a connection between local haze-fog weather phenomena and regional atmospheric conditions and large-scale circulation, and demonstrates one possible mechanism for how the summer monsoon influences the distribution of haze-fog in eastern China.

  15. CT fogging effect with ischemic cerebral infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Desch, H.; Hacker, H.; Pencz, A.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1979-01-01

    Systematic CT studies on ten patients with persistent ischemic cerebral infarct revealed a constant phenomenon, the fogging effect. The hypodense infarct at the beginning will be isodense, or close to isodense, on the plain CT during the second or third week and at a later stage will be hypodense again. The fogging infarcted area shows homogeneous intensive contrast enhancement. Knowledge of the fogging effect is important for correct interpretation of the CT image and the indication for contrast medium CT. CT without contrast medium may lead to misinterpretation during the second and third week after the onset of cerebral infarction. (orig.) [de

  16. CT fogging effect with ischemic cerebral infarcts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H; Desch, H; Hacker, H; Pencz, A [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neurologie; Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie)

    1979-01-01

    Systematic CT studies on ten patients with persistent ischemic cerebral infarct revealed a constant phenomenon, the fogging effect. The hypodense infarct at the beginning will be isodense, or close to isodense, on the plain CT during the second or third week and at a later stage will be hypodense again. The fogging infarcted area shows homogeneous intensive contrast enhancement. Knowledge of the fogging effect is important for correct interpretation of the CT image and the indication for contrast medium CT. CT without contrast medium may lead to misinterpretation during the second and third week after the onset of cerebral infarction.

  17. The potential of Tillandsia dune ecosystems for revealing past and present variations in advective fog along the coastal Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Hidalgo, C.; García, J. L.; Gonzalez, A. L.; Marquet, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal Atacama Desert is home to a complex geo-ecosystem supported by fog with multiple atmospheric and oceanic drivers. Fog collectors in place for the last 17 years reveal that monthly fog intensity and amount are significantly linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO 1+2) with cold (warm) anomalies correlated to increased (decreased) fog (R2 = 0.41). Rainfall, however, can occur during extreme positive ENSO anomalies. Tillandsia landbeckii is an epiarenitic plant common to the coastal Atacama where fog is intercepted by the coastal escarpment between 950-1250 m.a.s.l. These plants possess multiple adaptations to survive exclusively on fog, including the construction of "dune" ecosystems known as "tillandsiales". Buried T. landbeckii layers in such dunes contain a record of past variations of fog over time (dunes can top 3 m in height) and alternating plant and sand layers are readily visible in dune stratigraphy. Stable N isotopes on modern plants and fog indicate that these plants reflect δ15N values of total N dissolved in fog. We measured δ15N values from buried T. landbeckii layers from five different tillandsiales found across c. 50 km the coastal escarpment. The isotope values in these buried plants indicate a prominent c. 8.0 ‰ shift towards more negative δ15N values on average over the last 3,200 years. Based on differences in δ15N between modern and more extensive "paleo" tillandsiales at one of our lowest elevation study sites, we interpret this shift as an increase in available moisture due to increased fog input during the late Holocene. Increased variability in ENSO as well as increased upwelling and southerly winds along the coastal Atacama would explain in part this increase. Clearly, the Atacama tillandsiales have considerable potential for monitoring past and present change of these large-scale ocean-atmosphere systems.

  18. The effect of aerosol-derived changes in the warm phase on the properties of deep convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit; Heiblum, Reuven; Dagan, Guy

    2017-04-01

    The aerosol impact on deep convective clouds starts in an increased number of cloud droplets in higher aerosol loading environment. This change drives many others, like enhanced condensational growth, delay in collision-coalescence and others. Since the warm processes serve as the initial and boundary conditions for the mixed and cold-phase processes in deep clouds, it is highly important to understand the aerosol effect on them. The weather research and forecasting model (WRF) with spectral bin microphysics was used to study a deep convective system over the Marshall Islands, during the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). Three simulations were conducted with aerosol concentrations of 100, 500 and 2000 cm-3, to reflect clean, semipolluted, and polluted conditions. The results of the clean run agreed well with the radar profiles and rain rate observations. The more polluted simulations resulted in larger total cloud mass, larger upper level cloud fraction and rain rates. There was an increased mass both below and above the zero temperature level. It indicates of more efficient growth processes both below and above the zero level. In addition the polluted runs showed an increased upward transport (across the zero level) of liquid water due to both stronger updrafts and larger droplet mobility. In this work we discuss the transport of cloud mass crossing the zero temperature level (in both directions) in order to gain a process level understanding of how aerosol effects on the warm processes affect the macro- and micro-properties of deep convective clouds.

  19. Effects of advera® warm mix additive on the rheological properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of asphalt pavement is mainly governed by the properties of the binder. Many asphalt pavement distress are pronounced to be related to the rheological properties of asphalt binder. The oxidation changes the structure and composition of asphalt binder resulting stiffer and brittle of asphalt. This paper ...

  20. Intercomparison of fog water samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Dieter; Georgii, Hans-Walter; Maser, Rolf; Jaeschke, Wolfgang; Arends, Beate G.; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Winkler, Peter; Schneider, Thomas; Berner, Axel; Kruisz, Christian

    1992-11-01

    During the Po Valley Fog Experiment 1989, two fogwater collectors were operated simultaneously at the ground and the results were compared to each other. The chemical analyses of the samples as well as the collection efficiencies showed remarkable differences between both collectors. Some differences in the solute concentrations in the samples of both collectors could be expected due to small differences in the 50-percent cut-off diameters. The large differences in the collection efficiencies however cannot be explained by these small variations of d sub 50, because normally only a small fraction of the water mass is concentrated in the size range of 5-7-micron droplets. It is shown that it is not sufficient to characterize a fogwater collector only by its cut-off diameter. The results of several wind tunnel calibration tests show that the collection efficiencies of the fogwater collectors are a function of windspeed and shape of the droplet spectra.

  1. The electronic and optical properties of warm dense nitrous oxide using quantum molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yujuan; Wang Cong; Zhang Ping

    2012-01-01

    First-principles molecular-dynamics simulations based on density-functional theory have been used to study the electronic and optical properties of fluid nitrous oxide under extreme conditions. Systematic descriptions of pair-correlation function, atomic structure, and the charge density distribution are used to investigate the dissociation of fluid nitrous oxide. The electrical and optical properties are derived from the Kubo-Greenwood formula. It is found that the nonmetal-metal transition for fluid nitrous oxide can be directly associated to the dissociation and has significant influence on the optical properties of the fluid.

  2. Fog Water Collection: Challenges beyond Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor Qadir; Gabriela C. Jiménez; Rebecca L. Farnum; Leslie L. Dodson; Vladimir Smakhtin

    2018-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6, calling for access to safe water and sanitation for all by the year 2030 supports the efforts in water-scarce countries and regions to go beyond conventional resources and tap unconventional water supplies to narrow the water demand-supply gap. Among the unconventional water resources, the potential to collect water from the air, such as fog harvesting, is by far the most under-explored. Fog water collection is a passive, low maintenance, and sustaina...

  3. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Cervantes-Jiménez, M.; Suzán-Azpiri, H.; González-Sosa, E.; Hernández-Sandoval, L.; Malda-Barrera, G.; Martínez-Díaz, M.

    2011-08-01

    Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, rain interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog interception can increase the overall water storage capacity of the vegetation and once the storage is exceeded, fog drip is a common hydrological input. Fog interception is disregarded in water budgets of semiarid regions, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions and applying simulated rain or fog. Juvenile, vegetative specimens were used to determine the potential upperbound storage capacities. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Interception storage capacity (Cmin) was 0.19 and 0.56 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted by rain. T. recurvata contributed 20 % to the rain interception capacity of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata and; also potentially intercepted 4.8 % of the annual rainfall. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543 ± 77 vs. 325 ± 56 mg, p = 0.048). The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water recharge, because potential storage capacity is very high, in the laboratory experiments it took up to 12 h at a rate of 0.26 l h-1 to reach saturation conditions when fog was applied.

  4. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malda-Barrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, rain interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog interception can increase the overall water storage capacity of the vegetation and once the storage is exceeded, fog drip is a common hydrological input. Fog interception is disregarded in water budgets of semiarid regions, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions and applying simulated rain or fog. Juvenile, vegetative specimens were used to determine the potential upperbound storage capacities. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Interception storage capacity (Cmin was 0.19 and 0.56 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted by rain. T. recurvata contributed 20 % to the rain interception capacity of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata and; also potentially intercepted 4.8 % of the annual rainfall. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543 ± 77 vs. 325 ± 56 mg, p = 0.048. The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water recharge, because potential storage capacity is very high, in the laboratory experiments it took up to 12 h at a rate of 0.26 l h−1 to reach saturation conditions

  5. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope Detected Seyfert 1 Galaxies: X-Ray Broadband Properties and Warm Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McKernan, Barry; Kallman, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of the broadband, 0.3-195 keV, X-ray spectra of 48 Seyfert 1-1.5 sources detected in the very hard X-rays with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). This sample is selected in an all-sky survey conducted in the 14-195 keV band. Therefore, our sources are largely unbiased toward both obscuration and host galaxy properties. Our detailed and uniform model fits to Suzaku/BAT and XMM-Newton/BAT spectra include the neutral absorption, direct power-law, reflected emission, soft excess, warm absorption, and narrow Fe I K[alpha] emission properties for the entire sample. We significantly detect O VII and O VIII edges in 52% of our sample. The strength of these detections is strongly correlated with the neutral column density measured in the spectrum. Among the strongest detections, X-ray grating and UV observations, where available, indicate outflowing material. The ionized column densities of sources with O VII and O VIII detections are clustered in a narrow range with Nwarm [approx] 1021 cm-2, while sources without strong detections have column densities of ionized gas an order of magnitude lower. Therefore, we note that sources without strong detections likely have warm ionized outflows present but at low column densities that are not easily probed with current X-ray observations. Sources with strong complex absorption have a strong soft excess, which may or may not be due to difficulties in modeling the complex spectra of these sources. Still, the detection of a flat [Gamma] [approx] 1 and a strong soft excess may allow us to infer the presence of strong absorption in low signal-to-noise active galactic nucleus spectra. Additionally, we include a useful correction from the Swift BAT luminosity to bolometric luminosity, based on a comparison of our spectral fitting results with published spectral energy distribution fits from 33 of our sources.

  6. Fog Water Collection: Challenges beyond Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Qadir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 6, calling for access to safe water and sanitation for all by the year 2030 supports the efforts in water-scarce countries and regions to go beyond conventional resources and tap unconventional water supplies to narrow the water demand-supply gap. Among the unconventional water resources, the potential to collect water from the air, such as fog harvesting, is by far the most under-explored. Fog water collection is a passive, low maintenance, and sustainable option that can supply fresh drinking water to communities where fog events are common. Because of the relatively simple design of fog collection systems, their operation and maintenance are minimal and the associated cost likewise; although, in certain cases, some financially constrained communities would need initial subsidies. Despite technology development and demonstrated benefits, there are certain challenges to fog harvesting, including lack of supportive policies, limited functional local institutions, inexpert communities, gender inequality, and perceived high costs without undertaking comprehensive economic analyses. By addressing such challenges, there is an opportunity to provide potable water in areas where fog intensity and duration are sufficient, and where the competition for clean water is intensifying because water resources are at a far distance or provided by expensive sources.

  7. Characteristics of a Dry Fog Ionizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Y; Kudo, Y; Yonezawa, M

    2008-01-01

    The newly developed 'Dry Fog Ionizer' generates charged dry fog. The dry fog consists of very fine water droplets 8μm in mean diameter. This system consists of a dry fog nozzle (H.Ikeuchi and Co., LTD.), a ring electrode for induction charging (50mm outside diameter, and 10mm thick) in front of the nozzle, and a fan for dissipating charged dry fog. The ring electrode is DC or AC-biased and fine droplets ejected from the nozzle are electrified by induction charging. The particle size of the charged water droplets are reduced through evaporation during the transporting process by air flow, and completely evaporate approximately 2m from the nozzle under normal atmospheric conditions (25 deg. C, 60%R.H.) leaving high density ions. Using this system, high density ionic space charge can be realized in a remote spot from the ionizer. By this principle, the Dry Fog Ionizer shows strong charge-eliminating ability in the region away from the ionizer. When a dc bias of 5kV was applied to a ring electrode with the rate of water flow from the nozzle being 21/h, an ionic space-charge density of 1200nC /m 3 was able to be obtained at a distance 2m away from the ionizer, which was 10 2 times the value produced by an ordinary corona-type ionizer with an air blower.

  8. Comparison of the hot-stamped boron-alloyed steel and the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel on microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaodong; Chang, Ying; Wang, Cunyu; Hu, Ping; Dong, Han

    2017-01-01

    The application of high strength steels (HSS) for automotive structural parts is an effective way to realize lightweight and enhance safety. Therefore, improvements in mechanical properties of HSS are needed. In the present study, the warm stamping process of the third generation automotive medium-Mn steel was discussed, the characteristics of martensitic transformation were investigated, as well as the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed, compared to the popular hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel in the automotive industry. The results are indicated as follows. Firstly, the quenching rate of the medium-Mn steel can be selected in a wide range based on its CCT curves, which is beneficial to the control of forming process. Secondly, the influence of stamping temperature and pressure on the M s temperature of the medium-Mn steel is not obvious and can be neglected, which is favorable to the even distribution of martensitic microstructure and mechanical properties. Thirdly, the phenomenon of decarbonization is hardly found on the surface of the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel, and the ultra-fine-grained microstructure is found inside the medium-Mn steel after warm stamping. Besides, the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel holds the better comprehensive properties, such as a lower yield ratio, higher total elongation and higher tear toughness than the hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel. Furthermore, an actual warm-stamped B-pillar of medium-Mn steel is stamped and ultra-fine-grained martensitic microstructure is obtained. The mechanical properties are evenly distributed. As a result, this paper proves that the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel part can meet the requirements of lightweight and crash safety, and is promising for the industrial production of automotive structural parts.

  9. Comparison of the hot-stamped boron-alloyed steel and the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel on microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaodong [School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Lab of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Chang, Ying, E-mail: yingc@dlut.edu.cn [School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Lab of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Cunyu [East China Branch of Central Iron & Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing 100081 (China); Hu, Ping [School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Lab of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Dong, Han [East China Branch of Central Iron & Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-01-02

    The application of high strength steels (HSS) for automotive structural parts is an effective way to realize lightweight and enhance safety. Therefore, improvements in mechanical properties of HSS are needed. In the present study, the warm stamping process of the third generation automotive medium-Mn steel was discussed, the characteristics of martensitic transformation were investigated, as well as the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed, compared to the popular hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel in the automotive industry. The results are indicated as follows. Firstly, the quenching rate of the medium-Mn steel can be selected in a wide range based on its CCT curves, which is beneficial to the control of forming process. Secondly, the influence of stamping temperature and pressure on the M{sub s} temperature of the medium-Mn steel is not obvious and can be neglected, which is favorable to the even distribution of martensitic microstructure and mechanical properties. Thirdly, the phenomenon of decarbonization is hardly found on the surface of the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel, and the ultra-fine-grained microstructure is found inside the medium-Mn steel after warm stamping. Besides, the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel holds the better comprehensive properties, such as a lower yield ratio, higher total elongation and higher tear toughness than the hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel. Furthermore, an actual warm-stamped B-pillar of medium-Mn steel is stamped and ultra-fine-grained martensitic microstructure is obtained. The mechanical properties are evenly distributed. As a result, this paper proves that the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel part can meet the requirements of lightweight and crash safety, and is promising for the industrial production of automotive structural parts.

  10. Microstructural evolution in warm-rolled and cold-rolled strip cast 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets and its influence on magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianglong, E-mail: 215454278@qq.com; Liu, Zhenyu, E-mail: zyliu@mail.neu.edu.cn; Li, Haoze; Wang, Guodong

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The experimental materials used in the study are based on strip casting. • Magnetic properties between warm rolled and cold rolled sheets are investigated. • Cold rolled 6.5% Si sheet has better magnetic properties than warm rolled sheet. • The γ and λ-fiber recrystallization textures can be optimized after cold rolling. • Cold rolling should be more suitable for fabricating 6.5% Si steel thin sheets. - Abstract: 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets were usually fabricated by warm rolling. In our previous work, 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with good magnetic properties had been successfully fabricated by cold rolling based on strip casting. In the present work, the main purposes were to find out the influences of warm rolling and cold rolling on microstructures and magnetic properties of the thin sheets with the thickness of 0.2 mm, and to confirm which rolling method was more suitable for fabricating 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets. The results showed that the cold rolled sheet could obtain good surface quality and flatness, while the warm rolled sheet could not. The intensity of γ-fiber rolling texture (<1 1 1>//ND) of cold rolled specimen was weaker than that of the warm rolled specimen, especially for the {1 1 1}<1 1 2> component at surface layer and {1 1 1}<1 1 0> component at center layer. After the same annealing treatment, the cold rolled specimen, which had higher stored energy and weaker intensity of γ-fiber rolling texture, could obtain smaller recrystallization grain size, weaker intensity of γ-fiber recrystallization texture and stronger intensity of λ-fiber recrystallization texture. Therefore, due to the good surface quality, smaller recrystallization grain size and optimum recrystallization texture, the cold rolled specimen possessed improved magnetic properties, and cold rolling should be more suitable for fabricating 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets.

  11. Thermomechanical and hygroelastic properties of an epoxy system under humid and cold-warm cycling conditions

    KAUST Repository

    El Yagoubi, Jalal; Lubineau, Gilles; Saghir, Shahid; Verdu, Jacques; Askari, Abe H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the hygrothermal aging of an anhydride-cured epoxy under temperature and hygrometry conditions simulating those experienced by an aircraft in wet tropical or subtropical regions. Gravimetric and dimensional measurements were performed and they indicate that there are three stages in this aging process: the first one, corresponding to the early cycles can be called the "induction stage". The second stage of about 1000 cycles duration, could be named the "swelling stage", during which the volume increase is almost equal to the volume of the (liquid) water absorbed. Both the first and second stages are accompanied by modifications of the mechanical properties and the glass transition temperature. During the third ("equilibrium") stage, up to 3000 cycles, there is no significant change in the physical properties despite the continuous increase of water uptake. This can be explained by the fact that only physically sorbed water can influence physical properties. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fog modelling during the ParisFog campaign: predictive approach and spatial heterogeneity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    In fog or low clouds modeling, the accurate comprehension of the interaction among the turbulence, the microphysics and the radiation is still an important issue in improvement of numerical prediction quality. The improvement of fog modeling is important both in forecasting in transportation and in industrial domain by reason of their discharges atmospheric (cooling tower, smog...). The 1D version of Code-Saturne has been used for the numerical simulation with the observational data from the ParisFog campaign, which took place at the SIRTA site during 2006-2007 winter. The comparison between the simulation and observation shows that the model is able to reproduce correctly the fog evolution from its formation to its dissipation. The sensitivity analysis of the behavior of the different parameterizations shows that the fog dynamic is sensible to the turbulence closure, the fog water content to the sedimentation processes and the fog droplet spectrum to the nucleation scheme. The performance of a long-period simulation in forecasting mode shows that the robustness of the model and the contribution of the coupling by nudging and a mesoscale model in 36 hours advance. The 3D version of Code-Saturne allows us to study the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the fog formation. Firstly, the simulations have been performed within a homogeneous horizontal domain with RANS mode. And then, the surface roughness in different type of surface and the building area will be taken into account. (author) [fr

  13. Marine sources influence fog bioaerosol composition in Namibia and Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S. E.; Dueker, E.; Logan, J. R. V.; Weathers, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Organic aerosol particles act as condensation nuclei for fogs and clouds (CCN) and are main determinants of fog evolution, chemical processing, and overall aerosol-fog-cloud interactions. Recent work has confirmed the presence of marine bioaerosols, but little is known about their sources, transport, taxonomic diversity or viability. The few studies that have characterized bioaerosols in fog have been limited to culture-based approaches that capture only a fraction of microbial diversity. We characterized fungal and bacterial communities in the fog in two iconic fog systems, the Coast of Maine (USA) and the Namib Desert (Namibia). The biology of fog in both systems was diverse and distinct, by geography, from dry aerosols, and from local sources. The local environment had a dominant influence on fog in both the Namib and Maine; in particular, the biology of fog in Maine, which was collected near the coast, was more similar to microbial communities from the ocean surface. In both systems, differences between pre- and post-fog aerosol communities suggest that fog events can significantly alter microbial aerosol diversity and composition. This insight into the microbial composition of fog indicates that its origin and frequency has the potential to influence the number and diversity of microorganisms that settle in a given environment, and the composition of microbial aerosol communities in ambient or clear conditions. Here we suggest that fog microbes can possess specific traits that enhance nucleation, altering the transport and deposition of marine- and soil-derived organic matter in terrestrial systems.

  14. Thermally Optimized Polarization-Maintaining Photonic Crystal Fiber and Its FOG Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxi; Zhang, Zhihao; Xu, Xiaobin; Cai, Wei

    2018-02-13

    In this paper, we propose a small-diameter polarization-maintaining solid-core photonic crystal fiber. The coating diameter, cladding diameter and other key parameters relating to the thermal properties were studied. Based on the optimized parameters, a fiber with a Shupe constant 15% lower than commercial photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) was fabricated, and the transmission loss was lower than 2 dB/km. The superior thermal stability of our fiber design was proven through both simulation and measurement. Using the small-diameter fiber, a split high precision fiber optic gyro (FOG) prototype was fabricated. The bias stability of the FOG was 0.0023 °/h, the random walk was 0.0003 °/ h , and the scale factor error was less than 1 ppm. Throughout a temperature variation ranging from -40 to 60 °C, the bias stability was less than 0.02 °/h without temperature compensation which is notably better than FOG with panda fiber. As a result, the PCF FOG is a promising choice for high precision FOG applications.

  15. Forecasting sea fog on the coast of southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Huang, B.; Liu, C.; Tu, J.; Wen, G.; Mao, W.

    2016-12-01

    Forecast sea fog is still full of challenges. We have performed the numerical forecasting of sea fog on the coast of southern China by using the operational meso-scale regional model GRAPES (Global/Regional assimilation and prediction system). The GRAPES model horizontal resolution was 3km and with 66 vertical levels. A total of 72 hours forecasting of sea fog was conducted with hourly outputs over the sea fog event. The results show that the model system can predict reasonable characteristics of typical sea fog events on the coast of southern China. The scope of sea fog coincides with the observations of meteorological stations, the observations of the Marine Meteorological Science Experiment Base (MMSEB) at Bohe, Maoming and satellite products of sea fog. The goal of this study is to establish an operational numerical forecasting model system of sea fog on the coast of southern China.

  16. Trapping water from desert fog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Esteves, de A.C.

    2013-01-01

    A coated cotton fabric can absorb more than 3 times its weight in water from warm, moist air, and release it again at higher temperatures. John Xin at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in China, Catarina Esteves at Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands and their colleagues grafted

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-Al-Mn-Ca alloy sheet produced by twin roll casting and sequential warm rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yinong; Kang, Suk Bong; Cho, Jaehyung

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This work, taking AM30 + 0.2Ca alloy as experimental material, will provide some new information as follows: one is microstructural difference between twin roll cast and ingot cast AM31-0.2Ca alloy. The other is the comparison of tensile properties after warm rolling and annealing. Suggesting the possibility of the development of wrought magnesium alloy sheets by strip casting. - Abstract: Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of twin roll cast (TRC) Mg-3.3 wt.%Al-0.8 wt.%Mn-0.2 wt.%Ca (AM31 + 0.2Ca) alloy strip during warm rolling and subsequent annealing were investigated in this paper. The as-TRC alloy strip shows columnar dendrites in surface and equiaxed dendrites in center regions, as well as finely dispersed primary Al 8 Mn 5 particles on interdendritic boundaries which result in the beneficial effect on microstructural refinement of strip casting. The warm rolled sheets show intensively deformed band or shear band structures, as well as finely and homogeneously dispersed Al-Mn particles. No evident dynamic recrystallization (DRX) takes place during warm rolling process, which is more likely attributed to the finely dispersed particle and high solid solution of Al and Mn atoms in α-Mg matrix. After annealing at 350 deg. C for 1 h, the warm rolled TRC sheets show fine equiaxed grains around 7.8 μm in average size. It has been shown that the present TRC alloy sheet has superior tensile strength and comparative elongation compared to commercial ingot cast (IC) one, suggesting the possibility of the development of wrought magnesium alloy sheets by twin roll strip casting processing. The microstructural evolution during warm rolling and subsequent annealing as well as the resulting tensile properties were analyzed and discussed.

  18. A comparison of the performance of three types of passive fog gauges under conditions of wind-driven fog and precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frumau, K.F.A.; Burkard, R.; Schmid, S.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Tobón, C.; Calvo-Alvado\\, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding of the 'typical' amounts of fog intercepted by different types of cloud forests is hampered by a lack of comparative information on local fog climatology. Usually some kind of 'fog gauge' is used to characterize fog occurrence and amounts. Moreover, wind-driven fog and precipitation

  19. Dropwise chains as the elements of water fog spatial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavlov, A.V.; Sokolov, I.V.; Romanyuk, S.N.; Dzhumandzhi, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    Video images of water fog drops were acquired under standard atmospheric conditions with weak turbulence of the environment. Pair correlation functions of the drops were performed and traces of the spatial arrangement of the drops inside the fog determined. The fog structure carriers are the drop chains with a fixed interdroplet distance. The possible influence of the drop chains on the shear viscosity and fog surface tension has been analysed.

  20. IoT Stream Processing and Analytics in The Fog

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shusen

    2017-01-01

    The emerging Fog paradigm has been attracting increasing interests from both academia and industry, due to the low-latency, resilient, and cost-effective services it can provide. Many Fog applications such as video mining and event monitoring, rely on data stream processing and analytics, which are very popular in the Cloud, but have not been comprehensively investigated in the context of Fog architecture. In this article, we present the general models and architecture of Fog data streaming, ...

  1. Aerosol Particle Processing and Removal by Fogs: Observations in Chemically Heterogeneous Central California Radiation Fogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collett, Jeffrey L.; Sherman, D. Eli; Moore, Katharine F.; Hannigan, Michael P.; Lee, Taehyoung

    2001-01-01

    Fog composition and deposition fluxes of fog water and fog solutes were measured in six radiation fog events in San Joaquin Valley, California during winter 1998/1999. Measurements made at 2 hr intervals with 0.30 m 2 and 0.06 m 2 Teflondeposition plates yielded excellent reproducibility(relative standard deviations of 3.8-6.0%) for water, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium. Water fluxes measured at 5 min intervals with a recording balance agreed well with the deposition plate measurements before 8:00 AM. After 8:00 AMevaporation proved problematic. The average deposition velocity from the study for fog nitrate(3.8 cm s -1 ) was less than those for fogsulfate (5.1 cm s -1 ) and ammonium (6.7 cms -1 ). All three species generally exhibited smaller deposition velocities than fog water. The species dependent trend in deposition velocities was consistent with preferential enrichment of these species in small fog drops (nitrate > sulfate> ammonium)

  2. Conditions to generate Steam Fog Occurred around the Chungju Lake in the South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byungwoo, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have collected the field observation data of the steam fog occurred around the Chungju Lake in the South Korea for 3 years(2014 2016) and analyzed conditions in which the steam fog occurred. The Chungju Lake is an artificial lake made by the Chungju Dam with a water storage of 2.7 billion tons, which is the second largest in South Korea. The Chungju Dam have discharged water of the average 2.2 million tons downstream to produce electricity per day. The drainage water heats downstream of the Chungju dam and the air above water surface of downstream of that. When the warm, humid air above the downstream water mixed with cold air mass, it caused "steam fog" around the downstream of Chungju lake regardless of amount of the discharged water. The condition that promote the generation of steam fog in autumn and winter is as follows: (1) cloudless night with light winds below 1.5 m/s. (2) The differences between the temperature of discharged water from the Chungju Dam and the air temperature above the discharged water varied from 3° to 15° in autumn, from 15° to 20° in winter respectively. (3) When stream fog was generated, sensible heat flux ranged in autumn from 5 to 15 W/m2, in winter from 15 to 20 W/m2 respectively. Latent heat flux ranged in autumn from 15 to 20 W/m2, in winter from 10 to 15 W/m2 respectively.

  3. Prediction of Fog/Visibility over India using NWP Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    54

    fog which is driven by NWP model forecast of surface relative humidity and wind speed. The performance of NWP model forecast of visibility is found comparable to that from simple fog model driven by NWP forecast of relative humidity and wind speed. Keywords: Visibility, Fog, Insat-3D, METARS, NCUM, North India.

  4. Analysis of prospective systems for fog warnings : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Florida nearly leads the nation in fatal vehicle crashes due to fog and smoke conditions. Between 2002 and 2009, 299 people in Florida died in vehicle crashes related to fog and smoke conditions. In January 2012, heavy fog and smoke were blamed for a...

  5. Ultraviolet-B radiation induced cross-linking improves physical properties of cold- and warm-water fish gelatin gels and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoni, Caio G; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Bilbao-Sainz, Cristina; Bechtel, Peter J; McHugh, Tara H

    2012-09-01

    Cold- and warm-water fish gelatin granules were exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation for doses up to 29.7 J/cm(2). Solutions and films were prepared from the granules. Gel electrophoresis and refractive index were used to examine changes in molecular weight of the samples. Also, the gel strength and rheological properties of the solutions as well as the tensile and water vapor barrier properties of the films were characterized. SDS-PAGE and refractive index results indicated cross-linking of gelatin chains after exposure to radiation. Interestingly, UV-B treated samples displayed higher gel strengths, with cold- and warm-water fish gelatin having gel strength increases from 1.39 to 2.11 N and from 7.15 to 8.34 N, respectively. In addition, both gelatin samples exhibited an increase in viscosity for higher UV doses. For gelatin films, the cold-water fish gelatin samples made from irradiated granules showed greater tensile strength. In comparison, the warm-water gelatin films made from irradiated granules had lower tensile strength, but better water vapor barrier properties. This might be due to the UV induced cross-linking in warm-water gelatin that disrupted helical structures. Journal of Food Science copy; 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  6. Chemistry of fog: Factors regulating its composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, L.; Stumm, W.; Zobrist, J.; Zuercher, F.

    1987-05-01

    Fog droplets acquire their composition, in principle, by similar mechanisms as cloudwater droplets. The solute concentrations of fogwater (H/sup +/, NH/sub 4/+, NO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2-/, Cl/sup -/, organic acids, and trace metals) are 10-50 times higher than those of rainwater. Urban fogs reflect in their composition the effect of local emissions. Occasionally, very acidic fogs, often due to HCl contamination, with pH values as low as 2 were observed. Fogs can affect ecosystems by concentrating, moving, and depositing chemicals and atmospheric pollutants. Basically, the major composition of fogwater results from the interaction of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, CO/sub 2/, HCl, and NH/sub 3/ with H/sub 2/O in an oxidative environment (O/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, OH/sup ./, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, sunlight) and in the presence of some traces that may act as redox catalysts (metals such as Cu, Fe, Mn, organic material such as hydrocarbons, and dust and soot surfaces). - The composition of numerous (radiation type) ground-level fogs, and their variation with time from formation to dissipation, have been investigated in Duebendorf (near Zuerich) in order to evaluate the factors that influence the composition; specifically to explore the mechanisms of NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2/ incorperation Surprisingly constant motor propertions of NH/sub 4//sup +/:SO/sub 4//sup 2-/:NO/sub 3//sup -/ were observed in the fog. The results do not permit to establish unambiguously to what extent the inclusion of SO/sub 4//sup 2-/ and NO/sub 3//sup -/ into the fogwater is due to the oxidation of absorbed and dissolved SO/sub 2/ and the scavenging of gaseous HNO/sub 3/ or by dissolution of ambient previously formed ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols.

  7. NEOSURVEY 1: INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER EXPLORATION SCIENCE SURVEY OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECT PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 6010, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Hora, Joseph; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); Chesley, Steve [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, Joshua [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tennessee, 306 EPS Building, 1412 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Harris, Alan [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin (Germany); Mueller, Michael [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, PO Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η , the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  8. Warm/cool-tone switchable thermochromic material for smart windows by orthogonally integrating properties of pillar[6]arene and ferrocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Xu, Zuqiang; Wang, Tingting; Xiao, Tangxin; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Shen, Ying-Zhong; Wang, Leyong

    2018-04-30

    Functional materials play a vital role in the fabrication of smart windows, which can provide a more comfortable indoor environment for humans to enjoy a better lifestyle. Traditional materials for smart windows tend to possess only a single functionality with the purpose of regulating the input of solar energy. However, different color tones also have great influences on human emotions. Herein, a strategy for orthogonal integration of different properties is proposed, namely the thermo-responsiveness of ethylene glycol-modified pillar[6]arene (EGP6) and the redox-induced reversible color switching of ferrocene/ferrocenium groups are orthogonally integrated into one system. This gives rise to a material with cooperative and non-interfering dual functions, featuring both thermochromism and warm/cool tone-switchability. Consequently, the obtained bifunctional material for fabricating smart windows can not only regulate the input of solar energy but also can provide a more comfortable color tone to improve the feelings and emotions of people in indoor environments.

  9. NEOSURVEY 1: INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER EXPLORATION SCIENCE SURVEY OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECT PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η , the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  10. Frequency of fog in midlands of England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsworth, M.H.; Shakespeare, N.W.; Milner, A.E.; Ganendra, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    A survey shows that at a rural site in the Trent Basin in England, there has been a considerable reduction in winter fog frequency in the last 20 years. The evidence suggests that the Clean Air Act, which was primarily designed to improve air quality in towns has also produced measurable decreases in fog frequency in rural parts of this industrial region. The mechanism which is believed to underly the phenomenon is that the number of condensation nuclei have been substantially reduced. 9 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  11. Fog, cloud, and dew chemistry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, M.R.

    1989-02-28

    The spatial and temporal variations of fog/cloud chemistry were determined in the San Joaquin Valley, in the Los Angeles Basin, and in the Santa Barbara Channel area using automated fog- and cloudwater collectors that were designed and constructed for the project. A significant correlation was observed between the average nighttime cloud- and fogwater loadings of H/sup +/ and NO/sub 3//sup /minus// and the maximum levels of O/sub 3//sup /minus//. Higher aldehydes, a series of dicarbonyls, and a variety of sulfonic acid salts formed by reaction of S(IV) and aldehydes were quantitatively determined in the droplet phase.

  12. Calculation and measurement of fog droplet size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laali, A.R.; Courant, J.J.; Kleitz, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines the elements involved in calculation and measurement of fog droplet size in steam turbines. The condensation calculations are performed for a 600 MW LP fossil fired, and for a 900 MW LP nuclear turbine. A simplified method based on classical condensation theory is used for these calculations. The fog droplet size measurement are carried out downstream of the last moving blades of these turbines in order to validate the program. The comparison between the results could lead to a better understanding of the condensation process in steam turbines. Some large droplet (re-entrained droplet) measurements are also taken using a microvideo probe

  13. Properties of Arctic Aerosol Particles and Residuals of Warm Clouds: Cloud Activation Efficiency and the Aerosol Indirect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Imre, D. G.; Leaitch, R.; Ovchinnikov, M.; Liu, P.; Macdonald, A.; Strapp, W.; Ghan, S. J.; Earle, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II, was used to characterize the size, composition, number concentration, density, and shape of individual Arctic spring aerosol. Background particles, particles above and below the cloud, cloud droplet residuals, and interstitial particles were characterized with goal to identify the properties that separate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from background aerosol particles. The analysis offers a comparison between warm clouds formed on clean and polluted days, with clean days having maximum particle concentrations (Na) lower than ~250 cm-3, as compared with polluted days, in which maximum concentration was tenfold higher. On clean days, particles were composed of organics, organics mixed with sulfates, biomass burning (BB), sea salt (SS), and few soot and dust particles. On polluted days, BB, organics associated with BB, and their mixtures with sulfate dominated particle compositions. Based on the measured compositions and size distributions of cloud droplet residuals, background aerosols, and interstitial particles, we conclude that these three particle types had virtually the same compositions, which means that cloud activation probabilities were surprisingly nearly composition independent. Moreover, these conclusions hold in cases in which less than 20% or more than 90% of background particles got activated. We concluded that for the warm clouds interrogated in this study particle size played a more important factor on aerosol CCN activity. Comparative analysis of all studied clouds reveals that aerosol activation efficiency strongly depends on the aerosol concentrations, such that at Na <200 cm-3, nearly all particles activate, and at higher concentrations the activation efficiency is lower. For example, when Na was greater than 1500 cm-3, less than ~30% of particles activated. The data suggest that as the number of nucleated droplets increases, condensation on existing droplets effectively competes with particle

  14. Fog chemistry in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Suresh; Raghunathan, Ravikrishna; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lee, Taehyoung; Chen, Jing; Kommalapati, Raghava R.; Murugesan, Karthik; Shen, Xinhua; Qingzhong, Yuan; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    Fog samples were collected in two population centers of the US Gulf Coast (Houston, Texas and Baton Rouge, Louisiana) using Caltech active strand cloud collectors. A total of 32 fogwater samples were collected in Baton Rouge (November 2004-February 2005) and Houston (February 2006). These samples were analyzed for pH, total and dissolved organic carbon, major inorganic ions, and a variety of organic compounds including organic acids, aromatics, carbonyls, and linear alkanes. Fogs in both environments were of moderate density, with typical fog liquid water contents <100 mg m -3. Fog samples collected in Houston reflect a clear influence of marine and anthropogenic inputs, while Baton Rouge samples also reflect agricultural inputs. The volume-weighted mean fog pH was somewhat more acidic (˜4.3) in Houston than in Baton Rouge (˜5.0). A wide pH range was observed in fog at both locations. Houston fog had higher concentrations of Cl -, NO 3-, Na +, Mg 2+, and Ca 2+. Sulfate to nitrate ratios were high in fogs at both locations, typical of many clouds in the eastern US. Total organic carbon concentrations were much higher in Houston fogs than in Baton Rouge fogs. Efforts to speciate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reveal large contributions from organic acids and carbonyls, with smaller contributions from other organic compound families including aromatics, alkanes, amides, and alcohols. Approximately 40% of the fog DOC was unspeciated in samples from both study locations.

  15. Smart Fog: Fog Computing Framework for Unsupervised Clustering Analytics in Wearable Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Borthakur, Debanjan; Dubey, Harishchandra; Constant, Nicholas; Mahler, Leslie; Mankodiya, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    The increasing use of wearables in smart telehealth generates heterogeneous medical big data. Cloud and fog services process these data for assisting clinical procedures. IoT based ehealthcare have greatly benefited from efficient data processing. This paper proposed and evaluated use of low resource machine learning on Fog devices kept close to the wearables for smart healthcare. In state of the art telecare systems, the signal processing and machine learning modules are deployed in the clou...

  16. Fog inerting criteria for hydrogen/air mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.S.; Liparulo, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    A distributed ignition system has been proposed to ignite hydrogen at low concentration in the ice condenser containment during severe accidents. The post-accident containment atmosphere could be misty due to fog generation from the break flow and condensation in the ice bed. Thus it is important to establish a fog inerting criterion for effective performance of the ignition system. This paper presents such a criterion that specifies the necessary fogging conditions, i.e., fog concentration and drop size, for inerting a hydrogen/air mixture. The criterion shows that the minimum fog inerting concentration varies with the square of the volume mean fog drop size. The present fog inerting criterion is shown to be in general agreement with the Factory Mutual test data

  17. Radiation in fog: quantification of the impact on fog liquid water based on ground-based remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wærsted, Eivind G.; Haeffelin, Martial; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Delanoë, Julien; Dubuisson, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Radiative cooling and heating impact the liquid water balance of fog and therefore play an important role in determining their persistence or dissipation. We demonstrate that a quantitative analysis of the radiation-driven condensation and evaporation is possible in real time using ground-based remote sensing observations (cloud radar, ceilometer, microwave radiometer). Seven continental fog events in midlatitude winter are studied, and the radiative processes are further explored through sensitivity studies. The longwave (LW) radiative cooling of the fog is able to produce 40-70 g m-2 h-1 of liquid water by condensation when the fog liquid water path exceeds 30 g m-2 and there are no clouds above the fog, which corresponds to renewing the fog water in 0.5-2 h. The variability is related to fog temperature and atmospheric humidity, with warmer fog below a drier atmosphere producing more liquid water. The appearance of a cloud layer above the fog strongly reduces the LW cooling relative to a situation with no cloud above; the effect is strongest for a low cloud, when the reduction can reach 100 %. Consequently, the appearance of clouds above will perturb the liquid water balance in the fog and may therefore induce fog dissipation. Shortwave (SW) radiative heating by absorption by fog droplets is smaller than the LW cooling, but it can contribute significantly, inducing 10-15 g m-2 h-1 of evaporation in thick fog at (winter) midday. The absorption of SW radiation by unactivated aerosols inside the fog is likely less than 30 % of the SW absorption by the water droplets, in most cases. However, the aerosols may contribute more significantly if the air mass contains a high concentration of absorbing aerosols. The absorbed radiation at the surface can reach 40-120 W m-2 during the daytime depending on the fog thickness. As in situ measurements indicate that 20-40 % of this energy is transferred to the fog as sensible heat, this surface absorption can contribute

  18. Analysis of prospective systems for fog warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On November 22, 2012, at about 8:35 a.m., thick fog resulted in a 140 vehicle accident near Beaumont, : Texas. Remarkably, only two people died and 80 people were injured and required hospital care. On : January 29, 2012, about 4:00 a.m., amidst thic...

  19. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  20. Experimental Study Of Fog Water Harvesting By Stainless Steel Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R. Pawar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to get hold of fresh water for various purposes. In areas where a substantial amount of fog can be obtained it is feasible to set up a stainless steel as well as black double layer plastic mesh structure for fog water harvesting. The mesh structure is directly exposed to the weather and the fog containing air is pushed through the active mesh surface by the wind. Afterward fog droplets are deposited on the active mesh area which combines to form superior droplets and run down into a gutter to storage by gravity. Fog water harvesting rates show a discrepancy from site to site. The scope of this experimental work is to review fog collection at SCOE Pune campus and to examine factors of success. This study is to synthesize the understanding of fog water harvesting in the institutional era and to analyze its benefits and boundaries for future development. The rate of fog water harvesting depends on the science of fog physics chemistry and its starring role in the hydrological cycle. This technology runs on zero energy and zeroes pollution level with cost of the benefit. The collected or treated clear water mainly could be used for different purposes as per requirement. For further development this technology public as well as government participation is needed.

  1. Fog at the Guarulhos International Airport from 1951 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Gutemberg Borges; do Carmo, Luiz Felipe Rodrigues; de Almeida, Manoel Valdonel; Albuquerque Neto, Francisco Leite

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents and discusses the fog occurrences before and after the construction of the Guarulhos International Airport, using data from 1951 to 2015. The analysis showed the following: (1) a total of 19,816 h of fog were registered. (2) The minimum average, mean and maximum average of the fog temperature had significantly increased after the airport was constructed from 1.2 to 6.9, 12.1 to 14.5 and 20.2 to 20.7 °C, respectively, due to the urban development around the airport during the study period. (3) The average fog hours per year decreased by approximately 73.1%, i.e., from 492 ± 84.45 to 132 ± 54.51 h per year. (4) Most of the fog events occurred due to longwave cooling on clear nights with relatively low wind speeds (characterizing radiation fog), with over 65% having duration of 2 h and occurring in the early hours of the day during March-September period. (5) The maximum probability of fog occurrence dropped about 10% from before to after the construction of the airport. Finally, two fog events are investigated using data collected during the fog evolution using atmospheric sounding profiles (from an acoustic sounder) and automatic meteorological stations and preliminary results showed that the values of cooling rate and turbulent kinetic energy play key roles in the onset and growth-dissipation phases of the fog, respectively.

  2. Current status of acid fog research. Sanseimu kenkyu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murano, K. (National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-07-10

    Acid fog research was behind in comparison with acid rain research. In case of acid fog, it is because the place generating sufficiently thick fog to collect is limited, the generating place is mountainous, its survey needs a lot of works, its collector is not convenient like in acid rain, or its sampling is difficult on its automation. Since the 1980s, an extensive survey on acid fog had been carried out centering the west coast of California, USA, and low pH fog (minimum pH 2.2) was observed. In the course of these researches, string type active fogwater collectors became a major sampling method, and the simulation of acidification of fog droplet in the atmosphere was extensively conducted. In Japan, already in the 1960s, field surveys on acid fog were conducted, in 1984 acid fog survey started on Mt. Akagi under a viewpoint of ecological impact, and there was a report that low pH fog (pH 3 to 4) continued more than 10 hours. It was pointed out that there were plant damage by acid fog in several locations, especially the tree mortality mechanism in Tomakomai was clarified. 50 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. An analysis of fog events at Belgrade International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljović, Katarina; Vujović, Dragana; Lazić, Lazar; Vučković, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study of the occurrence of fog at Belgrade "Nikola Tesla" Airport was carried out using a statistical approach. The highest frequency of fog has occurred in the winter months of December and January and far exceeded the number of fog days in the spring and the beginning of autumn. The exceptionally foggy months, those having an extreme number of foggy days, occurred in January 1989 (18 days), December 1998 (18 days), February 2005 (17 days) and October 2001 (15 days). During the winter months (December, January and February) from 1990 to 2005 (16 years), fog occurred most frequently between 0600 and 1000 hours, and in the autumn, between 0500 and 0800 hours. In summer, fog occurred most frequently between 0300 and 0600 hours. During the 11-year period from 1995 to 2005, it was found that there was a 13 % chance for fog to occur on two consecutive days and a 5 % chance that it would occur 3 days in a row. In October 2001, the fog was observed over nine consecutive days. During the winter half year, 52.3 % of fog events observed at 0700 hours were in the presence of stratus clouds and 41.4 % were without the presence of low clouds. The 6-h cooling observed at the surface preceding the occurrence of fog between 0000 and 0700 hours ranged mainly from 1 to 4 °C. A new method was applied to assess the probability of fog occurrence based on complex fog criteria. It was found that the highest probability of fog occurrence (51.2 %) takes place in the cases in which the relative humidity is above 97 %, the dew-point depression is 0 °C, the cloud base is lower than 50 m and the wind is calm or weak 1 h before the onset of fog.

  4. Referenceless Prediction of Perceptual Fog Density and Perceptual Image Defogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Lark Kwon; You, Jaehee; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2015-11-01

    We propose a referenceless perceptual fog density prediction model based on natural scene statistics (NSS) and fog aware statistical features. The proposed model, called Fog Aware Density Evaluator (FADE), predicts the visibility of a foggy scene from a single image without reference to a corresponding fog-free image, without dependence on salient objects in a scene, without side geographical camera information, without estimating a depth-dependent transmission map, and without training on human-rated judgments. FADE only makes use of measurable deviations from statistical regularities observed in natural foggy and fog-free images. Fog aware statistical features that define the perceptual fog density index derive from a space domain NSS model and the observed characteristics of foggy images. FADE not only predicts perceptual fog density for the entire image, but also provides a local fog density index for each patch. The predicted fog density using FADE correlates well with human judgments of fog density taken in a subjective study on a large foggy image database. As applications, FADE not only accurately assesses the performance of defogging algorithms designed to enhance the visibility of foggy images, but also is well suited for image defogging. A new FADE-based referenceless perceptual image defogging, dubbed DEnsity of Fog Assessment-based DEfogger (DEFADE) achieves better results for darker, denser foggy images as well as on standard foggy images than the state of the art defogging methods. A software release of FADE and DEFADE is available online for public use: http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/fog/index.html.

  5. Coastal fog during summer drought improves the water status of sapling trees more than adult trees in a California pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguskas, Sara A; Still, Christopher J; Fischer, Douglas T; D'Antonio, Carla M; King, Jennifer Y

    2016-05-01

    Fog water inputs can offset seasonal drought in the Mediterranean climate of coastal California and may be critical to the persistence of many endemic plant species. The ability to predict plant species response to potential changes in the fog regime hinges on understanding the ways that fog can impact plant physiological function across life stages. Our study uses a direct metric of water status, namely plant water potential, to understand differential responses of adult versus sapling trees to seasonal drought and fog water inputs. We place these measurements within a water balance framework that incorporates the varying climatic and soil property impacts on water budgets and deficit. We conducted our study at a coastal and an inland site within the largest stand of the regionally endemic bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) on Santa Cruz Island. Our results show conclusively that summer drought negatively affects the water status of sapling more than adult trees and that sapling trees are also more responsive to changes in shallow soil moisture inputs from fog water deposition. Moreover, between the beginning and end of a large, late-season fog drip event, water status increased more for saplings than for adults. Relative to non-foggy conditions, we found that fog water reduces modeled peak water deficit by 80 and 70 % at the inland and coastal sites, respectively. Results from our study inform mechanistically based predictions of how population dynamics of this and other coastal species may be affected by a warmer, drier, and potentially less foggy future.

  6. Nongray radiative heat transfer analysis in the anisotropic scattering fog layer subjected to solar irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Shigenao; Mori, Yusuke; Sakai, Seigo

    2004-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer in the fog layer is analyzed. Direct and diffuse solar irradiation, and infrared sky flux are considered as incident radiation. Anisotropic scattering of radiation by water droplets is taken into account. Absorption and emission of radiation by water droplets and radiative gases are also considered. Furthermore, spectral dependences of radiative properties of irradiation, reflectivity, gas absorption and scattering and absorption of mist are considered. The radiation element method by ray emission model (REM 2 ) is used for the nongray radiation analysis. Net downward radiative heat flux at the sea surface and radiative equilibrium temperature distribution in the fog layer are calculated for several conditions. Transmitted solar flux decreases as liquid water content (LWC) in the fog increases. However, the value does not become zero but has the value about 60 W/m 2 . The effect of humidity and mist on radiative cooling at night is investigated. Due to high temperature and humidity condition, the radiation cooling at night is not so large even in the clear sky. Furthermore, the radiative equilibrium temperature distribution in the fog layer in the daytime is higher as LWC increases, and the inversion layer of temperature occurs

  7. Statistical modeling of optical attenuation measurements in continental fog conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Saeed; Amin, Muhammad; Awan, Muhammad Saleem; Minhas, Abid Ali; Saleem, Jawad; Khan, Rahimdad

    2017-03-01

    Free-space optics is an innovative technology that uses atmosphere as a propagation medium to provide higher data rates. These links are heavily affected by atmospheric channel mainly because of fog and clouds that act to scatter and even block the modulated beam of light from reaching the receiver end, hence imposing severe attenuation. A comprehensive statistical study of the fog effects and deep physical understanding of the fog phenomena are very important for suggesting improvements (reliability and efficiency) in such communication systems. In this regard, 6-months real-time measured fog attenuation data are considered and statistically investigated. A detailed statistical analysis related to each fog event for that period is presented; the best probability density functions are selected on the basis of Akaike information criterion, while the estimates of unknown parameters are computed by maximum likelihood estimation technique. The results show that most fog attenuation events follow normal mixture distribution and some follow the Weibull distribution.

  8. Novel method for fog monitoring using cellular networks infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2012-08-01

    A major detrimental effect of fog is visibility limitation which can result in serious transportation accidents, traffic delays and therefore economic damage. Existing monitoring techniques including satellites, transmissometers and human observers - suffer from low spatial resolution, high cost or lack of precision when measuring near ground level. Here we show a novel technique for fog monitoring using wireless communication systems. Communication networks widely deploy commercial microwave links across the terrain at ground level. Operating at frequencies of tens of GHz they are affected by fog and are, effectively, an existing, spatially world-wide distributed sensor network that can provide crucial information about fog concentration and visibility. Fog monitoring potential is demonstrated for a heavy fog event that took place in Israel. The correlation between transmissomters and human eye observations to the visibility estimates from the nearby microwave links was found to be 0.53 and 0.61, respectively. These values indicate the high potential of the proposed method.

  9. Fog as a fresh-water resource: overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Otto; Schemenauer, Robert S; Lummerich, Anne; Cereceda, Pilar; Marzol, Victoria; Corell, David; van Heerden, Johan; Reinhard, Dirk; Gherezghiher, Tseggai; Olivier, Jana; Osses, Pablo; Sarsour, Jamal; Frost, Ernst; Estrela, María J; Valiente, José A; Fessehaye, Gebregiorgis Mussie

    2012-05-01

    The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to obtain fresh water for afforestation, gardening, and as a drinking water source for human and animal consumption. In regions where fresh water is sparse and fog frequently occurs, it is feasible to set up a passive mesh system for fog water collection. The mesh is directly exposed to the atmosphere, and the foggy air is pushed through the mesh by the wind. Fog droplets are deposited on the mesh, combine to form larger droplets, and run down passing into a storage tank. Fog water collection rates vary dramatically from site to site but yearly averages from 3 to 10 l m(-2) of mesh per day are typical of operational projects. The scope of this article is to review fog collection projects worldwide, to analyze factors of success, and to evaluate the prospects of this technology.

  10. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fog-rain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Pengfei; Yan, Lili; Chen, Jianmin; Cheng, Tiantao; Xu, Shifen

    2011-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mainly originate from incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of materials containing carbon and hydrogen. They exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). Current studies in atmospheric PAHs are predominantly focused on fog and rainwater samples. Some sampling difficulties are associated with fog samples. This study presented the first observation of the characteristics of PAHs in fog samples using a solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. Eighteen fog samples were collected during ten fog events from March to December 2009 in the Shanghai area. PAHs were extracted by SPME and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). As the compounds were partially soluble in water, with solubility decreasing with increasing molecular weight, low molecular weight (LMW) PAH compounds were universally found in the fog water samples. Naphthalene (NaP), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant) and fluoranthene (Flo) were dominant compounds in fog water. The total PAH concentration in fog water ranged from 0.03 to 6.67 μg L(-1) (mean of 1.06 μg L(-1)), and was much higher in winter than in summer. The concentration of PAHs in fog or rain water decreased after undergoing a pre-rain or pre-fog wash. The average concentration of PAHs was higher in fog than in rain. Diagnostic ratio analysis suggested that petroleum and combustion were the dominant contributors to PAHs in urban Shanghai. Backward trajectories were calculated to determine the origin of the air masses, showing that air masses were mostly from the northeast territory.

  11. High repetition rate ultrashort laser cuts a path through fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Lorena; Schubert, Elise; Mongin, Denis; Klingebiel, Sandro; Schultze, Marcel; Metzger, Thomas; Michel, Knut; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the transmission of a 1030 nm, 1.3 ps laser beam of 100 mJ energy through fog increases when its repetition rate increases to the kHz range. Due to the efficient energy deposition by the laser filaments in the air, a shockwave ejects the fog droplets from a substantial volume of the beam, at a moderate energy cost. This process opens prospects for applications requiring the transmission of laser beams through fogs and clouds.

  12. X-ray measurements of water fog density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, A.L.

    1982-11-01

    Water-fog densities were measured in a laboratory experiment using x-ray diagnostics. Fog densities were measured, varying the flow rate, nozzle type, nozzle configuration, nozzle height above the x-ray beam, and water surface tension. Suspended water volume fractions between 0.0008 and 0.0074 percent were measured. The fog density increases approximately as the square root of the flow rate; the other parameters had little effect on the density

  13. Fog in the coastal region of southern Brazil: seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, N.; Gomes, C.

    2009-05-01

    Fog forecasting, especially advection fog, is important because a large port is located at Rio Grande, 32° S and 52° W. Fogs discontinue the cargo transport and prevent entrance of ships in the port, causing great financial loss. Atmospheric and oceanographic conditions associated to fog formation are been investigated, especially those that happen during advection fog. The result of this characterization will facilitate the forecast using mesoscale numerical models. The research started with a climatology of fog in the region, in two locations which are 2° of latitude apart, with an average temperature difference of 3°C. The observation of fog is a standard record at conventional meteorological stations. Data from this study was obtained from the Meteorological Station of Rio Grande, which belongs to the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia network, and from the Meteorological Station operated by the Division of Meteorology of Department of Airspace Control in Porto Alegre. The period of this study is from January 1990 to December 2005. The distribution of the monthly total of fog observations shows that they occur mainly between May and August, with maximum in June. In all seasons of the year the total number of fogs is greater than in Porto Alegre in Rio Grande. There was a decrease in the average annual number of fogs from the 90s to the last five years of research, which can be attributed to urbanization around the places of observation. It increases the temperature in the layers closer to the soil and decreases the available moisture, making the occurrence of radiation fog. Atmospheric and oceanographic conditions, prevalent during these occurrences, will be examined next. The another goal is to compare the data of advection fog in Rio Grande, obtained from images of the type ARGUS in Cassino beach, with those recorded by Meteorological Station. This work is partially financed by FINEP and CAPES.

  14. Nuclear power: Hour of fog producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauner, M.; Schuh, H.

    2004-01-01

    Seven advanced nuclear power plants in Germany can withstand a frontal crash by a full-tanked Jumbo-Jet. But for five older plants even smaller planes can cause an hazard impossible to control. A fog generation around the power plants, favorized by operators and politicians, to camouflage this plants against terroristic flights is absurd because of the possibility of flight automation. However terrorists may attack reactors also from the ground, but how they can do is top secret. (GL) [de

  15. Fog and dew climatology over Hisar, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surender, S.; Diwan, S.; Rao, V.U.M.

    2006-05-01

    In many arid and semi-arid areas, pumped ground water and the water from streams, rivers and reservoirs is no longer sufficient to cover the ever increasing water demand. Therefore new interest in 'marginal' water resources like fog and dew harvesting are to be developed after studying climatology of these parameters in a region. The observations on dew and fog events recorded at Hisar, representing semi-arid region of India during winter season (October to March) for the period 1980 to 2005 have been analyzed. The total annual dew amount in winter season ranged between 33 mm (1987-88) and 79 mm (1981-82) during the period under study. The seasonal dewfall showed a decreasing trend of 1.4 mm during the period under investigation. Average maximum dew events (26.1) were recorded during November and average minimum dew events were recorded in February. In a particular season, the highest dew events (168) were observed during the winter seasons of 1982-83 and 1983-84, whereas, the minimum number of dew events (97) was reported during 1998-99. Interestingly, an increasing trend (1.3 day/season) in occurrence of fog events was seen. Average maximum foggy events (8.7) recorded in a month were observed in January. In a particular season, the maximum foggy events (41) were recorded during 2002-03 and the minimum (2) during 1983-84. To achieve the objective of alternate source of water and to assess the impact of dew and fog on agricultural crops for their growth and development, inputs from various specialized disciplines and allied sciences engaged in meteorological applications along with forecasting skills from non scientific quarters are needed to predict the weather parameter accurately, thus the active cooperation between meteorological/remote sensing agencies, agricultural organizations and farming community is needed for sustainable agricultural development in scarce/limited water availability regions. (author)

  16. Remote sensing of height of a fog layer and temperature of fog droplets using infrared thermometer and meteorological satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Abe, H.

    1998-01-01

    To study meteorological characteristics of cool foggy easterly (Yamase), by which rice production in the Tohoku region was frequently damaged, we measured temperature of the fog layer resulted from Yamase, using infrared thermal indicator and meteorological satellite (HIMAWARI). These temperature data were compared with wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures obtained by a ventilated psychrometer. Generally, the temperature of fog droplets estimated from infrared thermal indicator was higher than the wet-bulb temperature by about 0∼1°C. This result indicates clearly that fog droplets were cooled by evaporation on the droplet surface. Under the conditions that the fog layer is homogeneous in liquid water content and fog droplet size distribution, the height of the fog layer can be estimated by the observation of visibility and relative solar radiation flux. (author)

  17. Characterisation of FOGs in grease trap waste from the processing of chickens in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitayapat, Nuttakan; Chitprasert, Pakamon

    2014-06-01

    Industrial firms that kill and process chickens generate wastewater that contains fat, oil, and grease (FOG). The FOGs are located in the fatty waste that is collected by floatation in grease traps. Chemical and physical characterisation of FOGs would provide useful information that would help in the development of methods designed to decrease the extent of pollution caused by disposal of the waste and to utilise commercially some of its lipid constituents. Employing these methods would enhance the profitability and competitive potential of these commercial organisations. Samples of grease trap waste from 14 firms in central Thailand have been examined. Due to the very different schemes of waste management employed by these firms, the physical appearance of their fatty wastes showed considerable variation. The chemical and physical properties of the FOGs present in these wastes showed considerable variation also. Large amounts of free fatty acids (10-70% as oleic acid) were detected in most of the 14 wastes and palmitic, cis-9-oleic, cis,cis-9,12-linoleic, stearic, and palmitoleic acids were the predominant species of free and esterified acids. Most of the FOGs were solid at temperatures below 40 °C. Many of them contained traces of heavy metals (Cu and Pb) and some contained traces of the pesticides dimethoate and cypermethrin. The content of these potentially hazardous substances would have to be considered very carefully before discarding the fatty wastes and during the development of methods designed to isolate their potentially profitable lipid constituents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An improved measurement system for FOG pure lag time with no changing of FOG work status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Yang, J. H.; Zhou, Y. L.; Shu, X. W.

    2018-05-01

    The minimum pure lag time is an important factor for characterizing the dynamic performance of fiber optical gyroscope. It is defined as the time duration from the reception of velocity-shock signal to the output of corresponding fiber-optic gyroscope data. Many engineering projects have required for this index specifically, so the measurement of the minimum pure lag time is highly demanded. In typically measurement system, the work status of tested FOG has to be changed. In this work, a FOG pure lag time measurement system without changing the work status of the FOG has been demonstrated. During the operation of this test system, the impact structure generated a shock towards the FOG, and the pure lag time was measured through data processing analysis. The design scheme and test principle have been researched and analyzed in detail. And a prototype has been developed and used for experiment successfully. This measurement system can realize a measurement accuracy of better than ±3 μs and a system resolution of 108.6ns.

  19. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbeld, A.; Klemm, O.; Grießbaum, F.; Sträter, E.; Larrain, H.; Osses, P.; Cereceda, P.

    2009-09-01

    In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m-2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m-2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i) deposition of water to the desert, and (ii) intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  20. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbeld, A.; Klemm, O.; Griessbaum, F.; Straeter, E. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Landscape Ecology; Larrain, H. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile (Chile). Atacama Desert Center ADC; Univ. Bolivariana, Iquique (Chile); Osses, P.; Cereceda, P. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago de Chile (Chile). Inst. of Geography

    2009-07-01

    In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m{sup -2} of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m{sup -2}. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i) deposition of water to the desert, and (ii) intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog. (orig.)

  1. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Osses

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m−2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m−2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i deposition of water to the desert, and (ii intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  2. Prediction of fog/visibility over India using NWP Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditi; George, John P.; Iyengar, Gopal Raman

    2018-03-01

    Frequent occurrence of fog in different parts of northern India is common during the winter months of December and January. Low visibility conditions due to fog disrupt normal public life. Visibility conditions heavily affect both surface and air transport. A number of flights are either diverted or cancelled every year during the winter season due to low visibility conditions, experienced at different airports of north India. Thus, fog and visibility forecasts over plains of north India become very important during winter months. This study aims to understand the ability of a NWP model (NCMRWF, Unified Model, NCUM) with a diagnostic visibility scheme to forecast visibility over plains of north India. The present study verifies visibility forecasts obtained from NCUM against the INSAT-3D fog images and visibility observations from the METAR reports of different stations in the plains of north India. The study shows that the visibility forecast obtained from NCUM can provide reasonably good indication of the spatial extent of fog in advance of one day. The fog intensity is also predicted fairly well. The study also verifies the simple diagnostic model for fog which is driven by NWP model forecast of surface relative humidity and wind speed. The performance of NWP model forecast of visibility is found comparable to that from simple fog model driven by NWP forecast of relative humidity and wind speed.

  3. Measurement of moisture in smoldering smoke and implications for fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Achtemeier

    2006-01-01

    Smoke from wildland burning in association with fog has been implicated as a visibility hazard over roadways in the southern United States. A project began in 2002 to determine whether moisture released during the smoldering phases of southern prescribed burns could contribute to fog formation. Temperature and relative humidity measurements were taken from 27...

  4. The smog-fog-smog cycle and acid deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N.; Seinfeld, John H.; Pilinis, Christodoulos

    1990-10-01

    A model including descriptions of aerosol and droplet microphysics, gas and aqueous-phase chemistry, and deposition is used to study the transformation of aerosol to fog droplets and back to aerosol in an urban environment. Fogs in polluted environments have the potential to increase aerosol sulfate concentrations but at the same time to cause reductions in the aerosol concentration of nitrate, chloride, ammonium and sodium and well as in the total aerosol mass concentration. The sulfate produced during fog episodes favors the aerosol particles that have access to most of the fog liquid water which are usually the large particles. Aerosol scavenging efficiencies of around 80 percent are calculated for urban fogs. Sampling and subsequent mixing of fog droplets of different sizes may result in measured concentrations that are not fully representative of the fogwater chemical composition and can introduce errors in the reported values of the ionic species deposition velocities. Differences in the major ionic species deposition velocities can be explained by their distribution over the droplet size spectrum and can be correlated with the species average diameter. Two different expressions are derived for use in fog models for the calculation of the liquid water deposition velocity during fog growth and dissipation stages.

  5. Pollution in coastal fog at Alto Patache, Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sträter, Ellen; Westbeld, Anna; Klemm, Otto

    2010-11-01

    The Atacama Desert in Northern Chile is one of the most arid places on earth. However, fog occurs regularly at the coastal mountain range and can be collected at different sites in Chile to supply settlements at the coast with freshwater. This is also planned in the fog oasis Alto Patache (20°49'S, 70°09'W). For this pilot study, we collected fog water samples in July and August 2008 for chemical analysis to find indications for its suitability for domestic use. Fog water samples were taken with a cylindrical scientific fog collector and from the net and the storage tank of a Large Fog Collector (LFC). The pHs of advective fog, originating from the stratus cloud deck over the Eastern Pacific, varied between 2.9 and 3.5. Orographic fog, which was formed locally, exhibited a pH of 2.5. About 50% of the total ionic concentration was due to sea salt. High percentages of sulfate and very high enrichment factors (versus sea salt) of heavy metals were found. Both backward trajectories and the enrichment factors indicate that the high concentrations of ions and heavy metals in fog were influenced by anthropogenic activities along the Chilean Pacific Coast such as power plants, mining, and steel industry. We found no direct indication for the importance of other sources such as the emission of dimethyl sulfide from the ocean and subsequent atmospheric oxidation for acidity and sulfate or soil erosion for heavy metal concentrations. When fog water was collected by the LFC, it apparently picked up large amounts of dry deposition which accumulated on the nets during fog-free periods. This material is rinsed off the collector shortly after the onset of a fog event with the water collected first. During the first flush, some concentrations of acidity, nitrate, As, and Se, largely exceeded the Chilean drinking water limits. Before any use of fog water for domestic purpose, its quality should be checked on a regular basis. Strategies to mitigate fog water pollution are given.

  6. Influence of grain size and texture prior to warm rolling on microstructure, texture and magnetic properties of Fe-6.5 wt% Si steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. J.; Xu, Y. B.; Jiao, H. T.; Cheng, S. F.; Misra, R. D. K.; Li, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    Fe-6.5 wt% Si steel hot bands with different initial grain size and texture were obtained through different annealing treatment. These bands were then warm rolled and annealed. An analysis on the evolution of microstructure and texture, particularly the formation of recrystallization texture was studied. The results indicated that initial grain size and texture had a significant effect on texture evolution and magnetic properties. Large initial grains led to coarse deformed grains with dense and long shear bands after warm rolling. Such long shear bands resulted in growth advantage for {1 1 3} 〈3 6 1〉 oriented grains during recrystallization. On the other hand, sharp {11 h} 〈1, 2, 1/h〉 (α∗-fiber) texture in the coarse-grained sample led to dominant {1 1 2} 〈1 1 0〉 texture after warm rolling. Such {1 1 2} 〈1 1 0〉 deformed grains provided massive nucleation sites for {1 1 3} 〈3 6 1〉 oriented grains during subsequent recrystallization. These {1 1 3} 〈3 6 1〉 grains were confirmed to exhibit an advantage on grain growth compared to γ-fiber grains. As a result, significant {1 1 3} 〈3 6 1〉 texture was developed and unfavorable γ-fiber texture was inhibited in the final annealed sheet. Both these aspects led to superior magnetic properties in the sample with largest initial grain size. The magnetic induction B8 was 1.36 T and the high frequency core loss P10/400 was 17.07 W/kg.

  7. Water fog inerting of hydrogen-air mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalosh, R.G.; Bajpai, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory tests have been conducted to determine the effects of water fog density, droplet diameter and temperature on the lower flammable limit (LFL) of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Five different fog nozzles were used to generate dense fogs with volume mean drop diameters ranging from 20 micro-meters to 115 micro-meters. At 20 0 C, these nozzles marginally raised the hydrogen LFL from 4.0 vol.% hydrogen to typically 4.8%, with one exceptional nozzle producing an LFL of 7.2%. At 50 0 C, the LFL in the presence of dense fog ranged from 5.0 to 7.9%, while at 70 0 C, the range was 5.9 to 8.5%. Fog densities required to achieve a given level of partial inerting increased with approximately the second power of average drop diameter, as predicted by a theoretical flame quenching analysis

  8. Pesticide occurrence and distribution in fog collected near Monterey, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomburg, C.J.; Glotfelty, D.E. (Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA)); Seiber, J.N. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyzed pesticides in air and fog in several fog events sampled near Monterey, CA, to determine whether the uptake of pesticides in advected oceanic fog was different from uptake in fog forming under stagnant inversion conditions in California's Central Valley in the winter. Data for several pesticides common to both ares showed that the pesticide content and distribution were remarkable similar in the two locations. The conversion of organophosphorus insecticides to their corresponding oxons, and aqueous-phase enrichment factors, were also very similar. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that enhanced pesticide concentration in fogwater is caused by strongly sorptive nonfilterable particles and colloids in the fog liquid that are derived from atmospheric particles.

  9. Modelling fog in probabilistic consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, B.Y.

    1993-02-01

    Earlier work examined the potential influence of foggy weather conditions on the probabilistic assessment of the consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere (PCA), in particular the impact of a fraction of the released aerosol becoming incorporated into droplets. A major uncertainty emerging from the initial scoping study concerned estimation of the fraction of the released material that would be taken up into droplets. An objective is to construct a method for handling in a PCA context the effect of fog on deposition, basing the method on the experience gained from prior investigations. There are two aspects to explicitly including the effect of fog in PCA: estimating the probability of occurrence of various types of foggy condition and calculating the impact on the conventional end-points of consequence assessment. For the first, a brief outline is given of the use of meteorological data by PCA computer codes, followed by a discussion of some routinely-recorded meteorological parameters that are pertinent to fog, such as the presentweather code and horizontal visibility. Four stylized scenarios are defined to cover a wide range of situations in which particle growth by uptake of water may have an important impact on deposition. A description is then given of the way in which routine meteorological data could be used to flag the presence of each of these conditions in the meteorological data file used by the PCA code. The approach developed to calculate the impact on deposition is pitched at a level of complexity appropriate to the PCA context and reflects the physical constraints of the system and accounts for the specific characteristics of the released aerosol. (Author)

  10. UAV applications for thermodynamic profiling: Emphasis on ice fog research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Ware, Randolph

    2016-04-01

    Ice fog occurs often over the Arctic, cold climatic, and mountainous regions for about 30% of time where temperature (T) can go down to -10°C or below. Ice Nucleation (IN) and cooling processes play an important role by the controlling the intensity of ice fog conditions that affect aviation application, transportation, and local climate. Ice fog can also occur at T above -10°C but close to 0°C it occurs due to freezing of supercooled droplets that include an IN. To better document ice fog conditions, observations from the ice fog events of the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol effects on Climate (ISDAC) project, Barrow, Alaska, Fog Remote Sensing And Modeling (FRAM) project Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, and the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) project, Heber City, Utah, were analyzed.. Measurements difficulties of small ice fog particles at cold temperatures and low-level flying restrictions prevent observations from aircraft within the surface boundary layer. However, unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be operated safely to measure IN number concentration, Relative Humidity with respect to ice (RHi), T, horizontal wind speed (Uh) and direction, and ice crystal spectra less than about 500 micron. Thermodynamic profiling by a Radiometrics Profiling Microwave Radiometer (PMWR) and Vaisala CL51 ceilometer was used to describe ice fog conditions in the vertical and its time development. In this presentation, ice fog characteristics and its thermodynamic environment will be presented using both ground-based and airborne platforms such as a UAV with new sensors. Some examples of measurements from the UAV for future research, and challenges related to both ice fog measurements and visibility parameterization will also be presented.

  11. Estimating fog-top height through near-surface micrometeorological measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Román-Cascón, Carlos; Yagüe, Carlos; Steeneveld, Gert Jan; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon Ander; Maqueda, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Fog-top height (fog thickness) is very useful information for aircraft maneuvers, data assimilation/validation of Numerical Weather Prediction models or nowcasting of fog dissipation. This variable is usually difficult to determine, since the fog-layer top cannot be observed from the surface. In

  12. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-01-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  13. Influence of severe plastic deformation obtained by warm rolling on microstructure and mechanical properties of the ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Luana Alves; Campos, Wagner Reis Costa; Vilela, Jefferson José, E-mail: luana_alves_barbosa@hotmail.com, E-mail: wrrc@cdtn.br, E-mail: jjv@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Miqueletti, Estevesson Ferreira; Mazzer, Eric Marchezini; Santos, Dagoberto B., E-mail: estevess@demet.ufmg.br, E-mail: marchezini@demet.ufmg.br, E-mail: dsantos@demet.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Generation IV reactors require research on new materials. For example, materials that will be used in the reactor vessel must be resistant to creep and have high toughness. Grain refining is a technique used to improve toughness. This grain refinement can be achieved by severe plastic deformation. In this work, the stainless steel 409 was used to simulate the EUROFER one type of ODS steel. The rolling process was applied to make the severe plastic deformation. The rolling was performed at 600°C which corresponds to the warm working condition in the absence of dynamic recrystallization. The rolling schedule studied allowed a logarithmic strain accumulation of 3.16. The rolled sheet had a yield stress of 822 MPa and a hardness of 302 HV. The grains became quite elongated characteristic of a severe plastic deformation. The recrystallization temperature of the rolled sheet was approximately 500°C. It was obtained by heat treatment and hardness measurement. (author)

  14. Influence of severe plastic deformation obtained by warm rolling on microstructure and mechanical properties of the ferritic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Luana Alves; Campos, Wagner Reis Costa; Vilela, Jefferson José; Miqueletti, Estevesson Ferreira; Mazzer, Eric Marchezini; Santos, Dagoberto B.

    2017-01-01

    Generation IV reactors require research on new materials. For example, materials that will be used in the reactor vessel must be resistant to creep and have high toughness. Grain refining is a technique used to improve toughness. This grain refinement can be achieved by severe plastic deformation. In this work, the stainless steel 409 was used to simulate the EUROFER one type of ODS steel. The rolling process was applied to make the severe plastic deformation. The rolling was performed at 600°C which corresponds to the warm working condition in the absence of dynamic recrystallization. The rolling schedule studied allowed a logarithmic strain accumulation of 3.16. The rolled sheet had a yield stress of 822 MPa and a hardness of 302 HV. The grains became quite elongated characteristic of a severe plastic deformation. The recrystallization temperature of the rolled sheet was approximately 500°C. It was obtained by heat treatment and hardness measurement. (author)

  15. Daily lifestyles in the fog and haze weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dong-Ping; He, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    China is being plagued by a large-scaled lasting fog and haze, under which people have to work and live. Therefore, it matters to do what we can to minimize the adverse impact of the fog and haze on individual health on a daily basis. Relative literatures on the fog and haze have been searched and reviewed. Particular attention has been paid to the literatures on the adverse impact of the fog and haze on the people's health and on the ways minimizing this impact. Coming across the weather of fog and haze, appropriate measures taken can minimize its adverse impact on individuals on a daily basis. The measures included vitamin intake, water drinking, air cleaning indoors, stay-at-home, and mask wearing outdoors. These measures are simple and proven effective. Simple and effective measures seem to be sufficient to minimizing the adverse impact of the fog and haze on the individual's health on a daily basis. Lifestyle changes, awareness of environment protection, energy conservation, and new and clean energy use are ultimate ways to curb the air pollution and reduce the occurrence of the fog and haze.

  16. Fog computing job scheduling optimization based on bees swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitam, Salim; Zeadally, Sherali; Mellouk, Abdelhamid

    2018-04-01

    Fog computing is a new computing architecture, composed of a set of near-user edge devices called fog nodes, which collaborate together in order to perform computational services such as running applications, storing an important amount of data, and transmitting messages. Fog computing extends cloud computing by deploying digital resources at the premise of mobile users. In this new paradigm, management and operating functions, such as job scheduling aim at providing high-performance, cost-effective services requested by mobile users and executed by fog nodes. We propose a new bio-inspired optimization approach called Bees Life Algorithm (BLA) aimed at addressing the job scheduling problem in the fog computing environment. Our proposed approach is based on the optimized distribution of a set of tasks among all the fog computing nodes. The objective is to find an optimal tradeoff between CPU execution time and allocated memory required by fog computing services established by mobile users. Our empirical performance evaluation results demonstrate that the proposal outperforms the traditional particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm in terms of CPU execution time and allocated memory.

  17. Optimal design of permeable fiber network structures for fog harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Chhatre, Shreerang S; Srinivasan, Siddarth; Cohen, Robert E; McKinley, Gareth H

    2013-10-29

    Fog represents a large untapped source of potable water, especially in arid climates. Numerous plants and animals use textural and chemical features on their surfaces to harvest this precious resource. In this work, we investigate the influence of the surface wettability characteristics, length scale, and weave density on the fog-harvesting capability of woven meshes. We develop a combined hydrodynamic and surface wettability model to predict the overall fog-collection efficiency of the meshes and cast the findings in the form of a design chart. Two limiting surface wettability constraints govern the re-entrainment of collected droplets and clogging of mesh openings. Appropriate tuning of the wetting characteristics of the surfaces, reducing the wire radii, and optimizing the wire spacing all lead to more efficient fog collection. We use a family of coated meshes with a directed stream of fog droplets to simulate a natural foggy environment and demonstrate a five-fold enhancement in the fog-collecting efficiency of a conventional polyolefin mesh. The design rules developed in this work can be applied to select a mesh surface with optimal topography and wetting characteristics to harvest enhanced water fluxes over a wide range of natural convected fog environments.

  18. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Dacke Marie; Nørgaard Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another ...

  19. Estimating fog-top height through near-surface micrometeorological measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Román Cascón, Carlos; Yagüe Anguis, Carlos; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon Ander; Maqueda Burgos, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Fog-top height (fog thickness) is very useful information for aircraft maneuvers, data assimilation/validation of Numerical Weather Prediction models or nowcasting of fog dissipation. This variable is usually difficult to determine, since the fog-layer top cannot be observed from the surface. In some cases, satellite data, ground remote sensing instruments or atmospheric soundings are used to provide approximations of fog-top height. These instruments are expensive and their data not always a...

  20. Alternative Agents to Prevent Fogging in Head and Neck Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patorn Piromchai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The essential factor for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in head and neck endoscopy is the visibility of the image. An anti-fogging agent can reduce this problem by minimizing surface tension to prevent the condensation of water in the form of small droplets on a surface. There is no report on the use of hibiscrub ® or baby shampoo to reduce fogging in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy between commercial anti-fogging agent, hibiscrub ® and baby shampoo to reduce fogging for the use in head and neck endoscopy. Methods The study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University in August 2010. Commercial anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub ® were applied on rigid endoscope lens before putting them into a mist generator. The images were taken at baseline, 15 seconds, 30 seconds and 1 minute. The images' identifiers were removed before they were sent to two evaluators. A visual analogue scale (VAS was used to rate the image quality from 0 to 10. Results The difference in mean VAS score between anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub ® versus no agent were 5.46, 4.45 and 2.1 respectively. The commercial anti-fogging agent and baby shampoo had most protective benefit and performed significantly better than no agent ( P < 0.05. Conclusions Baby shampoo is an effective agent to prevent fogging during head and neck endoscopy and compares favourably with commercial anti-fogging agent.

  1. Coastal Fog Sustains Summer Baseflow in Northern Californian Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M.; Dufour, A.; Leonardson, R.; Thompson, S. E.; Dawson, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Mediterranean climate of Northern California imposes significant water stress on ecosystems and water resources during the dry summer months. During summer, frequently the only water inputs occur as occult precipitation, in the form of fog and dew. In this study, we characterized the role of coastal fog, a dominant feature of Northern Californian coastal ecosystems and a widespread phenomenon associated with deep marine upwelling in west coast, arid, and Mediterranean climates worldwide. We monitored fog occurrence and intensity, throughfall following canopy interception of fog, soil moisture, streamflow, and meteorological variables, and made visual observations of the spatial extent of fog using time-lapse imagery in Upper Pilarcitos Creek Watershed (managed by San Francisco Public Utilities Commission as part of the San Francisco area water supply). We adopted a stratified sampling design that captured the watershed's elevation gradient, forest-edge versus interior locations, and different vegetation cover. The point-scale observations of throughfall inputs and transpiration suppression, estimated from the Penman equation, were upscaled using such watershed features and the observed fog "footprint" identified from the time-lapse images. When throughfall input and fog-induced transpiration suppression were incorporated into the operational watershed model, they improved estimates of summer baseflow, which remained persistently higher than could be explained without the fog effects. Fog, although providing relatively small volumetric inputs to the water balance, appears to offer significant relief of water stress throughout the terrestrial and aquatic components of the coastal Californian ecosystem and thus should be accounted for when assessing water stress availability in dry ecosystems.

  2. The effect of fog on radionuclide deposition velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, R.; Carson, P.; Thompson, W.

    1997-01-01

    Current nuclear power station release models do not evaluate deposition under foggy atmospheric conditions. Deposition velocities and scavenging coefficients of radioactive particles entrained in fog are presented for the Point Lepreau area of the Bay of Fundy coast. It is recommended to calculate deposition based on fog deposition velocities. The deposition velocities can be calculated from common meteorological data. The range of deposition velocities is approximately 1 - 100 cm/s. Fog deposition is surface roughness dependent with forests having larger deposition and deposition velocities than soil or grasses. (author)

  3. Combinatorial regulation of tissue specification by GATA and FOG factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlon, Timothy M.; Crispino, John D.

    2012-01-01

    The development of complex organisms requires the formation of diverse cell types from common stem and progenitor cells. GATA family transcriptional regulators and their dedicated co-factors, termed Friend of GATA (FOG) proteins, control cell fate and differentiation in multiple tissue types from Drosophila to man. FOGs can both facilitate and antagonize GATA factor transcriptional regulation depending on the factor, cell, and even the specific gene target. In this review, we highlight recent studies that have elucidated mechanisms by which FOGs regulate GATA factor function and discuss how these factors use these diverse modes of gene regulation to control cell lineage specification throughout metazoans. PMID:23048181

  4. Continental Fog Attenuation Empirical Relationship from Measured Visibility Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nadeem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Free Space Optics (FSO has the great potential for future communication applications. However, weather influenced reduced availability had been the main cause for its restricted growth. Among different weather influences fog plays the major role. A new model generalized for all FSO wavelengths, has been proposed for the prediction of continental fog attenuation using visibility data. The performance of the proposed model has been compared with well known models for measured attenuation data of Continental fog. The comparison has been performed in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE.

  5. Fog-Assisted Operational Cost Reduction for Cloud Data Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Liang; Jiang, Tao; Zou, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we intend to reduce the operational cost of cloud data centers with the help of fog devices, which can avoid the revenue loss due to wide-area network propagation delay and save network bandwidth cost by serving nearby cloud users. Since fog devices may not be owned by a cloud service provider, they should be compensated for serving the requests of cloud users. When taking economical compensation into consideration, the optimal number of requests processed locally by each fog d...

  6. A Twice Electrochemical-Etching Method to Fabricate Superhydrophobic-Superhydrophilic Patterns for Biomimetic Fog Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Song, Jinlong; Liu, Junkai; Liu, Xin; Jin, Zhuji

    2017-08-18

    Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterned surfaces have attracted more and more attention due to their great potential applications in the fog harvest process. In this work, we developed a simple and universal electrochemical-etching method to fabricate the superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterned surface on metal superhydrophobic substrates. The anti-electrochemical corrosion property of superhydrophobic substrates and the dependence of electrochemical etching potential on the wettability of the fabricated dimples were investigated on Al samples. Results showed that high etching potential was beneficial for efficiently producing a uniform superhydrophilic dimple. Fabrication of long-term superhydrophilic dimples on the Al superhydrophobic substrate was achieved by combining the masked electrochemical etching and boiling-water immersion methods. A long-term wedge-shaped superhydrophilic dimple array was fabricated on a superhydrophobic surface. The fog harvest test showed that the surface with a wedge-shaped pattern array had high water collection efficiency. Condensing water on the pattern was easy to converge and depart due to the internal Laplace pressure gradient of the liquid and the contact angle hysteresis contrast on the surface. The Furmidge equation was applied to explain the droplet departing mechanism and to control the departing volume. The fabrication technique and research of the fog harvest process may guide the design of new water collection devices.

  7. Average-atom model for two-temperature states and ionic transport properties of aluminum in the warm dense matter regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Fu, Yongsheng; Bredow, Richard; Kang, Dongdong; Redmer, Ronald; Yuan, Jianmin

    2017-03-01

    The average-atom model combined with the hyper-netted chain approximation is an efficient tool for electronic and ionic structure calculations for warm dense matter. Here we generalize this method in order to describe non-equilibrium states with different electron and ion temperature as produced in laser-matter interactions on ultra-short time scales. In particular, the electron-ion and ion-ion correlation effects are considered when calculating the electron structure. We derive an effective ion-ion pair-potential using the electron densities in the framework of temperature-depended density functional theory. Using this ion-ion potential we perform molecular dynamics simulations in order to determine the ionic transport properties such as the ionic diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity through the ionic velocity autocorrelation functions.

  8. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  9. Humidification - Fogging and other evaporative cooling in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Weel, van P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Fogging, misting, roof sprinklers, pad-and-fan and other techniques based on water evaporation are effective tools for improving the growing conditions in a greenhouse when humidity is low. They should be used wisely though.

  10. Machine learning based Intelligent cognitive network using fog computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingyang; Li, Lun; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) based on artificial intelligence is proposed to distribute the limited radio spectrum resources more efficiently. The CRN framework can analyze the time-sensitive signal data close to the signal source using fog computing with different types of machine learning techniques. Depending on the computational capabilities of the fog nodes, different features and machine learning techniques are chosen to optimize spectrum allocation. Also, the computing nodes send the periodic signal summary which is much smaller than the original signal to the cloud so that the overall system spectrum source allocation strategies are dynamically updated. Applying fog computing, the system is more adaptive to the local environment and robust to spectrum changes. As most of the signal data is processed at the fog level, it further strengthens the system security by reducing the communication burden of the communications network.

  11. Revisiting Fog as an Important Constituent of the Atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hůnová, I.; Brabec, Marek; Malý, Marek; Valeriánová, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 636, September 2018 (2018), s. 1490-1499 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Fog * Generalized additive model * Meteorology * Air pollution Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  12. A Satellite Based Fog Study of the Korean Peninsula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, David K

    2007-01-01

    Fog has always been a difficult phenomenon to forecast. Its unpredictable nature and propensity to quickly decrease visibilities have had adverse effects on military operations for many years across the Korean peninsula...

  13. Simulation of Fog Oil Deposition During Military Training Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haehnel, Robert B

    2008-01-01

    ...) obscurant on the ground using the SCIPuff aerosol transport model. Model results are compared to actual deposition of fog oil measure on the ground during two military training exercises in Alaska...

  14. Fog water chemistry in the Namib desert, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Frank D.; Schemenauer, Robert S.

    This study documents the ion concentrations and ion enrichment relative to sea water, in Namib Desert fog water, with the purpose of establishing its suitability for future fogwater collection schemes, while also examining claims that Namib Desert fog water carries exceptionally high concentrations of sulphate, which may be responsible for the formation of gypsum deposits in the desert. The work suggests that Namibian fog water is at least as clean as has been reported from other coastal deserts in South America and Arabia, and provides a source of very clean water for the coastal desert region of south-western Africa. It does not appear that fog is an efficient sulphur source for the formation of the gypsum deposits, unless rare events with high concentrations of marine sulphur compounds occur.

  15. The effect of radioactive aerosols on fog formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, G.; Khan, E.U.; Ali, N.; Khan, H.A.; Waheed, A.

    2011-01-01

    This research study has been carried out to explore the dependence of fog formation on radioactive aerosols. The aerosols containing radioactive nuclides are called radioactive aerosols. A large number of radioactive nuclides are present in the atmosphere among which the two most important nuclides, 7Be and 210Pb are considered here in this study. Results for Activity Concentrations of these radio-nuclides in air samples in clear and foggy conditions were comparatively analyzed. About 19% increase in Activity concentration for 210Pb and about 23% increase in Activity Concentration for 7Be was recorded during fog as compared to clear conditions. This increase in Activity Concentration during fog indicates that the presence of aerosols laden with these radio-nuclides is also one of the so many factors responsible for fog formation

  16. Impacts of Near-Future Ocean Acidification and Warming on the Shell Mechanical and Geochemical Properties of Gastropods from Intertidal to Subtidal Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jonathan Y S; Connell, Sean D; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Russell, Bayden D

    2017-11-07

    Many marine organisms produce calcareous shells as the key structure for defense, but the functionality of shells may be compromised by ocean acidification and warming. Nevertheless, calcifying organisms may adaptively modify their shell properties in response to these impacts. Here, we examined how reduced pH and elevated temperature affect shell mechanical and geochemical properties of common grazing gastropods from intertidal to subtidal zones. Given the greater environmental fluctuations in the intertidal zone, we hypothesized that intertidal gastropods would exhibit more plastic responses in shell properties than subtidal gastropods. Overall, three out of five subtidal gastropods produced softer shells at elevated temperature, while intertidal gastropods maintained their shell hardness at both elevated pCO 2 (i.e., reduced pH) and temperature. Regardless of pH and temperature, degree of crystallization was maintained (except one subtidal gastropod) and carbonate polymorph remained unchanged in all tested species. One intertidal gastropod produced less soluble shells (e.g., higher calcite/aragonite) in response to reduced pH. In contrast, subtidal gastropods produced only aragonite which has higher solubility than calcite. Overall, subtidal gastropods are expected to be more susceptible than intertidal gastropods to shell dissolution and physical damage under future seawater conditions. The increased vulnerability to shell dissolution and predation could have serious repercussions for their survival and ecological contributions in the future subtidal environment.

  17. Impact of fog processing on water soluble organic aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S. N.; Chakraborty, A.; Gupta, T.

    2017-12-01

    Fog is a natural meteorological phenomenon that occurs all around the world, and contains a substantial quantity of liquid water. Fog is generally seen as a natural cleansing agent but can also form secondary organic aerosols (SOA) via aqueous processing of ambient organics. Few field studies have reported elevated O/C ratio and SOA mass during or after fog events. However, mechanism behind aqueous SOA formation and its contribution to total organic aerosols (OA) still remains unclear. In this study we have tried to explore the impact of fog/aqueous processing on the characteristics of water soluble organic aerosols (WSOC), which to our knowledge has not been studied before. To assess this, both online (using HR-ToF-AMS) and offline (using a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and quartz filter) aerosol sampling were carried out at Kanpur, India from 15 December 2014 - 10 February 2015. Further, offline analysis of the aqueous extracts of the collected filters were carried out by AMS to characterize the water soluble OA (WSOA). Several (17) fog events occurred during the campaign and high concentrations of OA (151 ± 68 µg/m3) and WSOA (47 ± 19 µg/m3) were observed. WSOA/OA ratios were similar during fog (0.36 ± 0.14) and nofog (0.34 ± 0.15) periods. WSOA concentrations were also similar (slightly higher) during foggy (49 ± 18 µg/m3) and non-foggy periods (46 ± 20 µg/m3), in spite of fog scavenging. However, WSOA was more oxidized during foggy period (average O/C = 0.81) than non foggy periods (average O/C = 0.70). Like WSOA, OA was also more oxidized during foggy periods (average O/C = 0.64) than non foggy periods (average O/C = 0.53). During fog, WSOA to WIOA (water insoluble OA) ratios were higher (0.65 ± 0.16) compared to non foggy periods (0.56 ± 0.15). These observations clearly showed that WSOA become more dominant and processed during fog events, possibly due to the presence of fog droplets. This study highlights that fog processing of soluble organics

  18. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  19. Measurements of fog composition at a rural site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Derek J.; Hutchings, James W.; Herckes, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    Studies that focus on fog chemistry in the United States have been limited to relatively few locations. Apart from measurements along the East and West coasts and extensive analysis of radiation fog in the Central Valley of California, fog composition has been characterized in only a handful of other locations. To complement and expand the existing fog chemistry data that are currently available, a new field campaign was established at a rural location in Central Pennsylvania to produce a unique, long term record of fog composition. From 2007 to 2010, 41 fog events were sampled with an automated Caltech Heated Rod Cloudwater Collector (CHRCC). The collected samples were analyzed primarily for pH and major inorganic ions. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trace metals were analyzed in selected samples and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was quantified in two samples. Sample composition varied widely during the study period. Sulfate concentrations ranged from 15 to 955 (median = 123) μN and pH varied between 3.08 and 7.41 (median = 5.77). In terms of volume weighted averages, ammonium was the most abundant ionic species followed by sulfate, calcium, and nitrate. For the subset of samples in which DOC was analyzed, concentrations ranged from 2.2 to 22.6 mgC l -1. Comparisons with regional precipitation chemistry measurements reveal the influence of local agricultural and soil sources on fog composition. The sum of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium measured in the present study is considerably lower than the majority of radiation, precipitation, and coastal fogs collected in the United States although the ammonium/(nitrate + sulfate) ratio is similar to those found in the Central Valley of California.

  20. Problems, control, and treatment of fat, oil, and grease (FOG): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Iman A F; Alkhatib, Ma'an Fahmi; Jammi, Mohamed Saedi; Mirghani, Mohamed E S; Bin Zainudin, Zaki; Hoda, Asif

    2014-01-01

    Presence of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in wastewater is an ever-growing concern to municipalities and solid-waste facility operators. FOG enters the sewer system from restaurants, residences, and industrial food facilities. Its release into the sewer system results in a continuous build-up that causes eventual blockage of sewer pipes. Several researchers have investigated FOG deposition based on the local conditions of sewers and lifestyle. This paper attempts to review the physical and chemical characteristics of FOG, sources of FOG, and potential chemical and biological reactions of FOG. The effect of the aforementioned factors on the FOG-deposition mechanism is also discussed. Moreover, insight into the current control and treatment methods and potential reuse of FOG is highlighted. It is expected that this review would provide scientists and the concerned authorities a holistic view of the recent researches on FOG control, treatment, and reuse.

  1. Optimization of strawberry disinfection by fogging of a mixture of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide based on microbial reduction, color and phytochemicals retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Franco; Vaccari, María Celia; Piagentini, Andrea Marcela; Pirovani, María Élida

    2016-09-01

    The fogging of strawberries using a environmentally friendly sanitizer mixture of peracetic acid (5%) and hydrogen peroxide (20%) was performed in a model chamber and modeled as a function of the concentration (3.4, 20.0, 60.0, 100.0 and 116.6 µL sanitizer L(-) (1) air chamber) and the treatment time (5.7, 15.0, 37.5, 60.0 and 69.3 min). The sanitizer fogging was adequate for reducing total mesophilic microbial and yeasts and moulds counts of fruits until seven days of storage at 2℃. However, sanitizer oxidant properties adversely affected the content of total anthocyanins, total phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity to various degrees, with some deleterious changes in the fruits color, depending on the fogging conditions. A multiple numeric response optimization was developed based on 2.0 log microbiological reduction, maximum phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity retentions, with no changes in the fruits color, being the optimal fogging conditions achieved: 10.1 µL sanitizer L(-1) air chamber and 29.6 min. The fogging of strawberries at these conditions may represent a promising postharvest treatment option for extending their shelf-life without affecting their sensory quality and bioactive properties. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Roles of Fog and Topography in Redwood Forest Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, E. J.; Asner, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial variability of water in forests is a function of both climatic gradients that control water inputs and topo-edaphic variation that determines the flows of water belowground, as well as interactions of climate with topography. Coastal redwood forests are hydrologically unique because they are influenced by coastal low clouds, or fog, that is advected onto land by a strong coastal-to-inland temperature difference. Where fog intersects the land surface, annual water inputs from summer fog drip can be greater than that of winter rainfall. In this study, we take advantage of mapped spatial gradients in forest canopy water storage, topography, and fog cover in California to better understand the roles and interactions of fog and topography in the hydrology of redwood forests. We test a conceptual model of redwood forest hydrology with measurements of canopy water content derived from high-resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy, topographic variables derived from high-resolution LiDAR data, and fog cover maps derived from NASA MODIS data. Landscape-level results provide insight into hydrological processes within redwood forests, and cross-site analyses shed light on their generality.

  3. A field study of pollutant deposition in radiation fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, J.M.; Jacob, D.J.; Munger, J.W.; Hoffman, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    Deposition during fog episodes can make a significant contribution to the overall flux of pollutants in certain ecosystems. Furthermore, when atmospheric stagnation prevents normal ventilation in a region, fog deposition may become the main route of pollutant removal. Fogs can consequently exert dominant control over pollutant levels in certain atmospheres. The southern San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California is a region prone to wintertime episodes of atmospheric stagnation. These lead to elevated pollutant concentrations and/or dense, widespread fogs. Major oil-recovery operations plus widespread agricultural and livestock feeding activities are important sources of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub X/ and NH/sub 3/ in the valley. A multifaceted program of field monitoring was conducted in the SJV during the winter 1984-1985, focusing on aspects of pollutant scavenging and removal in the fog-laden atmosphere. Concentrations of major species were measured in gas, dry aerosol and fogwater phases. In addition, depositional fluxes were monitored by surrogate-surface methods. These measurements were employed to directly assess the magnitude of removal enhancement by fog.

  4. Pollution Levels in Fog at the Chilean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sträter, E.; Klemm, O.; Westbeld, A.

    2010-07-01

    During July and August 2008 fog water was collected for chemical analysis in Patache, at the coast of northern Chile, 60 km south of Iquique (20°49’S, 70°09’W). Advective fog events occur regularly at the cliff in the coastal range at about 800 m above MSL. People collect these types of fog water at some places along the coast with Large Fog Collectors (LFC) for domestic use and for watering field crops. So far, no chemical analysis of fog water was performed in Patache. Pure fogwater samples (38 samples from 8 fog events) were taken by using a passive Scientific Cylindrical Fog Collector. Major ions and trace metals were quantified. The analyses indicate very high ionic concentrations (mean 3500 µeq/l) and very low pH values (mean 3.3). The mean H+-concentration represents 16 % of the total ionic equivalent concentration. Sulfate is the anion exhibiting the highest concentrations. A mean value of 880 µeq/l was found, which accounts for 24 % of the total mean concentration. In contrast to sulfate, nitrate shows only a low percentage of 8.1 %. Further major ions are sodium (20%) and chloride (19 %), which are typical seasalt ions in coastal fog. High correlations between the measured ions suggest a causal link between concentration in the fog samples and the liquid water content (LWC) of the cloud. The higher the liquid water content the lower are the ionic concentrations. Enrichment factors with sodium as reference ion were calculated to identify potential emission sources contributing to the observed pollutant levels. We found that K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Cl- mainly result from seaspray. Sulfate, however, is enriched by a factor of 13. The measured trace elements are highly enriched by factors up to hundreds of thousands (Zn: 50, Ni: 1800, As: 2400, Cd: 3900, Fe: 100000, Cu: 96000, Pb: 250000). A cluster analysis supports the conclusion that sulfate and the trace elements originate from anthropogenic activities. The sulfate cannot primarily originate from

  5. Numerical simulation of radiation fog in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Musson-Genon, L.; Carissimo, B.; Dupont, E.

    2009-09-01

    The interest for micro-scale modeling of the atmosphere is growing for environmental applications related, for example, to energy production, transport and urban development. The turbulence in the stable layers where pollutant dispersion is low and can lead to strong pollution events. This could be further complicated by the presence of clouds or fog and is specifically difficult in urban or industrial area due to the presence of buildings. In this context, radiation fog formation and dissipation over complex terrain were therefore investigated with a state-of-the-art model. This study is divided into two phases. The first phase is a pilot stage, which consist of employing a database from the ParisFog campaign which took place in the south of Paris during winter 2006-07 to assess the ability of the cloud model to reproduce the detailed structure of radiation fog. The second phase use the validated model for the study of influence of complex terrain on fog evolution. Special attention is given to the detailed and complete simulations and validation technique used is to compare the simulated results using the 3D cloud model of computational fluid dynamical software Code_Saturne with one of the best collected in situ data during the ParisFog campaign. Several dynamical, microphysical parameterizations and simulation conditions have been described. The resulting 3D cloud model runs at a horizontal resolution of 30 m and a vertical resolution comparable to the 1D model. First results look very promising and are able to reproduce the spatial distribution of fog. The analysis of the behavior of the different parameterized physical processes suggests that the subtle balance between the various processes is achieved.

  6. On the roles of circulation and aerosols in the decline of mist and dense fog in Europe over the last 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. van Oldenborgh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fog and mist are meteorological phenomena that have significant contributions to temperature variations. Understanding and predicting them is also crucial for transportation risk management. It has been shown that low visibility phenomena over Europe have been declining over the past three decades. The trends in mist and haze have been correlated to atmospheric aerosol trends. However, dense fog has not received yet such focus. The goal of this paper is to examine the roles of synoptic atmospheric circulation and aerosol content on the trends of dense fog. We show that sulphur emission trends are spatially correlated with visibility trends, with a maximum correlation when visibility is between 1 km and 10 km. We find that atmospheric dynamics overall contributes up to 40% of the variability of the frequency of fog occurrences. This contribution is spatially variable and highly depends on the topography and the season, with higher values in the winter. The observed long-term circulation changes do not contribute much to the trends in low visibility found in the data. This process is illustrated on three stations (De Bilt, Zürich Airport and Potsdam for which a long-term visibility data and a thorough meteorological description are available. We conclude that to properly represent fog in future climate simulations, it is necessary to include realistic representations of aerosol emissions and chemistry, land surface properties and atmospheric dynamics.

  7. Leakage Current Waveforms and Arcing Characteristics of Epoxy Resin for Outdoor Insulators under Clean and Salt Fogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwarno

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic outdoor insulators have been used in high voltage transmission lines since long time ago. Due to superiority in their resistance to pollution, recently, polymeric outdoor insulators are widely used. Epoxy resin is one polymer which shows good properties for outdoor insulation. During service, outdoor insulators may severe a certain degree of pollution which may reduce their surface resistance. Leakage current (LC usually increase and degradation may take place. This paper reports experimental results on the leakage current waveforms and arcing characteristics of epoxy resin under clean and salt fog. The samples used are blocks of epoxy resin with dimension of 250 x 50 x 20 mm3. The samples were put in a test chamber with dimension of 900x900x1200 mm3 with controllable humidity and pollution conditions. Clean and salt fog were generated according to IEC 60-1 and 507. The arcing experiment was done with incline plane test in accordance with IEC 587. AC voltage in the range from 5 kV to 50 kV with frequency of 50 Hz was applied. The LC waveforms up to flash over were measured. The magnitudes as well as harmonic content of the LC were analyzed. The correlation between LC waveforms and dry band arching phenomenon was elaborated. Visual observation of the arc on the sample surfaces was observed using a video camera. Experimental results indicated that LC magnitude on clean samples was slightly affected by humidity (RH. However, under salt fog, RH greatly affected the LC magnitude. The flashover voltage of clean samples under salt fog reduced significantly for fog conductivity of more than 1.2 mS/cm. Kaolin-polluted samples under salt fog showed an Ohmic behaviour. The LC magnitude was high and a large discrepancy of LC magnitude was observed for high applied voltage of larger than 25 kV. The largest LC magnitude was observed on salt-kaolin polluted samples under clean fog at high RH. LC waveforms analysis indicated that in general LC waveforms

  8. Fog camera to visualize ionizing charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo A, L.; Rodriguez R, N. I.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The human being can not perceive the different types of ionizing radiation, natural or artificial, present in the nature, for what appropriate detection systems have been developed according to the sensibility to certain radiation type and certain energy type. The objective of this work was to build a fog camera to visualize the traces, and to identify the trajectories, produced by charged particles with high energy, coming mainly of the cosmic rays. The origin of the cosmic rays comes from the solar radiation generated by solar eruptions where the protons compose most of this radiation. It also comes, of the galactic radiation which is composed mainly of charged particles and gamma rays that comes from outside of the solar system. These radiation types have energy time millions higher that those detected in the earth surface, being more important as the height on the sea level increases. These particles in their interaction produce secondary particles that are detectable by means of this cameras type. The camera operates by means of a saturated atmosphere of alcohol vapor. In the moment in that a charged particle crosses the cold area of the atmosphere, the medium is ionized and the particle acts like a condensation nucleus of the alcohol vapor, leaving a visible trace of its trajectory. The built camera was very stable, allowing the detection in continuous form and the observation of diverse events. (Author)

  9. PM10 Sampling and AOD Trends during 2016 Winter Fog Season in the Islamabad Region

    KAUST Repository

    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran; Chishtie, Farrukh; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan; Hundal, Rabia Ali; Zahra, Fatima; Shahzad, Muhammad Imran

    2017-01-01

    PM samples were collected during intensive fog days in Islamabad, Pakistan, to investigate the impact of particulate matter on fog formation. The PM concentrations were monitored at the Institute of Space Technology site using a high-volume air

  10. Observations of radiation fog chemistry in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, D.; Hutchings, J.; Herckes, P.

    2010-07-01

    The chemical composition of radiation fog in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States has been the focus of an ongoing field campaign based in Selinsgrove, PA. This field study was established to provide a long term record that can be used to identify the effects of meteorology and air mass source regions on fog composition and to shed light on the role that fog can play in the production of secondary inorganic and organic aerosol mass. In the United States, studies that focus on radiation fog have been relatively rare. For the most part, they have been limited geographically to the Central Valley of California, though individual studies have also been conducted in the Central United States and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sample collection for the current study began during the fall of 2007. Through 2009, samples from 25 radiation fog events have been obtained. A Caltech Heated Rod Cloudwater Collector (CHRCC) having a Dp50 of approximately 8 microns was used to collect one fog sample per event. Samples were typically collected between 2:00 AM and 7:00 AM under conditions of light winds, clear skies, and recent rainfall. Sample volumes ranged from 2.9 ml to 150 ml. Following collection, samples were analyzed for pH and then one of the following: major inorganic ions, dissolved total organic carbon, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), metals, or organic speciation. Through 2009, sample pH varied between 4.28 and 6.86 and averaged 5.03 based on H+ concentration. Ammonium and sulfate were found to be the most abundant ionic species in the fog samples. Sufficient ammonium was detected in nearly every sample to fully neutralize nitrate and sulfate. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium observed in this study were lower than values reported in the literature for most other cloud and fog studies conducted in the US. Due to significant ammonium input, pH in the current study was higher than most other studies. Concentrations of total organic carbon

  11. Diurnal temperature asymmetries and fog at Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, William A.; He, Dianze

    2015-07-01

    A variety of methods are available to calculate daily mean temperature. We explore how the difference between two commonly used methods provides insight into the local climate of Churchill, Manitoba. In particular, we found that these differences related closely to seasonal fog. A strong statistically significant correlation was found between the fog frequency (hours per day) and the diurnal temperature asymmetries of the surface temperature using the difference between the min/max and 24-h methods of daily temperature calculation. The relationship was particularly strong for winter, spring and summer. Autumn appears to experience the joint effect of fog formation and the radiative effect of snow cover. The results of this study suggests that subtle variations of diurnality of temperature, as measured in the difference of the two mean temperature methods of calculation, may be used as a proxy for fog detection in the Hudson Bay region. These results also provide a cautionary note for the spatial analysis of mean temperatures using data derived from the two different methods particularly in areas that are fog prone.

  12. Outdoor FSO Communications Under Fog: Attenuation Modeling and Performance Evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah

    2016-07-18

    Fog is considered to be a primary challenge for free space optics (FSO) systems. It may cause attenuation that is up to hundreds of decibels per kilometer. Hence, accurate modeling of fog attenuation will help telecommunication operators to engineer and appropriately manage their networks. In this paper, we examine fog measurement data coming from several locations in Europe and the United States and derive a unified channel attenuation model. Compared with existing attenuation models, our proposed model achieves a minimum of 9 dB, which is lower than the average root-mean-square error (RMSE). Moreover, we have investigated the statistical behavior of the channel and developed a probabilistic model under stochastic fog conditions. Furthermore, we studied the performance of the FSO system addressing various performance metrics, including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bit-error rate (BER), and channel capacity. Our results show that in communication environments with frequent fog, FSO is typically a short-range data transmission technology. Therefore, FSO will have its preferred market segment in future wireless fifth-generation/sixth-generation (5G/6G) networks having cell sizes that are lower than a 1-km diameter. Moreover, the results of our modeling and analysis can be applied in determining the switching/thresholding conditions in highly reliable hybrid FSO/radio-frequency (RF) networks.

  13. The impact of fog on soil moisture dynamics in the Namib Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bonan; Wang, Lixin; Kaseke, Kudzai F.; Vogt, Roland; Li, Lin; Seely, Mary K.

    2018-03-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial component supporting vegetation dynamics in drylands. Despite increasing attention on fog in dryland ecosystems, the statistical characterization of fog distribution and how fog affects soil moisture dynamics have not been seen in literature. To this end, daily fog records over two years (Dec 1, 2014-Nov 1, 2016) from three sites within the Namib Desert were used to characterize fog distribution. Two sites were located within the Gobabeb Research and Training Center vicinity, the gravel plains and the sand dunes. The third site was located at the gravel plains, Kleinberg. A subset of the fog data during rainless period was used to investigate the effect of fog on soil moisture. A stochastic modeling framework was used to simulate the effect of fog on soil moisture dynamics. Our results showed that fog distribution can be characterized by a Poisson process with two parameters (arrival rate λ and average depth α (mm)). Fog and soil moisture observations from eighty (Aug 19, 2015-Nov 6, 2015) rainless days indicated a moderate positive relationship between soil moisture and fog in the Gobabeb gravel plains, a weaker relationship in the Gobabeb sand dunes while no relationship was observed at the Kleinberg site. The modeling results suggested that mean and major peaks of soil moisture dynamics can be captured by the fog modeling. Our field observations demonstrated the effects of fog on soil moisture dynamics during rainless periods at some locations, which has important implications on soil biogeochemical processes. The statistical characterization and modeling of fog distribution are of great value to predict fog distribution and investigate the effects of potential changes in fog distribution on soil moisture dynamics.

  14. Fog deposition fluxes of water and ions to a mountainous site in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, Otto; Wrzesinsky, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Fog and precipitation composition and deposition were measured over a 1-yr period. Ion concentrations were higher in fog than in precipitation by factors of between 6 and 18. The causes of these differences were less dilution of fog water due to non-availability of condensable water vapour, and more efficient transfer of surface emissions to fog water as compared to rain water or snow. Fogwater and dissolved ions depositions were measured with eddy covariance in combination with a bulk fogwat...

  15. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many parts of the West Coast of South Africa experience severe water shortages throughout the year. Despite the meager rainfall, however, the region is subject to a high incidence of fog which might provide water for water-poor communities. This paper investigates the fog water potential of the area. Since fog water ...

  16. Fog tests performed at Kennedy Space Center on Kodak film type 101-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Based on the tests which were conducted, the fogging exhibited by the Kodak 101-05 glass plates when used in the Skylab S-183 experiment carrousels is a chemical fog caused by an outgassing within the carrousel. Testing has not yet been able to determine which chemical causes the fog or just what can be done to eliminate the problem.

  17. 76 FR 44906 - Foremost 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog; Amended Cancellation Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-1017; FRL-8880-8] Foremost 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog... cancellation order for the pesticide product Foremost 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog, a pesticide product containing Piperonyl Butoxide and Pyrethrins. The registrant of Foremost 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog--Delta Foremost Chemical...

  18. A Molecular Explanation of How the Fog Is Produced When Dry Ice Is Placed in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Ford, Nathan; No, Jin-Hwan; Ott, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Everyone enjoys seeing the cloudy white fog generated when solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) is placed in water. Have you ever wondered what physical and chemical processes occur to produce this fog? When asked this question, many chemical educators suggest that the fog is produced when atmospheric water vapor condenses on cold carbon dioxide gas…

  19. Observations and modeling of fog by cloud radar and optical sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Hoogeboom, P.; Russchenberg, H.

    2014-01-01

    Fog is a significant factor affecting the public traffic because visibility is reduced to a large extent. Therefore the determination of optical visibility in fog from radar instruments has received much interest. To observe fog with radar, high frequency bands (millimeter waves) have the best

  20. A review of observations of organic matter in fogs and clouds: Origin, processing and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2013-10-01

    While fog and cloud composition has been studied for decades, most of the research was limited to inorganic species and fog acidity. Recently the focus has shifted towards organic matter in the atmospheric aqueous phase of fogs and clouds: its origin, reactivity and fate. An impressive number of fog and cloud chemistry observational studies have been performed over the last decade throughout the world. In the present work we will review the state of knowledge of atmospheric organic matter processing by fogs, with a focus on field observations. We start by reviewing observational studies in general and then discuss our knowledge on the occurrence of organic matter in fogs, its solubility, characterization and molecular speciation. Organic carbon concentrations can vary widely from approximately 1 mg C/L in remote marine environments to more than 100 mg C/L in polluted radiation fogs, accounting for a substantial part of fogwater solutes. The carbonaceous material can enter the droplets from the gas and particle phase and the scavenging behavior of fogs will be detailed. Observational studies showed evidence of aqueous phase transformation of organic material, in particular secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generation, in fog. Recent observations of biological material in fog suggest also an impact of biological processing within the droplets on fog organic matter. The review will end with a discussion of the impact of fog on the deposition fluxes of organic material and hence its atmospheric lifetime.

  1. Heat transfer from a high temperature condensable mixture. II. Sedimentation of fog condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condiff, D.W.; Cho, D.H.; Chan, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    A kinematic wave analysis of fog sedimentation is employed to relate growth of a fog condensate deposit layer to radiation generated fog formation rates. The increase of surface radiation absorptivity with deposit layer thickness promotes a feedback mechanism for higher growth rates, which is evaluated in detail

  2. Mesh Intercomparisons of Fog Water Collected Yield Insight Into the Nature of Fog-Drip Collection Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, D.; Torregrosa, A.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Oliphant, A. J.; Dodge, C.; Bowman, M.; Wilson, S.; Mairs, A. A.; Gravelle, M.; Barkley, T.

    2016-12-01

    At multiple sites across central CA, several passive fog water collectors have been deployed for the past 3 years. All of the sites employ standard Raschel polypropylene mesh as the fog collection medium and five of them also integrated a novel polypropylene mesh of German manufacture with a 3-dimensional internal structure. Additionally, six metal mesh manufactured by McMaster-Carr of various hole sizing were coated with a POSS-PEMA substance at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and deployed in parallel with the Raschel mesh at six distinct locations. Finally, fluorine-free versions of the POSS-PEMA substance were generated by NBD Nanotechnology and coated on a much finer mesh substrate. Three of those and one control (uncoated mesh) were deployed at one of the fog collection sites for one season, along with a standard Raschel mesh. Preliminary results from one intercomparison from just one pair of mesh over two seasons seem to reveal a wind speed and also, possibly, a droplet-size dependence on the fog collection efficiency for the mesh. This study will continue to intercompare the various mesh in conjunction with the wind speed and direction data. If a collection efficiency dependence on mesh size or coating is confirmed, it may point to interesting and relevant mechanisms for fog droplet capture and collection hitherto unobserved in field conditions.

  3. A security mechanism based on evolutionary game in fog computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Lin, Fuhong; Zhang, Nan

    2018-02-01

    Fog computing is a distributed computing paradigm at the edge of the network and requires cooperation of users and sharing of resources. When users in fog computing open their resources, their devices are easily intercepted and attacked because they are accessed through wireless network and present an extensive geographical distribution. In this study, a credible third party was introduced to supervise the behavior of users and protect the security of user cooperation. A fog computing security mechanism based on human nervous system is proposed, and the strategy for a stable system evolution is calculated. The MATLAB simulation results show that the proposed mechanism can reduce the number of attack behaviors effectively and stimulate users to cooperate in application tasks positively.

  4. A security mechanism based on evolutionary game in fog computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fog computing is a distributed computing paradigm at the edge of the network and requires cooperation of users and sharing of resources. When users in fog computing open their resources, their devices are easily intercepted and attacked because they are accessed through wireless network and present an extensive geographical distribution. In this study, a credible third party was introduced to supervise the behavior of users and protect the security of user cooperation. A fog computing security mechanism based on human nervous system is proposed, and the strategy for a stable system evolution is calculated. The MATLAB simulation results show that the proposed mechanism can reduce the number of attack behaviors effectively and stimulate users to cooperate in application tasks positively.

  5. Salt Fog Testing Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebak, Raul B.; Aprigliano, Louis F.; Day, S. Daniel; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are hard and highly corrosion resistant, which make them desirable for salt water and other applications. These alloys can be produced as powder and can be deposited as coatings on any surface that needs to be protected from the environment. It was of interest to examine the behavior of these amorphous alloys in the standard salt-fog testing ASTM B 117. Three different amorphous coating compositions were deposited on 316L SS coupons and exposed for many cycles of the salt fog test. Other common engineering alloys such as 1018 carbon steel, 316L SS and Hastelloy C-22 were also tested together with the amorphous coatings. Results show that amorphous coatings are resistant to rusting in salt fog. Partial devitrification may be responsible for isolated rust spots in one of the coatings. (authors)

  6. On the enrichment of hydrophobic organic compounds in fog droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsaraj, K. T.; Thoma, G. J.; Reible, D. D.; Thibodeaux, L. J.

    The unusual degree of enrichment of hydrophobic organics in fogwater droplets reported by several investigators can be interpreted as a result of (a) the effects of temperature correction on the reported enrichment factors, (b) the effects of colloidal organic matter (both filterable and non-filterable) in fog water and (c) the effects of the large air-water interfacial adsorption of neutral hydrophobic organics on the tiny fog droplets. The enrichment factor was directly correlated to the hydrophobicity (or the activity coefficient in water) of the compounds, as indicated by their octanol-water partition constants. Compounds with large octanol-water partition coefficients (high activity coefficients in water) showed the largest enrichment. Available experimental data on the adsorption of hydrophobic compounds at the air-water interface and on colloidal organic carbon were used to show that the large specific air-water interfacial areas of fog droplets contribute significantly to the enrichment factor.

  7. Fog collecting biomimetic surfaces: Influence of microstructure and wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Ellerbrok, D; Barthlott, W; Koch, K

    2015-01-19

    We analyzed the fog collection efficiency of three different sets of samples: replica (with and without microstructures), copper wire (smooth and microgrooved) and polyolefin mesh (hydrophilic, superhydrophilic and hydrophobic). The collection efficiency of the samples was compared in each set separately to investigate the influence of microstructures and/or the wettability of the surfaces on fog collection. Based on the controlled experimental conditions chosen here large differences in the efficiency were found. We found that microstructured plant replica samples collected 2-3 times higher amounts of water than that of unstructured (smooth) samples. Copper wire samples showed similar results. Moreover, microgrooved wires had a faster dripping of water droplets than that of smooth wires. The superhydrophilic mesh tested here was proved more efficient than any other mesh samples with different wettability. The amount of collected fog by superhydrophilic mesh was about 5 times higher than that of hydrophilic (untreated) mesh and was about 2 times higher than that of hydrophobic mesh.

  8. Bioinspired plate-based fog collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Xin; Luo, Cheng

    2014-09-24

    In a recent work, we explored the feeding mechanism of a shorebird to transport liquid drops by repeatedly opening and closing its beak. In this work, we apply the corresponding results to develop a new artificial fog collector. The collector includes two nonparallel plates. It has three advantages in comparison with existing artificial collectors: (i) easy fabrication, (ii) simple design to scale up, and (iii) active transport of condensed water drops. Two collectors have been built. A small one with dimensions of 4.2 × 2.1 × 0.05 cm(3) (length × width × thickness) was first built and tested to examine (i) the time evolution of condensed drop sizes and (ii) the collection processes and efficiencies on the glass, SiO2, and SU-8 plates. Under similar experimental conditions, the amount of water collected per unit area on the small collector is about 9.0, 4.7, and 3.7 times, respectively, as much as the ones reported for beetles, grasses, and metal wires, and the total amount of water collected is around 33, 18, and 15 times. On the basis of the understanding gained from the tests on the small collector, a large collector with dimensions of 26 × 10 × 0.2 cm(3) was further built and tested, which was capable of collecting 15.8 mL of water during a period of 36 min. The amount of water collected, when it is scaled from 36 to 120 min, is about 878, 479, or 405 times more than what was collected by individual beetles, grasses, or metal wires.

  9. Benefit of infrared images in visibility appreciation for fog conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, V.; Dumoulin, J.; Marchetti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fog situations induce an increase in both accident probability and severity. They constitue a significant part in accident rate. There is very few means to forecast fog, nor to appreciate its density, and its associated visibility decrease. An approach consists in developing on-board tools to qualify and to quantify the fog, and to improve the visibility within each vehicle. Infrared technology is now more common, so solutions based on this specific spectral band could be considered. LW infrared has demonstrated its value in the case of passenger cars. Its use could be discussed too, in particular in the case of obstacles detection. The study presented here deals mainly with the extraction of a visbility distance from LW thermal images in the presence of fog. A French facility in Clermont-Ferrand allows the generation of fog. It can be generated in day or night conditions. The facility is 30 m long, for a 220 m3 volume. The fog is generated spraying water micro droplets, which size is controlled and measured. Experimental conditions could be adapted through water pressure, water nature as an example. Visibility is appreciated with a device measuring light transmission. In the case of infrared, visibility is obtained through the definition of contrast of an object on a given background. On such a basis, infrared spectral band provides a factor 2 benefit on a conventional roadsign, and of a factor 4 in the case of a heated one, with meteorological visibilty of 20 m. Some theoritical aspects will be described, along with a description of the whole experimental setup.

  10. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R.

    1993-01-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min)

  11. Giant-FOG: A new player in ground motion instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guattari, F.; de Toldi, E.; Bigueur, A.; Decitre, J. B.; Ponceau, D.; Sèbe, O.; Frenois, A.; Schindelé, F.; Moluçon, C.; Gaffet, S.; Ducloux, E.; Lefèvre, H.

    2017-12-01

    Based on recent experiences developing very low noise fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOG), first performance results on very large fiber-optic coils of up to 1m diameter are presented. The goal for constructing large FOGs is to evaluate experimentally the physical limits of this kind of technology and to reach the lowest possible noise. While these experiments are probing the fundamental limits of the FOG technology, they also serves as a first step for a cost effective very low noise laboratory rotational seismometer, which could be a game changer in instrumentation of ground motion. Build a Giant-FOG has several difficulties: The first is winding of the coil, the second concerns the mechanical substrate, and third is related to the measurement. - To our knowledge, a winding machine, large enough to wind coil of a 1 meter diameter, does not exist, but thanks to the iXblue expertise in the manufacturing of winding machines and calibration tables, a hydride system has been designed, merging these two technology to fulfill the requirement of winding a large coil on an adequate rotational platform. The characterization of the wobbles of the system will be presented, since this is a critical parameter for the winding and ultimately the performance. - To achieve the highest attainable measurement sensitivity to the real ground rotation, the design of the mechanical substrate of the coil is critical to reduce as much as possible the sensor sensitivities to environmental noises. A preliminary assessment of the global noise performance of the 1m diameter FOG sensor will be presented. - To demonstrate the on-site performance, the low noise inter-disciplinary underground laboratory (LSBB, Rustrel, France), with a dense array of precisely oriented broad-band seismometers, provides the possibility to compare Large FOG rotation records with Array Derivated Rotation measurement method. Results of different prototypes during the development process will be presented to underline the

  12. Organic compounds in radiation fogs in Davis (California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Hannigan, Michael P.; Trenary, Laurie; Lee, Taehyoung; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    New stainless steel active fogwater collectors were designed and used in Davis (CA, USA) to collect fogwater for the speciation of organic matter. Organic compounds in fog samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Numerous organic compounds, including various alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkanoic acids, have been identified in the fogwater samples. Higher molecular weight (MW) compounds are preferentially associated with an insoluble phase inside the fog drops, whereas lower molecular weight and more polar compounds are found predominantly in the dissolved phase. Concentrations in the dissolved phase were sometimes much higher than estimated by the compounds' aqueous solubilities.

  13. Project Fog Drops 5. Task 1: A numerical model of advection fog. Task 2: Recommendations for simplified individual zero-gravity cloud physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C. W.; Eadie, W. J.; Katz, U.; Kocmond, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model was used to investigate the formation of marine advection fog. The model predicts the evolution of potential temperature, horizontal wind, water vapor content, and liquid water content in a vertical cross section of the atmosphere as determined by vertical turbulent transfer and horizontal advection, as well as radiative cooling and drop sedimentation. The model is designed to simulate the formation, development, or dissipation of advection fog in response to transfer of heat and moisture between the atmosphere and the surface as driven by advection over horizontal discontinuities in the surface temperature. Results from numerical simulations of advection fog formation are discussed with reference to observations of marine fog. A survey of candidate fog or cloud microphysics experiments which might be performed in the low gravity environment of a shuttle-type spacecraft in presented. Recommendations are given for relatively simple experiments which are relevent to fog modification problems.

  14. The Research on the Spectral Characteristics of Sea Fog Based on Caliop and Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.; Su, J.; Liu, S.; Sheng, H.

    2018-04-01

    In view of that difficulty of distinguish between sea fog and low cloud by optical remote sensing mean, the research on spectral characteristics of sea fog is focused and carried out. The satellite laser radar CALIOP data and the high spectral MODIS data were obtained from May to December 2017, and the scattering coefficient and the vertical height information were extracted from the atmospheric attenuation of the lower star to extract the sea fog sample points, and the spectral response curve based on MODIS was formed to analyse the spectral response characteristics of the sea fog, thus providing a theoretical basis for the monitoring of sea fog with optical remote sensing image.

  15. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics.

    OpenAIRE

    Leduc, Dimitri; Fally, Sophie; De Vuyst, Paul; Wollast, Roland; Yernault, Jean Claude

    1995-01-01

    Naturally occurring fogs in industrialized cities are contaminated by acidic air pollutants. In Brussels, Belgium, the pH of polluted fogwater may be as low as 3 with osmolarity as low as 30 mOsm. In order to explore short-term respiratory effects of a realistic acid-polluted fog, we collected samples of acid fog in Brussels, Belgium, which is a densely populated and industrialized city, we defined characteristics of this fog and exposed asthmatic volunteers at rest through a face mask to fog...

  16. Optimization of fog inlet air cooling system for combined cycle power plants using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehyaei, Mehdi A.; Tahani, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Pouria; Esfandiari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this research paper, a comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of a combined cycle power plant is first conducted and the effects of gas turbine inlet fogging system on the first and second law efficiencies and net power outputs of combined cycle power plants are investigated. The combined cycle power plant (CCPP) considered for this study consist of a double pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to utilize the energy of exhaust leaving the gas turbine and produce superheated steam to generate electricity in the Rankine cycle. In order to enhance understanding of this research and come up with optimum performance assessment of the plant, a complete optimization is using a genetic algorithm conducted. In order to achieve this goal, a new objective function is defined for the system optimization including social cost of air pollution for the power generation systems. The objective function is based on the first law efficiency, energy cost and the external social cost of air pollution for an operational system. It is concluded that using inlet air cooling system for the CCPP system and its optimization results in an increase in the average output power, first and second law efficiencies by 17.24%, 3.6% and 3.5%, respectively, for three warm months of year. - Highlights: • To model the combined cycle power plant equipped with fog inlet air cooling method. • To conduct both exergy and economic analyses for better understanding. • To conduct a complete optimization using a genetic algorithm to determine the optimal design parameters of the system

  17. The Herschel-PACS Legacy of Low-mass Protostars: The Properties of Warm and Hot Gas Components and Their Origin in Far-UV Illuminated Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karska, Agata; Kaufman, Michael J.; Kristensen, Lars E.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Mottram, Joseph C.; Tychoniec, Łukasz; Lindberg, Johan E.; Evans, Neal J., II; Green, Joel D.; Yang, Yao-Lun; Gusdorf, Antoine; Itrich, Dominika; Siódmiak, Natasza

    2018-04-01

    Recent observations from Herschel allow the identification of important mechanisms responsible both for the heating of the gas that surrounds low-mass protostars and for its subsequent cooling in the far-infrared. Shocks are routinely invoked to reproduce some properties of the far-IR spectra, but standard models fail to reproduce the emission from key molecules, e.g., H2O. Here, we present the Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) far-IR spectroscopy of 90 embedded low-mass protostars (Class 0/I). The Herschel-PACS spectral maps, covering ∼55–210 μm with a field of view of ∼50″, are used to quantify the gas excitation conditions and spatial extent using rotational transitions of H2O, high-J CO, and OH, as well as [O I] and [C II]. We confirm that a warm (∼300 K) CO reservoir is ubiquitous and that a hotter component (760 ± 170 K) is frequently detected around protostars. The line emission is extended beyond ∼1000 au spatial scales in 40/90 objects, typically in molecular tracers in Class 0 and atomic tracers in Class I objects. High-velocity emission (≳90 km s‑1) is detected in only 10 sources in the [O I] line, suggesting that the bulk of [O I] arises from gas that is moving slower than typical jets. Line flux ratios show an excellent agreement with models of C-shocks illuminated by ultraviolet (UV) photons for pre-shock densities of ∼105 cm‑3 and UV fields 0.1–10 times the interstellar value. The far-IR molecular and atomic lines are a unique diagnostic of feedback from UV emission and shocks in envelopes of deeply embedded protostars.

  18. Urban Heat Island Over Delhi Punches Holes in Widespread Fog in the Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ritesh; Singh, Manoj K.

    2018-01-01

    Persistent and widespread fog affects several densely populated and agriculturally fertile basins around the world. Dense and polluted fog is especially known to impact transportation, air quality, and public health. Here we report a striking observation of holes in fog over urban areas in satellite imagery. The extent of fog holes appear highly correlated with city populations in fog-prevalent regions of Asia, Europe, and the United States. We find the highest frequency and largest extent of fog holes over Delhi along with suppressed fog fraction, amidst increased fog occurrence over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, based on 17 years of satellite data (2000-2016). This apparent urban heat impact is characterized in sharp urban-rural gradients in surface temperatures and fog thickness. Urban heating seems to have already amplified the long-term fog decline in Europe and the United States and should be assessed over regions undergoing urban expansion including India, where no previous linkages are reported between urban heating and fog.

  19. Crowd Sensing-Enabling Security Service Recommendation for Social Fog Computing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Su, Zhou; Wang, Shen; Li, Jianhua

    2017-07-30

    Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT) to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on "friend" relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems.

  20. Crowd Sensing-Enabling Security Service Recommendation for Social Fog Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on “friend” relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems.

  1. SUMOylation regulates the transcriptional repression activity of FOG-2 and its association with GATA-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo, José; Jiang, Xing-Mai; Carter, Daniel R; Khachigian, Levon M; Chong, Beng H

    2012-01-01

    Friend of GATA 2 (FOG-2), a co-factor of several GATA transcription factors (GATA-4, -5 and 6), is a critical regulator of coronary vessel formation and heart morphogenesis. Here we demonstrate that FOG-2 is SUMOylated and that this modification modulates its transcriptional activity. FOG-2 SUMOylation occurs at four lysine residues (K324, 471, 915, 955) [corrected]. Three of these residues are part of the characteristic SUMO consensus site (ψKXE), while K955 is found in the less frequent TKXE motif. Absence of SUMOylation did not affect FOG-2's nuclear localization. However, mutation of the FOG-2 SUMOylation sites, or de-SUMOylation, with SENP-1 or SENP-8 resulted in stronger transcriptional repression activity in both heterologous cells and cardiomyocytes. Conversely, increased FOG-2 SUMOylation by overexpression of SUMO-1 or expression of a SUMO-1-FOG-2 fusion protein rendered FOG-2 incapable of repressing GATA-4-mediated activation of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) promoter. Moreover, we demonstrate both increased interaction between a FOG-2 SUMO mutant and GATA-4 and enhanced SUMOylation of wild-type FOG-2 by co-expression of GATA-4. These data suggest a new dynamics in which GATA-4 may alter the activity of FOG-2 by influencing its SUMOylation status.

  2. Non-human primate FOG develops with advanced parkinsonism induced by MPTP Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, Gonzalo J; Uthayathas, Subramaniam; Wahlquist, Amy E; Factor, Stewart A; Papa, Stella M

    2012-10-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a debilitating feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other forms of parkinsonism. The anatomical or pathophysiological correlates are poorly understood largely due to the lack of a well-established animal model. Here we studied whether FOG is reproduced in the non-human primate (NHP) model of PD. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys (Genus Macaca, n=29) were examined for the development of FOG, and the leg movements were recorded with accelerometry. The relationships between developing FOG and the animals' characteristics, the MPTP treatments, and the modeled outcomes were determined. In parkinsonian monkeys FOG developed frequently (48%) manifesting similar characteristics to those seen in PD patients. In addition, FOG episodes in the monkey were accompanied by leg trembling with the typical duration (2-10s) and frequency (~7 Hz). The development of NHP FOG was significantly associated with the severity of parkinsonism, as shown by high motor disability scores (≥ 20) and levodopa-induced dyskinesia scores (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively). Differences in demographics and MPTP treatments (doses, treatment duration, etc.) had no influence on NHP FOG occurrence, with the exception of gender that showed FOG predominance in males (p=0.03). The unique features of FOG in PD can be replicated in severely parkinsonian macaques, and this represents the first description of a FOG animal model. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Crowd Sensing-Enabling Security Service Recommendation for Social Fog Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Su, Zhou; Li, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT) to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on “friend” relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems. PMID:28758943

  4. Fog deposition fluxes of water and ions to a mountainous site in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Otto; Wrzesinsky, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    Fog and precipitation composition and deposition were measured over a 1-yr period. Ion concentrations were higher in fog than in precipitation by factors of between 6 and 18. The causes of these differences were less dilution of fog water due to non-availability of condensable water vapour, and more efficient transfer of surface emissions to fog water as compared to rain water or snow. Fogwater and dissolved ions depositions were measured with eddy covariance in combination with a bulk fogwater collector. Annual fogwater deposition was 9.4% that of precipitation. The annual deposition of ions through fog was of the same order as that for precipitation. Ammonium, representing local emission sources, had 46% more annual deposition through fog than through precipitation. The fog droplet number and mass size distributions are reported. Fog droplets of 15 μm diameter contribute most to the deposition flux. The variability of processes and parameters contributing to deposition of ions through fog (ion concentrations in fog water, liquid water content in air, fog duration and turbulence) is high.

  5. Hierarchical Surface Architecture of Plants as an Inspiration for Biomimetic Fog Collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Barthlott, W; Koch, K

    2015-12-08

    Fog collectors can enable us to alleviate the water crisis in certain arid regions of the world. A continuous fog-collection cycle consisting of a persistent capture of fog droplets and their fast transport to the target is a prerequisite for developing an efficient fog collector. In regard to this topic, a biological superior design has been found in the hierarchical surface architecture of barley (Hordeum vulgare) awns. We demonstrate here the highly wettable (advancing contact angle 16° ± 2.7 and receding contact angle 9° ± 2.6) barbed (barb = conical structure) awn as a model to develop optimized fog collectors with a high fog-capturing capability, an effective water transport, and above all an efficient fog collection. We compare the fog-collection efficiency of the model sample with other plant samples naturally grown in foggy habitats that are supposed to be very efficient fog collectors. The model sample, consisting of dry hydrophilized awns (DH awns), is found to be about twice as efficient (fog-collection rate 563.7 ± 23.2 μg/cm(2) over 10 min) as any other samples investigated under controlled experimental conditions. Finally, a design based on the hierarchical surface architecture of the model sample is proposed for the development of optimized biomimetic fog collectors.

  6. SUMOylation regulates the transcriptional repression activity of FOG-2 and its association with GATA-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Perdomo

    Full Text Available Friend of GATA 2 (FOG-2, a co-factor of several GATA transcription factors (GATA-4, -5 and 6, is a critical regulator of coronary vessel formation and heart morphogenesis. Here we demonstrate that FOG-2 is SUMOylated and that this modification modulates its transcriptional activity. FOG-2 SUMOylation occurs at four lysine residues (K324, 471, 915, 955 [corrected]. Three of these residues are part of the characteristic SUMO consensus site (ψKXE, while K955 is found in the less frequent TKXE motif. Absence of SUMOylation did not affect FOG-2's nuclear localization. However, mutation of the FOG-2 SUMOylation sites, or de-SUMOylation, with SENP-1 or SENP-8 resulted in stronger transcriptional repression activity in both heterologous cells and cardiomyocytes. Conversely, increased FOG-2 SUMOylation by overexpression of SUMO-1 or expression of a SUMO-1-FOG-2 fusion protein rendered FOG-2 incapable of repressing GATA-4-mediated activation of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP promoter. Moreover, we demonstrate both increased interaction between a FOG-2 SUMO mutant and GATA-4 and enhanced SUMOylation of wild-type FOG-2 by co-expression of GATA-4. These data suggest a new dynamics in which GATA-4 may alter the activity of FOG-2 by influencing its SUMOylation status.

  7. Quantifying the relationship between PM2.5 concentration, visibility and planetary boundary layer height for long-lasting haze and fog-haze mixed events in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Tian; Guo, Xueliang; Guo, Lijun; Zhang, Tianhang

    2018-01-01

    inversion layer was formed by the persistent warm and humid southwestern airflow, while the low-level inversion layer was initially produced by the surface long-wave radiation cooling in the nighttime and maintained by the reduction of surface solar radiation in the daytime. The obvious descending process of the upper-level inversion layer induced by the radiation process could be responsible for the enhancement of the low-level inversion layer and the lowering PBL height, as well as high aerosol loading for these polluted events. The reduction of surface solar radiation in the daytime could be around 35 % for the haze event and 94 % for the fog-haze mixed event. Therefore, the formation and subsequent descending processes of the upper-level inversion layer should be an important factor in maintaining and strengthening the long-lasting severe polluted events, which has not been revealed in previous publications. The interactions and feedbacks between PM2.5 concentration and PBL height linked by radiation process caused a more significant and long-lasting deterioration of air quality and visibility in fog-haze mixed events. The interactions and feedbacks of all processes were particularly strong when the PM2.5 mass concentration was larger than 150-200 µg m-3.

  8. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  9. Real-time WAMI streaming target tracking in fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Ning; Deng, Anna; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Genshe

    2016-05-01

    Real-time information fusion based on WAMI (Wide-Area Motion Imagery), FMV (Full Motion Video), and Text data is highly desired for many mission critical emergency or security applications. Cloud Computing has been considered promising to achieve big data integration from multi-modal sources. In many mission critical tasks, however, powerful Cloud technology cannot satisfy the tight latency tolerance as the servers are allocated far from the sensing platform, actually there is no guaranteed connection in the emergency situations. Therefore, data processing, information fusion, and decision making are required to be executed on-site (i.e., near the data collection). Fog Computing, a recently proposed extension and complement for Cloud Computing, enables computing on-site without outsourcing jobs to a remote Cloud. In this work, we have investigated the feasibility of processing streaming WAMI in the Fog for real-time, online, uninterrupted target tracking. Using a single target tracking algorithm, we studied the performance of a Fog Computing prototype. The experimental results are very encouraging that validated the effectiveness of our Fog approach to achieve real-time frame rates.

  10. Vegetation pattern formation in a fog-dependent ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthagaray, Ana I; Fuentes, Miguel A; Marquet, Pablo A

    2010-07-07

    Vegetation pattern formation is a striking characteristic of several water-limited ecosystems around the world. Typically, they have been described on runoff-based ecosystems emphasizing local interactions between water, biomass interception, growth and dispersal. Here, we show that this situation is by no means general, as banded patterns in vegetation can emerge in areas without rainfall and in plants without functional root (the Bromeliad Tillandsia landbeckii) and where fog is the principal source of moisture. We show that a simple model based on the advection of fog-water by wind and its interception by the vegetation can reproduce banded patterns which agree with empirical patterns observed in the Coastal Atacama Desert. Our model predicts how the parameters may affect the conditions to form the banded pattern, showing a transition from a uniform vegetated state, at high water input or terrain slope to a desert state throughout intermediate banded states. Moreover, the model predicts that the pattern wavelength is a decreasing non-linear function of fog-water input and slope, and an increasing function of plant loss and fog-water flow speed. Finally, we show that the vegetation density is increased by the formation of the regular pattern compared to the density expected by the spatially homogeneous model emphasizing the importance of self-organization in arid ecosystems. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soluble and insoluble pollutants in fog and rime water samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Stoyanova, V.; Chaloupecký, Pavel; Řezáčová, Daniela; Tsacheva, Ts.; Kupenova, T.; Marinov, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, Sp. Iss. 2 (2009), S123-S130 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1918; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : fog water * rime water * pollutant concentration Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  12. Pollutant Concentrations in the Rime and Fog Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Tesař, Miroslav; Fottová, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2008), S68-S73 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042301; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : fog water * rime water * pollutant concentration Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  13. Towards a medium-range coastal station fog forecasting system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available -1 29th Annual conference of South African Society for Atmospheric Sciences (SASAS) 2013 http://sasas.ukzn.ac.za/homepage.aspx Towards a Medium-Range Coastal Station Fog Forecasting System Stephanie Landman*1, Estelle Marx1, Willem A. Landman2...

  14. Spatially ordered structures in storm clouds and fogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavlov, A.V.; Dzhumandzhi, V.A.

    2010-01-01

    The article shows the possibility of formation of the spatially ordered structures by the charged drops of water in both storm clouds and fogs. To predict the existence of the given structures there was proposed a model of interaction mechanism among the charged particles. We also estimated the influence of drop ordering onto the surface tension and the shear viscosity in clouds.

  15. Designing the fog : towards an intranet of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funk, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    The Fog of Things, ubiquitous computing in local contexts, is a reality now. The Internet of Things has arrived, although users use and perceive it rather as Internet of Thing [sic!]. Data and information flows vertically, not horizontally through the connected Everyday and promises of convenience

  16. Fog prediction using the modified asymptotic liquid water content vertical distribution formulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Chae, D.

    2017-12-01

    Fog forecasts have difficulty in forecasting due to temporal and spatial resolution problems, high numerical computations, complicated mechanisms related to turbulence in order to analyze the fog in the model, and a lack of appropriate fog physical processes. Conventional fog prediction is based on the surface visibility threshold "fog diagnosis method is based on the fog related variables near the surface, such as visibility, low stratus, relative humidity and wind speed but this method only predicts fog occurrence not fog intensity. To improve this, a new fog diagnostic scheme, based on an asymptotic analytical study of radiation fog (Zhou and Ferrier 2008, ZF08) is to increase the accuracy of fog prediction by calculating the vertical LWC considering cooling, turbulence and droplet settling, visibility, surface relative humidity and low stratus. In this study, we intend to improve fog prediction through the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using high-resolution data. Although the prediction accuracy can be improved by combining the WRF Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme and 1 dimension (1D) model, it is necessary to increase the vertical resolution in the boundary layer to implement the fog formation and persistence mechanism in the internal boundary layer in the PBL more accurately, we'll modify the algorithm to enhance the effects of turbulence and then compare the newly predicted fog and observations to determine the accuracy of the forecast of the fog occurring on the Korean peninsula.

  17. Antarctica: Cooling or Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunde, Armin; Ludescher, Josef; Franzke, Christian

    2013-04-01

    We consider the 14 longest instrumental monthly mean temperature records from the Antarctica and analyse their correlation properties by wavelet and detrended fluctuation analysis. We show that the stations in the western and the eastern part of the Antarctica show significant long-term memory governed by Hurst exponents close to 0.8 and 0.65, respectively. In contrast, the temperature records at the inner part of the continent (South Pole and Vostok), resemble white noise. We use linear regression to estimate the respective temperature differences in the records per decade (i) for the annual data, (ii) for the summer and (iii) for the winter season. Using a recent approach by Lennartz and Bunde [1] we estimate the respective probabilities that these temperature differences can be exceeded naturally without inferring an external (anthropogenic) trend. We find that the warming in the western part of the continent and the cooling at the South Pole is due to a gradually changes in the cold extremes. For the winter months, both cooling and warming are well outside the 95 percent confidence interval, pointing to an anthropogenic origin. In the eastern Antarctica, the temperature increases and decreases are modest and well within the 95 percent confidence interval. [1] S. Lennartz and A. Bunde, Phys. Rev. E 84, 021129 (2011)

  18. Comparative Observation of Silver Nano and Microstructures Deposited from Aerosol and Fog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheltova Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the structure and fractal properties of arrays of the silver nano-/micro-particles deposited on the silicon substrate both from the aerosol and fog showed that the form of the silver individual particles and nano-/microstructures greatly depends on the deposition conditions. By passing an aerosol through isopropyl alcohol, the formation of fractal aggregates of the silver nano-/micro-particles both in the air and in alcohol was observed. Deposition of the silver nano-/micro-particles in the atmosphere of the saturated isopropyl alcohol vapours led to formation of fog. Micro-droplets of the silver colloidal solution were deposited on the substrate. The further evaporation of alcohol created the silver nano/microstructures in the form of annular layers. It was found that the concerned annular layers contained silver particles of the same shape in the form of a Crescent (or Janus-nano-/microparticles. The nature of discovered effects is discussed.

  19. Reduced Graphene Oxide Membranes: Applications in Fog Collection and Water Purification

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has attracted considerable interest recently as the low cost and chemical stable derivative of pristine graphene with application in many applications such as energy storage, water purification and electronic devices. This dissertation thoroughly investigated stacked rGO membrane fabrication process by vacuum-driven filtration, discovered asymmetry of the two surfaces of the rGO membrane, explored application perspectives of the asymmetric rGO membrane in fog collection and microstructure patterning, and disclosed membrane compaction issue during water filtration and species rejection. In more details, this dissertation revealed that, with suitable pore size, the filtration membrane substrate would leave its physical imprint on the bottom surface of the rGO membrane in the form of surface microstructures, which result in asymmetric dynamic water wettability properties of the two surfaces of the rGO membrane. The asymmetric wettability of the rGO membrane would lead to contrasting fog harvesting behavior of its two surfaces. The physical imprint mechanism was further extended to engineering pre-designed patterns selectively on the bottom surface of the rGO membrane. This dissertation, for the first time, reported the water flux and rejection kinetics, which was related to the compaction of the rGO membrane under pressure in the process of water filtration.

  20. Durable anti-fogging effect and adhesion improvement on polymer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, E. M.; Gilliéron, D.; Henrion, G.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrophobic properties of polymeric surfaces may cause fogging in transparent packaging and poor adhesion to printing colours and coatings. Novel plasma processes for durable functionalization of polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate substrates were developed and analysed using optical emission spectroscopy. A worm-like nano pattern was created on the polypropylene surface prior to the deposition of thin polar plasma polymerised layers. For both substrates, highly polar surfaces exhibiting a surface tension of up to 69 mN/m and a water contact angle of about 10° were produced - providing the anti-fogging effect. The deposition of thin plasma polymerised layers protects the increased surface areas and enables to tailoring the surface energy of the substrate in a wide range. Wetting characteristics were determined by dynamic contact angle measurements. Investigations of the chemical composition of several layers using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and FT-infrared spectroscopy were correlated with functional testing. The surface topography was investigated using atomic force microscopy. The weldability and peeling-off characteristics of the plasma treated polymer films could be adjusted by varying the process parameters. Global and specific migration analyses were undertaken in order to ensure the manufacturing of plasma treated polymer surfaces for direct food contact purposes.

  1. Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation Protocol for Fog Computing-Assisted Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I communication enables moving vehicles to upload real-time data about road surface situation to the Internet via fixed roadside units (RSU. Thanks to the resource restriction of mobile vehicles, fog computation-enhanced V2I communication scenario has received increasing attention recently. However, how to aggregate the sensed data from vehicles securely and efficiently still remains open to the V2I communication scenario. In this paper, a light-weight and anonymous aggregation protocol is proposed for the fog computing-based V2I communication scenario. With the proposed protocol, the data collected by the vehicles can be efficiently obtained by the RSU in a privacy-preserving manner. Particularly, we first suggest a certificateless aggregate signcryption (CL-A-SC scheme and prove its security in the random oracle model. The suggested CL-A-SC scheme, which is of independent interest, can achieve the merits of certificateless cryptography and signcryption scheme simultaneously. Then we put forward the anonymous aggregation protocol for V2I communication scenario as one extension of the suggested CL-A-SC scheme. Security analysis demonstrates that the proposed aggregation protocol achieves desirable security properties. The performance comparison shows that the proposed protocol significantly reduces the computation and communication overhead compared with the up-to-date protocols in this field.

  2. Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium (SSWC) data set documents the stratospheric, tropospheric, and surface climate impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings. This...

  3. Global Warming on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  4. Numerical simulations of an advection fog event over Shanghai Pudong International Airport with the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Caiyan; Zhang, Zhongfeng; Pu, Zhaoxia; Wang, Fengyun

    2017-10-01

    A series of numerical simulations is conducted to understand the formation, evolution, and dissipation of an advection fog event over Shanghai Pudong International Airport (ZSPD) with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Using the current operational settings at the Meteorological Center of East China Air Traffic Management Bureau, the WRF model successfully predicts the fog event at ZSPD. Additional numerical experiments are performed to examine the physical processes associated with the fog event. The results indicate that prediction of this particular fog event is sensitive to microphysical schemes for the time of fog dissipation but not for the time of fog onset. The simulated timing of the arrival and dissipation of the fog, as well as the cloud distribution, is substantially sensitive to the planetary boundary layer and radiation (both longwave and shortwave) processes. Moreover, varying forecast lead times also produces different simulation results for the fog event regarding its onset and duration, suggesting a trade-off between more accurate initial conditions and a proper forecast lead time that allows model physical processes to spin up adequately during the fog simulation. The overall outcomes from this study imply that the complexity of physical processes and their interactions within the WRF model during fog evolution and dissipation is a key area of future research.

  5. Fog Occurrence and Associated Meteorological Factors Over Kempegowda International Airport, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Saumya G.; Agnihotri, G.; Dimri, A. P.; Gultepe, I.

    2018-05-01

    The increase in fog frequency over the past few decades is a major cause of concern for the aviation and transportation sectors. Accurate forecasting of the spatio-temporal extent of fog is crucial for minimizing socioeconomic losses. The present study attempts to characterize the fog frequency and associated meteorological factors over Kempegowda International Airport, Bengaluru (KIAB), in Karnataka, India. Maximum fog occurrence is observed during the month of December, followed by January. The time of onset of fog lies usually between 1800 and 0300 UTC. No fog is formed between 0400 and 1700 UTC indicating the role of radiation fog. The predominant wind direction during fog events is east or southeasterly. There is significant positive correlation between the fog frequency and both the northeast monsoon, October-November (0.72), as well as December-January-February (DJF) rainfall (0.80). Soil moisture conditions during the DJF period also play a key role in fog occurrence and its climatology, which is evident from the correlation coefficient of order 0.68. These suggest that further research is needed for understanding the extent of impact on aviation at KIAB.

  6. A Mobility Management Using Follow-Me Cloud-Cloudlet in Fog-Computing-Based RANs for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Tsai, Yi-Ting

    2018-02-06

    Mobility management for supporting the location tracking and location-based service (LBS) is an important issue of smart city by providing the means for the smooth transportation of people and goods. The mobility is useful to contribute the innovation in both public and private transportation infrastructures for smart cities. With the assistance of edge/fog computing, this paper presents a fully new mobility management using the proposed follow-me cloud-cloudlet (FMCL) approach in fog-computing-based radio access networks (Fog-RANs) for smart cities. The proposed follow-me cloud-cloudlet approach is an integration strategy of follow-me cloud (FMC) and follow-me edge (FME) (or called cloudlet). A user equipment (UE) receives the data, transmitted from original cloud, into the original edge cloud before the handover operation. After the handover operation, an UE searches for a new cloud, called as a migrated cloud, and a new edge cloud, called as a migrated edge cloud near to UE, where the remaining data is migrated from the original cloud to the migrated cloud and all the remaining data are received in the new edge cloud. Existing FMC results do not have the property of the VM migration between cloudlets for the purpose of reducing the transmission latency, and existing FME results do not keep the property of the service migration between data centers for reducing the transmission latency. Our proposed FMCL approach can simultaneously keep the VM migration between cloudlets and service migration between data centers to significantly reduce the transmission latency. The new proposed mobility management using FMCL approach aims to reduce the total transmission time if some data packets are pre-scheduled and pre-stored into the cache of cloudlet if UE is switching from the previous Fog-RAN to the serving Fog-RAN. To illustrate the performance achievement, the mathematical analysis and simulation results are examined in terms of the total transmission time, the

  7. A Mobility Management Using Follow-Me Cloud-Cloudlet in Fog-Computing-Based RANs for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shyan Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mobility management for supporting the location tracking and location-based service (LBS is an important issue of smart city by providing the means for the smooth transportation of people and goods. The mobility is useful to contribute the innovation in both public and private transportation infrastructures for smart cities. With the assistance of edge/fog computing, this paper presents a fully new mobility management using the proposed follow-me cloud-cloudlet (FMCL approach in fog-computing-based radio access networks (Fog-RANs for smart cities. The proposed follow-me cloud-cloudlet approach is an integration strategy of follow-me cloud (FMC and follow-me edge (FME (or called cloudlet. A user equipment (UE receives the data, transmitted from original cloud, into the original edge cloud before the handover operation. After the handover operation, an UE searches for a new cloud, called as a migrated cloud, and a new edge cloud, called as a migrated edge cloud near to UE, where the remaining data is migrated from the original cloud to the migrated cloud and all the remaining data are received in the new edge cloud. Existing FMC results do not have the property of the VM migration between cloudlets for the purpose of reducing the transmission latency, and existing FME results do not keep the property of the service migration between data centers for reducing the transmission latency. Our proposed FMCL approach can simultaneously keep the VM migration between cloudlets and service migration between data centers to significantly reduce the transmission latency. The new proposed mobility management using FMCL approach aims to reduce the total transmission time if some data packets are pre-scheduled and pre-stored into the cache of cloudlet if UE is switching from the previous Fog-RAN to the serving Fog-RAN. To illustrate the performance achievement, the mathematical analysis and simulation results are examined in terms of the total transmission time

  8. Automatic fog detection for public safety by using camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Roth, Martin; Wauben, Wiel

    2017-04-01

    Fog and reduced visibility have considerable impact on the performance of road, maritime, and aeronautical transportation networks. The impact ranges from minor delays to more serious congestions or unavailability of the infrastructure and can even lead to damage or loss of lives. Visibility is traditionally measured manually by meteorological observers using landmarks at known distances in the vicinity of the observation site. Nowadays, distributed cameras facilitate inspection of more locations from one remote monitoring center. The main idea is, however, still deriving the visibility or presence of fog by an operator judging the scenery and the presence of landmarks. Visibility sensors are also used, but they are rather costly and require regular maintenance. Moreover, observers, and in particular sensors, give only visibility information that is representative for a limited area. Hence the current density of visibility observations is insufficient to give detailed information on the presence of fog. Cameras are more and more deployed for surveillance and security reasons in cities and for monitoring traffic along main transportation ways. In addition to this primary use of cameras, we consider cameras as potential sensors to automatically identify low visibility conditions. The approach that we follow is to use machine learning techniques to determine the presence of fog and/or to make an estimation of the visibility. For that purpose a set of features are extracted from the camera images such as the number of edges, brightness, transmission of the image dark channel, fractal dimension. In addition to these image features, we also consider meteorological variables such as wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and dew point as additional features to feed the machine learning model. The results obtained with a training and evaluation set consisting of 10-minute sampled images for two KNMI locations over a period of 1.5 years by using decision trees methods

  9. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Dacke, Marie

    2010-07-16

    In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another species with elytra covered in bumps is reported to have specialised adaptations facilitating water capture by fog-basking. To resolve if these other beetles also fog-bask, and if an elytra covered in bumps is a more efficient fog water collector than a smooth one, we examined four Namib Desert beetles; the smooth Onymacris unguicularis and O. laeviceps and the bumpy Stenocara gracilipes and Physasterna cribripes. Here we describe the beetles' fog-basking behaviour, the details of their elytra structures, and determine how efficient their dorsal surface areas are at harvesting water from fog. The beetles differ greatly in size. The largest P. cribripes has a dorsal surface area that is 1.39, 1.56, and 2.52 times larger than O. unguicularis, O. laeviceps, and S. gracilipes, respectively. In accordance with earlier reports, we found that the second largest O. unguicularis is the only one of the four beetles that assumes the head standing fog-basking behaviour, and that fog is necessary to trigger this behaviour. No differences were seen in the absolute amounts of fog water collected on the dorsal surface areas of the different beetles. However, data corrected according to the sizes of the beetles revealed differences. The better fog water harvesters were S. gracilipes and O. unguicularis while the large P. cribripes was the poorest. Examination of the elytra microstructures showed clear structural differences, but the elytra of all beetles were found to be completely hydrophobic. The differences in

  10. Fog Simulations Based on Multi-Model System: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chune; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Su; Deng, Xueliang; Li, Yaosun; Qiu, Mingyan

    2012-05-01

    Accurate forecasts of fog and visibility are very important to air and high way traffic, and are still a big challenge. A 1D fog model (PAFOG) is coupled to MM5 by obtaining the initial and boundary conditions (IC/BC) and some other necessary input parameters from MM5. Thus, PAFOG can be run for any area of interest. On the other hand, MM5 itself can be used to simulate fog events over a large domain. This paper presents evaluations of the fog predictability of these two systems for December of 2006 and December of 2007, with nine regional fog events observed in a field experiment, as well as over a large domain in eastern China. Among the simulations of the nine fog events by the two systems, two cases were investigated in detail. Daily results of ground level meteorology were validated against the routine observations at the CMA observational network. Daily fog occurrences for the two study periods was validated in Nanjing. General performance of the two models for the nine fog cases are presented by comparing with routine and field observational data. The results of MM5 and PAFOG for two typical fog cases are verified in detail against field observations. The verifications demonstrated that all methods tended to overestimate fog occurrence, especially for near-fog cases. In terms of TS/ETS, the LWC-only threshold with MM5 showed the best performance, while PAFOG showed the worst. MM5 performed better for advection-radiation fog than for radiation fog, and PAFOG could be an alternative tool for forecasting radiation fogs. PAFOG did show advantages over MM5 on the fog dissipation time. The performance of PAFOG highly depended on the quality of MM5 output. The sensitive runs of PAFOG with different IC/BC showed the capability of using MM5 output to run the 1D model and the high sensitivity of PAFOG on cloud cover. Future works should intensify the study of how to improve the quality of input data (e.g. cloud cover, advection, large scale subsidence) for the 1D

  11. COSMO-PAFOG: Three-dimensional fog forecasting with the high-resolution COSMO-model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Maike; Bott, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The presence of fog can have critical impact on shipping, aviation and road traffic increasing the risk of serious accidents. Besides these negative impacts of fog, in arid regions fog is explored as a supplementary source of water for human settlements. Thus the improvement of fog forecasts holds immense operational value. The aim of this study is the development of an efficient three-dimensional numerical fog forecast model based on a mesoscale weather prediction model for the application in the Namib region. The microphysical parametrization of the one-dimensional fog forecast model PAFOG (PArameterized FOG) is implemented in the three-dimensional nonhydrostatic mesoscale weather prediction model COSMO (COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling) developed and maintained by the German Meteorological Service. Cloud water droplets are introduced in COSMO as prognostic variables, thus allowing a detailed description of droplet sedimentation. Furthermore, a visibility parametrization depending on the liquid water content and the droplet number concentration is implemented. The resulting fog forecast model COSMO-PAFOG is run with kilometer-scale horizontal resolution. In vertical direction, we use logarithmically equidistant layers with 45 of 80 layers in total located below 2000 m. Model results are compared to satellite observations and synoptic observations of the German Meteorological Service for a domain in the west of Germany, before the model is adapted to the geographical and climatological conditions in the Namib desert. COSMO-PAFOG is able to represent the horizontal structure of fog patches reasonably well. Especially small fog patches typical of radiation fog can be simulated in agreement with observations. Ground observations of temperature are also reproduced. Simulations without the PAFOG microphysics yield unrealistically high liquid water contents. This in turn reduces the radiative cooling of the ground, thus inhibiting nocturnal temperature decrease. The

  12. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacke Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another species with elytra covered in bumps is reported to have specialised adaptations facilitating water capture by fog-basking. To resolve if these other beetles also fog-bask, and if an elytra covered in bumps is a more efficient fog water collector than a smooth one, we examined four Namib Desert beetles; the smooth Onymacris unguicularis and O. laeviceps and the bumpy Stenocara gracilipes and Physasterna cribripes. Here we describe the beetles' fog-basking behaviour, the details of their elytra structures, and determine how efficient their dorsal surface areas are at harvesting water from fog. Results The beetles differ greatly in size. The largest P. cribripes has a dorsal surface area that is 1.39, 1.56, and 2.52 times larger than O. unguicularis, O. laeviceps, and S. gracilipes, respectively. In accordance with earlier reports, we found that the second largest O. unguicularis is the only one of the four beetles that assumes the head standing fog-basking behaviour, and that fog is necessary to trigger this behaviour. No differences were seen in the absolute amounts of fog water collected on the dorsal surface areas of the different beetles. However, data corrected according to the sizes of the beetles revealed differences. The better fog water harvesters were S. gracilipes and O. unguicularis while the large P. cribripes was the poorest. Examination of the elytra microstructures showed clear structural differences, but the elytra of all beetles were found to

  13. Fog Density Estimation and Image Defogging Based on Surrogate Modeling for Optical Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yutong; Sun, Changming; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Li

    2017-05-03

    In order to estimate fog density correctly and to remove fog from foggy images appropriately, a surrogate model for optical depth is presented in this paper. We comprehensively investigate various fog-relevant features and propose a novel feature based on the hue, saturation, and value color space which correlate well with the perception of fog density. We use a surrogate-based method to learn a refined polynomial regression model for optical depth with informative fog-relevant features such as dark-channel, saturation-value, and chroma which are selected on the basis of sensitivity analysis. Based on the obtained accurate surrogate model for optical depth, an effective method for fog density estimation and image defogging is proposed. The effectiveness of our proposed method is verified quantitatively and qualitatively by the experimental results on both synthetic and real-world foggy images.

  14. Effect of water fogs on the deliberate ignition of hydrogen. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalosh, R.G.; Bajpai, S.N.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents an experimental evaluation of the effects of water fog density, droplet diameter, and temperature on the lower flammable limit (LFL) of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. The results show that the LFL for hydrogen in air at 20 0 C is only marginally higher with fog than without. Most of the nozzles tested at 20 0 C raised the hydrogen LFL from 4.0 vol % to about 4.8%, for the case of dense fogs with volume-average drop size in the range 45 to 90 microns. The lower flammable limit at 50 0 C was typically 7.2% for dense fogs with drop size in the range 25 to 50 microns. The lower flammable limit at 70 0 C was typically 7.6%. Typical fog concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 vol % at 20 0 C and decreased with increasing fog temperature. 7 figures, 4 tables

  15. Electron-microscope study of cloud and fog nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiwara, S; Okita, T

    1952-01-01

    Droplets of clouds on a mountain and of fog in an urban area were captured and the form, nature and size of their nuclei were studied by means of an electron-microscope and by a chamber of constant humidity. These nuclei have similar form and nature to the hygroscopic particles in haze and to the artificially produced combustion particles. No sea-salt nuclei were found in our observations, therefore, sea-spray appears to be an insignificant source of condensation nuclei. It was found that both the cloud and the fog nuclei originated in combustion products which were the mixture of hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic substances, and that the greater part of the nuclei did not contain pure sulfuric acid.

  16. Aqueous greenhouse species in clouds, fogs, and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Cunningham, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Greenhouse effects from fossil fuel combustion leading to increased concentrations of primary and secondary greenhouse gases (e.g., CO-2, ozone, etc.) have received considerable attention. More recently, it has been suggested that clouds, aerosols, and fogs can play opposing roles in climate forcing by scattering or absorbing incoming solar radiation as well as by absorbing long-wave radiation as it escapes into space. The total effect on the radiation balance depends on the relative magnitude of these opposing forces, which in turn will depend on the composition of the aqueous phase. This work describes the measurement of water-soluble infrared absorbers which can contribute to the long-wave radiative forcing of clouds, fogs, and aerosols. Aqueous species which have been characterized include sulfate, nitrate, formate, acetate, oxalate, phenol, p-nitrophenol, ammonium, bicarbonate, formaldehyde, methanol, and ethanol. Infrared absorption band positions and band strengths have been determined, and their relative effects on radiative forcing are discussed

  17. [Microphysics of atmospheric aerosols during winter haze/fog events in Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Niu, Zhong-qing; Shi, Chun-e; Liu, Duan-yang; Li, Zi-hua

    2010-07-01

    Intensive field observations of fog/haze events, including simultaneous measurements of aerosol particle and fog droplet size distributions, were conducted in Nanjing in November, 2007. Four weather conditions (fog, mist, wet haze and haze) were distinguished based on visibility and liquid water content firstly. Then, the microphysical characteristics of coarse and fine particles in each condition were investigated. The results showed the dominant sequence of the four weather conditions was hazemist-->wet haze-->fog-->, wet haze-->misthaze. The lasting time of pre-fog wet haze was longer than that of post-fog wet haze. The number, surface area and volume concentration of coarse particles with diameter larger than 2.0 micron in fog were much higher than those in the other three conditions, and the smallest concentrations were observed in haze. The size distributions of surface area and volume concentration exhibited multi-peak in fog droplets, while it showed single peak for coarse particles in haze, mist and wet haze. For the fine particles with diameter larger than 0.010 microm, the spectral shapes of surface area concentration are similar in fog (mist) and wet haze (haze) condition. The dominant size ranges of fine particle number concentration were in 0.04-0.13 microm and 0.02-0.14 microm for fog and wet haze, separately. The same dominant size ranges located in 0.02-0.06 microm for both mist and haze. During the transition processes from haze, mist and wet haze to fog, the concentration of smaller particles (less than 0.060-0.090 microm) reduced and vice versa for the corresponding larger particles. Temporal variation of aerosol number concentration correlated well with the root mean diameters negatively during the observation period. The number concentration of aerosol was the lowest and the mean diameter was the largest in fog periods.

  18. A field investigation of physical and chemical mechanisms affecting pollutant concentrations in fog droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Waldman, Jed. M.; Munger, J. William; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    High ionic loadings were found in fogwater collected at Bakersfield. California during an extended stagnation episode. The major ions were NH4+ NO3-, and SO42-, with concentrations usually in the millimolar range. Droplet growth played an important rôle in determining fogwater concentrations. The amount of solute decreased substantially over the course of each fog event; this was attributed, at least in part, to deposition of fog droplets on surfaces. The occurrence of dense fogs thus seemed ...

  19. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, D; Fally, S; De Vuyst, P; Wollast, R; Yernault, J C

    1995-11-01

    Naturally occurring fogs in industrialized cities are contaminated by acidic air pollutants. In Brussels, Belgium, the pH of polluted fogwater may be as low as 3 with osmolarity as low as 30 mOsm. In order to explore short-term respiratory effects of a realistic acid-polluted fog, we collected samples of acid fog in Brussels, Belgium, which is a densely populated and industrialized city, we defined characteristics of this fog and exposed asthmatic volunteers at rest through a face mask to fogs with physical and chemical characteristics similar to those of natural fogs assessed in this urban area. Fogwater was sampled using a screen collector where droplets are collected by inertial impaction and chemical content of fogwater was assessed by measurement of conductivity, pH, visible colorimetry, high pressure liquid chromatography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry over a period of one year. The fogwater composition was dominated by NH4+ and SO4- ions. First we evaluated the possible effect of fog acidity alone. For this purpose 14 subjects with asthma were exposed at rest for 1 hr [mass median aerodynamic diameter to a large-particle (MMAD), 9 microns] aerosol with H2SO4 concentration of 500 micrograms/m3 (pH 2.5) and osmolarity of 300 mOsm. We did not observe significant change in pulmonary function or bronchial responsiveness to metacholine. In the second part of the work, 10 asthmatic subjects were exposed to acid fog (MMAD, 7 microns) containing sulfate and ammonium ions (major ions recovered in naturally occurring fogs) with pH 3.5 and osmolarity 30 mOsm. Again, pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity were not modified after inhalation of this fog. It was concluded that short-term exposure to acid fog reproducing acidity and hypoosmolarity of natural polluted fogs does not induce bronchoconstriction and does not change bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics.

  20. The potential for scaling up a fog collection system on the eastern escarpment of Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Fessehaye, Mussie; Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Savage, Michael J.; Kohler, Thomas; Tesfay, Selamawit

    2015-01-01

    Fog is an untapped natural resource. A number of studies have been undertaken to understand its potential as an alternative or complementary water source. In 2007, a pilot fog-collection project was implemented in 2 villages on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea. The government of Eritrea, buoyed by the project’s positive results, has encouraged research into and application of fog-collection technologies to alleviate water-supply problems in this region. In 2014, this study was undertaken to ...

  1. Impact of sophisticated fog spray models on accident analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblyer, S.P.; Owzarski, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The N-Reactor confinement system release dose to the public in a postulated accident is reduced by washing the confinement atmosphere with fog sprays. This allows a low pressure release of confinement atmosphere containing fission products through filters and out an elevated stack. The current accident analysis required revision of the CORRAL code and other codes such as CONTEMPT to properly model the N Reactor confinement into a system of multiple fog-sprayed compartments. In revising these codes, more sophisticated models for the fog sprays and iodine plateout were incorporated to remove some of the conservatism of steam condensing rate, fission product washout and iodine plateout than used in previous studies. The CORRAL code, which was used to describe the transport and deposition of airborne fission products in LWR containment systems for the Rasmussen Study, was revised to describe fog spray removal of molecular iodine (I 2 ) and particulates in multiple compartments for sprays having individual characteristics of on-off times, flow rates, fall heights, and drop sizes in changing containment atmospheres. During postulated accidents, the code determined the fission product removal rates internally rather than from input decontamination factors. A discussion is given of how the calculated plateout and washout rates vary with time throughout the analysis. The results of the accident analyses indicated that more credit could be given to fission product washout and plateout. An important finding was that the release of fission products to the atmosphere and adsorption of fission products on the filters were significantly lower than previous studies had indicated

  2. Laser Imaging Video Camera Sees Through Fire, Fog, Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Under a series of SBIR contracts with Langley Research Center, inventor Richard Billmers refined a prototype for a laser imaging camera capable of seeing through fire, fog, smoke, and other obscurants. Now, Canton, Ohio-based Laser Imaging through Obscurants (LITO) Technologies Inc. is demonstrating the technology as a perimeter security system at Glenn Research Center and planning its future use in aviation, shipping, emergency response, and other fields.

  3. Numerical Analysis of Thermo Hydraulic Conditions in Car Fog Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramšak, M.; Žunič, Z.; Škerget, L.; Jurejevčič, T.

    2009-08-01

    In the article a coupled heat transfer in the solid and fluid inside of a car fog lamp is presented using CFD software CFX [1]. All three basic principles of heat transfer are dealt with: conduction, convection and radiation. Two different approaches to radiation modeling are compared. Laminar and turbulent flow modeling are compared since computed Rayleight number indicates transitional flow regime. Results are in good agreement with the measurements.

  4. The chemical composition of fogs and clouds in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The major inorganic species in cloud and fog water samples were NH{sub 4}{sup +}, H{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Concentrations in fog water samples were 1 - 10 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M; pH values ranged from {approx equal} 2 to 6. Nitrate usually exceeded sulfate. Acidity depended on the availability of NH{sub 3} from agricultural operations. Stratus cloudwater had somewhat lower concentrations; pH values were in the range 3-4. The major factors accounting for variation in fog- or cloudwater composition were the preexisting aerosol and gas concentrations and variations in liquid water content. Deposition and entrainment or advection of different air masses were also important during extended cloud or fog episodes. The droplet size dependence of cloudwater composition was investigated on one occasion in an intercepted coastal stratus clouds. Concentrations of S(IV) and CH{sub 2}O in the range 100-1000 {mu}M were observed in fogwater from urban sites in Southern California. Lower concentrations were observed in stratus clouds. The high levels of S(IV) and CH{sub 2}O were attributed to the formation of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMSA), the S(IV) adduct of CH{sub 2}O. Direct measurements of HMSA in fogwater samples from Bakersfield, CA were made by ion-pairing chromatography. Glyoxal and methyglyoxal were observed at concentrations comparable to CH{sub 2}O in fogwater samples from Riverside, CA and in stratus cloudwater samples from sites along the Santa Barbara Channel.

  5. Out of the fog: Catalyzing integrative capacity in interdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piso, Zachary; O'Rourke, Michael; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2016-04-01

    Social studies of interdisciplinary science investigate how scientific collaborations approach complex challenges that require multiple disciplinary perspectives. In order for collaborators to meet these complex challenges, interdisciplinary collaborations must develop and maintain integrative capacity, understood as the ability to anticipate and weigh tradeoffs in the employment of different disciplinary approaches. Here we provide an account of how one group of interdisciplinary fog scientists intentionally catalyzed integrative capacity. Through conversation, collaborators negotiated their commitments regarding the ontology of fog systems and the methodologies appropriate to studying fog systems, thereby enhancing capabilities which we take to constitute integrative capacity. On the ontological front, collaborators negotiated their commitments by setting boundaries to and within the system, layering different subsystems, focusing on key intersections of these subsystems, and agreeing on goals that would direct further investigation. On the methodological front, collaborators sequenced various methods, anchored methods at different scales, validated one method with another, standardized the outputs of related methods, and coordinated methods to fit a common model. By observing the process and form of collaborator conversations, this case study demonstrates that social studies of science can bring into critical focus how interdisciplinary collaborators work toward an integrated conceptualization of study systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fog Chemistry at Different Altitudes in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, P.; Eugster, W.; Wanner, H.

    2010-07-01

    During two extended summer seasons in 2006 and 2007, we installed two battery driven versions of the Caltech active strand cloud water collector (MiniCASCC) at the Niesen mountain in the northern Swiss Alps. Along, we measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and visibility. During these two field operation phases we gained weekly samples of fogwater, where we analysed the major anions and cations, and the stable water isotopes δD and δ18O. The fog collectors were installed at an altitude of 2300 and 1600 m asl to resolve altitudinal differences in fog chemistry. We found a large variability between the events, but no clear altitudinal gradient. At both sites, the most important ions were nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate. Higher concentrations occured preferably in late spring (start of sampling period) and in autumn (end of sampling). Compared to previous studies at lower elevations in the Swiss Plateau during wintertime, our measurements showed considerable lower ion loads in the fogwater. The combination of these results suggest that lowest ion loads are found in convective clouds with a short lifetime and that the highest ion loads occur during radiation fog events at lower elevations.

  7. Interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ m α ρ e β form, where ρ m and ρ e are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w m and w e of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used

  8. Numerical simulation of diurnally varying thermal environment in a street canyon under haze-fog conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zijing; Dong, Jingliang; Xiao, Yimin; Tu, Jiyuan

    2015-10-01

    The impact of haze-fog on surface temperature, flow pattern, pollutant dispersion and pedestrian thermal comfort are investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on a three-dimensional street canyon model under different haze-fog conditions. In this study, light extinction coefficient (Kex) is adopted to represent haze-fog pollution level. Numerical simulations are performed for different Kex values at four representative time events (1000 LST, 1300 LST, 1600 LST and 2000 LST). The numerical results suggest that the surface temperature is strongly affected by the haze-fog condition. Surface heating induced by the solar radiation is enhanced by haze-fog, as higher surface temperature is observed under thicker haze-fog condition. Moreover, the temperature difference between sunlit and shadow surfaces is reduced, while that for the two shadow surfaces is slightly increased. Therefore, the surface temperature among street canyon facets becomes more evenly distributed under heavy haze-fog conditions. In addition, flow patterns are considerably altered by different haze-fog conditions, especially for the afternoon (1600 LST) case, in which thermal-driven flow has opposite direction as that of the wind-driven flow direction. Consequently, pollutants such as vehicular emissions will accumulate at pedestrian level, and pedestrian thermal comfort may lower under thicker haze-fog condition.

  9. Crash risk analysis during fog conditions using real-time traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2018-05-01

    This research investigates the changes of traffic characteristics and crash risks during fog conditions. Using real-time traffic flow and weather data at two regions in Florida, the traffic patterns at the fog duration were compared to the traffic patterns at the clear duration. It was found that the average 5-min speed and the average 5-min volume were prone to decreasing during fog. Based on previous studies, a "Crash Risk Increase Indicator (CRII)" was proposed to explore the differences of crash risk between fog and clear conditions. A binary logistic regression model was applied to link the increase of crash risks with traffic flow characteristics. The results suggested that the proposed indicator worked well in evaluating the increase of crash risk under fog condition. It was indicated that the crash risk was prone to increase at ramp vicinities in fog conditions. Also, the average 5-min volume during fog and the lane position are important factors for crash risk increase. The differences between the regions were also explored in this study. The results indicated that the locations with heavier traffic or locations at the lanes that were closest to the median in Region 2 were more likely to observe an increase in crash risks in fog conditions. It is expected that the proposed indicator can help identify the dangerous traffic status under fog conditions and then proper ITS technologies can be implemented to enhance traffic safety when the visibility declines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Daytime sea fog retrieval based on GOCI data: a case study over the Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yibo; Qiu, Zhongfeng; Sun, Deyong; Wang, Shengqiang; Yue, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-25

    In this paper, a new daytime sea fog detection algorithm has been developed by using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data. Based on spectral analysis, differences in spectral characteristics were found over different underlying surfaces, which include land, sea, middle/high level clouds, stratus clouds and sea fog. Statistical analysis showed that the Rrc (412 nm) (Rayleigh Corrected Reflectance) of sea fog pixels is approximately 0.1-0.6. Similarly, various band combinations could be used to separate different surfaces. Therefore, three indices (SLDI, MCDI and BSI) were set to discern land/sea, middle/high level clouds and fog/stratus clouds, respectively, from which it was generally easy to extract fog pixels. The remote sensing algorithm was verified using coastal sounding data, which demonstrated that the algorithm had the ability to detect sea fog. The algorithm was then used to monitor an 8-hour sea fog event and the results were consistent with observational data from buoys data deployed near the Sheyang coast (121°E, 34°N). The goal of this study was to establish a daytime sea fog detection algorithm based on GOCI data, which shows promise for detecting fog separately from stratus.

  11. Processing of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fog in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenhauser, Franz S; Khadapkar, Kalindi; Wang, Youliang; Hutchings, James W; Delhomme, Olivier; Kommalapati, Raghava R; Herckes, Pierre; Wornat, Mary J; Valsaraj, Kalliat T

    2012-10-26

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous pollutants in the atmosphere, predominantly known for their toxicity. Although there has been substantial work on the atmospheric degradation of PAH, little is known about how the presence of atmospheric droplets (e.g., a fog cloud) affects the fate of PAH. In order to assess the processing of PAH and their corresponding oxidation products during a fog event, two field-sampling campaigns in Fresno, CA and Davis, CA were conducted. The simultaneous evaluation of concentrations of the PAH and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (OPAC) in the gas phase, particulate matter and fog water droplets before, during and after fog allows for the characterization of transformative and transport processes in a fog cloud. By tracking the ratio of OPAC to PAH in the individual atmospheric phases, two major polycyclic aromatic compounds-processing pathways can be identified: (i) the dissolution of OPAC from particulate matter and (ii) the uptake and oxidation of PAH in the fog water droplets. Wet deposition steadily decreases the pollutant concentration in the fog cloud droplets during a fog event; however, uptake and concentration via evaporative water loss upon the dissipation of a fog cloud cause an increase in the atmospheric pollutant concentration.

  12. Mechanisms of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposit formation in sewer lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; de los Reyes, Francis L; Leming, Michael L; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-09-01

    FOG deposits in sewer systems have recently been shown to be metallic salts of fatty acids. However, the fate and transport of FOG deposit reactant constituents and the complex interactions during the FOG deposit formation process are still largely unknown. In this study, batch tests were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation that lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). We report the first formation of FOG deposits on a concrete surface under laboratory conditions that mimic the formation of deposits in sewer systems. Results showed that calcium, the dominant metal in FOG deposits, can be released from concrete surfaces under low pH conditions and contribute to the formation process. Small amounts of additional oil to grease interceptor effluent substantially facilitated the air/water or pipe surface/water interfacial reaction between free fatty acids and calcium to produce surface FOG deposits. Tests of different fatty acids revealed that more viscous FOG deposit solids were formed on concrete surfaces, and concrete corrosion was accelerated, in the presence of unsaturated FFAs versus saturated FFAs. Based on all the data, a comprehensive model was proposed for the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sewer systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multirule Based Diagnostic Approach for the Fog Predictions Using WRF Modelling Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Payra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of fog onset remains difficult despite the progress in numerical weather prediction. It is a complex process and requires adequate representation of the local perturbations in weather prediction models. It mainly depends upon microphysical and mesoscale processes that act within the boundary layer. This study utilizes a multirule based diagnostic (MRD approach using postprocessing of the model simulations for fog predictions. The empiricism involved in this approach is mainly to bridge the gap between mesoscale and microscale variables, which are related to mechanism of the fog formation. Fog occurrence is a common phenomenon during winter season over Delhi, India, with the passage of the western disturbances across northwestern part of the country accompanied with significant amount of moisture. This study implements the above cited approach for the prediction of occurrences of fog and its onset time over Delhi. For this purpose, a high resolution weather research and forecasting (WRF model is used for fog simulations. The study involves depiction of model validation and postprocessing of the model simulations for MRD approach and its subsequent application to fog predictions. Through this approach model identified foggy and nonfoggy days successfully 94% of the time. Further, the onset of fog events is well captured within an accuracy of 30–90 minutes. This study demonstrates that the multirule based postprocessing approach is a useful and highly promising tool in improving the fog predictions.

  14. Evidence for fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposit formation mechanisms in sewer lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J; de los Reyes, Francis L

    2011-05-15

    The presence of hardened and insoluble fats, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits in sewer lines is a major cause of line blockages leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Despite the central role that FOG deposits play in SSOs, little is known about the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sanitary sewers. In this study, FOG deposits were formed under laboratory conditions from the reaction between free fatty acids and calcium chloride. The calcium and fatty acid profile analysis showed that the laboratory-produced FOG deposit displayed similar characteristics to FOG deposits collected from sanitary sewer lines. Results of FTIR analysis showed that the FOG deposits are metallic salts of fatty acid as revealed by comparisons with FOG deposits collected from sewer lines and pure calcium soaps. Based on the data, we propose that the formation of FOG deposits occurs from the aggregation of excess calcium compressing the double layer of free fatty acid micelles and a saponification reaction between aggregated calcium and free fatty acids.

  15. On the theoretical aspects of improved fog detection and prediction in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sagnik

    2018-04-01

    The polluted Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) in northern India experiences fog (a condition when visibility degrades below 1 km) every winter (Dec-Jan) causing a massive loss of economy and even loss of life due to accidents. This can be minimized by improved fog detection (especially at night) and forecasting so that activities can be reorganized accordingly. Satellites detect fog at night by a positive brightness temperature difference (BTD). However, fixing the right BTD threshold holds the key to accuracy. Here I demonstrate the sensitivity of BTD in response to changes in fog and surface emissivity and their temperatures and justify a new BTD threshold. Further I quantify the dependence of critical fog droplet number concentration, NF (i.e. minimum fog concentration required to degrade visibility below 1 km) on liquid water content (LWC). NF decreases exponentially with an increase in LWC from 0.01 to 1 g/m3, beyond which it stabilizes. A 10 times low bias in simulated LWC below 1 g/m3 would require 107 times higher aerosol concentration to form the required number of fog droplets. These results provide the theoretical aspects that will help improving the existing fog detection algorithm and fog forecasting by numerical models in India.

  16. 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study: Fog measurements in the Northern San Joaquin Valley - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, J. Jr.; Bator, A.; Sherman, D.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Vertical gradients in fog chemistry and physics were measured from a 430 m television broadcast tower in the northern San Joaquin Valley near Walnut Grove, California. Fog was collected on the ground and at two elevations on the tower using Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collectors Version 2 (CASCC2). Work was conducted as part of the 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study (IMS95). Results will be used to evaluate the need to make measurements aloft in future regional studies of fog processing of atmospheric particles and for testing whether vertically resolved fog models provide realistic simulations of fog physics and chemistry above the ground. Two fog/low cloud events were sampled during the tower study. Preliminary results show concentrations of major species in the fogwater typically decreasing with altitude, while liquid water contents increase. Fogwater loadings of major species, the total amount of a species in the aqueous phase per unit air volume, were observed to increase with altitude. Major species concentrations were typically quite stable at a given elevation, while significant decreases were observed over time in liquid water content. Fogwater concentrations of soluble hydroperoxides were highest near the surface and increased with time after sunrise and were observed to coexist in the high pH fog with S(IV). Time lapse video footage of the top of the fog/cloud layer revealed a very dynamic interface, suggesting entrainment of material from the clear air into the fog/cloud may be significant. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Relation between the size of fog droplets and their contact angles with CR39 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosu, G; Andrzejewski, L; Veilleux, G; Ross, G G

    2004-01-01

    The formation of fog on CR39 surfaces has been studied. Water droplets form fog coalesce with time, especially during the first 20 s at the beginning of the formation of fog. Consequently, their mean diameter increases. Formation of fog being related to the wettability of the surfaces, the latter has been increased by the implantation of Ar ions into CR39 surfaces under an oxygen partial pressure. A very wetting CR39 surface with advancing (ACA) and receding (RCA) contact angles below 5 deg. has been obtained with an implantation dose of 1.28x10 17 Ar + cm -2 . In this condition, no formation of fog was observed. Characterization using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has shown that the molecular structure of CR39 is strongly modified by Ar + implantation, which would be responsible for the increase in wettability. Unfortunately, both ACA and RCA increase with time, which is called ageing, and the formation of fog is again observed. The diameter and concentration of water droplets forming fog have been plotted against the contact angle. These plots show that no formation of fog occurs for ACA 15 He + cm -2 and an energy of 2 keV, sufficient to push the ions deeper than the Ar depth profile, delays the ageing effect in such a way that ACA ≅ 40 deg. is reached after ∼2000 h and no formation of fog is observed during these first ∼2000 h

  18. Quantification of Fog Water Collection in Three Locations of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Axel; Regalado, Carlos; Guerra, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of fog water collection obtained with cylindrical fog gauges at three locations on the northern side of Tenerife island (Spain): La Esperanza (1093 m a.s.l.), Taborno (1015 m a.s.l.), and El Gaitero (1747 m a.s.l.). Concomitant meteorological variables were also measured. We show that fog precipitation was more frequent than rainfall. However, the volumes and frequency of daily fog water collection varied among the three studied sites, usually not exceeding 10–40 L d−1/...

  19. Quantification of Fog Water Collection in Three Locations of Tenerife (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Ritter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of fog water collection obtained with cylindrical fog gauges at three locations on the northern side of Tenerife island (Spain: La Esperanza (1093 m a.s.l., Taborno (1015 m a.s.l., and El Gaitero (1747 m a.s.l.. Concomitant meteorological variables were also measured. We show that fog precipitation was more frequent than rainfall. However, the volumes and frequency of daily fog water collection varied among the three studied sites, usually not exceeding 10–40 L d−1/m2 of collecting surface. In La Esperanza, fog water harvesting occurred frequently, but was considerably lower than in the other two locations. However, while in Taborno fog water collection episodes were distributed throughout the period, in El Gaitero these were mainly concentrated in two periods, during autumn and winter 2012–2013. The study of the relationships between daily fog water yields and the averages of meteorological variables did not show any clear trend, but it suggested that the greater volumes of collected fog water were logically associated with higher wind speeds and lower solar radiation conditions. Fog water collection in La Esperanza and in Taborno typically occurred within a similar temperature interval (7.5–12.5 °C, while in El Gaitero the phenomenon was associated with a lower temperature range (2.5–10 °C.

  20. Integration of Local Observations into the One Dimensional Fog Model PAFOG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Christina; Schneider, Werner; Masbou, Matthieu; Bott, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    The numerical prediction of fog requires a very high vertical resolution of the atmosphere. Owing to a prohibitive computational effort of high resolution three dimensional models, operational fog forecast is usually done by means of one dimensional fog models. An important condition for a successful fog forecast with one dimensional models consists of the proper integration of observational data into the numerical simulations. The goal of the present study is to introduce new methods for the consideration of these data in the one dimensional radiation fog model PAFOG. First, it will be shown how PAFOG may be initialized with observed visibilities. Second, a nudging scheme will be presented for the inclusion of measured temperature and humidity profiles in the PAFOG simulations. The new features of PAFOG have been tested by comparing the model results with observations of the German Meteorological Service. A case study will be presented that reveals the importance of including local observations in the model calculations. Numerical results obtained with the modified PAFOG model show a distinct improvement of fog forecasts regarding the times of fog formation, dissipation as well as the vertical extent of the investigated fog events. However, model results also reveal that a further improvement of PAFOG might be possible if several empirical model parameters are optimized. This tuning can only be realized by comprehensive comparisons of model simulations with corresponding fog observations.

  1. Comprehensive characterization of atmospheric organic matter in Fresno, California fog water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Leenheer, Jerry A; Collett, Jeffrey L

    2007-01-15

    Fogwater collected during winter in Fresno (CA) was characterized by isolating several distinct fractions and characterizing them by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. More than 80% of the organic matter in the fogwater was recovered and characterized. The most abundant isolated fractions were those comprised of volatile acids (24% of isolated carbon) and hydrophilic acids plus neutrals (28%). Volatile acids, including formic and acetic acid, have been previously identified as among the most abundant individual species in fogwater. Recovered hydrophobic acids exhibited some properties similar to aquatic fulvic acids. An insoluble particulate organic matter fraction contained a substantial amount of biological material, while hydrophilic and transphilic fractions also contained material suggestive of biotic origin. Together, these fractions illustrate the important contribution biological sources make to organic matter in atmospheric fog droplets. The fogwater also was notable for containing a large amount of organic nitrogen present in a variety of species, including amines, nitrate esters, peptides, and nitroso compounds.

  2. Experimental FSO network availability estimation using interactive fog condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turán, Ján.; Ovseník, Łuboš

    2016-12-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) is a license free Line of Sight (LOS) telecommunication technology which offers full duplex connectivity. FSO uses infrared beams of light to provide optical broadband connection and it can be installed literally in a few hours. Data rates go through from several hundreds of Mb/s to several Gb/s and range is from several 100 m up to several km. FSO link advantages: Easy connection establishment, License free communication, No excavation are needed, Highly secure and safe, Allows through window connectivity and single customer service and Compliments fiber by accelerating the first and last mile. FSO link disadvantages: Transmission media is air, Weather and climate dependence, Attenuation due to rain, snow and fog, Scattering of laser beam, Absorption of laser beam, Building motion and Air pollution. In this paper FSO availability evaluation is based on long term measured data from Fog sensor developed and installed at TUKE experimental FSO network in TUKE campus, Košice, Slovakia. Our FSO experimental network has three links with different physical distances between each FSO heads. Weather conditions have a tremendous impact on FSO operation in terms of FSO availability. FSO link availability is the percentage of time over a year that the FSO link will be operational. It is necessary to evaluate the climate and weather at the actual geographical location where FSO link is going to be mounted. It is important to determine the impact of a light scattering, absorption, turbulence and receiving optical power at the particular FSO link. Visibility has one of the most critical influences on the quality of an FSO optical transmission channel. FSO link availability is usually estimated using visibility information collected from nearby airport weather stations. Raw data from fog sensor (Fog Density, Relative Humidity, Temperature measured at each ms) are collected and processed by FSO Simulator software package developed at our Department. Based

  3. The Potential for Scaling Up a Fog Collection System on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Fessehaye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fog is an untapped natural resource. A number of studies have been undertaken to understand its potential as an alternative or complementary water source. In 2007, a pilot fog-collection project was implemented in 2 villages on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea. The government of Eritrea, buoyed by the project’s positive results, has encouraged research into and application of fog-collection technologies to alleviate water-supply problems in this region. In 2014, this study was undertaken to assess the coverage, prevalence, intensity, and seasonality of fog on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea and consequently to identify potential beneficiary villages. Three independent methods used in the study—satellite image analyses, personal interviews, and a standard fog collector—produced reasonably similar characterizations of fog coverage and timing. The period with high fog incidence is mainly between November and March, with the highest number of fog days per year (96 on the central Eastern Escarpment and decreasing frequency to the south (78 days and north (73 days. The fog intensity on the central Eastern Escarpment is very high and in most cases reduces visibility to less than 500 m. In this period, a light to moderate breeze blows predominantly from the north and northeast. More than half of the villages in the region currently have a reliable water-supply system. The rest depend on seasonal roof-water harvesting, rock-water harvesting, and truck delivery and, therefore, could potentially benefit from fog collection as a supplementary water source. In particular, fog water could be useful for a small number of beneficiaries, including public services like schools and health facilities, where conventional water-delivery systems are not viable.

  4. Forecasting Advective Sea Fog with the Use of Classification and Regression Tree Analyses for Kunsan Air Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    .... To date, there are no suitable methods developed for forecasting advective sea fog at Kunsan, primarily due to a lack of understanding of sea fog formation under various synoptic situations over the Yellow Sea...

  5. A facile strategy for the fabrication of a bioinspired hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned surface for highly efficient fog-harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuchao; Zhang, Lianbin; Wu, Jinbo; Hedhili, Nejib; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Fog water collection represents a meaningful effort in the places where regular water sources, including surface water and ground water, are scarce. Inspired by the amazing fog water collection capability of Stenocara beetles in the Namib Desert

  6. Significant concentration changes of chemical components of PM_1 in the Yangtze River Delta area of China and the implications for the formation mechanism of heavy haze–fog pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, X.Y.; Zhang, Y.M.; Shen, X.J.; Sun, J.Y.; Ma, Q.L.; Yu, X.M.; Zhu, J.L.; Zhang, L.; Che, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Since the winter season of 2013, a number of persistent haze–fog events have occurred in central-eastern China. Continuous measurements of the chemical and physical properties of PM_1 at a regional background station in the Yangtze River Delta area of China from 16 Nov. to 18 Dec., 2013 revealed several haze–fog events, among which a heavy haze–fog event occurred between 6 Dec. and 8 Dec. The mean concentration of PM_1 was 212 μg m"−"3 in the heavy haze–fog period, which was about 10 times higher than on clean days and featured a peak mass concentration that reached 298 μg m"−"3. Organics were the largest contributor to the dramatic rise of PM_1 on heavy haze–fog days (average mass concentration of 86 μg m"−"3), followed by nitrate (58 μg m"−"3), sulfate (35 μg m"−"3), ammonium (29 μg m"−"3), and chloride (4.0 μg m"−"3). Nitrate exhibited the largest increase (~ 20 factors), associated with a significant increase in NO_x. This was mainly attributable to increased coal combustion emissions, relative to motor vehicle emissions, and was caused by short-distance pollutant transport within surrounding areas. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosols (OA) (LV-OOA) and biomass-burning OA (BBOA) also increased sharply on heavy haze–fog days, exhibiting an enhanced oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and increased emissions from biomass burning. The strengthening of the oxidation capacity during the heavy pollution episode, along with lower solar radiation, was probably due to increased biomass burning, which were important precursors of O_3. The prevailing meteorological conditions, including low wind and high relative humidity, and short distance transported gaseous and particulate matter surrounding of the sampling site, coincided with the increased pollutant concentrations mainly from biomass-burning mentioned above to cause the persistent haze–fog event in the YRD area. - Highlights: • Formation mechanism of a heavy haze-fog event

  7. Significant concentration changes of chemical components of PM{sub 1} in the Yangtze River Delta area of China and the implications for the formation mechanism of heavy haze–fog pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.W. [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, X.Y., E-mail: xiaoye@cams.cma.gov.cn [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Y.M.; Shen, X.J. [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Sun, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, Q.L.; Yu, X.M. [Lin' an Regional Air Background Station, Lin' an 311307 (China); Zhu, J.L. [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, L.; Che, H.C. [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Since the winter season of 2013, a number of persistent haze–fog events have occurred in central-eastern China. Continuous measurements of the chemical and physical properties of PM{sub 1} at a regional background station in the Yangtze River Delta area of China from 16 Nov. to 18 Dec., 2013 revealed several haze–fog events, among which a heavy haze–fog event occurred between 6 Dec. and 8 Dec. The mean concentration of PM{sub 1} was 212 μg m{sup −3} in the heavy haze–fog period, which was about 10 times higher than on clean days and featured a peak mass concentration that reached 298 μg m{sup −3}. Organics were the largest contributor to the dramatic rise of PM{sub 1} on heavy haze–fog days (average mass concentration of 86 μg m{sup −3}), followed by nitrate (58 μg m{sup −3}), sulfate (35 μg m{sup −3}), ammonium (29 μg m{sup −3}), and chloride (4.0 μg m{sup −3}). Nitrate exhibited the largest increase (~ 20 factors), associated with a significant increase in NO{sub x}. This was mainly attributable to increased coal combustion emissions, relative to motor vehicle emissions, and was caused by short-distance pollutant transport within surrounding areas. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosols (OA) (LV-OOA) and biomass-burning OA (BBOA) also increased sharply on heavy haze–fog days, exhibiting an enhanced oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and increased emissions from biomass burning. The strengthening of the oxidation capacity during the heavy pollution episode, along with lower solar radiation, was probably due to increased biomass burning, which were important precursors of O{sub 3}. The prevailing meteorological conditions, including low wind and high relative humidity, and short distance transported gaseous and particulate matter surrounding of the sampling site, coincided with the increased pollutant concentrations mainly from biomass-burning mentioned above to cause the persistent haze–fog event in the YRD area. - Highlights

  8. Warm Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-17

    State of Alaska State of Alaska - Warm Mix Project Warm Mix Project: Location - Petersburg, Alaska which is Petersburg, Alaska which is located in the heart of Southeast Alaska located in the heart of Southeast Alaska's Inside Passage at the tip of M...

  9. A Hybrid Scheme for Fine-Grained Search and Access Authorization in Fog Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Xuejiao; Jiang, Mingda

    2017-01-01

    In the fog computing environment, the encrypted sensitive data may be transferred to multiple fog nodes on the edge of a network for low latency; thus, fog nodes need to implement a search over encrypted data as a cloud server. Since the fog nodes tend to provide service for IoT applications often running on resource-constrained end devices, it is necessary to design lightweight solutions. At present, there is little research on this issue. In this paper, we propose a fine-grained owner-forced data search and access authorization scheme spanning user-fog-cloud for resource constrained end users. Compared to existing schemes only supporting either index encryption with search ability or data encryption with fine-grained access control ability, the proposed hybrid scheme supports both abilities simultaneously, and index ciphertext and data ciphertext are constructed based on a single ciphertext-policy attribute based encryption (CP-ABE) primitive and share the same key pair, thus the data access efficiency is significantly improved and the cost of key management is greatly reduced. Moreover, in the proposed scheme, the resource constrained end devices are allowed to rapidly assemble ciphertexts online and securely outsource most of decryption task to fog nodes, and mediated encryption mechanism is also adopted to achieve instantaneous user revocation instead of re-encrypting ciphertexts with many copies in many fog nodes. The security and the performance analysis show that our scheme is suitable for a fog computing environment. PMID:28629131

  10. Analysis of fog effects on terrestrial Free Space optical communication links

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah; Fathallah, Habib; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    the transmitted power will improve the system performance under light fog. However, under heavy fog, the effect is minor. To enhance the system performance under low visibility range, multi-hop link is used which can enhance the power budget by using short

  11. A Hybrid Scheme for Fine-Grained Search and Access Authorization in Fog Computing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Xuejiao; Jiang, Mingda

    2017-06-17

    In the fog computing environment, the encrypted sensitive data may be transferred to multiple fog nodes on the edge of a network for low latency; thus, fog nodes need to implement a search over encrypted data as a cloud server. Since the fog nodes tend to provide service for IoT applications often running on resource-constrained end devices, it is necessary to design lightweight solutions. At present, there is little research on this issue. In this paper, we propose a fine-grained owner-forced data search and access authorization scheme spanning user-fog-cloud for resource constrained end users. Compared to existing schemes only supporting either index encryption with search ability or data encryption with fine-grained access control ability, the proposed hybrid scheme supports both abilities simultaneously, and index ciphertext and data ciphertext are constructed based on a single ciphertext-policy attribute based encryption (CP-ABE) primitive and share the same key pair, thus the data access efficiency is significantly improved and the cost of key management is greatly reduced. Moreover, in the proposed scheme, the resource constrained end devices are allowed to rapidly assemble ciphertexts online and securely outsource most of decryption task to fog nodes, and mediated encryption mechanism is also adopted to achieve instantaneous user revocation instead of re-encrypting ciphertexts with many copies in many fog nodes. The security and the performance analysis show that our scheme is suitable for a fog computing environment.

  12. Asymmetric ratchet effect for directional transport of fog drops on static and dynamic butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Ju, Jie; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei

    2014-02-25

    Inspired by novel creatures, researchers have developed varieties of fog drop transport systems and made significant contributions to the fields of heat transferring, water collecting, antifogging, and so on. Up to now, most of the efforts in directional fog drop transport have been focused on static surfaces. Considering it is not practical to keep surfaces still all the time in reality, conducting investigations on surfaces that can transport fog drops in both static and dynamic states has become more and more important. Here we report the wings of Morpho deidamia butterflies can directionally transport fog drops in both static and dynamic states. This directional drop transport ability results from the micro/nano ratchet-like structure of butterfly wings: the surface of butterfly wings is composed of overlapped scales, and the scales are covered with porous asymmetric ridges. Influenced by this special structure, fog drops on static wings are transported directionally as a result of the fog drops' asymmetric growth and coalescence. Fog drops on vibrating wings are propelled directionally due to the fog drops' asymmetric dewetting from the wings.

  13. Characterization of mineral particles in winter fog of Beijing analyzed by TEM and SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijun; Shao, Longyi

    2010-02-01

    Aerosol samples were collected during winter fog and nonfog episodes in Beijing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study morphologies, sizes, and compositions of aerosol particles. TEM observation indicates that most mineral particles collected in fog episode are scavenged in fog droplets. Number-size distributions of mineral particles collected in fog and nonfog episodes show two main peaks at the ranges of 0.1-0.3 and 1-2.5 microm, respectively. Based on their major compositions, mineral particles mainly include Si-rich, Ca-rich, and S-rich. Average S/Ca ratio of mineral particles collected in fog episode is 6.11, being eight times higher than that in nonfog episodes. Development mechanism of individual mineral particles in fog droplets is proposed. It is suggested that mineral particles with abundant alkaline components (e.g., "Ca-rich" particles) occurred in air should alleviate acidic degree of fog and contribute to complexity of fog droplets in Beijing.

  14. Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Chen, Yajun; Zhang, Labao; Jia, Xiaoqing; Feng, Zhijun; Wu, Ganhua; Yan, Xiachao; Zhai, Jiquan; Wu, Yang; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Chi; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2017-11-08

    The monitor of sea fogs become more important with the rapid development of marine activities. Remote sensing through laser is an effective tool for monitoring sea fogs, but still challengeable for large distance. We demonstrated a Long-distance Lidar for sea fog with superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD), which extended the ranging area to a 180-km diameter area. The system, which was verified by using a benchmark distance measurement of a known island, is applied to the Mie scattering weather prediction Lidar system. The fog echo signal distribution in the range of 42.3∼63.5 km and 53.2∼74.2 km was obtained by the Lidar system. Then the fog concentration and the velocity of the fog were deduced from the distribution, which is consistent with the weather prediction. The height of the sea fog is about two hundred meter while the visibility at this height is about 90 km due to the Earth's radius of curvature. Therefore, the capability of this SNSPD-based Lidar was close to the theoretical limit for sea fog measurements for extremely high signal-to-noise ratio of SNSPD.

  15. Evaluation of fog predictions and detection, Phase 2 : draft final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    On January 29, 2012 at about 4:00 am a thick fog and smoke caused a multiple car crash just south of Gainesville, Florida. 11 people were killed and 18 were hospitalized. Nationally there are about 38,000 fog related accidents which result in about 6...

  16. Fog and soil weathering as sources of nutrients in a California redwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly A. Ewing; Kathleen C. Weathers; Amanda M. Lindsey; Pamela H. Templer; Todd E. Dawson; Damon C. Bradbury; Mary K. Firestone; Vanessa K.S. Boukili

    2012-01-01

    Fog water deposition is thought to influence the ecological function of many coastal ecosystems, including coast redwood forests. We examined cation and anion inputs from fog and rain, as well as the fate of these inputs, within a Sonoma County, California, coast redwood forest to elucidate the availability of these ions and some of the biotic and abiotic processes...

  17. The Challenge of Forecasting the Onset and Development of Radiation Fog Using Mesoscale Atmospheric Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Ronda, R.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The numerical weather prediction of radiation fog is challenging, as many models typically show large biases for the timing of the onset and dispersal of the fog, as well as for its depth and liquid water content. To understand the role of physical processes, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land-surface

  18. Characteristics of fog and fogwater fluxes in a Puerto Rican elfin cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eugster, W.; Burkard, R.; Holwerda, F.; Scatena, F.N.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Luquillo Mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico harbours important fractions of tropical montane cloud forests. Although it is well known that the frequent occurrence of dense fog is a common climatic characteristic of cloud forests around the world, it is poorly understood how fog processes

  19. 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study: Fog measurements in the Southern San Joaquin Valley - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, J. Jr.; Bator, A.; Sherman, D.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Fogs were sampled at three ground-based stations in the southern portion of California`s San Joaquin Valley as part of the winter component of the 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study (IMS95). The three sampling sites included two urban locations (Bakersfield and Fresno) and one rural location (near the Kern Wildlife Refuge). Both bulk and drop size-fractionated samples were collected at each site. Several fog events were sampled, with three periods of extensive fog coverage that included all three sampling sites. Results of preliminary data analysis are presented. Fog collected at the sites was generally quite basic. Most bulk fog samples had pH values above 6 reflecting strong inputs from ammonia. Occasional strong sulfur plumes at Bakersfield, however, tended to lower the fog pH. Aside from these periods, nitrate was generally present at much higher concentrations in the fog than sulfate. Decreases in fogwater loadings of major species over the course of one extended fog episode at Fresno suggest significant deposition was occurring to the surface, consistent with observations of substantial droplet fluxes to exposed surfaces during that period. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Cloud and fog computing in 5G mobile networks emerging advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Markakis, Evangelos; Mavromoustakis, Constandinos X; Pallis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the challenges and solutions related to cloud and fog computing for 5G mobile networks, and presents novel approaches to the frameworks and schemes that carry out storage, communication, computation and control in the fog/cloud paradigm.

  1. The lightning striking probability for offshore wind turbine blade with salt fog contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingmin; Ma, Yufei; Guo, Zixin; Ren, Hanwen; Wang, Guozheng; Arif, Waqas; Fang, Zhiyang; Siew, Wah Hoon

    2017-08-01

    The blades of an offshore wind turbine are prone to be adhered with salt fog after long-time exposure in the marine-atmosphere environment, and salt fog reduces the efficiency of the lightning protection system. In order to study the influence of salt fog on lightning striking probability (LSP), the lightning discharge process model for the wind turbine blade is adopted in this paper considering the accumulation mechanism of surface charges around the salt fog area. The distribution of potential and electric field with the development of the downward leader is calculated by COMSOL Multiphysics LiveLink for MATLAB. A quantitative characterization method is established to calculate the LSP base on the average electric field before the return stroke and the LSP distribution of the blade is shown in the form of a graphic view. The simulation results indicate that the receptor and conductor area close to the receptor area are more likely to get struck by lightning, and the LSP increases under the influence of salt fog. The validity of the model is verified by experiments. Furthermore, the receptor can protect the blade from lightning strikes effectively when the lateral distance between the rod electrode and receptor is short. The influence of salt fog on LSP is more obvious if salt fog is close to the receptor or if the scope of salt fog area increases.

  2. FOG-2 mediated recruitment of the NuRD complex regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation during heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnatz, Audrey S; Gao, Zhiguang; Broman, Michael; Martens, Spencer; Earley, Judy U; Svensson, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    FOG-2 is a multi-zinc finger protein that binds the transcriptional activator GATA4 and modulates GATA4-mediated regulation of target genes during heart development. Our previous work has demonstrated that the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex physically interacts with FOG-2 and is necessary for FOG-2 mediated repression of GATA4 activity in vitro. However, the relevance of this interaction for FOG-2 function in vivo has remained unclear. In this report, we demonstrate the importance of FOG-2/NuRD interaction through the generation and characterization of mice homozygous for a mutation in FOG-2 that disrupts NuRD binding (FOG-2(R3K5A)). These mice exhibit a perinatal lethality and have multiple cardiac malformations, including ventricular and atrial septal defects and a thin ventricular myocardium. To investigate the etiology of the thin myocardium, we measured the rate of cardiomyocyte proliferation in wild-type and FOG-2(R3K5A) developing hearts. We found cardiomyocyte proliferation was reduced by 31±8% in FOG-2(R3K5A) mice. Gene expression analysis indicated that the cell cycle inhibitor Cdkn1a (p21(cip1)) is up-regulated 2.0±0.2-fold in FOG-2(R3K5A) hearts. In addition, we demonstrate that FOG-2 can directly repress the activity of the Cdkn1a gene promoter, suggesting a model by which FOG-2/NuRD promotes ventricular wall thickening by repression of this cell cycle inhibitor. Consistent with this notion, the genetic ablation of Cdkn1a in FOG-2(R3K5A) mice leads to an improvement in left ventricular function and a partial rescue of left ventricular wall thickness. Taken together, our results define a novel mechanism in which FOG-2/NuRD interaction is required for cardiomyocyte proliferation by directly down-regulating the cell cycle inhibitor Cdkn1a during heart development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. THE RESEARCH ON THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEA FOG BASED ON CALIOP AND MODIS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of that difficulty of distinguish between sea fog and low cloud by optical remote sensing mean, the research on spectral characteristics of sea fog is focused and carried out。The satellite laser radar CALIOP data and the high spectral MODIS data were obtained from May to December 2017, and the scattering coefficient and the vertical height information were extracted from the atmospheric attenuation of the lower star to extract the sea fog sample points, and the spectral response curve based on MODIS was formed to analyse the spectral response characteristics of the sea fog, thus providing a theoretical basis for the monitoring of sea fog with optical remote sensing image.

  4. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure-function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies.

  5. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure–function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies. PMID:23212376

  6. Fog and Cloud Induced Aerosol Modification Observed by AERONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas, M. A.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C. J.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, G. T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Large fine mode (sub-micron radius) dominated aerosols in size distributions retrieved from AERONET have been observed after fog or low-altitude cloud dissipation events. These column-integrated size distributions have been obtained at several sites in many regions of the world, typically after evaporation of low altitude cloud such as stratocumulus or fog. Retrievals with cloud processed aerosol are sometimes bimodal in the accumulation mode with the larger size mode often approx.0.4 - 0.5 microns radius (volume distribution); the smaller mode typically approx.0.12 to aprrox.0.20 microns may be interstitial aerosol that were not modified by incorporation in droplets and/or aerosol that are less hygroscopic in nature. Bimodal accumulation mode size distributions have often been observed from in situ measurements of aerosols that have interacted with clouds, and AERONET size distribution retrievals made after dissipation of cloud or fog are in good agreement with particle sizes measured by in situ techniques for cloud-processed aerosols. Aerosols of this type and large size range (in lower concentrations) may also be formed by cloud processing in partly cloudy conditions and may contribute to the shoulder of larger size particles in the accumulation mode retrievals, especially in regions where sulfate and other soluble aerosol are a significant component of the total aerosol composition. Observed trends of increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD) as fine mode radius increased suggests higher AOD in the near cloud environment and therefore greater aerosol direct radiative forcing than typically obtained from remote sensing, due to bias towards sampling at low cloud fraction.

  7. Baby Shampoo versus Commercial Anti-fogging Solution to Prevent Fogging during Nasal Endoscopy: A Randomized Double-Blinded, Matched-Pair, Equivalent Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainansamit, Seksun; Piromchai, Patorn; Anantpinijwatna, Intira; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak

    2015-08-01

    To compare the minimization of the fog condensation during nasal endoscopy between a commercial anti-fogging agent and baby shampoo. This randomized double-blinded matched pair study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University during February 4, 2013 to March 14, 2013. The commercial anti-fogging solution (Ultrastop®) and baby shampoo solution (Johnson's® no more tear®) were compared. A computer generated randomization was performed to select the solution applying on the lens for nasal endoscopy of the right nasal cavity. The other solution was then used for the left one. Three passes of endoscopy were performed to examine the floor of the nose, the sphenoethmoidal recess and the middle meatus area which spent about 30 seconds for each time of endoscopy. The time to become foggy on the lens and the preferred solution assessed by the endoscopists were recorded. There were 71 eligible patients recruited in the study, 37 males (52.1%) and 34 females (47.9%). There was no fogging during a 30-second nasal endoscopy either by baby shampoo or commercial anti-fogging solution. However, 9.86% (95% C12.75-16.97) of endoscopists preferred commercial anti-fogging agent, 7.04% (95% CI 0.94-13.14) preferred baby shampoo and 83.10% (95% CI 74.16-92.03) had equal satisfaction. Both agents had no statistically significant difference for preventing foggy on the lens. Baby shampoo is an effective agent to prevent fogging during nasal endoscopy and comparable with the commercial anti-fogging agent.

  8. The Chemical Composition of Fogs and Clouds in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, James William

    Fog and clouds are frequent occurrences in Southern California. Their chemical composition is of interest due to their potential role in the transformation of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to sulfuric and nitric acid and in the subsequent deposition of those acids. In addition, cloud and fog droplets may be involved in the chemistry of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds. The major inorganic species in cloud and fogwater samples were NH_4^+, H ^+, NO_3^-, and SO_4^{2-}. Concentrations in fogwater samples were 1-10 times 10^ {-3} M; pH values ranged from ~eq2 to 6. Nitrate usually exceeded sulfate. Acidity depended on the availability of of NH_3 from agricultural operations. Stratus cloudwater had somewhat lower concentrations; pH values were in the range 3-4. The major factors accounting for variation in fog- or cloudwater composition were the preexisting aerosol and gas concentrations and variations in liquid water content. Deposition and entrainment or advection of different air masses were also important during extended cloud or fog episodes. The droplet size dependence of cloudwater composition was investigated on one occasion in an intercepted coastal stratus clouds. The observations were consistent with the hypothesis that small droplets form on small secondary aerosol composed of H_2SO _4, HNO_3, and their NH_4^+ salts, while large droplets form on large sea-salt and soil-dust aerosol. Species that can exist in the gas phase, such as HCl and HNO _3, may be found in either droplet-size fraction. Concentrations of S(IV) and CH_2 O in the range 100-1000 μm were observed in fogwater from urban sites in Southern California. Lower concentrations were observed in stratus clouds. The high levels of S(IV) and CH_2 O were attributed to the formation of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMSA), the S(IV) adduct of CH_2O. Direct measurement of HMSA in fogwater samples from Bakersfield, CA were made by ion-pairing chromatography. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal

  9. Attenuation of Electromagnetic Radiation by Haze, Fog, Clouds, and Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    transmission data of Gebbie etal,(3 Gibbons (27) suggests that ai = 0.7 in the wavelength range from 0.61 to 11.48 pim regardless of the meteorological...attenuation at 10 Um becomes 10 to 100 times smaller than at 0.5 jim. It can be also observed that the 8 to 12 pm band is preferable to the 3 to 5 pim ...Water Aerosols and Fog-," Arl. ¢ Ott ., Vol. 9, 1970, pp. 2000-2006. 33. Gebbie, If. A., ot al., "Atmospheric Transmission in the 1 to 14P Region," Pro

  10. fog-2 and the evolution of self-fertile hermaphroditism in Caenorhabditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Nayak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic and germline sex determination pathways have diverged significantly in animals, making comparisons between taxa difficult. To overcome this difficulty, we compared the genes in the germline sex determination pathways of Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae, two Caenorhabditis species with similar reproductive systems and sequenced genomes. We demonstrate that C. briggsae has orthologs of all known C. elegans sex determination genes with one exception: fog-2. Hermaphroditic nematodes are essentially females that produce sperm early in life, which they use for self fertilization. In C. elegans, this brief period of spermatogenesis requires FOG-2 and the RNA-binding protein GLD-1, which together repress translation of the tra-2 mRNA. FOG-2 is part of a large C. elegans FOG-2-related protein family defined by the presence of an F-box and Duf38/FOG-2 homogy domain. A fog-2-related gene family is also present in C. briggsae, however, the branch containing fog-2 appears to have arisen relatively recently in C. elegans, post-speciation. The C-terminus of FOG-2 is rapidly evolving, is required for GLD-1 interaction, and is likely critical for the role of FOG-2 in sex determination. In addition, C. briggsae gld-1 appears to play the opposite role in sex determination (promoting the female fate while maintaining conserved roles in meiotic progression during oogenesis. Our data indicate that the regulation of the hermaphrodite germline sex determination pathway at the level of FOG-2/GLD-1/tra-2 mRNA is fundamentally different between C. elegans and C. briggsae, providing functional evidence in support of the independent evolution of self-fertile hermaphroditism. We speculate on the convergent evolution of hermaphroditism in Caenorhabditis based on the plasticity of the C. elegans germline sex determination cascade, in which multiple mutant paths yield self fertility.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Persistent Winter Fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, S.; Adhikary, B.; Praveen, P. S.; Panday, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    Every winter the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia; bounded by the great Himalayas in the north, are periodically covered by dense and persistent fog that severely impacts day-to-day activities of several hundred million people. The fog can stretch over several hundred kilometers and last several days in many locations. Despite the fog's high impact, there are very limited in-situ observations available to characterize persistent fog episodes. Also, there has been very little success to date in accurately predicting the fog occurrence and extent over a larger area such as IGP. This study will present insights into the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulating persistent winter fog prediction in the IGP region, compared to satellite observations and in-situ measurements. Since fog is not a prognostic variable in WRF, the study presents results based on multi-rule diagnostic algorithms published in peer reviewed journals. In addition, fog episodes were analyzed using the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) diagnostics package available for WRF. On a regional scale, MODIS data onboard the TERRA and AQUA satellites are used to evaluate model performance skills. At a local scale, the model is evaluated at two sites in the southern Nepal, Lumbini and Chitwan, located in the IGP. Lumbini and Chitwan observatories have Luftt and Biral weather sensors which allow monitoring presence of fog, visibility range and surface meteorology. In addition, for Chitwan, data from DMT Fog Monitor (FM 120) and Luftt CHM 15K Ceilometer were used to compare model performance for liquid-water content and planetary boundary layer during foggy and non-foggy days.

  12. What is brain fog? An evaluation of the symptom in postural tachycardia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amanda J; Medow, Marvin S; Rowe, Peter C; Stewart, Julian M

    2013-12-01

    Adolescents with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) often experience ill-defined cognitive impairment referred to by patients as "brain fog." The objective of this study was to evaluate the symptom of brain fog as a means of gaining further insight into its etiology and potential palliative interventions. Eligible subjects who reported having been diagnosed with POTS were recruited from social media web sites. Subjects were asked to complete a 38-item questionnaire designed for this study, and the Wood mental fatigue inventory (WMFI). Responses were received from 138 subjects with POTS (88 % female), ranging in age from 14 to 29 years; 132 subjects reported brain fog. WMFI scores correlated with brain fog frequency and severity (P fog were "forgetful," "cloudy," and "difficulty focusing, thinking and communicating." The most frequently reported brain fog triggers were fatigue (91 %), lack of sleep (90 %), prolonged standing (87 %), dehydration (86 %), and feeling faint (85 %). Although aggravated by upright posture, brain fog was reported to persist after assuming a recumbent posture. The most frequently reported interventions for the treatment of brain fog were intravenous saline (77 %), stimulant medications (67 %), salt tablets (54 %), intra-muscular vitamin B-12 injections (48 %), and midodrine (45 %). Descriptors for "brain fog" are most consistent with it being a cognitive complaint. Factors other than upright posture may play a role in the persistence of this symptom. Subjects reported a number of therapeutic interventions for brain fog not typically used in the treatment of POTS that may warrant further investigation.

  13. Exploring Fog Water Harvesting Potential and Quality in the Asir Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhidasan, P.; Abualhamayel, H. I.

    2012-05-01

    During the last decade, the exploitation of the existing water resources in the Asir region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has considerably increased due to both the decrease in annual precipitation and the added population pressures from the growing tourist industry. To face the conventional water shortage, attention has been mainly focused on desalination of water. To save the region from severe water shortage, additional new water sources that are low-cost and renewable must be identified. There exists an alternative source of water such as fog water harvesting. Fog forms in the Asir Region more frequently between December and February compared to the other months of the year. This paper presents the study of the climatic conditions in the Asir region of the Kingdom to identify the most suitable location for fog water collection as well as design and testing of two large fog collectors (LFCs) of size 40 m2 along with standard fog collectors (SFCs) of 1 m2 in that region. During the period from 27 December 2009 to 9 March 2010, a total of 3,128.4 and 2,562.4 L of fog water were collected by the LFC at two sites in the Al-Sooda area of the Asir region, near Abha. Experimental results indicate that fog water collection can be combined with rain water harvesting systems to increase water yield during the rainy season. The quality of the collected fog water was analyzed and compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards and found to be potable. An economic analysis was carried out for the proposed method of obtaining fresh water from the fog. The study suggests a clear tendency that in terms of both quality and magnitude of yield, fog is a viable source of water and can be successfully used to supplement water supplies in the Asir region of the Kingdom.

  14. Coastal Fog As a System: Defining an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    Fog is a graphic and charismatic phenomenon that is commonplace in coastal geographies around the globe. Some of the first concerns about fog and human health arose over 50 years ago in foggy cities around the world, such as London and Los Angeles, where thousands of excess deaths have been attributed to the presence of acidic fog particles. Further, the mere presence of fog also results in airplane, ship, and automobile traffic delays and accidents, especially in coastal areas. In many Pacific coastal systems, fog is the primary--sometimes the only--source of water, it is a fundamental moderator of local and regional climate, and it influences productivity of near-coast ecosystems. In recent years fog has been identified as a vector for limiting nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus), pollutants (e.g., mercury), and microbes (including human pathogens), all of whose origin is thought to be biologically controlled in the ocean. Researchers have also started inquiring into the importance of fog in modulating weather as well as local, regional and, global climate dynamics. However, from its formation in marine systems to deposition in terrestrial systems, understanding the fog system is an intellectual and interdisciplinary challenge that, to date, has gone unmet. This is in part because the fog system is complex: it involves feedbacks and coupling between physical, chemical, and biological systems in the ocean, atmosphere, and near-coast terrestrial systems. In addition, its formation is the result of global processes, yet its distribution as well as its impacts are local, and extremely spatially and temporally heterogeneous within and across landscapes. Here we describe a systems approach and framework for understanding the controls on fog formation as well as feedbacks to its formation, dissipation, distribution, flows, and stocks or pools. In addition, an interdisciplinary research agenda for coastal fog as a system will be described based on the outcome of a

  15. Regional deposition of inhaled fog droplets: preliminary observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowes, S.M. III; Laube, B.L.; Links, J.M.; Frank, R.

    1989-01-01

    The regional deposition of a monodisperse 10-micron mass median aerodynamic diameter fog was studied in four healthy adult male nonsmokers. The fog was radiolabeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid to enable detection by an Anger camera of deposited activity in the following regions of the respiratory tract: oropharynx, larynx, trachea, and intrapulmonary airways. Intrapulmonary deposition was further analyzed by computer with inner, intermediate, and outer zones, and within apical, intermediate and basal zones of the right lung. The radiolabeled aerosol was inhaled by mouth through a face-mask with the nasal airway occluded. Respiratory frequency, tidal volume, and jaw position were controlled and were commensurate with the oral component of oronasal breathing during moderate exercise. Deposition in the larynx, trachea, and intrapulmonary airways was a function of the scrubbing efficiency of the oropharynx, which differed substantially among subjects, and ranged from 72 to 99%. The density of the aerosol deposit in the larynx probably exceeded that of any of the subdivisions of the tracheobronchial tree and lung. Within the lung, deposition favored the inner zone (assumed to contain the larger airways) over the outer zone (assumed to be dominated by smaller airways and alveoli). Intrapulmonary aerosol distribution in an elderly subject with borderline evidence of airway obstruction differed from that observed in younger subjects. The possible consequences of altered lung elastic recoil, as may occur with aging, for regional dosimetry is discussed

  16. Standard practice for modified salt spray (fog) testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers and sets forth conditions for five modifications in salt spray (fog) testing for specification purposes. These are in chronological order of their development: 1.1.1 Annex A1, acetic acid-salt spray test, continuous. 1.1.2 Annex A2, cyclic acidified salt spray test. 1.1.3 Annex A3, seawater acidified test, cyclic (SWAAT). 1.1.4 Annex A4, SO2 salt spray test, cyclic. 1.1.5 Annex A5, dilute electrolyte cyclic fog dry test. 1.2 This practice does not prescribe the type of modification, test specimen or exposure periods to be used for a specific product, nor the interpretation to be given to the results. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicabilit...

  17. Global Warming: A Myth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Global Warming: A Myth? - Credibility of Climate Scenarios Predicted by Systems Simulations. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 13-21 ...

  18. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  19. The effect of medication and the role of postural instability in different components of freezing of gait (FOG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel, Julie; Bronte-Stewart, Helen

    2014-04-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is associated with gait asymmetry and arrhythmicity, cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the role of postural instability (PI) in and the effect of dopaminergic medication (meds) on FOG are unclear. We investigated the effect of meds on FOG using a validated metric, Stepping in Place (SIP) and the relationship between PI and FOG. We assessed static posturography (off meds), SIP, UPDRS-III (off/on meds) and the FOG-questionnaire (FOG-Q) in 15 freezers/15 non-freezers and 14 healthy controls. UPDRS-III, rigidity, tremor (P FOG-Q was correlated with CoP anteroposterior displacement and mediolateral VCoP (R = 0.42; R = 0.40, P FOG frequency and duration but not of gait asymmetry and arrhythmicity on meds suggests that both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic networks contribute to FOG. The correlations between postural instability and FOG severity and SIP asymmetry on meds, suggest that as the disease progresses, postural instability interferes with gait symmetry and lead to on meds FOG and falls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global warming yearbook: 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arris, L. [ed.

    1999-02-01

    The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

  1. Media Pembelajaran Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Tham, Fikri Jufri; Liliana, Liliana; Purba, Kristo Radion

    2016-01-01

    Computer based learning media is one of the media has an important role in learning. Learning media will be attractive when packaged through interactive media , such as interactive media created in paper manufacture " instructional media global warming" . The advantage gained is that it can increase knowledge, generally educate people to be more concerned about the environment , and also can be a means of entertainment. This application is focused to learn about global warming and packaged in...

  2. Refrigeration and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Some aspects of global warming in general, and the implications for refrigerants and refrigerator efficiency in particular, are briefly considered in a question and answer format. The concepts of Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) are explained. GWP is an index which allows a simple comparison to be make between the warming effects of different gases on a kg to kg basis relative to carbon. The GWP depends both on the lifetime of a substance in the atmosphere and its infra-red absorption capacity. The overall warming effect of operating a refrigeration system for its entire life is measured by its TEWI. Chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) which have been widely used as refrigerants are powerful greenhouse gases with high GWPs. Because of the bank of CFCs in refrigerating systems, their levels in the atmosphere are still increasing and it will be some time before refrigerant changes will be effective in reducing the warming effects of refrigerant releases. Hydrocarbons, hydroflourocarbons and ammonia all have a part to play as substitute refrigerants. Refrigerator efficiency is very important in terms of reducing CO 2 emissions. (UK)

  3. A Secure and Privacy-Preserving Navigation Scheme Using Spatial Crowdsourcing in Fog-Based VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Liu, Guozhu; Sun, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Fog-based VANETs (Vehicular ad hoc networks) is a new paradigm of vehicular ad hoc networks with the advantages of both vehicular cloud and fog computing. Real-time navigation schemes based on fog-based VANETs can promote the scheme performance efficiently. In this paper, we propose a secure and privacy-preserving navigation scheme by using vehicular spatial crowdsourcing based on fog-based VANETs. Fog nodes are used to generate and release the crowdsourcing tasks, and cooperatively find the optimal route according to the real-time traffic information collected by vehicles in their coverage areas. Meanwhile, the vehicle performing the crowdsourcing task can get a reasonable reward. The querying vehicle can retrieve the navigation results from each fog node successively when entering its coverage area, and follow the optimal route to the next fog node until it reaches the desired destination. Our scheme fulfills the security and privacy requirements of authentication, confidentiality and conditional privacy preservation. Some cryptographic primitives, including the Elgamal encryption algorithm, AES, randomized anonymous credentials and group signatures, are adopted to achieve this goal. Finally, we analyze the security and the efficiency of the proposed scheme. PMID:28338620

  4. A Secure and Privacy-Preserving Navigation Scheme Using Spatial Crowdsourcing in Fog-Based VANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Liu, Guozhu; Sun, Lijun

    2017-03-24

    Fog-based VANETs (Vehicular ad hoc networks) is a new paradigm of vehicular ad hoc networks with the advantages of both vehicular cloud and fog computing. Real-time navigation schemes based on fog-based VANETs can promote the scheme performance efficiently. In this paper, we propose a secure and privacy-preserving navigation scheme by using vehicular spatial crowdsourcing based on fog-based VANETs. Fog nodes are used to generate and release the crowdsourcing tasks, and cooperatively find the optimal route according to the real-time traffic information collected by vehicles in their coverage areas. Meanwhile, the vehicle performing the crowdsourcing task can get a reasonable reward. The querying vehicle can retrieve the navigation results from each fog node successively when entering its coverage area, and follow the optimal route to the next fog node until it reaches the desired destination. Our scheme fulfills the security and privacy requirements of authentication, confidentiality and conditional privacy preservation. Some cryptographic primitives, including the Elgamal encryption algorithm, AES, randomized anonymous credentials and group signatures, are adopted to achieve this goal. Finally, we analyze the security and the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  5. The LXCXE Retinoblastoma Protein-Binding Motif of FOG-2 Regulates Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupille, Olivier; Penglong, Tipparat; Kadri, Zahra; Granger-Locatelli, Marine; Denis, Raphaël; Luquet, Serge; Badoual, Cécile; Fucharoen, Suthat; Maouche-Chrétien, Leila; Leboulch, Philippe; Chrétien, Stany

    2017-12-19

    GATA transcription factors and their FOG cofactors play a key role in tissue-specific development and differentiation, from worms to humans. Mammals have six GATA and two FOG factors. We recently demonstrated that interactions between retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and GATA-1 are crucial for erythroid proliferation and differentiation. We show here that the LXCXE pRb-binding site of FOG-2 is involved in adipogenesis. Unlike GATA-1, which inhibits cell division, FOG-2 promotes proliferation. Mice with a knockin of a Fog2 gene bearing a mutated LXCXE pRb-binding site are resistant to obesity and display higher rates of white-to-brown fat conversion. Thus, each component of the GATA/FOG complex (GATA-1 and FOG-2) is involved in pRb/E2F regulation, but these molecules have markedly different roles in the control of tissue homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fog Computing: An Overview of Big IoT Data Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan Anawar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A huge amount of data, generated by Internet of Things (IoT, is growing up exponentially based on nonstop operational states. Those IoT devices are generating an avalanche of information that is disruptive for predictable data processing and analytics functionality, which is perfectly handled by the cloud before explosion growth of IoT. Fog computing structure confronts those disruptions, with powerful complement functionality of cloud framework, based on deployment of micro clouds (fog nodes at proximity edge of data sources. Particularly big IoT data analytics by fog computing structure is on emerging phase and requires extensive research to produce more proficient knowledge and smart decisions. This survey summarizes the fog challenges and opportunities in the context of big IoT data analytics on fog networking. In addition, it emphasizes that the key characteristics in some proposed research works make the fog computing a suitable platform for new proliferating IoT devices, services, and applications. Most significant fog applications (e.g., health care monitoring, smart cities, connected vehicles, and smart grid will be discussed here to create a well-organized green computing paradigm to support the next generation of IoT applications.

  7. CHEMIFOGV - A Model to Simulate Radiation Fogs and their Interaction with Vegetation and Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterrath, Tanja; Bott, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    Radiation fog is an important modifier of atmospheric compounds in the planetary boundary layer. In vegetated areas effects are especially pronounced due to the enlarged surface area. Besides affecting the lower boundary of atmospheric models fog acts as a multi-phase reaction chamber leading to acid deposition. Here we present the 1-dimensional radiation fog modelCHEMIFOG V to simulate regional radiation fog events. The key feature of the fog model is the detailed microphysics, where the aerosol/droplet spectrum is described with a joint 2-dimensional distribution, but also the dynamics, thermodynamics, and radiative transfer are calculated. To investigate the interaction between fog and the biosphere a multi-layer vegetation module, including a soil module as well as a dry deposition module were coupled. Vegetation influences the dynamics, thermodynamics, and the radiation field of the lowest atmospheric layers. With CHEMIFOG V , numerical case studies on dry and moist deposition processes on vegetation surfaces were performed. Hereby multi-phase chemistry and the processing of aerosols were considered. The results show that the chemical composition of the deposited fog droplets is mainly determined by the aerosol composition. Dry deposition fluxes are dependent on the incoming radiation and the leaves' surface conditions with respect to water coverage.Due to chemical aerosol processing and deposition, the aerosol spectrum is significantly modified in the planetary boundary layer

  8. Fog Collection on Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Fibers: Influence of Cross Section and Surface Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Krause, Tobias; Danter, Leon; Baars, Albert; Koch, Kerstin; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2017-06-06

    Fog-collecting meshes show a great potential in ensuring the availability of a supply of sustainable freshwater in certain arid regions. In most cases, the meshes are made of hydrophilic smooth fibers. Based on the study of plant surfaces, we analyzed the fog collection using various polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers with different cross sections and surface structures with the aim of developing optimized biomimetic fog collectors. Water droplet movement and the onset of dripping from fiber samples were compared. Fibers with round, oval, and rectangular cross sections with round edges showed higher fog-collection performance than those with other cross sections. However, other parameters, for example, width, surface structure, wettability, and so forth, also influenced the performance. The directional delivery of the collected fog droplets by wavy/v-shaped microgrooves on the surface of the fibers enhances the formation of a water film and their fog collection. A numerical simulation of the water droplet spreading behavior strongly supports these findings. Therefore, our study suggests the use of fibers with a round cross section, a microgrooved surface, and an optimized width for an efficient fog collection.

  9. Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Cooperative Janus System for Enhancement of Fog Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Moyuan; Xiao, Jiasheng; Yu, Cunming; Li, Kan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-09-09

    Harvesting micro-droplets from fog is a promising method for solving global freshwater crisis. Different types of fog collectors have been extensively reported during the last decade. The improvement of fog collection can be attributed to the immediate transportation of harvested water, the effective regeneration of the fog gathering surface, etc. Through learning from the nature's strategy for water preservation, the hydrophobic/hydrophilic cooperative Janus system that achieved reinforced fog collection ability is reported here. Directional delivery of the surface water, decreased re-evaporation rate of the harvested water, and thinner boundary layer of the collecting surface contribute to the enhancement of collection efficiency. Further designed cylinder Janus collector can facilely achieve a continuous process of efficient collection, directional transportation, and spontaneous preservation of fog water. This Janus fog harvesting system should improve the understanding of micro-droplet collection system and offer ideas to solve water resource crisis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. C. elegans FOG-3/Tob can either promote or inhibit germline proliferation, depending on gene dosage and genetic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, J J; Lee, M-H; Verheyden, J; Kroll-Conner, P L; Kimble, J

    2013-05-23

    Vertebrate Tob/BTG proteins inhibit cell proliferation when overexpressed in tissue-culture cells, and they can function as tumor suppressors in mice. The single Caenorhabditis elegans Tob/BTG ortholog, FOG-3, by contrast, was identified from its loss-of-function phenotype as a regulator of sperm fate specification. Here we report that FOG-3 also regulates proliferation in the germline tissue. We first demonstrate that FOG-3 is a positive regulator of germline proliferation. Thus, fog-3 null mutants possess fewer germ cells than normal, a modest but reproducible decrease observed for each of two distinct fog-3 null alleles. A similar decrease also occurred in fog-3/+ heterozygotes, again for both fog-3 alleles, revealing a haplo-insufficient effect on proliferation. Therefore, FOG-3 normally promotes proliferation, and two copies of the fog-3 gene are required for this function. We next overexpressed FOG-3 by removal of FBF, the collective term for FBF-1 and FBF-2, two nearly identical PUF RNA-binding proteins. We find that overexpressed FOG-3 blocks proliferation in fbf-1 fbf-2 mutants; whereas germ cells stop dividing and instead differentiate in fbf-1 fbf-2 double mutants, they continue to proliferate in fog-3; fbf-1 fbf-2 triple mutants. Therefore, like its vertebrate Tob/BTG cousins, overexpressed FOG-3 is 'antiproliferative'. Indeed, some fog-3; fbf-1 fbf-2 mutants possess small tumors, suggesting that FOG-3 can act as a tumor suppressor. Finally, we show that FOG-3 and FBF work together to promote tumor formation in animals carrying oncogenic Notch mutations. A similar effect was not observed when germline tumors were induced by manipulation of other regulators; therefore, this FOG-3 tumor-promoting effect is context dependent. We conclude that FOG-3 can either promote or inhibit proliferation in a manner that is sensitive to both genetic context and gene dosage. The discovery of these FOG-3 effects on proliferation has implications for our understanding of

  11. Summer water use by California coastal prairie grasses: fog, drought, and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Jeffrey D; Thomsen, Meredith A; Dawson, Todd E; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2005-10-01

    Plants in the Mediterranean climate region of California typically experience summer drought conditions, but correlations between zones of frequent coastal fog inundation and certain species' distributions suggest that water inputs from fog may influence species composition in coastal habitats. We sampled the stable H and O isotope ratios of water in non-photosynthetic plant tissue from a variety of perennial grass species and soil in four sites in northern California in order to determine the proportion of water deriving from winter rains and fog during the summer. The relationship between H and O stable isotopes from our sample sites fell to the right of the local meteoric water line (LMWL) during the summer drought, providing evidence that evaporation of water from the soil had taken place prior to the uptake of water by vegetation. We developed a novel method to infer the isotope values of water before it was subjected to evaporation in which we used experimental data to calculate the slope of the deltaH versus deltaO line versus the LMWL. After accounting for evaporation, we then used a two-source mixing model to evaluate plant usage of fog water. The model indicated that 28-66% of the water taken up by plants via roots during the summer drought came from fog rather than residual soil water from winter rain. Fog use decreased as distance from the coast increased, and there were significant differences among species in the use of fog. Rather than consistent differences in fog use by species whose distributions are limited to the coast versus those with broader distributions, species responded individualistically to summer fog. We conclude that fogwater inputs can mitigate the summer drought in coastal California for many species, likely giving an advantage to species that can use it over species that cannot.

  12. Intrusion Detection System Based on Decision Tree over Big Data in Fog Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Peng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fog computing, as the supplement of cloud computing, can provide low-latency services between mobile users and the cloud. However, fog devices may encounter security challenges as a result of the fog nodes being close to the end users and having limited computing ability. Traditional network attacks may destroy the system of fog nodes. Intrusion detection system (IDS is a proactive security protection technology and can be used in the fog environment. Although IDS in tradition network has been well investigated, unfortunately directly using them in the fog environment may be inappropriate. Fog nodes produce massive amounts of data at all times, and, thus, enabling an IDS system over big data in the fog environment is of paramount importance. In this study, we propose an IDS system based on decision tree. Firstly, we propose a preprocessing algorithm to digitize the strings in the given dataset and then normalize the whole data, to ensure the quality of the input data so as to improve the efficiency of detection. Secondly, we use decision tree method for our IDS system, and then we compare this method with Naïve Bayesian method as well as KNN method. Both the 10% dataset and the full dataset are tested. Our proposed method not only completely detects four kinds of attacks but also enables the detection of twenty-two kinds of attacks. The experimental results show that our IDS system is effective and precise. Above all, our IDS system can be used in fog computing environment over big data.

  13. Proactive vs reactive failure recovery assessment in combined fog-to-cloud (F2C) systems

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Vitor Barbosa Carlos de; Masip Bruin, Xavier; Marín Tordera, Eva; Ramirez Almonte, Wilson; Sánchez López, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of end user devices at the edge of the network, along with their ever increasing computing capacity, as well as the advances in Data Center technologies, paved the way for the generation of Internet of Things (IoT). Several IoT services have been deployed leveraging Cloud Computing and, more recently, Fog Computing. In order to enable efficient control of cloud and fog premises, Fog-to-Cloud (F2C) has been recently proposed as a distributed architecture for coordinated m...

  14. Clean fog rapid procedure test of artificially and naturally polluted HVDC porcelain barrel insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlastos, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    The first question asked in this paper refers to the variation of the peak leakage current prior to the flashover and the variation of the time prior to flashover in the test of artificially polluted insulators when using the up-and-down method. To answer this question sums up the test procedure used in the up-and-down method. For each trial represented the insulator was again polluted artificially and then dried following the procedure described in the paper. Then the insulator was transported into the fog chamber and the voltage and fog was switched on simultaneously. In these experiments a low fog injection rate was used

  15. Global warming on trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeker, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing

  16. Long range global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth's steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth's temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic

  17. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  18. Fog harvesting on the verge of economic competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, K. J.; Lummerich, A.

    2010-07-01

    Water scarcity is the bottleneck for agriculture and development of Peru’s coast and subject to aggravation due to climate change. Until present day, Peru’s coast in general and the Lima Metropolitan Area (LMA) in particular have enjoyed to a great extend the effect of the country’s high altitude glaciers that serve as a buffer for the capital’s water demand during the highland dry season. However, climate models predict the disappearance of this buffer system below 5.500 masl by 2015, leaving one of the driest places on earth with yet another decrease in freshwater supply (Zapata 2008). The deviation of water resources from the highlands has led already to allocation conflicts. Peru is in urgent need of new concepts for water management. Fog harvesting was introduced to South America in the 1980s and has since been implemented at various locations in North and Central America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. The Standard Fog Collector (SFC) as described by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1994) has proven to be a successful instrument for this purpose. Apart from a number of small scale investigations, the design of the collector has barely been changed over the past three decades (e.g. Gioda et al. 1993). Within the framework of the presented project, financed primarily by the Global Exploration Fund of the National Geographic Society and Bayer AG, new fog collectors were designed at pilot and full scale. Best results in terms of simplicity of construction and water yield were obtained by a metal frame structure called Eiffel. While covering the same amount of space as an SFC and using the same Raschel 65% shadow net, the Eiffel collector harvested up to 2.650 liters of water within a frame of 8x4m compared to up to 600 liters of water harvested by a SFC at the same location. In combination with a simplified maintenance concept, our collectors present an economically competitive alternative to water supply by truck delivery in a region that is not likely to

  19. Warming and humidification of insufflation carbon dioxide in laparoscopic colonic surgery: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammour, Tarik; Kahokehr, Arman; Hayes, Julian; Hulme-Moir, Mike; Hill, Andrew G

    2010-06-01

    We aimed to test the hypothesis that warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 would lead to reduced postoperative pain and improved recovery by reducing peritoneal inflammation in laparoscopic colonic surgery. Warming and humidification of insufflation gas is thought be beneficial in laparoscopic surgery, but evidence in prolonged laparoscopic procedures is lacking. We used a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled design. The Study Group received warmed (37 degrees C), humidified (98% RH) insufflation carbon dioxide, and the Control Group received standard gas (19 degrees C, 0% RH). Anesthesia and analgesia were standardized. Intraoperative oesophageal temperature was measured at 15 minutes intervals. At the conclusion of surgery, the primary surgeon was asked to rate camera fogging on a Likert scale. Postoperative opiate usage was determined using Morphine Equivalent Daily Dose (MEDD), and pain was measured using visual analogue scores. Peritoneal and plasma cytokine concentrations were measured at 20 hours postoperatively. Postoperative recovery was measured using defined discharge and complication criteria, and the Surgical Recovery Score. Eighty-two patients were randomized, with 41 in each arm. Groups were well matched at baseline. Intraoperative core temperature was similar in both groups. Median camera fogging score was significantly worse in the Study group (4 vs. 2, P = 0.040). There were marginal differences in pain scores, but no significant differences were detected in MEDD usage, cytokine concentrations, or any recovery parameters measured. Warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 does not attenuate the early inflammatory cytokine response, and confers no clinically significant benefit in laparoscopic colonic surgery.

  20. Investigation of fog structure affected by gravity waves and turbulence in the mountainous region of Pyeongchang, Korea, the place for the 2018 Winter Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, I.; Yum, S. S.; Yeom, J. M.; Gultepe, I.

    2017-12-01

    Since microphysical and dynamical processes of fog are not well-known and have non-linear relationships among processes that are related to fog formation, improving the accuracy of the fog forecasting/nowcasting system is challenging. For these reasons, understanding the fog mechanism is needed to develop the fog forecasting system. So, we focus on understanding fog-turbulence interactions and fog-gravity wave interactions. Many studies noted that turbulence plays important roles in fog. However, a discrepancy between arguments for the effect of turbulent mixing on fog formation exists. Several studies suggested that turbulent mixing suppresses fog formation. Some other studies reported that turbulent mixing contributes to fog formation. On the other hand, several quasi-periodic oscillations of temperature, visibility, and vertical velocity, which have period of 10-20 minutes, were observed to be related to gravity waves in fog; because gravity waves play significant dynamic roles in the atmosphere. Furthermore, a numerical study suggested that gravity waves, simulated near the top of the fog layer, may affect fog microphysics. Thus, we investigate the effects of turbulent mixing on fog formation and the influences of gravity waves on fog microphysics to understand fog structure in Pyeongchang. In these studies, we analyze the data that are obtained from doppler lidar and 3.5 m meteorological observation tower including 3D-ultrasonic anemometer, IR sensor, and fog monitor during ICE-POP (International Collaborative Experiments for Pyeongchang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic winter games) campaign. In these instruments, doppler lidar is a good instrument to observe the gravity waves near the fog top, while in situ measurements have small spatial coverage. The instruments are installed at the mountainous terrain of Pyeongchang, Korea. More details will be presented at the conference.

  1. Three-dimensional hierarchical structures for fog harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, H G; Eccles, E A; Schofield, W C E; Badyal, J P S

    2011-04-05

    Conventional fog-harvesting mechanisms are effectively pseudo-2D surface phenomena in terms of water droplet-plant interactions. In the case of the Cotula fallax plant, a unique hierarchical 3D arrangement formed by its leaves and the fine hairs covering them has been found to underpin the collection and retention of water droplets on the foliage for extended periods of time. The mechanisms of water capture and release as a function of the surface 3D structure and chemistry have been identified. Of particular note is that water is retained throughout the entirety of the plant and held within the foliage itself (rather than in localized regions). Individual plant hairs form matlike structures capable of supporting water droplets; these hairs wrap around water droplets in a 3D fashion to secure them via a fine nanoscale groove structure that prevents them from easily falling to the ground.

  2. Cooling analysis of a light emitting diode automotive fog lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadravec Matej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of cooling fins inside of a light emitting diode fog lamp is studied using computational fluid dynamics. Diffusion in heat sink, natural convection and radiation are the main principles of the simulated heat transfer. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved by the computational fluid dynamics code, including Monte Carlo radiation model and no additional turbulence model was needed. The numerical simulation is tested using the existing lamp geometry and temperature measurements. The agreement is excellent inside of few degrees at all measured points. The main objective of the article is to determine the cooling effect of various heat sink parts. Based on performed simulations, some heat sink parts are found to be very ineffective. The geometry and heat sink modifications are proposed. While radiation influence is significant, compressible effects are found to be minor.

  3. G-warm inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Ramón, E-mail: ramon.herrera@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2017-05-01

    A warm inflationary universe in the context of Galileon model or G-model is studied. Under a general formalism we study the inflationary dynamics and the cosmological perturbations considering a coupling of the form G (φ, X )= g (φ) X . As a concrete example, we consider an exponential potential together with the cases in which the dissipation and Galilean coefficients are constants. Also, we study the weak regime given by the condition R <1+3 gH φ-dot , and the strong regime in which 1< R +3 gH φ-dot . Additionally, we obtain constraints on the parameters during the evolution of G-warm inflation, assuming the condition for warm inflation in which the temperature T > H , the conditions or the weak and strong regimes, together with the consistency relation r = r ( n {sub s} ) from Planck data.

  4. G-warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ramón

    2017-05-01

    A warm inflationary universe in the context of Galileon model or G-model is studied. Under a general formalism we study the inflationary dynamics and the cosmological perturbations considering a coupling of the form G(phi,X)=g(phi) X. As a concrete example, we consider an exponential potential together with the cases in which the dissipation and Galilean coefficients are constants. Also, we study the weak regime given by the condition RR+3gHdot phi. Additionally, we obtain constraints on the parameters during the evolution of G-warm inflation, assuming the condition for warm inflation in which the temperature T>H, the conditions or the weak and strong regimes, together with the consistency relation r=r(ns) from Planck data.

  5. The global warming problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  6. Secondary organic aerosol formation through fog processing of VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, P.; Hutchings, J. W.

    2010-07-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) have been determined in highly concentrated amounts (>1 ug/L) in intercepted clouds in northern Arizona (USA). These VOCs are found in concentrations much higher than predicted by partitioning alone. The reactivity of BTEX in the fog/cloud aqueous phase was investigated through laboratory studies. BTEX species showed fast degradation in the aqueous phase in the presence of peroxides and light. Observed half-lives ranged from three and six hours, substantially shorter than the respective gas phase half-lives (several days). The observed reaction rates were on the order of 1 ppb/min but decreased substantially with increasing concentrations of organic matter (TOC). The products of BTEX oxidation reactions were analyzed using HPLC-UV and LCMS. The first generation of products identified included phenol and cresols which correspond to the hydroxyl-addition reaction to benzene and toluene. Upon investigating of multi-generational products, smaller, less volatile species are predominant although a large variety of products is found. Most reaction products have substantially lower vapor pressure and will remain in the particle phase upon droplet evaporation. The SOA generation potential of cloud and fog processing of BTEX was evaluated using simple calculations and showed that in ideal situations these reactions could add up to 9% of the ambient aerosol mass. In more conservative scenarios, the contribution of the processing of BTEX was around 1% of ambient aerosol concentrations. Overall, cloud processing of VOC has the potential to contribute to the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the contribution will depend upon many factors such as the irradiation, organic matter content in the droplets and droplet lifetime.

  7. Fog-computing concept usage as means to enhance information and control system reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, E. V.; Klimenko, A. B.; Ivanov, D. Ya

    2018-05-01

    This paper focuses on the reliability issue of information and control systems (ICS). The authors propose using the elements of the fog-computing concept to enhance the reliability function. The key idea of fog-computing is to shift computations to the fog-layer of the network, and thus to decrease the workload of the communication environment and data processing components. As for ICS, workload also can be distributed among sensors, actuators and network infrastructure facilities near the sources of data. The authors simulated typical workload distribution situations for the “traditional” ICS architecture and for the one with fogcomputing concept elements usage. The paper contains some models, selected simulation results and conclusion about the prospects of the fog-computing as a means to enhance ICS reliability.

  8. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.24 Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps. (a) Headlamps. Every bus, truck and truck tractor shall be equipped with headlamps as required by...

  9. Dynamics of normal and superfluid fogs using diffusing-wave spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heetae; Lemieux, Pierre-Anthony; Durian, Douglas J.; Williams, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of normal and superfluid fogs are studied using the technique of diffusing-wave spectroscopy. For a water fog generated with a 1.75 MHz piezoelectric driver below the liquid surface, the 7 μm diameter droplets are found to have diffusive dynamics for correlation times long compared to the viscous time. For a fog of 10 μm diameter superfluid helium droplets in helium vapor at 1.5 K the motion appears to be ballistic for correlation times short compared to the viscous time. The velocity correlations between the helium droplets are found to depend on the initial velocity with which the droplets are injected from the helium surface into the fog

  10. A Secure and Verifiable Outsourced Access Control Scheme in Fog-Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Wang, Junxiong; Wang, Xin; Li, Hui; Yang, Yintang

    2017-07-24

    With the rapid development of big data and Internet of things (IOT), the number of networking devices and data volume are increasing dramatically. Fog computing, which extends cloud computing to the edge of the network can effectively solve the bottleneck problems of data transmission and data storage. However, security and privacy challenges are also arising in the fog-cloud computing environment. Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) can be adopted to realize data access control in fog-cloud computing systems. In this paper, we propose a verifiable outsourced multi-authority access control scheme, named VO-MAACS. In our construction, most encryption and decryption computations are outsourced to fog devices and the computation results can be verified by using our verification method. Meanwhile, to address the revocation issue, we design an efficient user and attribute revocation method for it. Finally, analysis and simulation results show that our scheme is both secure and highly efficient.

  11. Measurement of Fog Oil Penetration into Model Underground Burrow and Hollow Tree Nest Cavities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guelta, Mark A; Balbach, Harold E

    2007-01-01

    .... On installations where troop readiness training is conducted, an important component of realistic troop readiness training is the generation of obscurant material and the conduct of maneuvers under obscurant cover. Fog oil (FO...

  12. 1994 Attack Team Workshop: Phase II - Full-Scale Offensive Fog Attack Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheffey, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    .... This report demonstrates the benefits of using a medium angle fog stream to control the overhead fire threat when conducting a direct attack on a growing/steady state fire where the sea of the fire is obstructed...

  13. A Secure and Verifiable Outsourced Access Control Scheme in Fog-Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Wang, Junxiong; Wang, Xin; Li, Hui; Yang, Yintang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of big data and Internet of things (IOT), the number of networking devices and data volume are increasing dramatically. Fog computing, which extends cloud computing to the edge of the network can effectively solve the bottleneck problems of data transmission and data storage. However, security and privacy challenges are also arising in the fog-cloud computing environment. Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) can be adopted to realize data access control in fog-cloud computing systems. In this paper, we propose a verifiable outsourced multi-authority access control scheme, named VO-MAACS. In our construction, most encryption and decryption computations are outsourced to fog devices and the computation results can be verified by using our verification method. Meanwhile, to address the revocation issue, we design an efficient user and attribute revocation method for it. Finally, analysis and simulation results show that our scheme is both secure and highly efficient. PMID:28737733

  14. Greenhouse Warming Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    2016-01-01

    The changing greenhouse effect caused by natural and anthropogenic causes is explained and efforts to model the behavior of the near-surface constituents of the Earth's land, ocean and atmosphere are discussed. Emissions of various substances and other aspects of human activity influence...... the greenhouse warming, and the impacts of the warming may again impact the wellbeing of human societies. Thus physical modeling of the near-surface ocean-soil-atmosphere system cannot be carried out without an idea of the development of human activities, which is done by scenario analysis. The interactive...

  15. Bioinspired conical copper wire with gradient wettability for continuous and efficient fog collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Xiao, Kai; Yao, Xi; Bai, Hao; Jiang, Lei

    2013-11-06

    Inspired by the efficient fog collection on cactus spines, conical copper wires with gradient wettability are fabricated through gradient electrochemical corrosion and subsequent gradient chemical modification. These dual-gradient copper wires' fog-collection ability is demonstrated to be higher than that of conical copper wires with pure hydrophobic surfaces or pure hydrophilic surfaces, and the underlying mechanism is also analyzed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Geochemistry and hydrology of a small catchment: fogs as an important part of the wet deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Miroslav; Fottová, D.; Šír, Miloslav; Fišák, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 39, 1-2 (2010), s. 389-390 ISSN 0324-0894. [Congress of the Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association /19./. 23.09.2010-26.09.2010, Thessaloniki] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510; CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : fog water deposition * chemistry * fog water sampler Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  17. Natural Contamination and Surface Flashover on Silicone Rubber Surface under Haze–Fog Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Ren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-pollution flashover of insulator is important for power systems. In recent years, haze-fog weather occurs frequently, which makes discharge occurs easily on the insulator surface and accelerates insulation aging of insulator. In order to study the influence of haze-fog on the surface discharge of room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber, an artificial haze-fog lab was established. Based on four consecutive years of insulator contamination accumulation and atmospheric sampling in haze-fog environment, the contamination configuration appropriate for RTV-coated surface discharge test under simulation environment of haze-fog was put forward. ANSYS Maxwell was used to analyze the influence of room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface attachments on electric field distribution. The changes of droplet on the polluted room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface and the corresponding surface flashover voltage under alternating current (AC, direct current (DC positive polar (+, and DC negative polar (− power source were recorded by a high speed camera. The results are as follows: The main ion components from haze-fog atmospheric particles are NO3−, SO42−, NH4+, and Ca2+. In haze-fog environment, both the equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD and non-soluble deposit density (NSDD of insulators are higher than that under general environment. The amount of large particles on the AC transmission line is greater than that of the DC transmission line. The influence of DC polarity power source on the distribution of contamination particle size is not significant. After the deposition of haze-fog, the local conductivity of the room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface increased, which caused the flashover voltage reduce. Discharge is liable to occur at the triple junction point of droplet, air, and room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface. After the deformation or movement of droplets, a new triple junction

  18. Internal acid buffering in San Joaquin Valley fog drops and its influence on aerosol processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Jeffrey L.; Hoag, Katherine J.; Rao, Xin; Pandis, Spyros N.

    Although several chemical pathways exist for S(IV) oxidation in fogs and clouds, many are self-limiting: as sulfuric acid is produced and the drop pH declines, the rates of these pathways also decline. Some of the acid that is produced can be buffered by uptake of gaseous ammonia. Additional internal buffering can result from protonation of weak and strong bases present in solution. Acid titrations of high pH fog samples (median pH=6.49) collected in California's San Joaquin Valley reveal the presence of considerable internal acid buffering. In samples collected at a rural location, the observed internal buffering could be nearly accounted for based on concentrations of ammonia and bicarbonate present in solution. In samples collected in the cities of Fresno and Bakersfield, however, significant additional, unexplained buffering was present over a pH range extending from approximately four to seven. The additional buffering was found to be associated with dissolved compounds in the fogwater. It could not be accounted for by measured concentrations of low molecular weight ( C1- C3) carboxylic acids, S(IV), phosphate, or nitrophenols. The amount of unexplained buffering in individual fog samples was found to correlate strongly with the sum of sample acetate and formate concentrations, suggesting that unmeasured organic species may be important contributors. Simulation of a Bakersfield fog episode with and without the additional, unexplained buffering revealed a significant impact on the fog chemistry. When the additional buffering was included, the simulated fog pH remained 0.3-0.7 pH units higher and the amount of sulfate present after the fog evaporated was increased by 50%. Including the additional buffering in the model simulation did not affect fogwater nitrate concentrations and was found to slightly decrease ammonium concentrations. The magnitude of the buffering effect on aqueous sulfate production is sensitive to the amount of ozone present to oxidize S

  19. A field study on chemistry, S(IV) oxidation rates and vertical transport during fog conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, F.; Baltensperger, U.

    An extensive fog study was carried out in the central plateu of Switzerland. Ninety-seven fog samples were collected along with aerosol filter and cascade impactor samples, and measurements of O 3, SO 2, NO, NO x, PAN, temperature, and wind speed and direction. Maximum levels in fogwater were 4.3, 4.4., 0.033, 1.7, 0.5, 0.024 and 9.2 mmol ℓ -1 for Cl -, NO 3-, NO 2-, SO 42-, S(IV), oxalate and NH 4+, respectively. pH varied between 2.9 and 7.1. Sixteen additional elements were determined in the fog samples by ICP. The sum of the concentrations of SO 42- and S(IV) agreed very with the total sulfur concentration as determined by ICP. A substantial excess of S(IV) (up to 0.2 mmol ℓ -1) compared to Henry and acid-base equilibrium calculations was found, which can probably be attributed to complex formations with aldehydes. S(IV) oxidation rates of up to 650 nmol ℓ -1 s -1 with ozone and of up to 100 nmol ℓ -1 s -1 with NO 2 were calculated. S(IV) oxidation due to PAN, NO 2- and Fe(III) was of minor importance. A substantial fraction of the major ions was present in the intersitial aerosol (aerosol particles < 4 μm) even during fog conditions. High correlations were found for NH 4+, NO 32-. From their ratios in the fog water and the aerosol (< 4 μm) it could be concluded that at least 40% of NO 3- and 20% of NH 4+ in fog water was due to gas phase scavenging. Increasing concentrations in fog water were found during fog dissipation. Concentrations decreased with increasing height. A vertical transport model including turbulent diffusion and droplet sedimentation is introduced, which matches the experimental data of this vertical profile.

  20. An analysis, sensitivity and prediction of winter fog events using FASP model over Indo-Gangetic plains, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S. K., Sr.; Sharma, D. A.; Sachdeva, K.

    2017-12-01

    Indo-Gangetic plains of India experience severe fog conditions during the peak winter months of December and January every year. In this paper an attempt has been to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of winter fog over Indo-Gangetic plains. Further, an attempt has also been made to configure an efficient meso-scale numerical weather prediction model using different parameterization schemes and develop a forecasting tool for prediction of fog during winter months over Indo-Gangetic plains. The study revealed that an alarming increasing positive trend of fog frequency prevails over many locations of IGP. Hot spot and cluster analysis were conducted to identify the high fog prone zones using GIS and inferential statistical tools respectively. Hot spots on an average experiences fog on 68.27% days, it is followed by moderate and cold spots with 48.03% and 21.79% respectively. The study proposes a new FASP (Fog Analysis, sensitivity and prediction) Model for overall analysis and prediction of fog at a particular location and period over IGP. In the first phase of this model long term climatological fog data of a location is analyzed to determine its characteristics and prevailing trend using various advanced statistical techniques. During a second phase a sensitivity test is conducted with different combination of parameterization schemes to determine the most suitable combination for fog simulation over a particular location and period and in the third and final phase, first ARIMA model is used to predict the number of fog days in future . Thereafter, Numerical model is used to predict the various meteorological parameters favourable for fog forecast. Finally, Hybrid model is used for fog forecast over the study location. The results of the FASP model are validated with actual ground based fog data using statistical tools. Forecast Fog-gram generated using hybrid model during Jan 2017 shows highly encouraging results for fog occurrence/Non occurrence between

  1. Combining Fog Computing with Sensor Mote Machine Learning for Industrial IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavassani, Mehrzad; Forsström, Stefan; Jennehag, Ulf; Zhang, Tingting

    2018-05-12

    Digitalization is a global trend becoming ever more important to our connected and sustainable society. This trend also affects industry where the Industrial Internet of Things is an important part, and there is a need to conserve spectrum as well as energy when communicating data to a fog or cloud back-end system. In this paper we investigate the benefits of fog computing by proposing a novel distributed learning model on the sensor device and simulating the data stream in the fog, instead of transmitting all raw sensor values to the cloud back-end. To save energy and to communicate as few packets as possible, the updated parameters of the learned model at the sensor device are communicated in longer time intervals to a fog computing system. The proposed framework is implemented and tested in a real world testbed in order to make quantitative measurements and evaluate the system. Our results show that the proposed model can achieve a 98% decrease in the number of packets sent over the wireless link, and the fog node can still simulate the data stream with an acceptable accuracy of 97%. We also observe an end-to-end delay of 180 ms in our proposed three-layer framework. Hence, the framework shows that a combination of fog and cloud computing with a distributed data modeling at the sensor device for wireless sensor networks can be beneficial for Industrial Internet of Things applications.

  2. Effect of heat transfer in the fog region during core reflooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouai, N. M.; El-sawy, H. M.

    1993-01-01

    Core reflooding following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) received considerable attention during the past thirty years. In this paper a one dimensional model is used to study the effect of the heat transfer in the fog region ahead of the wet front reflooding rate of a cylindrical fuel element following a LOCA in a PWR. The heat conduction equation in the cladding is solved in coordinate system moving with the wet front under a variety of condition to investigate the effects of such parameters as the initial cladding surface temperature, the decay heat generation rate in the fuel and the mode of heat transfer prevailing. The cladding surface is divided into three axial regions according to the mechanism of heat transfer, namely, a boiling region behind the wet front, a fog region ahead of the wet front and a dry region further downstream of the wet front. The effect of changing the heat transfer coefficient in the fog region on the rewetting rate and on the fog length is investigated. The results of this simple model show that increasing the heat transfer in the fog region increases the rewetting velocity and consequently decreases the fog length. The results are in general agreement with a more accurate two-dimensional model and experimental data. (author)

  3. Centrifugation-Assisted Fog-Collecting Abilities of Metal-Foam Structures with Different Surface Wettabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Keju; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Jia; Meng, Guiyun; Ding, Yafei; Dai, Zhendong

    2016-04-20

    The collection of water from fog is a simple and sustainable means of obtaining freshwater for human and animal consumption. Herein, we address the use of metal foam in fog collection and present a novel fog-collecting device fabricated from copper foam. This device, which can also be used in other liquid-gas separation applications, is a 3D extension of biologically inspired 1D and 2D materials. The network structure of the 3D material effectively increased the contact area and interaction time of the skeleton structure and fog compared to those of traditional 2D fog-collecting materials. The main aspects investigated in this study were the influences of the inertial centrifugal force generated by rotating the metal-foam samples and the use of samples with different surface wettabilities on the fog-collecting performance. Superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic samples were found to have higher collection efficiencies at low and high rotational speeds, respectively, and a maximum efficiency of 86% was achieved for superhydrophobic copper foam (20 pores per inch) rotated at 1500 rpm.

  4. Warm pre-stressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Literature survey and critical evaluation of the phenomenon of warm pre-stressing (WPS) is presented. It is found that the cause of it is not clear and a calculated control is missing. The effect of irradiation is unknown, and the influence of WPS on the behaviour of reactor vessels is discussed. (G.B.)

  5. Being Warm-Hearted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李函; 任汉鼎

    2017-01-01

    Good morning,ladies and gentlemen.It’s my honor to address[向……致辞] you.My English name is Isabella.I’m a high school student of 17.I have some good personality traits[特点],including being warm-hearted.So here comes my topic:Being

  6. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  7. The global warming scare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunavala, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that the present propaganda about the global warming with its disastrous consequences is a scare spread by some First World countries, especially the United States, to prevent the rapid industrialization of developing third world countries. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  8. Paralyzed warming world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ač, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 81-86 ISSN 1876-8156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : global warming * climate Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://ojs.ubvu.vu.nl/alf/article/view/134/250

  9. Effect of basic fog of medical x-ray films on image quality and patient dose-method of evaluation and steps to control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohra, Reena; Nair, C.P.R.; Jayalakshmi, V.; Govindarajan, K.N.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Unacceptable basic fog of medical x-ray films has been reported recently from many hospitals. The paper presents the effect of basic fog on radiographic quality of films like sensitivity (speed), contrast and maximum density (DMax). Several batches of general- purpose medical x-ray films from five different manufacturers were studied to evaluate batch-to-batch variation in basic fog. Increase in basic fog with aging of films was also evaluated. Reasons for increased basic fog observed in the film processing facilities of a few hospitals were analysed. Factors responsible for increase in basic fog and the steps to control it have been discussed

  10. Dynamic response of wind turbine towers in warm permafrost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Still; ZhaoHui Joey Yang; Simon Evans; FuJun Niu

    2014-01-01

    Wind is a great source of renewable energy in western Alaska. Consistent winds blow across the barren tundra underlain by warm permafrost in the winter season, when the energy demand is the highest. Foundation engineering in warm permafrost has always been a challenge in wind energy development. Degrading warm permafrost poses engineering issues to design, construction, and operation of wind turbines. This paper describes the foundation design of a wind turbine built in western Alaska. It presents a sys-tem for response monitoring and load assessment, and data collected from September 2013 to March 2014. The dynamic proper-ties are assessed based on the monitoring data, and seasonal changes in the dynamic properties of the turbine tower-foundation system and likely resonance between the spinning blades and the tower structure are discussed. These analyses of a wind turbine in warm permafrost are valuable for designing or retrofitting of foundations in warm permafrost.

  11. Fog composition at Baengnyeong Island in the eastern Yellow Sea: detecting markers of aqueous atmospheric oxidations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of fog water were collected at Baengnyeong Island (BYI in the Yellow Sea during the summer of 2014. The most abundant chemical species in the fog water were NH4+ (mean of 2220 µM, NO3− (1260 µM, SO4−2 (730 µM, and Na+ (551 µM, with substantial contributions from other species consistent with marine and biomass burning influence on some dates. The pH of the samples ranged between 3.48 and 5.00, with a mean of 3.94, intermediate within pH values of fog/cloud water reported previously in Southeast Asia. Back trajectories (72 h showed that high relative humidity ( >  80 % was encountered upwind of the sampling site by all but one of the sampled air masses, and that the fog composition at BYI can be impacted by several different source regions, including the Sea of Japan, southeastern China, northeastern China, and the East China Sea. Sulfur in the collected fog was highly oxidized: low S(IV concentrations were measured (mean of 2.36 µM in contrast to SO4−2 and in contrast to fog/cloud S(IV concentrations from pollutant source regions; organosulfate species were also observed and were most likely formed through aging of mainly biogenic volatile organic compounds. Low-molecular-mass organic acids were major contributors to total organic carbon (TOC; 36–69 %, comprising a fraction of TOC at the upper end of that seen in fogs and clouds in other polluted environments. Large contributions were observed from not only acetic and formic acids but also oxalic, succinic, maleic, and other organic acids that can be produced in aqueous atmospheric organic processing (AAOP reactions. These samples of East Asian fog water containing highly oxidized components represent fog downwind of pollutant sources and can provide new insight into the fate of regional emissions. In particular, these samples demonstrate the result of extensive photochemical aging during multiday transport, including oxidation within wet aerosols and

  12. Fog composition at Baengnyeong Island in the eastern Yellow Sea: detecting markers of aqueous atmospheric oxidations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, A. J.; Lee, T.; Park, T.; Choi, J.; Seo, S. J.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Samples of fog water were collected at Baengnyeong Island (BYI) in the Yellow Sea during the summer of 2014. The most abundant chemical species in the fog water were NH4+ (mean of 2220 µM), NO3- (1260 µM), SO4-2 (730 µM), and Na+ (551 µM), with substantial contributions from other species consistent with marine and biomass burning influence on some dates. The pH of the samples ranged between 3.48 and 5.00, with a mean of 3.94, intermediate within pH values of fog/cloud water reported previously in Southeast Asia. Back trajectories (72 h) showed that high relative humidity ( > 80 %) was encountered upwind of the sampling site by all but one of the sampled air masses, and that the fog composition at BYI can be impacted by several different source regions, including the Sea of Japan, southeastern China, northeastern China, and the East China Sea. Sulfur in the collected fog was highly oxidized: low S(IV) concentrations were measured (mean of 2.36 µM) in contrast to SO4-2 and in contrast to fog/cloud S(IV) concentrations from pollutant source regions; organosulfate species were also observed and were most likely formed through aging of mainly biogenic volatile organic compounds. Low-molecular-mass organic acids were major contributors to total organic carbon (TOC; 36-69 %), comprising a fraction of TOC at the upper end of that seen in fogs and clouds in other polluted environments. Large contributions were observed from not only acetic and formic acids but also oxalic, succinic, maleic, and other organic acids that can be produced in aqueous atmospheric organic processing (AAOP) reactions. These samples of East Asian fog water containing highly oxidized components represent fog downwind of pollutant sources and can provide new insight into the fate of regional emissions. In particular, these samples demonstrate the result of extensive photochemical aging during multiday transport, including oxidation within wet aerosols and fogs.

  13. Significant concentration changes of chemical components of PM1 in the Yangtze River Delta area of China and the implications for the formation mechanism of heavy haze-fog pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y W; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y M; Shen, X J; Sun, J Y; Ma, Q L; Yu, X M; Zhu, J L; Zhang, L; Che, H C

    2015-12-15

    Since the winter season of 2013, a number of persistent haze-fog events have occurred in central-eastern China. Continuous measurements of the chemical and physical properties of PM1 at a regional background station in the Yangtze River Delta area of China from 16 Nov. to 18 Dec., 2013 revealed several haze-fog events, among which a heavy haze-fog event occurred between 6 Dec. and 8 Dec. The mean concentration of PM1 was 212μgm(-3) in the heavy haze-fog period, which was about 10 times higher than on clean days and featured a peak mass concentration that reached 298μgm(-3). Organics were the largest contributor to the dramatic rise of PM1 on heavy haze-fog days (average mass concentration of 86μgm(-3)), followed by nitrate (58μgm(-3)), sulfate (35μgm(-3)), ammonium (29μgm(-3)), and chloride (4.0μgm(-3)). Nitrate exhibited the largest increase (~20 factors), associated with a significant increase in NOx. This was mainly attributable to increased coal combustion emissions, relative to motor vehicle emissions, and was caused by short-distance pollutant transport within surrounding areas. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosols (OA) (LV-OOA) and biomass-burning OA (BBOA) also increased sharply on heavy haze-fog days, exhibiting an enhanced oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and increased emissions from biomass burning. The strengthening of the oxidation capacity during the heavy pollution episode, along with lower solar radiation, was probably due to increased biomass burning, which were important precursors of O3. The prevailing meteorological conditions, including low wind and high relative humidity, and short distance transported gaseous and particulate matter surrounding of the sampling site, coincided with the increased pollutant concentrations mainly from biomass-burning mentioned above to cause the persistent haze-fog event in the YRD area. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Phosphorylation state of a Tob/BTG protein, FOG-3, regulates initiation and maintenance of the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm fate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myon-Hee; Kim, Kyung Won; Morgan, Clinton T; Morgan, Dyan E; Kimble, Judith

    2011-05-31

    FOG-3, the single Caenorhabditis elegans Tob/BTG protein, directs germ cells to adopt the sperm fate at the expense of oogenesis. Importantly, FOG-3 activity must be maintained for the continued production of sperm that is typical of the male sex. Vertebrate Tob proteins have antiproliferative activity and ERK phosphorylation of Tob proteins has been proposed to abrogate "antiproliferative" activity. Here we investigate FOG-3 phosphorylation and its effect on sperm fate specification. We found both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of FOG-3 in nematodes. We then interrogated the role of FOG-3 phosphorylation in sperm fate specification. Specifically, we assayed FOG-3 transgenes for rescue of a fog-3 null mutant. Wild-type FOG-3 rescued both initiation and maintenance of sperm fate specification. A FOG-3 mutant with its four consensus ERK phosphorylation sites substituted to alanines, called FOG-3(4A), rescued partially: sperm were made transiently but not continuously in both sexes. A different FOG-3 mutant with its sites substituted to glutamates, called FOG-3(4E), had no rescuing activity on its own, but together with FOG-3(4A) rescue was complete. Thus, when FOG-3(4A) and FOG-3(4E) were both introduced into the same animals, sperm fate specification was not only initiated but also maintained, resulting in continuous spermatogenesis in males. Our findings suggest that unphosphorylated FOG-3 initiates the sperm fate program and that phosphorylated FOG-3 maintains that program for continued sperm production typical of males. We discuss implications of our results for Tob/BTG proteins in vertebrates.

  15. Reconstructing warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ramón

    2018-03-01

    The reconstruction of a warm inflationary universe model from the scalar spectral index n_S(N) and the tensor to scalar ratio r( N) as a function of the number of e-folds N is studied. Under a general formalism we find the effective potential and the dissipative coefficient in terms of the cosmological parameters n_S and r considering the weak and strong dissipative stages under the slow roll approximation. As a specific example, we study the attractors for the index n_S given by nS-1∝ N^{-1} and for the ratio r∝ N^{-2}, in order to reconstruct the model of warm inflation. Here, expressions for the effective potential V(φ ) and the dissipation coefficient Γ (φ ) are obtained.

  16. Thinking About Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web

  17. Climate change - global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciconkov, Risto

    2001-01-01

    An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

  18. Warm natural inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Hiranmaya; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh

    2012-01-01

    In warm inflation models there is the requirement of generating large dissipative couplings of the inflaton with radiation, while at the same time, not de-stabilising the flatness of the inflaton potential due to radiative corrections. One way to achieve this without fine tuning unrelated couplings is by supersymmetry. In this Letter we show that if the inflaton and other light fields are pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons then the radiative corrections to the potential are suppressed and the thermal corrections are small as long as the temperature is below the symmetry breaking scale. In such models it is possible to fulfil the contrary requirements of an inflaton potential which is stable under radiative corrections and the generation of a large dissipative coupling of the inflaton field with other light fields. We construct a warm inflation model which gives the observed CMB-anisotropy amplitude and spectral index where the symmetry breaking is at the GUT scale.

  19. Slowing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.

    1990-01-01

    According to the authors, global warming promises to be one of the central environmental issues of the nineties. After a decade of scientific concern but popular neglect, the eighties ended with a growing political as well as scientific consensus that the world can no longer afford to procrastinate about this issue. This paper reports on coping with global warming which, according to the author, will force societies to move rapidly into uncharted terrain, reversing powerful trends that have dominated the industrial age. This challenge cannot be met without a strong commitment on the part of both individual consumers and governments. In terms of the earth's carbon balance, the unprecedented policy changes that have now become urgent include a new commitment to greater energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, a carbon tax on fossil fuels, a reversal of deforestation in tropical countries, and the rapid elimination of CFCs

  20. Military Implications of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-20

    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  1. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Basanti Jain

    2017-01-01

    The abnormal increase in the concentration of the greenhouse gases is resulting in higher temperatures. We call this effect is global warming. The average temperature around the world has increased about 1'c over 140 years, 75% of this has risen just over the past 30 years. The solar radiation, as it reaches the earth, produces "greenhouse effect" in the atmosphere. The thick atmospheric layers over the earth behaves as a glass surface, as it permits short wave radiations from coming in, but ...

  2. Temporal Variability and Characterization of Aerosols across the Pakistan Region during the Winter Fog Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim Khokhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding fog episodes as these provide only point observations. Continuous monitoring, as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution, is possible through the use of satellite observations. This study focuses on the 2012–2015 winter fog episodes over the Pakistan region using the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO products. The main objective of the study was to map the spatial distribution of aerosols, their types, and to identify the aerosol origins during special weather conditions like fog in Pakistan. The study also included ground monitoring of particulate matter (PM concentrations, which were conducted during the 2014–2015 winter period only. Overall, this study is part of a multi-country project supported by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD, started in 2014–2015 winter period, whereby scientists from Bangladesh, India and Nepal have also conducted measurements at their respective sites. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD and AERONET Station (AOD data from Lahore was identified. Mass concentration of PM10 at all sampling sites within Lahore city exceeded the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS levels on most of the occasions. Smoke and absorbing aerosol were found to be major constituents of winter fog in Pakistan. Furthermore, an extended span of winter fog was also observed in Lahore city during the winter of 2014–2015. The Vertical Feature Mask (VFM provided by CALIPSO satellite confirmed the low-lying aerosol

  3. Analysis of fog effects on terrestrial Free Space optical communication links

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we consider and examine fog measurement data, coming from several locations in Europe and USA, and attempt to derive a unified model for fog attenuation in free space optics (FSO) communication links. We evaluate and compare the performance of our proposed model to that of many well-known alternative models. We found that our proposed model, achieves an average RMSE that outperforms them by more than 9 dB. Furthermore, we have studied the performance of the FSO system using different performance metrics such as signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, bit error rate (BER), and channel capacity. Our results show that FSO is a short range technology. Therefore, FSO is expected to find its place in future networks that will have small cell size, i.e., <1 km diameter. Moreover, our investigation shows that under dense fog, it is difficult to maintain a communications link because of the high signal attenuation, which requires switching the communications to RF backup. Our results show that increasing the transmitted power will improve the system performance under light fog. However, under heavy fog, the effect is minor. To enhance the system performance under low visibility range, multi-hop link is used which can enhance the power budget by using short segments links. Using 22 dBm transmitted power, we obtained BER=10-3 over 1 km link length with 600 m visibility range which corresponds to light fog. However, under lower visibility range equals 40 m that corresponds to dense fog, we obtained the same BER but over 200 m link length. © 2016 IEEE.

  4. Coastal California's Fog Aerobiology and Ecology: Designing and Testing an Optimal Passive Impactor Collection Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Whinnery, J. T.; Ly, V. T.; Travers, S. V.; Sagaga, J.; Dahlgren, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Microorganisms play a major role in our biosphere due to their ability to alter water, carbon and other geochemical cycles. Fog and low-level cloud water can play a major role in dispersing and supporting such microbial diversity. An ideal region to gather these microorganisms for characterization is the central coast of California, where dense fog is common. Fog captured from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at different altitudes will be analyzed to better understand the nature of microorganisms in the lower atmosphere and their potential geochemical impacts. The capture design consists of a square-meter hydrophobic mesh that hangs from a carbon fiber rod attached to a UAV. The DJI M600, a hexacopter, will be utilized as the transport for the payload, the passive impactor collection unit (PICU). The M600 will hover in a fog bank at altitudes between 10 and 100 m collecting water samples via the PICU. A computational flow dynamics (CFD) model will optimize the PICU's size, shape and placement for maximum capture efficiency and to avoid contamination from the UAV downwash. On board, there will also be an altitude, temperature and barometric pressure sensor whose output is logged to an SD card. A scale model of the PICU has been tested with several different types of hydrophobic meshes in a fog chamber at 90-95% humidity; polypropylene was found to capture the fog droplets most efficiently at a rate of .0042 g/cm2/hour. If the amount collected is proportional to the area of mesh, the estimated amount of water collected under optimal fog and flight conditions by the impactor is 21.3 g. If successful, this work will help identify the organisms living in the lower atmosphere as well as their potential geochemical impacts.

  5. Warm natural inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Hiranmaya; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh

    2013-01-01

    In warm inflation models there is the requirement of generating large dissipative couplings of the inflation with radiation, while at the same Âătime, not de-stabilising the flatness of the inflation potential due to radiative corrections. One way to achieve this without fine tuning unrelated couplings is by supersymmetry. In this talk we will discuss warm inflation with Pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons (PNGB). In this case inflation and other light fields are PNGB. So, the radiative corrections to the potential are suppressed and the thermal Âăcorrections are small as long as the temperature is below the symmetry breaking scale. In such models it is possible to fulfill the contrary requirements of an inflation potential which is stable under radiative corrections and the generation of a large dissipative coupling of the inflation field with other light fields. This warm inflation model with PNGB gives the observed CMB-anisotropy amplitude and spectral index having the symmetry breaking scale at the GUT scale. (author)

  6. Rapid fluctuations in flow and water-column properties in Asan Bay, Guam: implications for selective resilience of coral reefs in warming seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Field, Michael E.; Cheriton, Olivia M.; Presto, M.K.; Logan, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamics and water-column properties were investigated off west-central Guam from July 2007 through January 2008. Rapid fluctuations, on time scales of 10s of min, in currents, temperature, salinity, and acoustic backscatter were observed to occur on sub-diurnal frequencies along more than 2 km of the fore reef but not at the reef crest. During periods characterized by higher sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), weaker wind forcing, smaller ocean surface waves, and greater thermal stratification, rapid decreases in temperature and concurrent rapid increases in salinity and acoustic backscatter coincided with onshore-directed near-bed currents and offshore-directed near-surface currents. During the study, these cool-water events, on average, lasted 2.3 h and decreased the water temperature 0.57 °C, increased the salinity 0.25 PSU, and were two orders of magnitude more prevalent during the summer season than the winter. During the summer season when the average satellite-derived SST anomaly was +0.63 °C, these cooling events, on average, lowered the temperature 1.14 °C along the fore reef but only 0.11 °C along the reef crest. The rapid shifts appear to be the result of internal tidal bores pumping cooler, more saline, higher-backscatter oceanic water from depths >50 m over cross-shore distances of 100 s of m into the warmer, less saline waters at depths of 20 m and shallower. Such internal bores appear to have the potential to buffer shallow coral reefs from predicted increases in SSTs by bringing cool, offshore water to shallow coral environments. These cooling internal bores may also provide additional benefits to offset stress such as supplying food to thermally stressed corals, reducing stress due to ultraviolet radiation and/or low salinity, and delivering coral larvae from deeper reefs not impacted by surface thermal stress. Thus, the presence of internal bores might be an important factor locally in the resilience of select coral reefs facing increased

  7. Rapid fluctuations in flow and water-column properties in Asan Bay, Guam: implications for selective resilience of coral reefs in warming seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Field, M. E.; Cheriton, O. M.; Presto, M. K.; Logan, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrodynamics and water-column properties were investigated off west-central Guam from July 2007 through January 2008. Rapid fluctuations, on time scales of 10s of min, in currents, temperature, salinity, and acoustic backscatter were observed to occur on sub-diurnal frequencies along more than 2 km of the fore reef but not at the reef crest. During periods characterized by higher sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), weaker wind forcing, smaller ocean surface waves, and greater thermal stratification, rapid decreases in temperature and concurrent rapid increases in salinity and acoustic backscatter coincided with onshore-directed near-bed currents and offshore-directed near-surface currents. During the study, these cool-water events, on average, lasted 2.3 h and decreased the water temperature 0.57 °C, increased the salinity 0.25 PSU, and were two orders of magnitude more prevalent during the summer season than the winter. During the summer season when the average satellite-derived SST anomaly was +0.63 °C, these cooling events, on average, lowered the temperature 1.14 °C along the fore reef but only 0.11 °C along the reef crest. The rapid shifts appear to be the result of internal tidal bores pumping cooler, more saline, higher-backscatter oceanic water from depths >50 m over cross-shore distances of 100 s of m into the warmer, less saline waters at depths of 20 m and shallower. Such internal bores appear to have the potential to buffer shallow coral reefs from predicted increases in SSTs by bringing cool, offshore water to shallow coral environments. These cooling internal bores may also provide additional benefits to offset stress such as supplying food to thermally stressed corals, reducing stress due to ultraviolet radiation and/or low salinity, and delivering coral larvae from deeper reefs not impacted by surface thermal stress. Thus, the presence of internal bores might be an important factor locally in the resilience of select coral reefs facing increased

  8. Infarct fogging on immediate postinterventional CT - a not infrequent occurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekeyzer, Sven [Onze-Lieve-Vrouw (OLV) Ziekenhuis Aalst, Department of Medical Imaging, Aalst (Belgium); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Reich, Arno [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Othman, Ahmed E. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin; Nikoubashman, Omid [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    A pseudo-normalization of infarcted brain parenchyma, similar to the ''fogging effect'' which usually occurs after 2-3 weeks, can be observed on CT performed immediately after endovascular stroke treatment (EST). Goal of this study was to analyze the incidence of this phenomenon and its evolution on follow-up imaging. One hundred fifty-two patients in our database of 949 patients, who were treated for acute stroke between January 2010 and January 2015, fulfilled the inclusion criteria of (a) EST for an acute stroke in the anterior circulation, (b) an ASPECT-score < 10 on pre-interventional CT, and (c) postinterventional CT imaging within 4.5 h after the procedure. Two independent reviewers analyzed imaging data of these patients. Transformation of brain areas from hypoattenuated on pre-interventional CT to isodense on postinterventional CT was seen in 37 patients in a total of 49 ASPECTS areas (Cohen's kappa 0.819; p < 0.001). In 17 patients, the previously hypoattenuated brain areas became isodense, but appeared swollen. In 20 patients (13%), the previously hypodense brain area could not be distinguished from normal brain parenchyma. On follow-up imaging, all isodense brain areas showed signs of infarction. Pseudo-normalization of infarct hypoattenuation on postinterventional CT is not infrequent. It is most likely caused by contrast leakage in infarcted parenchyma and does not represent salvage of ischemic brain parenchyma. (orig.)

  9. Aquaponic Growbed Water Level Control Using Fog Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi Romli, Muhamad; Daud, Shuhaizar; Raof, Rafikha Aliana A.; Awang Ahmad, Zahari; Mahrom, Norfadilla

    2018-05-01

    Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is an advance method of aquaculture which combines species with different nutritional needs to live together. The combination between aquatic live and crops is called aquaponics. Aquatic waste that normally removed by biofilters in normal aquaculture practice will be absorbed by crops in this practice. Aquaponics have few common components and growbed provide the best filtration function. In growbed a siphon act as mechanical structure to control water fill and flush process. Water to the growbed comes from fish tank with multiple flow speeds based on the pump specification and height. Too low speed and too fast flow rate can result in siphon malfunctionality. Pumps with variable speed do exist but it is costly. Majority of the aquaponic practitioner use single speed pump and try to match the pump speed with siphon operational requirement. In order to remove the matching requirement some control need to be introduced. Preliminarily this research will show the concept of fill-and-flush for multiple pumping speeds. The final aim of this paper is to show how water level management can be done to remove the speed dependency. The siphon tried to be controlled remotely since wireless data transmission quite practical in vast operational area. Fog architecture will be used in order to transmit sensor data and control command. This paper able to show the water able to be retented in the growbed within suggested duration by stopping the flow in once predefined level.

  10. Nuclear power: Hour of fog producers; Atomkraft: Stunde der Nebelwerfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauner, M.; Schuh, H.

    2004-03-04

    Seven advanced nuclear power plants in Germany can withstand a frontal crash by a full-tanked Jumbo-Jet. But for five older plants even smaller planes can cause an hazard impossible to control. A fog generation around the power plants, favorized by operators and politicians, to camouflage this plants against terroristic flights is absurd because of the possibility of flight automation. However terrorists may attack reactors also from the ground, but how they can do is top secret. (GL) [German] Einem frontalen Aufprall eines voll getankten Jumbo-Jets mit hoher Geschwindigkeit koennen in Deutschland sieben moderne Kernkraftwerke standhalten. Bei fuenf aelteren Modellen kann dagegen selbst ein kleineres Flugzeug ein schwer beherrschbares Unglueck ausloesen. Obwohl Experten eine vorzeitige Schliessung solch alter Meiler fuer realistisch halten, ist die Verhandlungslage aufgrund ideologischer Einfluesse verfahren. Die von Betreibern und Politikern gern gepriesenen Nebelwerfer zur Tarnung der Kraftwerke sind wegen der Moeglichkeit des Instrumentenfluges sinnlos. Die beste Abwehr bieten vorgelagerte Schutzbauten aus Beton. Jedoch koennen Terroristen Reaktoren auch vom Boden aus gefaehrden, wie, ist natuerlich geheim.

  11. Clearing the Cosmic Fog - The Most Distant Galaxy Ever Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A European team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) has measured the distance to the most remote galaxy so far. By carefully analysing the very faint glow of the galaxy they have found that they are seeing it when the Universe was only about 600 million years old (a redshift of 8.6). These are the first confirmed observations of a galaxy whose light is clearing the opaque hydrogen fog that filled the cosmos at this early time. The results were presented at an online press conference with the scientists on 19 October 2010, and will appear in the 21 October issue of the journal Nature. "Using the ESO Very Large Telescope we have confirmed that a galaxy spotted earlier using Hubble is the most remote object identified so far in the Universe" [1], says Matt Lehnert (Observatoire de Paris) who is lead author of the paper reporting the results. "The power of the VLT and its SINFONI spectrograph allows us to actually measure the distance to this very faint galaxy and we find that we are seeing it when the Universe was less than 600 million years old." Studying these first galaxies is extremely difficult. By the time that their initially brilliant light gets to Earth they appear very faint and small. Furthermore, this dim light falls mostly in the infrared part of the spectrum because its wavelength has been stretched by the expansion of the Universe - an effect known as redshift. To make matters worse, at this early time, less than a billion years after the Big Bang, the Universe was not fully transparent and much of it was filled with a hydrogen fog that absorbed the fierce ultraviolet light from young galaxies. The period when the fog was still being cleared by this ultraviolet light is known as the era of reionisation [2]. Despite these challenges the new Wide Field Camera 3 on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope discovered several robust candidate objects in 2009 [3] that were thought to be galaxies shining in the era of reionisation. Confirming the

  12. Fog water collection and reforestation at mountain locations in a western Mediterranean basin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Ja; Estrela, Mj; Corell, D.; Fuentes, D.; Valdecantos, A.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies carried out by the authors have shown the potential of fog water collection at several mountain locations in the Valencia region (western Mediterranean basin). This coastal region features typical conditions for a dry Mediterranean climate characterized by a pluviometric regime ranging from 400 to 600 mm with a strong annual dependence. Dry conditions together with land degradation that frequently results after recurrent fires occurred in the past make a difficult self-recovery for native forest vegetation so that some kind of human intervention is always recommended. In plots reforested with Mediterranean woody species, periods of more than 120 days without significant precipitation (>5 mm) result in mortality rates above 80% during the first summer in the field. The good potential of fog-water collection at certain mountain locations is considered in this study as an easily available water resource for the reforestation of remote areas where native vegetation cannot be reestablished by itself. A large flat panel made of UV-resistant HD-polyethylene monofilament mesh was deployed at a mountain location for bulk fog water harvesting. Water was stored in high-capacity tanks for the whole length of the experimental campaign and small timely water pulses localized deep in the planting holes were conducted during the summer dry periods. Survival rates and seedling performance of two forest tree species, Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex, were quantified and correlated to irrigation pulses in a reforestation plot that took an area of about 2500 m2 and contained 620 1-year-old plants. Before and concurrently to the flat panel deployment, a passive omnidirectional fog-water collector of cylindrical shape was set in the area in combination to other environmental instruments such as a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. Proper orientation of the large flat panel was possible once the direction of local winds

  13. Fog Collection Pilot Project (FCPP) in the Eastern Escarpments of Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherezghiher, T.

    2010-07-01

    Eritrea is water scarce country that relies heavily on underground water reserve and more than 80% of the rural population does not have access to safe and clean drinking water. In the rural areas, shallow hand dug wells are the primary sources of water and in most cases their discharge rate is deteriorating due to the recurrent drought. Particularly, in the targeted project areas underground water reserve is hard to find due to the steep topography. However, in these parts of Eritrea one will find a sector of mountains, about 700 km long, where the wind transports moist air from the Red Sea forming fog on the highlands. The area of the FCPP is the region of Maakel, near the villages Nefasit and Arborobu. The overall objective of his FCPP was to provide supplementary water supply system from large fog collectors (LFCs) in order to increase access to safe and clean drinking water in the targeted Schools and surrounding villages. Communities and students were organized to participate in the implementation of the project. Forty LFCs were established in all the targeted areas in previously evaluated potential locations. The project was implemented by Vision Eritrea, a National NGO in partnership with the country's' Water Resource Department; Fog Quest a Canadian NGO and Water Foundation, a German NGO, who also funded the project. The FCPP focused on introducing a new innovative water harvesting technology which is a crucial element for the survival of the people in the mountainous escarpment of the country; and with prospect of locally owned solutions for a sustainable management of and access to natural resource. Preliminary evaluation of the project showed that there was a good production of fog water, with an average of 6-8 litters/m2/day on the low intensity of fog and from 12 -18 litters on the high fog intensity. A functional water committee was established and trained on water management and maintenance of the LFC. They also developed water bylaw by which the

  14. Observation of sandhill cranes' (Grus canadensis) flight behavior in heavy fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Wellik, Mike J.; Suarez, Manuel J.; Diehl, Robert H.; Lutes, Jim; Woyczik, Wendy; Krapfl, Jon; Sojda, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The behaviors of birds flying in low visibility conditions remain poorly understood. We had the opportunity to monitor Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) flying in heavy fog with very low visibility during a comprehensive landscape use study of refuging cranes in the Horicon Marsh in southeastern Wisconsin. As part of the study, we recorded flight patterns of cranes with a portable marine radar at various locations and times of day, and visually counted cranes as they departed the roost in the morning. We compared flight patterns during a fog event with those recorded during clear conditions. In good visibility, cranes usually departed the night roost shortly after sunrise and flew in relatively straight paths toward foraging areas. In fog, cranes departed the roost later in the day, did not venture far from the roost, engaged in significantly more circling flight, and returned to the roost site rather than proceeding to foraging areas. We also noted that compared to mornings with good visibility, cranes flying in fog called more frequently than usual. The only time in this 2-year study that observers heard young of the year calling was during the fog event. The observed behavior of cranes circling and lingering in an area while flying in poor visibility conditions suggests that such situations may increase chances of colliding with natural or anthropogenic obstacles in the vicinity.

  15. Environmental effects of fog oil and CS usage at the Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Snyder, C.T.

    1992-03-01

    In response to environmental concerns at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Hohenfels, Germany, the US Army 7th Army Training Command commissioned a scientific study by Argonne National Laboratory to investigate specific issues. The study involved three parts: (1) a field study to determine if fog oil and CS (a compound named after its discoverers, B.B. Carson and R.W. Stoughton) were accumulating in the CMTC environment, (2) a screening of selected soil samples for the presence of US Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants, and (3) a literature review of the health effects of fog oil and CS, as well as a review of training practices at CMTC. No fog oil or fog oil degradation products were detected in any soil, sediment, or vegetation sample collected at CMTC. Trace quantities of one or more priority pollutants were tentatively detected in three of eight soil and sediment samples. However, the priority pollutant concentrations are so low that they pose no environmental or health hazards. No evidence of widespread or significant contamination in the training areas was found. Crucial data needed to fully evaluate both acute and chronic health effects of civilian exposures to CS at CMTC are not available. On the basis of the available literature, long-ten-n health effects in the civilian population near CMTC that could result from the use of fog oil and CS during training activities are believed to be negligible.

  16. Fogging Control on LDPE/EVA Coextruded Films: Wettability Behavior and Its Correlation with Electric Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Waldo-Mendoza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of fog at a non-visible water layer on a membrane of low-density polyethylene (LDPE and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA was evaluated. Nonionic surfactants of major demand in the polyolefin industry were studied. A kinetic study using a hot fog chamber showed that condensation is controlled by both the diffusion and permanency of the surfactant more than by the change of the surface energy developed by the wetting agents. The greatest permanency of the anti-fog effect of the LDPE/EVA surface was close to 3000 h. The contact angle results demonstrated the ability of the wetting agent to spread out to the surface. Complementarily, the migration of nonionic surfactants from the inside of the polymeric matrix to the surface was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microscopy. Additionally, electrical measurement on the anti-fogging membrane at alternating currents and at a sweep frequency was proposed to test the conductivity and wetting ability of nonionic surfactants. We proved that the amphiphilic molecules had the ability to increase the conductivity in the polyolefin membrane. A correlation between the bulk electrical conductivity and the permanency of the fogging control on the LDPE/EVA coextruded film was found.

  17. Brain "fog," inflammation and obesity : key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoharis Constantin Theoharides

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain fog is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain fog characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS, as well as minimal cognitive impairment, an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain fog may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation. Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase. A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain fog in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogues with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain fog.

  18. Chemical characterization of fog and rain water collected at the eastern Andes cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Beiderwieden

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During a three month period in 2003 and 2004, the chemistry of fog and rainwater were studied at the 'El Tiro' site in a tropical mountain forest ecosystem in Ecuador, South America. The fogwater samples were collected using a passive fog collector, and for the rain water, a standard rain sampler was employed. For all samples, electric conductivity, pH, and the concentrations of NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl−, NO3−, PO43−, and SO42− were measured. For each fog sample, a 5 day back trajectory was calculated by the use of the HYSPLIT model. Two types of trajectories occurred. One type was characterized by advection of air masses from the East over the Amazonian basin, the other trajectory arrived one from the West after significant travel time over the Pacific Ocean. We found considerably higher ion concentrations in fogwater samples than in rain samples. Median pH values are 4.58 for fog water, and 5.26 for the rain samples, respectively. The median electric conductivity was 23 μS cm−1 for the fog and 6 μS cm−1 for the rain. The continent samples exhibit higher concentrations of most ions as compared to the pacific samples, but these differences could not be detected statistically.

  19. Brain "fog," inflammation and obesity: key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Stewart, Julia M; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Kolaitis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Brain "fog" is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain "fog" characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis, and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), as well as "minimal cognitive impairment," an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain "fog" may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs) further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation. Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase. A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain "fog" in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogs with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain "fog."

  20. Channel modeling and performance evaluation of FSO communication systems in fog

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    Free space optical (FSO) communication has become more exciting during the last decade. It has unregulated spectrum with a huge capacity compared to its radio frequency (RF) counterpart. Although FSO has many applications that cover indoor and outdoor environments, its widespread is humped by weather effects. Fog is classified as an extreme weather impairment that may cause link drop. Foggy channel modeling and characterization is necessary to analyze the system performance. In this paper, we first address the statistical behavior of the foggy channel based on a set of literature experimental data and develop a probability distribution function (PDF) model for fog attenuation. We then exploit our PDF model to derive closed form expressions and evaluate the system performance theoretically and numerically, in terms of average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and outage probability. The results show that for 10-3 outage probability and 22 dBm transmitted power, the FSO system can work over 80 m, 160 m, 310 m, and 460 m link length under dense, thick, moderate, and light fog respectively. Increasing the transmitted power will have high impact when the fog density is low. However, under very dense fog, it has almost no effect. © 2016 IEEE.

  1. Channel modeling and performance evaluation of FSO communication systems in fog

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah; Fathallah, Habib; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Free space optical (FSO) communication has become more exciting during the last decade. It has unregulated spectrum with a huge capacity compared to its radio frequency (RF) counterpart. Although FSO has many applications that cover indoor and outdoor environments, its widespread is humped by weather effects. Fog is classified as an extreme weather impairment that may cause link drop. Foggy channel modeling and characterization is necessary to analyze the system performance. In this paper, we first address the statistical behavior of the foggy channel based on a set of literature experimental data and develop a probability distribution function (PDF) model for fog attenuation. We then exploit our PDF model to derive closed form expressions and evaluate the system performance theoretically and numerically, in terms of average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and outage probability. The results show that for 10-3 outage probability and 22 dBm transmitted power, the FSO system can work over 80 m, 160 m, 310 m, and 460 m link length under dense, thick, moderate, and light fog respectively. Increasing the transmitted power will have high impact when the fog density is low. However, under very dense fog, it has almost no effect. © 2016 IEEE.

  2. PM10 Sampling and AOD Trends during 2016 Winter Fog Season in the Islamabad Region

    KAUST Repository

    Bulbul, Gufran

    2017-07-24

    PM samples were collected during intensive fog days in Islamabad, Pakistan, to investigate the impact of particulate matter on fog formation. The PM concentrations were monitored at the Institute of Space Technology site using a high-volume air sampler and its elemental composition was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Sampling was done for a duration of 24 hours on selected days, including all foggy days in a period from January 2016 to February 2016. The concentration of PM varied from 123 µg m to 202 µg m with an overall mean concentration of 177 µg m. On most occasions, PM levels were considerably high as compared to permissible limits of both Pak-NEQS and WHO guidelines. It has been observed that the air quality during fog days was much worse, with elevated levels of particulate matter observed during foggy days. The SEM-EDS revealed the presence of different elements including some metals Si, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cr, Pb, Al etc. The morphological studies suggest that most of the particles are crystalline in shape, suggesting their main source as soil. Some samples also showed round spherical shape which refers their anthropogenic source. The sun photometer observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and satellite observations from Aqua’s Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) showed significant correlation. Moreover, elevated level of AOD were found during heavy fog days. The validated high satellite AOD were associated with high PM concentration during heavy fog days.

  3. Chemical characterization of fog and rain water collected at the eastern Andes cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiderwieden, E.; Wrzesinsky, T.; Klemm, O.

    2005-09-01

    During a three month period in 2003 and 2004, the chemistry of fog and rainwater were studied at the "El Tiro" site in a tropical mountain forest ecosystem in Ecuador, South America. The fogwater samples were collected using a passive fog collector, and for the rain water, a standard rain sampler was employed. For all samples, electric conductivity, pH, and the concentrations of NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-, PO43-, and SO42- were measured. For each fog sample, a 5 day back trajectory was calculated by the use of the HYSPLIT model. Two types of trajectories occurred. One type was characterized by advection of air masses from the East over the Amazonian basin, the other trajectory arrived one from the West after significant travel time over the Pacific Ocean. We found considerably higher ion concentrations in fogwater samples than in rain samples. Median pH values are 4.58 for fog water, and 5.26 for the rain samples, respectively. The median electric conductivity was 23 μS cm-1 for the fog and 6 μS cm-1 for the rain. The continent samples exhibit higher concentrations of most ions as compared to the pacific samples, but these differences could not be detected statistically.

  4. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  5. Fog in a marginal agricultural area surrounded by montane Andean cloud forest during El Niño climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, G.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate temporal variations of water inputs, rainfall and fog (cloud water), and its contribution to the water balance in a marginal agricultural area of potato surrounded by tropical montane cloud forest in Colombia. Fog in the air boundary layer was estimated using a cylindrical fog collector. Liquid water content of fog events were evaluated before and during natural climate event of El Niño. Our study shows the temporal variation of these two water inputs in both daily and monthly cycles on Boyacá at 2900 m a.s.l. Rainfall was the most frequently observed atmospheric phenomenon, being present on average 62% of the days per year, whereas fog was 45% of the time. Reflected on the lower frequency, annual amount of fog was 11% of precipitation. However during the anomalous dry climate of El Niño, total amount of rainfall was negligible and the few fog events were the only water source for plant growth. Estimated water crop requirements were higher than the water inputs. The survival of the crops was explained by meteorological conditions during dew and fog events. High relative humidity might have eased the plant’s water stress by decreasing transpiration and temperature in leaves and soil, affecting the water balance and the heat exchange between the atmosphere-land interfaces in the marginal agricultural areas during exceptional dry climate.

  6. Ground-Based Observations and Modeling of the Visibility and Radar Reflectivity in a Radiation Fog Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, R.; Baltink, K.H.; Hemink, H.J.; Bosveld, F.C.; Moerman, M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a radiation fog layer at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research(51.97°N, 4.93°E) on 23 March 2011 was observed with ground-based in situ and remote sensing observationsto investigate the relationship between visibility and radar reflectivity. The fog layer thickness

  7. Fogging low concentrated organic acid in a fattening pig unit – Effect on animal health and microclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Stein

    2016-09-01

    Although fogging of tartaric acid is limited to a concentration of 0.1% due to its irritating effect on the respiratory mucosa, reduction of microbial load can be achieved, but it would be enhanced by using more powerful fogging systems.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of a pulsed laser beam diffusing through fog: spatial and temporal structure of the echoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coletti, A.; Fiocco, G.

    1980-01-01

    Results of numerical experiments concerning the propagation and scattering of an optical beam through fog are reported. The experiments, which utilize a Monte Carlo simulation, are aimed at retrieving information on the characteristics of fogs and clouds and in particular on the absorption parameters, which are of primary importance in climate studies. (author)

  9. Global Warming: A Reduced Threat?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1992-10-01

    One popular and apocalyptic vision of the world influenced by increasing concentrations of infrared-absorbing trace gases is that of ecological disaster brought about by rapidly rising temperatures, sea level, and evaporation rates. This vision developed from a suite of climate models that have since considerably changed in both their dynamics and their estimates of prospective warming. Observed temperatures indicate that much more warming should already have taken place than predicted by earlier models in the Northern Hemisphere, and that night, rather than day, readings in that hemisphere show a relative warming. A high-latitude polar-night warming or a general night warming could be either benign or beneficial. A large number of plant species show both increased growth and greater water-use efficiency under enhanced carbon dioxide.An extensive body of evidence now indicates that anthropo-generated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. The sulfate emissions, though, are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. However, the sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies.

  10. Experimental climate warming decreases photosynthetic efficiency of lichens in an arid South African ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphangwa, Khumbudzo Walter; Musil, Charles F; Raitt, Lincoln; Zedda, Luciana

    2012-05-01

    Elevated temperatures and diminished precipitation amounts accompanying climate warming in arid ecosystems are expected to have adverse effects on the photosynthesis of lichen species sensitive to elevated temperature and/or water limitation. This premise was tested by artificially elevating temperatures (increase 2.1-3.8°C) and reducing the amounts of fog and dew precipitation (decrease 30.1-31.9%), in an approximation of future climate warming scenarios, using transparent hexagonal open-top warming chambers placed around natural populations of four lichen species (Xanthoparmelia austroafricana, X. hyporhytida , Xanthoparmelia. sp., Xanthomaculina hottentotta) at a dry inland site and two lichen species (Teloschistes capensis and Ramalina sp.) at a humid coastal site in the arid South African Succulent Karoo Biome. Effective photosynthetic quantum yields ([Formula: see text]) were measured hourly throughout the day at monthly intervals in pre-hydrated lichens present in the open-top warming chambers and in controls which comprised demarcated plots of equivalent open-top warming chamber dimensions constructed from 5-cm-diameter mesh steel fencing. The cumulative effects of the elevated temperatures and diminished precipitation amounts in the open-top warming chambers resulted in significant decreases in lichen [Formula: see text]. The decreases were more pronounced in lichens from the dry inland site (decline 34.1-46.1%) than in those from the humid coastal site (decline 11.3-13.7%), most frequent and prominent in lichens at both sites during the dry summer season, and generally of greatest magnitude at or after the solar noon in all seasons. Based on these results, we conclude that climate warming interacting with reduced precipitation will negatively affect carbon balances in endemic lichens by increasing desiccation damage and reducing photosynthetic activity time, leading to increased incidences of mortality.

  11. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in energy costs and emission problems in hot mix asphalt usually used, it brought a great interest to the researchers to develop the warm mix technology for pavement constructions. Commonly known as warm mix asphalt (WMA, it is a typical method in the bituminous paving technology, which allows production and placement of bituminous mixes at lower temperatures than that used for hot mix asphalt (HMA. The WMA involves an environmental friendly production process that utilises organic additives, chemical additives and water based technologies. The organic and chemical additives are normally very costly and still involve certain amount of environmental issues. These factors motivated the authors to take up this technology using simple, environment friendly and somewhat cost effective procedure. In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare warm mixes by first pre-coating the aggregates with medium setting bitumen emulsion (MS and then mixing the semi-coated aggregates with VG 30 bitumen at a lower temperature than normally required. After a number of trials it was observed that mostly three mixing temperatures, namely temperatures 110 °C, 120 °C and 130 °C were appropriate to form the bituminous mixes with satisfactory homogeneity and consistency and as such were maintained throughout this study. Marshall samples for paving mixes were prepared using this procedure for dense bituminous macadam (DBM gradings as per the specifications of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH and subsequently Marshall properties of the resultant mixes were studied with the main objective of deciding the different parameters that were considered for development of appropriate warm mix asphalt. In this study it has been observed that out of three mixing temperatures tried, the mixes prepared at 120 °C with bitumen-emulsion composition of 80B:20E for DBM warm mix, offer highest Marshall stability and highest indirect tensile strength

  12. Trapping fresh sea breeze in desert? Health status of Camanchaca, Atacama's fog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Cunha Lima, Ricardo; Martínez Turrieta, Gladys

    2018-05-24

    Water fog composition was investigated at a fog harvesting installation in the coast of Atacama (North Chile). Chañaral is historically affected by mining contamination discharges. Hydro-chemical characterization of fog water from top of the mountain (where capture installation is located) and at the bottom of the mountain (after vertical transportation where an aquaponic system is located) revealed many compositional differences that compromise the use of water. High acidity and high concentrations in Cu and As in water collected on top of the mountain were found; meanwhile, acidity and Cu decreased, and As levels overpassed the drinking water standards after the vertical transportation. Collected data was assessed according to national and international regulatory standards, neutralization factors (NF), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and ion ratios to determine origin of contamination and suitability of destined for human consumption, irrigation, or aquaculture purposes.

  13. A Novel Retinex Algorithm and its Application to Fog-degraded Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyou Hu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fog-degraded images enhancement is an important problem in the field of image enhancement and computer vision. To overcome the halo artifact, enhance the contrast and better preserve the color of original image, a novel Multi-Scale Retinex color image enhancement method is proposed in this paper. An adaptive anisotropic Gaussian filtering method and its principle are described. The orientation of the Gaussian filter long axes is determined according to the gradient orientation in the position. The procedure of algorithm is given in this paper and applied in the fog- degraded images enhancement. Finally, by comparison with histogram equalization and Multi-Scale Retinex method, the experimental results show that the proposed method can offer better performance in fog-degraded image enhancement.

  14. Ion fluxes from fog and rain to an agricultural and a forest ecosystem in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, E.; Burkard, R.; Wrzesinsky, T.; Eugster, W.; Klemm, O.

    The deposition fluxes of inorganic compounds dissolved in fog and rain were quantified for two different ecosystems in Europe. The fogwater deposition fluxes were measured by employing the eddy covariance method. The site in Switzerland that lies within an agricultural area surrounded by the Jura mountains and the Alps is often exposed to radiation fog. At the German mountain forest ecosystem, on the other hand, advection fog occurs most frequently. At the Swiss site, fogwater deposition fluxes of the dominant components SO 42- (0.027 mg S m -2 day -1), NO 3- (0.030 mg N m -2 day -1) and NH 4+ (0.060 mg N m -2 day -1) were estimated to be fogwater concentrations of all major ions if air originated from the east (i.e. the Czech Republic), which is in close agreement with earlier studies.

  15. Field investigation of physical and chemical mechanisms affecting pollutant concentrations in fog droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, D.J.; Waldman, J.M.; Munger, J.W.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    High ionic loadings were found in fogwater collected at Bakersfield, California during an extended stagnation episode. The major ions were NH4(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-), with concentrations usually in the millimolar range. Droplet growth played an important role in determining fogwater concentrations. The amount of solute decreased substantially over the course of each fog event this was attributed, at least in part, to deposition of fog droplets on surfaces. The occurrence of this was attributed, at least in part, to deposition of fog droplets on surfaces. The sulfate fraction in the aerosol increased appreciably over several days of stagnation, but no statistical evidence for in situ S(IV) aqueous-phase oxidation was found. The high ammonia concentrations present were sufficient to neutralize a large fraction of the ambient acidity. As a result, fogwater pH values rarely attained the extremely low values found in other polluted environments. 46 references.

  16. High-Efficiency Fog Collector: Water Unidirectional Transport on Heterogeneous Rough Conical Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Lin, Yucai; Zhang, Miaoxin; Shi, Weiwei; Zheng, Yongmei

    2016-12-27

    An artificial periodic roughness-gradient conical copper wire (PCCW) can be fabricated by inspiration from cactus spines and wet spider silks. PCCW can harvest fog on periodic points of the conical surface from air and transports the drops for a long distance without external force, which is attributed to dynamic as-released energy generated from drop deformation in drop coalescence, in addition to both gradients of geometric curve (inducing Laplace pressure) and periodic roughness (inducing surface energy difference). It is found that the ability of fog collection can be related to various tilt-angle wires, thus a fog collector with an array system of PCCWs is further designed to achieve a continuous process of efficient water collection. As a result, the effect of water collection on PCCWs is better than previous results. These findings are significant to develop and design materials with water collection and water transport for promising application in fogwater systems to ease the water crisis.

  17. Prognostics and health management system for hydropower plant based on fog computing and docker container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Mingqiang; Tian, Haiping; Huang, Bo; Fu, Wenlong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a novel prognostics and health management system architecture for hydropower plant equipment was proposed based on fog computing and Docker container. We employed the fog node to improve the real-time processing ability of improving the cloud architecture-based prognostics and health management system and overcome the problems of long delay time, network congestion and so on. Then Storm-based stream processing of fog node was present and could calculate the health index in the edge of network. Moreover, the distributed micros-service and Docker container architecture of hydropower plants equipment prognostics and health management was also proposed. Using the micro service architecture proposed in this paper, the hydropower unit can achieve the goal of the business intercommunication and seamless integration of different equipment and different manufacturers. Finally a real application case is given in this paper.

  18. A Study of Fog Characteristics using Free-Space Optical Wireless Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Awan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A technique for modeling the fog droplet size distributions using modified gamma distribution has been demonstrated by considering two separate radiation fog events recorded in Graz (Austria and Prague (Czech Republic. The measurement of liquid water content (LWC and the optical attenuations at visible wavelength are used to form equations to obtain the three parameters of the modified gamma distribution i.e., the slope (Λ, the intercept (N0 and the shape parameter (m. Calculated attenuation or LWC from the retrieved parameters are in excellent agreement with attenuation or LWC obtained from the measurement. Hence this method is useful in the study of fog microphysics and in modeling the fog attenuations for terrestrial FSO links in situations when our measurement data contains values of attenuations only, or liquid water content only or both at a particular location. For the two case studies, Graz and Prague, we obtained the DSD parameters Λ=3.547 ± 1.935, N0 =3.834 ± 2.239, m=6.135 ± 2.692 and Λ=5.882 ± 2.889, N0 =13.41 ± 3.875, m=5.288 ± 3.113, respectively. It is evident that the observed behavior of computed modified gamma distribution parameters for Graz and Prague is closely the same and is consistent with the previous literature for the radiation (continental fog. Moreover, we observed the variation of the computed DSD parameters at the different stages of fog (formation, maturity and dissipation phases indicating different microphysical processes at each stage.

  19. Fog and Rain Water Collection from Trees in the Dhofar Region in the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Abdul-Wahab

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This work had two purposes. The first was to measure and investigate the amount of fog and rain water collected by a sample of trees during the summer monsoon season in the mountains of the Dhofar region in the south of Oman. The second purpose was to assess the potential of trees with different leaf shapes, sizes and cross sectional canopy areas to collect fog and rain water in the area. In order to meet these purposes three different tree species, were selected for experimental investigation and field measurements. They included fig, lemon, and tamarind trees. The experiments were designed and implemented in the monsoon season of 2006, between the 13th of July and the 3rd of September. The daily measurements of water collection showed that the three species of tree have different water collection capacities. It was found that the fig tree collected the least water. The fog water collection of the fig tree over a period of 47 days between the 13th of July and the 3rd of September was 140.5 L/m2, or an average of 2.7 L/m2/d. The fog water collection of the lemon tree was 243.0 L/m2, or an average of 4.4 L/m2/d. In terms of potential collection of the tamarind tree, the results showed that it collected a fog water of 218.9 L/m2, or an average of 4.3 L/m2/d over the same period. The study contributes to the knowledge of how different tree species collect fog and rain water, and concludes with a set of recommendations.

  20. Near-real time Monitoring of the widespread winter Fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains using satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, D. L.; Gautam, R.; Rizvi, S.; Singh, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    The persistent and widespread winter fog impacts the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) on an annual basis, disrupting day-to-day lives of millions of people in parts of northern India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. The IGP is a densely-populated region located south of the Himalaya, in the northern parts of south Asia. During the past three decades or so, associated with growing population and energy demands, the IGP has witnessed strong upward trends in air pollution, particularly leading to poor air quality in the winter months. Co-occurring with the dense haze over the IGP, severe fog episodes persist throughout the months of December and January. Building on our recent work on satellite-based detection of fog, we have further extended the detection capability towards the development of a near-real time (NRT) fog monitoring system using satellite radiances and products. Here, we use multi-spectral radiances and aerosol/cloud retrievals from Terra/Aqua MODIS data for NRT fog monitoring over the IGP for both daytime as well as nighttime. Specifically, the nighttime fog detection algorithm employs a bi-spectral brightness temperature difference technique between two spectral channels: 3.9 μm and 11 μm. Our ongoing efforts also include extending fog detection capability in NRT to geostationary satellites, for providing continuous monitoring of the onset, evolution and spatial-temporal variation of fog, as well as the geospatial integration of surface meteorological observations of visibility, relative humidity, temperature. We anticipate that the ongoing and future development of a fog monitoring system may be of particular assistance to air and rail transportation management, as well as of general interest to the public. The outputs of fog detection algorithm and related aerosol/cloud parameters are operationally disseminated via http://fogsouthasia.com/.

  1. The narrow-leaf syndrome: a functional and evolutionary approach to the form of fog-harvesting rosette plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Carlos; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2007-04-01

    Plants that use fog as an important water-source frequently have a rosette growth habit. The performance of this morphology in relation to fog interception has not been studied. Some first-principles from physics predict that narrow leaves, together with other ancillary traits (large number and high flexibility of leaves, caudices, and/or epiphytism) which constitute the "narrow-leaf syndrome" should increase fog-interception efficiency. This was tested using aluminum models of rosettes that differed in leaf length, width and number and were exposed to artificial fog. The results were validated using seven species of Tillandsia and four species of xerophytic rosettes. The total amount of fog intercepted in rosette plants increased with total leaf area, while narrow leaves maximized interception efficiency (measured as interception per unit area). The number of leaves in the rosettes is physically constrained because wide-leafed plants can only have a few blades. At the limits of this constraint, net fog interception was independent of leaf form, but interception efficiency was maximized by large numbers of narrow leaves. Atmospheric Tillandsia species show the narrow-leaf syndrome. Their fog interception efficiencies were correlated to the ones predicted from aluminum-model data. In the larger xerophytic rosette species, the interception efficiency was greatest in plants showing the narrow-leaf syndrome. The adaptation to fog-harvesting in several narrow-leaved rosettes was tested for evolutionary convergence in 30 xerophytic rosette species using a comparative method. There was a significant evolutionary tendency towards the development of the narrow-leaf syndrome the closer the species grew to areas where fog is frequently available. This study establishes convergence in a very wide group of plants encompassing genera as contrasting as Tillandsia and Agave as a result of their dependence on fog.

  2. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L −1 (mean of 45 ng · L −1 ), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L −1 for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L −1 for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains of the Iberian

  3. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Simal-Gándara, Jesús, E-mail: jsimal@uvigo.es [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier, E-mail: xabier.pombal@usc.es [Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago Campus, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L{sup −1} (mean of 45 ng · L{sup −1}), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains

  4. Robot Vision to Monitor Structures in Invisible Fog Environments Using Active Imaging Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seungkyu; Park, Nakkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Active vision is a direct visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The RGI system provides 2D and 3D image data from several images and it moreover provides clear images from invisible fog and smoke environment by using summing of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays, more and more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated 3D imaging based on range-gated imaging. In this paper, a robot system to monitor structures in invisible fog environment is developed using an active range-gated imaging technique. The system consists of an ultra-short pulse laser device and a highly sensitive imaging sensor. The developed vision system is carried out to monitor objects in invisible fog environment. The experimental result of this newly approach vision system is described in this paper. To see invisible objects in fog

  5. Transient disappearance of cerebral infarcts on CT scan, the so-called fogging effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech Skriver, E.; Skyhoej Olsen, T.; Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen

    1981-01-01

    The fogging effect, whereby initially hypodense infarcts become isodense during the second and third week after the onset of stroke, was investigated in a prospective and consecutive series comprising 50 cases with completed stroke. CT scans were performed approximately 3 days, 10 days and 6 months after stroke. The fogging effect was found in 54% of cases. The hypodense areas reappeared on all scans at 6 months. Cerebral infarcts therefore may be overlooked or grossly underestimated if the scan is performed during the second and third week after stroke. (orig.)

  6. Fog and precipitation chemistry at a mid-land forest in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yang-Ling; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Hwong, Jeen-Liang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Chiao-Ping

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed fog and bulk precipitation chemistry at a cloud forest in central Taiwan where mountain agriculture activities are highest. There were 320 foggy days (visibility agriculture has a major impact on atmospheric deposition at the surrounding forest ecosystems. The input of inorganic N reached 125 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and likely exceeded the biological demand of the forest ecosystem. Sulfate is the most abundant anion in fog at Chi-tou and in precipitation at various forests throughout Taiwan, suggesting that the emission and transport of large quantities of SO(2,) the precursor of SO(4)(2-), is an island-wide environmental issue.

  7. Multiphase chemistry in a microphysical radiation fog model—A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Andreas; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    A microphysical radiation fog model is coupled with a detailed chemistry module to simulate chemical reactions in the gas phase and in fog water during a radiation fog event. In the chemical part of the model the microphysical particle spectrum is subdivided into three size classes corresponding to non-activated aerosol particles, small and large fog droplets. Chemical reactions in the liquid phase are separately calculated in the small and in the large droplet size class. The impact of the chemical constitution of activated aerosols on fogwater chemistry is considered in the model simulations. The mass transfer of chemical species between the gas phase and the two liquid phases is treated in detail by solving the corresponding coupled differential equation system. The model also accounts for concentration changes of gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemical species which are induced by turbulence, gravitational settling and by evaporation/condensation processes. Numerical results demonstrate that fogwater chemistry is strongly controlled by dynamic processes, i.e. the vertical growth of the fog, turbulent mixing processes and the gravitational settling of the particles. The concentrations of aqueous-phase chemical species are different in the two droplet size classes. Reactands with lower water solubility are mainly found in the large droplet size class because the characteristic time for their mass transfer from the gas phase into the liquid phase is essentially longer than the characteristic time for the formation of large fog droplets. Species with high water solubility are rapidly transferred into the small fog droplets and are then washed out by wet deposition before these particles grow further to form large droplets. Thus, the concentrations of the major ions (NO 3-, NH 4+) are much higher in small than in large droplets, yielding distinctly lower pH values of the small particles. In the present study the reaction of sulfur with H 2O 2 and the Fe

  8. On the removal efficiency of padon decay products by fog droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgzhdis, A.I.; Girgzhdene, R.V.; Shopauskas, K.K.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the experimental investigations on quantitative evaluation of the 218 Po and 214 Bi washout efficiency by fog in an aerosol chamber are presented. The radioactivity has been measured by means of α-spectrometric method. Comparison of eXperimental and calculated data is made. The 218 Po and 214 Bi washout efficiency ratio is found to be dependent mainly on the aerosol concentration. The change of 218 Po concentration imitates the process of coagulation of free atoms of light ions, and that of 214 Bi - of aerosol particles by fog droplets

  9. Pollutant Concentrations in the Rime and Fog Water at the Milesovka Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Tesař, Miroslav; Fottová, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 196, 1-4 (2009), s. 273-285 ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042301; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Deposited precipitation * Fog collection * Fog water * Milesovka observatory * Rime water Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2009 http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/18q3lr7681736qp2/fulltext.pdf

  10. Robot Vision to Monitor Structures in Invisible Fog Environments Using Active Imaging Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seungkyu; Park, Nakkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2014-01-01

    Active vision is a direct visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The RGI system provides 2D and 3D image data from several images and it moreover provides clear images from invisible fog and smoke environment by using summing of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays, more and more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated 3D imaging based on range-gated imaging. In this paper, a robot system to monitor structures in invisible fog environment is developed using an active range-gated imaging technique. The system consists of an ultra-short pulse laser device and a highly sensitive imaging sensor. The developed vision system is carried out to monitor objects in invisible fog environment. The experimental result of this newly approach vision system is described in this paper. To see invisible objects in fog

  11. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of army smokes in an aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate and terrestrial ecological effects of fog oil obscurant smokes: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Van Voris, P.; Ligotke, M.W.; Fellows, R.J.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of fog oil (FO) smoke obscurants were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on an exposure scenario, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of fog oil smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters, such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and three soil types. 29 refs., 35 figs., 32 tabs.

  12. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatmen...

  13. Structure of Warm Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, S.; Uhrenholt, H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the structure of nuclei in the energy region between the ground state and the neutron separation energy, here called warm nuclei. The onset of chaos in the nucleus as excitation energy is increased is briefly reviewed. Chaos implies fluctuations of energies and wave functions qualitatively the same for all chaotic nuclei. On the other hand, large structure effects are seen, e.g. in the level-density function at same excitation energies. A microscopic model for the level density is reviewed and we discuss effects on structure of the total level-density function, parity enhancement, and the spin distribution function. Comparisons to data are performed at the neutron separation energy for all observed nuclei, and structure of the level-density function for a few measured cases. The role of structure effects in the level-density function for fission dynamics is exemplified.

  14. Evaluation of fog and rain water collected at Delta Barrage, Egypt as a new resource for irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Talaat A.; Omar, Mohie El Din M.; El Gammal, H. A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Alternative clean water resources are needed in Egypt to face the current water shortage and water quality deterioration. Therefore, this research investigates the suitability of harvesting fog and rain water for irrigation using a pilot fog collector for water quantity, water quality, and economic aspects. A pilot fog collector was installed at one location at Delta Barrage, Egypt. Freeze liquid nitrogen was fixed at the back of the fiberglass sheet to increase the condensation rate. The experiment was conducted during the period from November 2015 to February 2016. In general, all physicochemical variables are observed with higher values in the majority of fog than rain water. The fog is assumed to contain higher concentrations of anthropogenic emissions. TDS in both waters collected are less than 700 mg/l at sodium content less than 60%, classifying these waters as good for various plants under most conditions. In addition, SAR calculated values are less than 3.0 in each of fog and rain water, which proves the water suitability for all irrigated agriculture. Al and Fe concentrations were found common in all samples with values less than the permissible limits of the guidelines. These metals originate from soil material, ash and metal surfaces. The sensitive heavy metals (Cd and Pb) were within the permissible limits of the guideline in fog water, indicating this water is suitable for irrigation. On the contrary, rain water that has heavy metals is not permitted in irrigation water as per the Egyptian law. As per WQI, the rain water is classified as good quality while fog is classified as medium quality. Regarding the water quantity, a significant increase in the harvested fog quantity was observed after cooling the collector surface with freeze liquid nitrogen. The current fog collector produced the lowest water quantity among different fog collectors worldwide. However, these comparative results confirmed that quantity is different from one location to another

  15. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  16. Visual Occlusion During Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Contemporary Review of Methods to Reduce Laparoscopic and Robotic Lens Fogging and Other Sources of Optical Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Todd G; Perera, Marlon; Christidis, Daniel; Kinnear, Ned; McGrath, Shannon; O'Beirne, Richard; Zotov, Paul; Bolton, Damien; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    Maintenance of optimal vision during minimally invasive surgery is crucial to maintaining operative awareness, efficiency, and safety. Hampered vision is commonly caused by laparoscopic lens fogging (LLF), which has prompted the development of various antifogging fluids and warming devices. However, limited comparative evidence exists in contemporary literature. Despite technologic advancements there remains no consensus as to superior methods to prevent LLF or restore visual acuity once LLF has occurred. We performed a review of literature to present the current body of evidence supporting the use of numerous techniques. A standardized Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis review was performed, and PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched. Articles pertaining to mechanisms and prevention of LLF were reviewed. We applied no limit to year of publication or publication type and all articles encountered were included in final review. Limited original research and heterogenous outcome measures precluded meta-analytical assessment. Vision loss has a multitude of causes and although scientific theory can be applied to in vivo environments, no authors have completely characterized this complex problem. No method to prevent or correct LLF was identified as superior to others and comparative evidence is minimal. Robotic LLF was poorly investigated and aside from a single analysis has not been directly compared to standard laparoscopic fogging in any capacity. Obscured vision during surgery is hazardous and typically caused by LLF. The etiology of LLF despite application of scientific theory is yet to be definitively proven in the in vivo environment. Common methods of prevention of LLF or restoration of vision due to LLF have little evidence-based data to support their use. A multiarm comparative in vivo analysis is required to formally assess these commonly used techniques in both standard and robotic laparoscopes.

  17. The challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Global warming and prairie wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poiani, K.A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

  19. Warm Bodies: A Student Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schario, Tracy A.

    A participant in forensic tournament competition presents her perspective as well as overall student reaction to the function of "warm bodies," competitors who are entered in a tournament by the coach or tournament director only to meet qualifying requirements. Overall, participants in an informal survey believed that the warm body…

  20. Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Cleiton B; Lima, Aline L; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2013-07-01

    Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Hematopoietic Overexpression of FOG1 Does Not Affect B-Cells but Reduces the Number of Circulating Eosinophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Roure, Camille; Versavel, Aude; Doll, Thierry; Cao, Chun; Pillonel, Vincent; Matthias, Gabriele; Kaller, Markus; Spetz, Jean-François; Kopp, Patrick; Kohler, Hubertus; Müller, Matthias; Matthias, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We have identified expression of the gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator FOG-1 (Friend of GATA-1; Zfpm1, Zinc finger protein multitype 1) in B lymphocytes. We found that FOG-1 expression is directly or indirectly dependent on the B cell-specific coactivator OBF-1 and that it is modulated during B cell development: expression is observed in early but not in late stages of B cell development. To directly test in vivo the role of FOG-1 in B lymphocytes, we developed a novel embryonic stem cell recombination system. For this, we combined homologous recombination with the FLP recombinase activity to rapidly generate embryonic stem cell lines carrying a Cre-inducible transgene at the Rosa26 locus. Using this system, we successfully generated transgenic mice where FOG-1 is conditionally overexpressed in mature B-cells or in the entire hematopoietic system. While overexpression of FOG-1 in B cells did not significantly affect B cell development or function, we found that enforced expression of FOG-1 throughout all hematopoietic lineages led to a reduction in the number of circulating eosinophils, confirming and extending to mammals the known function of FOG-1 in this lineage. PMID:24747299

  2. A Fog Computing and Cloudlet Based Augmented Reality System for the Industry 4.0 Shipyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Vilar-Montesinos, Miguel

    2018-06-02

    Augmented Reality (AR) is one of the key technologies pointed out by Industry 4.0 as a tool for enhancing the next generation of automated and computerized factories. AR can also help shipbuilding operators, since they usually need to interact with information (e.g., product datasheets, instructions, maintenance procedures, quality control forms) that could be handled easily and more efficiently through AR devices. This is the reason why Navantia, one of the 10 largest shipbuilders in the world, is studying the application of AR (among other technologies) in different shipyard environments in a project called "Shipyard 4.0". This article presents Navantia's industrial AR (IAR) architecture, which is based on cloudlets and on the fog computing paradigm. Both technologies are ideal for supporting physically-distributed, low-latency and QoS-aware applications that decrease the network traffic and the computational load of traditional cloud computing systems. The proposed IAR communications architecture is evaluated in real-world scenarios with payload sizes according to demanding Microsoft HoloLens applications and when using a cloud, a cloudlet and a fog computing system. The results show that, in terms of response delay, the fog computing system is the fastest when transferring small payloads (less than 128 KB), while for larger file sizes, the cloudlet solution is faster than the others. Moreover, under high loads (with many concurrent IAR clients), the cloudlet in some cases is more than four times faster than the fog computing system in terms of response delay.

  3. Stochastic geometry model for multi-channel fog radio access networks

    KAUST Repository

    Emara, Mostafa; Elsawy, Hesham; Sorour, Sameh; Al-Ghadhban, Samir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2017-01-01

    Cache-enabled base station (BS) densification, denoted as a fog radio access network (F-RAN), is foreseen as a key component of 5G cellular networks. F-RAN enables storing popular files at the network edge (i.e., BS caches), which empowers local

  4. FOG: Fighting the Achilles' Heel of Gossip Protocols with Fountain Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champel, Mary-Luc; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Le Scouarnec, Nicolas

    Gossip protocols are well known to provide reliable and robust dissemination protocols in highly dynamic systems. Yet, they suffer from high redundancy in the last phase of the dissemination. In this paper, we combine fountain codes (rateless erasure-correcting codes) together with gossip protocols for a robust and fast content dissemination in large-scale dynamic systems. The use of fountain enables to eliminate the unnecessary redundancy of gossip protocols. We propose the design of FOG, which fully exploits the first exponential growth phase (where the data is disseminated exponentially fast) of gossip protocols while avoiding the need for the shrinking phase by using fountain codes. FOG voluntarily increases the number of disseminations but limits those disseminations to the exponential growth phase. In addition, FOG creates a split-graph overlay that splits the peers between encoders and forwarders. Forwarder peers become encoders as soon as they have received the whole content. In order to benefit even further and quicker from encoders, FOG biases the dissemination towards the most advanced peers to make them complete earlier.

  5. Determining Exposure Factors of Anti-Fogging, Dye, Disinfectant, Repellent, and Preservative Products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daeyeop; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Kim, Taksoo; Yoon, Hyojung; Jo, Areum; Lee, Byeongwoo; Lim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Pilje; Seo, Jungkwan

    2018-01-30

    Reliable exposure factors are essential to determine health risks posed by chemicals in consumer products. We analyzed five risk-concerned product categories (anti-fogging, dye, disinfectant, repellent, and preservative products) for 13 products (three car anti-fogging products, a lens anti-fogging product, two car dye products, two drain disinfectants, an air conditioner disinfectant, a chlorine-based disinfectant, a fabric repellent, an insect repellent for food, and a wood preservative) considered to be of high risk in order to determine exposure factors via web surveys and estimation of amount of product. Among the 3000 participants (1482 (49%) men) aged ≥19 years, drain disinfectants were used most frequently (38.2%); the rate of usage of the other products ranged between 1.1-24.0%. The usage rates for the consumer products differed by sex, age, income, and education. Some consumer products such as car and lens anti-fogging products, chlorine-based disinfectants, fabric repellents, and drain disinfectants were regularly used more than once a month, while car dye products, air conditioner disinfectants, insect repellents for food, and wood preservatives were not regularly used owing to the specific product purposes and seasonal needs. Our results could be used for managing or controlling chemical substances in consumer products and conducting accurate exposure assessments.

  6. The design of an optimal fog water collector: A theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Carlos M.; Ritter, Axel

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the collection efficiency of different fog water catchers assemblies (mainly flat and cylindrical structures equipped with several screens of staggered filaments) by means of parametric equations which take into consideration both impaction and aerodynamic effects. We introduce different models that vary in complexity and range of applicability, and may be used to analyze the effect that geometry, number of screens, spacing and inclination of the filament strands have on the fog water yield of the collector. Increasing the number of impacting screens, nR, is shown to improve the collection efficiency up to an optimum for nR = 3-5; beyond nR > 5 impermeability to the airflow makes the fog catcher less efficient. Geometry of the collector is shown to be relatively important: unless wind direction varies widely, the rectangular flat design is preferred over the cylindrical one, because of its larger drag, i.e. increased aerodynamic efficiency, ηa. In fact ηa is shown to be limiting, such that values over ηa > 50% are difficult to attain. By contrast the impaction efficiency, ηimp, of fog water droplets onto multiple nR parallel screens of filaments may reach theoretical values of ηimp > 80%. Inclination of the impacting screens over the vertical may slightly reduce ηimp, but this may be compensated by a reduction in flow resistance, i.e. increased aerodynamic efficiency.

  7. Efficient and Anisotropic Fog Harvesting on a Hybrid and Directional Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2016-12-05

    A straight throughout superhydrophilic track that contains high contrast and directional wettability on a superhydrophobic surface is designed. Despite droplets that tend to slide more easily along a direction parallel to the track, it is found that such hybrid strip-pattern surfaces have higher fog harvesting efficiency along a direction perpendicular to the tracks due to the larger accumulation area for droplet removal.

  8. Modeling and Forecasting the Onset and Duration of Severe Radiation Fog under Frost Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, I. R.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Schreur, B. G. J. Wichers; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A case of a severe radiation fog during frost conditions is analyzed as a benchmark for the development of a very high-resolution NWP model Results by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the High Resolution Limited Area Model (H I RLAM) are evaluated against detailed observations to

  9. A film model for heat and mass transfer with fog formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is presented of a binary film with fog formation and a negligible induced velocity (traditionally referred to as “Stefan—Nusselt flow”). The governing equations of energy diffusion, coupled with the saturation condition, are solved and analytical correction factors are derived.

  10. Role of vegetation in formation of radiation fog: A numerical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potužníková, Kateřina; Sedlák, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, Suppl. 2 (2004), s. 39-45 ISSN 1335-342X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : radiation fog * vegetation cover * numerical study Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.078, year: 2004

  11. Modeling and Forecasting the Onset and Duration of Severe Radiation Fog under Frost Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Wichers Schreur, B.G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A case of a severe radiation fog during frost conditions is analyzed as a benchmark for the development of a very high resolution NWP model. Results by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the High resolution limited area model (HIRLAM) are evaluated against detailed observations to

  12. Evaluation of ULV and Thermal Fog Mosquito Control Applications in Temperate and Desert Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra low volume (ULV) and thermal fog aerosol dispersals of pesticides have been used against mosquitoes and other insects for half a century. Although each spray technology has advantages and disadvantages, only 7 studies have been identified that directly compare their performance in the field. U...

  13. Synoptic situations and pollutant concentrations in fog water samples from the Milešovka Mt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Řezáčová, Daniela; Weignerová, Veronika; Tesař, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2004), s. 469-481 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : synoptic situation * steering flow * fog /cloud water Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2004

  14. Changes of liquid Water content in fog at Milešovka Observatory (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2008), s. 5-8 ISSN 1335-339X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042301; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : fog * liquid water content * month changes * Observatory Milešovka * visibility Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  15. Oak Ridge fog and drift code (ORFAD) user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaVerne, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    ORFAD is a computer program written for the purpose of providing estimates of fog and drift resulting from the operation of wet cooling towers. The program uses hourly weather data from tapes. The physical and calculational models are described, and detailed instructions are given for input preparation and running the program. A program listing and sample output are appended.

  16. Measurement of fog and cloud water constituents - results of the Stuttgart-Hohenheim campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammel, G.; Metzig, G.; Ziereis, H.; Klumpp, J.

    1993-01-01

    A radiation fog event in a highly polluted environment was characterized physically and chemically. Various sampling techniques, including size resolved, and an almost complete set of chemical-analytical methods were applied. Methods for conservation and sensitive determination of reduced nitrogen and sulfur compounds in the liquid phase are presented for the first time. Besides other pollutants, the air mass was heavily loaded by carbonaceous material (carbon accounted for more than one third of the particulate mass). The most prominent trace species in the fog droplets were sulfate, nitrate and ammonium ions. Concentrations as high as 130 mg/I and 50 mg/I, each, were achieved prior to dissolution of the fog in the small and large droplet fraction, respectively. The acidity was negligible, however. The fraction of reduced sulfur compounds was 7% by average, up to 79%, however, at the onset of the fog event. As found in the context of earlier field campaigns, large droplets were less pollutant loaded than small droplets. Besides gas scavenging and - in the case of SO 2 - succeeding oxidation, the scavenging of particulate matter night have contributed to the liquid phase chemical composition. (orig.) [de

  17. Examining Influence of Fog and Stratus Clouds on Bishop Pine Water Budgets, Channel Islands, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D. T.; Still, C. J.; Williams, A. P.

    2004-12-01

    We present the first results from a project whose goal is to advance our basic understanding of the role that fog and persistent stratus clouds play in ecological processes in the California Channel Islands. Our work is focused on a population of Bishop Pines (Pinus muricata) on Santa Cruz Island (SCI), the largest, most topographically complex and most biologically diverse island along the California coast. This is the southernmost population (except for an outlier stand near San Vicente, Baja California), and tree growth appears to be water-limited in such a marginal habitat. We hypothesize that persistent fog and low stratus clouds enhance the water balance of these trees via direct water inputs (fog drip and foliar absorption) and reduced solar heating. To assess these possible effects, we have established weather stations and fog and rain collectors throughout the largest Bishop pine stand on SCI. Initial analysis of weather data shows dramatic differences in solar loading over short distances. We present data on the isotopic content (oxygen-18 and hydrogen-2) of water samples collected from winter 2003 to summer 2004. The samples we collected include fogwater, rainfall, water vapor, soil water, leaf and xylem water, and stream water. We also collected and analyzed leaf biomass and soil organic matter samples at periodic intervals for carbon-13 content. These latter data are evaluated in light of extensive leaf-level ecophysiological data collected in the field and as part of a parallel greenhouse study.

  18. Potential risks to human respiratory health from "acid fog": evidence from experimental studies of volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, J D; Linn, W S; Avol, E L

    1985-11-01

    Observations of high acidity (pH as low as 1.7) in fogwater collected in polluted areas have provoked concern for public health. Effects of exposure to acidic pollutants have not been studied under foggy conditions; thus there is no directly relevant information from which to estimate the health risk. Indirectly relevant information is available from numerous studies of volunteers exposed to "acid fog precursors" under controlled conditions at less than 100% relative humidity. The effect of fog in modifying responses to inhaled acidic pollutants is difficult to predict: depending on circumstances, fog droplets might either increase or decrease the effective dose of pollutants to the lower respiratory tract. Fog inhalation per se may have unfavorable effects in some individuals. Sulfur dioxide is known to exacerbate airway constriction in exercising asthmatics, at exposure concentrations attainable in ambient air. Nitrogen dioxide has shown little untoward respiratory effect at ambient concentrations in most studies, although it has been suggested to increase bronchial reactivity. Sulfuric acid aerosol has shown no clear effects at concentrations within the ambient range. At somewhat higher levels, increased bronchial reactivity and change in mucociliary clearance have been suggested. Almost no information is available concerning nitric acid.

  19. Biomimetic "Cactus Spine" with Hierarchical Groove Structure for Efficient Fog Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Wu, Juntao; Gong, Guangming; Guo, Lin

    2015-07-01

    A biomimetic "cactus spine" with hierarchical groove structure is designed and fabricated using simple electrospinning. This novel artificial cactus spine possesses excellent fog collection and water transportation ability. A model cactus equipped with artificial spines also shows a great water storage capacity. The results can be helpful in the development of water collectors and may make a contribution to the world water crisis.

  20. Statistical modelling of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) deposits in wastewater pump sumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Eva; Post, Johan; Duinmeijer, Alex; Langeveld, Jeroen; Clemens, François

    2018-05-15

    The accumulation of FOG (Fat, Oil and Grease) deposits in sewer pumping stations results in an increase in maintenance costs, malfunctioning of pumps and, a potential increase of wastewater spills in receiving open water bodies. It is thought that a variety of parameters (e.g. geometry of the pump sump, pump operation, socioeconomic parameters of the catchment) influences the built-up of FOG. Based on a database containing data of 126 pumping stations located in five Dutch municipalities a statistical model was built. It is shown that 3 parameters are most significant in explaining the occurrence of FOG deposits: mean income of the population in a catchment, the amount of energy (kinetic and potential) per m 3 per day and the density of restaurants, bars and hotels in a catchment. Further it is shown that there are significant differences between municipalities that can be traced back to the local 'design paradigm'. For example, in Amsterdam, the design philosophy of discharging in the pump sump under the water surface (and hence maintaining a low level of turbulence in the pump sump) results in an increase of the probability of the formation of FOG. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced Graphene Oxide Membranes: Applications in Fog Collection and Water Purification

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    fog harvesting behavior of its two surfaces. The physical imprint mechanism was further extended to engineering pre-designed patterns selectively on the bottom surface of the rGO membrane. This dissertation, for the first time, reported the water flux

  2. EFFECTS OF FOG PRECIPITATION ON WATER RESOURCES AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE JIZERA MOUNTAINS, THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Křeček

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water yield from catchments with a high evidence of fog or low clouds could be increased by the canopy fog drip. However, in areas with the acid atmospheric deposition, this process can lead to the decline of water quality. The aim of this study is to analyze fog related processes in headwater catchments of the Jizera Mountains (the Czech Republic with special attention to water quality and the drinking water treatment. In two years (2011-2012, the fog drip was observed by twelve passive fog collectors at transect of the Jizerka experimental catchment. Methods of space interpolation and extrapolation (ArcGis 10.2 were applied to approximate the areal atmospheric deposition of fog water, sulphur and nitrogen, in catchments of the drinking water reservoirs Josefův Důl and Souš. The mean annual fog drip from vegetation canopy was found between 88 and 106 mm (i.e. 7 to 9 percent of precipitation, and 11 to 13 percent of water yield, estimated by standard rain gauge monitoring. But, the mean annual load of sulphur and nitrogen by the fog drip was 1,975 and 1,080, kilograms per square kilometre, respectively (i.e. 55 and 48 percent of total deposition of sulphur and nitrogen, registered in the bulk. The acidification of surface waters leads to rising operational costs in the water treatment plants (liming, reduce of heavy metals, more frequent control of sand filters etc.. In a catchment scale, the additional precipitation, caused by the canopy fog drip, could be controlled by the effective watershed management (support of forests stands near the native composition with presence of deciduous trees: beech, mountain ash, or birch.

  3. A Behavior of Strobe Light in Non-Visibility (Dense Fog) Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a strobe light was used to understand the behavior of light in an aerosol-like non-visibility environment. Fog was injected into a vinyl pleated cylindrical fog box that is 1 m in diameter and 5.5 m in length. After the fog concentration became saturated in the fog box, the strobe light was set off at regular time intervals until the fog particles almost dissipated in the box. Images of the behavior of the light from the strobe were taken from outside of the fog box with a digital camera in line with the strobe light sync signal. In the case of a DBA (or severe accident) of the nuclear power plant accident, coolant should be injected over the reactor pressure vessel to cool the reactor core. Cold coolant that has been poured into the reactor pressure vessel would be discharged through the nozzles of the core spray system or through pipelines in the fire protection system. The discharging cold coolant would impact high temperature structures with surface temperatures of around 250 .deg. C or higher, such as the reactor pressure vessel that surrounds the reactor core, and then evaporate and turn into steam. The steam cools while forming mist (aerosol including radioactivity), which can cause a sharp drop in visibility. Assuming that a robot has been deployed to manage and mitigate the DBA (or severe accident) at the nuclear power plant, the robot must perform its task in a non-visibility environment. A color CCD/CMOS camera corresponding to visible wavelength (400 - 700 nm) can be attached to the robot for observation and navigation. The camera needs lights in order to secure a clear field of view. Generally, the aperture of a lens is correlated to the intensity of illumination. The brighter the light, the smaller the aperture can be. If the aperture becomes narrower to the size of a pin hole, a clearer image in deep focus can be obtained. As the aperture decreases in the half, the required amount of light doubles. The observed behavior of the strobe

  4. A Behavior of Strobe Light in Non-Visibility (Dense Fog) Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, a strobe light was used to understand the behavior of light in an aerosol-like non-visibility environment. Fog was injected into a vinyl pleated cylindrical fog box that is 1 m in diameter and 5.5 m in length. After the fog concentration became saturated in the fog box, the strobe light was set off at regular time intervals until the fog particles almost dissipated in the box. Images of the behavior of the light from the strobe were taken from outside of the fog box with a digital camera in line with the strobe light sync signal. In the case of a DBA (or severe accident) of the nuclear power plant accident, coolant should be injected over the reactor pressure vessel to cool the reactor core. Cold coolant that has been poured into the reactor pressure vessel would be discharged through the nozzles of the core spray system or through pipelines in the fire protection system. The discharging cold coolant would impact high temperature structures with surface temperatures of around 250 .deg. C or higher, such as the reactor pressure vessel that surrounds the reactor core, and then evaporate and turn into steam. The steam cools while forming mist (aerosol including radioactivity), which can cause a sharp drop in visibility. Assuming that a robot has been deployed to manage and mitigate the DBA (or severe accident) at the nuclear power plant, the robot must perform its task in a non-visibility environment. A color CCD/CMOS camera corresponding to visible wavelength (400 - 700 nm) can be attached to the robot for observation and navigation. The camera needs lights in order to secure a clear field of view. Generally, the aperture of a lens is correlated to the intensity of illumination. The brighter the light, the smaller the aperture can be. If the aperture becomes narrower to the size of a pin hole, a clearer image in deep focus can be obtained. As the aperture decreases in the half, the required amount of light doubles. The observed behavior of the strobe

  5. Processes for the elimination of fogging on KDP crystals prior to and during use in laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.M.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Edwards, G.; Stanion, K.; Fuchs, B.

    1992-01-01

    The rate of surface fogging on KDP crystals has been associated with several parameters in the diamond turning and subsequent cleaning process. Fogging can also occur during use because of environmental degradation. We have determined that reaction of the KDP surfaces with additives in the diamond turning oil has been a major factor in fogging and have found a replacement oil that eliminates this effect. We have also developed an antireflective silicone-sol coating that also reduces surface environmental deterioration during use by a factor of four

  6. Fog reduces transpiration in tree species of the Canarian relict heath-laurel cloud forest (Garajonay National Park, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Axel; Regalado, Carlos M; Aschan, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The ecophysiologic role of fog in the evergreen heath-laurel 'laurisilva' cloud forests of the Canary Islands has not been unequivocally demonstrated, although it is generally assumed that fog water is important for the survival and the distribution of this relict paleoecosystem of the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. To determine the role of fog in this ecosystem, we combined direct transpiration measurements of heath-laurel tree species, obtained with Granier's heat dissipation probes, with micrometeorological and artificial fog collection measurements carried out in a 43.7-ha watershed located in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain) over a 10-month period. Median ambient temperature spanned from 7 to 15 degrees C under foggy conditions whereas higher values, ranging from 9 to 21 degrees C, were registered during fog-free periods. Additionally, during the periods when fog water was collected, global solar radiation values were linearly related (r2=0.831) to those under fog-free conditions, such that there was a 75+/-1% reduction in median radiation in response to fog. Fog events greatly reduced median diurnal tree transpiration, with rates about 30 times lower than that during fog-free conditions and approximating the nighttime rates in both species studied (the needle-like leaf Erica arborea L. and the broadleaf Myrica faya Ait.). This large decrease in transpiration in response to fog was independent of the time of the day, tree size and species and micrometeorological status, both when expressed on a median basis and in cumulative terms for the entire 10-month measuring period. We conclude that, in contrast to the turbulent deposition of fog water droplets on the heath-laurel species, which may be regarded as a localized hydrological phenomenon that is important for high-altitude wind-exposed E. arborea trees, the cooler, wetter and shaded microenvironment provided by the cloud immersion belt represents a large-scale effect

  7. Coastal California's Fog Aerobiology and Ecology: A Local-Scale Survey on Atmospheric Microbial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Arismendi, D.; Alvarez, J.; Ouandji, C.; Guarro, M.; Demachkie, I. S.; Crosbie, E.; Dadashazar, H.; MacDonald, A. B.; Wang, Z.; Sorooshian, A.; Jonsson, H.; Dahlgren, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Microorganisms play a ubiquitous role in our environment. Although Earth's aero-biosphere is a minimally researched area, it is known that viable airborne microbes are found throughout the troposphere and into the stratosphere. Previously identified airborne microbes act as cloud condensation nuclei, and can alter water, carbon and other geochemical cycles, making them crucial to understanding local and global ecosystems. Research shows that some atmospheric regions provide environments conducive to growth and reproduction. However, we do not know if there are airborne populations that metabolize or reproduce. In coastal California, where dense fog is common, a sampling campaign is underway using autonomous aerial vehicles (UAVs) fit with a multi-sensor package, and passive impactor water collection system to allow 4D point sampling within a single fog bank. This small-scale (medium, incubated at room temperature, and counted when colonies first appeared, and again after two weeks. Four flights did not yield enough water for analysis, however the remaining twelve are consistent with generally reported colony-forming unit (CFU) values for terrestrial fog water. The PCA assay showed 22 samples with no growth, and the remainder ranging from 100 to 244,000 CFU/mL. The R-2A assay showed 18 samples with no growth, with the remainder between 100 and 241,000 CFU/mL. These results validate the presence of viable microorganisms in fog at levels easily detectable by our sampling system. ATP quantification via bioluminescence assays will be conducted to assess total bioavailable energy; samples will also be analyzed for live/dead population ratios via fluorescent staining. To assess efficacy for future DNA extraction, both GenElute and EZNA assays were conducted using ground water, fog water, and low-biomass filtered water for comparison data. In flight samples collected, qPCR will be conducted for future community identification of several microbial classes of interest.

  8. Caught in the thickness of brain fog: exploring the cognitive symptoms of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocon, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is defined as greater than 6 months of persistent fatigue that is experienced physically and cognitively. The cognitive symptoms are generally thought to be a mild cognitive impairment, but individuals with CFS subjectively describe them as "brain fog." The impairment is not fully understood and often is described as slow thinking, difficulty focusing, confusion, lack of concentration, forgetfulness, or a haziness in thought processes. Causes of "brain fog" and mild cognitive impairment have been investigated. Possible physiological correlates may be due to the effects of chronic orthostatic intolerance (OI) in the form of the Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) and decreases in cerebral blood flow (CBF). In addition, fMRI studies suggest that individuals with CFS may require increased cortical and subcortical brain activation to complete difficult mental tasks. Furthermore, neurocognitive testing in CFS has demonstrated deficits in speed and efficiency of information processing, attention, concentration, and working memory. The cognitive impairments are then perceived as an exaggerated mental fatigue. As a whole, this is experienced by those with CFS as "brain fog" and may be viewed as the interaction of physiological, cognitive, and perceptual factors. Thus, the cognitive symptoms of CFS may be due to altered CBF activation and regulation that are exacerbated by a stressor, such as orthostasis or a difficult mental task, resulting in the decreased ability to readily process information, which is then perceived as fatiguing and experienced as "brain fog." Future research looks to further explore these interactions, how they produce cognitive impairments, and explain the perception of "brain fog" from a mechanistic standpoint.

  9. Severe haze episodes and seriously polluted fog water in Ji'nan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Chen, Jianmin; Sun, Jianfeng; Li, Weijun; Yang, Lingxiao; Wen, Liang; Wang, Wenxing; Wang, Xinming; Collett, Jeffrey L; Shi, Yang; Zhang, Qingzhu; Hu, Jingtian; Yao, Lan; Zhu, Yanhong; Sui, Xiao; Sun, Xiaomin; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2014-09-15

    Haze episodes often hit urban cities in China recently. Here, we present several continuous haze episodes with extremely high PM2.5 levels that occurred over several weeks in early 2013 and extended across most parts of the northern and eastern China-far exceeding the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Particularly, the haze episode covered ~1 million km(2) on January 14, 2013 and the daily averaged PM2.5 concentration exceeded 360 μg m(-3) in Ji'nan. The observed maximum hourly PM2.5 concentration in urban Ji'nan reached 701 μg m(-3) at 7:00 am (local time) in January 30. During these haze episodes, several fog events happened and the concurrent fog water was found to be seriously polluted. For the fog water collected in Ji'nan from 10:00 pm in January 14 to 11:00 am in January 15, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were the major ions with concentrations of 1.54 × 10(6), 8.98 × 10(5), and 1.75 × 10(6) μeq L(-1), respectively, leading to a low in-situ pH of 3.30. The sulfate content in the fog sample was more than 544 times as high as those observed in other areas. With examination of the simultaneously observed data on PM2.5 and its chemical composition, the fog played a role in scavenging and removing fine particles from the atmosphere during haze episodes and thus was seriously contaminated. However, the effect was not sufficient to obviously cleanse air pollution and block haze episodes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Forests and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, T.

    1991-04-01

    The importance of forests to Canada, both in economic and environmental terms, is indisputable. A warmer global climate may well have profound effects on the Canadian boreal forest, and at least some of the effects will not be beneficial. With the state of the current knowledge of climate processes and climate change it is not possible to predict the extent or rate of projected changes of anthropogenic origin. Given these uncertainties, the appropriate course of action for the Canadian forest sector is to develop policies and strategies which will make good sense under the current climatic regime, and which will also be appropriate for actions in a warmer climate scenario. The business as usual approach is not acceptable in the context of pollution control as it has become clear that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants must be substantially reduced, both to prevent (or at least slow the rate of) possible global warming, and to reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and human health. Effective mitigative actions must be introduced on both a national and global scale. Forest management policies more effectively geared to the sustainability of forests are needed. The programs that are developed out of such policies must be cognizant of the real possibility that climate in the present boreal forest regions may change in the near future. 13 refs

  11. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  12. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Katsev

    Full Text Available Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  13. Global warming: the complete briefing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, J

    1994-01-01

    The science of global warming, its impacts, and what action might be taken, are described in this book, in a way which the intelligent non-scientist can understand. It also examines ethical and moral issues of concern about global warming, considering mankind as stewards of the earth. Chapter headings of the book are: global warming and climate change; the greenhouse effect; the greenhouse gases; climates of the past; modelling the climate; climate change and business-as-usual; the impacts of climate change; why should we be concerned ; weighing the uncertainty; action to slow and stabilize climate change; energy and transport for the future; and the global village.

  14. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-05-12

    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes.

  15. Fractionation of airborne particulate-bound elements in haze-fog episode and associated health risks in a megacity of southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huiming; Wang, Qin'geng; Shao, Min; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Yixuan; Qian, Xin; Wu, Hongfei; Yang, Meng; Li, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Haze caused by high particulate matter loadings is an important environmental issue. PM_2_._5 was collected in Nanjing, China, during a severe haze–fog event and clear periods. The particulate-bound elements were chemically fractionated using sequential extractions. The average PM_2_._5 concentration was 3.4 times higher during haze–fog (96–518 μg/m"3) than non-haze fog periods (49–142 μg/m"3). Nearly all elements showed significantly higher concentrations during haze–fog than non-haze fog periods. Zn, As, Pb, Cd, Mo and Cu were considered to have higher bioavailability and enrichment degree in the atmosphere. Highly bioavailable fractions of elements were associated with high temperatures. The integrated carcinogenic risk for two possible scenarios to individuals exposed to metals was higher than the accepted criterion of 10"−"6, whereas noncarcinogenic risk was lower than the safe level of 1. Residents of a city burdened with haze will incur health risks caused by exposure to airborne metals. - Highlights: • PM_2_._5 concentration was 3.4 times higher during haze-fog than non-haze fog days. • Nearly all metals had higher contents during haze-fog than non-haze fog days. • Zn, As, Pb, Cd, Mo and Cu had high bioavailability and enrichment level in PM_2_._5. • Highly bioavailable fractions of elements were associated with high temperatures. • Health risk was assessed combined with metal forms in haze-fog and non-haze fog days. - Fractionation of airborne particulate-bound metals and its contribution to health risks during haze-fog and non-haze fog periods were studied from a typical megacity of Southeast China.

  16. Review of Selected Army-Funded Research on Fog Oil Smoke Characteristics as Related to Clean Air Act Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chester, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    The endurance of fog oil (FO) as a choice training smoke is credited to its advantageous characteristics, which lead to optimum obscuration of troops and mechanized equipment as well as its cost efficiency, safety, and ease of handling...

  17. Research on the Spatial-Temporal Distribution Pattern of the Network Attention of Fog and Haze in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lingyan; Han, Xugao

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the spatial-temporal distribution pattern of fog and haze is the base to deal with them by adjusting measures to local conditions. Taking 31 provinces in China mainland as the research areas, this paper collected data from Baidu index on the network attention of fog and haze in relevant areas from 2011 to 2016, and conducted an analysis of their spatial-temporal distribution pattern by using autocorrelation analysis. The results show that the network attention of fog and haze has an overall spatial distribution pattern of “higher in the eastern and central, lower in the western China”. There are regional differences in different provinces in terms of network attention. Network attention of fog and haze indicates an obvious geographical agglomeration phenomenon, which is a gradual enlargement of the agglomeration area of higher value with a slight shrinking of those lower value agglomeration areas.

  18. Fewer bacteria in warm water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagh, Lene

    1999-01-01

    There has been many suggestions to how the ideal warm water system should be. Particularly whether warm water containers or heat exchangers in larger houses are the best solutions in order to maintain a water quality with low levels of bacteria. In an investigation made by Statens Byggeforskningsinstitutt (Denmark) regarding ''Bacterial growth in warm water installations with heat exchangers'' there were used several heat exchangers made by Gjelsted and Lund of three of which had HWAT heating cables. The bacterial content was low from these exchangers compared to exchangers with circulation. The article presents promising results from a study where the method was investigated over a longer period in two new larger warm water systems. Some energy conservation aspects are discussed

  19. Warm mix asphalt : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The performance of pavements constructed using warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology were : compared to the performance of conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements placed on the : same project. Measurements of friction resistance, rutting/wear, ride ...

  20. Authropogenic Warming in North Alaska?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Sappington, David E.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1988-09-01

    Using permafrost boreholes, Lachenbruch and Marshall recently reported evidence for a 2°-4°C warming in North Alaska occurring at some undetermined time during the last century. Popular accounts suggest their findings are evidence for anthropogenic warming caused by trace gases. Analyses of North Alaskan 1000-500 mb thickness onwards back to 1948 indicate that the warming was prior to that date. Relatively sparse thermometric data for the early twentieth century from Jones et al. are too noisy to support any trend since the data record begins in 1910, or to apply to any subperiod of climatic significance. Any warming detected from the permafrost record therefore occurred before the major emissions of thermally active trace gases.