WorldWideScience

Sample records for warfare nrdc knocks

  1. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...

  2. The art of collecting experimental data internationally: EXFOR, CINDA and the NRDC network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksson, H.; Schwerer, O.; Rochman, D.; Mikhaylyukova, M.V.; Otuka, N.

    2008-01-01

    The world-wide network of nuclear reaction data centres (NRDC) has, for about 40 years, provided data services to the scientific community. This network covers all types of nuclear reaction data, including neutron-induced, charged-particle-induced, and photonuclear data, used in a wide range of applications, such as fission reactors, accelerator driven systems, fusion facilities, nuclear medicine, materials analysis, environmental monitoring, and basic research. The now 13 nuclear data centres included in the NRDC are dividing the efforts of compilation and distribution for particular types of reactions and/or geographic regions all over the world. A central activity of the network is the collection and compilation of experimental nuclear reaction data and the related bibliographic information in the EXFOR and CINDA databases. Many of the individual data centres also distribute other types of nuclear data information, including evaluated data libraries, nuclear structure and decay data, and nuclear data reports. The network today ensures the world-wide transfer of information and coordinated evolution of an important source of nuclear data for current and future nuclear applications. (authors)

  3. THE ART OF COLLECTING EXPERIMENTAL DATA INTERNATIONALLY: EXFOR, CINDA AND THE NRDC NETWORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HENRIKSSON, H.; SCHWERER, O.; ROCHMAN, D.; MIKHAYLYUKOVA, M.V.; OTUKA, N.

    2007-01-01

    The world-wide network of nuclear reaction data centers (NRDC) has, for about 40 years, provided data services to the scientific community. This network covers all types of nuclear reaction data, including neutron-induced, charged-particle-induced, and photonuclear data, used in a wide range of applications, such as fission reactors, accelerator driven systems, fusion facilities, nuclear medicine, materials analysis, environmental monitoring, and basic research. The now 13 nuclear data centers included in the NRDC are dividing the efforts of compilation and distribution for particular types of reactions and/or geographic regions all over the world. A central activity of the network is the collection and compilation of experimental nuclear reaction data and the related bibliographic information in the EXFOR and CINDA databases. Many of the individual data centers also distribute other types of nuclear data information, including evaluated data libraries, nuclear structure and decay data, and nuclear data reports. The network today ensures the world-wide transfer of information and coordinated evolution of an important source of nuclear data for current and future nuclear applications

  4. Statistical Engine Knock Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotsky, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    A new statistical concept of the knock control of a spark ignition automotive engine is proposed . The control aim is associated with the statistical hy pothesis test which compares the threshold value to the average value of the max imal amplitud e of the knock sensor signal at a given freq uency....... C ontrol algorithm which is used for minimization of the regulation error realizes a simple count-up-count-d own logic. A new ad aptation algorithm for the knock d etection threshold is also d eveloped . C onfi d ence interval method is used as the b asis for ad aptation. A simple statistical mod el...... which includ es generation of the amplitud e signals, a threshold value d etermination and a knock sound mod el is d eveloped for evaluation of the control concept....

  5. Knock-out reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Forest, T. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    It is pointed out that the primary motivation for performing high energy single nucleon knock-out reactions is based on the concept of quasi-elastic scattering. The validity of and corrections to the partial wave impulse approximation and kinematical invariance of knock-out reactions and tests of the reaction mechanism are treated. The effect of distortions on the momentum distribution in the effective momentum approximation for given parameters are plotted. 12 references

  6. Bowlegs and Knock-Knees

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Bowlegs and Knock-Knees Page Content Article Body Toddlers’ legs often ... about two years old, then they’ll look knock-kneed until they are about six years of ...

  7. Drone warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusterson, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    Crude drones existed as early as World War I, but the technology matured in the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s and the current wars around the Middle East. The U.S. first used a weaponized drone in late 2001, in Afghanistan. Drones may cause more or less civilian casualties depending on the targeting protocols employed by their operators. There is an inherent ambiguity in determining who is an insurgent from several thousand feet, but civilian casualties are likely to be higher if targeters emphasize "signature strikes" over "personality strikes," if they engage in "double-tap strikes," if they rely too much on local informants, and if they rely too heavily on cellphone identification in the absence of corroboration from other intelligence sources. The legality of drone warfare is fairly clear in established battle zones such as Afghanistan, but is more problematic in terms of both international and domestic law when it comes to drone strikes in countries such as Yemen, Pakistan and Somalia with which the U.S. is not at war. Looking to the future, the U.S. would be well advised to sponsor negotiations for an international drone convention that might establish clear international rules for the use of drones, ban autonomous smart drones, and establish adjudicatory procedures to handle allegations of war crimes.

  8. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  9. Information Warfare and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of the practice of information warfare at both the national and corporate levels. Initially examining the present and past actions of individual hackers, it moves to the more organised, future military and economic warfare scenarios. It examines the lack of legal or policy initiatives in this area.

  10. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  11. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  12. Expeditionary Warfare- Force Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Eric

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Systems Engineering and Analysis students were tasked to develop a system of systems conceptual solution to provide force protection for the Sea Base conceptualized in the 2002 Expeditionary Warfare study...

  13. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  14. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  15. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the current strategic environment the United States is operating...

  16. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  17. Staggering but not knocked out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-11-01

    Italy's PV market is staggering like a boxer almost knocked out. It has been hit hard by the country's deep economic recession. Conto Energia V has been yet another blow with cuts of up to 40 % in the solar feed-in tariffs. But the situation is not hopeless.

  18. The Science of Hard Knocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Head injuries in sports are nothing new, but in recent years, college athletes have reported a steady rise in concussions. Football players still get the most knocks to the head. Women have managed to keep up with, and often surpass, men in sports-related concussions in the last few years. In basketball, women reported 24 percent more concussions…

  19. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  20. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  1. The Physics of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  2. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    .... Some legal constraints will certainly apply to information warfare, either because the constraints explicitly regulate particular actions, or because more general principles of international law...

  3. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  4. Implications of Network Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Alvin

    2004-01-01

    .... These areas of dependence also provide numerous vulnerabilities. This paper will focus specifically on Network Centric Warfare's vulnerabilities in terms of sensors cyberterrorism/ Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP...

  5. Antifragile Electronic Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This letter introduces the concept of antifragile electronic warfare (EW), which we define as the ability to allow a communications link to improve performance due to the presence of a jammer. This concept should not be confused with jamming countermeasures (a.k.a. anti-jamming or electronic protection). Rather, antifragile EW can be thought of as the next step beyond simply avoiding or mitigating jamming. After introducing the concept we narrow down the subset of jammers this concept can be ...

  6. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  7. The validity of knock-for-knock clauses in comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    This article discusses the validity of so-called knock-for-knock clauses, by which parties to offshore oil and gas or maritime contracts agree that each of them will cover its own losses regardless of who caused them. The issue of validity of such clauses and of the liability exclusions they cont......This article discusses the validity of so-called knock-for-knock clauses, by which parties to offshore oil and gas or maritime contracts agree that each of them will cover its own losses regardless of who caused them. The issue of validity of such clauses and of the liability exclusions...... criteria used to promote or dismiss knock-for-knock clauses in case law and academic literature, the article reaches the conclusion that the question of whether knock-for-knock clauses should be held valid depends on whose interests are being considered, and that further research is warranted...

  8. The validity of knock-for-knock clauses in comparative perspective / Sylvie Cėcile Cavaleri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cėcile

    2018-01-01

    Seoses Põhjamere nafta- ja gaasitootmisega sõlmitavatest lepingutest, kus kasutatakse nn "knock-for-knock" klausleid. Nende kohaselt katab iga lepingu osaline ise oma kahjud, sõltumata kahjude põhjustajast

  9. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.

  10. Hybrid Maritime Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Murphy, Martin; Hoffman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Russia’s use of hybrid warfare techniques has raised concerns about the security of the Baltic States. Gary Schaub, Jr, Martin Murphy and Frank G Hoffman recommend a series of measures to augment NATO’s Readiness Action Plan in the Baltic region, including increasing the breadth and depth of naval...... exercises, and improving maritime domain awareness through cooperative programmes. They also suggest unilateral and cooperative measures to develop a sound strategic communications strategy to counter Moscow’s information operations, reduce dependence on Russian energy supplies and build the resilience...

  11. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colarik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.

  12. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2 presents a general overview of cyber terrorism, including definitions of cyber terrorism and cyber terrorism support...

  13. Attrition in Network Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erbetta, John

    2003-01-01

    .... Information warfare means that positive attacks on systems themselves compound the problem. Emerging technologies applicable to NCW as a force multiplier need to be recognized as counter to the impediments to progress...

  14. The ethics of information warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare.The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications. The second part collects contributions focusing on Just War Theory and its application to the case of Information Warfare. The third part adopts alternative approaches to Just War Theory for analysing the ethical implications of this phenomenon. Finally, an afterword by Neelie Kroes - Vice President of the European Commission and European Digital Agenda Commissioner - concludes the volume. Her contribution describes the interests and commitments of the European Digital Agenda with respect to research for the developme...

  15. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  17. Reflections on nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The author looks back on his more than 70 years of familiarity with Americans involved in warfare, noting their loyal support for our country's objectives. Drawing on the Einstein equation, his own visits to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and current literature, he, as a physician, belatedly concurs with those who look on the use of nuclear weapons as irrational and untenable. Their employment under present circumstances would create a ''final epidemic'' to be avoided only by prevention. He suggests that medical perceptions must be considered by our national leaders in assessing the many factors that he hopes will lead to rational answers to this urgent, highly complex, and vital enigma. He cites physicians' efforts to help in finding answers and asks that his colleagues consider the issues with attention to the gravity of the situation and act according to their best judgment

  18. Intelligence Strategy for Fourth Generation Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamison, Edward P

    2006-01-01

    ...." They have named this new era of war "fourth generation warfare." Currently the Department of Defense's intelligence strategy is designed to defeat conventional adversaries vise a fourth generation warfare opponent...

  19. A RANS knock model to predict the statistical occurrence of engine knock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Adamo, Alessandro; Breda, Sebastiano; Fontanesi, Stefano; Irimescu, Adrian; Merola, Simona Silvia; Tornatore, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a new RANS model for SI engine knock probability. • Turbulence-derived transport equations for variances of mixture fraction and enthalpy. • Gasoline autoignition delay times calculated from detailed chemical kinetics. • Knock probability validated against experiments on optically accessible GDI unit. • PDF-based knock model accounting for the random nature of SI engine knock in RANS simulations. - Abstract: In the recent past engine knock emerged as one of the main limiting aspects for the achievement of higher efficiency targets in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines. To attain these requirements, engine operating points must be moved as close as possible to the onset of abnormal combustions, although the turbulent nature of flow field and SI combustion leads to possibly ample fluctuations between consecutive engine cycles. This forces engine designers to distance the target condition from its theoretical optimum in order to prevent abnormal combustion, which can potentially damage engine components because of few individual heavy-knocking cycles. A statistically based RANS knock model is presented in this study, whose aim is the prediction not only of the ensemble average knock occurrence, poorly meaningful in such a stochastic event, but also of a knock probability. The model is based on look-up tables of autoignition times from detailed chemistry, coupled with transport equations for the variance of mixture fraction and enthalpy. The transported perturbations around the ensemble average value are based on variable gradients and on a local turbulent time scale. A multi-variate cell-based Gaussian-PDF model is proposed for the unburnt mixture, resulting in a statistical distribution for the in-cell reaction rate. An average knock precursor and its variance are independently calculated and transported; this results in the prediction of an earliest knock probability preceding the ensemble average knock onset, as confirmed by

  20. 'Knock, and it shall be opened': knocking out and knocking in to reveal mechanisms of disease and novel therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Douglas F

    2008-12-01

    Recent significant advances in molecular biology have generated genetically modified bacteria, yeast, nematodes, fruit flies, and fish. However, it is the genetic modification of mammalian model organisms, particularly the mouse, that has the greatest potential to shed light on human development, physiology and pathology in ways that have significant implications for neonatal and paediatric clinical practice. Here, we review some of the techniques for knocking out (inactivating), mutating and knocking in (inserting) selected genes that are important to neonatology and show how this research will lead both to a better understanding of disease and to novel therapies for infants and children.

  1. The ethics of drone warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the compatibility of the modern technologies of warfare, specifically the use of offensive drones, with traditional military ethics and suggests that the new technologies radically change the value system of the military in ways which make large parts of the traditional military ethics inapplicable. The author suggests that Agamben’s concept of ‘effectivity’ through ‘special actions’ which mark one’s belonging to a particular community or profession is a useful conceptual strategy to explore the compatibility of drone warfare with traditional military ethics; this strategy shows mixed results at best.

  2. The doctor and nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    At the 34th World Medical Assembly in Lisbon in 1981 the World Medical Association adopted a motion proposed by the American Medical Association that national medical associations should develop programs to educate the civilian population on the medical consequences of nuclear war. This article discusses the attitude the medical professions should have, should nuclear warfare in some form confront them in the future. The conclusion is drawn that defence against nuclear warfare is only a part of civil defence against any disaster, including the natural disasters such as flood and fire and the man-made disasters of transport accidents, even of problems at nuclear plants designed to supply energy

  3. Proton knock-out in Hall A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, K. de

    2003-01-01

    Proton knock-out is studied in a broad program in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The first experiment performed in Hall A studied the 16 O(e,e'p) reaction. Since then proton knock-out experiments have studied a variety of aspects of that reaction, from single-nucleon properties to its mechanism, such as final-state interactions and two-body currents, in nuclei from 2 H to 16 O. In this review the accomplishments of this program will be summarized and an outlook given of expected future results. (orig.)

  4. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H. J.; Breeveld, F. J.; Stijnis, C.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria

  5. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  6. The Anatomy of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Lars; Pedersen, Kenneth; Thruelsen, Peter Dahl

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the West has been increasingly involved in a tiresome and rather particular type of conflict: insurgency warfare. The bloody and shocking terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in September 2001 marked the beginning of a new era, and the introducti...

  7. Strategic Analysis of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the same mathematical equations used by Lanchester .10 Irregular Warfare Theory and Doctrine It is time to develop new analytical methods and models...basis on which to build, similar to what Lanchester provided almost 100 years ago. Figure 9 portrays both Lanchester’s approach and an irregular 17

  8. Roots of Russian Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Crissy, your encouragement throughout my career and especially during this project has been...all of the Russian disinformation techniques in Ukraine came directly “from Soviet toolkits .” Maria Snegovaya, “Putin’s Information Warfare In

  9. Technology Transition for Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-16

    and Iraq. At the same time, the science and technology base must provide the disruptive technologies to defeat future conventional enemies. This... disruptive technologies will be needed to retain long-term technological superiority in conventional warfare. Incremental improvement is the most...technology to be missed. Disruptive technologies are the second type of technological change and involve revolutionary concepts involving large technological

  10. Knock out for subthreshold pion production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guet, C.; Prakash, M.

    1984-05-01

    The contribution of nucleon-nucleon-single collisions to subthreshold pion production in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions, Esub(Lab) < 300 A MeV is investigated within a knock-out type model. This contribution might be important for energies higher than about 150 MeV/nucleon but decrease strongly with decreasing beam energy

  11. Parallel knock-out schemes in networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Woeginger, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    We consider parallel knock-out schemes, a procedure on graphs introduced by Lampert and Slater in 1997 in which each vertex eliminates exactly one of its neighbors in each round. We are considering cases in which after a finite number of rounds, where the minimimum number is called the parallel

  12. Knocking in an Internal-combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolik, A; Voinov, A

    1940-01-01

    The question remains open of the relation between the phenomena of knocking in the engine and the explosion wave. The solution of this problem is the object of this paper. The tests were conducted on an aircraft engine with a pyrex glass window in the cylinder head. Photographs were then taken of various combinations of fuels and conditions.

  13. The interactions between IC engine thermodynamics and knock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Importance of engine thermodynamics regarding knock was quantified. • Effects of compression ratio, engine speed and EGR on knock was reported. • Retarding combustion to avoid knock resulted in decreases of efficiency. - Abstract: The development of high efficiency spark-ignition internal combustion engines is often constrained by the occurrence of knock. Knock may result in engine damage, lower performance, and lower efficiency. The options for preventing knock often involve lower compression ratios, lower boost, retarded spark timing, and other design choices that are detrimental to engine performance and efficiency. Since knock is largely a function of the thermodynamic state of the unburned zone, the occurrence of knock is expected to be a strong function of the engine thermodynamics. The purpose of the current work is to couple a simple knock model with a comprehensive engine cycle simulation to determine the interactions between the engine thermodynamics and knock. This work has explored the effects of engine parameters such as compression ratio (4–12), engine speed (500–2500 rpm), inlet pressure (50–100 kPa), exhaust gas recirculation (0–25%), combustion duration and heat transfer on knock. In each case, the occurrence of knock is connected to the cylinder pressures and the gas temperatures of the unburned zone. For example for a compression ratio of 12, to avoid knock the brake thermal efficiency decreased from 36.5% to 34% due to retarding the combustion.

  14. Unconventional Cyber Warfare: Cyber Opportunities in Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Internet service provider IW irregular warfare MCO major combat operations MySQL open-source relational database management system NATO North...today, often with no regard for legal or ethical constraints. A better course of action would be to conduct operations in cyberspace within the precepts...built in feature of MySQL that 97 John Markoff, “Before the Gunfire, Cyberattacks,” York Times, August 13, 2008, sec. Technology, 1, http

  15. Hybrid Warfare: the 21st Century Russian Way of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    to wage information operations— from television, to the Internet, to unconventional forces on the ground spreading the message word -of- mouth ...adversarial vulnerabilities. Many of the peculiarities of hybrid warfare described herein are inextricably linked to Russia’s social , political, and...the US election. Then they utilized various means of media to distribute that information with the goal to discredit the US political process and

  16. 2008 13th Expeditionary Warfare Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-23

    platforms – Emphasize a mixed fleet approach that spans the “iron triangle” – Integrate MRAP into the fleet mix – Transition to a fleet of tactical...Urban Warfare Mountain Warfare Desert Warfare Jungle Riverine Special Skills Recon LOG CSS ENG MT HS Ord Maint EOD Pers Retrival ...Detection (Specialized Platform FLGPR)Stand-off (60M) Scaleable Neutralization (Area coverage) ABV Delivery Ground Cueing Stand-off (800M) Scaleable

  17. Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takemoto, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    ...). This paper lays a foundation by defining the terminology associated with Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain, reviews the threat and illustrates the vulnerabilities of our information systems...

  18. MEANS AND METHODS OF CYBER WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  19. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  20. Shadow Wars: An Analysis of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dogan, Osman

    2005-01-01

    ... of the current strategic approaches to counterinsurgency warfare. Toward this end, a systems model approach, which views insurgent organizations as open systems, is adapted to the insurgent environment...

  1. The ethics of drone warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Fatić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates the compatibility of the modern technologies of warfare, specifically the use of offensive drones, with traditional military ethics and suggests that the new technologies radically change the value system of the military in ways which make large parts of the traditional military ethics inapplicable. The author suggests that Agamben’s concept of ‘effectivity’ through ‘special actions’ which mark one’s belonging to a particular communit...

  2. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardson, Kay

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive fallout, one of the major effects of nuclear warfare, will cause acute radiation sickness within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occur, and will cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. Estimates of collective doses and the approximate number of late casualties from the global contamination are presented for a given total explosion yield. (author)

  3. Hybrid Warfare: Preparing for Future Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    ciceromagazine.com/?s=getting+behind+hybrid+warfare. Brown , Col Leslie F. “Twenty-First Century Warfare Will be Hybrid.” Carlisle Barracks, PA...Lebanon and Gaza.” Rand Corporation Occasional Paper. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 2010. Jones, Gareth and Darya Korsunskaya. “U.S., EU

  4. Reactivity of Dual-Use Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    REACTIVITY OF DUAL-USE DECONTAMINANTS WITH CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS ECBC-TR-1384... Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Willis, Matthew P...extraction) of chemical warfare agents from materials. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent Liquid-phase

  5. The Information Warfare Life Cycle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett van Niekerk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information warfare (IW is a dynamic and developing concept, which constitutes a number of disciplines. This paper aims to develop a life cycle model for information warfare that is applicable to all of the constituent disciplines. The model aims to be scalable and applicable to civilian and military incidents where information warfare tactics are employed. Existing information warfare models are discussed, and a new model is developed from the common aspects of these existing models. The proposed model is then applied to a variety of incidents to test its applicability and scalability. The proposed model is shown to be applicable to multiple disciplines of information warfare and is scalable, thus meeting the objectives of the model.

  6. The Information Warfare Life Cycle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett van Niekerk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Information warfare (IW is a dynamic and developing concept, which constitutes a number of disciplines. This paper aims to develop a life cycle model for information warfare that is applicable to all of the constituent disciplines. The model aims to be scalable and applicable to civilian and military incidents where information warfare tactics are employed. Existing information warfare models are discussed, and a new model is developed from the common aspects of these existing models. The proposed model is then applied to a variety of incidents to test its applicability and scalability. The proposed model is shown to be applicable to multiple disciplines of information warfare and is scalable, thus meeting the objectives of the model.

  7. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvarson, K.

    1975-01-01

    The radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions is one of the major effects of nuclear warfare. Those levels causing acute radiation sickness are to be expected only within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occurred and cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. The collective doses and the order of magnitude of late casualties from this global contamination are estimated for a given total explosion yield. (auth)

  8. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova Anna Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  9. Frequency domain analysis of knock images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yunliang; He, Xin; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-12-01

    High speed imaging-based knock analysis has mainly focused on time domain information, e.g. the spark triggered flame speed, the time when end gas auto-ignition occurs and the end gas flame speed after auto-ignition. This study presents a frequency domain analysis on the knock images recorded using a high speed camera with direct photography in a rapid compression machine (RCM). To clearly visualize the pressure wave oscillation in the combustion chamber, the images were high-pass-filtered to extract the luminosity oscillation. The luminosity spectrum was then obtained by applying fast Fourier transform (FFT) to three basic colour components (red, green and blue) of the high-pass-filtered images. Compared to the pressure spectrum, the luminosity spectra better identify the resonant modes of pressure wave oscillation. More importantly, the resonant mode shapes can be clearly visualized by reconstructing the images based on the amplitudes of luminosity spectra at the corresponding resonant frequencies, which agree well with the analytical solutions for mode shapes of gas vibration in a cylindrical cavity.

  10. Moltke as a Model for Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Daniel P

    1998-01-01

    ... with late 20th century Information Warfare (IW). Clausewitz, with his emphasis on concentrating forces for a decisive battle, or Sun Tzu, with his focus on an indirect approach and subduing the enemy without battle, might appear to be more...

  11. Gas Warfare in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintham, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of gas warfare during World War I was increased by the lack of a basic understanding of the behavior of gases on the part of the soldiers. This was a result of deficiencies in science education. (BB)

  12. Prehistoric ceremonial warfare: beginning of institutionalized violence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2017), s. 535-548 ISSN 1555-8622 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : human aggression * ceremonial warfare * archery symbolism * Neolithic * Chalcolithic * Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  13. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howes, Norman R; Mezzino, Michael; Sarkesain, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Cyber warfare then becomes a one-sided battle where the attacker makes all the strikes and the target of the attack responds so slowly that the attacker usually gets away without being identified...

  14. Enzymatic Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raushel, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is the development of a versatile enzyme-based system that is fully optimized for the decontamination, destruction, and detection of know chemical warfare agents...

  15. Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Muhammad

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the need for specialist training for mountain warfare. It analyzes the special characteristics of mountain and high altitude terrain which affect conduct of military operations...

  16. Insurgent Uprising: An Unconventional Warfare Wargame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Cleveland, Charles T. Connett, and Will Irwin. “Unconventional Warfare in the Gray Zone.” Joint Forces Quarterly 80, no. 1 (2016). Work, Robert O...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Today, and in the future, unconventional solutions will present U.S. policymakers with options for dealing...training objectives and will complement existing training exercises. 14. SUBJECT TERMS unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct

  17. Distributed computing environment for Mine Warfare Command

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Lane L.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Mine Warfare Command in Charleston, South Carolina has been converting its information systems architecture from a centralized mainframe based system to a decentralized network of personal computers over the past several years. This thesis analyzes the progress Of the evolution as of May of 1992. The building blocks of a distributed architecture are discussed in relation to the choices the Mine Warfare Command has made to date. Ar...

  18. Route survey periodicity for mine warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Coke, Hartwell F.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited One of the Navy's most long standing challenges has been conquering the mine warfare threat. As mines and mine warfare techniques evolve and become more sophisticated, so does the United States' ability to counter the threat. The United States newest technique for countering a potential mined harbor, or route, is a process known as "change detection." This concept uses previous side scan sonar images of the area prior to a mining event an...

  19. Pion-induced knock-out reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, B.K.; Phatak, S.C.

    1977-01-01

    A strong absorption model for pion-induced Knock-out reactions is proposed. The distortion of the in-coming and out-going pions has been included by (1) computing pion wave number in nuclear medium (dispersive effect) and (2) excluding the central region of the nucleus where the real pion-absorption is dominant (absorption effect). In order to study the dependence of the (π + π + p) reaction on the off-shell pion-nucleon t-matrix, different off-shell extrapolations are used. The magnitude of the cross-sections seems to be sensitive to the type of off-shell extrapolation; their shapes, however, are similar. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data. The agreement between the theoretical results for separable off-shell extrapolation and the data is good. (author)

  20. I'll knock you when I'm ready

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Krogh, Peter; Lehoux, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    , and the qualities of suggestive interactions that mediate communication. We introduce Knock-Knock as a novel, shape-changing communication medium, and use it as a rhetorical tool to reflect upon the notion of media richness. In doing so, we highlight the value of meaning and language creation that suggestive...

  1. Eliminating graphs by means of parallel knock-out schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Královic, R.; Woeginger, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1997 Lampert and Slater introduced parallel knock-out schemes, an iterative process on graphs that goes through several rounds. In each round of this process, every vertex eliminates exactly one of its neighbors. The parallel knock-out number of a graph is the minimum number of rounds after which

  2. Eliminating graphs by means of parallel knock-out schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Fomin, F.V.; Královič, R.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    In 1997 Lampert and Slater introduced parallel knock-out schemes, an iterative process on graphs that goes through several rounds. In each round of this process, every vertex eliminates exactly one of its neighbors. The parallel knock-out number of a graph is the minimum number of rounds after which

  3. Surface sensitivity of nuclear-knock-out form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratamico, G.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical calculation has been performed to investigate the sensitivity of nuclear-knock-out form factors to nuclear-surface behaviour of bound-state wave functions. The result of our investigation suggests that one can extract the bound-state behaviour at the surface from experimental information on nuclear-knock-out form factors

  4. Efficient gene knock-out and knock-in with transgenic Cas9 in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhaoyu; Ren, Mengda; Wu, Menghua; Dai, Junbiao; Rong, Yikang S; Gao, Guanjun

    2014-03-21

    Bacterial Cas9 nuclease induces site-specific DNA breaks using small gRNA as guides. Cas9 has been successfully introduced into Drosophila for genome editing. Here, we improve the versatility of this method by developing a transgenic system that expresses Cas9 in the Drosophila germline. Using this system, we induced inheritable knock-out mutations by injecting only the gRNA into embryos, achieved highly efficient mutagenesis by expressing gRNA from the promoter of a novel non-coding RNA gene, and recovered homologous recombination-based knock-in of a fluorescent marker at a rate of 4.5% by co-injecting gRNA with a circular DNA donor. Copyright © 2014 Xue et al.

  5. On the Probability of Predicting and Mapping Traditional Warfare Measurements to the Cyber Warfare Domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyber warfare is a contentious topic, with no agreement on whether this is a real possibility or an unrealistic extension of the physical battlefield. This article will not debate the validity and legality of the concept of cyber warfare...

  6. The Impact of Irregular Warfare on the US Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, III, Roger L

    2006-01-01

    Although the U.S. Army has yet to clearly define irregular warfare, it is imperative that the Army take near-term action to enhance the ability of Soldiers and units to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment...

  7. Dilemmas of Warfare in Densely Populated Civilian Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Tamir

    2012-01-01

    This essay attempts to present operational perspectives on conducting warfare in densely populated areas. It also distinguishes between three types of combat within this general category, with the goal of shedding light on this complex type of warfare.

  8. Pressure indication during knocking conditions; Druckindizierung bei klopfender Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertola, A.; Stadler, J.; Walter, T.; Wolfer, P. [Kistler Instrumente AG Winterthur (Switzerland); Gossweiler, C. [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz ITFE (Switzerland); Rothe, M. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kolbenmaschinen

    2006-07-01

    Depending on its frequency and intensity, knocking combustion can cause engine damage due to excessive thermal or mechanical stress on components. During knocking combustion, the cylinder pressure signal is overlaid with high-frequency pressure oscillations. Reliable detection of the knock timing and quantification of the knock intensity based on local measurement of the cylinder pressure demand for particular care, especially when it comes to selecting and adapting the sensor technology and also during the evaluation process using customary knock analysis methods. This publication examines various types of cylinder pressure sensors, how they are installed in the combustion chamber, the effect of sensor positioning and assesses them with regard to accuracy. Finally, on the basis of the test results, recommendations are given for selecting sensors and adapting them within the combustion chamber. A crucial factor for pressure measurement during knocking combustion is the sensor position within the combustion chamber. The sensor type is of secondary importance; at most, cavities between the combustion chamber and the sensor may influence the measuring signal. To assess the sensitivity of the knock evaluation algorithms to various mounting positions and sensor types, it is advisable to carry out comparative measurements between different sensor positions and the measuring spark plug. (orig.)

  9. Cyber Attacks, Information Attacks, and Postmodern Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuch Jozef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and differentiate between the phenomena of cyberwarfare and information warfare, as manifestations of what we perceive as postmodern warfare. We describe and analyse the current examples of the use the postmodern warfare and the reactions of states and international bodies to these phenomena. The subject matter of this paper is the relationship between new types of postmodern conflicts and the law of armed conflicts (law of war. Based on ICJ case law, it is clear that under current legal rules of international law of war, cyber attacks as well as information attacks (often performed in the cyberspace as well can only be perceived as “war” if executed in addition to classical kinetic warfare, which is often not the case. In most cases perceived “only” as a non-linear warfare (postmodern conflict, this practice nevertheless must be condemned as conduct contrary to the principles of international law and (possibly a crime under national laws, unless this type of conduct will be recognized by the international community as a “war” proper, in its new, postmodern sense.

  10. ISIL's Hybrid Warfare in Syria & Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heine

    2016-01-01

    of and ability to synchronize various instruments of power with a view to achieving their end-state. With regards to the second part of the problem statement, the analysis demonstrates how ISIL employed horizontal escalation and ambiguity initially, but later on turned to vertical escalation, within the military......The case study specifically seeks to answer the following problem statement: Does ISIL qualify as an actor using hybrid warfare and if so what characterizes their particular use of this type of warfare? Based on an analysis of ISIL’s warfare from August 2012 to August 2016 the chapter argues......, that it is possible to answer the first part of the problem statement in an affirmative way. Hence, ISIL is not only theoretically prone to hybridity by organizational setup, and by the people comprising the organization, but has in fact continuously acted according to a hybrid logic in its prioritization...

  11. Survey on Urban Warfare Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban warfare has become one of the main forms of modern combat in the twenty-first century. The main reason why urban warfare results in hundreds of casualties is that the situational information of the combatant is insufficient. Accessing information via an Augmented Reality system can elevate combatants’ situational awareness to effectively improve the efficiency of decision-making and reduce the injuries. This paper begins with the concept of Urban Warfare Augmented Reality (UWAR and illuminates the objectives of developing UWAR, i.e., transparent battlefield, intuitional perception and natural interaction. Real-time outdoor registration, information presentation and natural interaction are presented as key technologies of a practical UWAR system. Then, the history and current research state of these technologies are summarized and their future developments are highlighted from three perspectives, i.e., (1 Better integration with Geographic Information System and Virtual Geographic Environment; (2 More intelligent software; (3 More powerful hardware.

  12. Mongol Warfare in the Pre-Dissolution Period »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Mongols used many of the tactics and strategies that steppe nomads had used for centuries, the Mongols refined steppe warfare so that this style of warfare reached its apogee during the Mongol Empire. Furthermore, the Mongols developed a style of warfare that made them possibly the greatest military force in history. This work examines several facets of the pre-dissolution period (1200–1260. With the dissolution of the Mongol Empire, Mongol warfare once again changed. In some areas it remained complex while in others it regressed to traditional forces of steppe warfare, still potent but not as effective as the pre-dissolution period.

  13. Knock-on accident prevention in a chemical cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Dullaert, W.

    Empirical research has revealed that safety managers acknowledge the importance of cross-company cooperation for knock-on risk reduction. This paper presents a decision support software tool, called DomPrevPlanning

  14. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo......The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition...... of developing best practices in the education and implementation of IHL in capacity building of security forces....

  15. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    combatant commanders develop special warfare cam- paign options for their theaters that can be integral parts of the national approach. Getting buy -in at...the resistance spawning franchise operations at home or abroad? – Is the resistance attracting funding or other forms of assistance (indigenous

  17. Warfare and the Teaching of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salevouris, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that history teachers must challenge simplistic romantic notions about war. Proposes two approaches to teaching about war: the use of personal war narratives; and examining the relationship between warfare and society. Discusses literature related to these approaches. Contends that only through realistic assessments of war can peace be…

  18. The technical Dimensions of Nuclear Warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    This text, written by Engelbert Broda in 1977 is about the dimensions of nuclear warfare. Broda describes the devastating effects of the nuclear bombs dropped in 1945 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and compares these effects with the explosive power of Hydrogen weapons. He also expresses his concerns about another nuclear ware and analyses possible worsening situations like change in the military doctrine. (nowak)

  19. Book Review COMPOSITE WARFARE: THE CONDUCT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPOSITE WARFARE: THE CONDUCT OF. SUCCESSFUL GROUND FORCE. OPERATIONS IN AFRICA. Eeben Barlow. Abel Esterhuyse, PhD. Stellenbosch University. Pinetown: 30 Degrees South Publishers. 2015, 576 pages. ISBN 9781928211761. Africa is still one of the most conflict-ridden places on earth – from ...

  20. MOSES, development of an Underwater Warfare Testbed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentze, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    The TNO underwater warfare (UWW) research programme results in a large number of models used in operational research projects. To enhance the accessibility and re-use of these models for new projects, TNO-FEL has developed the modelling environment ‘MOSES - Maritime Operations Simulation and

  1. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview is presented of the major methods that are presently available for biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents, i.e., nerve agents and sulfur mustard. These methods can be applied for a variety of purposes such as diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of casualties, verification

  2. New Developments in Chinese Strategic Psychological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Taoism , which coupled hardness with softness in warfare, was not the only influence on the theory of psychological operations in ancient China. Other...portraying Islamic martyrs who appear to speak to soldiers from the clouds.38 In contemporary wars, such as the Gulf War, the first targets attacked have

  3. A Predictive Model of Surface Warfare Officer Retention: Factors Affecting Turnover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gjurich, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    Junior Surface Warfare Officer retention is in a crisis. The Surface Warfare Officer community anticipates an inability to fill Department Head billets due to the number of junior Surface Warfare Officers leaving military service...

  4. Knock-on electrons in WA98 silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, S.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon Drift Detector is used to estimate production of knock-on electrons created by passage of 158 GeV /u fully stripped Pb ion through thick lead target. Analysed data were collected in 1995 during Pb+Pb run in WA98 heavy ion experiment at CERN SPS. Information from WA98 Cherenkov beam counter makes it possible to classify events according to number of additional Pb ions which have during detector's read-out time passed through the target without nuclear interaction. Events with one and none pile-up ion are used for statistical separation of knock-on electrons from all detected charged particles. Resulting inclusive spectra of knock-on electrons are compared with GRANT simulations and good agreement is found. (author)

  5. Information operation/information warfare modeling and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Buettner, Raymond

    2000-01-01

    Information Operations have always been a part of warfare. However, this aspect of warfare is having ever-greater importance as forces rely more and more on information as an enabler. Modern information systems make possible very rapid creation, distribution, and utilization of information. These same systems have vulnerabilities that can be exploited by enemy forces. Information force-on-force is important and complex. New tools and procedures are needed for this warfare arena. As these t...

  6. Generation of Knock-in Mouse by Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Knock-in mice are useful for evaluating endogenous gene expressions and functions in vivo. Instead of the conventional gene-targeting method using embryonic stem cells, an exogenous DNA sequence can be inserted into the target locus in the zygote using genome editing technology. In this chapter, I describe the generation of epitope-tagged mice using engineered endonuclease and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide through the mouse zygote as an example of how to generate a knock-in mouse by genome editing.

  7. Military Engineers and Chemical Warfare Troops (Inzhenernye Voiska Khimicheskie Voiska),

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS, MILITARY ENGINEERING , INFANTRY, AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS, MINELAYING, ARMORED VEHICLES, NUCLEAR...RADIATION, DOSIMETERS, CHEMICAL WARFARE, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, DECONTAMINATION, HEALTH PHYSICS.

  8. Electronic Warfare: Comprehensive Strategy Needed for Suppressing Enemy Air Defenses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... To achieve this suppression, the services use specialized aircraft designed to neutralize, destroy, or temporarily degrade enemy air defense systems through either physical attack or electronic warfare...

  9. Are Current Psychological Operations Procedures Adequate in Information Warfare?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duff, Murray

    1997-01-01

    .... While some aspects of information warfare are conducted domestically, many are executed on foreign soil and involve extensive interaction with other governments, their population, non-governmental...

  10. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  11. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...

  12. Chemical warfare agents. Classes and targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Michael

    2018-09-01

    Synthetic toxic chemicals (toxicants) and biological poisons (toxins) have been developed as chemical warfare agents in the last century. At the time of their initial consideration as chemical weapon, only restricted knowledge existed about their mechanisms of action. There exist two different types of acute toxic action: nonspecific cytotoxic mechanisms with multiple chemo-biological interactions versus specific mechanisms that tend to have just a single or a few target biomolecules. TRPV1- and TRPA-receptors are often involved as chemosensors that induce neurogenic inflammation. The present work briefly surveys classes and toxicologically relevant features of chemical warfare agents and describes mechanisms of toxic action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mapping the Spread of Mounted Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Turchin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Military technology is one of the most important factors affecting the evolution of complex societies. In particular, mounted warfare, the use of horse-riders in military operations, revolutionized war as it spread to different parts of Eurasia and Africa during the Ancient and Medieval eras, and to the Americas during the Early Modern period. Here we use a variety of sources to map this spread.

  14. UML modelling of network warfare examples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ] Affects both civilian and military domains [8] [9] Related to the concepts of infowar, information operations, hacking, hackivism, cyberterrorism and cybotage depending on motivations and techniques [10] Encompasses both technological solutions...]. In addition, Williers as well as Qingbao and Anwar discuss more offensive aspects of information security and Network Warfare like Hacking, Vulnerability Injection, Network Attacks, Denial of Capability, Interception and Blockage [6] [18] [19]. Various...

  15. Maritime Trade Warfare Against a Modern Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Malaysian and Singaporean support. Operational Environment The previous sections have assessed that an oil embargo would be effective at influencing...will be addressed. The first approach is to stop the trade at its source. This approach forms the foundation of many contemporary sanctions. Under...antisubmarine warfare capable ships, could be sufficient to defend against forces attempting to break a blockade, and a carrier battle group in the Indian Ocean

  16. Navy Operational Planner - Undersea Warfare Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    concepts are considered in NOP–USW that are not in previous research: time phasing of missions, mutually exclusive missions, and asset availability...operational planning efforts. NOP–USW suggests the correct allocation of assets across a wide theater of operation to accomplish missions in the...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAVY OPERATIONAL PLANNER – UNDERSEA WARFARE MODULE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Guy A. Molina 7

  17. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare: Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    language, proficiency in small-unit tactics, and the ability to build and fight alongside indigenous combat formations in a permissive, uncertain, or...counterinsurgency through and with indigenous forces or personnel.”1 The report has four aims: (1) to adapt conventional operational art to the unique...perfect near-real-time situational awareness,” at least at the tactical level of land warfare in complex terrain. But the idea of leveraging information

  18. knock characteristics analysis of a supercharged spark ignition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The power output of a spark ignition engine could be improved by boosting the ... that the presence of aromatics was responsible for the better anti-knock ..... System, a Master's Thesis in the Institutionen för ... Maintenance and Reliability, Vol.

  19. William Knocke receives 2008 Virginia Outstanding Civil Engineer Award

    OpenAIRE

    Daniilidi, Christina

    2008-01-01

    William R. Knocke, W.C. English Professor and head of the Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech, was awarded the 2008 Virginia Outstanding Civil Engineer Award at the Virginia Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) banquet, held recently in Williamsburg, Va.

  20. A Knock at the Door. The Oryx Multicultural Folktale Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, George, Comp.

    This folktales collection includes 35 versions, representing countries and cultures from around the world, of the traditional tale in which a dangerous character knocks at the door and tries to trick the children into letting him inside. The stories are intended for use in homes, schools, and libraries by both children and adults who enjoy sharing…

  1. Knock Prediction Using a Simple Model for Ignition Delay

    KAUST Repository

    Kalghatgi, Gautam; Morganti, Kai; Algunaibet, Ibrahim; Sarathy, Mani; Dibble, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    An earlier paper has shown the ability to predict the phasing of knock onset in a gasoline PFI engine using a simple ignition delay equation for an appropriate surrogate fuel made up of toluene and PRF (TPRF). The applicability of this approach

  2. Knock Prediction Using a Simple Model for Ignition Delay

    KAUST Repository

    Kalghatgi, Gautam

    2016-04-05

    An earlier paper has shown the ability to predict the phasing of knock onset in a gasoline PFI engine using a simple ignition delay equation for an appropriate surrogate fuel made up of toluene and PRF (TPRF). The applicability of this approach is confirmed in this paper in a different engine using five different fuels of differing RON, sensitivity, and composition - including ethanol blends. An Arrhenius type equation with a pressure correction for ignition delay can be found from interpolation of previously published data for any gasoline if its RON and sensitivity are known. Then, if the pressure and temperature in the unburned gas can be estimated or measured, the Livengood-Wu integral can be estimated as a function of crank angle to predict the occurrence of knock. Experiments in a single cylinder DISI engine over a wide operating range confirm that this simple approach can predict knock very accurately. The data presented should enable engineers to study knock or other auto-ignition phenomena e.g. in premixed compression ignition (PCI) engines without explicit chemical kinetic calculations. © Copyright 2016 SAE International.

  3. Theoretical analysis of knock-out release of fission products from nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The knock-out release of fission products is studied theoretically. The general equations of knock-out release are derived, assuming that a fission fragment passing through the surface of nuclear fuels knocks out a local region of the surface with an effective thickness and an effective cross-sectional area. Using these equations, the knock-out release of fission gases is calculated for various cases. The conditions under which the knock-out coefficients (the average number of uranium atoms knocked out by one fission fragment) is obtainable are clarified by experiments on the knock-out release of fission gases. A method of determining the effective thickness and the effective cross-sectional area of a knock-out region is proposed. (Auth.)

  4. The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Storm

    2016-01-01

    by its economic, political and ideological characteristics. With the single assumption of economic rationality in human behaviour, Cycle of Warfare is not only coherent, it is applicable to all entities engaged in competition anywhere in the world at any point in history. The Cycle of Warfare can be used...

  5. Surface Warfare Officers Initial Training For Future Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    9 A school is initial rating specific technical training that is given to sailors. 14 Figure 4. Less...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS— INITIAL TRAINING FOR FUTURE SUCCESS March 2018...professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS—INITIAL TRAINING FOR FUTURE SUCCESS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Arron J

  6. Anti-Air Warfare Research for Naval Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, A.A.F.; Witberg, R.

    2000-01-01

    AAW is a warfare area with wide-spread spectrum. Command and Control Systems, sensors, effectors and electronic warfare are integrated to a system, they influence each other and must eventually be effective in coordinated action. This complexity asks for Operations Research methods to measure

  7. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard,

  8. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Seyfettin EROL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main security issues for the West and especially for NATO after the Russia-Ukraine crisis. Russian military strategies, called “hybrid warfare” by the western countries, resulted in the successful annexation of Crimea and, caused a serious security problem for the West resulting important structural and functional changes for the military system of NATO. Russian activities, which have been based on surprise, ambiguity and deniability, presented a unique example for hybrid warfare studies.

  9. A method of estimating the knock rating of hydrocarbon fuel blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Newell D

    1943-01-01

    The usefulness of the knock ratings of pure hydrocarbon compounds would be increased if some reliable method of calculating the knock ratings of fuel blends was known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of developing a method of predicting the knock ratings of fuel blends.

  10. Ionization in the Knock Zone of an Internal-combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasting, Charles E

    1940-01-01

    The ionization in the knock zone of an internal-combustion engine was investigated. A suspected correlation between the intensity of knock and the degree of ionization was verified and an oscillation in the degree of ionization corresponding in frequency to the knock vibrations in the cylinder pressure was observed.

  11. Evaluation of Knock Behavior for Natural Gas - Gasoline Blends in a Light Duty Spark Ignited Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamminger, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sevik, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scarcelli, Riccardo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallner, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wooldridge, Steven [Ford Motor Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Boyer, Brad [Ford Motor Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Hall, Carrie M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-10-17

    The compression ratio is a strong lever to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. However, among others, it is limited by the knock resistance of the fuel used. Natural gas shows a higher knock resistance compared to gasoline, which makes it very attractive for use in internal combustion engines. The current paper describes the knock behavior of two gasoline fuels, and specific incylinder blend ratios with one of the gasoline fuels and natural gas. The engine used for these investigations is a single cylinder research engine for light duty application which is equipped with two separate fuel systems. Both fuels can be used simultaneously which allows for gasoline to be injected into the intake port and natural gas to be injected directly into the cylinder to overcome the power density loss usually connected with port fuel injection of natural gas. Adding natural gas at wide open throttle helps to reduce knock mitigating measures and increases the efficiency and power density compared to the other gasoline type fuels with lower knock resistance. The used methods, knock intensity and number of pressure waves, do not show significant differences in knock behavior for the natural gas - gasoline blends compared to the gasoline type fuels. A knock integral was used to describe the knock onset location of the fuels tested. Two different approaches were used to determine the experimental knock onset and were compared to the knock onset delivered by the knock integral (chemical knock onset). The gasoline type fuels show good agreement between chemical and experimental knock onset. However, the natural gas -gasoline blends show higher discrepancies comparing chemical and experimental knock onset.

  12. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations with NGOs, relations with other armies, the impact of the rules of engagement (ROEs, training and education, and operational experiences. The paper ends with a discussion of the lessons learned.

  13. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  14. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  15. Single proton knock-out from 24F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoennessen, M.; Baumann, T.; Brown, B.A.; Enders, J.; Frank, N.H.; Hansen, P.G.; Heckman, P.; Luther, B.A.; Seitz, J.P.; Stolz, A.; Tryggestad, E.

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the single proton knock-out reaction from 24 F on a 12 C target at 46.7 MeV/nucleon yielded a 23 O ground state population of (6.6+/-1.0) mb. The data were compared to calculations based on the many-body shell model and the eikonal theory. The results are consistent with a [0d5/26]-bar 1s1/2 configuration of 23 O

  16. DJ-1 KNOCK-DOWN IMPAIRS ASTROCYTE MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    LARSEN, N. J.; AMBROSI, G.; MULLETT, S. J.; BERMAN, S. B.; HINKLE, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD brain tissues show evidence for mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I deficiency. Pharmacological inhibitors of Complex I, such as rotenone, cause experimental parkinsonism. The cytoprotective protein DJ-1, whose deletion is sufficient to cause genetic PD, is also known to have mitochondria-stabilizing properties. We have previously shown that DJ-1 is over-expressed in PD astrocytes, and that DJ-1 deficiency impairs the capacity of astrocytes to protect co-cultured neurons against rotenone. Since DJ-1 modulated, astrocyte-mediated neuroprotection against rotenone may depend upon proper astrocytic mitochondrial functioning, we hypothesized that DJ-1 deficiency would impair astrocyte mitochondrial motility, fission/fusion dynamics, membrane potential maintenance, and respiration, both at baseline and as an enhancement of rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In astrocyte-enriched cultures, we observed that DJ-1 knock-down reduced mitochondrial motility primarily in the cellular processes of both untreated and rotenone treated cells. In these same cultures, DJ-1 knock-down did not appreciably affect mitochondrial fission, fusion, or respiration, but did enhance rotenone-induced reductions in the mitochondrial membrane potential. In neuron–astrocyte co-cultures, astrocytic DJ-1 knock-down reduced astrocyte process mitochondrial motility in untreated cells, but this effect was not maintained in the presence of rotenone. In the same co-cultures, astrocytic DJ-1 knock-down significantly reduced mitochondrial fusion in the astrocyte cell bodies, but not the processes, under the same conditions of rotenone treatment in which DJ-1 deficiency is known to impair astrocyte-mediated neuroprotection. Our studies therefore demonstrated the following new findings: (i) DJ-1 deficiency can impair astrocyte mitochondrial physiology at multiple levels, (ii) astrocyte

  17. History of chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szinicz, L.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents

  18. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  19. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  20. Computational singular perturbation analysis of super-knock in SI engines

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2018-04-02

    Pre-ignition engine cycles leading to super-knock were simulated with a 48 species skeletal iso-octane mechanism to identify the dominant reaction pathways that are present in super-knock. To mimic pre-ignition, a deflagration front was generated via a hot spot that is placed over the piston at close proximity to the end-wall. Computational singular perturbation (CSP) was used to analyze the chemical dynamics at various in-cylinder locations: a point at the center of the cylinder where the deflagration front consumes the air/fuel mixture and two points located at 3 mm from the end-wall where super-knock and mild knock occur. The CSP analysis of the point at the center of the cylinder reveals weak two-stage ignition-like dynamics with a short second stage. At the other points, a pronounced two-stage ignition is displayed with a long second stage. A distinct contribution of formaldehyde (CHO) at the second stage of ignition that adds to fast explosive modes in the super-knock points is not observed in the point at the center. A comparison between knock and super-knock analysis indicates that a similar set of reactions is responsible for the abnormal behavior but the fast explosive time scales are comparatively slower for knock, indicating lower reactivity, which results in the reduced intensity of knock. The analyzed results decoded important reactions responsible for the occurrence of super-knock.

  1. Information Warfare: Defining the Legal Response to An Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pottorff, James

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulty in determining whether an information warfare attack, such as a computer virus, can be treated as an "armed attack" for purposes of national defense under the United Nations charter. As the U.S...

  2. Irregular Warfare: Impact on Future Professional Military Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschal, David G

    2006-01-01

    ... to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment. The utility of a decisive war between nation states continues to decline and will eventually reach critical mass based upon the extreme imbalance of military power and a U.S. monopoly...

  3. FFT Based VLSI Digital One Bit Electronic Warfare Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chien-In, Henry

    1998-01-01

    ... (1 GHz) digital receiver designed for electronic warfare applications. The receiver can process two simultaneous signals and has the potential for fabrication on a single multi-chip module (MCM...

  4. Back to the Basics: An Aviation Solution to Counterinsurgent Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Arthur D

    2005-01-01

    .... By examining past examples of the use of air power in counterinsurgent warfare, this study sheds light on the United States' current failings in both equipment and doctrine as it wages this type of war...

  5. Precision Warfare Enables Interdependent Fires and Maneuver in 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, John

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Army is in the midst of a revolution in military affairs (RMA). Significant advancements in informational technologies and precision weapons are providing unprecedented potential for future warfare...

  6. Irregular Warfare: Special Operations Joint Professional Military Education Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannady, Bryan H

    2008-01-01

    ... on today's battlefront in Afghanistan and Iraq and in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). At the forefront of the GWOT and irregular warfare are the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM...

  7. Irregular Warfare: New Challenges for Civil-Military Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Patrick M

    2008-01-01

    .... Irregular warfare introduces new complications to what Eliot Cohen has called an unequal dialogue between civilian and military leaders in which civilian leaders hold the true power but must modulate...

  8. Echoes of Chechnya Warfare Resound in Moscow, Quantico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ackerman, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... thinking about urban warfare. After suffering stunning public defeats just a few years ago, Russian forces applied painful lessons learned then to drive Chechen forces out of their capital city, Grozny, this year...

  9. zero day exploits and national readiness for cyber-warfare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    A zero day vulnerability is an unknown exploit that divulges security flaws in software before such a flaw is publicly ... Keywords: exploits, zero day, vulnerability, cyberspace, cyber-warfare. 1. ..... industries and companies across the globe. The.

  10. The Role of Airpower in Urban Warfare. An Airman's Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saffold, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    .... This emphasis on surface force employment stifles innovative thought as to how military forces can achieve operational and strategic effects by employing airpower as the key instrument of force in urban warfare...

  11. Fourth Generation Warfare: The Need for a Comprehensive Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benton, LeRoy D

    2008-01-01

    .... A definition of Fourth Generation Warfare is developed, based on Col. Thomas X. Hammes' writings. The definition is further developed to show relevance and applicability to current operations in the Long War on Terrorism...

  12. Towards a framework for a network warfare capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available . These include the legal issues, ethical dilemmas, technical solutions, financial impact and skill/manpower investment. Logical constraints/implications have been grouped together in the discussion that follows. 5.1.1 Legal Ethical Issues As network warfare... but the underlying causes of crime also needs to be understood. Ethics and morals play a significant role in determining the personality traits of an individual. Users will need to balance ethical dilemmas before engaging in offensive network warfare. Computers...

  13. Structuring Naval Special Warfare junior officer professional military education

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Naval Special Warfare does not currently have a designated career path for an officer that requires professional military education (PME) for SEAL junior officers after the rank of Ensign (O-1) and before the rank of Lieutenant Commander (O-4). There currently is interest in this subject matter at the Naval Special Warfare Command and Center. SEAL officers increasingly hold key leadership positions and influence critical decisions in the execution of national strategy. This growing respo...

  14. Strategy in the Robotic Age: A Case for Autonomous Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    enabling technology that augments human performance, such as exoskeleton suits, and other complementary fields that make robotics function...philosophy of maneuver warfare with new technologies from the Robotic Age, such as unmanned systems and exoskeleton suits, to present a new warfighting...and Brimley, “20YY,” 12. 49 the exoskeleton suit, but rather that the full benefit of autonomous warfare will be achieved by leveraging mass and

  15. Knock-limited performance of several internal coolants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellman, Donald R; Evvard, John C

    1945-01-01

    The effect of internal cooling on the knock-limited performance of an-f-28 fuel was investigated in a CFR engine, and the following internal coolants were used: (1) water, (2), methyl alcohol-water mixture, (3) ammonia-methyl alcohol-water mixture, (4) monomethylamine-water mixture, (5) dimethylamine-water mixture, and (6) trimethylamine-water mixture. Tests were run at inlet-air temperatures of 150 degrees and 250 degrees F. to indicate the temperature sensitivity of the internal-coolant solutions.

  16. Caracterización del 'Knock out' en Boxeo

    OpenAIRE

    Pic-Aguilar, Miguel; Sánchez-López, Carmen R.; Blanco Villaseñor, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar las cuatro últimas acciones motrices emitidas (golpes) por boxeadores campeones del mundo de los pesos pesados y así poder caracterizar el 'Knock out' en boxeo. Para ello, hemos desarrollado una herramienta de observación que consta de cuatro criterios y 35 categorías. Para la selección de la muestra se tuvo en cuenta dos requisitos: haberse proclamado campeón del mundo del peso pesado durante el período que comprende 1921-2007 (desde Jack Dempsey ha...

  17. The Impacts of Modern Warfare on Freshwater Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Robert A.

    2011-11-01

    There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and `informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

  18. The Manipulation of Human Behavior in Guerrilla Warfare: Can It Enhance U.S. Army Special Forces Guerrilla Warfare Operations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, William

    1997-01-01

    .... Proper integration of psychological communications to manipulate behavior in guerrilla warfare may facilitate the recruiting1 motivation, morale, sustainment and popular support for a guerrilla movement and its cause...

  19. Information Warfare, Threats and Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Nikolaevich Bespalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the opposite, but dependent on each other's reality - Revolutionary War information,information security goals and objectives of their study within the scheme "challenge-response", methodological and analytical support, the role of elites and the information society in promoting information security. One of the features of contemporaneityis the global spread of ICT, combined with poor governance and other difficulties in the construction of innovation infrastructures that are based on them in some countries. This leads to the reproduction of threats, primarily related to the ability to use ICT for purposes that are inconsistent with the objectives of maintaining international peace and security, compliance with the principles of non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, etc. In this regard, include such terms as "a threat of information warfare", "information terrorism" and so forth. Information warfare, which stay in the policy declared the struggle for existence, and relationships are defined in terms of "friend-enemy", "ours-foreign". Superiority over the opponent or "capture of its territory" is the aim of political activity. And information security, serving activities similar process of political control, including a set of components, is a technology until their humanitarian. From the context and the decision itself is the ratio of the achieved results of information and political influence to the target - a positive image of Russia. Bringing its policy in line with the demands of a healthy public opinion provides conductivity of theauthorities initiatives in the country and increases the legitimacy of the Russian Federation actions in the world.

  20. Prediction of knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2005-01-01

    Computer models of engine processes are valuable tools for predicting and analyzing engine performance and allow exploration of many engine design alternatives in an inexpensive fashion. In the present work, a zero-dimensional, two zone thermodynamic model was used to determine the knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine. Experimentally based burning rate models were used for flame initiation and propagation calculations. A knock model was incorporated with the zero-dimensional model. Comparison of the measured and calculated cylinder pressure data indicated that the model is able to match the measured cylinder pressure data with less than 8% error in magnitudes if the computations are started at the experimental spark timing. The knock predictions agreed with the measurements also. With the established knock model, it is possible not only to investigate whether knock is observed with changing operating and design parameters, but also to evaluate their effects on the maximum possible knock intensity

  1. Source characteristics of the underwater knocking displays of a male Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, William R.; Reichmuth, Colleen; Mulsow, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    "knocks"’ punctuated by occasional metallic "bells." The source characteristics of the knocking sounds that were regularly emitted by a male walrus raised in captivity were examined. Knocks were produced as single 20 ms pulses, or as doublets and triplets, and were typically repeated at rates of 0.8/s...... to 1.2/s. These were loud sounds with greater bandwidth than previously reported: mean source levels were 186 dB pk-pk re 1 Pa at 1 m (range 164-196) with maximum frequency >24 kHz. Production of each knock was associated with visible impulsive movement of the forehead. During rut, this walrus had...... difficulty inhibiting sound production and would often continue to emit knocks in air during haul-out and even while eating, suggesting an endogenous component to this behavior. A strong correlation between his seasonal testosterone levels and the persistence of knocking displays was confirmed. Captive...

  2. Knock down of the myostatin gene by RNA interference increased body weight in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T K; Shukla, R; Chatterjee, R N; Dushyanth, K

    2017-01-10

    Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscular growth in poultry and other animals. Of several approaches, knocking down the negative regulator is an important aspect to augment muscular growth in chicken. Knock down of myostatin gene has been performed by shRNA acting against the expression of gene in animals. Two methods of knock down of gene in chicken such as embryo manipulation and sperm mediated method have been performed. The hatching percentage in embryo manipulation and sperm mediated method of knock down was 58.0 and 41.5%, respectively. The shRNA in knock down chicken enhanced body weight at 6 weeks by 26.9%. The dressing percentage and serum biochemical parameters such as SGPT and alkaline phosphatase differed significantly (Pknock down and control birds. It is concluded that knocking down the myostatin gene successfully augmented growth in chicken. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. System and method for controlling engine knock using electro-hydraulic valve actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-12-10

    A control system for an engine includes a knock control module and a valve control module. The knock control module adjusts a period that one or more of an intake valve and an exhaust valve of a cylinder are open based on engine knock corresponding to the cylinder. The valve control module, based on the adjusted period, controls the one or more of the intake valve and the exhaust valve using one or more hydraulic actuators.

  4. Development and evaluation of an efficient heterologous gene knock-in reporter system in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifei; Yan, Hongxiang; Deng, Jiezhong; Huang, Zhigang; Jin, Xurui; Yu, Yanlan; Hu, Qiwen; Hu, Fuquan; Wang, Jing

    2017-09-18

    Lactococcus lactis is a food grade probiotics and widely used to express heterologous proteins. Generally, target genes are knocked into the L. lactis genome through double-crossover recombination to express heterologous proteins stably. However, creating marker-less heterologous genes knocked-in clones is laborious. In this study, an efficient heterologous gene knock-in reporter system was developed in L. lactis NZ9000. Our knock-in reporter system consists of a temperature-sensitive plasmid pJW and a recombinant L. lactis strain named NZB. The pJW contains homologous arms, and was constructed to knock-in heterologous genes at a fixed locus of NZ9000 genome. lacZ (β-galactosidase) gene was knocked into the chromosome of NZ9000 as a counter-selective marker through the plasmid pJW to generate NZB. The engineered NZB strain formed blue colonies on X-Gal plate. The desired double-crossover mutants formed white colonies distinctive from the predominantly blue colonies (parental and plasmid-integrated clones) when the embedded lacZ was replaced with the target heterologous genes carried by pJW in NZB. By using the system, the heterologous gene knocked-in clones are screened by colony phenotype change rather than by checking colonies individually. Our new knock-in reporter system provides an efficient method to create heterologous genes knocked-in clones.

  5. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Using Agent Based Distillation to Explore Issues Related to Asymmetric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    official definition of asymmetric warfare , considering that its use was redundant to irregular warfare [30]. 2 Such as the Lanchester Equations...RTP-MP-MSG-069 23 - 1 Using Agent Based Distillation to Explore Issues Related to Asymmetric Warfare Martin Adelantado, Jean-Michel Mathé...shows that both conventional and asymmetric warfare are characterised by nonlinear behaviours and that engagement is a Complex Adaptive System (CAS

  7. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials 5a...directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent... DECONTAMINANTS TO PROVIDE HAZARD MITIGATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS FROM MATERIALS 1. INTRODUCTION Decontamination of materials is the

  8. Chemical Methods to Knock Down the Amyloid Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Gao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid proteins are closely related with amyloid diseases and do tremendous harm to human health. However, there is still a lack of effective strategies to treat these amyloid diseases, so it is important to develop novel methods. Accelerating the clearance of amyloid proteins is a favorable method for amyloid disease treatment. Recently, chemical methods for protein reduction have been developed and have attracted much attention. In this review, we focus on the latest progress of chemical methods that knock down amyloid proteins, including the proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC strategy, the “recognition-cleavage” strategy, the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA strategy, the selectively light-activatable organic and inorganic molecules strategy and other chemical strategies.

  9. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jae Hyung; Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca 2+ /CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration

  10. Russian New Art of Hybrid Warfare in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to analyse the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. For the purposes of the paper, the theory of hybrid warfare was chosen as an analytical category. Throughout the paper, the concept of hybrid warfare is examined and applied on case study of Crimean annexation. Hybrid warfare, especially in connection with Russian actions in Crimea has been an intensely debated concept. There is an ongoing debate among scholars concerning the meaning of the concept, its existence and employment by the Russian Federation. This paper showed that the article of Valeriy Gerasimov – the incumbent Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Federation-invoked a new warfare strategy for the Russian Federation which was consequently for the very first time in its full spectre and effectivity employed on case of Crimean annexation in March 2014. Observing the application of the hybrid warfare in practice serves the purposes of countering its further potential application in post-Soviet space and Russian ‘near abroad’.

  11. Nondestructive inspection of chemical warfare based on API-TOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Zheng Pu; He Tie; An Li; Yang Jie; Fan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Real-time, fast, accurate, nondestructive inspection (NDI) and quantitative analysis for chemical warfare are very imperative for chemical defense, anti-terror and nation security. Purpose: Associated Particles Technique (APT)/Neutron Time of Flight (TOF) has been developed for non-invasive inspection of sealed containers with chemical warfare agents. Methods: A prototype equipment for chemical warfare is consisted of an APT neutron generator with a 3×3 matrix of semiconductor detectors of associated alpha-particles, the shielding protection of neutron and gamma-ray, arrayed NaI(Tl)-based detectors of gamma-rays, fully-digital data acquisition electronics, data analysis, decision-making software, support platform and remote control system. Inelastic scattering gamma-ray pulse height spectra of sarin, VX, mustard gas and adamsite induced by 14-MeV neutron are measured. The energies of these gamma rays are used to identify the inelastic scattering elements, and the intensities of the peaks at these energies are used to reveal their concentrations. Results: The characteristic peaks of inelastic scattering gamma-ray pulse height spectra show that the prototype equipment can fast and accurately inspect chemical warfare. Conclusion: The equipment can be used to detect not only chemical warfare agents but also other hazardous materials, such as chemical/toxic/drug materials, if their chemical composition is in any way different from that of the surrounding materials. (authors)

  12. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  13. Fuel effects on knock, heat releases and CARS temperatures in a spark ignition engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalghatgi, G.T.; Golombok, M.; Snowdon, P.

    1995-01-01

    Net heat release, knock characteristics and temperature were derived from in-cylinder pressure and end-gas CARS measurements for different fuels in a single-cylinder engine. The maximum net heat release rate resulting from the final phase of autoignition is closely associated with knock intensity.

  14. Computer simulation of the spatial distribution of optical radiation arising from knocked-out excited particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokov, S.P.; Gritsyna, V.V.; Koval', A.G.; Kovtunenko, Yu.I.; Shevchenko, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    The new approach for the explanation of the spatial distribution of the optical radiation arising from knocked-out excited particles is given. Calculated and experimental data for Al (λ=396.1 nm) and Mg (λ=383.8 nm) knocked-out by Ar + (20 keV) beam from MgAl 2 O 4 surface are compared [ru

  15. Computational singular perturbation analysis of super-knock in SI engines

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed; Tingas, Alexandros; Herná ndez Pé rez, Francisco E.; Im, Hong G.

    2018-01-01

    the deflagration front consumes the air/fuel mixture and two points located at 3 mm from the end-wall where super-knock and mild knock occur. The CSP analysis of the point at the center of the cylinder reveals weak two-stage ignition-like dynamics with a short

  16. The knock study of methanol fuel based on multi-dimensional simulation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Xudong; Liu, Daming; Wang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Methanol is an alternative fuel, and considered to be one of the most favorable fuels for engines. In this study, knocking combustion in a developed ORCEM (optical rapid compression and expansion machine) is studied based on the multi-dimensional simulation analysis. The LES (large-eddy simulation) models coupled with methanol chemical reaction kinetics (contains 21-species and 84-elementary reactions) is adopted to study knocking combustion. The results showed that the end-gas auto-ignition first occurred in the position near the chamber wall because of the higher temperature and pressure. The H_2O_2 species could be a good flame front indicator. OH radicals played the major role, and the HCO radicals almost could be ignored during knocking combustion. The HCO radicals generated little, so its concentration during knocking combustion almost may be ignored. The mean reaction intensity results of CH_2O, OH, H_2O_2, and CO were higher than others during knocking combustion. Finally, this paper put forward some new suggestions on the weakness in the knocking combustion researches of methanol fuel. - Highlights: • Knocking combustion of methanol was studied in a developed ORCEM. • The LES coupled with detailed chemical kinetics was adopted to simulation study. • The end-gas auto-ignition first occurred in the place near the chamber wall. • OH radical was the predominant species during knocking combustion. • The H_2O_2 species could be a good flame front indicator.

  17. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism.

  18. Optimized knock-in of point mutations in zebrafish using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Fuller, Charlotte; Steele, Shelby L; Veinotte, Chansey J; Razaghi, Babak; Robitaille, Johane M; McMaster, Christopher R; Shlien, Adam; Malkin, David; Berman, Jason N

    2018-06-14

    We have optimized point mutation knock-ins into zebrafish genomic sites using clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 reagents and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides. The efficiency of knock-ins was assessed by a novel application of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by high-throughput sequencing. Anti-sense asymmetric oligo design was found to be the most successful optimization strategy. However, cut site proximity to the mutation and phosphorothioate oligo modifications also greatly improved knock-in efficiency. A previously unrecognized risk of off-target trans knock-ins was identified that we obviated through the development of a workflow for correct knock-in detection. Together these strategies greatly facilitate the study of human genetic diseases in zebrafish, with additional applicability to enhance CRISPR-based approaches in other animal model systems.

  19. Gene cassette knock-in in mammalian cells and zygotes by enhanced MMEJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Tomomi; Nakade, Shota; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Izu, Yayoi; Oishi, Ayu; Mochida, Keiji; Ishikubo, Harumi; Usami, Takako; Aizawa, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Takashi; Tanaka, Kohichi

    2016-11-28

    Although CRISPR/Cas enables one-step gene cassette knock-in, assembling targeting vectors containing long homology arms is a laborious process for high-throughput knock-in. We recently developed the CRISPR/Cas-based precise integration into the target chromosome (PITCh) system for a gene cassette knock-in without long homology arms mediated by microhomology-mediated end-joining. Here, we identified exonuclease 1 (Exo1) as an enhancer for PITCh in human cells. By combining the Exo1 and PITCh-directed donor vectors, we achieved convenient one-step knock-in of gene cassettes and floxed allele both in human cells and mouse zygotes. Our results provide a technical platform for high-throughput knock-in.

  20. A Photographic Study of Combustion and Knock in a Spark-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1938-01-01

    Report presents the results of a photographic study of the combustion in a spark-ignition engine using both Schlieren and flame photographs taken at high rates of speed. Although shock waves are present after knock occurs, there was no evidence of any type of sonic or supersonic compression waves existing in the combustion gases prior to the occurrence of knock. Artificially induced shock waves in the engine did not in themselves cause knock. The photographs also indicate that, although auto-ignition ahead of the flame front may occur in conjunction with knock, it is not necessary for the occurrence of knock. There is also evidence that the reaction is not completed in the flame front but continues for some time after the flame front has passed through the charge.

  1. Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alan J; Berberich, Jason A; Drevon, Geraldine F; Koepsel, Richard R

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and remediation of organophosphate spills. A number of materials have been prepared containing enzymes for the destruction of and protection against organophosphate nerve agents and biological warfare agents. This review discusses the major chemical and biological warfare agents, decontamination methods, and biomaterials that have potential for the preparation of decontamination wipes, gas filters, column packings, protective wear, and self-decontaminating paints and coatings.

  2. Lanchester-Type Models of Warfare, Volume II

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, James G.

    1980-01-01

    This monograph is a comprehensive treatist on Lanchester-type models of warfare, i.e. differential-equation models of attrition in force-on-force combat operations. Its goal is to provide both an introduction to and current-state-of-the-art overview of Lanchester-type models of warfare as well as a comprehensive and unified in-depth treatment of them. Both deterministic as well as stochastic models are considered. Such models have been widely used in the United States and elsewhere for the...

  3. Theory of information warfare: basic framework, methodology and conceptual apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Васильович Курбан

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is conducted a comprehensive theoretical study and determine the basic provisions of the modern theory of information warfare in on-line social networks. Three basic blocks, which systematized the theoretical and methodological basis of the topic, are established. There are information and psychological war, social off-line and on-line network. According to the three blocks, theoretical concepts are defined and methodological substantiation of information processes within the information warfare in the social on-line networks is formed

  4. Hybrid warfare of the USA in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Budaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Washington’s hybrid warfare in Latin American region differs by its inventive and sophisticated methods and in fact represents a complex and multidimensional phenomenon including symbiosis of the “soft” and “hard” power as well as their combination in the form of the “smart power”. The increasing importance of hybrid warfare technologies in the US foreign policy in Latin America predetermines the necessity of thorough studies and analysis of this phenomenon for providing Russian interests.

  5. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  6. A predictive model for knock onset in spark-ignition engines with cooled EGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Longhua; Li, Tie; Yin, Tao; Zheng, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ratio of specific heats should be used as variable in development of knock model. • Increases in EGR or excess air ratio lead to increases in the ratio of specific heats. • The widely-used Douaud–Eyzat correlation fails to predict the knock onset when increasing EGR. • The newly developed model including p, T, EGR and λ as variables predicts the knock onset accurately. • Effect of temperature at intake valve closure on the predicted knock onset is relatively small. - Abstract: A predictive knock model is crucial for one dimensional (1-D) engine cycle simulation that has been proven to be a powerful tool in both optimization of the conceptual design and reduction of calibration efforts in development of spark-ignition (SI) engines. With application of advanced technologies such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in modern SI engines, update of knock model is needed to give an acceptable prediction of knock onset. In this study, bench tests of a turbocharged gasoline SI engine with cooled EGR system operated under knocking conditions were conducted, the cylinder pressure traces were analyzed by the band-pass filtering technique, and the crank angle of knock onset was determined by the signal energy ratio (SER) and image processing method. A knock model considering multi-variable effects including pressure, temperature, EGR ratio and excess air ratio (λ) is formulated and calibrated with the experimental data using the multi-island genetic algorithm (GA). The calculation method of the end gas temperature, the impacts of the ratio of specific heats as well as the temperature at the intake valve closure on the end gas temperature are discussed. The performance of the new model is compared with the widely-used phenomenological knock models such as Douaud–Eyzat model and Hoepke model. While the widely-used knock models fail to give acceptable predictions when increasing EGR with fuel enrichment operations, the new model predicts the knock

  7. Knock probability estimation through an in-cylinder temperature model with exogenous noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, P.; Selmanaj, D.; Guardiola, C.; Onder, C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a new knock model which combines a deterministic knock model based on the in-cylinder temperature and an exogenous noise disturbing this temperature. The autoignition of the end-gas is modelled by an Arrhenius-like function and the knock probability is estimated by propagating a virtual error probability distribution. Results show that the random nature of knock can be explained by uncertainties at the in-cylinder temperature estimation. The model only has one parameter for calibration and thus can be easily adapted online. In order to reduce the measurement uncertainties associated with the air mass flow sensor, the trapped mass is derived from the in-cylinder pressure resonance, which improves the knock probability estimation and reduces the number of sensors needed for the model. A four stroke SI engine was used for model validation. By varying the intake temperature, the engine speed, the injected fuel mass, and the spark advance, specific tests were conducted, which furnished data with various knock intensities and probabilities. The new model is able to predict the knock probability within a sufficient range at various operating conditions. The trapped mass obtained by the acoustical model was compared in steady conditions by using a fuel balance and a lambda sensor and differences below 1 % were found.

  8. A Knock-in Reporter for a Novel AR-Targeted Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0049 TITLE: A Knock -in Reporter for a Novel AR-Targeted Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chunhong Yan, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Knock -in Reporter for a Novel AR-Targeted Therapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0049 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...enhancer. While the knock -in reporter is expected to faithfully reproduce chemical responses of the endogenous AR gene, we carried out a pilot screen

  9. On a calculation of nucleon knock-out cross sections in a collision of relativistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachev, B.I.; Lin'kova, N.V.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that in the framework of the two-stage model one can obtain knock-out cross sections of the given number of nucleons from the nucleus-target at a certain number of nucleons knocked out from the nucleus-projectile. The first stage is considered as a fast process of nucleon collisions of interacting nuclei which is completed with knock out of one or several nucleons. The second stage-comparatively slow - is related to de-excitation of nuclei-fragments

  10. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janos, P.; Skoumal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 236, č. 2016 (2016), s. 239-258 ISSN 0179-5953 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agent * metal nanoparticle * unique surface- chemistry * mesoporous manganese oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  11. The Role of Civil Affairs in Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    neighbor to the west, and secured the eastern border of Laos 32 Mao Tse -Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare...INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................19  B.  BRIEF HISTORY OF LAOS ...Royal Lao Army SCA Support to Civil Administration SCIRI Supreme Council of Iraq SG Shadow Government SOF Special Operations Forces TAI Targeted

  12. Management information systems for electronic warfare command and decision support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available information to allow them to manage their own spectrum, to identify threats, and to deny adversaries’ use of the spectrum. In this paper, the concepts of integrated electronic warfare and spectrum battle management are introduced, and the relevant information...

  13. Manoeuvre warfare analysis of South Africa's 1914-1915 German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reported in this article explored the nexus between military theory and history. Military theory attempts to quantify, qualify and illuminate the often unpredictable phenomenon of war. The article consists of two parts: the theory of manoeuvre warfare and the history of the 1914-1915 South African campaign in ...

  14. blitzkrieg to desert storm: the evolution of operational warfare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a_nabb

    disease of stalemates infecting militaries before the Second World War. The invasion did not change the world; instead, it brought about an increased awareness of the importance of the operational level of war, a dimension of warfare previously neglected. The German operational effectiveness represented an evolution ...

  15. A identification system for chemical warfare agents with PGNAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Yin Guanghua; Yang Zhongping

    2006-01-01

    The principle and the experimental commanding of Chemical warfare Agents Identification with PGNAA method are discussed in this paper. The choosing of Detector, neutron source and the data processing method are detailed. Finally, a set of experimental instruments composed of Cf-232 and BGO detector is developed based on the theory discussed above. (authors)

  16. Identification system for chemical warfare agents with PGNAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Yin Guanghua; Yang Zhongpin

    2007-01-01

    The principle and the experimental commanding of Chemical warfare Agents Identification with PGNAA method are discussed in this paper. The choosing of detector, neutron source and the data processing method are detailed. Finally, a set of experimental instruments composed of Cf-232 and BGO detector is developed based on this theory discussed above. (authors)

  17. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Benschop, H.P.; Black, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this report an overview of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e., sulfur mustard, lewisite and nerve agents, is presented. Such methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g., diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of

  18. Researchers study decontamination of chemical, biological warfare agents

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Office has awarded Virginia Tech a $680,000 grant over two years to build an instrument that can be used to study the chemistry of gases that will decompose both chemical and biological warfare agents on surfaces.

  19. Recent canadian experience in chemical warfare agent destruction. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    A Canadian chemical warfare agent destruction project (Swiftsure) was recently completed in which stockpiles of aged mustard, lewisite, nerve agents and contaminated scrap metal were incinerated or chemically neutralized in a safe, environmentally-responsible manner. The project scope, destruction technologies, environmental monitoring and public consultation programs are described.

  20. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  1. A hard-knock life: the foraging ecology of Cape cormorants amidst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A hard-knock life: the foraging ecology of Cape cormorants amidst shifting prey resources and industrial fishing pressure. MH Hamann, D Grémillet, PG Ryan, F Bonadonna, CD van der Lingen, L Pichegru ...

  2. On the knock-out mechanism for the 12C(P,α)9B reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.Y.M.; Ismail, E.H.; Rabie, A.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of the reaction 12 C(P,α) 9 B is studied using zero range distorted wave Born approximation. The knock out mechanism is assumed to represent this reaction both in the forward and backward angles. (orig.) [de

  3. Computer simulation of energy dissipation from near threshold knock-ons in Fe3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, G.; Leighly, H.P. Jr.; Edwards, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program has been developed and used to model a series of knock-ons near the damage energy threshold in a micro-crystallite of the ordered alloy Fe 3 Al. The primary paths of energy removal from the knock-on site were found to be along the [100] and [111] directions by means of focusing type collision chains. The relative importance of either direction as an energy removal path varied with the initial knock-on direction and also changed with time during the course of the knock-on event. The time rate of energy removal was found to be greatest in the [111] direction due to the shorter interatomic distances between atoms along this direction

  4. Terpineol as a novel octane booster for extending the knock limit of gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Naser, Nimal; Roberts, William L.; Dibble, Robert W.; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Improving the octane number of gasoline offers the potential of improved engine combustion, as it permits spark timing advancement without engine knock. This study proposes the use of terpineol as an octane booster for gasoline in a spark ignited

  5. Knock-Outs, Stick-Outs, Cut-Outs: Clipping Paths Separate Objects from Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bradley

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a six-step process that allows computer operators, using Photoshop software, to create "knock-outs" to precisely define the path that will serve to separate the object from the background. (SR)

  6. When Your Back Hurts: Don't Let Back Pain Knock You Flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Back Hurts Don’t Let Back Pain Knock You Flat En español Send us your comments ... Complementary Health Approaches Halt the Hurt! References The SPORT Value Compass: Do the Extra Costs of Undergoing ...

  7. Temperature dependence of knocking-out cross sections of a bound atom from the lattice site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, S.K.; Pletnev, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The total cross section of atom knocking-out from the lattice site is calculated with the atom binding in the lattice site taken into account. The intermediate case of atom being preads over the bottom of a spherical potential well is considered (the case of intermediate temperatures). Thus the target temperature parameter enters the equation for the total cross section of atom knocking-out

  8. Sensitivity of dual fuel engine combustion and knocking limits to gaseous fuel composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, M.Y.E. [United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-02-01

    Combustion noise, knock and ignition limits data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuels of Diesel and three gaseous fuels separately. The gaseous fuels used are liquefied petroleum gas, pure methane and compressed natural gas mixture. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise, and the knocking and ignition limits are presented as torque output at the onset of knocking and ignition failure. Experimental investigation on the dual fuel engine revealed the noise generated from combustion, knocking and ignition limits for all gases at different design and operating conditions. A Ricardo E6 Diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of Diesel and the tested gaseous fuel and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized, and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data and engine operating variables are stored in a PC for off line analysis. The effects of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, pilot fuel quantity and compression ratio on combustion noise, knocking torque, thermal efficiency and maximum pressure are examined for the dual engine running on the three gaseous fuels separately. The combustion noise, knocking and ignition limits are found to relate to the type of gaseous fuels and to the engine design and operating parameters. (author)

  9. Highly efficient CRISPR/HDR-mediated knock-in for mouse embryonic stem cells and zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bangmei; Li, Kunyu; Wang, Amy; Reiser, Michelle; Saunders, Thom; Lockey, Richard F; Wang, Jia-Wang

    2015-10-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) gene editing technique, based on the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway, has been used to generate gene knock-outs with variable sizes of small insertion/deletions with high efficiency. More precise genome editing, either the insertion or deletion of a desired fragment, can be done by combining the homology-directed-repair (HDR) pathway with CRISPR cleavage. However, HDR-mediated gene knock-in experiments are typically inefficient, and there have been no reports of successful gene knock-in with DNA fragments larger than 4 kb. Here, we describe the targeted insertion of large DNA fragments (7.4 and 5.8 kb) into the genomes of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and zygotes, respectively, using the CRISPR/HDR technique without NHEJ inhibitors. Our data show that CRISPR/HDR without NHEJ inhibitors can result in highly efficient gene knock-in, equivalent to CRISPR/HDR with NHEJ inhibitors. Although NHEJ is the dominant repair pathway associated with CRISPR-mediated double-strand breaks (DSBs), and biallelic gene knock-ins are common, NHEJ and biallelic gene knock-ins were not detected. Our results demonstrate that efficient targeted insertion of large DNA fragments without NHEJ inhibitors is possible, a result that should stimulate interest in understanding the mechanisms of high efficiency CRISPR targeting in general.

  10. Motor Deficits and Cerebellar Atrophy in Elovl5 Knock Out Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Eriola; Gabriele, Rebecca M C; Balbo, Ilaria; Ravera, Francesco; Masante, Linda; Zambelli, Vanessa; Albergo, Cristian; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Brusco, Alfredo; Borroni, Barbara; Tempia, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Spino-Cerebellar-Ataxia type 38 (SCA38) is caused by missense mutations in the very long chain fatty acid elongase 5 gene, ELOVL5 . The main clinical findings in this disease are ataxia, hyposmia and cerebellar atrophy. Mice in which Elovl5 has been knocked out represent a model of the loss of function hypothesis of SCA38. In agreement with this hypothesis, Elovl5 knock out mice reproduced the main symptoms of patients, motor deficits at the beam balance test and hyposmia. The cerebellar cortex of Elovl5 knock out mice showed a reduction of thickness of the molecular layer, already detectable at 6 months of age, confirmed at 12 and 18 months. The total perimeter length of the Purkinje cell (PC) layer was also reduced in Elovl5 knock out mice. Since Elovl5 transcripts are expressed by PCs, whose dendrites are a major component of the molecular layer, we hypothesized that an alteration of their dendrites might be responsible for the reduced thickness of this layer. Reconstruction of the dendritic tree of biocytin-filled PCs, followed by Sholl analysis, showed that the distribution of distal dendrites was significantly reduced in Elovl5 knock out mice. Dendritic spine density was conserved. These results suggest that Elovl5 knock out mice recapitulate SCA38 symptoms and that their cerebellar atrophy is due, at least in part, to a reduced extension of PC dendritic arborization.

  11. Determination of knock characteristics in spark ignition engines: an approach based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ning; Liang, Caiping; Yang, Jianguo; Zhou, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Knock is one of the major constraints to improve the performance and thermal efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. It can also result in severe permanent engine damage under certain operating conditions. Based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), this paper proposes a new approach to determine the knock characteristics in SI engines. By adding a uniformly distributed and finite white Gaussian noise, the EEMD can preserve signal continuity in different scales and therefore alleviates the mode-mixing problem occurring in the classic empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The feasibilities of applying the EEMD to detect the knock signatures of a test SI engine via the pressure signal measured from combustion chamber and the vibration signal measured from cylinder head are investigated. Experimental results show that the EEMD-based method is able to detect the knock signatures from both the pressure signal and vibration signal, even in initial stage of knock. Finally, by comparing the application results with those obtained by short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Wigner–Ville distribution (WVD) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the superiority of the EEMD method in determining knock characteristics is demonstrated. (paper)

  12. Sensitivity of dual fuel engine combustion and knocking limits to gaseous fuel composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E.

    2004-01-01

    Combustion noise, knock and ignition limits data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuels of Diesel and three gaseous fuels separately. The gaseous fuels used are liquefied petroleum gas, pure methane and compressed natural gas mixture. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise, and the knocking and ignition limits are presented as torque output at the onset of knocking and ignition failure. Experimental investigation on the dual fuel engine revealed the noise generated from combustion, knocking and ignition limits for all gases at different design and operating conditions. A Ricardo E6 Diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of Diesel and the tested gaseous fuel and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized, and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data and engine operating variables are stored in a PC for off line analysis. The effects of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, pilot fuel quantity and compression ratio on combustion noise, knocking torque, thermal efficiency and maximum pressure are examined for the dual engine running on the three gaseous fuels separately. The combustion noise, knocking and ignition limits are found to relate to the type of gaseous fuels and to the engine design and operating parameters

  13. Defending Our Satellites: The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    intercept Allied bombers attacking at night.9 As a result of the electronic warfare advantage that systems like Window and Airborne Cigar be- stowed...74 | Air & Space Power Journal Defending Our Satellites The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training Lt Col E. Lincoln Bonner, USAF...expanding education and training in the use of electronic warfare to defend US satellites and improve their survivability. The following discussion

  14. A knock-in/knock-out mouse model of HSPB8-associated distal hereditary motor neuropathy and myopathy reveals toxic gain-of-function of mutant Hspb8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhy, Delphine; Juneja, Manisha; Katona, Istvan; Holmgren, Anne; Asselbergh, Bob; De Winter, Vicky; Hochepied, Tino; Goossens, Steven; Haigh, Jody J; Libert, Claude; Ceuterick-de Groote, Chantal; Irobi, Joy; Weis, Joachim; Timmerman, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the small heat shock protein B8 gene (HSPB8/HSP22) have been associated with distal hereditary motor neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and recently distal myopathy. It is so far not clear how mutant HSPB8 induces the neuronal and muscular phenotypes and if a common pathogenesis lies behind these diseases. Growing evidence points towards a role of HSPB8 in chaperone-associated autophagy, which has been shown to be a determinant for the clearance of poly-glutamine aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases but also for the maintenance of skeletal muscle myofibrils. To test this hypothesis and better dissect the pathomechanism of mutant HSPB8, we generated a new transgenic mouse model leading to the expression of the mutant protein (knock-in lines) or the loss-of-function (functional knock-out lines) of the endogenous protein Hspb8. While the homozygous knock-in mice developed motor deficits associated with degeneration of peripheral nerves and severe muscle atrophy corroborating patient data, homozygous knock-out mice had locomotor performances equivalent to those of wild-type animals. The distal skeletal muscles of the post-symptomatic homozygous knock-in displayed Z-disk disorganisation, granulofilamentous material accumulation along with Hspb8, αB-crystallin (HSPB5/CRYAB), and desmin aggregates. The presence of the aggregates correlated with reduced markers of effective autophagy. The sciatic nerve of the homozygous knock-in mice was characterized by low autophagy potential in pre-symptomatic and Hspb8 aggregates in post-symptomatic animals. On the other hand, the sciatic nerve of the homozygous knock-out mice presented a normal morphology and their distal muscle displayed accumulation of abnormal mitochondria but intact myofiber and Z-line organisation. Our data, therefore, suggest that toxic gain-of-function of mutant Hspb8 aggregates is a major contributor to the peripheral neuropathy and the myopathy. In addition, mutant Hspb8 induces

  15. Cultural Competence and the Operational Commander: Moving Beyond Cultural Awareness into Culture-Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karcanes, James A

    2007-01-01

    .... Understanding the different levels of cultural awareness -- cultural consideration, cultural understanding, and cultural competence -- will help usher in a new focus on culture-centric warfare...

  16. Ending the Debate: Unconventional Warfare, Foreign Internal Defense, and Why Words Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, D

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate within the Special Forces community whether unconventional warfare and foreign internal defense are applicable in the contemporary and future Special Operations environments...

  17. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Chemical Warfare Agents in Indoor Sample Media Typically Collected During Forensic Investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, P. A; Hancock, J. R; Chenier, C. L

    2005-01-01

    .... DRDC Suffield, in collaboration with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, identified a need for analytical methods for chemical warfare agent identification in media, including flooring, wall surfaces...

  18. Redefining Hybrid Warfare: Russia's Non-linear War against the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad Schnaufer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The term hybrid warfare fails to properly describe Russian operations in Ukraine and elsewhere. Russia has undertaken unconventional techniques to build its influence and test the boundaries of a shaken international system. Notably, Russia’s actions in Ukraine display an evolved style of warfare that goes beyond its initial label of hybrid warfare. The term non-linear war (NLW will be defined in this article to encompass Russia’s actions and allow policymakers the correct framework to discuss and respond to Russia. NLW plays to the advantage of countries like Russia and constitute the future of warfare.

  19. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  20. Development of Bicarbonate-Activated Peroxide as a Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontaminant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, David E

    2006-01-01

    ...) and other chemistry for the decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. The mechanism of formation of the active oxidant, peroxymonocarbonate, has been investigated in detail. New surfoxidants...

  1. Decontamination and Detoxification of Toxic Chemical Warfare Agents Using Polyurethane Sponges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Richard K; Gunduz, Alper T; Askins, LaTawnya Y; Strating, Simon J; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Clarkson, Edward D; Mitchelree, Larry W; Lukey, Brian; Railer, Roy; Schulz, Susan

    2003-01-01

    .... Another serious problem that may be encountered while caring for personnel contaminated with organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agents is the possibility that there will be cross-contamination...

  2. Queen of Peace Nursing Home, Churchfield, Knock, Mayo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Teljeur, Conor

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimating the supply of GPs into the future is important in forecasting shortages. The lengthy training process for medicine means that adjusting supply to meet demand in a timely fashion is problematic. This study uses Ireland as a case study to determine the future demand and supply of GPs and to assess the potential impact of several possible interventions to address future shortages. METHODS: Demand was estimated by applying GP visit rates by age and sex to national population projections. Supply was modelled using a range of parameters derived from two national surveys of GPs. A stochastic modelling approach was adopted to determine the probable future supply of GPs. Four policy interventions were tested: increasing vocational training places; recruiting GPs from abroad; incentivising later retirement; increasing nurse substitution to enable practice nurses to deliver more services. RESULTS: Relative to most other European countries, Ireland has few GPs per capita. Ireland has an ageing population and demand is estimated to increase by 19% by 2021. Without intervention, the supply of GPs will be 5.7% less than required in 2021. Increasing training places will enable supply to meet demand but only after 2019. Recruiting GPs from overseas will enable supply to meet demand continuously if the number recruited is approximately 0.8 per cent of the current workforce per annum. Later retirement has only a short-term impact. Nurse substitution can enable supply to meet demand but only if large numbers of practice nurses are recruited and allowed to deliver a wide range of GP services. CONCLUSIONS: A significant shortfall in GP supply is predicted for Ireland unless recruitment is increased. The shortfall will have numerous knock-on effects including price increases, longer waiting lists and an increased burden on hospitals. Increasing training places will not provide an adequate response to future shortages. Foreign recruitment has ethical considerations

  3. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic.   Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The lecturer invites comments via email to Gian.Piero.Siroli@cern.ch NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  4. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic. Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.   NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  5. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  6. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  7. Identification of chemical warfare agent with radiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Li Yun; Ai Xianyun

    2000-01-01

    There are three non-destructive radiological methods for identification of warfare agents and TNT. Their principles and problems related were discussed. Portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy is based on the assay of key elemental composition (such as Cl, P, H, As, S, N) in chemical agents by neutron induced prompt gamma ray analysis. Hydrogen concentration measurement by means of using thermal neutron can be employed to identify chemical warfare agents and TNT that contains different hydrogen fraction. The calibration curves of thermal neutron count rate against hydrogen concentration were measured. X ray imagination system can be used to determine the internal structure of chemical bombs, there by to identify them. The radiological methods are very useful for identification of old chemical weapons abandoned by Japan Army during World War 2

  8. Just War and Postmodern Warfare: A German Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    warfare construct, Germany is shaping a military concept based on recent conflicts and unfettered by biases of conventional strategies, organizations...remain sovereign while subconsciously evolving toward liberal democratic ideas. In respecting each country’s political sensitivities, Germany’s...before exhausting all diplomatic, economic and information instruments. Whereas the term AU/ACSC/PINSON/AY15 13 “interests” may bias the United

  9. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the body,” and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, bans the use of chemical and biological weapons .11 On 8 April 1975, President Ford issued Executive...E Funding – PE 63851M) (accessed 15 December 2006). The American Journal of Bioethics . “Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons .” Bioethics.net...CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Richard L. Scott September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader

  10. Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    respectively. The avionics in Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner require approximately 6.5 million lines of code while the current S-Class Mercedes Benz requires over 20...leaders (demonstrated through outdated policy, theory, and doctrine) and the reality of warfare in 1914 (dictated by innovation, technology , and...or the guidelines to military action codified in doctrine? How are states using the latest technological innovations as violent instruments of

  11. Attacking the infrastructure: exploring potential uses of offensive information warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Elam, Donald Emmett.

    1996-01-01

    The world has entered the Third Wave; it has entered the Information Age. One of the fundamentals of this paradigm shift is the fact that information is power. The side that controls information more effectively will be victorious. Thus, countries and militaries must change their mentality in order to survive. A new form of conflict, Information Warfare, has been born. This new discipline is large, dynamic, and complex. The need exists for education among military officers and other concerned...

  12. Built to Outlast: Operational Approaches to Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    29Robert T. Ames, Sun Tzu: The Art of War (New York: Ballantine Books, 1993), 78-80; Mao Tse -Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel B. Griffith...Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1961), 25, 42.The works of Sun Tzu and Mao Tse -Tung both illustrate aspects of this concept. In a work...toreador’s cape, not the toreador himself. - Norman B. Hannah, The Key to Failure: Laos and the Vietnam War114 Against the backdrop of the Cold

  13. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dimijian, Gregory G.

    2010-01-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth ...

  14. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Kuizhi; Liu Wenlin; Li Guanxiong; Ji Jinzu; Yu Dazhao

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS) of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carr...

  15. Annihilation Prediction for Lanchester-Type Models of Modern Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, G.G.; Taylor, J.

    1983-01-01

    Operations Research, 31, p.752. This paper introduces important new functions for analytic solution of Launch-ester-type equations of modern warfare for combat between two homogeneous forces modeled by power attrtition-rate coefficients with "no offset". Tabulations of these Lanchester-Clifford-Schlatii (or LCS) functions allow one to study this particular variable-coefficient model almost as easily and thoroughly as Lanchester's classic constant-coefficient one. LCS functions allow one ...

  16. Inside the Wire: American Security and Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Roberts, Kerry V. " SUN TZU and The Art of Cyber Warfare." Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International 19, no. 1(Spring 2013): 12-4...12. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-03-2017 Bibliography 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Inside the Wire: American Security...MCDERMOTT LIBRARY U.S. AIR FORCE ACADEMY 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT USAF ACADEMY CO 80840-6214 NUMBER(S) Special Bibliography Series # 119 12

  17. Hungarys Alternative to Counter Hybrid Warfare - Small States Weaponized Citizenry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    said “Resilience as a terminological and operational factor, will become the newest ‘ brand ’ and communication name for the Alliance.”70 He also...audiences to influence their emotions , motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and...so-called influence warfare. His study pinpointed the importance of emotion over rational facts in messages. Second, Edward Lucas and Ben Nimmo on

  18. Recent Advances in Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Wadood Khan; Sabna Kotta; Shahid Husain Ansari; Javed Ali; Rakesh Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The recent turmoil and volatile situation in many countries and the increased risk of terrorist activities have raised alarm bells for the field of defense against toxic chemical/materials. These situations poses threats to society as terrorists can take advantage of such situations to strike and cause public mayhem. A number of chemicals have the potential of being used as chemical warfare (CW) agents. CW agents could immediately kill or incapacitate the affected individuals even when they a...

  19. Cyber warfare:terms, issues, laws and controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Seviş, Kamile Nur; Şeker, Ensar

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have shown us the importance of cybersecurity. Especially, when the matter is national security, it is even more essential and crucial. Increasing cyber attacks, especially between countries in governmental level, created a new term cyber warfare. Creating some rules and regulations for this kind of war is necessary therefore international justice systems are working on it continuously. In this paper, we mentioned fundamental terms of cyber...

  20. Littoral Combat Ship Open Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    maintain stealth and its defense in order to properly conduct an attack on a surface vessel (Sternhell and Thorndike 2014, 102). This statement...its target, the surface combatants can counter by increasing their speed (Sternhell and Thorndike 2014). While the maximum speed of the current...120316_PS.pdf Sternhell, Charles M, and Alan M Thorndike . 2014. “Antisubmarine Warfare in World War II.” CNA Analysis & Solutions. Accessed April 14, 2014

  1. Russian and Chinese Information Warfare: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Integral neurolinguistic programming •Placing essential programs into the conscious or sub- conscious mind •Subconscious suggestions that modify human...Generators of special rays •Optical systems • Neurolinguistic programming •Computer psychotechnology •The mass media •Audiovisual effects •Special effects...Information Warfare: Theory and Practice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  2. Special Forces and the Art of Influence: A Grassroots Approach to Psychological Operations in an Unconventional Warfare Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, II, Joel W

    2006-01-01

    This thesis researches the intricacies of the art of influence in an unconventional warfare environment to develop a model of influence that can be utilized by Special Forces conducting unconventional warfare...

  3. Chemical warfare agents identification by thermal neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Ai Xianyun; Tan Daoyuan; Zhang Dianqin

    2000-01-01

    The hydrogen concentration determination by thermal neutron detection is a non-destructive, fast and effective method to identify chemical warfare agents and TNT that contain different hydrogen fraction. When an isotropic neutron source is used to irradiate chemical ammunition, hydrogen atoms of the agent inside shell act as a moderator and slow down neutrons. The number of induced thermal neutrons depends mainly upon hydrogen content of the agent. Therefore measurement of thermal neutron influence can be used to determine hydrogen atom concentration, thereby to determine the chemical warfare agents. Under a certain geometry three calibration curves of count rate against hydrogen concentration were measured. According to the calibration curves, response of a chemical agent or TNT could be calculated. Differences of count rate among chemical agents and TNT for each kind of shells is greater than five times of standard deviations of count rate for any agent, so chemical agents or TNT could be identified correctly. Meanwhile, blast tube or liquid level of chemical warfare agent could affect the response of thermal neutron count rate, and thereby the result of identification. (author)

  4. Quality of Life in Iranian Chemical Warfare Veteran's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Abbas; Moradian, Tayeb; Mollahadi, Mohsen; Saeed, Yaser; Refahi, Ali Akbar

    2014-05-01

    Mustard gas has different effects on different body systems such as respiratory tract, blood, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, endocrine and peripheral nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life in chemical warfare veterans due to sulfur mustard exposure. In a cross-sectional and analytic study, 242 patients who had a chemical injury during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1983) and their lung damage was proven were investigated in our study. The quality of life was measured in these patients using an extensively validated Iranian version of SF-36. The mean age of veterans was 44.12 ± 4.9 ranging from 22 to 62 years. Our results showed that chemical warfare had a decreased quality of life in all subscales of the SF-36. The lowest scores in SF-36 subscales were related to role physical and general health. The data also showed a significant relationship between the number of organs involved and the quality of life in these patients (P chemical warfare survivors suffering from late complications have a low health related quality of life.

  5. Effects of Heat of Vaporization and Octane Sensitivity on Knock-Limited Spark Ignition Engine Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burton, Jonathan L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sindler, Petr [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Earl D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fouts, Lisa A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-03

    Knock-limited loads for a set of surrogate gasolines all having nominal 100 research octane number (RON), approximately 11 octane sensitivity (S), and a heat of vaporization (HOV) range of 390 to 595 kJ/kg at 25 degrees C were investigated. A single-cylinder spark-ignition engine derived from a General Motors Ecotec direct injection (DI) engine was used to perform load sweeps at a fixed intake air temperature (IAT) of 50 degrees C, as well as knock-limited load measurements across a range of IATs up to 90 degrees C. Both DI and pre-vaporized fuel (supplied by a fuel injector mounted far upstream of the intake valves and heated intake runner walls) experiments were performed to separate the chemical and thermal effects of the fuels' knock resistance. The DI load sweeps at 50 degrees C intake air temperature showed no effect of HOV on the knock-limited performance. The data suggest that HOV acts as a thermal contributor to S under the conditions studied. Measurement of knock-limited loads from the IAT sweeps for DI at late combustion phasing showed that a 40 vol% ethanol (E40) blend provided additional knock resistance at the highest temperatures, compared to a 20 vol% ethanol blend and hydrocarbon fuel with similar RON and S. Using the pre-vaporized fuel system, all the high S fuels produced nearly identical knock-limited loads at each temperature across the range of IATs studied. For these fuels RON ranged from 99.2 to 101.1 and S ranged from 9.4 to 12.2, with E40 having the lowest RON and highest S. The higher knock-limited loads for E40 at the highest IATs examined were consistent with the slightly higher S for this fuel, and the lower engine operating condition K values arising from use of this fuel. The study highlights how fuel HOV can affect the temperature at intake valve closing, and consequently the pressure-temperature history of the end gas leading to more negative values of K, thereby enhancing the effect of S on knock resistance.

  6. RS-1 enhances CRISPR/Cas9- and TALEN-mediated knock-in efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Yang, Dongshan; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Tianqing; Chen, Y Eugene; Zhang, Jifeng

    2016-01-28

    Zinc-finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease and CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) are becoming major tools for genome editing. Importantly, knock-in in several non-rodent species has been finally achieved thanks to these customizable nucleases; yet the rates remain to be further improved. We hypothesize that inhibiting non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or enhancing homology-directed repair (HDR) will improve the nuclease-mediated knock-in efficiency. Here we show that the in vitro application of an HDR enhancer, RS-1, increases the knock-in efficiency by two- to five-fold at different loci, whereas NHEJ inhibitor SCR7 has minimal effects. We then apply RS-1 for animal production and have achieved multifold improvement on the knock-in rates as well. Our work presents tools to nuclease-mediated knock-in animal production, and sheds light on improving gene-targeting efficiencies on pluripotent stem cells.

  7. Closed loop statistical performance analysis of N-K knock controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton Jones, James C.; Shayestehmanesh, Saeed; Frey, Jesse

    2017-09-01

    The closed loop performance of engine knock controllers cannot be rigorously assessed from single experiments or simulations because knock behaves as a random process and therefore the response belongs to a random distribution also. In this work a new method is proposed for computing the distributions and expected values of the closed loop response, both in steady state and in response to disturbances. The method takes as its input the control law, and the knock propensity characteristic of the engine which is mapped from open loop steady state tests. The method is applicable to the 'n-k' class of knock controllers in which the control action is a function only of the number of cycles n since the last control move, and the number k of knock events that have occurred in this time. A Cumulative Summation (CumSum) based controller falls within this category, and the method is used to investigate the performance of the controller in a deeper and more rigorous way than has previously been possible. The results are validated using onerous Monte Carlo simulations, which confirm both the validity of the method and its high computational efficiency.

  8. RS-1 enhances CRISPR/Cas9- and TALEN-mediated knock-in efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Yang, Dongshan; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Tianqing; Chen, Y. Eugene; Zhang, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Zinc-finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease and CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) are becoming major tools for genome editing. Importantly, knock-in in several non-rodent species has been finally achieved thanks to these customizable nucleases; yet the rates remain to be further improved. We hypothesize that inhibiting non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or enhancing homology-directed repair (HDR) will improve the nuclease-mediated knock-in efficiency. Here we show that the in vitro application of an HDR enhancer, RS-1, increases the knock-in efficiency by two- to five-fold at different loci, whereas NHEJ inhibitor SCR7 has minimal effects. We then apply RS-1 for animal production and have achieved multifold improvement on the knock-in rates as well. Our work presents tools to nuclease-mediated knock-in animal production, and sheds light on improving gene-targeting efficiencies on pluripotent stem cells. PMID:26817820

  9. Dynamic knock detection and quantification in a spark ignition engine by means of a pressure based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloni, Enzo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental data have been analyzed by a pressure based method. ► Knock intensity level depends on a threshold varying with the engine operating point. ► A dynamic method is proposed to overcome the definition of a predetermined threshold. ► The knock intensity of each operating point is quantified by a dimensionless index. ► The knock limited spark advance can be detected by means of this index. - Abstract: In spark ignition engines, knock onset limits the maximum spark advance. An inaccurate identification of this limit penalises the fuel conversion efficiency. Thus it is very important to define a knock detection method able to assess the knock intensity of an engine operating point. Usually, in engine development, knock event is evaluated by analysing the in-cylinder pressure trace. Data are filtered and processed in order to obtain some indices correlated to the knock intensity, then the calculated value is compared to a predetermined threshold. The calibration of this threshold is complex and difficult; statistical approach should be used, but often empirical values are considered. In this paper a method that dynamically calculates the knock threshold necessary to determine the knock event is proposed. The purpose is to resolve cycle by cycle the knock intensity related to an individual engine cycle without setting a predetermined threshold. The method has been applied to an extensive set of experimental data relative to a gasoline spark-ignition engine. Results are correlated to those obtained considering a traditional method, where a statistical approach has been used to detect knock.

  10. Post-irradiation studies on knock-out and pseudo-recoil releases of fission products from fissioning UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, S.; Tanifuji, T.

    1976-01-01

    By using post-irradiation techniques, in-pile releases of 133 Xe, sup(85m)Kr, 88 Kr, 87 Kr and 138 Xe from UO 2 fissioning at low temperatures below about 200 0 C are studied: these are analyzed into a time-dependent knock-out and time-independent pseudo-recoil releases. For the latter, a 'self knock-out' mechanism is proposed: when a fission fragment loses thoroughly its energy near the UO 2 surface and stops there, it will knock out the surface substances and accordingly the fragment (i.e. the fission product) will be released. The effective thickness of the layer where the self knock-out occurs is found to be approximately 7A. As for the knock-out release, the following is estimated from its dependence on various factors: the knock-out release of fission products occurs from the surface layer with the effective thickness of approximately 20A: the shape of UO 2 matrix knocked out by one fission fragment passing through the surface is equivalent to a cylinder approximately 32A diameter by approximately 27A thick, (i.e. the knock-out coefficient for UO 2 is approximately 660 uranium atoms per knock-out event). On the basis of the above estimations, the conclusions derived from the past in-pile studies of fission gas releases are evaluated. (Auth.)

  11. United States Coast Guard Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) in the Maritime Defense Zone (MDZ) - A Strategic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    RIC ILE COPY AIR WAR COLLGE REEAC R~pCR UNITED STATES COAST GUARD ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE (ASW) IN THE MARITIME DEFENSE ZONE (MDZ) -A STRATEGIC...going to perform in these MDZs. Those tasks identified so far include: port and coastal physical security & preventive safety, mine warfare

  12. The Utility of Freedom: A Principal-Agent Model for Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Lanchester Model of Guerrilla Warfare,‖ Operations Research 10, no. 6 (December 1962): 818–827; William A. Niskanen, ―Review: The Economics of Insurgency...http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/DDRS?locID=navalps. Deitchman, S. J. ―A Lanchester Model of Guerrilla Warfare.‖ Operations Research 10, no

  13. Understanding the elementary considerations in a network warfare environment: an introductory framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available . It seeks to offer a better introductory understanding to the field of network warfare. This paper addresses the requirements for a network warfare capability and will look at the high-level approach, constraints, focus areas, levels, techniques...

  14. Metal organic frameworks for the catalytic detoxification of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Katz, Michael J.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-04-18

    A method of using a metal organic framework (MOF) comprising a metal ion and an at least bidendate organic ligand to catalytically detoxify chemical warfare nerve agents including exposing the metal-organic-framework (MOF) to the chemical warfare nerve agent and catalytically decomposing the nerve agent with the MOF.

  15. Study on the identification method of chemical warfare agents with spectroscopy of neutron induced γ rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Li Yun; Li Xiangbao

    1996-01-01

    The paper briefly describes some non-destructive verification technologies of chemical warfare agents in-site, and some application of neutron induced gamma ray analysis, such as multi-elements analysis of coal, hidden explosive detection and identification of chemical agents. It also describes some problems in developing the portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy for non-destructive evaluation of chemical warfare agents

  16. Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area.

  17. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: The case of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mottaghi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  18. 75 FR 6642 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Recruiting Directorate announces the submission... any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the...

  19. Fokker-Planck simulations of knock-on electron runaway avalanche and bursts in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Harvey, R.W.; Chan, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    The avalanche of runaway electrons in an ohmic tokamak plasma triggered by knock-on collisions of traces of energetic electrons with the bulk electrons is simulated by the bounce averaged Fokker-Planck code, CQL3D. It is shown that even when the electric field is small for the production of Dreicer runaways, the knock-on collisions can produce significant runaway electrons in a fraction of a second at typical reactor parameters. The energy spectrum of these knock-on runaways has a characteristic temperature. The growth rate and temperature of the runaway distribution are determined and compared with theory. In simulations of pellet injection into high temperature plasmas, it is shown that a burst of Dreicer runaways may also occur depending on the cooling rate due to the pellet injection. Implications of these phenomena on disruption control in reactor plasmas are discussed. (author)

  20. High-temperature expansion and knock-out properties of moulding sands with water glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Gabryś K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the topic of improving the knock-out properties of moulding sand with water glass and ester hardener. It is settled that the cause of worse knock-out properties of moulding sand can be brought by their thermal expansion in increased temperatures. There is a presentation of the influence of different additives, containing Al2O3, on moulding sands’ expansion in increased temperatures. Within the frames of research, there was an elaboration of the influence of authors own additive- Glassex, on the expansion phenomenon of moulding sands with water glass and ester hardener. It is concluded, that the new additive stops the expansion of moulding sands and as well it improves their knock-out properties.

  1. A model of knock-out of oxygen by charged particle irradiation of Bi-2212

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.K.; Sen, Pintu; Barat, P.; Mukherjee, P.; Das, S.K.; Ghosh, B.

    1996-01-01

    A model of knock-out of oxygen by charged particle (α and proton) irradiation of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x (Bi-2212) is proposed on the basis of Monte Carlo TRIM calculations. In Bi-2212, the loosely bound excess oxygen is vulnerable to be displaced by particle irradiation. Binding energy and hence, displacement energy of this loosely bound excess oxygen is less compared to that of stoichiometric lattice bound oxygen and other atoms. The displaced or knocked out oxygen goes to pores or intergranular region and generates large pressure inside the sample. Because of porosity of the material, this displaced oxygen diffuses out and there is a net reduction of oxygen content of the sample. The irradiation induced oxygen knock-out is dominant in the bulk where nonionizing energy loss is maximum. (author). 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  2. Hyperactivity of newborn Pten knock-out neurons results from increased excitatory synaptic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael R; DeSpenza, Tyrone; Li, Meijie; Gulledge, Allan T; Luikart, Bryan W

    2015-01-21

    Developing neurons must regulate morphology, intrinsic excitability, and synaptogenesis to form neural circuits. When these processes go awry, disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or epilepsy, may result. The phosphatase Pten is mutated in some patients having ASD and seizures, suggesting that its mutation disrupts neurological function in part through increasing neuronal activity. Supporting this idea, neuronal knock-out of Pten in mice can cause macrocephaly, behavioral changes similar to ASD, and seizures. However, the mechanisms through which excitability is enhanced following Pten depletion are unclear. Previous studies have separately shown that Pten-depleted neurons can drive seizures, receive elevated excitatory synaptic input, and have abnormal dendrites. We therefore tested the hypothesis that developing Pten-depleted neurons are hyperactive due to increased excitatory synaptogenesis using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, morphological analyses, and modeling. This was accomplished by coinjecting retroviruses to either "birthdate" or birthdate and knock-out Pten in granule neurons of the murine neonatal dentate gyrus. We found that Pten knock-out neurons, despite a rapid onset of hypertrophy, were more active in vivo. Pten knock-out neurons fired at more hyperpolarized membrane potentials, displayed greater peak spike rates, and were more sensitive to depolarizing synaptic input. The increased sensitivity of Pten knock-out neurons was due, in part, to a higher density of synapses located more proximal to the soma. We determined that increased synaptic drive was sufficient to drive hypertrophic Pten knock-out neurons beyond their altered action potential threshold. Thus, our work contributes a developmental mechanism for the increased activity of Pten-depleted neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/350943-17$15.00/0.

  3. Knock knee and the gait of six-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretkiewicz-Abacjew, E

    2003-06-01

    Knock knee (genu valgum) interferes with the locomotive and supporting function of the lower limb. In static conditions the load-bearing axis of the valgus limb is displaced laterally in relation to the middle of the joint, causing the knee joint, the ankle joint, and the foot as a whole to be weighted in the wrong way. The purpose of this work is to examine the influence of knock knee on gait kinematics. The gait of twenty-two 6-year-old children of both sexes in whom knock knee had been medically diagnosed was compared with the gait of 33 children of the same age whose knee joints conformed to the norm in formation and position. Gait was recorded separately for the sagittal and the frontal planes, using a video-computer system. The results of the examination indicated statistically significant differences in the gait of the two groups of children. These differences related mainly to the time features of gait and to data on the angles in the knee and ankle joints. Although the results obtained for other features of gait did not reveal statistical differences, these did indicate that the children with knock knee walked more slowly and with a lower cadence. The results indicate that knock knee in 6-year-old children has an adverse impact on the mechanics of the lower limb joints in gait and causes a deterioration in gait quality. Thus knock knee in children should not be treated merely as a superficial defect but should be subject to therapy and, more importantly, taken into account when introducing children to early sports training.

  4. Development of a one-step gene knock-out and knock-in method for metabolic engineering of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Wang, Yuanhua; Li, Baozhong; Huang, Siyao; Chen, Yefu; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-06-10

    Aureobasidium pullulans is an increasingly attractive host for bio-production of pullulan, heavy oil, polymalic acid, and a large spectrum of extracellular enzymes. To date, genetic manipulation of A. pullulans mainly relies on time-consuming conventional restriction enzyme digestion and ligation methods. In this study, we present a one-step homologous recombination-based method for rapid genetic manipulation in A. pullulans. Overlaps measuring >40bp length and 10μg DNA segments for homologous recombination provided maximum benefits to transformation of A. pullulans. This optimized method was successfully applied to PKSIII gene (encodes polyketide synthase) knock-out and gltP gene (encodes glycolipid transfer protein) knock-in. After disruption of PKSIII gene, secretion of melanin decreased slightly. The melanin purified from disruptant showed lower reducing capacity compared with that of the parent strain, leading to a decrease in exopolysaccharide production. Knock-in of gltP gene resulted in at least 4.68-fold increase in heavy oil production depending on the carbon source used, indicating that gltP can regulate heavy oil synthesis in A. pullulans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. On the interpretation of (e,e'p) knock-out reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieperink, A.E.L.

    The basic physics in (e,e'p) knock-out reactions is illustrated assuming that the knocked-out proton can be treated as a plane wave (PWIA). Corrections for distortion and absorption of the outgoing proton can, in principle, be calculated to a good approximation with an optical potential. The spectral function is characterized in terms of its energy moments, the lowest of which can be incorporated in an independent particle shell model (IPSM): occupatiomn probability (zeroth moment) and the mean removal energy (centroid energy). Deviations from IPSM are discussed: binding energy sum rule, A=3 nuclei, 6 Li, and fragmentation of single-particle strength

  6. Knock-on type exchange and the density dependence of an effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeukenne, J.P.; Mahaux, C.

    1981-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the density-dependence of the strength of an effective interaction previously derived from a Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculation of the optical-model potential in nuclear matter. From the analysis of a model based on the Hartree-Fock approximation and on a Yukawa interaction with a Majorana exchange component, we study to what extent this dependence derives from the momentum-dependence of the exchange contribution of the knock-on type. The model is also used to discuss zero-range pseudopotential methods for including this knock-on contribution. (orig.)

  7. Cybersecurity protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio

  8. Getting the Next War Right: Beyond Population-centric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    respectively: Che Guevara and Mao Tse -tung. Che’s foco theory, as we have discussed, advocates mobilizing from the top. The armed challenger chooses an...example, Thomas A. Marks, “Guerrillas in the Mist: Hmong Resistance Continues in Laos ,” Combat and Survival 8, no. 5 (August 1996), 4–11. 12 Theory and...Mao Tse -tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. and ed. Samuel B. Grif!th (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2005). The book is available from a wide

  9. Chemical and biological warfare. Should defenses be researched and deployed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orient, J M

    1989-08-04

    The threat of chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction has intensified because of improved delivery systems and advances in chemistry, genetics, and other sciences. Possible US responses to this threat include deterrence, defenses, and/or disarmament, including a reaffirmation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention of 1972, which is now in jeopardy. This article discusses the history of chemical and biological warfare, existing and potential weapons, the proliferation of weapons and delivery systems, ways to prevent the use of these weapons, and ways to protect populations from their effects.

  10. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...... residues in connection with the installation of the pipelines. Novel exposure and toxicity assessments are presented and the risk is assessed. The overall conclusion is that there is a negligible acute added CWA risk towards the fish community from the installation of the pipelines....

  11. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  12. Experimental investigation on the knocking combustion characteristics of n-butanol gasoline blends in a DISI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Haiqiao; Feng, Dengquan; Pan, Mingzhang; Pan, JiaYing; Rao, XiaoKang; Gao, Dongzhi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • N-butanol shows better knock resistance characterized by improved KLST. • Bu20 blend fuel slightly degrades the knock resistance compared with gasoline. • Knock oscillation frequency depends on combustion chamber resonance modes. • Probability distribution is applied to evaluate variation of knock intensity. - Abstract: n-Butanol is a very competitive alternative biofuel for spark ignition (SI) engines given its many advantages. Current researches are mainly concentrated on the overall combustion and emissions performance concerning the feasibility of n-butanol gasoline blends in SI engines. In this work, focus was given on the knocking combustion characteristics of operation with pure n-butanol as well as a blend fuel with 20% volume content of n-butanol (Bu20), which was investigated experimentally in a direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) single cylinder engine. Operation condition is fixed at a constant engine speed of 1500 r/min, using three throttle openings with stoichiometric air–fuel ratio. Spark timing was swept to achieve different knocking levels. The results of n-butanol and Bu20 were benchmarked against those obtained by the research octane number (RON) 92 commercial gasoline. Compared with the baseline fuel gasoline, neat n-butanol shows better anti-knock ability with more advanced knock limited spark timing, whereas slightly deteriorative knock resistance can be found for Bu20. It is hypothesized Bu20 has higher end gas temperature due to its higher brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and faster burning rate compared with gasoline, which indicates the knock tendency depends not only on the fuel octane number, but also on the factors that affect the end gas thermodynamic state. The heavier knock propensity of Bu20 is furthermore confirmed by its more advanced knock onset and higher peak oscillation pressure. Results of fast fourier transform (FFT) indicate the knocking oscillation frequencies are mainly determined by the

  13. Knocking Down Snrnp200 Initiates Demorphogenesis of Rod Photoreceptors in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 200 kDa (SNRNP200 gene is a fundamental component for precursor message RNA (pre-mRNA splicing and has been implicated in the etiology of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP. This study aims to determine the consequences of knocking down Snrnp200 in zebrafish. Methods. Expression of the Snrnp200 transcript in zebrafish was determined via whole mount in situ hybridization. Morpholino oligonucleotide (MO aiming to knock down the expression of Snrnp200 was injected into zebrafish embryos, followed by analyses of aberrant splicing and expression of the U4/U6-U5 tri-small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs components and retina-specific transcripts. Systemic changes and retinal phenotypes were further characterized by histological study and immunofluorescence staining. Results. Snrnp200 was ubiquitously expressed in zebrafish. Knocking down Snrnp200 in zebrafish triggered aberrant splicing of the cbln1 gene, upregulation of other U4/U6-U5 tri-snRNP components, and downregulation of a panel of retina-specific transcripts. Systemic defects were found correlated with knockdown of Snrnp200 in zebrafish. Only demorphogenesis of rod photoreceptors was detected in the initial stage, mimicking the disease characteristics of RP. Conclusions. We conclude that knocking down Snrnp200 in zebrafish could alter regular splicing and expression of a panel of genes, which may eventually trigger rod defects.

  14. (p, α) reactions: knock-on(out) or pick-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadioli, E.

    1983-01-01

    Nothwithstanding the great lot of data collected starting from the beginning of fifties, it cannot be said that a good degree of knowledge about the (p, α) reaction mechanism has been reached. Experimental data are usually interpreted or on the basis of a pure pick-up or knock-on(out) mechanism, though many results suggest the importance of both mechanism

  15. The Effects of Engine Speed and Mixture Temperature on the Knocking Characteristics of Several Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dana W

    1940-01-01

    Six 100-octane and two 87-octane aviation engine fuels were tested in a modified C.F.R. variable-compression engine at 1,500, 2,000 and 2,500 rpm. The mixture temperature was raised from 50 to 300 F in approximately 50 degree steps and, at each temperature, the compression ratio was adjusted to give incipient knock as shown by a cathode ray indicator. The results are presented in tabular form. The results are analyzed on the assumption that the conditions which determine whether a given fuel will knock are the maximum values of density and temperature reached by the burning gases. A maximum permissible density factor, proportional to the maximum density of the burning gases just prior to incipient knock, and the temperature of the burning gases at that time were computed for each of the test conditions. Values of the density factors were plotted against the corresponding end-gas temperatures for the three engine speeds and also against engine speed for several and end-gas temperatures. The maximum permissible density factor varied only slightly with engine speed but decreased rapidly with an increase in the end-gas temperature. The effect of changing the mixture temperature was different for fuels of different types. The results emphasize the desirability of determining the anti knock values of fuels over a wide range of engine and intake-air conditions rather that at a single set of conditions.

  16. Hematopoiesis in 5-Fluorouracil-Treated Adenosine A(3) Receptor Knock-Out Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, L.; Hoferová, Zuzana; Komůrková, Denisa

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2015), s. 255-262 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Adenosine A(3) receptor knock-out mice * Hematopoiesis * 5-fluorouracil-induced hematotoxicity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  17. "When Do I Knock on the Hotel Room Door?": The MLA Conference Job Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Richard K.

    1995-01-01

    Offers advice to potential interviewees attending an MLA conference. Cautions the interviewee to arrive for the appointment early, but not to knock until the time of the appointment. Advises interviewees to answer questions briefly and to let the committee set the pace of the interview. (PA)

  18. Physicochemical effects of varying fuel composition on knock characteristics of natural gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco; Levinsky, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical origins of how changes in fuel composition affect autoignition of the end gas, leading to engine knock, are analyzed for a natural gas engine. Experiments in a lean-burn, high-speed medium-BMEP gas engine are performed using a reference natural gas with systematically varied

  19. Relevant feature set estimation with a knock-out strategy and random forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Greve, Douglas N; Fischl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    unintuitive and difficult to determine. In this article, we propose a novel MVPA method for group analysis of high-dimensional data that overcomes the drawbacks of the current techniques. Our approach explicitly aims to identify all relevant variations using a "knock-out" strategy and the Random Forest...

  20. A NEW METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING THE KNOCK RESISTANCE OF LNG FUELS USED IN THE TRANSPORTATION MARKET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco

    2014-01-01

    To ensure that the engines to be used in LNG-fueled vehicles are matched with the expected variations in fuel composition, the knock resistance of the fuel must be determined unambiguously. Rather than rely on empirical methods using gas mixtures and “standard” engines traditionally employed for

  1. Downy mildew of Double Knock Out® rose caused by Peronospora sparsa in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roses are one of the most popular and economically important ornamental plants worldwide. In the last 17 years, Knock Out® roses (Rosa x 'Radtko') have been widely used in public and private gardens across the U.S. due to their disease resistance, self-cleaning, drought tolerance and multiple-bloomi...

  2. Genetic Contributors to Intergenerational CAG Repeat Instability in Huntington's Disease Knock-In Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, João Luís; Lee, Jong-Min; Afridi, Ali; Gillis, Tammy; Guide, Jolene R; Dempsey, Stephani; Lager, Brenda; Alonso, Isabel; Wheeler, Vanessa C; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro

    2017-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Longer repeat sizes are associated with increased disease penetrance and earlier ages of onset. Intergenerationally unstable transmissions are common in HD families, partly underlying the genetic anticipation seen in this disorder. HD CAG knock-in mouse models also exhibit a propensity for intergenerational repeat size changes. In this work, we examine intergenerational instability of the CAG repeat in over 20,000 transmissions in the largest HD knock-in mouse model breeding datasets reported to date. We confirmed previous observations that parental sex drives the relative ratio of expansions and contractions. The large datasets further allowed us to distinguish effects of paternal CAG repeat length on the magnitude and frequency of expansions and contractions, as well as the identification of large repeat size jumps in the knock-in models. Distinct degrees of intergenerational instability were observed between knock-in mice of six background strains, indicating the occurrence of trans-acting genetic modifiers. We also found that lines harboring a neomycin resistance cassette upstream of Htt showed reduced expansion frequency, indicative of a contributing role for sequences in cis, with the expanded repeat as modifiers of intergenerational instability. These results provide a basis for further understanding of the mechanisms underlying intergenerational repeat instability. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. Knock-out of a mitochondrial sirtuin protects neurons from degeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaletti, Rachele; D'Amico, Massimo; Grant, Jeff; Della-Morte, David; Bianchi, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Sirtuins are NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases, lipoamidases, and ADP-ribosyltransferases that link cellular metabolism to multiple intracellular pathways that influence processes as diverse as cell survival, longevity, and cancer growth. Sirtuins influence the extent of neuronal death in stroke. However, different sirtuins appear to have opposite roles in neuronal protection. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that knock-out of mitochondrial sirtuin sir-2.3, homologous to mammalian SIRT4, is protective in both chemical ischemia and hyperactive channel induced necrosis. Furthermore, the protective effect of sir-2.3 knock-out is enhanced by block of glycolysis and eliminated by a null mutation in daf-16/FOXO transcription factor, supporting the involvement of the insulin/IGF pathway. However, data in Caenorhabditis elegans cell culture suggest that the effects of sir-2.3 knock-out act downstream of the DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor. Analysis of ROS in sir-2.3 knock-out reveals that ROS become elevated in this mutant under ischemic conditions in dietary deprivation (DD), but to a lesser extent than in wild type, suggesting more robust activation of a ROS scavenging system in this mutant in the absence of food. This work suggests a deleterious role of SIRT4 during ischemic processes in mammals that must be further investigated and reveals a novel pathway that can be targeted for the design of therapies aimed at protecting neurons from death in ischemic conditions.

  4. Effect of Timing and Location of Hotspot on Super Knock during Pre-ignition

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; Vedharaj, S.; Vallinayagam, R.; Dibble, Robert W.; Im, Hong G.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-ignition in SI engine is a critical issue that needs addressing as it may lead to super knock event. It is widely accepted that pre-ignition event emanates from hot spot(s) that can be anywhere inside the combustion chamber. The location

  5. Simulation research on the effect of cooled EGR, supercharging and compression ratio on downsized SI engine knock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Gequn; Pan, Jiaying; Wei, Haiqiao; Shi, Ning

    2013-03-01

    Knock in spark-ignition(SI) engines severely limits engine performance and thermal efficiency. The researches on knock of downsized SI engine have mainly focused on structural design, performance optimization and advanced combustion modes, however there is little for simulation study on the effect of cooled exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) combined with downsizing technologies on SI engine performance. On the basis of mean pressure and oscillating pressure during combustion process, the effect of different levels of cooled EGR ratio, supercharging and compression ratio on engine dynamic and knock characteristic is researched with three-dimensional KIVA-3V program coupled with pressure wave equation. The cylinder pressure, combustion temperature, ignition delay timing, combustion duration, maximum mean pressure, and maximum oscillating pressure at different initial conditions are discussed and analyzed to investigate potential approaches to inhibiting engine knock while improving power output. The calculation results of the effect of just cooled EGR on knock characteristic show that appropriate levels of cooled EGR ratio can effectively suppress cylinder high-frequency pressure oscillations without obvious decrease in mean pressure. Analysis of the synergistic effect of cooled EGR, supercharging and compression ratio on knock characteristic indicates that under the condition of high supercharging and compression ratio, several times more cooled EGR ratio than that under the original condition is necessarily utilized to suppress knock occurrence effectively. The proposed method of synergistic effect of cooled EGR and downsizing technologies on knock characteristic, analyzed from the aspects of mean pressure and oscillating pressure, is an effective way to study downsized SI engine knock and provides knock inhibition approaches in practical engineering.

  6. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: the case of Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghi, Ahmad; Hoseinzade, Abolfath; Zamani, Elham; Araghizade, Habib Allah

    2012-01-01

    Little evidence is available regarding the dental health of victims of chemical warfare in Iran. Therefore, in this study, we examined the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN), and saliva secretion rate of chemical warfare victims living in the province of Isfahan in Iran. This case-control study was conducted with 300 chemical warfare victims as the treatment group and 300 age-matched individuals without exposure to chemical warfare as the control group. DMFT and CPITN indices and saliva secretion rate were measured and compared between the two groups. Chemical warfare victims had significantly higher scores than the control group for decayed teeth (4.25 ± 3.88 vs 3.52 ± 2.81; P=0.009), missing teeth (8.79 ± 9.3 vs 6.15 ± 8.43; Pwarfare victims was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.71 ± 0.05 vs 3.85 ± 1.95 cc/5 min; PChemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  7. Effect of Timing and Location of Hotspot on Super Knock during Pre-ignition

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2017-03-28

    Pre-ignition in SI engine is a critical issue that needs addressing as it may lead to super knock event. It is widely accepted that pre-ignition event emanates from hot spot(s) that can be anywhere inside the combustion chamber. The location and timing of hotspot is expected to influence the knock intensity from a pre-ignition event. In this study, we study the effect of location and timing of hot spot inside the combustion chamber using numerical simulations. The simulation is performed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE™. We simulate 3-D engine geometry coupled with chemistry, turbulence and moving structures (valves, piston). G-equation model for flame tracking coupled with multi-zone model is utilized to capture auto-ignition (knock) and solve gas phase kinetics. A parametric study on the effect of hot spot timing and location inside the combustion chamber is performed. The hot spot timing considered are -180 CAD, -90 CAD and -30 CAD and the locations of the hot spots are in the center and two edges of the piston surfaces. Simulation results for normal combustion cycle are validated against the experimental data. The simulation results show great sensitivity to the hot spot timing, and the influence of local temperature gradient is noted to be significant. In case of early hot spot timing of -180 CAD, the pre-ignition event did not lead to super knock. Nevertheless, at late hot spot timing, super knock was realized. On the other hand, the effect of hot spot location on pre-ignition event depends on the geometry of the combustion chamber.

  8. The kick-in system: a novel rapid knock-in strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonoh, Yuko; Deshimaru, Masanobu; Araki, Kimi; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Arasaki, Tomoko; Tanaka, Yasuyoshi; Kitamura, Haruna; Mori, Fumiaki; Wakabayashi, Koichi; Yamashita, Sayaka; Saito, Ryo; Itoh, Masayuki; Uchida, Taku; Yamada, Junko; Migita, Keisuke; Ueno, Shinya; Kitaura, Hiroki; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Lossin, Christoph; Takano, Yukio; Hirose, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Knock-in mouse models have contributed tremendously to our understanding of human disorders. However, generation of knock-in animals requires a significant investment of time and effort. We addressed this problem by developing a novel knock-in system that circumvents several traditional challenges by establishing stem cells with acceptor elements enveloping a particular genomic target. Once established, these acceptor embryonic stem (ES) cells are efficient at directionally incorporating mutated target DNA using modified Cre/lox technology. This is advantageous, because knock-ins are not restricted to one a priori selected variation. Rather, it is possible to generate several mutant animal lines harboring desired alterations in the targeted area. Acceptor ES cell generation is the rate-limiting step, lasting approximately 2 months. Subsequent manipulations toward animal production require an additional 8 weeks, but this delimits the full period from conception of the genetic alteration to its animal incorporation. We call this system a "kick-in" to emphasize its unique characteristics of speed and convenience. To demonstrate the functionality of the kick-in methodology, we generated two mouse lines with separate mutant versions of the voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv7.2 (Kcnq2): p.Tyr284Cys (Y284C) and p.Ala306Thr (A306T); both variations have been associated with benign familial neonatal epilepsy. Adult mice homozygous for Y284C, heretofore unexamined in animals, presented with spontaneous seizures, whereas A306T homozygotes died early. Heterozygous mice of both lines showed increased sensitivity to pentylenetetrazole, possibly due to a reduction in M-current in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Our observations for the A306T animals match those obtained with traditional knock-in technology, demonstrating that the kick-in system can readily generate mice bearing various mutations, making it a suitable feeder technology toward streamlined phenotyping.

  9. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  10. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hjortdal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare and shows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element in China's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasons are: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; military technological espionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionage to gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in using cyberspace offensively than other actors, such as the United States, since it has more to gain from spying on and deterring the United States than the other way around. The article also documents China's progress in cyber warfare and shows how it works as an extension of its traditional strategic thinking and the current debate within the country. Several examples of cyber attacks traceable to China are also presented. This includes cyber intrusions on a nuclear arms laboratory, attacks on defense ministries (including the Joint Strike Fighter and an airbase and the U.S. electric grid, as well as the current Google affair, which has proved to be a small part of a broader attack that also targeted the U.S. Government. There are, however, certain constraints that qualify the image of China as an aggressive actor in cyberspace. Some believe that China itself is the victim of just as many attacks from other states. Furthermore, certain actors in the United States and the West have an interest in overestimating China's capabilities in cyberspace in order to maintain their budgets.

  11. Biodiversity conservation and armed conflict: a warfare ecology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Thor

    2018-04-23

    The activities involved in preparing for, executing, and recovering from armed conflict are globally pervasive and consequential, with significant impacts on natural systems. Effects on biodiversity are predominantly negative, produced by direct and indirect battlefield impacts, as well as the general breakdown of social, economic, and governance systems during wartime. Certain conservation opportunities do occur, however, particularly on lands set aside for training exercises, buffer zones, and peace parks. Here, the relationship between armed conflict and biodiversity is reviewed using the temporal framework of warfare ecology, which defines warfare as an ongoing process of three overlapping stages: preparations, war (armed conflict), and postwar activities. Several themes emerge from recent studies, including a heightened awareness of biodiversity conservation on military lands, the potential for scientific and conservation engagement to mitigate negative biodiversity impacts in war zones, and the importance of the postwar period for incorporating biodiversity priorities into reconstruction and recovery efforts. Research limitations and knowledge gaps are also discussed. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. P-glycoprotein interaction with risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone studied in vitro, in knock-out mice and in drug-drug interaction experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Thomas B.; Pedersen, Anne D.; Linnet, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, risperidone, nortriptyline, cyclosporine A, drug-drug interaction, blood-brain barrier, knock-out mice......P-glycoprotein, risperidone, nortriptyline, cyclosporine A, drug-drug interaction, blood-brain barrier, knock-out mice...

  13. Analysis of knocking combustion with the aid of pressure sensors; Einsatz von Drucksensoren zur Beurteilung klopfender Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, J.; Walter, T. [Kistler AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Bertola, A.; Wolfer, P.; Hoewing, J. [Kistler Instrumente GmbH, Ostfildern (Germany); Gossweiler, C. [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (Switzerland). ITFE; Rothe, M.; Spicher, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Kolbenmaschinen

    2006-07-01

    Depending on its frequency and intensity, knocking combustion can cause engine damage due to excessive thermal or mechanical stress on components. During knocking combustion, the cylinder pressure signal is overlaid with high-frequency pressure oscillations. Reliable detection of the knock timing and quantification of the knock intensity based on local measurement of the cylinder pressure demand for particular care, especially when it comes to selecting and adapting the sensor technology and also during the evaluation process using customary knock analysis methods. This publication examines various types of cylinder pressure sensors, how they are installed in the combustion chamber, the effect of sensor positioning and assesses them with regard to accuracy. Finally, on the basis of the test results, recommendations are given for selecting sensors and adapting them within the combustion chamber. A crucial factor for pressure measurement during knocking combustion is the sensor position within the combustion chamber. The sensor type is of secondary importance; at most, cavities between the combustion chamber and the sensor may influence the measuring signal. To assess the sensitivity of the knock evaluation algorithms to various mounting positions and sensor types, it is advisable to carry out comparative measurements between different sensor positions and the measuring spark plug. (orig.)

  14. Numerical analysis of knock during HCCI in a high compression ratio methanol engine based on LES with detailed chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Xudong; Wang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Knock during HCCI in a high compression ratio methanol engine was modeled. • A detailed methanol mechanism was used to simulate the knocking combustion. • Compared with the SI engines, the HCCI knocking combustion burnt faster. • The reaction rate of HCO had two obvious peaks, one was positive, and another was negative. • Compared with the SI engines, the values of the reaction rates of CH 2 O, H 2 O 2 , and HO 2 were higher, and it had negative peaks. - Abstract: In this study, knock during HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) was studied based on LES (large eddy simulation) with methanol chemical kinetics (84-reaction, 21-species) in a high compression ratio methanol engine. The non-knocking and knocking combustion of SI (spark ignition) and HCCI engines were compared. The results showed that the auto-ignition spots were initially occurred near the combustion chamber wall. The knocking combustion burnt faster during HCCI than SI methanol engine. The HCO reaction rate was different from SI engine, it had two obvious peaks, one was positive peak, and another was negative peak. Compared with the SI methanol engine, in addition to the concentration of HCO, the concentrations of the other intermediate products and species such as CO, OH, CH 2 O, H 2 O 2 , HO 2 were increased significantly; the reaction rates of CH 2 O, H 2 O 2 , and HO 2 had negative peaks, and whose values were several times higher than SI methanol engine

  15. Porcine Knock-in Fibroblasts Expressing hDAF on α-1,3-Galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) Gene Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Woo; Kim, Hye-Min; Lee, Sang Mi; Kang, Man-Jong

    2012-10-01

    The Galactose-α1,3-galactose (α1,3Gal) epitope is responsible for hyperacute rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF) is a cell surface regulatory protein that serves as a complement inhibitor to protect self cells from complement attack. The generation of α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) knock-out pigs expressing DAF is a necessary step for their use as organ donors for humans. In this study, we established GGTA1 knock-out cell lines expressing DAF from pig ear fibroblasts for somatic cell nuclear transfer. hDAF expression was detected in hDAF knock-in heterozygous cells, but not in normal pig cells. Expression of the GGTA1 gene was lower in the knock-in heterozygous cell line compared to the normal pig cell. Knock-in heterozygous cells afforded more effective protection against cytotoxicity with human serum than with GGTA1 knock-out heterozygous and control cells. These cell lines may be used in the production of GGTA1 knock-out and DAF expression pigs for xenotransplantation.

  16. Development of versatile non-homologous end joining-based knock-in module for genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsubashi, Shun; Joko, Yudai; Fukumoto, Seiji; Matsumoto, Toshio; Sugano, Shigeo S

    2018-01-12

    CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing has dramatically accelerated genome engineering. An important aspect of genome engineering is efficient knock-in technology. For improved knock-in efficiency, the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway has been used over the homology-dependent repair pathway, but there remains a need to reduce the complexity of the preparation of donor vectors. We developed the versatile NHEJ-based knock-in module for genome editing (VIKING). Using the consensus sequence of the time-honored pUC vector to cut donor vectors, any vector with a pUC backbone could be used as the donor vector without customization. Conditions required to minimize random integration rates of the donor vector were also investigated. We attempted to isolate null lines of the VDR gene in human HaCaT keratinocytes using knock-in/knock-out with a selection marker cassette, and found 75% of clones isolated were successfully knocked-in. Although HaCaT cells have hypotetraploid genome composition, the results suggest multiple clones have VDR null phenotypes. VIKING modules enabled highly efficient knock-in of any vectors harboring pUC vectors. Users now can insert various existing vectors into an arbitrary locus in the genome. VIKING will contribute to low-cost genome engineering.

  17. Knock-In Mice with NOP-eGFP Receptors Identify Receptor Cellular and Regional Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Akihiko; Brunori, Gloria; Mercatelli, Daniela; Wu, Jinhua; Cippitelli, Andrea; Zou, Bende; Xie, Xinmin Simon; Williams, Melissa; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Low, Sarah; Scherrer, Grégory; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Toll, Lawrence

    2015-08-19

    The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor, the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, is involved in many processes common to the opioid receptors including pain and drug abuse. To better characterize receptor location and trafficking, knock-in mice were created by inserting the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) into the NOP receptor gene (Oprl1) and producing mice expressing a functional NOP-eGFP C-terminal fusion in place of the native NOP receptor. The NOP-eGFP receptor was present in brain of homozygous knock-in animals in concentrations somewhat higher than in wild-type mice and was functional when tested for stimulation of [(35)S]GTPγS binding in vitro and in patch-clamp electrophysiology in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and hippocampal slices. Inhibition of morphine analgesia was equivalent when tested in knock-in and wild-type mice. Imaging revealed detailed neuroanatomy in brain, spinal cord, and DRG and was generally consistent with in vitro autoradiographic imaging of receptor location. Multicolor immunohistochemistry identified cells coexpressing various spinal cord and DRG cellular markers, as well as coexpression with μ-opioid receptors in DRG and brain regions. Both in tissue slices and primary cultures, the NOP-eGFP receptors appear throughout the cell body and in processes. These knock-in mice have NOP receptors that function both in vitro and in vivo and appear to be an exceptional tool to study receptor neuroanatomy and correlate with NOP receptor function. The NOP receptor, the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, is involved in pain, drug abuse, and a number of other CNS processes. The regional and cellular distribution has been difficult to determine due to lack of validated antibodies for immunohistochemical analysis. To provide a new tool for the investigation of receptor localization, we have produced knock-in mice with a fluorescent-tagged NOP receptor in place of the native NOP receptor. These

  18. Information Warfare: Issues Associated with the Defense of DOD Computers and Computer Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franklin, Derek

    2002-01-01

    ... that may threaten the critical information pathways of the armed forces An analysis of the history of computer information warfare reveals that there was an embarrassing lack of readiness and defense...

  19. Cerium oxide for the destruction of chemical warfare agents: A comparison of synthetic routes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janos, P.; Henych, Jiří; Pelant, O.; Pilařová, V.; Vrtoch, L.; Kormunda, M.; Mazanec, K.; Štengl, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 304, MAR (2016), s. 259-268 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Cerium oxide * Chemical warfare agents * Organophosphate compounds * Decontamination Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  20. From Douhet to drones, air warfare, and the evolution of targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, F.P.B.; Roorda, M.P.; Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Through the prism of the experience of air warfare, this chapter identifies key factors that have shaped targeting. These include technological developments, organizational structures, and processes and inter-service competition for scarce resources. Moreover, targeting is informed by perspectives

  1. Defense Base Closure and Realignment Budget Data for the Naval Surface Warfare Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    ... and realignment military construction projects. This report provides the results of the audit related to the realignment of Naval Surface Warfare Centers elements in White Oak, Maryland, and Panama City, Florida, to Dahlgren, Virginia...

  2. CRUSER's Warfare Innovation Workshop Focused on Hybrid War in the Urban Littorals

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    News Stories Archive The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and Research, CRUSER, hosted its annual Warfare Innovation Workshop (WIW) in Glasgow Hall, Sept. 18-21.

  3. The Army Ground Forces Training for Mountain and Winter Warfare - Study No. 23

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Govan, Thomas

    1946-01-01

    This general study of the experiments in mountain and winter warfare training from 1940 to 1944 is designed as an introduction to the histories of the Mountain Training Center and The 10th Mountain...

  4. Electronic Warfare: Towed Decoys Could Improve Survivability of Current Navy Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aiken, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, DOD'S combat aircraft have used on-board electronic warfare devices called jammers for self-protection against radar-controlled weapons, including missiles and anti-aircraft artillery...

  5. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  6. Surface Warfare Officer Retention: Analysis of Individual Ready Reserve Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoker, Carol; Crawford, Alice

    2008-01-01

    ... (including morale and lack of mentoring), push both men and women out of the Navy. Nonetheless, the Navy s primary effort to improve retention has been to introduce the Surface Warfare Officer Continuation Pay (SWOCP...

  7. Understanding "Understanding" Flow for Network-Centric Warfare: Military Knowledge-Flow Mechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nissen, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Network-centric warfare (NCW) emphasizes information superiority for battlespace efficacy, but it is clear that the mechanics of how knowledge flows are just as important as those pertaining to the networks and communication...

  8. DRES Database of Methods for the Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Paul

    1997-01-01

    .... Update of the database continues as an ongoing effort and the DRES Database of Methods for the Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents is available panel in hardcopy form or as a softcopy Procite or Wordperfect file...

  9. The Rapier or the Club: The Relationship between Attrition and Maneuver Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Springman, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    ...? This project compares the relationship between attrition and maneuver warfare. The study considers whether there are times when wars of attrition should be fought, and whether there are conditions that force wars of attrition...

  10. Diagnosis of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: A Comprehensive Literature Survey 1990-2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noort, D

    2006-01-01

    This report is an update of TNO report PML 2003-A63. In this report an overview is presented of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e...

  11. Anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in Iranian survivors of chemical warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Farnoosh; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Desai, Mayur M; Falahati, Farahnaz; Kasl, Stanislav; Southwick, Steven

    2006-08-02

    In the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War, extensive use of chemical weapons resulted in high rates of morbidity and mortality. While much is known about the physical consequences of chemical warfare, there is a paucity of information about the long-term effects of chemical attacks on mental health. To assess the long-term psychological impact of chemical warfare on a civilian population. Cross-sectional randomized survey conducted in July 2004 of 153 civilians in 3 towns exposed to warfare in northwestern Iran: Oshnaviyeh (low-intensity conventional warfare), Rabat (high-intensity conventional warfare), and Sardasht (both high-intensity conventional warfare and chemical weapons). Full or partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms were assessed using Farsi versions of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Hamilton Scale for Anxiety, and Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Overall participation rate was 93%. Respondents had a mean age of 45 years and were all of Kurdish ethnicity. Among individuals exposed to both high-intensity warfare and chemical weapons, prevalence rates for lifetime PTSD, current PTSD, major anxiety symptoms, and severe depressive symptoms were 59%, 33%, 65%, and 41%, respectively. Among the low-intensity warfare group, the corresponding rates were 8%, 2%, 18%, and 6%, respectively, while intermediate rates were found among those exposed to high-intensity warfare but not to chemical weapons (31%, 8%, 26%, and 12%, respectively). Compared with individuals exposed to low-intensity warfare, those exposed to both high-intensity warfare and chemical weapons were at higher risk for lifetime PTSD (odds ratio [OR], 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.8-59.4), current PTSD (OR, 27.4; 95% CI, 3.4-218.2), increased anxiety symptoms (OR, 14.6; 95% CI, 6.0-35.6), and increased depressive symptoms (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 3.3-15.9). Exposure to high-intensity warfare but not to chemical weapons was also

  12. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2006-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  13. A new General Purpose Decontamination System for Chemical and Biological Warfare and Terrorism Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khetan, Sushil; Banerjee, xdDeboshri; Chanda, Arani; Collins, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Partial contents: Fe-TAML Activator of Peroxide,Activators of Hydrogen peroxide,Biological Warfare Agents,Bacterial Endospore,Bacterial Spore Deactivation,Modeling Studies,Deactivation Studies with Bacillus spores...

  14. Second NATO/SIBCA Exercise on Sampling of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wils, E

    1999-01-01

    In order to practise the sampling of chemical warfare agents under realistic conditions, the Netherlands participated successfully in the second NATO/SIBCA sampling exercise conducted in Poland on 1-3...

  15. The Third World War? In The Cyberspace. Cyber Warfare in the Middle East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a brief and comprehensive introduction to the issue of cyber warfare and to display the recent development in this area. Geographically, it focuses on the Middle East region, since the vast majority of the most important recent cyber attacks appeared just in there or were connected to it. The first part of the article tries to define the key notion of cyber warfare, compares it to the standard warfare and presents different types of cyber weapons that are known today. The second part points out examples of the most striking recent cyber attacks and uses them as evidences to demonstrate today's importance and dissemination of cyber warfare. Finally, the article sums up pros and cons of the cyber weapons and, in view of these, predicts a significant increase in their use in any future war conflicts.

  16. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2005-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  17. Special Operations Forces: C-130 Upgrade Plan Could Help Fix Electronic Warfare Deficiencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    In response to a concern that threats to the U.S. Special Operations Command's (USSOCOM) aircraft are increasing, while funds available for electronic warfare are decreasing, the General Accounting Office...

  18. Combinatorial Auction Theory Applied to the Selection of Surface Warfare Officer Retention Incentives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denmond, Constance M; Johnson, Derek N; Lewis, Chavius G; Zegley, Christopher R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the potential retention and cost impacts of offering combinations of retention base incentives to members of the Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) community...

  19. Cyber crime and cyber warfare with international cyber collaboration for RSA – preparing communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available aspects come into play that may have an influence on the manner in which the military reacts to cyber attacks (Wilson 2007): ? new national security policy issues; ? consideration of psychological operations used to affect friendly nations... relationship between modern cyber space, cyber warfare and traditional legislation. As a starting point, cyber warfare is defined for the purpose of this article as the use of exploits in cyber space as a way to intentionally cause harm to people, assets...

  20. Modeling Anti-Air Warfare With Discrete Event Simulation and Analyzing Naval Convoy Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    W., & Scheaffer, R. L. (2008). Mathematical statistics with applications . Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. 118 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION AND ANALYZING NAVAL CONVOY OPERATIONS by Ali E. Opcin June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Arnold H. Buss Co...REPORT DATE June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING ANTI-AIR WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT

  1. Drone Warfare: Is the United States Violating the Law of Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    NOTE AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY DRONE WARFARE: IS THE UNITED STATES VIOLATING THE LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT? by Barbara E. Shestko, Col...Base, Alabama. 1 Introduction The United States has become increasingly dependent upon the use of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) or “ drones ” to...kill targeted members of al-Qaeda and the Taliban.1 Due to the success of drone warfare, we can expect the United States to continue its current

  2. Knock investigation by flame and radical species detection in spark ignition engine for different fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, Simona S.; Vaglieco, Bianca M.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate the phenomena of normal combustion and knocking in a single cylinder, ported fuel injection, four-stroke spark-ignition engine with a four-valve production head. All the measurements were realized in an optically accessible engine equipped with a wide quartz window in the bottom of the chamber. The study was carried out using optical techniques based on flame natural emission imaging and spectroscopy from UV to visible. Radical species such as OH and HCO were detected and correlated to the onset and the duration of knock and presence of hot-spots in end-gas. Measurements were carried out at 1000 rpm with wide-open throttle and stoichiometric mixture. Pure iso-octane, suitable mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane and commercial gasoline were used

  3. Quasielastic knock out of light fragments from 12C and 16O by intermediate energy pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, B.M.; Borodin, Yu.A.; Bulychev, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Using 0.72 GeV s -1 pulse π - -meson beam one studied the quasi-elastic knocking out of deuterons and of tritons from 12 C and 16 O nuclei. One derived the quasi-deuteron intranuclear motion pulse distributions, the residual nucleus excitation energy spectra and the effective number of quasi-deuterons. The parameters of quasi-deuteron intranuclear motion pulse distributions are in line with the measurement results for other beams. The effective numbers of quasi-deuterons in nuclei from 6 Li up to 16 O do not depend on the atomic number. One observed knocking out of tritons from the mentioned nuclei enabling to evaluate the cross section of elastic pion-triton backscattering [ru

  4. 13C(α,n)16O reaction as the knock-out exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G.; Khajdarov, R.R.; Zaparov, Eh.A.

    2000-01-01

    S-factor for the 13 C(α,n) 16 O reaction is studied. In the framework of the simple phenomenological model this reaction is analysed as neutron knocked-out by α-particle exchange process. The analysis demonstrates the importance of taking into account 2p-state in 13 C. The 13 C(α,n) 16 O cross section is considered both as the knock-out exchange process and as it's combination with process through a compound nucleus. It was shown that for E α s value extrapolated to low energies is found to be noticeably larger that of R-matrix analysis. Different ways of improving the proposed model are discussed. (author)

  5. Generation and characterization of PDGFRα-GFPCreERT2 knock-In mouse line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Hiroyuki; Era, Takumi

    2015-05-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor play an important role in embryogenesis. PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) is expressed specifically in the embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) mesoderm and in the E9.5 neural crest among other tissues. PDGFRα-expressing cells and their descendants are involved in the formation of various tissues. To trace PDGFRα-expressing cells in vivo, we generated a knock-in mouse line that expressed a fusion protein of green fluorescent protein (GFP), Cre recombinase (Cre), and mutated estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain (ERT2) under the control of the PDGFRα promoter. In these mice, Cre activity in PDGFRα-expressing cells could be induced by tamoxifen treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that the knock-in mouse line generated here could be useful for studying PDGFRα-expressing cells and their descendants in vivo at various stages of development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Simple Retroelement Based Knock-Down System in Dictyostelium: Further Insights into RNA Interference Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Michael; Meier, Doreen; Schuster, Isabelle; Nellen, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that the most abundant Dictyostelium discoideum retroelement DIRS-1 is suppressed by RNAi mechanisms. Here we provide evidence that both inverted terminal repeats have strong promoter activity and that bidirectional expression apparently generates a substrate for Dicer. A cassette containing the inverted terminal repeats and a fragment of a gene of interest was sufficient to activate the RNAi response, resulting in the generation of ~21 nt siRNAs, a reduction of mRNA and protein expression of the respective endogene. Surprisingly, no transitivity was observed on the endogene. This was in contrast to previous observations, where endogenous siRNAs caused spreading on an artificial transgene. Knock-down was successful on seven target genes that we examined. In three cases a phenotypic analysis proved the efficiency of the approach. One of the target genes was apparently essential because no knock-out could be obtained; the RNAi mediated knock-down, however, resulted in a very slow growing culture indicating a still viable reduction of gene expression. ADVANTAGES OF THE DIRS-1–RNAI SYSTEM: The knock-down system required a short DNA fragment (~400 bp) of the target gene as an initial trigger. Further siRNAs were generated by RdRPs since we have shown some siRNAs with a 5'-triphosphate group. Extrachromosomal vectors facilitate the procedure and allowed for molecular and phenotypic analysis within one week. The system provides an efficient and rapid method to reduce protein levels including those of essential genes.

  7. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimijian, Gregory G

    2010-07-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at "human nature" and contrasts the "dark side" of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side.

  8. Information Warfare on Social Media: A Brand Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpokas Ignas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Employing a perspective informed by brand management, this article aims at understanding information warfare operations in social media. The state, seen as brand, must project an image of itself to both internal and foreign audiences to unite the domestic audience and/or attract global support. However, in constructing a brand, states are vulnerable to ‘sofa warriors’ – ordinary individuals who have been unwittingly recruited by hostile actors to disseminate (over social media or other platforms a counter-brand, harmful to the state concerned. These new threats are investigated in light of recent tendencies in online branding, elucidating their status as a national security threat, with the potential to significantly disrupt life in political communities.

  9. Book Review: Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C. Kessler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Libicki, M.C. (2007. Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare. New York: Cambridge University Press. 323 pages, ISBN: 978-0-521-69214-4 (paper, US$80Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduMany books -- and even movies ("Live Free or Die Hard" -- are based upon the premise of an impending information war. In these scenarios -- made all too plausible by the increased frequency with which we read about and experience major information security incidents -- a Bad Guy exploits known computer security vulnerabilities in order to control major national infrastructures via the Internet so as to reap financial, economic, and/or personal power.(see PDF for full review

  10. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  11. Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

  12. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-01-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch

  13. [Cutaneous and systemic toxicology of vesicants used in warfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, R; Vidal-Asensi, S

    2010-01-01

    Vesicants are a group of chemicals used in warfare. The most representative agent is yperite, also known as mustard gas. The blisters that appeared on those exposed to yperite during combat in the First World War are responsible for the current name--vesicants--for this group of chemicals. Their affects are produced mainly through localized action of liquid or vapor forms on the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. However, the high absorption of the liquid form through the skin or the vapor form on inhalation may cause substantial systemic effects. Here we analyze these effects, treatment of intoxication, and long-term sequelae, drawing on our experience and a review of the literature.

  14. An Open Architecture Framework for Electronic Warfare Based Approach to HLA Federate Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyunSeo Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of electronic warfare models are developed in the Electronic Warfare Research Center. An Open Architecture Framework for Electronic Warfare (OAFEw has been developed for reusability of various object models participating in the electronic warfare simulation and for extensibility of the electronic warfare simulator. OAFEw is a kind of component-based software (SW lifecycle management support framework. This OAFEw is defined by six components and ten rules. The purpose of this study is to construct a Distributed Simulation Interface Model, according to the rules of OAFEw, and create Use Case Model of OAFEw Reference Conceptual Model version 1.0. This is embodied in the OAFEw-FOM (Federate Object Model for High-Level Architecture (HLA based distributed simulation. Therefore, we design and implement EW real-time distributed simulation that can work with a model in C++ and MATLAB API (Application Programming Interface. In addition, OAFEw-FOM, electronic component model, and scenario of the electronic warfare domain were designed through simple scenarios for verification, and real-time distributed simulation between C++ and MATLAB was performed through OAFEw-Distributed Simulation Interface.

  15. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  16. Evaluation of Anti-Knock Quality of Dicyclopentadiene-Gasoline Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khodaier, Mohannad

    2017-03-28

    Increasing the anti-knock quality of gasoline fuels can enable higher efficiency in spark ignition engines. In this study, the blending anti-knock quality of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), a by-product of ethylene production from naphtha cracking, with various gasoline fuels is explored. The blends were tested in an ignition quality tester (IQT) and a modified cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine operating under homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and knock limited spark advance (KLSA) conditions. Due to current fuel regulations, ethanol is widely used as a gasoline blending component in many markets. In addition, ethanol is widely used as a fuel and literature verifying its performance. Moreover, because ethanol exhibits synergistic effects, the test results of DCPD-gasoline blends were compared to those of ethanol-gasoline blends. The experiments conducted in this work enabled the screening of DCPD auto-ignition characteristics across a range of combustion modes. The synergistic blending nature of DCPD was apparent and appeared to be greater than that of ethanol. The data presented suggests that DCPD has the potential to be a high octane blending component in gasoline; one which can substitute alkylates, isomerates, reformates, and oxygenates.

  17. Human thrombomodulin knock-in mice reveal differential effects of human thrombomodulin on thrombosis and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raife, Thomas J; Dwyre, Denis M; Stevens, Jeff W; Erger, Rochelle A; Leo, Lorie; Wilson, Katina M; Fernández, Jose A; Wilder, Jennifer; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Griffin, John H; Maeda, Nobuyo; Lentz, Steven R

    2011-11-01

    We sought to develop a murine model to examine the antithrombotic and antiinflammatory functions of human thrombomodulin in vivo. Knock-in mice that express human thrombomodulin from the murine thrombomodulin gene locus were generated. Compared with wild-type mice, human thrombomodulin knock-in mice exhibited decreased protein C activation in the aorta (Pknock-in mice compared with wild-type mice (Pknock-in mice (12±3 minutes) than in wild-type mice (31±6 minutes; Pknock-in and wild-type mice after injection of endotoxin. When crossed with apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and fed a Western diet, knock-in mice had a further decrease in protein C activation but did not exhibit increased atherosclerosis. Expression of human thrombomodulin in place of murine thrombomodulin produces viable mice with a prothrombotic phenotype but unaltered responses to systemic inflammatory or atherogenic stimuli. This humanized animal model will be useful for investigating the function of human thrombomodulin under pathophysiological conditions in vivo.

  18. Terpineol as a novel octane booster for extending the knock limit of gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2016-09-16

    Improving the octane number of gasoline offers the potential of improved engine combustion, as it permits spark timing advancement without engine knock. This study proposes the use of terpineol as an octane booster for gasoline in a spark ignited (SI) engine. Terpineol is a bio-derived oxygenated fuel obtained from pine tree resin, and has the advantage of higher calorific value than ethanol. The ignition delay time (IDT) of terpineol was first investigated in an ignition quality tester (IQT). The IQT results demonstrated a long ignition delay of 24.7 ms for terpineol and an estimated research octane number (RON) of 104, which was higher than commercial European (Euro V) gasoline. The octane boosting potential of terpineol was further investigated by blending it with a non-oxygenated gasoline (FACE F), which has a RON (94) lower than Euro V gasoline (RON = 97). The operation of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) SI engine fueled with terpineol-blended FACE F gasoline enabled spark timing advancement and improved engine combustion. The knock intensity of FACE F + 30% terpineol was lower than FACE F gasoline at both maximum brake torque (MBT) and knock limited spark advance (KLSA) operating points. Increasing proportions of terpineol in the blend caused peak heat release rate, in-cylinder pressure, CA50, and combustion duration to be closer to those of Euro V gasoline. Furthermore, FACE F + 30% terpineol displayed improved combustion characteristics when compared to Euro V gasoline. © 2016

  19. Evaluation of Anti-Knock Quality of Dicyclopentadiene-Gasoline Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khodaier, Mohannad; Bhavani Shankar, Vijai Shankar; Waqas, Muhammad; Naser, Nimal; Sarathy, Mani; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the anti-knock quality of gasoline fuels can enable higher efficiency in spark ignition engines. In this study, the blending anti-knock quality of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), a by-product of ethylene production from naphtha cracking, with various gasoline fuels is explored. The blends were tested in an ignition quality tester (IQT) and a modified cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine operating under homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and knock limited spark advance (KLSA) conditions. Due to current fuel regulations, ethanol is widely used as a gasoline blending component in many markets. In addition, ethanol is widely used as a fuel and literature verifying its performance. Moreover, because ethanol exhibits synergistic effects, the test results of DCPD-gasoline blends were compared to those of ethanol-gasoline blends. The experiments conducted in this work enabled the screening of DCPD auto-ignition characteristics across a range of combustion modes. The synergistic blending nature of DCPD was apparent and appeared to be greater than that of ethanol. The data presented suggests that DCPD has the potential to be a high octane blending component in gasoline; one which can substitute alkylates, isomerates, reformates, and oxygenates.

  20. Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, J.; Srinivasan, Sree [Molecular Sciences and Engineering Team, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Nagarajan, R., E-mail: Ramanathan.Nagarajan@us.army.mil [Molecular Sciences and Engineering Team, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 (United States)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Summary of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in current use. {yields} Application of method of molecular similarity to CWA and simulants. {yields} Quantitative metric for CWA-simulant similarity. {yields} Rank ordering of simulants in current use. {yields} Potential of method to identify simulants for emerging agents. - Abstract: Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use 'simulants,' namely, analogous chemicals that closely resemble the CWAs but are less toxic, with the expectation that the results attained for simulants can be correlated to how the CWAs would perform. Simulants have been traditionally chosen by experts, by means of intuition, using similarity in one or more physical properties (such as vapor pressure or aqueous solubility) or in the molecular structural features (such as functional groups) between the stimulant and the CWA. This work is designed to automate the simulant identification process backed by quantitative metrics, by means of chemical similarity search software routinely used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The question addressed here is: By the metrics of such software, how similar are traditional simulants to CWAs? That is, what is the numerical 'distance' between each CWA and its customary simulants in the quantitative space of molecular descriptors? The answers show promise for finding close but less toxic simulants for the ever-increasing numbers of CWAs objectively and fast.

  1. Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, J.; Srinivasan, Sree; Nagarajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Summary of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in current use. → Application of method of molecular similarity to CWA and simulants. → Quantitative metric for CWA-simulant similarity. → Rank ordering of simulants in current use. → Potential of method to identify simulants for emerging agents. - Abstract: Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use 'simulants,' namely, analogous chemicals that closely resemble the CWAs but are less toxic, with the expectation that the results attained for simulants can be correlated to how the CWAs would perform. Simulants have been traditionally chosen by experts, by means of intuition, using similarity in one or more physical properties (such as vapor pressure or aqueous solubility) or in the molecular structural features (such as functional groups) between the stimulant and the CWA. This work is designed to automate the simulant identification process backed by quantitative metrics, by means of chemical similarity search software routinely used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The question addressed here is: By the metrics of such software, how similar are traditional simulants to CWAs? That is, what is the numerical 'distance' between each CWA and its customary simulants in the quantitative space of molecular descriptors? The answers show promise for finding close but less toxic simulants for the ever-increasing numbers of CWAs objectively and fast.

  2. Establishment of expanded and streamlined pipeline of PITCh knock-in - a web-based design tool for MMEJ-mediated gene knock-in, PITCh designer, and the variations of PITCh, PITCh-TG and PITCh-KIKO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamae, Kazuki; Nishimura, Yuki; Takenaga, Mitsumasa; Nakade, Shota; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Ide, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-05-04

    The emerging genome editing technology has enabled the creation of gene knock-in cells easily, efficiently, and rapidly, which has dramatically accelerated research in the field of mammalian functional genomics, including in humans. We recently developed a microhomology-mediated end-joining-based gene knock-in method, termed the PITCh system, and presented various examples of its application. Since the PITCh system only requires very short microhomologies (up to 40 bp) and single-guide RNA target sites on the donor vector, the targeting construct can be rapidly prepared compared with the conventional targeting vector for homologous recombination-based knock-in. Here, we established a streamlined pipeline to design and perform PITCh knock-in to further expand the availability of this method by creating web-based design software, PITCh designer ( http://www.mls.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/smg/PITChdesigner/index.html ), as well as presenting an experimental example of versatile gene cassette knock-in. PITCh designer can automatically design not only the appropriate microhomologies but also the primers to construct locus-specific donor vectors for PITCh knock-in. By using our newly established pipeline, a reporter cell line for monitoring endogenous gene expression, and transgenesis (TG) or knock-in/knockout (KIKO) cell line can be produced systematically. Using these new variations of PITCh, an exogenous promoter-driven gene cassette expressing fluorescent protein gene and drug resistance gene can be integrated into a safe harbor or a specific gene locus to create transgenic reporter cells (PITCh-TG) or knockout cells with reporter knock-in (PITCh-KIKO), respectively.

  3. Establishment of expanded and streamlined pipeline of PITCh knock-in – a web-based design tool for MMEJ-mediated gene knock-in, PITCh designer, and the variations of PITCh, PITCh-TG and PITCh-KIKO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamae, Kazuki; Nishimura, Yuki; Takenaga, Mitsumasa; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Ide, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emerging genome editing technology has enabled the creation of gene knock-in cells easily, efficiently, and rapidly, which has dramatically accelerated research in the field of mammalian functional genomics, including in humans. We recently developed a microhomology-mediated end-joining-based gene knock-in method, termed the PITCh system, and presented various examples of its application. Since the PITCh system only requires very short microhomologies (up to 40 bp) and single-guide RNA target sites on the donor vector, the targeting construct can be rapidly prepared compared with the conventional targeting vector for homologous recombination-based knock-in. Here, we established a streamlined pipeline to design and perform PITCh knock-in to further expand the availability of this method by creating web-based design software, PITCh designer (http://www.mls.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/smg/PITChdesigner/index.html), as well as presenting an experimental example of versatile gene cassette knock-in. PITCh designer can automatically design not only the appropriate microhomologies but also the primers to construct locus-specific donor vectors for PITCh knock-in. By using our newly established pipeline, a reporter cell line for monitoring endogenous gene expression, and transgenesis (TG) or knock-in/knockout (KIKO) cell line can be produced systematically. Using these new variations of PITCh, an exogenous promoter-driven gene cassette expressing fluorescent protein gene and drug resistance gene can be integrated into a safe harbor or a specific gene locus to create transgenic reporter cells (PITCh-TG) or knockout cells with reporter knock-in (PITCh-KIKO), respectively. PMID:28453368

  4. Study on the knock tendency and cyclical variations of a HCCI engine fueled with n-butanol/n-heptane blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Chunhua; Zhou, Jiawang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The HCCI combustion was achieved on an engine fueled by n-butanol/n-heptane blends. • The knock tendency and cyclical variation of the HCCI combustion were studied. • The knock tendency can be weakened by increasing the blending ratio of n-butanol. • The knock tendency and cyclical variation are sensitive to the combustion phasing. • Cyclical variation always shows an opposite trend with the knock tendency. - Abstract: The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion operation is conducted in the 2nd cylinder of a natural-aspirated four-stroke diesel engine. In the HCCI combustion mode, the n-butanol, n-heptane and their blends are injected into the intake port to form a lean homogeneous air-fuel mixture, which is consumed by the autoignition after compression. The objective of this study is to investigate the knock tendency and the cyclical variations of the HCCI engine. Experimental results show that the volume fraction of n-butanol affects the knock tendency greatly, which obviously decreases as the n-butanol volume fraction increases. The knocking combustion in the HCCI combustion is characterized by the high heat release rate (HRR). Both elevating the engine speed and raising the intake temperature contributes to an obvious increase in HRR and the knock tendency. But the HRR and knock tendency may slightly decrease when the engine speed reaches to 1400 rev/min and intake temperature reaches to 160 °C. Furthermore, the knock tendency can be weakened by increasing the excess air-fuel ratio. Cyclical variations of the HCCI engine are quantified by the coefficient of variation for the peak pressure (COV_P_m_a_x) and it exhibits an almost opposite trend to the knock tendency. The COV_P_m_a_x may considerably increase along with either increasing the blending ratio of n-butanol or increasing the excess air-fuel ratio. Moreover, it is reveled that the COV_P_m_a_x is sensitive to the relative position of peak HRR. The cyclical

  5. Knock-in mice harboring a Ca(2+) desensitizing mutation in cardiac troponin C develop early onset dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bradley K; Singh, Sonal; Fan, Qiying; Hernandez, Adriana; Portillo, Jesus P; Reiser, Peter J; Tikunova, Svetlana B

    2015-01-01

    The physiological consequences of aberrant Ca(2+) binding and exchange with cardiac myofilaments are not clearly understood. In order to examine the effect of decreasing Ca(2+) sensitivity of cTnC on cardiac function, we generated knock-in mice carrying a D73N mutation (not known to be associated with heart disease in human patients) in cTnC. The D73N mutation was engineered into the regulatory N-domain of cTnC in order to reduce Ca(2+) sensitivity of reconstituted thin filaments by increasing the rate of Ca(2+) dissociation. In addition, the D73N mutation drastically blunted the extent of Ca(2+) desensitization of reconstituted thin filaments induced by cTnI pseudo-phosphorylation. Compared to wild-type mice, heterozygous knock-in mice carrying the D73N mutation exhibited a substantially decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force development in skinned ventricular trabeculae. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that median survival time for knock-in mice was 12 weeks. Echocardiographic analysis revealed that knock-in mice exhibited increased left ventricular dimensions with thinner walls. Echocardiographic analysis also revealed that measures of systolic function, such as ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS), were dramatically reduced in knock-in mice. In addition, knock-in mice displayed electrophysiological abnormalities, namely prolonged QRS and QT intervals. Furthermore, ventricular myocytes isolated from knock-in mice did not respond to β-adrenergic stimulation. Thus, knock-in mice developed pathological features similar to those observed in human patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In conclusion, our results suggest that decreasing Ca(2+) sensitivity of the regulatory N-domain of cTnC is sufficient to trigger the development of DCM.

  6. Strong morphological defects in conditional Arabidopsis abp1 knock-down mutants generated in absence of functional ABP1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalko, Jaroslav; Glanc, Matouš; Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The Auxin Binding Protein 1 (ABP1) is one of the most studied proteins in plants. Since decades ago, it has been the prime receptor candidate for the plant hormone auxin with a plethora of described functions in auxin signaling and development. The developmental importance of ABP1 has recently been questioned by identification of Arabidopsis thaliana abp1 knock-out alleles that show no obvious phenotypes under normal growth conditions. In this study, we examined the contradiction between the normal growth and development of the abp1 knock-outs and the strong morphological defects observed in three different ethanol-inducible abp1 knock-down mutants ( abp1-AS, SS12K, SS12S). By analyzing segregating populations of abp1 knock-out vs. abp1 knock-down crosses we show that the strong morphological defects that were believed to be the result of conditional down-regulation of ABP1 can be reproduced also in the absence of the functional ABP1 protein. This data suggests that the phenotypes in  abp1 knock-down lines are due to the off-target effects and asks for further reflections on the biological function of ABP1 or alternative explanations for the missing phenotypic defects in the abp1 loss-of-function alleles.

  7. Improved motor performance in Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in mice by cerebellar Purkinje-cell specific Dyt1 conditional knocking-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai Tu; Li, Yuqing

    2012-05-01

    Early-onset generalized torsion dystonia (dystonia 1) is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 (TOR1A), which codes for torsinA. Most patients have a 3-base pair deletion (ΔGAG) in one allele of DYT1, corresponding to a loss of a glutamic acid residue (ΔE) in the C-terminal region of the protein. Functional alterations in basal ganglia circuits and the cerebellum have been reported in dystonia. Pharmacological manipulations or mutations in genes that result in functional alterations of the cerebellum have been reported to have dystonic symptoms and have been used as phenotypic rodent models. Additionally, structural lesions in the abnormal cerebellar circuits, such as cerebellectomy, have therapeutic effects in these models. A previous study has shown that the Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) mice exhibit motor deficits in the beam-walking test. Both Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) and Dyt1 Purkinje cell-specific knockout (Dyt1 pKO) mice exhibit dendritic alterations of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Here, Dyt1 pKO mice exhibited significantly less slip numbers in the beam-walking test, suggesting better motor performance than control littermates, and normal gait. Furthermore, Dyt1 ΔGAG KI/Dyt1 pKO double mutant mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of slips than Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous KI mice, suggesting Purkinje-cell specific knockout of Dyt1 wild-type (WT) allele in Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous KI mice rescued the motor deficits. The results suggest that molecular lesions of torsinA in Purkinje cells by gene therapy or intervening in the signaling pathway downstream of the cerebellar Purkinje cells may rescue motor symptoms in dystonia 1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Creation of knock out and knock in mice by CRISPR/Cas9 to validate candidate genes for human male infertility, interest, difficulties and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kherraf, Zine-Eddine; Conne, Beatrice; Amiri-Yekta, Amir; Kent, Marie Christou; Coutton, Charles; Escoffier, Jessica; Nef, Serge; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre F

    2018-06-15

    High throughput sequencing (HTS) and CRISPR/Cas9 are two recent technologies that are currently revolutionizing biological and clinical research. Both techniques are complementary as HTS permits to identify new genetic variants and genes involved in various pathologies and CRISPR/Cas9 permits to create animals or cell models to validate the effect of the identified variants, to characterize the pathogeny of the identified variants and the function of the genes of interest and ultimately to provide ways of correcting the molecular defects. We analyzed a cohort of 78 infertile men presenting with multiple morphological anomalies of the sperm flagella (MMAF), a severe form of male infertility. Using whole exome sequencing (WES), homozygous mutations in autosomal candidate genes were identified in 63% of the tested subjects. We decided to produce by CRISPR/cas9 four knock-out (KO) and one knock-in (KI) mouse lines to confirm these results and to increase our understanding of the physiopathology associated with these genetic variations. Overall 31% of the live pups obtained presented a mutational event in one of the targeted regions. All identified events were insertions or deletions localized near the PAM sequence. Surprisingly we observed a high rate of germline mosaicism as 30% of the F1 displayed a different mutation than the parental event characterized on somatic tissue (tail), indicating that CRISPR/Cas9 mutational events kept happening several cell divisions after the injection. Overall, we created mouse models for 5 distinct loci and in each case homozygous animals could be obtained in approximately 6 months. These results demonstrate that the combined use of WES and CRISPR/Cas9 is an efficient and timely strategy to identify and validate mutations responsible for infertility phenotypes in human. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Abbott and Costello Effect: Who's on What, and What's Where When? A Human-Centered Method to Investigate Network Centric Warfare Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Derek W

    2007-01-01

    ...), fundamentally changing how warfare is being conducted. Network centric warfare (NCW) systems are being rushed to the field and are offered as a solution for the fog of war and as a way to reduce manpower costs...

  10. Opportunity knocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1990-01-01

    A preference for bearing sons has existed for centuries in some cultures. In India, for example, female infanticide, the neglect of daughters, and the abuse and deprivation of adult females have long been common practice and an integral part of society. Bearing and nurturing sons at the expense of daughters resulted in the creation of large local forces of males considered to be a normal and necessary factor in maintaining the economic and political strength of the family, lineage, and village. Daughters were the expendable offspring. Indeed, the neglect and murder of female offspring has led to a national population in which there are 20-30 million fewer females than males. This skewed sex ratio is real and increasing in India, especially in recent decades. Scattered information on imbalanced sex ratios favoring males exists for some parts of eastern and southern India. Most evidence, however, indicates the existence of a longstanding and pervasive culture limiting female survival in the northwestern plains, especially among propertied groups. On this issue, northern India therefore resembles neighboring districts in Pakistan, while eastern India resembles Bangladesh. The author notes that progress in improving female child health in the Punjab, a region in which daughter neglect has been extreme and pervasive, signals hope for the future. At Ludhiana Christian Medical College, the decentralized program of household visits, careful record-keeping, and maternal education have been making a difference in female child survival rates. That program can and should serve as a model for the rest of India, with appropriate modifications depending upon the social and economic context.

  11. Opportunity knocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubertin, S.

    1997-01-01

    The estimated value for the world market for power transformers in 1995 was US$11.85 billion. Transformers are the largest single component in the market for power transmission and distribution equipment, the total value of which was estimated as US$41.5 billion in 1995. These estimates arise out of market research covering 190 countries and have been arrived at using a modelling technique of proven reliability. Countries where data is unknown were modelled by extrapolation from those where good data was available using parameters which included the development of the installed capacity, the speed of network growth and the kWh consumed per person. Expenditure on transmission and distribution equipment and installation can be broken down into three broad categories. These are: maintenance of existing equipment in both mature systems and in primitive ones; up-grading and replacement mainly in countries with outdated technology; extension of the system in developing countries. (UK)

  12. Opportunity Knocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Many people are finding themselves in the middle of a messy muddle these days. Faced with budget cuts and the challenge of extending the reach of the institution to increase enrollments, people are in the classic do-more-with-less situation. In this article, the author discusses how distance-education programs can rapidly grow with limited…

  13. 75 FR 47465 - Pymetrozine; Regulation Denying NRDC's Objections on Remand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ..., total cholesterol, urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, albumin, hormones, and... may not occur in areas with the highest pesticide use, and/or the sampling may not occur when the... first tier model uses high-end and worst-case assumptions as a screen to identify pesticides that will...

  14. NDS status report to the 1987 NRDC meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    The report presents the activities of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section concerning CINDA, EXFOR system, data evaluation, publications, customer services, programming and systems development, on-line center-to-center data transmission

  15. Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar Surfaces of Living Plants Maintained in a Surety Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    RAIN-INDUCED WASH-OFF OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT (VX) FROM FOLIAR SURFACES OF LIVING PLANTS MAINTAINED IN A...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2014 – Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar...galli Foliage Chemical warfare agent (CWA) O-ethyl-S-(2

  16. Generation of beta-lactoglobulin knock-out goats using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhou

    Full Text Available Goat's milk, considered a substitute for cow's milk, has a high nutritional value. However, goat's milk contains various allergens, predominantly β-lactoglobulin (BLG. In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the BLG locus in goat fibroblasts for sgRNA optimization and generate BLG knock-out goats through co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and small guide RNAs (sgRNAs into goat embryos at the one-cell stage. We firstly tested sgRNA editing efficiencies in goat fibroblast cells, and approximately 8.00%-9.09% of the cells were modified in single sgRNA-guided targeting experiment. Among the kids, the genome-targeting efficiencies of single sgRNA were 12.5% (10 ng/μL sg1 and 0% (10 ng/μL sg2 and efficiencies of dual sgRNAs were 25.0% (25 ng/μL sg2+sg3 group and 28.6% (50 ng/μL sg2+sg3 group. Relative expression of BLG in BLG knock-out goat mammary glands significantly (p < 0.01 decreased as well as other milk protein coding genes, such as CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, CSN3 and LALBA (p < 0.05. As expected, BLG protein had been abolished in the milk of the BLG knock-out goat. In addition, most of the targeted kids were chimeric (3/4, and their various body tissues were edited simultaneously. Our study thus provides a basis for optimizing the quality of goat milk, which can be applied to biomedical and agricultural research.

  17. ANTXR2 Knock-Out Does Not Result in the Development of Hypertension in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Wen; Li, Jing; Yang, Lei; Cai, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Our recent genetic study as well as robust evidences reported by previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have indicated that the single nucleotide polymorphism rs16998073, located near gene anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2), was significantly associated with hypertension in Asians and Europeans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ANTXR2 is the causal gene of hypertension at the 4q21 locus using an ANTXR2 knock-out model. Relative expression of ANTXR2 in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. ANTXR2 knock-out rats were created using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and blood pressure values were measured in ANTXR2 -/- and wild type (WT) rats by tail-cuff method and carotid arterial catheterization method. Neither the mRNA nor protein levels of ANTXR2 were significantly different between tissues from SHRs and WKYs. To create ANTXR2 -/- rats, 67 base pairs were deleted in exon 1 of ANTXR2 using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. ANTXR2 protein decreased significantly in aortas of ANTXR2 -/- rats, suggesting sufficient efficiency of ANTXR2 knock-out in this model. However, ANTXR2 -/- rats exhibited nearly the same blood pressure as WT rats at baseline conditions as well as during Angiotensin II (400ng/kg/min) infusion or high-salt diet treatment. These findings suggest that ANTXR2 might not be associated with hypertension and thus further functional analysis is warranted to identify the causal gene at this locus. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Autophagy and UPR in alpha-crystallin mutant knock-in mouse models of hereditary cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andley, Usha P; Goldman, Joshua W

    2016-01-01

    Knock-in mice provide useful models of congenital and age-related cataracts caused by α-crystallin mutations. R49C αA-crystallin and R120G αB-crystallin mutations are linked with hereditary cataracts. Knock-in αA-R49C+/- heterozygotes develop cataracts by 1-2months, whereas homozygote mice have cataracts at birth. The R49C mutation drastically reduces lens protein water solubility and causes cell death in knock-in mouse lenses. Mutant crystallin cannot function as a chaperone, which leads to protein aggregation and lens opacity. Protein aggregation disrupts the lens fiber cell structure and normal development and causes cell death in epithelial and fiber cells. We determined what aspects of the wild-type phenotype are age-dependently altered in the mutant lens. Wild-type, heterozygote (αA-R49C+/-), and homozygote (αA-R49C+/+) mouse lenses were assessed pre- and postnatally for lens morphology (electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry), and autophagy or unfolded protein response markers (immunoblotting). Morphology was altered by embryonic day 17 in R49C+/+ lenses; R49C+/- lens morphology was unaffected at this stage. Active autophagy in the lens epithelium of mutant lenses was indicated by the presence of autophagosomes using electron microscopy. Protein p62 levels, which are degraded specifically by autophagy, increased in αA-R49C mutant versus wild-type lenses, suggesting autophagy inhibition in the mutant lenses. The unfolded protein response marker XBP-1 was upregulated in adult lenses of αB-R120G+/+ mice, suggesting its role in lens opacification. Mutated crystallins alter lens morphology, autophagy, and stress responses. Therapeutic modulation of autophagic pathways may improve protein degradation in cataractous lenses and reduce lens opacity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Crystallin Biochemistry in Health and Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) Knock-down Induces Apoptosis in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzt, Lisa; Halbwedl, Iris; Gogg-Kamerer, Margit; Popper, Helmut H

    2017-07-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common primary tumor of the pleura. Its incidence is still increasing in Europe and the prognosis remains poor. We investigated the oncogenic function of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in MPM in more detail. A miRNA profiling was performed on 52 MPM tissue samples. Upregulated miRNAs (targeting SOCS1/3) were knocked-down using miRNA inhibitors. mRNA expression levels of STAT1/3, SOCS1/3 were detected in MPM cell lines. STAT1 has been knocked-down using siRNA and qPCR was used to detect mRNA expression levels of all JAK/STAT family members and genes that regulate them. An immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the expression of caspases. STAT1 was upregulated and STAT3 was downregulated, SOCS1/3 protein was not detected but it was possible to detect SOCS1/3 mRNA in MPM cell lines. The upregulated miRNAs were successfully knocked-down, however the expected effect on SOCS1 expression was not detected. STAT1 knock-down had different effects on STAT3/5 expression. Caspase 3a and 8 expression was found to be increased after STAT1 knock-down. The physiologic regulation of STAT1 via SOCS1 is completely lost in MPM and it does not seem that the miRNAs identified by now, do inhibit the expression of SOCS1. MPM cell lines compensate STAT1 knock-down by increasing the expression of STAT3 or STAT5a, two genes which are generally considered to be oncogenes. And much more important, STAT1 knock-down induces apoptosis in MPM cell lines and STAT1 might therefore be a target for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  1. Monte-Carlo study on primary knock-on atom energy spectrum produced by neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Liu Yongkang; Deng Yongjun; Ma Jimin

    2012-01-01

    Computational method on energy distribution of primary knock-on atom (PKA) produced by neutron radiation was built in the paper. Based on the DBCN card in MCNP, reaction position, reaction type and energy transfer between neutrons and atoms were recorded. According to statistic of these data, energy and space distributions of PKAs were obtained. The method resolves preferably randomicity of random number and efficiency of random sampling computation. The results show small statistical fluctuation and well statistical. Three-dimensional figure of energy and space distribution of PKAs were obtained, which would be important to evaluate radiation capability of materials and study radiation damage by neutrons. (authors)

  2. Potential Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050: Selected Projections Made in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    ARL-TR-8283 ● FEB 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Potential Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050...Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050: Selected Projections Made in 2017 by Alexander Kott Office of the Director...Brian Sadler Vehicle Technology Directorate, ARL Ananthram Swami Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Approved for

  3. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy`s Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  4. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy's Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  5. Simulation-based planning for theater air warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popken, Douglas A.; Cox, Louis A., Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Planning for Theatre Air Warfare can be represented as a hierarchy of decisions. At the top level, surviving airframes must be assigned to roles (e.g., Air Defense, Counter Air, Close Air Support, and AAF Suppression) in each time period in response to changing enemy air defense capabilities, remaining targets, and roles of opposing aircraft. At the middle level, aircraft are allocated to specific targets to support their assigned roles. At the lowest level, routing and engagement decisions are made for individual missions. The decisions at each level form a set of time-sequenced Courses of Action taken by opposing forces. This paper introduces a set of simulation-based optimization heuristics operating within this planning hierarchy to optimize allocations of aircraft. The algorithms estimate distributions for stochastic outcomes of the pairs of Red/Blue decisions. Rather than using traditional stochastic dynamic programming to determine optimal strategies, we use an innovative combination of heuristics, simulation-optimization, and mathematical programming. Blue decisions are guided by a stochastic hill-climbing search algorithm while Red decisions are found by optimizing over a continuous representation of the decision space. Stochastic outcomes are then provided by fast, Lanchester-type attrition simulations. This paper summarizes preliminary results from top and middle level models.

  6. Back to the future: aerial warfare in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Nunes Vicente

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A century after the first air bomb mission, a new intervention in the same geographic space has made evident the changes in Airpower. The Aerial Warfare in Libya has radically changed the civil war, complying with a UN mission to protect Libyan population, imposing a no-fly zone and an arms embargo. Therefore, Operation Unified Protector became one of the most successful campaigns in the history of NATO. We aim to assess the operational efficiency of Airpower in the conflict in Libya, focusing on the challenges of a War essentially Aerial. Despite the military results and the fact that some political objectives were met, we can identify some concerning trends that, if not shifted, may negatively influence future NATO operations. We do not aim to draw general and universal conclusions on the strategic value of Airpower based on the analysis of a specific case. Above all, we focus on identifying some lessons which have influenced OUP operational efficiency. Thus, we must analyze some factors, such as the scope of objectives, the type of opposing action and aerial strategy used by the coalition and then focus on the challenges arising from the OUP.

  7. Drone Warfare: Twenty-First Century Empire and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Howley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger project that examines drones from a social-construction of technology perspective, considers drone warfare in light of Harold Innis’s seminal work on empire and communication. Leveraging leading-edge aeronautics with advanced optics, data processing, and networked communication, drones represent an archetypal “space-biased” technology. Indeed, by allowing remote operators and others to monitor, select, and strike targets from half a world away, and in real-time, these weapon systems epitomize the “pernicious neglect of time” Innis sought to identify and remedy in his later writing. With Innis’s time-space dialectic as a starting point, then, the paper considers drones in light of a longstanding paradox of American culture: the impulse to collapse the geographical distance between the United States and other parts of the globe, while simultaneously magnifying the cultural difference between Americans and other peoples and societies. In the midst of the worldwide proliferation of drones, this quintessentially sublime technology embodies this (disconnect in important, profound, and ominous ways.

  8. Prevalence of Asthma in Children of Chemical Warfare Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Methods Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. Findings The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Conclusion Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV. PMID:23056804

  9. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  10. Knock-in/Knock-out (KIKO) vectors for rapid integration of large DNA sequences, including whole metabolic pathways, onto the Escherichia coli chromosome at well-characterised loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Suriana; Steen, Jennifer A; Bongers, Mareike; Nielsen, Lars K; Vickers, Claudia E

    2013-06-24

    Metabolic engineering projects often require integration of multiple genes in order to control the desired phenotype. However, this often requires iterative rounds of engineering because many current insertion approaches are limited by the size of the DNA that can be transferred onto the chromosome. Consequently, construction of highly engineered strains is very time-consuming. A lack of well-characterised insertion loci is also problematic. A series of knock-in/knock-out (KIKO) vectors was constructed for integration of large DNA sequences onto the E. coli chromosome at well-defined loci. The KIKO plasmids target three nonessential genes/operons as insertion sites: arsB (an arsenite transporter); lacZ (β-galactosidase); and rbsA-rbsR (a ribose metabolism operon). Two homologous 'arms' target each insertion locus; insertion is mediated by λ Red recombinase through these arms. Between the arms is a multiple cloning site for the introduction of exogenous sequences and an antibiotic resistance marker (either chloramphenicol or kanamycin) for selection of positive recombinants. The resistance marker can subsequently be removed by flippase-mediated recombination. The insertion cassette is flanked by hairpin loops to isolate it from the effects of external transcription at the integration locus. To characterize each target locus, a xylanase reporter gene (xynA) was integrated onto the chromosomes of E. coli strains W and K-12 using the KIKO vectors. Expression levels varied between loci, with the arsB locus consistently showing the highest level of expression. To demonstrate the simultaneous use of all three loci in one strain, xynA, green fluorescent protein (gfp) and a sucrose catabolic operon (cscAKB) were introduced into lacZ, arsB and rbsAR respectively, and shown to be functional. The KIKO plasmids are a useful tool for efficient integration of large DNA fragments (including multiple genes and pathways) into E. coli. Chromosomal insertion provides stable

  11. [RS-1 enhanced the efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9 mediated knock-in of human lactoferrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjun; Guo, Rihong; Deng, Mingtian; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yanli

    2017-08-25

    This study aims to knock out the goat β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene using CRISPR-Cas9 system and knock in human lactoferrin (hLF) at the BLG locus, and further study the effect of RAD51 stimulatory compound (RS-1) on homologous recombination efficiency. First, we designed an sgRNA targeting the first exon of goat BLG gene and constructed a co-expression vector pCas9-sgBLG. This sgRNA vector was then transfected into goat ear fibroblasts (GEFs), and the target region was examined by T7EN1 assay and sequencing. Second, we constructed a targeting vector pBHA-hLF-NIE including NEO and EGFP genes based on BLG gene locus. This targeting vector together with pCas9-sgBLG expression vector was co-transfected into GEFs. Transfected cells were then treated with 0, 5, 10 and 20 μmol/L RS-1 for 72 h to analyse the EGFP expression efficiency. Next, we used 800 μg/mL G418 to screen G418-resistent cell clones, and studied hLF site-specific knock-in cell clones by PCR and sequencing. The editing efficiency of sgBLG was between 25% and 31%. The EGFP expression efficiency indicated that the gene knock-in efficiency was improved by RS-1 in a dose-dependent manner, which could reach 3.5-fold compared to the control group. The percentage of positive cells with hLF knock-in was increased to 32.61% when 10 μmol/L RS-1 was used. However, when the concentration of RS-1 increased to 20 μmol/L, the percentage of positive cells decreased to 22.22% and resulted in an increase of senescent cell clone number. These results suggested that hLF knock-in and BLG knock-out in GEFs were achieved by using CRISPR/Cas9 system, and optimum concentration of RS-1 could improve knock-in efficiency, which provides a reference for efficiently obtaining gene knock-in cells using CRISPR/Cas9 in the future.

  12. Identification of rat Rosa26 locus enables generation of knock-in rat lines ubiquitously expressing tdTomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Tamura, Chihiro; Sanbo, Makoto; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2012-11-01

    Recent discovery of a method for derivation and culture of germline-competent rat pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) enables generation of transgenic rats or knock-out rats via genetic modification of such PSCs. This opens the way to use rats, as is routine in mice, for analyses of gene functions or physiological features. In mouse or human, one widely used technique to express a gene of interest stably and ubiquitously is to insert that gene into the Rosa26 locus via gene targeting of PSCs. Rosa26 knock-in mice conditionally expressing a reporter or a toxin gene have contributed to tracing or ablation of specific cell lineages. We successfully identified a rat orthologue of the mouse Rosa26 locus. Insertion of tdTomato, a variant of red fluorescent protein, into the Rosa26 locus of PSCs of various rat strains allows ubiquitous expression of tdTomato. Through germline transmission of one Rosa26-tdTomato knock-in embryonic stem cell line, we also obtained tdTomato knock-in rats. These expressed tdTomato ubiquitously throughout their bodies, which indicates that the rat Rosa26 locus conserves functions of its orthologues in mouse and human. The new tools described here (targeting vectors, knock-in PSCs, and rats) should be useful for a variety of research using rats.

  13. Characterization of a knock-in mouse model of the homozygous p.V37I variant in Gjb2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Hu, Lingxiang; Wang, Xueling; Sun, Changling; Lin, Xin; Li, Lei; Mei, Ling; Huang, Zhiwu; Yang, Tao; Wu, Hao

    2016-09-13

    The homozygous p.V37I variant in GJB2 is prevalent in East and Southeast Asians and may lead to mild-to-moderate hearing loss with reduced penetrance. To investigate the pathogenic mechanism underlying this variant, we generated a knock-in mouse model of homozygous p.V37I by an embryonic stem cell gene targeting method. Auditory brainstem response test showed that the knock-in mice developed progressive, mild-to-moderate hearing loss over the first 4-9 months. Overall no significant developmental and morphological abnormality was observed in the knock-in mouse cochlea, while confocal immunostaining and electron microscopic scanning revealed minor loss of the outer hair cells. Gene expression microarray analysis identified 105 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated genes in P5 knock-in mouse cochleae (P knock-in mouse modeled the hearing phenotype of the human patients and can serve as a useful animal model for further studies. The differentially expressed genes identified in this study may shed new insights into the understanding of the pathogenic mechanism and the phenotypic modification of homozygous p.V37I.

  14. Generation of an allelic series of knock-in mice using recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebroek, Anton J M; Van Gool, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic strategies applying embryonic stem cell (ES cell) technologies to study the function of a gene in mice or to generate a mouse model for a human disease are continuously under development. Next to (conditional) inactivation of genes the application and importance of approaches to generate knock-in mutations are increasing. In this chapter the principle and application of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) are discussed as being a new emerging knock-in strategy, which enables easy generation of a series of different knock-in mutations within one gene. An RMCE protocol, which was used to generate a series of different knock-in mutations in the Lrp1 gene of ES cells, is described in detail as an example of how RMCE can be used to generate highly efficiently an allelic series of differently modified ES cell clones from a parental modified ES cell clone. Subsequently the differently modified ES cell clones can be used to generate an allelic series of mutant knock-in mice.

  15. MMEJ-assisted gene knock-in using TALENs and CRISPR-Cas9 with the PITCh systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Tetsushi; Nakade, Shota; Sakane, Yuto; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Programmable nucleases enable engineering of the genome by utilizing endogenous DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. Although homologous recombination (HR)-mediated gene knock-in is well established, it cannot necessarily be applied in every cell type and organism because of variable HR frequencies. We recently reported an alternative method of gene knock-in, named the PITCh (Precise Integration into Target Chromosome) system, assisted by microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ). MMEJ harnesses independent machinery from HR, and it requires an extremely short homologous sequence (5-25 bp) for DSB repair, resulting in precise gene knock-in with a more easily constructed donor vector. Here we describe a streamlined protocol for PITCh knock-in, including the design and construction of the PITCh vectors, and their delivery to either human cell lines by transfection or to frog embryos by microinjection. The construction of the PITCh vectors requires only a few days, and the entire process takes ∼ 1.5 months to establish knocked-in cells or ∼ 1 week from injection to early genotyping in frog embryos.

  16. Analysis of Knock Phenomenon Induced in a Constant Volume Chamber by Local Gas Temperature Measurement and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyoshi, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Shigemi; Enomoto, Yoshiteru

    Knock phenomenon in SI engines is regarded as an auto-ignition of unburned end-gas, and it has been widely examined by using rapid compression machines (RCM), shock-tubes or test engines. Recent researches point out the importance of the low temperature chemical reaction and the negative temperature coefficient (NTC). To investigate the effects, analyses of instantaneous local gas temperature, flow visualization and gaseous pressure were conducted in this study. As measurements using real engines are too difficult to analyze, the authors aimed to make measurements using a constant volume vessel under knock conditions where propagating flame exists during the induction time of auto-ignition. Adopting the two-wire thermocouple method enabled us to measure the instantaneous local gas temperature until the moment when the flame front passes by. High-speed images inside the unburned region were also recorded simultaneously using an endoscope. As a result, it was found that when knock occurs, the auto-ignition initiation time seems slightly early compared to the results without knock. This causes a higher volume ratio of unburned mixture and existence of many hot spots and stochastically leads to an initiation of knock.

  17. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  19. SiGe-based re-engineering of electronic warfare subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Wynand

    2017-01-01

    This book equips readers with a thorough understanding of the applicability of new-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) electronic subsystems for the military purposes of electronic warfare and defensive countermeasures. The theoretical and technical background is extensively explained and all aspects of the integration of SiGe as an enabling technology for maritime, land, and airborne (including space) electronic warfare are addressed, including research, design, development, and implementation. The coverage is supported by mathematical derivations, informative illustrations, practical examples, and case studies. While SiGe technology provides speed, performance, and price advantages in many markets, sharing of information on its use in electronic warfare systems has to date been limited, especially in developing nations. This book will therefore be warmly welcomed as an engineering guideline that focuses especially on the speed and reliability of current-generation SiGe circuits and highlights emerging innov...

  20. THE CYBER DIMENSION OF MODERN HYBRID WARFARE AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin DUCARU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological development and the instant communication possibilities advanced not only economic and social developments, but also evolving threats from those who exploit the vulnerabilities of communication and information systems. The cyber threat landscape points to a significant increase of the frequency, intensity, duration and sophistication of cyber-attacks. One of the new and concerning trends is the use of cyber capabilities in relation with military of hybrid operations – the so-called cyber dimension of hybrid warfare. NATO’s strategy on countering hybrid warfare is based on the triad: prepare-deter-defend, which also applies to cyber. Nations represent the first line of defence in countering hybrid strategies. International cooperation is also a key factor in this sense. It is in this context that NATO’s response to cyber-attacks in the context of hybrid warfare must be further refined.

  1. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

  3. Differential Bees Flux Balance Analysis with OptKnock for in silico microbial strains optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Wen Choon

    Full Text Available Microbial strains optimization for the overproduction of desired phenotype has been a popular topic in recent years. The strains can be optimized through several techniques in the field of genetic engineering. Gene knockout is a genetic engineering technique that can engineer the metabolism of microbial cells with the objective to obtain desirable phenotypes. However, the complexities of the metabolic networks have made the process to identify the effects of genetic modification on the desirable phenotypes challenging. Furthermore, a vast number of reactions in cellular metabolism often lead to the combinatorial problem in obtaining optimal gene deletion strategy. Basically, the size of a genome-scale metabolic model is usually large. As the size of the problem increases, the computation time increases exponentially. In this paper, we propose Differential Bees Flux Balance Analysis (DBFBA with OptKnock to identify optimal gene knockout strategies for maximizing the production yield of desired phenotypes while sustaining the growth rate. This proposed method functions by improving the performance of a hybrid of Bees Algorithm and Flux Balance Analysis (BAFBA by hybridizing Differential Evolution (DE algorithm into neighborhood searching strategy of BAFBA. In addition, DBFBA is integrated with OptKnock to validate the results for improving the reliability the work. Through several experiments conducted on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Clostridium thermocellum as the model organisms, DBFBA has shown a better performance in terms of computational time, stability, growth rate, and production yield of desired phenotypes compared to the methods used in previous works.

  4. Fast and efficient Drosophila melanogaster gene knock-ins using MiMIC transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, Sven; Vanhauwaert, Roeland; Maes, Ine; Schoovaerts, Nils; Zhou, Lujia; Soukup, Sandra; da Cunha, Raquel; Lauwers, Elsa; Fiers, Mark; Verstreken, Patrik

    2014-10-08

    Modern molecular genetics studies necessitate the manipulation of genes in their endogenous locus, but most of the current methodologies require an inefficient donor-dependent homologous recombination step to locally modify the genome. Here we describe a methodology to efficiently generate Drosophila knock-in alleles by capitalizing on the availability of numerous genomic MiMIC transposon insertions carrying recombinogenic attP sites. Our methodology entails the efficient PhiC31-mediated integration of a recombination cassette flanked by unique I-SceI and/or I-CreI restriction enzyme sites into an attP-site. These restriction enzyme sites allow for double-strand break-mediated removal of unwanted flanking transposon sequences, while leaving the desired genomic modifications or recombination cassettes. As a proof-of-principle, we mutated LRRK, tau, and sky by using different MiMIC elements. We replaced 6 kb of genomic DNA encompassing the tau locus and 35 kb encompassing the sky locus with a recombination cassette that permits easy integration of DNA at these loci and we also generated a functional LRRK(HA) knock in allele. Given that ~92% of the Drosophila genes are located within the vicinity (MiMIC element, our methodology enables the efficient manipulation of nearly every locus in the fruit fly genome without the need for inefficient donor-dependent homologous recombination events. Copyright © 2014 Vilain et al.

  5. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C

    2011-11-01

    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efikasnost sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava / Efficiency of antiaircraft system in electronic warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Šepec

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu je primenjena teorija masovnog opsluživanja u analizi efikasnosti sistema protivvazduhoplovne odbrane (sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava protivnika. Prikazan je model za ocenu efikasnosti sistema PVO i predstavljeni su izrazi za procenu efikasnosti sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava. / In this article the theory of mass servicing is used in the analysis of efficiency of antiaircraft system in the conditions of electronic warfare. The model for analysis of the antiaircraft system efficiency has been shown and formulas for qualitative analysis of antiaircraft system efficiency have been presented in the conditions of electronic warfare.

  8. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  9. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias [Oak Ridge, TN; Sanders, Charlene A [Knoxville, TN

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  10. Threshold bubble chamber for measurement of knock-on DT neutron tails from magnetic and inertial confinement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.K.; Zaveryaev, V.S.; Trusillo, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new open-quotes thresholdclose quotes bubble chamber detector for measurement of knock-on neutron tails. These energetic neutrons result from fusion reactions involving energetic fuel ions created by alpha knock-on collisions in tokamak and other magnetic confinement experiments, and by both alpha and neutron knock-on collisions in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The energy spectrum of these neutrons will yield information on the alpha population and energy distribution in tokamaks, and on alpha target physics and ρR measurements in ICF experiments. The bubble chamber should only detect neutrons with energies above a selectable threshold energy controlled by the bubble chamber pressure. The bubble chamber threshold mechanism, detection efficiency, and proposed applications to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and National Ignition Facility experiments will be discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Threshold bubble chamber for measurement of knock-on DT neutron tails from magnetic and inertial confinement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.K.; Zaveryaev, V.S.; Trusillo, S.V.

    1996-07-01

    We propose a new open-quotes thresholdclose quotes bubble chamber detector for measurement of knock-on neutron tails. These energetic neutrons result from fusion reactions involving energetic fuel ions created by alpha knock-on collisions in tokamak and other magnetic confinement experiments, and by both alpha and neutron knock-on collisions in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The energy spectrum of these neutrons will yield information on the alpha population and energy distribution in tokamaks, and on alpha target physics and ρR measurements in ICF experiments. The bubble chamber should only detect neutrons with energies above a selectable threshold energy controlled by the bubble chamber pressure. The bubble chamber threshold mechanism, detection efficiency, and proposed applications to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments will be discussed

  12. Efficient Knock-in of a Point Mutation in Porcine Fibroblasts Using the CRISPR/Cas9-GMNN Fusion Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Max; Kraft, Theresia; Brenner, Bernhard; Petersen, Björn; Niemann, Heiner; Montag, Judith

    2018-06-13

    During CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing, site-specific double strand breaks are introduced and repaired either unspecific by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or sequence dependent by homology directed repair (HDR). Whereas NHEJ-based generation of gene knock-out is widely performed, the HDR-based knock-in of specific mutations remains a bottleneck. Especially in primary cell lines that are essential for the generation of cell culture and animal models of inherited human diseases, knock-in efficacy is insufficient and needs significant improvement. Here, we tested two different approaches to increase the knock-in frequency of a specific point mutation into the MYH7 -gene in porcine fetal fibroblasts. We added a small molecule inhibitor of NHEJ, SCR7 (5,6-bis((E)-benzylideneamino)-2-mercaptopyrimidin-4-ol), during genome editing and screened cell cultures for the point mutation. However, this approach did not yield increased knock-in rates. In an alternative approach, we fused humanized Cas9 (hCas9) to the N-terminal peptide of the Geminin gene ( GMNN ). The fusion protein is degraded in NHEJ-dominated cell cycle phases, which should increase HDR-rates. Using hCas9- GMNN and point mutation-specific real time PCR screening, we found a two-fold increase in genome edited cell cultures. This increase of HDR by hCas9- GMNN provides a promising way to enrich specific knock-in in porcine fibroblast cultures for somatic cloning approaches.

  13. The Expression of TALEN before Fertilization Provides a Rapid Knock-Out Phenotype in Xenopus laevis Founder Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kei; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Suzuki, Miyuki; Sakane, Yuto; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Herberg, Sarah; Simeone, Angela; Simpson, David; Jullien, Jerome; Yamamoto, Takashi; Gurdon, J B

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in genome editing using programmable nucleases have revolutionized gene targeting in various organisms. Successful gene knock-out has been shown in Xenopus, a widely used model organism, although a system enabling less mosaic knock-out in founder embryos (F0) needs to be explored in order to judge phenotypes in the F0 generation. Here, we injected modified highly active transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) mRNA to oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, followed by in vitro maturation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, to achieve a full knock-out in F0 embryos. Unlike conventional injection methods to fertilized embryos, the injection of TALEN mRNA into GV oocytes allows expression of nucleases before fertilization, enabling them to work from an earlier stage. Using this procedure, most of developed embryos showed full knock-out phenotypes of the pigmentation gene tyrosinase and/or embryonic lethal gene pax6 in the founder generation. In addition, our method permitted a large 1 kb deletion. Thus, we describe nearly complete gene knock-out phenotypes in Xenopus laevis F0 embryos. The presented method will help to accelerate the production of knock-out frogs since we can bypass an extra generation of about 1 year in Xenopus laevis. Meantime, our method provides a unique opportunity to rapidly test the developmental effects of disrupting those genes that do not permit growth to an adult able to reproduce. In addition, the protocol shown here is considerably less invasive than the previously used host transfer since our protocol does not require surgery. The experimental scheme presented is potentially applicable to other organisms such as mammals and fish to resolve common issues of mosaicism in founders.

  14. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R den Hartog

    Full Text Available Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p. increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg. In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  15. Potentials of cooled EGR and water injection for knock resistance and fuel consumption improvements of gasoline engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozza, Fabio; De Bellis, Vincenzo; Teodosio, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 1D simulation of a turbocharged VVA engine under knock limited operation. • Description of turbulence, combustion and knock by phenomenological models. • Comparison of EGR and ported water injection at high load for knock mitigation and fuel economy. • Virtual calibration of engine control parameters by a 1D model. - Abstract: It is well known that the downsizing philosophy allows the improvement of the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at part load operation for spark ignition (SI) engines. On the other hand, the BSFC is penalized at high load because of the knock occurrence and of further limitations on the turbine inlet temperature (TIT). Knock control forces the adoption of a late combustion phasing, causing a deterioration of the thermodynamic efficiency, while the TIT control requires the enrichment of the air-to-fuel ratio (A/F), with additional BSFC drawbacks. In this work, two promising techniques are investigated by a 1D approach with the aim of improving the fuel economy of a turbocharged SI engine at full load knock-limited operation. The first technique is the recirculation of low-pressure cooled exhaust gas (EGR), while the second is the injection of liquid water at the intake ports. Proper “in-house developed” sub-models are used to describe the turbulence, combustion and knock phenomena. The effects of the above techniques are studied in six operating points at full load and different speeds for various A/F levels and inert content, by varying the EGR rate and water-to-fuel ratio. The presented results highlight that both the solutions involve significant BSFC improvements, especially in the operating conditions at medium engine speeds. In fact, the introduction of inert gas in the cylinder contributes to reduce the knock tendency, resulting in the possibility to advance the combustion phasing and reduce, or even avoid, the mixture over-fuelling. The heat subtracted by the water evaporation enhances the above effects

  16. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Carolina R; Beckley, Jacob T; Smothers, Thetford C; Lench, Daniel H; Holseberg, Zack L; Fedarovich, Hleb; Gilstrap, Meghin J; Homanics, Gregg E; Woodward, John J

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A) that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl) significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p.) increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg) reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg). In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg) as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  17. Specific features of energy and spatial distribution of primary knocked-out atoms in monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taratin, A.M.; Vorob'ev, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    By simulation trajectories of 0.2 MeV protons in 1 μm thick Al monocrystal, the energy and spatial distributions of primary atoms knocked out by the protons (PKA) have been studied. Different orientations of the incident beam axis relative to the densely packed direction in the case of ''quasichanneling'' and ''chaotic'' scattering of particles by the crystal have been researched. The depth dependence of the number of generated PKA, their distribution in the plane transverse to the preferred direction, and the energy spectrum of PKA have been obtained. It is shown that the PKA volume density is higher than that obtained using evaluations not accounting for the crystalline structure, and the energy spectrum contains more low energy PKAs. A concept of the cross section of the PKA production on an atomic chain is introduced for ipterpretation of the data obtained

  18. Zika virus infection of adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Li, Rong; Miao, Jinxin; Wang, Zhongde; Morrey, John D; Julander, Justin G

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was investigated in adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out (KO) hamsters. Subcutaneous injection of ZIKV of adults resulted in morbidity, mortality, and infection of the uterus, placenta, brain, spinal cord, and testicles, thus providing an opportunity to evaluate congenital ZIKV infection in a second rodent species besides mice. ZIKV-infected cells with morphologies of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed in the testes, which may have implications for sexual transmission and male sterility. Neonates exposed as fetuses to ZIKV at 8 days post-coitus were not smaller than controls. Nevertheless, infectious virus and ZIKV RNA was detected in some, but not all, placentas and fetal brains of KO hamsters. STAT2 KO hamsters may be useful for addressing sexual transmission, pathogenesis, routes of fetal infection, and neurological disease outcomes, and may also be used in antiviral or vaccine studies to identify intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Overlap knock-out effects in the CERN intersecting storage rings (ISR)

    CERN Document Server

    Gourber, J P; Myers, S

    1977-01-01

    Overlap knock-out arises from an overlap between frequencies present in a bunched beam and the betatron frequencies in a stack. The 'single ring' effect in the interaction of a bunched beam with a stack in the same ring. Here the coupling forces are fairly linear and are transmitted by machine elements. The 'two-ring' effect is the interaction of a bunched beam with a stack in the other ring. Here the coupling forces are nonlinear since they are produced by the beam-beam interaction. A brief outline of the general theory of these effects is given. The single ring and two-ring dipole effects have been observed and shown to cause a large increase in the transverse size of the stacked beam. (4 refs).

  20. Searching for manganese pollution from MMT anti-knock gasoline additives in snow from central Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veysseyre, A.; Velde, K. van de; Ferrari, C.; Boutron, C.

    1998-01-01

    Mn has been measured in snow core samples dated from 1967 to 1989 collected in central Greenland. Observed concentrations range from 16 to 236 pg g -1 . A large fraction of Mn in Greenland snow is found to originate from rock and soil dust. The different possible natural sources for 'excess' Mn above that contributed from rock and soil dust include volcanoes, natural vegetation fires and continental biogenic emissions. They could explain part of the observed excess. At least part of it is, however, probably related to anthropogenic inputs, especially from North America. Aside from industrial sources, MMT (methyl-cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl) anti-knock gasoline additives are good candidates, but our data do not allow to clearly identify their influence. Unambiguous identification will require the direct determination of organo-Mn compounds in comprehensive series of Greenland snow samples with sub-seasonal resolution using highly sensitive speciation techniques. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Mass spectrum of secondary ions knocked-out from copper surface by argon ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval', A.G.; Bobkov, V.V.; Klimovskij, Yu.A.; Fogel', Ya.M.

    1976-01-01

    The mass-spectrum of secondary ions was studied within a mass range of 1-400. The ions were knocked-out by the beam of ions Ar + from the copper surface with different content of oxygen and sulphur solved in the volume. The studies were conducted at three temperatures of the target. The atomic and molecular ions of the metal matrix, volumetric impurities of metal and ions of chemical compounds molecules of the metal under study with gas particles adsorbed on its surface and atoms of the metal volumetric admixtures may be observed in the mass spectrum. Detection of secondary ions of the copper multi-atomic complexes and ions of these complexes compounds with the adsorbed molecules is of interest

  2. Low leaded motor gasoline of high knock rating having few pollution effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, W; Obenaus, F; Schoefer, W

    1975-11-13

    A carburator gasoline has been developed that has a high knock rating and few enviromental pollution effects. The gasoline contains 0.1 to 0.4 g of lead per liter, and up to 20 percent by volume of a mixture made up of 80 to 90 percent by weight methyl-tert.-butyl ether and 20 to 10 percent by weight methanol. Through tests it has been determined that the characteristics (particularly the octane number) of a gasoline having a lead content of 0.15 g/liter and one of the above mentioned additives are better than those of a gasoline with a lead content of 0.4 g/liter, but not containing an additive. The harmful emissions were also lower. In addition, the danger of carburator icing is decreased.

  3. Gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection for efficient siRNA mediated gene knock down.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Heinemann

    Full Text Available Laser based transfection methods have proven to be an efficient and gentle alternative to established molecule delivery methods like lipofection or electroporation. Among the laser based methods, gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection bears the major advantage of high throughput and easy usability. This approach uses plasmon resonances on gold nanoparticles unspecifically attached to the cell membrane to evoke transient and spatially defined cell membrane permeabilization. In this study, we explore the parameter regime for gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection for the delivery of molecules into cell lines and prove its suitability for siRNA mediated gene knock down. The developed setup allows easy usage and safe laser operation in a normal lab environment. We applied a 532 nm Nd:YAG microchip laser emitting 850 ps pulses at a repetition rate of 20.25 kHz. Scanning velocities of the laser spot over the sample of up to 200 mm/s were tested without a decline in perforation efficiency. This velocity leads to a process speed of ∼8 s per well of a 96 well plate. The optimal particle density was determined to be ∼6 particles per cell using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Applying the optimized parameters transfection efficiencies of 88% were achieved in canine pleomorphic adenoma ZMTH3 cells using a fluorescent labeled siRNA while maintaining a high cell viability of >90%. Gene knock down of d2-EGFP was demonstrated and validated by fluorescence repression and western blot analysis. On basis of our findings and established mathematical models we suppose a mixed transfection mechanism consisting of thermal and multiphoton near field effects. Our findings emphasize that gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection provides an excellent tool for molecular delivery for both, high throughput purposes and the transfection of sensitive cells types.

  4. Gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection for efficient siRNA mediated gene knock down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Kalies, Stefan; Schieck, Maximilian; Carlson, Regina; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Laser based transfection methods have proven to be an efficient and gentle alternative to established molecule delivery methods like lipofection or electroporation. Among the laser based methods, gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection bears the major advantage of high throughput and easy usability. This approach uses plasmon resonances on gold nanoparticles unspecifically attached to the cell membrane to evoke transient and spatially defined cell membrane permeabilization. In this study, we explore the parameter regime for gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection for the delivery of molecules into cell lines and prove its suitability for siRNA mediated gene knock down. The developed setup allows easy usage and safe laser operation in a normal lab environment. We applied a 532 nm Nd:YAG microchip laser emitting 850 ps pulses at a repetition rate of 20.25 kHz. Scanning velocities of the laser spot over the sample of up to 200 mm/s were tested without a decline in perforation efficiency. This velocity leads to a process speed of ∼8 s per well of a 96 well plate. The optimal particle density was determined to be ∼6 particles per cell using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Applying the optimized parameters transfection efficiencies of 88% were achieved in canine pleomorphic adenoma ZMTH3 cells using a fluorescent labeled siRNA while maintaining a high cell viability of >90%. Gene knock down of d2-EGFP was demonstrated and validated by fluorescence repression and western blot analysis. On basis of our findings and established mathematical models we suppose a mixed transfection mechanism consisting of thermal and multiphoton near field effects. Our findings emphasize that gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection provides an excellent tool for molecular delivery for both, high throughput purposes and the transfection of sensitive cells types.

  5. Energy spectra of primary knock-on atoms under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, M.R.; Marian, J.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Materials subjected to neutron irradiation will suffer from a build-up of damage caused by the displacement cascades initiated by nuclear reactions. Previously, the main “measure” of this damage accumulation has been through the displacements per atom (dpa) index, which has known limitations. This paper describes a rigorous methodology to calculate the primary atomic recoil events (often called the primary knock-on atoms or PKAs) that lead to cascade damage events as a function of energy and recoiling species. A new processing code SPECTRA-PKA combines a neutron irradiation spectrum with nuclear recoil data obtained from the latest nuclear data libraries to produce PKA spectra for any material composition. Via examples of fusion relevant materials, it is shown that these PKA spectra can be complex, involving many different recoiling species, potentially differing in both proton and neutron number from the original target nuclei, including high energy recoils of light emitted particles such as α-particles and protons. The variations in PKA spectra as a function of time, neutron field, and material are explored. The application of PKA spectra to the quantification of radiation damage is exemplified using two approaches: the binary collision approximation and stochastic cluster dynamics, and the results from these different models are discussed and compared. - Highlights: • Recoil cross-section matrices under neutron irradiation are generated. • Primary knock-on atoms (PKA) spectra are calculated for fusion relevant materials. • Variation in PKA spectra due to changes in geometry are considered. • Inventory simulations to consider time-evolution in PKA spectra. • Damage quantification using damage functions from different approximations.

  6. Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Laser Transfection for Efficient siRNA Mediated Gene Knock Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Kalies, Stefan; Schieck, Maximilian; Carlson, Regina; Escobar, Hugo Murua; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Laser based transfection methods have proven to be an efficient and gentle alternative to established molecule delivery methods like lipofection or electroporation. Among the laser based methods, gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection bears the major advantage of high throughput and easy usability. This approach uses plasmon resonances on gold nanoparticles unspecifically attached to the cell membrane to evoke transient and spatially defined cell membrane permeabilization. In this study, we explore the parameter regime for gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection for the delivery of molecules into cell lines and prove its suitability for siRNA mediated gene knock down. The developed setup allows easy usage and safe laser operation in a normal lab environment. We applied a 532 nm Nd:YAG microchip laser emitting 850 ps pulses at a repetition rate of 20.25 kHz. Scanning velocities of the laser spot over the sample of up to 200 mm/s were tested without a decline in perforation efficiency. This velocity leads to a process speed of ∼8 s per well of a 96 well plate. The optimal particle density was determined to be ∼6 particles per cell using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Applying the optimized parameters transfection efficiencies of 88% were achieved in canine pleomorphic adenoma ZMTH3 cells using a fluorescent labeled siRNA while maintaining a high cell viability of >90%. Gene knock down of d2-EGFP was demonstrated and validated by fluorescence repression and western blot analysis. On basis of our findings and established mathematical models we suppose a mixed transfection mechanism consisting of thermal and multiphoton near field effects. Our findings emphasize that gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection provides an excellent tool for molecular delivery for both, high throughput purposes and the transfection of sensitive cells types. PMID:23536802

  7. [Knock-down of ZEB1 inhibits the proliferation, invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Chu, Yifan; Zheng, Qingwei; Xu, Zhiben; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Objective To down-regulate the expression of zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) gene by shRNA, and investigate its effect on invasion, migration and proliferation, as well as the related gene expressions of lncRNA HOTAIR and E-cadherin in human gastric cancer BGC823 cells. Methods RNA interfering (RNAi) was used to knock down ZEB1 in gastric cancer BGC823 cells. The recombinant plasmid shZEB1 was constructed and transfected into the gastric cancer BGC823 cells by Lipofectamine TM 2000, and the stably transfected cells were isolated by G418 selection and limited dilution. The expression of ZEB1 mRNA and protein was detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay, and the invasion and migration abilities of BGC823 cells were monitored by Transwell TM invasion assay and wound healing assay, respectively. The expressions of lncRNA HOTAIR and E-cadherin mRNA were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Results After ZEB1 expression was successfully down-regulated in BGC823 cells by siRNA, the proliferation, invasion and migration rates in shZEB1 transfection group were significantly lower than those in control group; meanwhile, the expression of lncRNA HOTAIR was reduced and E-cadherin expression was enhanced. Conclusion Knock-down of ZEB1 expression by RNA interference can decease lncRNA HOTAIR expression and restrain cell proliferation, invasion and migration in gastric cancer BGC823 cells.

  8. Efficacy Evaluation of Current and Future Naval Mine Warfare Neutralization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ENGINEERING APPROACH Numerous systems engineering process models were considered for this study including the Waterfall , Spiral, and “Vee” models . Given the... model based systems engineering, design of experiments, requirements analysis, mine warfare, MIW, mine countermeasures, MCM, littoral combat ship, LCS...E. IMPLEMENTATION IN SIMULATION MODEL .............................47 VII. MODELING AND SIMULATION ARCHITECTURE ..................................49

  9. (Review of) Reno, William. 2011. Warfare in Independent Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Warfare in Independent Africa is Reno’s bold attempt to analyze the modern history of African insurgencies. The book tackles this task through the prism of five generations of rebel, which left their mark on the continent; anti-colonial rebels, majority rule rebels, reform rebels, warlord rebels ...... and parochial rebels....

  10. 11th Annual Mine Warfare Technology Symposium, May 6-8, 2014 - Monterey, CA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Program Executive Office Littoral Combat Ships (PEO LCS), OPNAV (N95), and The Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and Research (CRUSER) are pleased to announce the ELEVENTH International Mine Warfare Technology Symposium in Monterey, California, May 6-8, 2014.

  11. A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

    2007-01-01

    This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

  12. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the…

  13. The influence of the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle on mobile warfare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article traces the story of how the author and a number of daring young commanders and soldiers had cast aside military textbooks in developing their own military doctrine for mobile warfare, South African style. It is clear that the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle had wielded huge influence on the development and ...

  14. Above the Influence: The Strategic Effects of Airpower in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    INDOCHINA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 APPENDIX B: MAP OF LAOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 APPENDIX...perspectives. These perspectives involve the use of airpower in North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and Laos . The overarching political endstate or...Nagl, ―Principles, Imperatives, and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency,‖ 50; Mao Tse -Tung, Problems of Strategy in Guerrilla Warfare, 215-216; Gray

  15. Emerging Threat to America: Non-State Entities Fighting Fourth Generation Warfare in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    warfare in Juarez, Mexico contrasts with the “peaceful” cities of Ciudad Acuña and Piedras Negras controlled by the Zetas who demonstrate 4GW tactics...Vulliamy, 2009). Within the cities of Acuna and Piedra Negras where one Pack Virus (the Zetas) has effective control of these limited geographic

  16. Electronic Warfare (EW) Historical Perspectives and Its Relationship to Information Operations (IO) - Considerations for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Information Operations IW Information Warfare JDAM Joint Direct Attack Munition JRFL Joint Restricted Frequency List JSTARS Joint...through the preparation of the joint restricted frequency list (JRFL), which includes taboo, guarded and protected frequencies. The EC-130H Compass Call

  17. Laboratory analysis of chemical warfare agents, adducts, and metabolites in biomedial samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, M.J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are the most toxic compounds ever produced. To develop medical countermeasures against the effects of these agents, analytical procedures to analyze these agents in biological matrices are essential for a better understanding of the toxicological process. The need for

  18. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds.

  19. On modeling of the evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, S.N.; Winter, S.; Karlsson, E.; Hin, A.; Oeseburg, F.

    1998-01-01

    A model for evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground has been developed. The process of evaporation is described in three steps: (1) the immediate drop enlargement due to impact momentum is modeled using an empirical correlation from technical literature; (2) further enlargement caused

  20. Diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents: An essential tool to counteract chemical terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to

  1. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Albert T.

    2005-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10 -21 ), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents

  2. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  3. Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Ellen; McGuire, Raymond

    2002-08-05

    A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, "L-Gel", consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of its thixotropic nature, clings to walls and ceilings, and does not harm carpets or painted surfaces. The new reagent also addresses the most demanding requirements for decontamination in the civilian sector, including availability, low maintenance, ease of application and deployment by a variety of dispersal mechanisms, minimal training and acceptable expense. Experiments to test the effectiveness of L-Gel were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and independently at four other locations. L-Gel was tested against all classes of chemical warfare agents and against various biological warfare agent surrogates, including spore-forming bacteria and non-virulent strains of real biological agents. Testing showed that L-Gel is as effective against chemical agents and biological materials, including spores, as the best military decontaminants.

  4. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Houšková, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Maříková, Monika; Opluštil, F.; Němec, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 11 (2010), s. 1080-1088 ISSN 1044-5803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : warfare agents * nano-dispersed oxides * homogeneous hydrolysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.496, year: 2010

  5. Ge 4+ doped TiO 2 for stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Opluštil, F.; Němec, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 227, AUGUST (2012), s. 62-67 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : germanium * homogeneous hydrolysis * titania * urea * warfare agent degradation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.925, year: 2012

  6. Analysis of the Threat of Genetically Modified Organisms for Biological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    biological warfare. The primary focus of the framework are those aspects of the technology directly affecting humans by inducing virulent infectious disease...applications. Simple organisms such as fruit flies have been used to study the effects of genetic changes across generations. Transgenic mice are...Analysis * Multi-cell pathogens * Toxins (Chemical products of living cells.) * Fungi (Robust organism; no genetic manipulation needed

  7. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  8. Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-01-01

    The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented

  9. Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-02-01

    The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented.

  10. Characterizing Gaseous Fuels for Their Knock Resistance based on the Chemical and Physical Properties of the Fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco

    2016-01-01

    A method is described to characterize the effects of changes in the composition of gaseous fuels on engine knock by computing the autoignition process during the compression and burn periods of the engine cycle. To account for the effects of fuel composition on the in-cylinder pressure and

  11. Efficient generation of Rosa26 knock-in mice using CRISPR/Cas9 in C57BL/6 zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Van Trung; Weber, Timm; Graf, Robin; Sommermann, Thomas; Petsch, Kerstin; Sack, Ulrike; Volchkov, Pavel; Rajewsky, Klaus; Kühn, Ralf

    2016-01-16

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is increasingly used for gene inactivation in mouse zygotes, but homology-directed mutagenesis and use of inbred embryos are less established. In particular, Rosa26 knock-in alleles for the insertion of transgenes in a genomic 'safe harbor' site, have not been produced. Here we applied CRISPR/Cas9 for the knock-in of 8-11 kb inserts into Rosa26 of C57BL/6 zygotes. We found that 10-20 % of live pups derived from microinjected zygotes were founder mutants, without apparent off-target effects, and up to 50 % knock-in embryos were recovered upon coinjection of Cas9 mRNA and protein. Using this approach, we established a new mouse line for the Cre/loxP-dependent expression of Cas9. Altogether, our protocols and resources support the fast and direct generation of new Rosa26 knock-in alleles and of Cas9-mediated in vivo gene editing in the widely used C57BL/6 inbred strain.

  12. Evaluation of cimi-shield knock-out bed bug eliminator against house fly (Musca domestica) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimi-Shield Knock-Out (CSKO) Bed Bug Eliminator is a green treatment labeled for use against bed bugs, carpet beetles, ants, roaches, fleas, ticks, silverfish, millipedes and centipedes. The active ingredient is soybean oil. If CSKO is formulated according to label instructions and sprayed directly ...

  13. Evolution of war and cyber attacks in the concept of conventional warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kuru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanity have witnessed many confrontations of states whose interests challenge at some points and their struggle to neutralize problems in battlefield. While war was perceived as a way of eliminating deadlocks for some parties, some considered it as one of the international policy materials. The definition and content of conventional warfare have been subject to change for centuries, while the new weapons and technologies have been developed by human beings that it has brought constant change in the law of war and at the same time more lethal and devastating consequences. The struggle for superiority in international relations played an impulsive role in the development of weapons used in the battlefield. Countries have used their labor and financial resources to improve their military skills. Beginning with stones and sticks in the battlefield, this struggle has reached the point of using the next generation satellite controlled unmanned and armed aircrafts and having nuclear weapons has become more deterrent than using them. The struggle between strong countries and the limited countries in terms of technology and armed groups that do not have enough technology and skills completely changed the definition of conventional warfare. This fight has led Asymmetric warfare born which can turn commercial airline planes full of innocent people into a weapon like September-11 attacks. In this study, the historical development and the change in the content of the warfare were briefly explained and then cyber-attacks in the concept of the fourth generation warfare was analyzed taking into account of prominent attacks.

  14. Dynamics of positional warfare malaria: Finland and Korea compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huldén, Lena; Huldén, Larry

    2008-09-08

    A sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among Finnish troops in SE-Finland and along the front line in Hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during World War II. The common explanation has been an invasion of infective Anopheles mosquitoes from the Russian troops crossing the front line between Finland and Soviet Union. A revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of Finnish malaria. The exact start of the epidemic and the phenology of malaria cases among the Finnish soldiers were reanalyzed. The results were compared with the declining malaria in Finland. A comparison with a corresponding situation starting in the 1990's in Korea was performed. The malaria cases occurred in July in 1941 when it was by far too early for infective mosquitoes to be present. The first Anopheles mosquitoes hatched at about the same time as the first malaria cases were observed among the Finnish soldiers. It takes about 3-6 weeks for the completion of the sporogony in Finland. The new explanation is that soldiers in war conditions were suddenly exposed to uninfected mosquitoes and those who still were carriers of hypnozoites developed relapses triggered by these mosquitoes. It is estimated that about 0.5% of the Finnish population still were carriers of hypnozoites in the 1940's. A corresponding outbreak of vivax malaria in Korea in the 1990's is similarly interpreted as relapses from activated hypnozoites among Korean soldiers. The significance of the mosquito induced relapses is emphasized by two benefits for the Plasmodium. There is a synchronous increase of gametocytes when new mosquitoes emerge. It also enables meiotic recombination between different strains of the Plasmodium. The malaria peak during the positional warfare in the 1940's was a short outbreak during the last phase of declining indigenous malaria in Finland. The activation of hypnozoites among a large number of soldiers and subsequent medication contributed to diminishing the reservoir of malaria

  15. Protein phosphatase 2ACα gene knock-out results in cortical atrophy through activating hippo cascade in neuronal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Sun, Li-Hua; Huang, Yan-Fei; Guo, Li-Jun; Luo, Li-Shu

    2018-02-01

    Protein phosphatase 2ACα (PP2ACα), a vital member of the protein phosphatase family, has been studied primarily as a regulator for the development, growth and protein synthesis of a lot of cell types. Dysfunction of PP2ACα protein results in neurodegenerative disease; however, this finding has not been directly confirmed in the mouse model with PP2ACα gene knock-out. Therefore, in this study presented here, we generated the PP2ACα gene knock-out mouse model by the Cre-loxP targeting gene system, with the purpose to directly observe the regulatory role of PP2ACα gene in the development of mouse's cerebral cortex. We observe that knocking-out PP2ACα gene in the central nervous system (CNS) results in cortical neuronal shrinkage, synaptic plasticity impairments, and learning/memory deficits. Further study reveals that PP2ACα gene knock-out initiates Hippo cascade in cortical neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs), which blocks YAP translocation into the nuclei of NPCs. Notably, p73, directly targeted by Hippo cascade, can bind to the promoter of glutaminase2 (GLS2) that plays a dominant role in the enzymatic regulation of glutamate/glutamine cycle. Finally, we find that PP2ACα gene knock-out inhibits the glutamine synthesis through up-regulating the activity of phosphorylated-p73 in cortical NPCs. Taken together, it concludes that PP2ACα critically supports cortical neuronal growth and cognitive function via regulating the signaling transduction of Hippo-p73 cascade. And PP2ACα indirectly modulates the glutamine synthesis of cortical NPCs through targeting p73 that plays a direct transcriptional regulatory role in the gene expression of GLS2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Generation and analysis of knock-in mice carrying pseudohypoaldosteronism type II-causing mutations in the cullin 3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Yuya; Rai, Tatemitsu; Sohara, Eisei; Mori, Takayasu; Inoue, Yuichi; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Eriko; Ohta, Akihito; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2015-10-21

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is a hereditary hypertensive disease caused by mutations in four different genes: with-no-lysine kinases (WNK) 1 and 4, Kelch-like family member 3 (KLHL3), and cullin 3 (Cul3). Cul3 and KLHL3 form an E3 ligase complex that ubiquitinates and reduces the expression level of WNK4. PHAII-causing mutations in WNK4 and KLHL3 impair WNK4 ubiquitination. However, the molecular pathogenesis of PHAII caused by Cul3 mutations is unclear. In cultured cells and human leukocytes, PHAII-causing Cul3 mutations result in the skipping of exon 9, producing mutant Cul3 protein lacking 57 amino acids. However, whether this phenomenon occurs in the kidneys and is responsible for the pathogenesis of PHAII in vivo is unknown. We generated knock-in mice carrying a mutation in the C-terminus of intron 8 of Cul3, c.1207-1G>A, which corresponds to a PHAII-causing mutation in the human Cul3 gene. Heterozygous Cul3(G(-1)A/+) knock-in mice did not exhibit PHAII phenotypes, and the skipping of exon 9 was not evident in their kidneys. However, the level of Cul3 mRNA expression in the kidneys of heterozygous knock-in mice was approximately half that of wild-type mice. Furthermore, homozygous knock-in mice were nonviable. It suggested that the mutant allele behaved like a knockout allele and did not produce Cul3 mRNA lacking exon 9. A reduction in Cul3 expression alone was not sufficient to develop PHAII in the knock-in mice. Our findings highlighted the pathogenic role of mutant Cul3 protein and provided insight to explain why PHAII-causing mutations in Cul3 cause kidney-predominant PHAII phenotypes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of the "Sea to SWOS" Training Initiative on the Surface Warfare Officer Qualification Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gavino, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    ... (combat effectiveness) while the quantitative analysis shows additional costs to the Navy Personnel Command and savings in training costs for the Naval Education and Training Command and OPNAV N76, the Surface Warfare Resource Sponsor...

  18. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Computer-based Training for Newly Commissioned Surface Warfare Division Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowman, William R; Crawford, Alice M; Mehay, Stephen; Stoker, Carol; Paynter, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) on-board an officer's ship. The study relied on a variety of analytical techniques, including a literature review of CBT and OJT training, interviews and focus groups with junior and senior surface warfare officers...

  19. Bench-Scale Investigation of Composting for Remediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soils from Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, Indiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    ...), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine (HMX). The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Crane, Indiana, provides material and logistic support to the Navy's weapon systems, including expendable and nonexpendable ordnance items...

  20. Special Forces and the Art of Influence: A Grassroots Approach to Psychological Operations in an Unconventional Warfare Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, II, Joel W

    2006-01-01

    .... The research was based on several premises: (1) the strategic utility of Special Forces (SF) lies in its ability to influence a target audience in an unconventional warfare (UW) environment; (2...

  1. Chromatography and mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents, toxins and related compounds: state of the art and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kientz, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the identification of chemical warfare agents, toxins, bioregulators and related products are frequently reported in literature. These methods are often based on instrumental analysis using chromatography (gas and liquid) and mass spectrometry. Here, these instrumental techniques are

  2. The Need for a USAF Information Warfare(IW) Strategy for Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Bradley

    1996-01-01

    .... Two areas having an impact on the answer to this question but not normally examined together are information warfare and the broad area of military operations short of large scale conventional combat...

  3. Modeling and Optimal Control of a Class of Warfare Hybrid Dynamic Systems Based on Lanchester (n,1) Attrition Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiangyong; Zhang, Ancai

    2014-01-01

    For the particularity of warfare hybrid dynamic process, a class of warfare hybrid dynamic systems is established based on Lanchester equation in a (n,1) battle, where a heterogeneous force of n different troop types faces a homogeneous force. This model can be characterized by the interaction of continuous-time models (governed by Lanchester equation), and discrete event systems (described by variable tactics). Furthermore, an expository discussion is presented on an optimal variable tact...

  4. Feasibility Study for the Use of Green, Bio-Based, Efficient Reactive Sorbent Material to Neutralize Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    REPORT Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents 14. ABSTRACT 16...way cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses interact as well as whole wood dissolution occurs in ILs. The present project was conducted to 1. REPORT...Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents Report Title ABSTRACT Over the

  5. Decidualization and syndecan-1 knock down sensitize endometrial stromal cells to apoptosis induced by embryonic stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jean Boeddeker

    Full Text Available Human embryo invasion and implantation into the inner wall of the maternal uterus, the endometrium, is the pivotal process for a successful pregnancy. Whereas disruption of the endometrial epithelial layer was already correlated with the programmed cell death, the role of apoptosis of the subjacent endometrial stromal cells during implantation is indistinct. The aim was to clarify whether apoptosis plays a role in the stromal invasion and to characterize if the apoptotic susceptibility of endometrial stromal cells to embryonic stimuli is influenced by decidualization and Syndecan-1. Therefore, the immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line St-T1 was used to first generate a new cell line with a stable Syndecan-1 knock down (KdS1, and second to further decidualize the cells with progesterone. As a replacement for the ethically inapplicable embryo all cells were treated with the embryonic factors and secretion products interleukin-1β, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β1 and anti-Fas antibody to mimic the embryo contact. Detection of apoptosis was verified via Caspase ELISAs, PARP cleavage and Annexin V staining. Apoptosis-related proteins were investigated via antibody arrays and underlying signaling pathways were analyzed by Western blot. Non-decidualized endometrial stromal cells showed a resistance towards apoptosis which was rescinded by decidualization and Syndecan-1 knock down independent of decidualization. This was correlated with an altered expression of several pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and connected to a higher activation of pro-survival Akt in non-differentiated St-T1 as an upstream mediator of apoptotis-related proteins. This study provides insight into the largely elusive process of implantation, proposing an important role for stromal cell apoptosis to successfully establish a pregnancy. The impact of Syndecan-1 in attenuating the apoptotic signal is particularly interesting in the

  6. A Comparison of Predictive Thermo and Water Solvation Property Prediction Tools and Experimental Data for Selected Traditional Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants II: COSMO RS and COSMOTherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    SELECTED TRADITIONAL CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND SIMULANTS II: COSMO-RS AND COSMOTHERM ECBC-TR-1454 Jerry B. Cabalo RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY...Traditional Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants II: COSMO-RS and COSMOTherm 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER CB10115...in the ADF 2012 suite of programs for the physico- chemical properties of a set of traditional chemical warfare agents and selected simulants. To

  7. Role of blood ribosomal protein S19 in coagulum resorption: a study using Gln137Glu-ribosomal protein S19 gene knock-in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Fujino, Rika; Zhao, Rui; Semba, Umeko; Araki, Kimi; Yamamoto, Tetsuro

    2014-11-01

    Sera of human, guinea pig or mouse contain a strong monocyte chemoattractant capacity that is attributed to the ribosomal protein S19 (RP S19) oligomers generated during blood coagulation. In contrast, sera prepared from Gln137Glu-RP S19 gene knock-in mice contained negligible chemoattractant capacity. When coagula that had been pre-formed from the blood of both the wild type and knock-in mice were intraperitoneally inserted into host mice, after 3 days of recovery, the knock-in mouse coagula remained larger than the wild type mouse coagula. The wild type mouse coagula were covered by multiple macrophage layers at the surface and were infiltrated inside by macrophages. Knock-in mouse coagula exhibited less macrophage involvement. When coagula of knock-in mice and coagula of knock-in mice containing C5a/RP S19, an artificial substitute of the RP S19 oligomers, were intraperitoneally inserted as pairs, the C5a/RP S19 containing coagulum was more rapidly absorbed, concomitant with increased macrophage involvement. Finally, when the knock-in mouse and wild type mouse coagula pairs were inserted into mice in which macrophages had been depleted using clodronate liposome, the size difference of recovered coagula was reversed. These results indicate the importance of the RP S19 oligomer-induced macrophage recruitment in coagulum resorption. © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Mosquito knock-down and adulticidal activities of essential oils by vaporizer, impregnated filter paper and aerosol methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from 12 medicinal plants were evaluated by three different bioassay methods (Vaporizer, Filter paper and Aerosol for Knock-down and adulticidal efficacy on the filarial vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Based on screening results the effective plants were selected for investigating Knock-down and adulticidal potential against adult female of the laboratory-reared mosquito species, Cx. quinquefasciatus. In vaporizer bioassay method four different doses (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used. Four different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 10% were used both filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods. Five essential oils (calamus, camphor, citronella, clove and eucalyptus were identified as potential treatments in vaporizer bioassay. The result showed that the knock down time decreased with increased concentration in clove oil treatment; the Knock-down time (KT 50 = 46.1 ± 0.1, 38.5 ± 0.1, 30.7 ± 0.2, and 20.1 ± 0.1 minutes was recorded at 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% /cm3 respectively. In filter paper method nine essential oils were identified as potential treatments. After 1 hr exposure period clove oil recorded the lowest median Knock-down time (KT50 which was calculated as 9.15 ± 0.1min/cm2. Followed by citronella (KT50 =11.4 ± 0.1 min and eucalyptus (KT50 =11.4 ±0.1min oils since they recorded lower median Knock-down time. All the twelve essential oils were identified as potential treatments in aerosol activity. The lethal time decreased when the concentration increased. At 5 % concentration the median lethal time (LT50 for clove oil was calculated as (LT50=3.80 ± 0.1minutes. The Cinnamon oil was effective which recorded (LT50 = 1.99 mins as median lethal time. Camphor (LT50 =19.6± 0.1 min oil were found to be less toxic by aerosol method. These results suggest that clove oil and cinnamon oil have the potential to be used as a eco-friendly approach for the control of the major important filaria vector Cx. quinquefasciatus

  9. Generation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated bicistronic knock-in ins1-cre driver mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Hoshino, Yoshikazu; Ibrahim, Abdelaziz E; Kato, Kanako; Daitoku, Yoko; Tanimoto, Yoko; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Oishi, Hisashi; Takahashi, Satoru; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Yagami, Ken-Ichi; Iseki, Hiroyoshi; Mizuno, Seiya; Sugiyama, Fumihiro

    2016-07-29

    In the present study, we generated novel cre driver mice for gene manipulation in pancreatic β cells. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, stop codon sequences of Ins1 were targeted for insertion of cre, including 2A sequences. A founder of C57BL/6J-Ins1(em1 (cre) Utr) strain was produced from an oocyte injected with pX330 containing the sequences encoding gRNA and Cas9 and a DNA donor plasmid carrying 2A-cre. (R26GRR x C57BL/6J-Ins1(em1 (cre) Utr)) F1 mice were histologically characterized for cre-loxP recombination in the embryonic and adult stages; cre-loxP recombination was observed in all pancreatic islets examined in which almost all insulin-positive cells showed tdsRed fluorescence, suggesting β cell-specific recombination. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in results of glucose tolerance test among genotypes (homo/hetero/wild). Taken together, these observations indicated that C57BL/6J-Ins1(em1 (cre) Utr) is useful for studies of glucose metabolism and the strategy of bicistronic cre knock-in using the CRISPR/Cas9 system could be useful for production of cre driver mice.

  10. Parent-of-origin dependent gene-specific knock down in mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Khursheed; Kues, Wilfried A.; Niemann, Heiner

    2007-01-01

    In mice hemizygous for the Oct4-GFP transgene, the F1 embryos show parent-of-origin dependent expression of the marker gene. F1 embryos with a maternally derived OG2 allele (OG2 mat /-) express GFP in the oocyte and during preimplantation development until the blastocyst stage indicating a maternal and embryonic expression pattern. F1-embryos with a paternally inherited OG2 allele (OG2 pat /-) express GFP from the 4- to 8-cell stage onwards showing only embryonic expression. This allows to study allele specific knock down of GFP expression. RNA interference (RNAi) was highly efficient in embryos with the paternally inherited GFP allele, whereas embryos with the maternally inherited GFP allele showed a delayed and less stringent suppression, indicating that the initial levels of the target transcript and the half life of the protein affect RNAi efficacy. RT-PCR analysis revealed only minimum of GFP mRNA. These results have implications for studies of gene silencing in mammalian embryos

  11. Knock-in Luciferase Reporter Mice for In Vivo Monitoring of CREB Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Akhmedov

    Full Text Available The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB is induced during fasting in the liver, where it stimulates transcription of rate-limiting gluconeogenic genes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Adenoviral and transgenic CREB reporters have been used to monitor hepatic CREB activity non-invasively using bioluminescence reporter imaging. However, adenoviral vectors and randomly inserted transgenes have several limitations. To overcome disadvantages of the currently used strategies, we created a ROSA26 knock-in CREB reporter mouse line (ROSA26-CRE-luc. cAMP-inducing ligands stimulate the reporter in primary hepatocytes and myocytes from ROSA26-CRE-luc animals. In vivo, these animals exhibit little hepatic CREB activity in the ad libitum fed state but robust induction after fasting. Strikingly, CREB was markedly stimulated in liver, but not in skeletal muscle, after overnight voluntary wheel-running exercise, uncovering differential regulation of CREB in these tissues under catabolic states. The ROSA26-CRE-luc mouse line is a useful resource to study dynamics of CREB activity longitudinally in vivo and can be used as a source of primary cells for analysis of CREB regulatory pathways ex vivo.

  12. MADD knock-down enhances doxorubicin and TRAIL induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Turner

    Full Text Available The Map kinase Activating Death Domain containing protein (MADD isoform of the IG20 gene is over-expressed in different types of cancer tissues and cell lines and it functions as a negative regulator of apoptosis. Therefore, we speculated that MADD might be over-expressed in human breast cancer tissues and that MADD knock-down might synergize with chemotherapeutic or TRAIL-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Analyses of breast tissue microarrays revealed over-expression of MADD in ductal and invasive carcinomas relative to benign tissues. MADD knockdown resulted in enhanced spontaneous apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, MADD knockdown followed by treatment with TRAIL or doxorubicin resulted in increased cell death compared to either treatment alone. Enhanced cell death was found to be secondary to increased caspase-8 activation. These data indicate that strategies to decrease MADD expression or function in breast cancer may be utilized to increase tumor cell sensitivity to TRAIL and doxorubicin induced apoptosis.

  13. A knock-in mouse line conditionally expressing the tumor suppressor WTX/AMER1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Agnès; Comai, Glenda; Charlet, Aurélie; Jian Motamedi, Fariba; Dhib, Haroun; Bandiera, Roberto; Schedl, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    WTX/AMER1 is an important developmental regulator, mutations in which have been identified in a proportion of patients suffering from the renal neoplasm Wilms' tumor and in the bone malformation syndrome Osteopathia Striata with Cranial Sclerosis (OSCS). Its cellular functions appear complex and the protein can be found at the membrane, within the cytoplasm and the nucleus. To understand its developmental and cellular function an allelic series for Wtx in the mouse is crucial. Whereas mice carrying a conditional knock out allele for Wtx have been previously reported, a gain-of-function mouse model that would allow studying the molecular, cellular and developmental role of Wtx is still missing. Here we describe the generation of a novel mouse strain that permits the conditional activation of WTX expression. Wtx fused to GFP was introduced downstream a stop cassette flanked by loxP sites into the Rosa26 locus by gene targeting. Ectopic WTX expression is reported after crosses with several Cre transgenic mice in different embryonic tissues. Further, functionality of the fusion protein was demonstrated in the context of a Wtx null allele. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Production of knock-in mice in a single generation from embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Hideki; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2017-12-01

    The system-level identification and analysis of molecular networks in mammals can be accelerated by 'next-generation' genetics, defined as genetics that does not require crossing of multiple generations of animals in order to achieve the desired genetic makeup. We have established a highly efficient procedure for producing knock-in (KI) mice within a single generation, by optimizing the genome-editing protocol for KI embryonic stem (ES) cells and the protocol for the generation of fully ES-cell-derived mice (ES mice). Using this protocol, the production of chimeric mice is eliminated, and, therefore, there is no requirement for the crossing of chimeric mice to produce mice that carry the KI gene in all cells of the body. Our procedure thus shortens the time required to produce KI ES mice from about a year to ∼3 months. Various kinds of KI ES mice can be produced with a minimized amount of work, facilitating the elucidation of organism-level phenomena using a systems biology approach. In this report, we describe the basic technologies and protocols for this procedure, and discuss the current challenges for next-generation mammalian genetics in organism-level systems biology studies.

  15. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-01-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application

  16. How Power-Laws Re-Write The Rules Of Cyber Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Bibighaus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All warfare contains and element of randomness. This article will argue that, the kind uncertainty encountered in cyber warfare (Power-Law randomness is fundamentally different from the uncertainty the military has evolved to deal with in the physical world (Gaussian-Randomness. The article will explain the difference between these two kinds of randomness, and how cyber weapons appear to operate under Power-Law randomness. It then will show how in cyberspace, key aspects of strategic thought are based on a flaws assumption of randomness. Finally, this article shall argue that if the American military is going to be effective in cyberspace, it must re-examine the way the military assumes risk, recruits is forces, plans for war and maintains the peace.

  17. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  18. MOFwich: Sandwiched Metal-Organic Framework-Containing Mixed Matrix Composites for Chemical Warfare Agent Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory W; Lu, Annie X; Hall, Morgan G; Browe, Matthew A; Tovar, Trenton; Epps, Thomas H

    2018-02-28

    This work describes a new strategy for fabricating mixed matrix composites containing layered metal-organic framework (MOF)/polymer films as functional barriers for chemical warfare agent protection. Through the use of mechanically robust polymers as the top and bottom encasing layers, a high-MOF-loading, high-performance-core layer can be sandwiched within. We term this multifunctional composite "MOFwich". We found that the use of elastomeric encasing layers enabled core layer reformation after breakage, an important feature for composites and membranes alike. The incorporation of MOFs into the core layer led to enhanced removal of chemical warfare agents while simultaneously promoting moisture vapor transport through the composite, showcasing the promise of these composites for protection applications.

  19. Textile/metal-organic-framework composites as self-detoxifying filters for chemical-warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Maya, Elena; Montoro, Carmen; Rodríguez-Albelo, L Marleny; Aznar Cervantes, Salvador D; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Cenís, José Luis; Barea, Elisa; Navarro, Jorge A R

    2015-06-01

    The current technology of air-filtration materials for protection against highly toxic chemicals, that is, chemical-warfare agents, is mainly based on the broad and effective adsorptive properties of hydrophobic activated carbons. However, adsorption does not prevent these materials from behaving as secondary emitters once they are contaminated. Thus, the development of efficient self-cleaning filters is of high interest. Herein, we report how we can take advantage of the improved phosphotriesterase catalytic activity of lithium alkoxide doped zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to develop advanced self-detoxifying adsorbents of chemical-warfare agents containing hydrolysable P-F, P-O, and C-Cl bonds. Moreover, we also show that it is possible to integrate these materials onto textiles, thereby combining air-permeation properties of the textiles with the self-detoxifying properties of the MOF material. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Metal-organic frameworks for the removal of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, N Scott; Mendonca, Matthew L; Howarth, Ashlee J; Islamoglu, Timur; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Snurr, Randall Q

    2017-06-06

    Owing to the vast diversity of linkers, nodes, and topologies, metal-organic frameworks can be tailored for specific tasks, such as chemical separations or catalysis. Accordingly, these materials have attracted significant interest for capture and/or detoxification of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents. In this paper, we review recent experimental and computational work pertaining to the capture of several industrially-relevant toxic chemicals, including NH 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 , H 2 S, and some volatile organic compounds, with particular emphasis on the challenging issue of designing materials that selectively adsorb these chemicals in the presence of water. We also examine recent research on the capture and catalytic degradation of chemical warfare agents such as sarin and sulfur mustard using metal-organic frameworks.

  2. Analysis of different multiplicities and their interference in quasi-elastic cluster knock-out by fast hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanova, N.F.; Ibraeva, E.T.; Neudatchin, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    Different multiplicities and their interference in hadron scattering have been investigated on the basis of a new dynamic approach to quasi-elastic knock-out of nucleon clusters by fast hadrons from light nuclei. It is shown that in the region of momentum transfer values p, where scattering multiplicities less than b are predominant, the effective numbers and form factors determined in Refs. 1) -- 3) no longer act as pure structural nuclear factors (b means the number of nucleons in the knocked-out cluster). These characteristics are significantly dependent on the process dynamics. Only in the region of values p, where the maximum hadron scattering multiplicity b is realized, the effective numbers and form factors do assume the purely structural meaning. (auth.)

  3. Assessing the Role of Surgical Strike Operations in Support of a Special Warfare Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    classic example of special warfare in action is the use of Special Forces soldiers to facilitate the Northern Alliance’s overthrow of the Taliban...Finally, the tempo of surgical strike operations must be taken into account. Renowned British counterinsurgent of the Boer War, Charles Callwell...December 2016, accessed 15 December 2016, http://edition.cnn.com/2010/ WORLD /asiapcf/10/09/ afghanistan.british.worker.death/index.html?hpt=T2. 43 camps

  4. Russian Perspectives on Network-Centric Warfare: The Key Aim of Serdyukov’s Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    has faced with its GLObal’naya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema —(GLONASS) system, and introducing advanced digitized communications in the armed...of targeting data will be accomplished by organizing virtual channels for data transmission or via a web -portal. The successful function- ing of the...Operations: Tactical Web Takes Shape,” Signal, November 2003; Col. Alan D. Campen, USAF (Ret.), “Look Closely At Network-Centric Warfare: Technology Can

  5. The Alpini Effect: Why the US Army Should Train Units for Mountain Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    practical knowledge of the ground, and are very little adapted for mountain warfare.”20 The concept of infantry forces trained in mountain combat was...spearheaded the word of mouth campaign as he said, “It is easier to train a skier to be a soldier than to train a soldier to be a skier .” 30...author’s knowledge from professional experience 51 at Camp Carson from 1942-1944 and the US

  6. Hybrid Warfare Dilemmas in the Middle Colonies during the American Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    north.51 Washington urged Lee “to push for Philadelphia. The force I have with me is infinitely ...would attend the passage of the River by a march through Jersey,” he wrote, “I propose to invade Pennsylvania by sea , and from this arrangement...Hybrid Warfare Dilemmas in the Middle Colonies during the American Revolution A Monograph by MAJ William C. Murray II US Army

  7. Cognitive Depth and Hybrid Warfare: Exploring the Nature of Unique Time, Space, and Logic Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    upon an earlier research monograph by William J. Nemeth at the Naval Post-Graduate School. In “Future War and Chechnya : A Case for Hybrid War,” Nemeth...8 William, Nemeth, Future War and Chechnya : A Case for Hybrid Warfare (Monterey: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2002) 2-3. 7...does.10 Yet, using Chechnya and the Chechnian Wars as an example of a hybrid society and hybrid wars, Nemeth’s view limits the concept in terms of

  8. The Equipment of Czech Firefighters for the Detection and Field Analyses of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Krykorkova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the requirements for the devices of detection, chemical reconnaissance and field analyses of chemical warfare agents (CWA and divides them into simple devices of detection, universal detectors, selective analyzers, multi-component analyzers and mobile laboratories. It also describes the devices of detection available within the Fire and Rescue Service of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and compares them with some prospective trends of further development.

  9. Weathering the Cyber Storm: The Military’s Resiliency to Cyber Attacks in Future Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    observation. While the ability to collect intelligence is important, it falls under a different rubric than warfare itself. 20 Another term worth...the use of antivirus programs, firewalls, and security policies. These measures also fall under the rubric of information assurance, or “measures that...specifying how it is to be accomplished.” of genetic diversity. 13 A complaint after Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was that soldiers had to

  10. Evaluation of the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) Cost and Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Flavell, Drew G.; Dorwin, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the Cost and Performance Measurements within four Program Directorates at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR). SPAWAR is the Navy's full-spectrum research, development, test and evaluation, engineering and fleet support center for Command, Control and Communications Systems, Ocean Surveillance Systems and the integration of those systems that overarch multiplatforms. In the era of lean military bu...

  11. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papoušková, B.; Bednář, P.; Fryšová, I.; Stýskala, J.; Hlaváč, J.; Barták, P.; Ulrichová, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 12 (2007), s. 1550-1561 ISSN 1076-5174 Grant - others:The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (NL) L/ICA/ICB/84322/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : mass spectrometry * chemical warfare agent * high performance liquid chromatography * LC/MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2007

  12. From the Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agents to the Decontamination of Cytostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Šťastný, Martin; Janoš, P.; Mazanec, K.; Perez-Diaz, J. L.; Štenglová Netíková, I. R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 6 (2018), s. 2114-2122 ISSN 0888-5885 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312804 - COUNTERFOG Grant - others:NATO(US) SPS984599 Program:Science for Peace and Security Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemical warfare agents * Degradation * Metal oxide sorbents Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  13. On Pecuniary Resiliency, Early Warning, and Market Imitation under Unrestricted Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    combatants, and civilians. The term was first used by American analysts in 1989 as Lind et . al . [37] to describe the return of warfare to a decentralized...Century. New York: Free, 1988 . Print. [22] Gould , Stephen, and Eldredge Niles. “Punctuated Equilibria: The Tempo and Mode of Evolution Reconsidered...able to take a punch.” He specifically argues that Al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations have limited resources to plan and carry out attacks and

  14. Bits or Shots in Combat? The Generalized Deitchman Model of Guerrilla Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Kress, Moshe; MacKay, Niall J.

    2013-01-01

    Operations Research Letters, accepted. We generalize Deitchman's guerrilla warfare model to account for trade-off between intelligence ('bits') and firepower ('shots'). Intelligent targeting leads to aimed fire, absence of intelligence leads to unaimed fire, dependent on targets' density. We propose a new Lanchester-type model that mixes aimed with unaimed fire, the balance between these being determined by quality of information. We derive the model's conserved quantity, and use it ...

  15. Forgeting Lessons Learned: The United States Army’s Inability To Embrace Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Revolutionary Development Support, commonly referred to as “CORDS”, was established in 1967 under Robert “Blowtorch” Komer. As the director of CORDS, Robert ...combat operations spanning the complete spectrum of warfare. As Robert Citino, the author of Blitzkrieg to Desert Storm wrote about the development of...US forces in Somalia. Haiti In 1915, Smedley Butler and 3,000 Marines invaded Haiti and quickly pacified the entire island. Eighty years

  16. Russia and hybrid warfare: identifying critical elements in successful applications of hybrid tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Neville, Seth B.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014, hybrid war became a buzzword within political and academic circles. This thesis examines hybrid warfare applications using contemporary and historical examples. The analysis seeks to determine why a country was or was not successful in its execution of hybrid war, and it assesses the geo-political context of cost, benefit, and risk for an aggressor state contributing to its decision to eng...

  17. Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low-Level Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense USAMRICD-TR-05-09 Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low...2005 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2003 to April 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Guinea pigs exposed repeatedly to low levels of chemical warfare nerve agents

  18. A cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative anti-surface warfare platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Walter Mark.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) is performed for three alternative anti-surface warfare (ASUW) platforms that will conduct operations in multi-service regional scenarios. Estimated program costs, historical cost variances, and measures of operational effectiveness are determined for each COEA alternative, and service life extension effects are examined. The data is merged in a mixed-integer optimization model, MPA...

  19. Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Matika, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator.

  20. Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: valkovic@irb.hr; Sudac, Davorin [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, Dario [Institute for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Ilica 256b, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-04-15

    Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator.

  1. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Capoun; Jana Krykorkova

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR) and demons...

  2. Analysis of chemical warfare using a transient semi-Markov formulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kierzewski, Michael O.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis proposes an analytical model to test various assumptions about conventional/chemical warfare. A unit's status in conventional/chemical combat is modeled as states in a semi-Markov chain with transient and absorbing states. The effects of differing chemical threat levels, availability of decontamination assets and assumed personnel degradation rates on expected unit life and capabilities are tested. The ...

  3. Chemical Warfare Agent Operational Exposure Hazard Assessment Research: FY07 Report and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    agent migration rates. As stated by Armour and Sturgeon (1992), the extent of the contact hazard depends on the initial degree of contamination, the...with a contaminated surface. 2.1.5 Literature Cited 1. Armour , S.J; Sturgeon, W.R. Liquid Hazard from Chemical Warfare Agents for Pilots of High...the neck area was clipped and prepped with betadine, and the animal covered with a sterile surgical drape . The planned incision areas in the

  4. Performance and emission characteristics of turpentine-diesel dual fuel engine and knock suppression using water diluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, R. [Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalakshmi, N.V. [College of Engineering Guindy, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In the present work, a normal diesel engine was modified to work in a dual fuel (DF) mode with turpentine and diesel as primary and pilot fuels, respectively. The resulting homogeneous mixture was compressed to a temperature below the self-ignition point. The pilot fuel was injected through the standard injection system and initiated the combustion in the primary-fuel air mixture. The primary fuel (turpentine) has supplied most of the heat energy. Usually, in all DF engines, low-cetane fuels are preferred as a primary fuel. Therefore, at higher loads these fuels start knocking and deteriorating in performances. Usually, DF operators suppress the knock by adding more pilot-fuel quantity. But in the present work, a minimum pilot-fuel quantity was maintained constant throughout the test and a required quantity of diluent (water) was added into the combustion at the time of knocking. The advantages of this method of knock suppression are restoration of performance at full load, maintenance of the same pilot quantity through the load range and reduction in the fuel consumption at full load. From the results, it was found that all performance and emission parameters of turpentine, except volumetric efficiency, are better than those of diesel fuel. The emissions like CO, UBHC are higher than those of the diesel baseline (DBL) and around 40-45% reduction of smoke was observed at 100% of full load. The major pollutant of diesel engine, NO{sub x}, was found to be equal to that of DBL. From the above experiment, it was proved that approximately 80% replacement of diesel with turpentine is quite possible. (author)

  5. The Effect of Humidity on the Knock Behavior in a Medium BMEP Lean-Burn High-Speed Gas Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, Vincent Martijn; Gersen, Sander; van Dijk, Gerco; Mundt, Torsten; Levinsky, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The effects of air humidity on the knock characteristics of fuels are investigated in a lean-burn, high-speed medium BMEP engine fueled with a CH4 + 4.7 mole% C3H8 gas mixture. Experiments are carried out with humidity ratios ranging from 4.3 to 11 g H2O/kg dry air. The measured pressure profiles at

  6. Vascular and parenchymal amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer disease knock-in mouse model: interplay with cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Guo, Qinxi; Inoue, Taeko; Polito, Vinicia A; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Hammer, Robert E; Pautler, Robia G; Taffet, George E; Zheng, Hui

    2014-08-09

    Accumulation and deposition of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in the brain is a central event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides the parenchymal pathology, Aβ is known to undergo active transport across the blood-brain barrier and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a prominent feature in the majority of AD. Although impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been implicated in faulty Aβ transport and clearance, and cerebral hypoperfusion can exist in the pre-clinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is still unclear whether it is one of the causal factors for AD pathogenesis, or an early consequence of a multi-factor condition that would lead to AD at late stage. To study the potential interaction between faulty CBF and amyloid accumulation in clinical-relevant situation, we generated a new amyloid precursor protein (APP) knock-in allele that expresses humanized Aβ and a Dutch mutation in addition to Swedish/London mutations and compared this line with an equivalent knock-in line but in the absence of the Dutch mutation, both crossed onto the PS1M146V knock-in background. Introduction of the Dutch mutation results in robust CAA and parenchymal Aβ pathology, age-dependent reduction of spatial learning and memory deficits, and CBF reduction as detected by fMRI. Direct manipulation of CBF by transverse aortic constriction surgery on the left common carotid artery caused differential changes in CBF in the anterior and middle region of the cortex, where it is reduced on the left side and increased on the right side. However these perturbations in CBF resulted in the same effect: both significantly exacerbate CAA and amyloid pathology. Our study reveals a direct and positive link between vascular and parenchymal Aβ; both can be modulated by CBF. The new APP knock-in mouse model recapitulates many symptoms of AD including progressive vascular and parenchymal Aβ pathology and behavioral deficits in the absence of APP overexpression.

  7. Highly efficient generation of knock-in transgenic medaka by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watakabe, Ikuko; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Kimura, Yukiko; Yokoi, Saori; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Higashijima, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    Medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) is a popular animal model used in vertebrate genetic analysis. Recently, an efficient (~ 30%) knock-in system via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) was established in zebrafish using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. If the same technique were applicable in medaka, it would greatly expand the usefulness of this model organism. The question of the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 in medaka, however, has yet to be addressed. We report the highly efficient generation of knock-in transgenic medaka via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Donor plasmid containing a heat-shock promoter and a reporter gene was co-injected with a short guide RNA (sgRNA) targeted for genome digestion, an sgRNA targeted for donor plasmid digestion, and Cas9 mRNA. Broad transgene expression in the expression domain of a target gene was observed in approximately 25% of injected embryos. By raising these animals, we established stable knock-in transgenic fish with several different constructs for five genetic loci, obtaining transgenic founders at efficiencies of > 50% for all five loci. Further, we show that the method is useful for obtaining mutant alleles. In the experiments where transgene integrations were targeted between the transcription start site and the initiation methionine, the resultant transgenic fish became mutant alleles. With its simplicity, design flexibility, and high efficiency, we propose that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in via NHEJ will become a standard method for the generation of transgenic and mutant medaka.

  8. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Zebrafish Knock-in as a Novel Strategy to Study Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Chekuru, Avinash; Machate, Anja; Brand, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) acts as an organizer and controls the fate of neighboring cells to develop into either mesencephalic (midbrain) or metencephalic (hindbrain) cells by secreting signaling molecules like Wnt1 and Fgf8. The zebrafish is an excellent vertebrate model for studying MHB development due to the ease of gene manipulation and the possibility of following cellular dynamics and morphogenetic processes using live imaging. Currently, only very few reporter and/or Cre-driver lines are available to study gene expression at the MHB, hampering the understanding of MHB development, and traditional transgenic technologies using promoter/enhancer fragments or bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenesis often do not faithfully recapitulate endogenous expression patterns. In contrast, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology now provides a great opportunity to efficiently knock-in or knock-out genes. We have generated four CRISPR/Cas9-based knock-in fluorescent reporter lines for two crucial genes involved in MHB development, namely otx2 and pax2a . The coding sequences of the reporters were knocked-in upstream of the corresponding ATG and are, thus, under the control of the endogenous promoter/enhancer elements. Interestingly, this strategy does not disturb endogenous gene expression. Using the fast maturing fluorescent protein reporter, Venus, enabled us to follow MHB development using cell tracking and live imaging. In addition, we show that these reporter lines label various neuronal and glial cell types in the adult zebrafish brain, making them highly suitable for investigating embryonic and adult midbrain, hindbrain, and MHB development.

  9. CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in via non-homologous end-joining in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Takashi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas) is widely used for mediating the knock-in of foreign DNA into the genomes of various organisms. Here, we report a process of CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in via non-homologous end joining by the direct injection of Cas9/gRNA ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) in the crustacean Daphnia magna, which is a model organism for studies on toxicology, ecology, and evolution. First, we confirmed the cleavage activity of Cas9 RNPs comprising purified Cas9 proteins and gRNAs in D. magna. We used a gRNA that targets exon 10 of the eyeless gene. Cas9 proteins were incubated with the gRNAs and the resulting Cas9 RNPs were injected into D. magna eggs, which led to a typical phenotype of the eyeless mutant, i.e., eye deformity. The somatic and heritable mutagenesis efficiencies were up to 96% and 40%, respectively. Second, we tested the CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in of a plasmid by the injection of Cas9 RNPs. The donor DNA plasmid harboring the fluorescent reporter gene was designed to contain the gRNA recognition site. The co-injection of Cas9 RNPs together with the donor DNAs resulted in generation of one founder animal that produced fluorescent progenies. This transgenic Daphnia had donor DNA at the targeted genomic site, which suggested the concurrent cleavage of the injected plasmid DNA and genomic DNA. Owing to its simplicity and ease of experimental design, we suggest that the CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in method represents a promising tool for studying functional genomics in D. magna.

  10. New test procedure to determine fuel's knock resistance; Neues Kraftstoffpruefverfahren zur Bestimmung der Klopffestigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Karl [Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany). Thermodynamik und Verbrennungsmotoren; Hauber, Johann; Raba, Andreas [Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Forschung; Nell, Robert [Rofa Laboratory and Process Analyzers, Kritzendorf (Austria). Bereich Produktentwicklung

    2013-07-15

    Knock resistance is one of the most important quality features of gasoline that is determined by standardised motor test procedures. These procedures were developed more than 80 years ago and have been used nearly unchanged since then. During a four-year research project at Ingolstadt University of Applied Sciences, the procedures for determination of octane numbers were analysed in order to develop a new engine-based test method. (orig.)

  11. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

    2012-06-01

    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  12. Nanoplatforms for Detection, Remediation and Protection Against Chem-Bio Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkbaş, E. B.; Bayram, C.; Kavaz, D.; Çirak, T.; Demirbilek, M.

    Chemical and biological substances have been used as warfare agents by terrorists by varying degree of sophistication. It is critical that these agents be detected in real-time with high level of sensitively, specificity, and accuracy. Many different types of techniques and systems have been developed to detect these agents. But there are some limitations in these conventional techniques and systems. Limitations include the collection, handling and sampling procedures, detection limits, sample transfer, expensive equipment, personnel training, and detection materials. Due to the unique properties such as quantum effect, very high surface/volume ratio, enhanced surface reactivity, conductivity, electrical and magnetic properties of the nanomaterials offer great opportunity to develop very fast, sensitive, accurate and cost effective detection techniques and systems to detect chemical and biological (chem.-bio) warfare agents. Furthermore, surface modification of the materials is very easy and effective way to get functional or smart surfaces to be used as nano-biosensor platform. In that respect many different types of nanomaterials have been developed and used for the detection, remediation and protection, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, Nano chips and arrays, fluorescent polymeric and magnetic nanoparticles, fiber optic and cantilever based nanobiosensors, nanofibrillar nanostructures etc. This study summarizes preparation and characterization of nanotechnology based approaches for the detection of and remediation and protection against chem.-bio warfare agents.

  13. Iron-montmorillonite clays as active sorbents for the decontamination of hazardous chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniato, F; Bisio, C; Evangelisti, C; Psaro, R; Dal Santo, V; Costenaro, D; Marchese, L; Guidotti, M

    2018-02-27

    A class of heterogeneous catalysts based on commercial bentonite from natural origin, containing at least 80 wt% of montmorillonite clay, was designed to transform selectively and under mild conditions toxic organosulfur and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents into non-noxious products with a reduced impact on health and environment. The bentonite from the natural origin was modified by introducing iron species and acid sites in the interlayer space, aiming to obtain a sorbent with strong catalytic oxidising and hydrolytic properties. The catalytic performance of these materials was evaluated in the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, in the presence of aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. A new decontamination formulation was, moreover, proposed and obtained by mixing sodium perborate, as a solid oxidant, to iron-bentonite catalysts. Solid-phase decontamination tests, performed on a cotton textile support contaminated with organosulfide and organophosphonate simulant agents revealed the good activity of the solid formulation, especially in the in situ detoxification of blistering agents. Tests carried out on the real blistering warfare agent, sulfur mustard (HD agent), showed that, thanks to the co-presence of the iron-based clay together with the solid oxidant component, a good decontamination of the test surface from the real warfare agent could be achieved (80% contaminant degradation, under ambient conditions, in 24 h).

  14. Destruction of chemical warfare surrogates using a portable atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škoro, Nikola; Puač, Nevena; Živković, Suzana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Cvelbar, Uroš; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran Lj.

    2018-01-01

    Today's reality is connected with mitigation of threats from the new chemical and biological warfare agents. A novel investigation of cold plasmas in contact with liquids presented in this paper demonstrated that the chemically reactive environment produced by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is potentially capable of rapid destruction of chemical warfare agents in a broad spectrum. The decontamination of three different chemical warfare agent surrogates dissolved in liquid is investigated by using an easily transportable APPJ. The jet is powered by a kHz signal source connected to a low-voltage DC source and with He as working gas. The detailed investigation of electrical properties is performed for various plasmas at different distances from the sample. The measurements of plasma properties in situ are supported by the optical spectrometry measurements, whereas the high performance liquid chromatography measurements before and after the treatment of aqueous solutions of Malathion, Fenitrothion and Dimethyl Methylphosphonate. These solutions are used to evaluate destruction and its efficiency for specific neural agent simulants. The particular removal rates are found to be from 56% up to 96% during 10 min treatment. The data obtained provide basis to evaluate APPJ's efficiency at different operating conditions. The presented results are promising and could be improved with different operating conditions and optimization of the decontamination process.

  15. Modeling the transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants in polymeric substrates for reactive decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Thomas; Mantooth, Brent; Varady, Mark; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are often used for environmental testing in place of highly toxic agents. This work sets the foundation for modeling decontamination of absorbing polymeric materials with the focus on determining relationships between agents and simulants. The correlations of agents to simulants must consider the three way interactions in the chemical-material-decontaminant system where transport and reaction occur in polymer materials. To this end, diffusion modeling of the subsurface transport of simulants and live chemical warfare agents was conducted for various polymer systems (e.g., paint coatings) with and without reaction pathways with applied decontamination. The models utilized 1D and 2D finite difference diffusion and reaction models to simulate absorption and reaction in the polymers, and subsequent flux of the chemicals out of the polymers. Experimental data including vapor flux measurements and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to determine model input parameters. Through modeling, an understanding of the relationship of simulant to live chemical warfare agent was established, focusing on vapor emission of agents and simulants from materials.

  16. Sqstm1 knock-down causes a locomotor phenotype ameliorated by rapamycin in a zebrafish model of ALS/FTLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattante, Serena; de Calbiac, Hortense; Le Ber, Isabelle; Brice, Alexis; Ciura, Sorana; Kabashi, Edor

    2015-03-15

    Mutations in SQSTM1, encoding for the protein SQSTM1/p62, have been recently reported in 1-3.5% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (ALS/FTLD). Inclusions positive for SQSTM1/p62 have been detected in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, including ALS/FTLD. In order to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms induced by SQSTM1 mutations in ALS/FTLD, we developed a zebrafish model. Knock-down of the sqstm1 zebrafish ortholog, as well as impairment of its splicing, led to a specific phenotype, consisting of behavioral and axonal anomalies. Here, we report swimming deficits associated with shorter motor neuronal axons that could be rescued by the overexpression of wild-type human SQSTM1. Interestingly, no rescue of the loss-of-function phenotype was observed when overexpressing human SQSTM1 constructs carrying ALS/FTLD-related mutations. Consistent with its role in autophagy regulation, we found increased mTOR levels upon knock-down of sqstm1. Furthermore, treatment of zebrafish embryos with rapamycin, a known inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, yielded an amelioration of the locomotor phenotype in the sqstm1 knock-down model. Our results suggest that loss-of-function of SQSTM1 causes phenotypic features characterized by locomotor deficits and motor neuron axonal defects that are associated with a misregulation of autophagic processes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. RNAi-mediated knock-down of Dab and Numb attenuate Aβ levels via γ-secretase mediated APP processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongcong; Dong, Yuanlin; Maeda, Uta; Xia, Weiming; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2012-03-22

    Amyloid-β-protein (Aβ), the key component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, is produced from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by cleavage of β-secretase and then γ-secretase. APP adaptor proteins with phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains, including Dab (gene: DAB) and Numb (gene: NUMB), can bind to and interact with the conserved YENPTY-motif in the APP C-terminus. Here we describe, for the first time, the effects of RNAi knock-down of Dab and Numb expression on APP processing and Aβ production. RNAi knock-down of Dab and Numb in H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express either FL-APP (H4-FL-APP cells) or APP-C99 (H4-APP-C99 cells) increased levels of APP-C-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs) and lowered Aβ levels in both cell lines by inhibiting γ-secretase cleavage of APP. Finally, RNAi knock-down of APP also reduced levels of Numb in H4-APP cells. These findings suggest that pharmacologically blocking interaction of APP with Dab and Numb may provide novel therapeutic strategies of AD. The notion of attenuating γ-secretase cleavage of APP via the APP adaptor proteins, Dab and Numb, is particularly attractive with regard to therapeutic potential, given that side effects of γ-secretase inhibition owing to impaired proteolysis of other γ-secretase substrates, e.g. Notch, might be avoided.

  18. RNAi-mediated knock-down of Dab and Numb attenuate Aβ levels via γ-secretase mediated APP processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zhongcong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyloid-β-protein (Aβ, the key component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD brain, is produced from amyloid precursor protein (APP by cleavage of β-secretase and then γ-secretase. APP adaptor proteins with phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB domains, including Dab (gene: DAB and Numb (gene: NUMB, can bind to and interact with the conserved YENPTY-motif in the APP C-terminus. Here we describe, for the first time, the effects of RNAi knock-down of Dab and Numb expression on APP processing and Aβ production. RNAi knock-down of Dab and Numb in H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express either FL-APP (H4-FL-APP cells or APP-C99 (H4-APP-C99 cells increased levels of APP-C-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs and lowered Aβ levels in both cell lines by inhibiting γ-secretase cleavage of APP. Finally, RNAi knock-down of APP also reduced levels of Numb in H4-APP cells. These findings suggest that pharmacologically blocking interaction of APP with Dab and Numb may provide novel therapeutic strategies of AD. The notion of attenuating γ-secretase cleavage of APP via the APP adaptor proteins, Dab and Numb, is particularly attractive with regard to therapeutic potential, given that side effects of γ-secretase inhibition owing to impaired proteolysis of other γ-secretase substrates, e.g. Notch, might be avoided.

  19. Neurofascin Knock Down in the Basolateral Amygdala Mediates Resilience of Memory and Plasticity in the Dorsal Dentate Gyrus Under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Rinki; Kriebel, Martin; Volkmer, Hansjürgen; Richter-Levin, Gal; Albrecht, Anne

    2018-02-05

    Activation of the amygdala is one of the hallmarks of acute stress reactions and a central element of the negative impact of stress on hippocampus-dependent memory and cognition. Stress-induced psychopathologies, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, exhibit a sustained hyperactivity of the amygdala, triggered at least in part by deficits in GABAergic inhibition that lead to shifts in amygdalo-hippocampal interaction. Here, we have utilized lentiviral knock down of neurofascin to reduce GABAergic inhibition specifically at the axon initial segment (AIS) of principal neurons within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of rats. Metaplastic effects of such a BLA modulation on hippocampal synaptic function were assessed using BLA priming prior to the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) on dentate gyrus synapses in anesthetized rats in vivo. The knock down of neurofascin in the BLA prevented a priming-induced impairment on LTP maintenance in the dentate gyrus. At the behavioral level, a similar effect was observable, with neurofascin knock down preventing the detrimental impact of acute traumatic stress on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retrieval in a water maze task. These findings suggest that reducing GABAergic inhibition specifically at the AIS synapses of the BLA alters amygdalo-hippocampal interactions such that it attenuates the adverse impact of acute stress exposure on cognition-related hippocampal functions.

  20. RNAi-mediated knock-down of Dab and Numb attenuate Aβ levels via γ-secretase mediated APP processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β-protein (Aβ), the key component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, is produced from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by cleavage of β-secretase and then γ-secretase. APP adaptor proteins with phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains, including Dab (gene: DAB) and Numb (gene: NUMB), can bind to and interact with the conserved YENPTY-motif in the APP C-terminus. Here we describe, for the first time, the effects of RNAi knock-down of Dab and Numb expression on APP processing and Aβ production. RNAi knock-down of Dab and Numb in H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express either FL-APP (H4-FL-APP cells) or APP-C99 (H4-APP-C99 cells) increased levels of APP-C-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs) and lowered Aβ levels in both cell lines by inhibiting γ-secretase cleavage of APP. Finally, RNAi knock-down of APP also reduced levels of Numb in H4-APP cells. These findings suggest that pharmacologically blocking interaction of APP with Dab and Numb may provide novel therapeutic strategies of AD. The notion of attenuating γ-secretase cleavage of APP via the APP adaptor proteins, Dab and Numb, is particularly attractive with regard to therapeutic potential, given that side effects of γ-secretase inhibition owing to impaired proteolysis of other γ-secretase substrates, e.g. Notch, might be avoided. PMID:23211096