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Sample records for warfare center panama

  1. Defense Base Closure and Realignment Budget Data for the Naval Surface Warfare Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    ... and realignment military construction projects. This report provides the results of the audit related to the realignment of Naval Surface Warfare Centers elements in White Oak, Maryland, and Panama City, Florida, to Dahlgren, Virginia...

  2. Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Panama's territory is 77,381 square km or 29,762 square miles with a population of 2.4 million of whom 70% are mestizos or mixed Spanish and Indian. Literacy is 87%, infant mortality is 22/1000, and life expectancy is 72 years. Panama was part of the Spanish empire from 1538 to 1821. In 1903 Panama declared its independence from Colombia, and afterwards signed a treaty with the US to build a canal 10 miles wide. The existing 52-mile lock canal was completed in 1914. From the 1960s pressure mounted to renegotiate the treaty that was eventually accomplished in 1977. In 1989 the Noriega regime called elections and lost, but it did not accept the results, and continued repression until it was ousted by a 1989 US military action. Noriega surrendered and was indicted for drug trafficking. The economy was in disrepair after mismanagement and US sanctions. During 1990-91 the economy started to recover with the return of capital to banks, increase of exports and construction, and the decrease of government deficit and unemployment. The gross domestic product grew 3.45 in 1990 and 9.3% in 1991 with a low level of inflation. Government policies were proposed to stimulate foreign private investment, improve market conditions, and reduce tariffs and price controls. In 1992 the Endara government signed agreements with international financial institutions on credit that entailed tax, social security, and public investment reforms. The unemployment rate decreased from 35% in 1989 to 16% by 1992. The revenues from the canal have to be sustained, therefore the Panama Canal Commission approved a $200-million project to widen it over the next 20 years.

  3. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy`s Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  4. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy's Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  5. Some History and Hydrology of the Panama Canal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pabst, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    At the request of the Panama Canal Commission (now Panama Canal Authority), the Hydrologic Engineering Center participated in the development of a model to simulate the existing operation of the Panama Canal System...

  6. Bench-Scale Investigation of Composting for Remediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soils from Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, Indiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    ...), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine (HMX). The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Crane, Indiana, provides material and logistic support to the Navy's weapon systems, including expendable and nonexpendable ordnance items...

  7. Panama 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans

    1997-01-01

    When the last U.S. military element leaves Panama at noon on December31, 1999, that departure may create a vacuum which could threaten the efficient operation of the canal and the regional security in the strategic...

  8. Panama Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    Mossack Fonseca kept its clients largely on the right side of the law. Indeed, that’s entirely the point. This article for The Atlantic draws on my wealth management research to explain why most of what is revealed in the Panama Papers leak will not result in criminal prosecution for anyone...

  9. 75 FR 3395 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... and at least 200 yards (183 m) from marine mammals other than whales, and avoid approaching animals...) behavior of marine animals sighted; (7) direction of travel; (8) environmental information associated with... of marine animals. These transect data will provide an opportunity to collect data of marine mammals...

  10. Transmissivity and storage coefficient estimates from slug tests, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    Slug tests were conducted on 56 observation wells open to bedrock at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in West Trenton, New Jersey. Aquifer transmissivity (T) and storage coefficient (S) values for most wells were estimated from slug-test data using the Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos method. Test data from three wells exhibited fast, underdamped water-level responses and were analyzed with the Butler high-K method. The range of T at NAWC was approximately 0.07 to 10,000 square feet per day. At 11 wells, water levels did not change measurably after 20 minutes following slug insertion; transmissivity at these 11 wells was estimated to be less than 0.07 square feet per day. The range of S was approximately 10-10 to 0.01, the mode being 10-10. Water-level responses for tests at three wells fit poorly to the type curves of both methods, indicating that these methods were not appropriate for adequately estimating T and S from those data.

  11. Centering Panama in Global Modernity: The Search for National Identity and the Imagining of the Orient in Rogelio Sinán’s “Sin novedad en Shanghai”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyoung Verónica Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its independence from Colombia in 1903 backed by the United States government, which resulted in a treaty that granted the US free rein to build, administer and control what would be known as the Panama Canal, Panama’s quest for modern nationhood has been severely called into question. More often than not it is posited as an artificial state with little organic unity and limited sovereignty: a state that is literally made in the USA. Panamanian intellectuals, such as Rogelio Sinán, responded to these discourses on the Panamanian nation-state by actively constructing a Panamanian national identity, and by calling attention to the central significance of Panama in the twentieth-century world of global modernity. Questioning the widespread narrative of Panama as a peripheral North American neo-colony that was at best a marginal actor in international history, Sinán positioned Panama at the center of the modern world where World Wars, international migrations and global capitalism connected. By exploring Sinán’s short story “Sin novedad en Shanghai” that takes place in East Asia during World War II, this study argues that the writer’s deployment of the Orient—as a geopolitical, cultural, symbolic and imaginary space—allows him to reposition Panama. In its symbolic relation to this Orient, Panama emerges not as the backwaters of global modernity, but at its center—a cosmopolis between the Orient and the Occident that reveals a microcosm of the modern world.

  12. Contamination in fractured-rock aquifers: Research at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Tiedeman, Claire; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and cooperators are studying chlorinated solvents in a fractured sedimentary rock aquifer underlying the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, New Jersey. Fractured-rock aquifers are common in many parts of the United States and are highly susceptible to contamination, particularly at industrial sites. Compared to 'unconsolidated' aquifers, there can be much more uncertainty about the direction and rate of contaminant migration and about the processes and factors that control chemical and microbial transformations of contaminants. Research at the NAWC is improving understanding of the transport and fate of chlorinated solvents in fractured-rock aquifers and will compare the effectiveness of different strategies for contaminant remediation.

  13. Biodegradation of chloroethene compounds in groundwater at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, 1999-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the biodegradation of chloroethene compounds in groundwater beneath the former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1) of the U.S. Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Division Keyport. The predominant contaminants in groundwater are the chloroethene compounds trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride. The remedy selected for groundwater contamination at OU 1 includes phytoremediation and natural attenuation. In 1999, the U.S. Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations, referred to as the northern and southern plantations, over the most contaminated parts of the landfill. The U.S. Navy monitors tree health, groundwater levels, and contaminant concentrations to assess the effectiveness of phytoremediation. The U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative effort with the U.S. Navy in 1995 to monitor the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for removing and controlling the migration of chloroethenes and chloroethanes. Field and laboratory studies from 1996 through 2000 demonstrated that biodegradation of chloroethenes and chloroethanes in shallow groundwater at OU 1 was substantial. The U.S. Geological Survey monitored geochemical and contaminant concentrations in groundwater annually from 2001 through 2010. This report presents groundwater geochemical and contaminant data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during June 2010 and evaluates evidence for continued biodegradation of chloroethenes in groundwater.

  14. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...

  15. The Abbott and Costello Effect: Who's on What, and What's Where When? A Human-Centered Method to Investigate Network Centric Warfare Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Derek W

    2007-01-01

    ...), fundamentally changing how warfare is being conducted. Network centric warfare (NCW) systems are being rushed to the field and are offered as a solution for the fog of war and as a way to reduce manpower costs...

  16. Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, 2007 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with on-going natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated VOCs in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. In this report are groundwater geochemical and selected VOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 18-21, 2007, and June 16-18, 2008, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. For 2007 and 2008, strongly reducing conditions (sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) most favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs were inferred for 9 of 16 upper-aquifer wells and piezometers in the northern and southern phytoremediation plantations. Predominant redox conditions in groundwater from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient from the landfill remained mildly reducing and somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs. Dissolved hydrogen (H2) concentrations measured in the upper aquifer during 2007 and 2008 generally have been lower than H2 concentrations measured before 2002. However, widespread and relatively high methane and sulfide concentrations indicate that the lower H2 concentrations measured do not support a trend from strongly to mildly reducing redox conditions because no widespread changes in groundwater redox conditions were identified that should result in less favorable conditions for the reductive dechlorination of the

  17. Panama: Democracy Under the Shadow of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Orlando J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2016 Panama was buffeted by corruption scandals and a decelerating economy, which had negative consequences for the political standing of President Juan Carlos Varela. The “Panama Papers” revealed the underlying pathology in Panama's political and economic system. After a decade of rapid economic growth, Panama's economy showed signs of slowing down. However, the completion of the Panama Canal expansion project provided hope for an economic boost as the waterway was able to servic...

  18. Drone warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusterson, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    Crude drones existed as early as World War I, but the technology matured in the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s and the current wars around the Middle East. The U.S. first used a weaponized drone in late 2001, in Afghanistan. Drones may cause more or less civilian casualties depending on the targeting protocols employed by their operators. There is an inherent ambiguity in determining who is an insurgent from several thousand feet, but civilian casualties are likely to be higher if targeters emphasize "signature strikes" over "personality strikes," if they engage in "double-tap strikes," if they rely too much on local informants, and if they rely too heavily on cellphone identification in the absence of corroboration from other intelligence sources. The legality of drone warfare is fairly clear in established battle zones such as Afghanistan, but is more problematic in terms of both international and domestic law when it comes to drone strikes in countries such as Yemen, Pakistan and Somalia with which the U.S. is not at war. Looking to the future, the U.S. would be well advised to sponsor negotiations for an international drone convention that might establish clear international rules for the use of drones, ban autonomous smart drones, and establish adjudicatory procedures to handle allegations of war crimes.

  19. Incentive Measures for Navy Working Capital Fund Civilian Employees at Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, Patuxent River, Maryland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, Clifton

    1998-01-01

    ...: individual, group, and organizational. Given that public employees may be motivated differently from private sector employees, this thesis recommended conducting a survey of the NAWCAD employees to determine motivation factors and then implementing a group incentive system on a trial basis in test work centers.

  20. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  1. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  2. Information Warfare and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of the practice of information warfare at both the national and corporate levels. Initially examining the present and past actions of individual hackers, it moves to the more organised, future military and economic warfare scenarios. It examines the lack of legal or policy initiatives in this area.

  3. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  4. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Panama. DATES: Interim... and the Republic of Panama (the ``Parties'') signed the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement...

  5. Natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in ground water at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, Richard S.; Cox, S.E.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) evaluated the natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) in ground water beneath the former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The predominant contaminants in ground water are trichloroethene (TCE) and its degradation byproducts cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cisDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). The Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring of 1999 to remove and control the migration of CVOCs in shallow ground water. Previous studies provided evidence that microbial degradation processes also reduce CVOC concentrations in ground water at OU 1, so monitored natural attenuation is a potential alternative remedy if phytoremediation is ineffective. This report describes the current (2000) understanding of natural attenuation of CVOCs in ground water at OU 1 and the impacts that phytoremediation activities to date have had on attenuation processes. The evaluation is based on ground-water and surface-water chemistry data and hydrogeologic data collected at the site by the USGS and Navy contractors between 1991 and 2000. Previously unpublished data collected by the USGS during 1996-2000 are presented. Natural attenuation of CVOCs in shallow ground water at OU 1 is substantial. For 1999-2000 conditions, approximately 70 percent of the mass of dissolved chlorinated ethenes that was available to migrate from the landfill was completely degraded in shallow ground water before it could migrate to the intermediate aquifer or discharge to surface water. Attenuation of CVOC concentrations appears also to be substantial in the intermediate aquifer, but biodegradation appears to be less significant; those conclusions are less certain because of the paucity of data downgradient of the landfill beneath the tide flats. Attenuation of CVOC concentrations is also substantial in surface water as it flows through the adjacent marsh and out to the tide

  6. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  7. Expeditionary Warfare- Force Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Eric

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Systems Engineering and Analysis students were tasked to develop a system of systems conceptual solution to provide force protection for the Sea Base conceptualized in the 2002 Expeditionary Warfare study...

  8. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  9. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  10. Effects of Cocos Ridge Collision on the Western Caribbean: Is there a Panama Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.; Chichaco, E.; Abrego M, A. A.; Fisher, D. M.; Camacho, E. I.

    2011-12-01

    It has been recognized that the subduction and collision of the Cocos Ridge, a 2 km high aseismic ridge standing on >20 km thick oceanic crust of the Cocos plate, drives upper plate deformation in southern Central America. Recent studies of Global Positioning System (GPS) derived horizontal velocities relative to the Caribbean Plate showed a radial pattern centered on the Cocos Ridge axis where Cocos-Caribbean convergence is orthogonal, and margin-parallel velocities to the northwest. Models of the full three-dimensional GPS velocity field and earthquake slip vectors demonstrate low mechanical coupling along the Middle America subduction zone in Nicaragua and El Salvador, and a broad zone of high coupling beneath the Osa Peninsula, where the Cocos Ridge intersects the margin. These results suggest that Cocos Ridge collision may be the main driver for trench-parallel motion of the fore arc to the northwest and for uplift and shortening of the outer fore arc in southern Central America, whereby thickened and hence buoyant Cocos Ridge crust acts as an indenter causing the tectonic escape of the fore arc. These studies, however, were not able to constrain well the pattern of surface deformation east-southeast of the ridge axis due to a lack of GPS stations, and Cocos Ridge collision may be responsible for the kinematics and deformation of the proposed Panama block. Recent reinforcement of the GPS network in southeastern Costa Rica and Panama has increased the spatial and temporal resolution of the network and made it possible to further investigate surface deformation of southern Central America and the Panama block. We present a new regional surface velocity field for Central America from geodetic GPS data collected at 11 recently-installed and 178 existing episodic, semi-continuous, and continuous GPS sites in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. We investigate the effects of Cocos Ridge collision on the Panama block through kinematic block modeling. Published

  11. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the current strategic environment the United States is operating...

  12. Structuring Naval Special Warfare junior officer professional military education

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Naval Special Warfare does not currently have a designated career path for an officer that requires professional military education (PME) for SEAL junior officers after the rank of Ensign (O-1) and before the rank of Lieutenant Commander (O-4). There currently is interest in this subject matter at the Naval Special Warfare Command and Center. SEAL officers increasingly hold key leadership positions and influence critical decisions in the execution of national strategy. This growing respo...

  13. Application of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) to Compare Legacy and Future Forces in Mine Warfare (MIW) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    indicate that the satisfaction of these requirements had been addressed. 108 Table 8. MOP to Requirement Mapping Matrix MOP(s) REQUIREMENT 1.1...GUIs) to modify their behaviors. ExtendSim also has an equation editor for creating custom algorithms to add functionality not already present in the...Expeditionary Warfare Conference, Wyndham Bay Point Hotel , Panama City, FL, October 24. http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2011expwar/MondayAmador.pdf. Bahr

  14. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  15. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  16. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  17. Report from the Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project assists the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) in assessing the potential impacts of the Panama Canal expansion on Texas ports and the landside transportation system. TxDOT formed a Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group (PCSWG) ...

  18. The Physics of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  19. Formation of the Isthmus of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Aaron; Aguilera, Orangel; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Cione, Alberto L.; Coates, Anthony G.; Collins, Laurel S.; Coppard, Simon E.; Cozzuol, Mario A.; de Queiroz, Alan; Duque-Caro, Herman; Eytan, Ron I.; Farris, David W.; Gasparini, German M.; Grosmman, Ethan L.; Jackson, Jeremy B. C.; Johnson, Kenneth G.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Knowlton, Nancy; Leigh, Egbert G.; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S.; Lessios, Hailaos A.; Marko, Peter B.; Norris, Richard D.; Rachello-Dolmen, Paola G.; Restrepo-Moreno, Sergio A.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Stallard, Robert F.; Todd, Jonathan A.; Vermeiju, Geerat J.; Woodburne, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the Isthmus of Panama stands as one of the greatest natural events of the Cenozoic, driving profound biotic transformations on land and in the oceans. Some recent studies suggest that the Isthmus formed many millions of years earlier than the widely recognized age of approximately 3 million years ago (Ma), a result that if true would revolutionize our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary change across the Americas. To bring clarity to the question of when the Isthmus of Panama formed, we provide an exhaustive review and reanalysis of geological, paleontological, and molecular records. These independent lines of evidence converge upon a cohesive narrative of gradually emerging land and constricting seaways, with formation of the Isthmus of Panama sensu stricto around 2.8 Ma. The evidence used to support an older isthmus is inconclusive, and we caution against the uncritical acceptance of an isthmus before the Pliocene.

  20. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    .... Some legal constraints will certainly apply to information warfare, either because the constraints explicitly regulate particular actions, or because more general principles of international law...

  1. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  2. Implications of Network Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Alvin

    2004-01-01

    .... These areas of dependence also provide numerous vulnerabilities. This paper will focus specifically on Network Centric Warfare's vulnerabilities in terms of sensors cyberterrorism/ Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP...

  3. SAIL Panama Canal Zone Project 2008 : Biological Survey of Panama (1910-1912)

    OpenAIRE

    DeHart, Liz; Haas, Stephanie C.; Walton, Jennifer; Heil, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    During the 18th Annual 2008 SAIL meeting at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, a suggestion was made for the need to digitize and make available through the Aquatic Commons some of the early documents related to the U.S. biological survey of Panama from 1910 to 1912. With SAIL’s endeavor, a new digital project was born and this presentation describes its process, beginning to final product. The main source consulted for determining copyright clear publications was: ...

  4. Antifragile Electronic Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This letter introduces the concept of antifragile electronic warfare (EW), which we define as the ability to allow a communications link to improve performance due to the presence of a jammer. This concept should not be confused with jamming countermeasures (a.k.a. anti-jamming or electronic protection). Rather, antifragile EW can be thought of as the next step beyond simply avoiding or mitigating jamming. After introducing the concept we narrow down the subset of jammers this concept can be ...

  5. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  6. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.

  7. The Army Ground Forces Training for Mountain and Winter Warfare - Study No. 23

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Govan, Thomas

    1946-01-01

    This general study of the experiments in mountain and winter warfare training from 1940 to 1944 is designed as an introduction to the histories of the Mountain Training Center and The 10th Mountain...

  8. Hybrid Maritime Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Murphy, Martin; Hoffman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Russia’s use of hybrid warfare techniques has raised concerns about the security of the Baltic States. Gary Schaub, Jr, Martin Murphy and Frank G Hoffman recommend a series of measures to augment NATO’s Readiness Action Plan in the Baltic region, including increasing the breadth and depth of naval...... exercises, and improving maritime domain awareness through cooperative programmes. They also suggest unilateral and cooperative measures to develop a sound strategic communications strategy to counter Moscow’s information operations, reduce dependence on Russian energy supplies and build the resilience...

  9. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-23

    unique among Latin American countries. CRS-6 7 American Chamber of Commerce in Panama. [http://panamcham.com] and EIU. Panama: Country Profile 2003, p...Transportation Institute to USTR Robert Zoellick, June 10, 2004. Interestingly, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in Panama, which represents a wide spectrum of U.S...facilities. Transparency in the bidding process for government contracts was listed as one of the most important issues by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in

  10. Manuel Antonio Noriega. Panama kindral liigub vanglast vanglasse / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 7. sept. lk. 13. Narkootikumide salakaubaveo, väljapressimise ja rahapesu eest USA vanglas viibiva Panama endise sõjaväejuhi Manuel Antonio Noriega vabanemisest, uuest kohtuteest Prantsusmaal, Panamas tagaselja tehtud kohtuotsusest mõrvade, inimõiguste rikkumise ja korruptsiooni eest. Panama sõjalise diktaatori eluteest, võimulepääsemisest ning USA sõjalisest invasioonist 1989. aastal, mis lõpetas kindrali võimu

  11. Area Handbook Series: Panama: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Transport Battalion (Batall6n de Transporte y Mantenimiento ); and the Military Engineering Battalion (Batall6n de Ingeneria Militar). The Military Health... Mantenimiento . Arnulfistay, x5 See Transport Battalion Arosemena, aros C., 22 Battalion 2000, 232, 245, 246, 258Arosemena, Florencio H., 28, 229 Bay of Panama...isthmian railroad, 97, 126 hibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin Transport Battalion (Batall6n de Trans- America porte y Mantenimiento ), 232 Tocumen, 106

  12. Exercising the Monroe Doctrine in Chinese-Influenced Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    with both China and the United States, allowing Panama to play its own ‗Taiwan card ‘ if necessary. Chinese influence and occupation in Panama pose...Trade Agreement ( FTA ) Now Domestically, the U.S. has economic interests in Panama, the fastest growing economy in Latin America and the fourth largest...a trade agreement is not reached.‖32 The FTA would give U.S. firms, farmers, and investors access to untaxed trade with Panama, making U.S. goods

  13. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colarik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.

  14. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2 presents a general overview of cyber terrorism, including definitions of cyber terrorism and cyber terrorism support...

  15. Attrition in Network Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erbetta, John

    2003-01-01

    .... Information warfare means that positive attacks on systems themselves compound the problem. Emerging technologies applicable to NCW as a force multiplier need to be recognized as counter to the impediments to progress...

  16. The ethics of information warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare.The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications. The second part collects contributions focusing on Just War Theory and its application to the case of Information Warfare. The third part adopts alternative approaches to Just War Theory for analysing the ethical implications of this phenomenon. Finally, an afterword by Neelie Kroes - Vice President of the European Commission and European Digital Agenda Commissioner - concludes the volume. Her contribution describes the interests and commitments of the European Digital Agenda with respect to research for the developme...

  17. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  19. Reflections on nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The author looks back on his more than 70 years of familiarity with Americans involved in warfare, noting their loyal support for our country's objectives. Drawing on the Einstein equation, his own visits to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and current literature, he, as a physician, belatedly concurs with those who look on the use of nuclear weapons as irrational and untenable. Their employment under present circumstances would create a ''final epidemic'' to be avoided only by prevention. He suggests that medical perceptions must be considered by our national leaders in assessing the many factors that he hopes will lead to rational answers to this urgent, highly complex, and vital enigma. He cites physicians' efforts to help in finding answers and asks that his colleagues consider the issues with attention to the gravity of the situation and act according to their best judgment

  20. Ticks (Ixodida) on humans from central Panama, Panama (2010-2011)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Castro, A.; Esser, H.J.; Liefting, Y.; Garcia, G.; Miranda, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    From January 2010 to December 2011, a total of 138 cases of ticks feeding on humans were reported from 11 locations in central Panama. Five of these locations were situated in forest environments, three in rural landscapes and three in urban areas. The ticks were submitted to the Gorgas Memorial

  1. Daugherty Memorial Assessment Center (DMAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Daugherty Memorial Assessment Center (DMAC) is a 39,000-square-foot facility that doubles the warfare center's high-secured performance assessment capabilities. DMAC...

  2. I've been shocked by the recent Panama [...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2016-01-01

    I'VE been shocked by the recent Panama Papers revelations. We all knew that the rich stashed their wealth overseas away from the taxman, but the way it reaches to the top of British government is mind-boggling. The Panama Papers point up the media's importance as the Fourth Estate - a watchdog

  3. Is Panama on a sustainable development path?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Zambrano Monserrate

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the long-term relationship between CO2 emissions, GDP and energy consumption in Panama during the period 1971-2011 through an autoregressive model of distributed delays to verify the cointegration of variables in the long term. The results confirm the presence of an environmental Kuznets curve and that CO2 emissions and energy consumption from primary sources do not affect economic growth and that environmental degradation increases with energy consumption. Finally, it makes some policy recommendations.

  4. Intelligence Strategy for Fourth Generation Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamison, Edward P

    2006-01-01

    ...." They have named this new era of war "fourth generation warfare." Currently the Department of Defense's intelligence strategy is designed to defeat conventional adversaries vise a fourth generation warfare opponent...

  5. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  6. More Effective Warfare: Warfare Waged Psychologically

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Marine barracks in Beirut. Over the years, their tactics have included car bombs, kidnappings, murders, and the hijacking of civilian airliners ...welfare centers cater to tens of thousands of families and their information network is unrivaled by any other terrorist organization.39 In 1992

  7. The Agua Salud Project, Central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R. F.; Elsenbeer, H.; Ogden, F. L.; Hall, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal's central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. It will be the largest field experiment of its kind in the tropics aimed at quantifying the environmental services (water, carbon, and biodiversity) provided by tropical forests. The Agua Salud Watershed is our principal field site. This watershed and the headwaters of several adjacent rivers include both protected mature forests and a wide variety of land uses that are typical of rural Panama. Experiments at the scale of entire catchments will permit complete water and carbon inventories and exchanges for different landscape uses. The following questions will be addressed: (1) How do landscape treatments and management approaches affect ecosystem services such as carbon storage, water quality and quantity, dry- season water supply, and biodiversity? (2) Can management techniques be designed to optimize forest production along with ecosystem services during reforestation? (3) Do different tree planting treatments and landscape management approaches influence groundwater storage, which is thought to be critical to maintaining dry-season flow, thus insuring the full operation of the Canal during periods of reduced rainfall and severe climatic events such as El Niño. In addition we anticipate expanding this project to address biodiversity, social, and economic values of these forests.

  8. Fort Laurdale Branch, Naval Surface Warfare Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...) facility located on the Eastern Seaboard. Here, NSWC and other research and development activities conduct full-scale trials of air, surface, and underwater weapon systems under a variety of oceanographic conditions...

  9. The ethics of drone warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the compatibility of the modern technologies of warfare, specifically the use of offensive drones, with traditional military ethics and suggests that the new technologies radically change the value system of the military in ways which make large parts of the traditional military ethics inapplicable. The author suggests that Agamben’s concept of ‘effectivity’ through ‘special actions’ which mark one’s belonging to a particular community or profession is a useful conceptual strategy to explore the compatibility of drone warfare with traditional military ethics; this strategy shows mixed results at best.

  10. The doctor and nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    At the 34th World Medical Assembly in Lisbon in 1981 the World Medical Association adopted a motion proposed by the American Medical Association that national medical associations should develop programs to educate the civilian population on the medical consequences of nuclear war. This article discusses the attitude the medical professions should have, should nuclear warfare in some form confront them in the future. The conclusion is drawn that defence against nuclear warfare is only a part of civil defence against any disaster, including the natural disasters such as flood and fire and the man-made disasters of transport accidents, even of problems at nuclear plants designed to supply energy

  11. Seismically observed seiching in the Panama Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.E.; Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Gee, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    A large portion of the seismic noise spectrum is dominated by water wave energy coupled into the solid Earth. Distinct mechanisms of water wave induced ground motions are distinguished by their spectral content. For example, cultural noise is generally Panama Canal there is an additional source of long-period noise generated by standing water waves, seiches, induced by disturbances such as passing ships and wind pressure. We compare seismic waveforms to water level records and relate these observations to changes in local tilt and gravity due to an oscillating seiche. The methods and observations discussed in this paper provide a first step toward quantifying the impact of water inundation as recorded by seismometers. This type of quantified understanding of water inundation will help in future estimates of similar phenomena such as the seismic observations of tsunami impact. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Panama välismajanduspoliitilised valikud / Sten Schwede

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schwede, Sten

    2003-01-01

    Panama Vabariigi suhtelise isoleerituse majanduslikest põhjustest. Analüüsi aluseks on regiooni majandusintegratsioonis toimunud arengud 1960. aastast alates. Tabel: Tööstuse osakaal sisemajanduse kogutoodangust Ladina-Ameerikas aastatel 1945-1999 (%)

  13. Assessment of tobacco control measures and smuggling in Panama

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to describe the evolution of the demand for tobacco in Panama from ... informal market may benefit the tobacco industry. The research team also ... public service establishments (such as bars, restaurants, casinos, and hotels).

  14. 76 FR 52632 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  15. Fish survey data from Uva Island reef, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project examines an eastern Pacific fish assemblage associated with a 2.5 hectare coral reef located within the boundaries of Coiba National Park, Panama. From...

  16. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    improving the transparency of its financial system. It signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement ( TIEA ) with the United States in November 2010, and by...work of money launderers. Both the signing of a TIEA with the United States and Panama’s approval of legislation related to “bearer shares” were...had wanted to delay consideration of the Panama FTA until the United States and Panama signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement ( TIEA ). This

  17. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H. J.; Breeveld, F. J.; Stijnis, C.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria

  18. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  19. The Anatomy of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Lars; Pedersen, Kenneth; Thruelsen, Peter Dahl

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the West has been increasingly involved in a tiresome and rather particular type of conflict: insurgency warfare. The bloody and shocking terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in September 2001 marked the beginning of a new era, and the introducti...

  20. Strategic Analysis of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the same mathematical equations used by Lanchester .10 Irregular Warfare Theory and Doctrine It is time to develop new analytical methods and models...basis on which to build, similar to what Lanchester provided almost 100 years ago. Figure 9 portrays both Lanchester’s approach and an irregular 17

  1. Roots of Russian Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Crissy, your encouragement throughout my career and especially during this project has been...all of the Russian disinformation techniques in Ukraine came directly “from Soviet toolkits .” Maria Snegovaya, “Putin’s Information Warfare In

  2. Technology Transition for Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-16

    and Iraq. At the same time, the science and technology base must provide the disruptive technologies to defeat future conventional enemies. This... disruptive technologies will be needed to retain long-term technological superiority in conventional warfare. Incremental improvement is the most...technology to be missed. Disruptive technologies are the second type of technological change and involve revolutionary concepts involving large technological

  3. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  4. CENTER FOR CYBER SECURITY STUDIES

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Center for Cyber Security Studies is to enhance the education of midshipmen in all areas of cyber warfare, to facilitate the sharing of expertise...

  5. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  6. Unconventional Cyber Warfare: Cyber Opportunities in Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Internet service provider IW irregular warfare MCO major combat operations MySQL open-source relational database management system NATO North...today, often with no regard for legal or ethical constraints. A better course of action would be to conduct operations in cyberspace within the precepts...built in feature of MySQL that 97 John Markoff, “Before the Gunfire, Cyberattacks,” York Times, August 13, 2008, sec. Technology, 1, http

  7. Hybrid Warfare: the 21st Century Russian Way of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    to wage information operations— from television, to the Internet, to unconventional forces on the ground spreading the message word -of- mouth ...adversarial vulnerabilities. Many of the peculiarities of hybrid warfare described herein are inextricably linked to Russia’s social , political, and...the US election. Then they utilized various means of media to distribute that information with the goal to discredit the US political process and

  8. 2008 13th Expeditionary Warfare Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-23

    platforms – Emphasize a mixed fleet approach that spans the “iron triangle” – Integrate MRAP into the fleet mix – Transition to a fleet of tactical...Urban Warfare Mountain Warfare Desert Warfare Jungle Riverine Special Skills Recon LOG CSS ENG MT HS Ord Maint EOD Pers Retrival ...Detection (Specialized Platform FLGPR)Stand-off (60M) Scaleable Neutralization (Area coverage) ABV Delivery Ground Cueing Stand-off (800M) Scaleable

  9. An Open Architecture Framework for Electronic Warfare Based Approach to HLA Federate Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyunSeo Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of electronic warfare models are developed in the Electronic Warfare Research Center. An Open Architecture Framework for Electronic Warfare (OAFEw has been developed for reusability of various object models participating in the electronic warfare simulation and for extensibility of the electronic warfare simulator. OAFEw is a kind of component-based software (SW lifecycle management support framework. This OAFEw is defined by six components and ten rules. The purpose of this study is to construct a Distributed Simulation Interface Model, according to the rules of OAFEw, and create Use Case Model of OAFEw Reference Conceptual Model version 1.0. This is embodied in the OAFEw-FOM (Federate Object Model for High-Level Architecture (HLA based distributed simulation. Therefore, we design and implement EW real-time distributed simulation that can work with a model in C++ and MATLAB API (Application Programming Interface. In addition, OAFEw-FOM, electronic component model, and scenario of the electronic warfare domain were designed through simple scenarios for verification, and real-time distributed simulation between C++ and MATLAB was performed through OAFEw-Distributed Simulation Interface.

  10. Federal Research: Opportunities Exist to Improve the Management and Oversight of Federally Funded Research and Development Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, William; Mittal, Anu; Neumann, John; Williams, Cheryl; Candon, Sharron; Sterling, Suzanne; Wade, Jacqueline; Zwanzig, Peter

    2008-01-01

    .... FFRDCs -- including laboratories, studies and analyses centers, and systems engineering centers -- conduct research in military space programs, nanotechnology, microelectronics, nuclear warfare...

  11. Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takemoto, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    ...). This paper lays a foundation by defining the terminology associated with Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain, reviews the threat and illustrates the vulnerabilities of our information systems...

  12. MEANS AND METHODS OF CYBER WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  13. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  14. Shadow Wars: An Analysis of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dogan, Osman

    2005-01-01

    ... of the current strategic approaches to counterinsurgency warfare. Toward this end, a systems model approach, which views insurgent organizations as open systems, is adapted to the insurgent environment...

  15. Bacillus spp as a biological control agent against panama disease in banana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gumede, WHN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The decreased productivity levels in crop production as a consequence of disease infection have been a great concern amongst agricultural communities. A similar threat is facing the banana-cultivating community due to Panama disease. Panama disease...

  16. The ethics of drone warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Fatić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates the compatibility of the modern technologies of warfare, specifically the use of offensive drones, with traditional military ethics and suggests that the new technologies radically change the value system of the military in ways which make large parts of the traditional military ethics inapplicable. The author suggests that Agamben’s concept of ‘effectivity’ through ‘special actions’ which mark one’s belonging to a particular communit...

  17. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardson, Kay

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive fallout, one of the major effects of nuclear warfare, will cause acute radiation sickness within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occur, and will cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. Estimates of collective doses and the approximate number of late casualties from the global contamination are presented for a given total explosion yield. (author)

  18. Radiological accident in Panama - IAEA to send assistance team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is sending a team of six international experts to assist the authorities of Panama to deal with the aftermath of a radiological accident that occurred at Panama's National Oncology Institute. The Government of Panama informed the IAEA on 22 May about the accident, reported that 28 patients have been affected, and requested IAEA's assistance under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, to which Panama is a party. The assistance to be provided by the expert mission will include: ensuring that the radiation source(s) involved in the accident is (are) in a safe and secure condition; evaluating the doses incurred by the affected patients, inter alia, by analysing the treatment records and physical measurements; undertaking a medical evaluation of the affected patients' prognosis and treatment, taking into account, inter alia, the autopsy findings for those who died; and identifying issues on which the IAEA could offer to provide and/or co-ordinate assistance to minimize the consequences of the accident. The team, which includes senior experts in radiology, radiotherapy, radiopathology, radiation dosimetry and radiation protection from France, USA and Japan, and the IAEA itself, will leave for Panama tomorrow, 26 May

  19. Descriptions of two new cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, and coincident infection with Rickettsia rickettsii in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. in an urban locality of Panama City, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Caballero, A; Moreno, B; González, C; Martínez, G; Adames, M; Pachar, J V; Varela-Petrucelli, J B; Martínez-Mandiche, J; Suárez, J A; Domínguez, L; Zaldívar, Y; Bermúdez, S

    2018-05-01

    The clinical and pathologic characterisation of two fatal cases of tick-borne rickettsiosis in rural (El Valle) and urban (City of Panama) Panama are described. Clinical and autopsy findings were non-specific, but the molecular analysis was used to identify Rickettsia rickettsii in both cases. No ticks were collected in El Valle, while in the urban case, R. rickettsii was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., representing the first molecular finding in this tick in Panama and Central America.

  20. Hybrid Warfare: Preparing for Future Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    ciceromagazine.com/?s=getting+behind+hybrid+warfare. Brown , Col Leslie F. “Twenty-First Century Warfare Will be Hybrid.” Carlisle Barracks, PA...Lebanon and Gaza.” Rand Corporation Occasional Paper. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 2010. Jones, Gareth and Darya Korsunskaya. “U.S., EU

  1. Reactivity of Dual-Use Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    REACTIVITY OF DUAL-USE DECONTAMINANTS WITH CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS ECBC-TR-1384... Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Willis, Matthew P...extraction) of chemical warfare agents from materials. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent Liquid-phase

  2. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    About 20 percent of Panama has been covered by airborne radiometric surveys, largely in the Azuero-Petaquilia area. Essentially no ground examinations have been made. About one third of the country remains unmapped. Most of the rest has been examined only in rapid reconnaissance largely by the United Nations and oil companies. Detailed mapping has been confined to the Canal Zone. No uranium deposits or prospects of economic interest are known in Panama. There appears to be no information available on present exploration activities for uranium. Panama has no specific legislation relating to nuclear energy. However, all mineral deposits belong to the state, except for salt and similar materials, and are governed by the mineral resources code. There appears to be only one remote possibility for uranium mineralization in Panama, namely, sandstone-type deposits. Marginal marine and fluvial sediments, such as host sandstone-type deposits elsewhere, are most abundant 1n the lower Cenozoic parts of the Azuero and possibly Bocas del Toro basins and are probably absent or poorly developed in the Darien and Central basin. Rocks with even moderate background uranium concentrations to be leached and deposited in such sediments are confined to the silicic and alkaline Intrusive rocks of the La Yeguada Formation 1n western Panama and possibly the Rio Guayabo stock in the Sierra de Maje of eastern Panama. Only the La Yeguada Formation is extensive enough and near enough to a potential sedimentary ore host to be important. Uranium concentrations have not been measured in this unit but its silicic composition, relatively young age (with respect to other volcanic rocks in Panama) and high ash content suggest that it may have relatively high Teachable uranium content. The best areas for exploration for La Yeguada-derived sandstone-type uranium deposits would be in the Pese formation between Santiago and Chitre in the Azuero basin. Possibly favourable sandstone type exploration ground

  3. The Information Warfare Life Cycle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett van Niekerk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information warfare (IW is a dynamic and developing concept, which constitutes a number of disciplines. This paper aims to develop a life cycle model for information warfare that is applicable to all of the constituent disciplines. The model aims to be scalable and applicable to civilian and military incidents where information warfare tactics are employed. Existing information warfare models are discussed, and a new model is developed from the common aspects of these existing models. The proposed model is then applied to a variety of incidents to test its applicability and scalability. The proposed model is shown to be applicable to multiple disciplines of information warfare and is scalable, thus meeting the objectives of the model.

  4. The Information Warfare Life Cycle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett van Niekerk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Information warfare (IW is a dynamic and developing concept, which constitutes a number of disciplines. This paper aims to develop a life cycle model for information warfare that is applicable to all of the constituent disciplines. The model aims to be scalable and applicable to civilian and military incidents where information warfare tactics are employed. Existing information warfare models are discussed, and a new model is developed from the common aspects of these existing models. The proposed model is then applied to a variety of incidents to test its applicability and scalability. The proposed model is shown to be applicable to multiple disciplines of information warfare and is scalable, thus meeting the objectives of the model.

  5. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvarson, K.

    1975-01-01

    The radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions is one of the major effects of nuclear warfare. Those levels causing acute radiation sickness are to be expected only within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occurred and cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. The collective doses and the order of magnitude of late casualties from this global contamination are estimated for a given total explosion yield. (auth)

  6. A new species of Anolis lizard (Squamata, Iguania from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Poe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Anolis is described from western Panama and eastern Costa Rica. Populations of the new form were previously allocated to A. chocorum. However, the new species differs from A. chocorum in characters of color pattern, scalation and proportion.

  7. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  8. GEOPOLITICS AND TRANSPORTATION. UNITED STATES AND PANAMA CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benea Ciprian Beniamin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the great connection which exists between the realization of Panama Canal and the rising power on United States; and how this state, after the construction of this canal, could promote efficiently at global level its interests.

  9. 76 FR 68117 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission grants a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee, LLC... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...

  10. Identification and genetic analysis of Panama-genotype Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberste, M S; Weaver, S C; Watts, D M; Smith, J F

    1998-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus was isolated in 1993, 1994, and 1995 from human cases of acute, undifferentiated, febrile illness in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Two virus isolates were recovered in 1994 from Peruvian soldiers at a jungle outpost near Pantoja in northern Peru, and 10 isolates were obtained from military personnel and civilians in 1993-1995 in Iquitos, an urban center in northeastern Peru. The genetic relationship of these isolates to other VEE virus strains was determined by sequencing 856-867 nucleotide reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction fragments derived from the PE2 glycoprotein gene. The sequences were compared with those of other VEE virus strains, including representatives of the IAB, IC, ID, IE, II, and IIIC subtypes. The two Pantoja isolates were most closely related to subtype IC and ID viruses previously isolated in Colombia and Venezuela, and to the ID viruses isolated during the 1970s in Iquitos. All of the recent Iquitos isolates were similar to one another, but they were more closely related to Panamanian ID strains than to isolates previously obtained in Iquitos, Peru, or in Colombia and Venezuela. The recent Iquitos VEE viral isolates were the first Panama-genotype VEE ID virus strains identified outside of the Republic of Panama.

  11. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova Anna Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  12. Domestication of the neotropical tree Chrysophyllum cainito from a geographically limited yet genetically diverse gene pool in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer J; Parker, Ingrid M; Potter, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Species in the early stages of domestication, in which wild and cultivated forms co-occur, provide important opportunities to develop and test hypotheses about the origins of crop species. Chrysophyllum cainito (Sapotaceae), the star apple or caimito, is a semidomesticated tree widely cultivated for its edible fruits; it is known to be native to the neotropics, but its precise geographic origins have not been firmly established. Here, we report results of microsatellite marker analyses supporting the hypothesis that the center of domestication for caimito was the Isthmus of Panama, a region in which few crop species are believed to have originated, despite its importance as a crossroads for the dispersal of domesticated plants between North and South America. Our data suggest that caimito was domesticated in a geographically restricted area while incorporating a diverse gene pool. These results refute the generally accepted Antillean origin of caimito, as well as alternative hypotheses that the species was domesticated independently in the two areas or over a broad geographic range including both. Human-mediated dispersal from Panama to the north and east was accompanied by strong reductions in both genotypic and phenotypic diversity. Within Panama, cultivated and wild trees show little neutral genetic divergence, in contrast to striking phenotypic differentiation in fruit and seed traits. In addition to providing a rare example of data that support the hypothesis of a narrow geographic origin on the Isthmus of Panama for a now widespread cultivated plant species, this study is one of the first investigations of the origins of an edible species of the large pantropical family Sapotaceae.

  13. Moltke as a Model for Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Daniel P

    1998-01-01

    ... with late 20th century Information Warfare (IW). Clausewitz, with his emphasis on concentrating forces for a decisive battle, or Sun Tzu, with his focus on an indirect approach and subduing the enemy without battle, might appear to be more...

  14. Gas Warfare in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintham, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of gas warfare during World War I was increased by the lack of a basic understanding of the behavior of gases on the part of the soldiers. This was a result of deficiencies in science education. (BB)

  15. Prehistoric ceremonial warfare: beginning of institutionalized violence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2017), s. 535-548 ISSN 1555-8622 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : human aggression * ceremonial warfare * archery symbolism * Neolithic * Chalcolithic * Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  16. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howes, Norman R; Mezzino, Michael; Sarkesain, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Cyber warfare then becomes a one-sided battle where the attacker makes all the strikes and the target of the attack responds so slowly that the attacker usually gets away without being identified...

  17. Enzymatic Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raushel, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is the development of a versatile enzyme-based system that is fully optimized for the decontamination, destruction, and detection of know chemical warfare agents...

  18. Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Muhammad

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the need for specialist training for mountain warfare. It analyzes the special characteristics of mountain and high altitude terrain which affect conduct of military operations...

  19. Insurgent Uprising: An Unconventional Warfare Wargame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Cleveland, Charles T. Connett, and Will Irwin. “Unconventional Warfare in the Gray Zone.” Joint Forces Quarterly 80, no. 1 (2016). Work, Robert O...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Today, and in the future, unconventional solutions will present U.S. policymakers with options for dealing...training objectives and will complement existing training exercises. 14. SUBJECT TERMS unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct

  20. Distributed computing environment for Mine Warfare Command

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Lane L.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Mine Warfare Command in Charleston, South Carolina has been converting its information systems architecture from a centralized mainframe based system to a decentralized network of personal computers over the past several years. This thesis analyzes the progress Of the evolution as of May of 1992. The building blocks of a distributed architecture are discussed in relation to the choices the Mine Warfare Command has made to date. Ar...

  1. Route survey periodicity for mine warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Coke, Hartwell F.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited One of the Navy's most long standing challenges has been conquering the mine warfare threat. As mines and mine warfare techniques evolve and become more sophisticated, so does the United States' ability to counter the threat. The United States newest technique for countering a potential mined harbor, or route, is a process known as "change detection." This concept uses previous side scan sonar images of the area prior to a mining event an...

  2. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. On the Probability of Predicting and Mapping Traditional Warfare Measurements to the Cyber Warfare Domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyber warfare is a contentious topic, with no agreement on whether this is a real possibility or an unrealistic extension of the physical battlefield. This article will not debate the validity and legality of the concept of cyber warfare...

  4. [Little epidemic caused by Salmonella panama (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, M; Licht, W; Richter, M

    1977-05-06

    Between 8. 1. 1976 and 10. 8. 1976 16 new or premature born children got a gastroenteritis due to salmonella panama. All these children were together in one pediatric ward of the hospital. Most of them came directly for the labour ward or from the newborn-ward. They had antibiotic therapy due to the indication of the mother or the child. It was impossible to fine the source of the salmonella infection, therefore, finally the ward was closed. After radical desinfection new patients came to the ward. Again they were infected with salmonella panama. Now it became clear that contaminated milk (Humanan-Heilnahrung) was the source of infections. Most papers mention a mild benign course of the infections. In contrary we could see severe conditions dependent on the pre-damage of the child or his reduced immunity. The minimal number of germs of dietic food products needs to be examinated.

  5. Hydrological effects of tropical land use management incentives: Panama Canal Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred Ogden; Jefferson S. Hall; Holly Barnard; Robert F. Stallard; Ell Fenichel; Vic Adamowicz; Brent Ewers; Ed Kempema; Julian Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Panama lies in the seasonal tropics and over 85 percent of annual precipitation falls during the May-December wet season. Extreme rainfall events near the end of the wet season can produce flooding that impact Panama Canal operations. During the December-April dry season, occasional water shortages limit the draft of ships passing through the Panama Canal, as well as...

  6. Role of the United States Military in Panama Beyond 2000 A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-15

    national debt, deregulates the labor market, removes industrial protectionism, minimizes state interference in the market, lowers the high cost of...34Presentation to Asociacion Panamae na de Ejecutivos de Empresa ," Director J.S.A.I.D., Panama, 14 November 1990. 25 CHAPTER VII U.S. MILITARY’S ROLE IN...effort. For Panama, the continued U.S. presence at these bases would create jobs, stimulate small industry growth and enhance Panamanian

  7. The U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    with respect to the Panama Canal Area. Its status as an autonomous legal entity under the Panamanian Constitution required separate negotiations for...Congressional Research Service 16 the Panamanian agricultural sector. Sugar constitutes a third of Panama’s total agricultural exports, compared...that these provisions would be applied in the United States. Circumstances changed under NAFTA , when investor-state provisions gave rise to

  8. Overexposure of radiotherapy patients in Panama: Dosimetric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.; Rudder, D.; Amer, A.

    2001-01-01

    In March 2001, after treatment received in the National Oncological Institute of Panama, 28 patients over reacted due to a radiation overdose calculated by mistake through the algorithm of a Computerized Therapy Planning System (TPS) with Radiotherapy. Medical Physicists planned a four blocks simultaneous digitization, even though the TPS briefings only allowed the digitization of one block per time, but the software didn't notified that the procedure was not authorized, producing serious medical consequences for all the patients [es

  9. "A Quantile Regression Analysis of Wages in Panama."

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelos M. Falaris

    2004-01-01

    I investigate differences in the effects of worker characteristics on wages in Panama at different points of the conditional wage distribution. Public sector employment increases wages of men and of women relatively more at lower quantiles. Public sector employment increases wages of the median worker in that sector and reduces wage inequality within the sector. The existence of a labor union at a worker’s workplace increases relatively more wages of men at lower quantiles. Labor unions reduc...

  10. Storm Impact Assessment for Beaches at Panama City, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Panama City Beaches, and they contain a wide variety of beach homes, condominiums, hotels, small commercial tourism - based enterprises, and resorts. The...exam Mexico Beach T O2.5 miles MaVO Ma KLLT GUL F OF MEXI CO Erosion Area No. 5I C EWoM Crooked Island 4.2 miles ECT Erosion Area No. 4 BAY Lwcmca.n

  11. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    underdevelopment. He was popular among younger voters and had a base of support in rural areas. Torrijos maintained that his first priority would be...Latin America, March 29, 2010. 24 U.N. Development Program, Informe Sobre Desarrollo Humano Para América Central 2009-2010: Abrir Espacios a la...Seguridad Ciudadana y el Desarrollo Humano, October 2009. 25 “Panama: Drug-Fueled Violence on the Increase,” Noticen, Central American & Caribbean

  12. Foraging Behavior of Odontomachus bauri on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Ehmer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraging behavior and partitioning of foraging areas of Odonomachus bauri were investigated on Barro Colorado Island in Panama. The activity of the ants did not show any daily pattern; foragers were active day and night. The type of prey captured by O. bauri supports the idea that in higher Odontomachus and Anochetus species, the high speed of mandible closure serves more for generating power than capturing elusive prey. Polydomous nests may enable O. bauri colonies to enlarge their foraging areas.

  13. The Impact of Irregular Warfare on the US Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, III, Roger L

    2006-01-01

    Although the U.S. Army has yet to clearly define irregular warfare, it is imperative that the Army take near-term action to enhance the ability of Soldiers and units to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment...

  14. Dilemmas of Warfare in Densely Populated Civilian Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Tamir

    2012-01-01

    This essay attempts to present operational perspectives on conducting warfare in densely populated areas. It also distinguishes between three types of combat within this general category, with the goal of shedding light on this complex type of warfare.

  15. Optimized Waterspace Management and Scheduling Using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PANAMA CITY DIVISION PANAMA CITY, FLORIDA 32407-7001 5(3257...task. This paper is outlined as follows: in Section 2, we discuss the general setup of the the MCM scheduling problem, including the definition of the...Suite 1425 Arlington, VA 22203-1995 Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division 1 ATTN: Technical Library 110 Vernon Avenue Panama City, FL 32407 27

  16. Cyber Attacks, Information Attacks, and Postmodern Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuch Jozef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and differentiate between the phenomena of cyberwarfare and information warfare, as manifestations of what we perceive as postmodern warfare. We describe and analyse the current examples of the use the postmodern warfare and the reactions of states and international bodies to these phenomena. The subject matter of this paper is the relationship between new types of postmodern conflicts and the law of armed conflicts (law of war. Based on ICJ case law, it is clear that under current legal rules of international law of war, cyber attacks as well as information attacks (often performed in the cyberspace as well can only be perceived as “war” if executed in addition to classical kinetic warfare, which is often not the case. In most cases perceived “only” as a non-linear warfare (postmodern conflict, this practice nevertheless must be condemned as conduct contrary to the principles of international law and (possibly a crime under national laws, unless this type of conduct will be recognized by the international community as a “war” proper, in its new, postmodern sense.

  17. ISIL's Hybrid Warfare in Syria & Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heine

    2016-01-01

    of and ability to synchronize various instruments of power with a view to achieving their end-state. With regards to the second part of the problem statement, the analysis demonstrates how ISIL employed horizontal escalation and ambiguity initially, but later on turned to vertical escalation, within the military......The case study specifically seeks to answer the following problem statement: Does ISIL qualify as an actor using hybrid warfare and if so what characterizes their particular use of this type of warfare? Based on an analysis of ISIL’s warfare from August 2012 to August 2016 the chapter argues......, that it is possible to answer the first part of the problem statement in an affirmative way. Hence, ISIL is not only theoretically prone to hybridity by organizational setup, and by the people comprising the organization, but has in fact continuously acted according to a hybrid logic in its prioritization...

  18. Survey on Urban Warfare Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban warfare has become one of the main forms of modern combat in the twenty-first century. The main reason why urban warfare results in hundreds of casualties is that the situational information of the combatant is insufficient. Accessing information via an Augmented Reality system can elevate combatants’ situational awareness to effectively improve the efficiency of decision-making and reduce the injuries. This paper begins with the concept of Urban Warfare Augmented Reality (UWAR and illuminates the objectives of developing UWAR, i.e., transparent battlefield, intuitional perception and natural interaction. Real-time outdoor registration, information presentation and natural interaction are presented as key technologies of a practical UWAR system. Then, the history and current research state of these technologies are summarized and their future developments are highlighted from three perspectives, i.e., (1 Better integration with Geographic Information System and Virtual Geographic Environment; (2 More intelligent software; (3 More powerful hardware.

  19. Mongol Warfare in the Pre-Dissolution Period »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Mongols used many of the tactics and strategies that steppe nomads had used for centuries, the Mongols refined steppe warfare so that this style of warfare reached its apogee during the Mongol Empire. Furthermore, the Mongols developed a style of warfare that made them possibly the greatest military force in history. This work examines several facets of the pre-dissolution period (1200–1260. With the dissolution of the Mongol Empire, Mongol warfare once again changed. In some areas it remained complex while in others it regressed to traditional forces of steppe warfare, still potent but not as effective as the pre-dissolution period.

  20. Three new species of Anacroneuria Klapálek (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2015-05-13

    In Central America, the Plecoptera is represented by the genera Anacroneuria and Perlesta, both from the Perlidae family. A total of 45 species have been reported for the region, of which 16 have been found in Panama, all of the genus Anacroneuria. Three new species for Panama are described in this study: Anacroneuria darien, A. embera, and A. laru.

  1. 78 FR 65221 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Supplement (DFARS) to implement the United States--Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion...--Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. No respondents submitted public comments in response to the interim... effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs...

  2. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1...

  3. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. 148.3 Section 148.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 148.3 Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and effects and...

  4. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. 69.7... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.7 Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. (a... Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of...

  5. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo......The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition...... of developing best practices in the education and implementation of IHL in capacity building of security forces....

  6. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  8. Nutrition, poverty alleviation, and development in Central America and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, Maarten D C

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews research with policy relevance for food and nutrition in Central America and similar areas. The research was conducted by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) during the last three decades of the past millennium (1970-99). Six policy areas were selected for this review: agricultural commercialization and rural development; wage and price policies; human resource development; social safety nets, particularly complementary food programs; multi-sectoral nutrition planning; and food and nutrition monitoring for policy formulation. The contents and major conclusions of the work are described, as well as their public policy implications.

  9. Evaluation of the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) Cost and Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Flavell, Drew G.; Dorwin, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the Cost and Performance Measurements within four Program Directorates at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR). SPAWAR is the Navy's full-spectrum research, development, test and evaluation, engineering and fleet support center for Command, Control and Communications Systems, Ocean Surveillance Systems and the integration of those systems that overarch multiplatforms. In the era of lean military bu...

  10. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    combatant commanders develop special warfare cam- paign options for their theaters that can be integral parts of the national approach. Getting buy -in at...the resistance spawning franchise operations at home or abroad? – Is the resistance attracting funding or other forms of assistance (indigenous

  11. Warfare and the Teaching of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salevouris, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that history teachers must challenge simplistic romantic notions about war. Proposes two approaches to teaching about war: the use of personal war narratives; and examining the relationship between warfare and society. Discusses literature related to these approaches. Contends that only through realistic assessments of war can peace be…

  12. The technical Dimensions of Nuclear Warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    This text, written by Engelbert Broda in 1977 is about the dimensions of nuclear warfare. Broda describes the devastating effects of the nuclear bombs dropped in 1945 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and compares these effects with the explosive power of Hydrogen weapons. He also expresses his concerns about another nuclear ware and analyses possible worsening situations like change in the military doctrine. (nowak)

  13. Book Review COMPOSITE WARFARE: THE CONDUCT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPOSITE WARFARE: THE CONDUCT OF. SUCCESSFUL GROUND FORCE. OPERATIONS IN AFRICA. Eeben Barlow. Abel Esterhuyse, PhD. Stellenbosch University. Pinetown: 30 Degrees South Publishers. 2015, 576 pages. ISBN 9781928211761. Africa is still one of the most conflict-ridden places on earth – from ...

  14. MOSES, development of an Underwater Warfare Testbed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentze, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    The TNO underwater warfare (UWW) research programme results in a large number of models used in operational research projects. To enhance the accessibility and re-use of these models for new projects, TNO-FEL has developed the modelling environment ‘MOSES - Maritime Operations Simulation and

  15. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview is presented of the major methods that are presently available for biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents, i.e., nerve agents and sulfur mustard. These methods can be applied for a variety of purposes such as diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of casualties, verification

  16. New Developments in Chinese Strategic Psychological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Taoism , which coupled hardness with softness in warfare, was not the only influence on the theory of psychological operations in ancient China. Other...portraying Islamic martyrs who appear to speak to soldiers from the clouds.38 In contemporary wars, such as the Gulf War, the first targets attacked have

  17. Health-related quality of life of chemical warfare victims: an assessment with the use of a specific tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL.

  18. [Survey on avoidable blindness and visual impairment in Panama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maritza; Brea, Ileana; Yee, Rita; Yi, Rodolfo; Carles, Víctor; Broce, Alberto; Limburg, Hans; Silva, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Determine prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in adults aged ≥ 50 years in Panama, identify their main causes, and characterize eye health services. Cross-sectional population study using standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology. Fifty people aged ≥ 50 years were selected from each of 84 clusters chosen through representative random sampling of the entire country. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen chart; lens and posterior pole status were assessed by direct ophthalmoscopy. Cataract surgery coverage was calculated and its quality assessed, along with causes of visual acuity blindness was 3.0% (95% CI: 2.3-3.6). The main cause of blindness was cataract (66.4%), followed by glaucoma (10.2%). Cataract (69.2%) was the main cause of severe visual impairment and uncorrected refractive errors were the main cause of moderate visual impairment (60.7%). Surgical cataract coverage in individuals was 76.3%. Of all eyes operated for cataract, 58.0% achieved visual acuity ≤ 20/60 with available correction. Prevalence of blindness in Panama is in line with average prevalence found in other countries of the Region. This problem can be reduced, since 76.2% of cases of blindness and 85.0% of cases of severe visual impairment result from avoidable causes.

  19. A Predictive Model of Surface Warfare Officer Retention: Factors Affecting Turnover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gjurich, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    Junior Surface Warfare Officer retention is in a crisis. The Surface Warfare Officer community anticipates an inability to fill Department Head billets due to the number of junior Surface Warfare Officers leaving military service...

  20. 76 FR 70695 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: U.S. Navy Training in 12 Range Complexes and U.S. Air Force...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... of paper, disk, or CD-ROM comments should be addressed to Michael Payne, Chief, Permits, Conservation...) Range Complex, the Cherry Point (CHPT) Range Complex, the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City...

  1. Information operation/information warfare modeling and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Buettner, Raymond

    2000-01-01

    Information Operations have always been a part of warfare. However, this aspect of warfare is having ever-greater importance as forces rely more and more on information as an enabler. Modern information systems make possible very rapid creation, distribution, and utilization of information. These same systems have vulnerabilities that can be exploited by enemy forces. Information force-on-force is important and complex. New tools and procedures are needed for this warfare arena. As these t...

  2. Military Engineers and Chemical Warfare Troops (Inzhenernye Voiska Khimicheskie Voiska),

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS, MILITARY ENGINEERING , INFANTRY, AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS, MINELAYING, ARMORED VEHICLES, NUCLEAR...RADIATION, DOSIMETERS, CHEMICAL WARFARE, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, DECONTAMINATION, HEALTH PHYSICS.

  3. Electronic Warfare: Comprehensive Strategy Needed for Suppressing Enemy Air Defenses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... To achieve this suppression, the services use specialized aircraft designed to neutralize, destroy, or temporarily degrade enemy air defense systems through either physical attack or electronic warfare...

  4. Are Current Psychological Operations Procedures Adequate in Information Warfare?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duff, Murray

    1997-01-01

    .... While some aspects of information warfare are conducted domestically, many are executed on foreign soil and involve extensive interaction with other governments, their population, non-governmental...

  5. Investigation of the nutrition problems of Central America and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyave, Guillermo

    2010-03-01

    From its earliest years, INCAP gave a high priority to a multidisciplinary effort to learn as much as possible about the dietary habits, nutritional status, and their consequences in the populations of Central America and Panama. Most of the papers in this Special Issue contain some of this information. The first studies were in schoolchildren but were soon extended to preschool children, pregnant and lactating women, and other adults. This paper describes the principal findings of the initial dietary, biochemical, and clinical community-based studies. From 1965-67, very extensive studies were carried out in all six countries including dietary, biochemical, clinical, and anthological studies were carried out in all six countries, the results of which are summarized.

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama: a cluster description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribaldos, Maribel; Zaldivar, Yamitzel; Bermudez, Sergio; Samudio, Franklyn; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Martinez, Alexander A; Villalobos, Rodrigo; Eremeeva, Marina E; Paddock, Christopher D; Page, Kathleen; Smith, Rebecca E; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2011-10-13

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. We report a cluster of fatal cases of RMSF in 2007 in Panama, involving a pregnant woman and two children from the same family.  The woman presented with a fever followed by respiratory distress, maculopapular rash, and an eschar at the site from which a tick had been removed.  She died four days after disease onset.  This is the second published report of an eschar in a patient confirmed by PCR to be infected with R. rickettsii.  One month later, the children presented within days of one another with fever and rash and died three and four days after disease onset. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, PCR and sequencing of the genes of R. rickettsii in tissues obtained at autopsy. 

  7. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  8. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...

  9. Chemical warfare agents. Classes and targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Michael

    2018-09-01

    Synthetic toxic chemicals (toxicants) and biological poisons (toxins) have been developed as chemical warfare agents in the last century. At the time of their initial consideration as chemical weapon, only restricted knowledge existed about their mechanisms of action. There exist two different types of acute toxic action: nonspecific cytotoxic mechanisms with multiple chemo-biological interactions versus specific mechanisms that tend to have just a single or a few target biomolecules. TRPV1- and TRPA-receptors are often involved as chemosensors that induce neurogenic inflammation. The present work briefly surveys classes and toxicologically relevant features of chemical warfare agents and describes mechanisms of toxic action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes and Microbotryales, Basidiomycota in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Piepenbring

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first publication dedicated to the diversity of smut fungi in Panama bases on field work, the study of herbarium specimens, and referentes taken from literatura. It includes smuts parasitizing cultivated and wild plants. The latter are mostly found in rural vegetation. Among the 24 species cites here, 14 species are recorded for the first time for Panama. One of them, Sporisorium ovarium, is observes for the first time in Central America. Entyloma spilanthis is found on the host species Acmella papposa var. macrophylla (Asteraceae for the first time. Entyloma costaricense and Entyloma ecuadorense are considered synonyms of Entyloma compositarum and Entyloma spilanthis respectively. For the new conbination Sponsorium panamensis see note at the end of this publication. Descriptions of the species are complemented by some illustrations, a checklist, and a key.Esta es la primera publicación dedicada a la diversidad de carbones en Panamá. Tiene su base en trabajo de campo, estudio de especímenes herborizados y referencias de la literatura. Se incluyen carbones patógenos de plantas cultivadas y silvestres. Las últimas se encontraron sobre todo en zonas rurales. Entre las 24 especies citadas en este estudio, 14 especies son primeros registros para Panamá y una de éstas, Sporisorium ovarium, para América Central. Se encontró Entyloma spilanthis por primera vez en la planta hospedera Acmella papposa var.macrophylla (Asteraceac. Entyloma costaricense y Entyloma ecuadorense son sinónimos de Entyloma compositarum y Entyloma spilanthis respectivamente. "Sphacelotheca" panamensis es una especie dudosa. Se complementan las descripciones de las especies con algunas ilustraciones, una lista de especies y una clave.

  11. Mapping the Spread of Mounted Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Turchin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Military technology is one of the most important factors affecting the evolution of complex societies. In particular, mounted warfare, the use of horse-riders in military operations, revolutionized war as it spread to different parts of Eurasia and Africa during the Ancient and Medieval eras, and to the Americas during the Early Modern period. Here we use a variety of sources to map this spread.

  12. UML modelling of network warfare examples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ] Affects both civilian and military domains [8] [9] Related to the concepts of infowar, information operations, hacking, hackivism, cyberterrorism and cybotage depending on motivations and techniques [10] Encompasses both technological solutions...]. In addition, Williers as well as Qingbao and Anwar discuss more offensive aspects of information security and Network Warfare like Hacking, Vulnerability Injection, Network Attacks, Denial of Capability, Interception and Blockage [6] [18] [19]. Various...

  13. Maritime Trade Warfare Against a Modern Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Malaysian and Singaporean support. Operational Environment The previous sections have assessed that an oil embargo would be effective at influencing...will be addressed. The first approach is to stop the trade at its source. This approach forms the foundation of many contemporary sanctions. Under...antisubmarine warfare capable ships, could be sufficient to defend against forces attempting to break a blockade, and a carrier battle group in the Indian Ocean

  14. Navy Operational Planner - Undersea Warfare Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    concepts are considered in NOP–USW that are not in previous research: time phasing of missions, mutually exclusive missions, and asset availability...operational planning efforts. NOP–USW suggests the correct allocation of assets across a wide theater of operation to accomplish missions in the...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAVY OPERATIONAL PLANNER – UNDERSEA WARFARE MODULE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Guy A. Molina 7

  15. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare: Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    language, proficiency in small-unit tactics, and the ability to build and fight alongside indigenous combat formations in a permissive, uncertain, or...counterinsurgency through and with indigenous forces or personnel.”1 The report has four aims: (1) to adapt conventional operational art to the unique...perfect near-real-time situational awareness,” at least at the tactical level of land warfare in complex terrain. But the idea of leveraging information

  16. Bahia Las Minas, Panama Oil Spill Assessment, 1986-1991 (NODC Accession 9400033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In April 1986 a major oil spill from a ruptured storage tank at a local refinery just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal polluted an area of coral...

  17. Regional Specialization. The Middle Americas: Mexico, Panama, Central America and the Caribbean Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Mark H; Inman, Kenneth A

    1997-01-01

    .... Generally viewed as lagging in efforts to develop stable governments and self-sustaining economies, Mexico, Central America to include Panama and the Caribbean, henceforth Middle America, have in the...

  18. The Alleged Death of the Monroe Doctrine: Panama as a Case Study, 1977-1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isenhower, James

    2002-01-01

    ... ceremony symbolizing the transfer of canal responsibility to the Panamanian government. The U.S. Senate had made the transfer possible twenty-one years earlier, after ratifying the Panama Canal treaties with just one vote to spare...

  19. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study and the America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce a series...

  20. Bahia Las Minas, Panama Oil Spill Assessment 1986-1991, (NODC Accession 9400033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In April 1986 a major oil spill from a ruptured storage tank at a local refinery just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal polluted an area of coral...

  1. Fish survey data from Uva Island reef, Panama collected between 1980 and 2010 (NCEI Accession 0157563)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains an eastern Pacific fish assemblage associated with a 2.5 hectare coral reef located within the boundaries of Coiba National Park, Panama. From...

  2. Bibliography of the SAIL Panama Canal Zone Project 2008 : a selected bibliography.

    OpenAIRE

    DeHart, Liz

    2009-01-01

    During the 18th Annual 2008 SAIL meeting at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, Vielka Chang-Yau, librarian, mentioned the need to digitize and make available through the Aquatic Commons some of the early documents related to the U.S. biological survey of Panama from 1910 to 1912. With the assistance of SAIL, a regional marine librarian’s group, a digital project developed and this select bibliography represents the sources used for the project. It will assist research...

  3. New species of Cerambycidae from Panama, with new distribution records (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezark, Larry G; Tyson, William H; Schiff, Nathan M

    2013-01-21

    Two new species of Cerambycidae, Tessaropa elizabeth Bezark, sp. nov. (subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe Methiini ) and Anelaphus cordiforme Tyson, sp. nov. (subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe Elaphidiini), are described from the western part of the Darien, Panama. Nine new country records for Panama are reported for the following species: Adetus linsleyi Mar-tins & Galileo, Estola strandiella Breuning, Nubosoplatus inbio Swift, Paranisopodus heterotarsus Monné & Martins, Pempteurys sericans Bates, Rosalba costaricensis (Melzer), Tomopterus brevicornis Giesbert, Psapharochrus nigricans (Lameere), and Oedudes bifasciata (Bates).

  4. Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division Patent Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    2.0 parts of an oil soluble antioxidant , from 0.0 to 5.0 parts of a water-displacing compound, an effective amount of a mildew-inhibiting compound...effective amount of an oil soluble alkyl phosphate, from 0.1 to 2.0 parts of an oil soluble antioxidant , from 0.1 to 5.0 parts of a water-displacing...Market Opportunities: • Exercise, recreational, or motor sports • Fire Fighters and First Responders for rescue missions • Hazmat teams or specialist

  5. Characteristics of the Navy Laboratory Warfare Center Technical Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-29

    Mathematics and Information Science (M&IS) Actuarial Science 1510 Computer Science 1550 Gen. Math & Statistics 1501 Mathematics 1520 Operations...Admin. Network Systems & Data Communication Analysts Actuaries Mathematicians Operations Research Analyst Statisticians Social Science (SS...workforce was sub-divided into six broad occupational groups: Life Science , Physical Science , Engineering, Mathematics, Computer Science and Information

  6. Naval Sea Systems Command > Home > Warfare Centers > NSWC Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Richard A. Braunbeck III Capt. Stephen H. Murray, left, salutes his relief, Capt. Richard A. Braunbeck III -321 NORCO, Calif. (Dec. 7, 2016) Capt. Stephen H. Murray, commanding officer of Naval Surface... https ): Dewin Andujar (Virtual Reality); Nicholas Manning (Maritime Capture the Flag); Stephen O'Grady

  7. The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Storm

    2016-01-01

    by its economic, political and ideological characteristics. With the single assumption of economic rationality in human behaviour, Cycle of Warfare is not only coherent, it is applicable to all entities engaged in competition anywhere in the world at any point in history. The Cycle of Warfare can be used...

  8. Surface Warfare Officers Initial Training For Future Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    9 A school is initial rating specific technical training that is given to sailors. 14 Figure 4. Less...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS— INITIAL TRAINING FOR FUTURE SUCCESS March 2018...professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS—INITIAL TRAINING FOR FUTURE SUCCESS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Arron J

  9. Anti-Air Warfare Research for Naval Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, A.A.F.; Witberg, R.

    2000-01-01

    AAW is a warfare area with wide-spread spectrum. Command and Control Systems, sensors, effectors and electronic warfare are integrated to a system, they influence each other and must eventually be effective in coordinated action. This complexity asks for Operations Research methods to measure

  10. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard,

  11. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Seyfettin EROL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main security issues for the West and especially for NATO after the Russia-Ukraine crisis. Russian military strategies, called “hybrid warfare” by the western countries, resulted in the successful annexation of Crimea and, caused a serious security problem for the West resulting important structural and functional changes for the military system of NATO. Russian activities, which have been based on surprise, ambiguity and deniability, presented a unique example for hybrid warfare studies.

  12. Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite (MATS): A Software Framework for Automatic Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER PANAMA CITY DIVISION PANAMA CITY, FL 32407-7001 TECHNICAL REPORT NSWC PCD TR-2017-004 MODULAR ...31-01-2017 Technical Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite (MATS): A Software Framework for Automatic Target Recognition DR...flexible platform to facilitate the development and testing of ATR algorithms. To that end, NSWC PCD has created the Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite

  13. Phylogeography and connectivity of molluscan parasites: Perkinsus spp. in Panama and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Hill-Spanik, Kristina M; Torchin, Mark E; Fleischer, Robert C; Carnegie, Ryan B; Reece, Kimberly S; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2018-02-01

    Panama is a major hub for commercial shipping between two oceans, making it an ideal location to examine parasite biogeography, potential invasions, and the spread of infectious agents. Our goals were to (i) characterise the diversity and genetic connectivity of Perkinsus spp. haplotypes across the Panamanian Isthmus and (ii) combine these data with sequences from around the world to evaluate the current phylogeography and genetic connectivity of these widespread molluscan parasites. We collected 752 bivalves from 12 locations along the coast of Panama including locations around the Bocas del Toro archipelago and the Caribbean and Pacific entrances to the Panama Canal, from December 2012 to February 2013. We used molecular genetic methods to screen for Perkinsus spp. and obtained internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences for all positive samples. Our sequence data were used to evaluate regional haplotype diversity and distribution across both coasts of Panama, and were then combined with publicly available sequences to create global haplotype networks. We found 26 ITS haplotypes from four Perkinsus spp. (1-12 haplotypes per species) in Panama. Perkinsus beihaiensis haplotypes had the highest genetic diversity, were the most regionally widespread, and were associated with the greatest number of hosts. On a global scale, network analyses demonstrated that some haplotypes found in Panama were cosmopolitan (Perkinsus chesapeaki, Perkinsus marinus), while others were more geographically restricted (Perkinsus olseni, P. beihaiensis), indicating different levels of genetic connectivity and dispersal. We found some Perkinsus haplotypes were shared across the Isthmus of Panama and several regions around the world, including across ocean basins. We also found that haplotype diversity is currently underestimated and directly related to the number of sequences. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate long-range dispersal and global connectivity for

  14. Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama: Boletin Estadistico (Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama: Statistical Bulletin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Jorge A.

    This statistical bulletin provides details on the universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC): Central American University, Rafael Landivar University, Saint John's College, University of Santa Maria La Antigua, Jose Simeon Canas University, Doctor Mariano Galvez University, and the…

  15. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations with NGOs, relations with other armies, the impact of the rules of engagement (ROEs, training and education, and operational experiences. The paper ends with a discussion of the lessons learned.

  16. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  17. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  18. Methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Stallard, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    We studied methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama, at water depths of less than 1 m to about 10 m. Gas bubbles were collected in floating traps deployed during 12- to 60-hour observation periods. Comparison of floating traps and floating chambers showed that about 98% of methane emission occurred by bubbling and only 2% occurred by diffusion. Average methane concentration of bubbles at our sites varied from 67% to 77%. Methane emission by bubbling occurred episodically, with greatest rates primarily between the hours of 0800 and 1400 LT. Events appear to be triggered by wind. The flux of methane associated with bubbling was strongly anticorrelated with water depth. Seasonal changes in water depth caused seasonal variation of methane emission. Bubble methane fluxes through the lake surface into the atmosphere measured during 24-hour intervals were least (10-200 mg/m2/d) at deeper sites (greater than 7 m) and greatest (300-2000 mg/m2/d) at shallow sites (less than 2 m).

  19. Reduced Mtdna Diversity in the Ngobe Amerinds of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, C. J.; Bermingham, E.; Cooke, R.; Ward, R. H.; Arias, T. D.; Guionneau-Sinclair, F.

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype diversity was determined for 46 Ngobe Amerinds sampled widely across their geographic range in western Panama. The Ngobe data were compared with mtDNA control region I sequences from two additional Amerind groups located at the northern and southern extremes of Amerind distribution, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth of the Pacific Northwest and the Chilean Mapuche and from one Na-Dene group, the Haida of the Pacific Northwest. The Ngobe exhibit the lowest mtDNA control region sequence diversity yet reported for an Amerind group. Moreover, they carry only two of the four Amerind founding lineages first described by Wallace and coworkers. We posit that the Ngobe passed through a population bottleneck caused by ethnogenesis from a small founding population and/or European conquest and colonization. Dating of the Ngobe population expansion using the HARPENDING et al. approach to the analysis of pairwise genetic differences indicates a Ngobe expansion at roughly 6800 years before present (range: 1850-14,000 years before present), a date more consistent with a bottleneck at Chibcha ethnogenesis than a conquest-based event. PMID:7635293

  20. History of chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szinicz, L.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents

  1. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  2. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  3. Joint Military Operations: Centers of Gravity and the War in Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milley, Mark

    2000-01-01

    ... and not throw the baby out with the bathwater. Even in this age of networked warfare, precision strike munitions and real time intelligence, Clausewitz's discussions of centers of gravity still provide fundamental insight into the conduct of war...

  4. The Public Good, the Market, and Academic Capitalism: U.S. Cross-Border Higher Education in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoto, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. colleges and universities have begun to extend their international presence through different models of cross-border higher education. This research explores three models of U.S. higher education in Panama City, Panama: a branch campus, a franchise model and merger/acquisition models. Using a qualitative approach, this study…

  5. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City... QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.68 Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Mobile (Alabama...

  6. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, located in the Petaquilla district of central Panama, is hosted by a sequence of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. New crystallisation ages obtained from a granodiorite Petaquilla batholith and associated mineralised diorite to granodiorite porphyry stocks and dikes at Cobre Panama indicate that the batholith was emplaced as a multi-phase intrusion, over a period of 4 million years from 32.20 ± 0.76 Ma to 28.26 ± 0.61 Ma, while the porphyritic rocks were emplaced over a 2 million year period from 28.96 ± 0.62 Ma to 27.48 ± 0.68 Ma. Both the volcanic to sub-volcanic host rocks and intrusive rocks of the Cobre Panama deposit evolved via fractional crystallisation processes, as demonstrated by the major elements (e.g. Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and MgO) displaying negative trends with increasing SiO2. The Petaquilla intrusive rocks, including the diorite-granodiorite porphyries and granodiorite batholith, are geochemically evolved and appear to have formed from more hydrous magmas than the preceding host volcanic rocks, as evidenced by the presence of hornblende phenocrysts, higher degrees of large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletion, and higher Sr/Y and La/Yb values. However, the degree of LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and La/Yb values are insufficient for the intrusive rocks to be considered as adakites. Collectively, the volcanic and intrusive rocks have LILE, REE and mobile trace element concentrations similar to enriched Miocene-age Cordilleran arc magmatism found throughout central and western Panama. Both the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmatic suites are geochemically more evolved than the late Cretaceous to Eocene Chagres-Bayano arc magmas from northeastern Panama, as they display higher degrees of LILE and LREE enrichment. The geochemical similarities between the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmas

  7. Bleaching of reef coelenterates in the San Blas Islands, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Howard R.; Peters, Esther C.; Coffroth, Mary Alice

    1984-12-01

    Starting in June 1983, 25 species of hermatypic corals, gorgonians, hydrocorals, anemones and zoanthids in the San Blas Islands, Panama, began showing signs of a loss of colour leading in some cases to a white “bleached” appearance. Histologic examination of six coral species indicated that bleaching was associated with drastic reductions in the density of zooxanthellae and with the atrophy and necrosis of the animal tissue. The severity of the bleaching varied among species and many species were unaffected. The species most extensively affected were: Agaricia spp., which became completely bleached and frequently died; Montastraea annularis which bleached and continued to survive; and Millepora spp. which bleached white but quickly regained their colouration. Shallow reefs dominated by Agaricia spp. suffered the most extensive bleaching. At one site, Pico Feo, 99% of the Agaricia (32% of the living cover) was bleached. On fore reers, which were dominated by Agaricia spp. and M. annularis, the proportion of M. annularis bleached ranged from 18 to 100% and that of Agaricia spp. from 30 to 53%. Transects at Sail Rock and House Reef were surveyed in August 1983 and January 1984. At those sites, 53% of the Agaricia cover died between August and January. The remaining living cover of Agaricia and of all other species exhibited normal colouration in January. Salinity and temperature were monitored every second day at 4 m depth between May 10 and August 28, 1983 at one of the localities. Bleaching was first observed within two weeks of a 2 °C rise in temperature which occurred in late May 1983. Temperatures remained at or above 31.5 °C for the following 3 weeks and were at or above 30 °C for an additional 4 weeks. The bleaching of corals in the San Blas was most likely due to those elevanted temperatures.

  8. From TBT to booster biocides: Levels and impacts of antifouling along coastal areas of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Andrade, Jahir Antonio; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Batista, Rodrigo Moço; Castro, Italo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    Antifouling biocides in surface sediments and gastropod tissues were assessed for the first time along coastal areas of Panama under the influence of maritime activities, including one of the world's busiest shipping zones: the Panama Canal. Imposex incidence was also evaluated in five muricid species distributed along six coastal areas of Panama. This TBT-related biological alteration was detected in three species, including the first report in Purpura panama. Levels of organotins (TBT, DBT, and MBT) in gastropod tissues and surficial sediments ranged from TBT inputs were observed in areas considered as moderate to highly contaminated mainly by inputs from fishing and leisure boats. Regarding booster biocides, TCMTB and dichlofluanid were not detected in any sample, while irgarol 1051, diuron and DCOIT levels ranged from TBT (149 ng Sn g -1 ) and irgarol 1051 (2.8 ng g -1 ), as well as relevant level of DCOIT (5.7 ng g -1 ), were detected in a marina used by recreational boats. Additionally, relatively high diuron values (14.1 ng g -1 ) were also detected in the Panama Canal associate to a commercial port. DCOIT concentrations were associated with the presence of antifouling paint particles in sediments obtained nearby shipyard or boat maintenance sites. The highest levels of TBT, irgarol 1051, and diuron exceeded international sediment quality guidelines indicating that toxic effects could be expected in coastal areas of Panama. Thus, the simultaneous impacts produced by new and old generations of antifouling paints highlight a serious environmental issue in Panamanian coastal areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Information Warfare: Defining the Legal Response to An Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pottorff, James

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulty in determining whether an information warfare attack, such as a computer virus, can be treated as an "armed attack" for purposes of national defense under the United Nations charter. As the U.S...

  10. Irregular Warfare: Impact on Future Professional Military Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschal, David G

    2006-01-01

    ... to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment. The utility of a decisive war between nation states continues to decline and will eventually reach critical mass based upon the extreme imbalance of military power and a U.S. monopoly...

  11. FFT Based VLSI Digital One Bit Electronic Warfare Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chien-In, Henry

    1998-01-01

    ... (1 GHz) digital receiver designed for electronic warfare applications. The receiver can process two simultaneous signals and has the potential for fabrication on a single multi-chip module (MCM...

  12. Back to the Basics: An Aviation Solution to Counterinsurgent Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Arthur D

    2005-01-01

    .... By examining past examples of the use of air power in counterinsurgent warfare, this study sheds light on the United States' current failings in both equipment and doctrine as it wages this type of war...

  13. Precision Warfare Enables Interdependent Fires and Maneuver in 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, John

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Army is in the midst of a revolution in military affairs (RMA). Significant advancements in informational technologies and precision weapons are providing unprecedented potential for future warfare...

  14. Irregular Warfare: Special Operations Joint Professional Military Education Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannady, Bryan H

    2008-01-01

    ... on today's battlefront in Afghanistan and Iraq and in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). At the forefront of the GWOT and irregular warfare are the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM...

  15. Irregular Warfare: New Challenges for Civil-Military Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Patrick M

    2008-01-01

    .... Irregular warfare introduces new complications to what Eliot Cohen has called an unequal dialogue between civilian and military leaders in which civilian leaders hold the true power but must modulate...

  16. Echoes of Chechnya Warfare Resound in Moscow, Quantico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ackerman, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... thinking about urban warfare. After suffering stunning public defeats just a few years ago, Russian forces applied painful lessons learned then to drive Chechen forces out of their capital city, Grozny, this year...

  17. zero day exploits and national readiness for cyber-warfare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    A zero day vulnerability is an unknown exploit that divulges security flaws in software before such a flaw is publicly ... Keywords: exploits, zero day, vulnerability, cyberspace, cyber-warfare. 1. ..... industries and companies across the globe. The.

  18. The Role of Airpower in Urban Warfare. An Airman's Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saffold, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    .... This emphasis on surface force employment stifles innovative thought as to how military forces can achieve operational and strategic effects by employing airpower as the key instrument of force in urban warfare...

  19. Fourth Generation Warfare: The Need for a Comprehensive Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benton, LeRoy D

    2008-01-01

    .... A definition of Fourth Generation Warfare is developed, based on Col. Thomas X. Hammes' writings. The definition is further developed to show relevance and applicability to current operations in the Long War on Terrorism...

  20. Towards a framework for a network warfare capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available . These include the legal issues, ethical dilemmas, technical solutions, financial impact and skill/manpower investment. Logical constraints/implications have been grouped together in the discussion that follows. 5.1.1 Legal Ethical Issues As network warfare... but the underlying causes of crime also needs to be understood. Ethics and morals play a significant role in determining the personality traits of an individual. Users will need to balance ethical dilemmas before engaging in offensive network warfare. Computers...

  1. Strategy in the Robotic Age: A Case for Autonomous Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    enabling technology that augments human performance, such as exoskeleton suits, and other complementary fields that make robotics function...philosophy of maneuver warfare with new technologies from the Robotic Age, such as unmanned systems and exoskeleton suits, to present a new warfighting...and Brimley, “20YY,” 12. 49 the exoskeleton suit, but rather that the full benefit of autonomous warfare will be achieved by leveraging mass and

  2. The Impacts of Modern Warfare on Freshwater Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Robert A.

    2011-11-01

    There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and `informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

  3. The Panama fossil power plants generation system: Atmospheric pollution, general and legal aspects; El sistema de generacion termoelectrico en Panama: Contaminacion atmosferica, aspectos generales y legales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milciades, Concepcion [Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion, (Panama)

    1996-12-31

    The Thermal electric energy resource of Panama is administered by four Regional Managements and a group of Regional Systems comprising the fossil power plants supplying electric energy to the country`s marginal areas. The characteristics of the different fuels used in these fossil power plants, the results of the assessment of the polluting particles and sulfur and nitrogen oxides are presented. Finally, the alleviation measures and the environmental legislation implanted in these power plants are also presented [Espanol] El parque termico de Panama es administrado por cuatro Gerencias Regionales y un conjunto de Sistemas Regionales que comprenden las plantas termicas de menor capacidad destinadas a suplir de energia a las areas marginadas del pais. Se presentan las caracteristicas de los diferentes combustibles utilizados en estas unidades termicas; los resultados de las mediciones de particulas contaminantes y de oxidos de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno. Por ultimo se presentan las medidas de mitigacion y legislacion ambiental implantadas en estas centrales termoelectricas

  4. The Panama fossil power plants generation system: Atmospheric pollution, general and legal aspects; El sistema de generacion termoelectrico en Panama: Contaminacion atmosferica, aspectos generales y legales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milciades, Concepcion [Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion, (Panama)

    1997-12-31

    The Thermal electric energy resource of Panama is administered by four Regional Managements and a group of Regional Systems comprising the fossil power plants supplying electric energy to the country`s marginal areas. The characteristics of the different fuels used in these fossil power plants, the results of the assessment of the polluting particles and sulfur and nitrogen oxides are presented. Finally, the alleviation measures and the environmental legislation implanted in these power plants are also presented [Espanol] El parque termico de Panama es administrado por cuatro Gerencias Regionales y un conjunto de Sistemas Regionales que comprenden las plantas termicas de menor capacidad destinadas a suplir de energia a las areas marginadas del pais. Se presentan las caracteristicas de los diferentes combustibles utilizados en estas unidades termicas; los resultados de las mediciones de particulas contaminantes y de oxidos de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno. Por ultimo se presentan las medidas de mitigacion y legislacion ambiental implantadas en estas centrales termoelectricas

  5. The Manipulation of Human Behavior in Guerrilla Warfare: Can It Enhance U.S. Army Special Forces Guerrilla Warfare Operations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, William

    1997-01-01

    .... Proper integration of psychological communications to manipulate behavior in guerrilla warfare may facilitate the recruiting1 motivation, morale, sustainment and popular support for a guerrilla movement and its cause...

  6. Information Warfare, Threats and Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Nikolaevich Bespalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the opposite, but dependent on each other's reality - Revolutionary War information,information security goals and objectives of their study within the scheme "challenge-response", methodological and analytical support, the role of elites and the information society in promoting information security. One of the features of contemporaneityis the global spread of ICT, combined with poor governance and other difficulties in the construction of innovation infrastructures that are based on them in some countries. This leads to the reproduction of threats, primarily related to the ability to use ICT for purposes that are inconsistent with the objectives of maintaining international peace and security, compliance with the principles of non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, etc. In this regard, include such terms as "a threat of information warfare", "information terrorism" and so forth. Information warfare, which stay in the policy declared the struggle for existence, and relationships are defined in terms of "friend-enemy", "ours-foreign". Superiority over the opponent or "capture of its territory" is the aim of political activity. And information security, serving activities similar process of political control, including a set of components, is a technology until their humanitarian. From the context and the decision itself is the ratio of the achieved results of information and political influence to the target - a positive image of Russia. Bringing its policy in line with the demands of a healthy public opinion provides conductivity of theauthorities initiatives in the country and increases the legitimacy of the Russian Federation actions in the world.

  7. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive Odocoileus virginianus and Tayassu tajacu from Panama Republic

    OpenAIRE

    VALDÉS SÁNCHEZ, Vanessa Vianeth; SALDAÑA PATIÑO, Azael; PINEDA SEGUNDO, Vanessa Jenny; CAMACHO SANDOVAL, Jorge Antonio; CHARPENTIER ESQUIVEL, Claudia Virginia; CRUZ SÁNCHEZ, Tonatiuh Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the gastrointestinal parasites of Tayassu tajacu (Collared peccary) and Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed deer) in captivity in the Republic of Panama during the year 2008. The gastrointestinal parasites with major prevalence were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba sp., Crystosporidium sp., Endolimax nana and Strongyloides sp.

  8. The Fog of Peace: Planning and Executing The Restoration of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    posean armas Ilegalus., CONSTITUCION Y LAS LEVES DE lO0limpleard Ia fuerza sdlo cuando sea necesarlo y cl mifnmtoPANAMA, ~~~ti ENDFNS ELA( ucrz.a...rcqucrldw, hacienda uso tic lit ftierm. mortal PANAM , ENDEFESA D LA nlcarriente coini ultima rcuurso. DEMOCRACIA Oath Commandments 99 APPENDIX G U.S

  9. Building Collaborative Research Opportunities into Study Abroad Programs: A Case Study from Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Patricia; Price, Marie; Adames de Newbill, María

    2015-01-01

    As universities increase their international study opportunities, enormous potential exists to create geography field courses that provide undergraduates and graduate students with primary research experience and intercultural collaboration. This paper draws from our experience leading a two-week collaborative field course in Panama. We outline…

  10. Bilingual Preschool Education in the United States and Panama: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Rebeca

    This paper compares bilingual education policy and practice in Panama and the United States. Particular issues studied include the following: the social context of bilingual education in the two countries; programming and policy differences; teacher qualifications; availability of age-appropriate materials; and administrative support, level of…

  11. Opinion Polls and the Panama Canal Treaties of 1977: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ted J., III; Hogan, J. Michael

    Noting that 1977 public opinion polls concerning the new Panama Canal treaties were interpreted as showing increased support for the treaties, this paper contends that this interpretation was erroneous and that the major outcome of the extensive polling was misleading data. The paper is divided into three major analytical sections. The first…

  12. "The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifman, Eli

    This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

  13. 78 FR 37695 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement (FTA)-Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Central and South Asia). DoD also continues to implement the Balance of Payments Program, applying the... work with other companies for joint economic development projects and, as to Panama, make certain that..., and of promoting flexibility. This is a significant regulatory action and, therefore, was subject to...

  14. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  15. Panama disease in banana and neoliberal governance: towards a political ecology of risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, de la Jaye

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of Panama disease Tropical Race 4 (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) or TR4 – a fungal disease in banana that is considered by horticulture experts as not only one of the most destructive diseases in the world (Ploetz 1994) but one with no on-hand socio-cultural or chemical

  16. The impact of the New Panama Canal Locks on Texas ports and the Texas economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report examines the first year transits through the new Panama Canal locks and its impact on Texas deep water ports. It finds that the canal is operating efficiently and can accommodate 14,000 TEU containerships and bulk vessels up to 125,000 to...

  17. 77 FR 68699 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    .... 601, et seq. Although the rule now opens up Government procurement to the goods and services of Panama... Applicability of specified procurement procedures designed to ensure fairness in the acquisition of supplies and... as the WTO GPA threshold, no new clause alternates are required for the Balance of Payments Program...

  18. Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    Panama, and South Korea Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy February 4, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov...Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues. Author Contact Information Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy rjurenas@crs.loc.gov, 7-7281 .

  19. Water Resource Resilience in Two Cities of the Dry Arch of Panama ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will build resilience to water stress in the cities of Chitre and La Villa de los ... Climate-related risks in Panama Central American countries are highly ... The project team's work will help to develop municipal plans in the cities of ...

  20. Scorpionism in Central America, with special reference to the case of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active toxins in their venoms. Regional morbidity is low with the exception of Panama, where an incidence of 52 cases per 100,000 inhabitants was recorded for 2007, with 28 deaths from 1998 to 2006. Taxa belonging to the genus Tityus (also present in the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica are responsible for fatalities in Panama, with Tityus pachyurus being the most important species medically. Most Tityus species inhabiting Panama are also found in northern South America from which they probably migrated upon closure of the Panamanian isthmus in the Miocene era. Incorporation of Panama as part of the northern South American endemic area of scorpionism is thereby suggested based on the incidence of these accidents and the geographical distribution of Panamanian Tityus species.

  1. Dendroecological Analysis of Cordia alliodora, Pseudobombax septenatum and Annona spraguei in Central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol; S. Joseph Wright

    1995-01-01

    Several plant communities in central Panama, each community located near a weather station, contain trees with annual growth rings, i.e. Cordia alliodora, Pseudobombax septenatum, and Annona spraguei. Tree-ring data are particularly valuable when concomitant weather information is readily available. Patterns of...

  2. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (-1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and body weight

  4. Use of maternal-child health services and contraception in Guatemala and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C W; Monteith, R S; Johnson, J T; Santiso, R; Guerra, F; Oberle, M W

    1987-04-01

    This paper presents data from 2 recent maternal-child health (MCH) and family planning surveys in Guatemala and Panama and examines the extent to which the use of contraception is influenced by the use of MCH services as compared with the influence of an increase in parity. Fieldwork was initiated in July 1984 but not completed until April 1985. A total of 8240 women aged 15-49 years, of all marital statuses, completed interviews, representing 91% of households with eligible respondents. The findings suggest that utilization of MCH services and parity independently are associated with a woman's decision to use contraception. The study also found 2 groups that appear to be particularly in need of both MCH and family planning services: high parity women and Indians. Nonuse of MCH and family planning services may be due in part to their strong cultural beliefs. In both Guatemala and Panama, improved health care services for these 2 groups should be a priority. Contraceptive use in Panama was over twice as high as in Guatemala. However, method choice and residence-ethnicity patterns of use were similar in each country. In both countries and in all residence-ethnicity groups, female sterilization was the most prevalent method in use, followed by oral contraceptives, except for Panama rural Indians. In Panama, contraceptive use increases up to ages 30-34 and then declines, with a sharp decline for women 40-44. In Guatemala, contraceptive use is generally low for ages 15-24, then increases to a fairly constant level for ages 25-39.

  5. Using Agent Based Distillation to Explore Issues Related to Asymmetric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    official definition of asymmetric warfare , considering that its use was redundant to irregular warfare [30]. 2 Such as the Lanchester Equations...RTP-MP-MSG-069 23 - 1 Using Agent Based Distillation to Explore Issues Related to Asymmetric Warfare Martin Adelantado, Jean-Michel Mathé...shows that both conventional and asymmetric warfare are characterised by nonlinear behaviours and that engagement is a Complex Adaptive System (CAS

  6. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials 5a...directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent... DECONTAMINANTS TO PROVIDE HAZARD MITIGATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS FROM MATERIALS 1. INTRODUCTION Decontamination of materials is the

  7. Russian New Art of Hybrid Warfare in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to analyse the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. For the purposes of the paper, the theory of hybrid warfare was chosen as an analytical category. Throughout the paper, the concept of hybrid warfare is examined and applied on case study of Crimean annexation. Hybrid warfare, especially in connection with Russian actions in Crimea has been an intensely debated concept. There is an ongoing debate among scholars concerning the meaning of the concept, its existence and employment by the Russian Federation. This paper showed that the article of Valeriy Gerasimov – the incumbent Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Federation-invoked a new warfare strategy for the Russian Federation which was consequently for the very first time in its full spectre and effectivity employed on case of Crimean annexation in March 2014. Observing the application of the hybrid warfare in practice serves the purposes of countering its further potential application in post-Soviet space and Russian ‘near abroad’.

  8. Nondestructive inspection of chemical warfare based on API-TOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Zheng Pu; He Tie; An Li; Yang Jie; Fan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Real-time, fast, accurate, nondestructive inspection (NDI) and quantitative analysis for chemical warfare are very imperative for chemical defense, anti-terror and nation security. Purpose: Associated Particles Technique (APT)/Neutron Time of Flight (TOF) has been developed for non-invasive inspection of sealed containers with chemical warfare agents. Methods: A prototype equipment for chemical warfare is consisted of an APT neutron generator with a 3×3 matrix of semiconductor detectors of associated alpha-particles, the shielding protection of neutron and gamma-ray, arrayed NaI(Tl)-based detectors of gamma-rays, fully-digital data acquisition electronics, data analysis, decision-making software, support platform and remote control system. Inelastic scattering gamma-ray pulse height spectra of sarin, VX, mustard gas and adamsite induced by 14-MeV neutron are measured. The energies of these gamma rays are used to identify the inelastic scattering elements, and the intensities of the peaks at these energies are used to reveal their concentrations. Results: The characteristic peaks of inelastic scattering gamma-ray pulse height spectra show that the prototype equipment can fast and accurately inspect chemical warfare. Conclusion: The equipment can be used to detect not only chemical warfare agents but also other hazardous materials, such as chemical/toxic/drug materials, if their chemical composition is in any way different from that of the surrounding materials. (authors)

  9. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  10. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism.

  11. Understanding the economic, environmental and energy consequences of the Panama Canal expansion on Midwest grain and agricultural exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Panama Canal Authority (ACP) is currently building a third lock scheduled to open in 2014, significantly changing the capacity of the : canal for inter-ocean movements. Midwest specialty grain and agricultural product exporters will be directly a...

  12. A non-fatal case of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome imported into the UK (ex Panama), July 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Barry; Jameson, Lisa J.; Bovill, Bego?a A.; Aarons, Emma J.; Clewlow, Jodie; Lumley, Sarah; Latham, Jennie; Jenkins, Megan H.; MacGowan, Alasdair P.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Ahmed, Javeed; Brooks, Timothy J.; Hewson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Highlights ? Detection of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome imported into Europe. ? Additional evidence that Choclo hantavirus is currently circulating and causing human disease in Panama. ? Novel diagnostic and sequencing assays for identifying cases of Choclo hantavirus infection.

  13. Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alan J; Berberich, Jason A; Drevon, Geraldine F; Koepsel, Richard R

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and remediation of organophosphate spills. A number of materials have been prepared containing enzymes for the destruction of and protection against organophosphate nerve agents and biological warfare agents. This review discusses the major chemical and biological warfare agents, decontamination methods, and biomaterials that have potential for the preparation of decontamination wipes, gas filters, column packings, protective wear, and self-decontaminating paints and coatings.

  14. Lanchester-Type Models of Warfare, Volume II

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, James G.

    1980-01-01

    This monograph is a comprehensive treatist on Lanchester-type models of warfare, i.e. differential-equation models of attrition in force-on-force combat operations. Its goal is to provide both an introduction to and current-state-of-the-art overview of Lanchester-type models of warfare as well as a comprehensive and unified in-depth treatment of them. Both deterministic as well as stochastic models are considered. Such models have been widely used in the United States and elsewhere for the...

  15. Theory of information warfare: basic framework, methodology and conceptual apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Васильович Курбан

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is conducted a comprehensive theoretical study and determine the basic provisions of the modern theory of information warfare in on-line social networks. Three basic blocks, which systematized the theoretical and methodological basis of the topic, are established. There are information and psychological war, social off-line and on-line network. According to the three blocks, theoretical concepts are defined and methodological substantiation of information processes within the information warfare in the social on-line networks is formed

  16. Hybrid warfare of the USA in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Budaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Washington’s hybrid warfare in Latin American region differs by its inventive and sophisticated methods and in fact represents a complex and multidimensional phenomenon including symbiosis of the “soft” and “hard” power as well as their combination in the form of the “smart power”. The increasing importance of hybrid warfare technologies in the US foreign policy in Latin America predetermines the necessity of thorough studies and analysis of this phenomenon for providing Russian interests.

  17. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Single Outpatient Clinic in Panama City Exhibit Wide Genetic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrano, Dilcia; Correa, Ricardo; Almengor, Pedro; Domínguez, Amada; Vega, Silvio; Goodridge, Amador

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis biodiversity and transmission is significant for tuberculosis control. This short report aimed to determine the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates from an outpatient clinic in Panama City. A total of 62 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped by 12 loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and Spoligotyping. Forty-five (72.6%) of the isolates showed unique MIRU-VNTR genotypes, and 13 (21%) of the isolates were grouped into four clusters. Four isolates showed polyclonal MIRU-VNTR genotypes. The MIRU-VNTR Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index reached 0.988. The Spoligotyping analysis revealed 16 M. tuberculosis families, including Latin American-Mediterranean, Harlem, and Beijing. These findings suggest a wide genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates at one outpatient clinic. A detailed molecular epidemiology survey is now warranted, especially following second massive immigration for local Panama Canal expansion activities. PMID:24865686

  19. Echinoids of the Pacific waters of Panama: status of knowledge and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H A

    2005-12-01

    This paper is primarily intended as a guide to researchers who wish to know what echinoid species are available in the Bay of Panama and in the Gulf of Chiriqui, how to recognize them, and what has been published about them up to 2004. Fifty seven species of echinoids have been reported in the literature as occurring in the Pacific waters of Panama, of which I have collected and examined 31, including two species, Caenopedina dìomedìae and Meoma frangibilis, that have hitherto only been mentioned in the literature from single type specimens. For the 31 species I was able to examine, I list the localities in which they were found, my impression as to their relative abundance, the characters that distinguish them, and what is known about their biology and evolution. Not surprisingly, most available information concerns abundant shallow water species, while little is known about deep water, rare, or infaunal species.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengifo-Herrera Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water were associated with seropositivity.

  1. Second Line of Defense Megaports Initiative Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan Colon Container Terminal (CCT) Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    Report on the Operational Testing and Evaluation to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the Second Line of Defense (SLD) mission requirements. An SLD system is defined as the detection technology and associated equipment, the system operators from the host country, the standard operating procedures (SOPs), and other elements such as training and maintenance which support long-term system sustainment. To this end, the activities conducted during the OT&E phase must demonstrate that the Megaports System can be operated effectively in real-time by Panama Direccion General de Aduanas (DGA Panama Customs) personnel to the standards of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA).

  2. Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis; Enrique Medianero, Alicia Ibáñez

    2008-01-01

    Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long) more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, represent...

  3. Legalt eller legitimt? Om Nordeas krisekommunikation efter lækagen ’The Panama Papers’

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Nynne Emilie Vinge

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the way in which Nordea sought to communicate regarding the leak ”The Panama Papers” and how appropriate this turned out to be. Based on William Benoit’s image restoration theory (2015), Timothy W. Coombs’ situational crisis communication theory (2012) and Susanne Holmström’s legitimacy theory (2013), this thesis finds that Nordea mainly used a defensive crisis communication strategy, which was mainly supposed to evade responsibility and minimalize the bank’s role in the ...

  4. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Benefits For Pakistan And Comparison With Suez And Panama Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): BENEFITS FOR PAKISTAN AND COMPARISON WITH SUEZ AND PANAMA CANALS by Hanif Ullah Khan December 2017 Thesis...DATE December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): BENEFITS FOR...The China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is part of China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative and joins two major economic corridors: The Silk Road

  5. Notes on the Genus Cololejeunea (Lejeuneaceae in Panama. C. cingens (New Record and C. tamasii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Adriel M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cololejeunea cingens (Herzog Bernecker & Pócs is recorded for the first time from Panama, extending its distribution in the Neotropics. Additional descriptions based on Panamanian material are provided for C. cingens and for C. tamasii Schäf.-Verw., a species only known from the type, for which dimorphic leaves and gynoecial bracts are first described. We therefore view subgen. Pedinolejeunea Benedix ex Mizut. as a better subgeneric placement for C. tamasii than subgen. Cololejeunea.

  6. Distribution and abundance of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in the Panama Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Vianna, Juliana; Muschett, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the distribution and current status of the West-Indian manatee Trichechus manatus, in Lake Gatun, the main body of water in the Panama Canal. We used four different methodologies: interviews, revision review of documents, aquatic and aerial surveys. Forty-four interviews carried out between March and July 2007 revealed 59 manatee sightings. Official documents revealed 19 manatee deaths between 1995 and 2008, while three aerial surveys yielded a tota...

  7. The Effects of Intermittent Drinking Water Supply in Arraiján, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, John Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Over three hundred million people throughout the world receive supply from piped drinking water distribution networks that operate intermittently. This dissertation evaluates the effects of intermittent supply on water quality, pipe damage and service reliability in four study zones (one continuous and three intermittent) in a peri-urban drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Normal water quality in all zones was good, with 97% of routine water quality grab samples from the ...

  8. Successful public health response to four cases of imported measles in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Nestor; Guerra, Ilka; Abrego, Leyda; Cisneros, Julio; Castillo, Juan; Nieto-Guevara, Javier; Gálvez, Carlos; Moltó, Yadira; Smith, Rebecca E; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2012-08-21

    In Panama, the last endemic cases of measles occurred in 1995. In this paper, we report four cases of imported measles in three girls and one boy after they returned from a trip to Poland and Israel between 28 April and 11 May 2011. The etiologic diagnosis of the four cases was confirmed by detection of IgM antibodies against measles virus and positive polymerase chain reaction using measles-specific primers. All cases had genotype D4 with close genetic similarity to virus reported from Poland. Public health interventions included isolation of the cases in their homes and an extensive search for and vaccination of contacts of the four cases, regardless of their vaccination status. A nationwide vaccination campaign was also implemented after the first case was identified. A total of 70,950 measles vaccine doses were administered in Panama in the two months following the identification of these cases. In addition, 94,179 persons were confirmed to have their immunization schedule up-to-date and did not receive the vaccine. No secondary cases were detected in Panama in the following six months.

  9. No evidence that boron influences tree species distributions in lowland tropical forests of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin L; Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Condit, Richard; Winter, Klaus; Wright, S Joseph; Dalling, James W

    2017-04-01

    It was recently proposed that boron might be the most important nutrient structuring tree species distributions in tropical forests. Here we combine observational and experimental studies to test this hypothesis for lowland tropical forests of Panama. Plant-available boron is uniformly low in tropical forest soils of Panama and is not significantly associated with any of the > 500 species in a regional network of forest dynamics plots. Experimental manipulation of boron supply to seedlings of three tropical tree species revealed no evidence of boron deficiency or toxicity at concentrations likely to occur in tropical forest soils. Foliar boron did not correlate with soil boron along a local scale gradient of boron availability. Fifteen years of boron addition to a tropical forest increased plant-available boron by 70% but did not significantly change tree productivity or boron concentrations in live leaves, wood or leaf litter. The annual input of boron in rainfall accounts for a considerable proportion of the boron in annual litterfall and is similar to the pool of plant-available boron in the soil, and is therefore sufficient to preclude boron deficiency. We conclude that boron does not influence tree species distributions in Panama and presumably elsewhere in the lowland tropics. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Histopathological characteristics of cutaneous lesions caused by Leishmania Viannia panamensis in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir González

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an endemic disease in the Republic of Panama, caused by Leishmania (Viannia parasites, whose most common clinical manifestation is the presence of ulcerated lesions on the skin. These lesions usually present a chronic inflammatory reaction, sometimes granulomatous, with the presence of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. This study describes the histopathological characteristics found in the skin lesions of patients with CL caused by Leishmania (V. panamensis in Panama. We analyzed 49 skin biopsy samples from patients with clinical suspicion of CL, by molecular tests (PCR for subgenus Viannia and HSP-70 and by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Samples were characterized at the species level by PCR-HSP-70/RFLP. From the 49 samples studied, 46 (94% were positive by PCR and were characterized as Leishmania (V. panamensis. Of these, 48% were positive by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining with alterations being observed both, in the epidermis (85% and in the dermis (100% of skin biopsies. The inflammatory infiltrate was characterized according to histopathological patterns: lymphohistiocytic (50%, lymphoplasmacytic (61% and granulomatous (46% infiltration, being the combination of these patterns frequently found. The predominant histopathological characteristics observed in CL lesions caused by L. (V. panamensis in Panama were: an intense inflammatory reaction in the dermis with a combination of lymphohistiocytic, lymphoplasmacytic and granulomatous presentation patterns and the presence of ulcers, acanthosis, exocytosis and spongiosis in the epidermis.

  11. High blood pressure in Panama: prevalence, sociodemographic and biologic profile, treatment, and control (STROBE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Donald Posso, Anselmo J; Motta Borrel, Jorge A; Fontes, Flavia; Cruz Gonzalez, Clara E; Pachón Burgos, Alvaro A; Cumbrera Ortega, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence, treatment, and control of high blood pressure, hypertension (HBP) in Panama and assess its associations with sociodemographic and biologic factors.A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in Panama by administering a survey on cardiovascular risk factors to 3590 adults and measuring their blood pressure 3 times. A single-stage, probabilistic, and randomized sampling strategy with a multivariate stratification was used. The average blood pressure, confidence intervals (CIs), odds ratio (OR), and a value of P ≤ 0.05 were used for the analysis.The estimated prevalence of HBP was 29.6% (95% CI, 28.0-31.1); it was more prevalent in men than in women, OR = 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17-1.61); it increased with age and was more frequent among Afro-Panamanians (33.8%). HBP was associated with a family history of HBP with being physically inactive and a body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m or a waist circumference >90 cm in men and >88 cm in women (P control (<140/90 mm Hg).HBP is the most common cardiovascular risk factor among Panamanians and consequently an important public health problem in Panama. The health care system needs to give a high priority to HBP prevention programs and integrated care programs aimed at treating HBP, taking into consideration the changes in behavior that have been brought about by alterations in nutrition and sedentary lifestyles.

  12. Should the Concept of Network-Centric Warfare Form a Central Pillar of the Australian Army’s Transformation, as Articulated in the Hardened and Networked Army Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-08

    Clausewitz Kantian philosophic framework for war, which contends that due to the inherent nature of war, it cannot be predicted or controlled by man. The...the key themes identified within Clausewitz On War has identified that NCW could be considered the anti-thesis of Clausewitz Kantian study of warfare...industries and centers of population remote from the surface forces. While not discussing the ethical implication of legitimizing the attack of civilian

  13. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janos, P.; Skoumal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 236, č. 2016 (2016), s. 239-258 ISSN 0179-5953 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agent * metal nanoparticle * unique surface- chemistry * mesoporous manganese oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  14. The Role of Civil Affairs in Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    neighbor to the west, and secured the eastern border of Laos 32 Mao Tse -Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare...INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................19  B.  BRIEF HISTORY OF LAOS ...Royal Lao Army SCA Support to Civil Administration SCIRI Supreme Council of Iraq SG Shadow Government SOF Special Operations Forces TAI Targeted

  15. Management information systems for electronic warfare command and decision support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available information to allow them to manage their own spectrum, to identify threats, and to deny adversaries’ use of the spectrum. In this paper, the concepts of integrated electronic warfare and spectrum battle management are introduced, and the relevant information...

  16. Manoeuvre warfare analysis of South Africa's 1914-1915 German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reported in this article explored the nexus between military theory and history. Military theory attempts to quantify, qualify and illuminate the often unpredictable phenomenon of war. The article consists of two parts: the theory of manoeuvre warfare and the history of the 1914-1915 South African campaign in ...

  17. blitzkrieg to desert storm: the evolution of operational warfare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a_nabb

    disease of stalemates infecting militaries before the Second World War. The invasion did not change the world; instead, it brought about an increased awareness of the importance of the operational level of war, a dimension of warfare previously neglected. The German operational effectiveness represented an evolution ...

  18. A identification system for chemical warfare agents with PGNAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Yin Guanghua; Yang Zhongping

    2006-01-01

    The principle and the experimental commanding of Chemical warfare Agents Identification with PGNAA method are discussed in this paper. The choosing of Detector, neutron source and the data processing method are detailed. Finally, a set of experimental instruments composed of Cf-232 and BGO detector is developed based on the theory discussed above. (authors)

  19. Identification system for chemical warfare agents with PGNAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Yin Guanghua; Yang Zhongpin

    2007-01-01

    The principle and the experimental commanding of Chemical warfare Agents Identification with PGNAA method are discussed in this paper. The choosing of detector, neutron source and the data processing method are detailed. Finally, a set of experimental instruments composed of Cf-232 and BGO detector is developed based on this theory discussed above. (authors)

  20. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Benschop, H.P.; Black, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this report an overview of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e., sulfur mustard, lewisite and nerve agents, is presented. Such methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g., diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of

  1. Researchers study decontamination of chemical, biological warfare agents

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Office has awarded Virginia Tech a $680,000 grant over two years to build an instrument that can be used to study the chemistry of gases that will decompose both chemical and biological warfare agents on surfaces.

  2. Recent canadian experience in chemical warfare agent destruction. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    A Canadian chemical warfare agent destruction project (Swiftsure) was recently completed in which stockpiles of aged mustard, lewisite, nerve agents and contaminated scrap metal were incinerated or chemically neutralized in a safe, environmentally-responsible manner. The project scope, destruction technologies, environmental monitoring and public consultation programs are described.

  3. Ethnomedical uses and pharmacological activities of most prevalent species of genus Piper in Panama: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Santana, Ana I; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2018-05-10

    Piperaceae is the fifth largest family of plants in Panama. This review focuses on the ethnomedical uses of the most prevalent Panamanian species and biological activities of their extracts and/or constituents both in Panama and worldwide. Many species have a plethora of ethnomedical uses such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antiulcer, antiprotozoal, estrogenic, insecticidal, local anesthetic, diuretic, and for women's health conditions. The aim of this review is to compile all ethnomedical uses of most prevalent species of Piper in Panama, and their extracts or phytoconstituents worldwide, through a complete literature search, so that it may allow selection of potential unexplored Piper species for future research and development of phytotherapeuticals for important ailments. This review conducted a thorough search in books and databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Sci-Finder, Scopus, ACS publications, Science Direct, and Reaxys (Elsevier), until October of 2017. The information provided in this review is based on peer-reviewed papers only in English. The key words used to search were: "Piper", "Piperaceae", "Panama", "Pharmacological activity", "Chemistry," "Toxicity," and "Clinical studies". Scientific names of the plants were validated through www.tropicos.org. Potential full-texts of eligible papers, irrespective of database, were identified. Study selection and data extraction were conducted by one author (AIS) and confirmed by others (MPG, ADA). The extracted data were summarized in tabular form and a narrative description was used to provide a summary of updated information. The ethnomedical uses of most prevalent 23 Panamanian species of Piper both in Panama as well in the world are provided. Of these species only Piper arboreum, Piper auritum, Piper cordulatum, Piper hispidum, Piper dariense, Piper multiplinervium and Piper umbellatum have ethnomedical uses in Panama. Some of the

  4. THE BUSINESS OF THE CANAL: THE ECONOMICS AND POLITICS OF THE CARTER ADMINISTRATION’S PANAMA CANAL ZONE INITIATIVE, 1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Swilling

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carter-Torrijos Treaty of 1978, the initiative to relinquish controi of the Panama Canal Zone to the Republic of Panama, allowed Panama for the first time in its short history to become an autonomous nation and to take control of its destiny as a global trading crossroads. Conservatives rallied against President Carter and accused him of jeopardizing U. S. security and hegemony. Fears were that Panama did not have the economic or technical resources to maintain Canal operations, lacked the administrative knowledge and resources to manage the business of the Canal, lacked the military presence to insure security of the Canal, and did not have the political and social will to maintain the environmental integrity of the region. In short, disastrous results were predicted. Carter prevailed. December 31, 1999 saw the surrender of the Canal Zone, and all its facilities, to Panama. This paper discusses events that precipitated Carter’s decision, economic and political arguments presented during the 1977-78 debate, implementation of the treaty, and an evaluation of the ‘business of the Canal’ today.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of thermal and nonthermal waters at selected sites in Panama, Central America. Evaluacion preliminar de aguas termales y no termales de sitios seleccionados en Panama, Centroamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, L.

    1989-11-01

    Thirty-one thermal and nonthermal water samples were collected in Panama by the Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion and analyzed by the Earth and Space Sciences Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the geothermal potential of four different areas. Chemical and isotopic analyses were performed on each sample. Because samples from several areas were submitted, the chemistry of the samples is varied, with total dissolved solids of thermal fluids ranging from 900 to nearly 10,000 mg/{ell}. All water samples studied are meteoric in origin, and none of the thermal waters exhibit an {sup 18}O enrichment, which is characteristic of high-temperature isotopic, exchange between water and rock. At all four areas, calculated geothermometer temperatures within a reservoir of less than 160{degrees}C. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Defending Our Satellites: The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    intercept Allied bombers attacking at night.9 As a result of the electronic warfare advantage that systems like Window and Airborne Cigar be- stowed...74 | Air & Space Power Journal Defending Our Satellites The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training Lt Col E. Lincoln Bonner, USAF...expanding education and training in the use of electronic warfare to defend US satellites and improve their survivability. The following discussion

  7. Cultural Competence and the Operational Commander: Moving Beyond Cultural Awareness into Culture-Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karcanes, James A

    2007-01-01

    .... Understanding the different levels of cultural awareness -- cultural consideration, cultural understanding, and cultural competence -- will help usher in a new focus on culture-centric warfare...

  8. Ending the Debate: Unconventional Warfare, Foreign Internal Defense, and Why Words Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, D

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate within the Special Forces community whether unconventional warfare and foreign internal defense are applicable in the contemporary and future Special Operations environments...

  9. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Chemical Warfare Agents in Indoor Sample Media Typically Collected During Forensic Investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, P. A; Hancock, J. R; Chenier, C. L

    2005-01-01

    .... DRDC Suffield, in collaboration with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, identified a need for analytical methods for chemical warfare agent identification in media, including flooring, wall surfaces...

  10. Redefining Hybrid Warfare: Russia's Non-linear War against the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad Schnaufer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The term hybrid warfare fails to properly describe Russian operations in Ukraine and elsewhere. Russia has undertaken unconventional techniques to build its influence and test the boundaries of a shaken international system. Notably, Russia’s actions in Ukraine display an evolved style of warfare that goes beyond its initial label of hybrid warfare. The term non-linear war (NLW will be defined in this article to encompass Russia’s actions and allow policymakers the correct framework to discuss and respond to Russia. NLW plays to the advantage of countries like Russia and constitute the future of warfare.

  11. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  12. Development of Bicarbonate-Activated Peroxide as a Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontaminant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, David E

    2006-01-01

    ...) and other chemistry for the decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. The mechanism of formation of the active oxidant, peroxymonocarbonate, has been investigated in detail. New surfoxidants...

  13. Decontamination and Detoxification of Toxic Chemical Warfare Agents Using Polyurethane Sponges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Richard K; Gunduz, Alper T; Askins, LaTawnya Y; Strating, Simon J; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Clarkson, Edward D; Mitchelree, Larry W; Lukey, Brian; Railer, Roy; Schulz, Susan

    2003-01-01

    .... Another serious problem that may be encountered while caring for personnel contaminated with organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agents is the possibility that there will be cross-contamination...

  14. Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Mair

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15% were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI (R²=0.54. Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

  15. Feeding Habits and Trophic Level of the Panama Grunt Pomadasys panamensis, an Important Bycatch Species from the Shrimp Trawl Fishery in the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Rodríguez-Preciado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panama grunt is an abundant and commercially important species in the southeastern Gulf of California, but the research undertaken on this species is scarce despite its ecological and economic importance. We studied the feeding habits of Panama grunt through stomach content analyses as a first step towards understanding the biology of this species in the study area. Our results indicate that the Panama grunt is a benthic predator throughout its life cycle and feeds mainly on infaunal crustaceans. Diet differences among grunt were not found according to size, diet, or season. Shannon diversity index results indicate that Panama grunt has a limited trophic niche breadth with a diet dominated by a limited number of taxa as crustaceans. The estimated trophic level of this species is 3.59. Overall, the Panama grunt is a carnivorous fish occupying the intermediate levels of the trophic pyramid.

  16. Feeding habits and trophic level of the Panama grunt Pomadasys panamensis, an important bycatch species from the shrimp trawl fishery in the Gulf of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Preciado, Jose A.; Amezcua-Martinez, Felipe; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Madrid-Vera, Juan

    2014-10-14

    The Panama grunt is an abundant and commercially important species in the SE Gulf of California, but the research undertaken on this species is scarce despite its ecological and economic importance. We studied the feeding habits of Panama grunt through stomach content analyses as a first step towards understanding the biology of this species in the study area. Our results show that the Panama grunt is a benthic predator throughout its life cycle and feeds mainly on infaunal crustaceans. Diet differences were not found according to size, diet or season. Shannon diversity index results indicate that Panama grunt have a limited trophic niche breadth with a diet dominated by a limited number of taxa. The estimated trophic level of this species is 3.59. Overall, the Panama grunt is a carnivorous fish occupying the intermediate levels of the trophic pyramid.

  17. Feeding habits and trophic level of the Panama grunt Pomadasys panamensis, an important bycatch species from the shrimp trawl fishery in the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Preciado, José A; Amezcua, Felipe; Bellgraph, Brian; Madrid-Vera, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The Panama grunt is an abundant and commercially important species in the southeastern Gulf of California, but the research undertaken on this species is scarce despite its ecological and economic importance. We studied the feeding habits of Panama grunt through stomach content analyses as a first step towards understanding the biology of this species in the study area. Our results indicate that the Panama grunt is a benthic predator throughout its life cycle and feeds mainly on infaunal crustaceans. Diet differences among grunt were not found according to size, diet, or season. Shannon diversity index results indicate that Panama grunt has a limited trophic niche breadth with a diet dominated by a limited number of taxa as crustaceans. The estimated trophic level of this species is 3.59. Overall, the Panama grunt is a carnivorous fish occupying the intermediate levels of the trophic pyramid.

  18. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic.   Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The lecturer invites comments via email to Gian.Piero.Siroli@cern.ch NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  19. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic. Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.   NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  20. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  1. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  2. Identification of chemical warfare agent with radiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Li Yun; Ai Xianyun

    2000-01-01

    There are three non-destructive radiological methods for identification of warfare agents and TNT. Their principles and problems related were discussed. Portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy is based on the assay of key elemental composition (such as Cl, P, H, As, S, N) in chemical agents by neutron induced prompt gamma ray analysis. Hydrogen concentration measurement by means of using thermal neutron can be employed to identify chemical warfare agents and TNT that contains different hydrogen fraction. The calibration curves of thermal neutron count rate against hydrogen concentration were measured. X ray imagination system can be used to determine the internal structure of chemical bombs, there by to identify them. The radiological methods are very useful for identification of old chemical weapons abandoned by Japan Army during World War 2

  3. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Panama 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Panama carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  4. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Panama 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Panama carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  5. Panama City 2003 Acoustic Coherence Experiments: Low Frequency Bottom Penetration Fluctuation Measurements in a Multipath Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Roger W.; Kennedy, E. Ted; Malley, Dexter; Fisher, Robert A.; Brown, Robert; Stanic, Steve

    2004-11-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers describing acoustic coherence and fluctuations measurements made by the Naval Research Laboratory in the Gulf of Mexico near Panama City Beach, FL during June 2003. This paper presents low frequency (1-10 kHz) buried hydrophone measurements and preliminary results for two source-receiver ranges with grazing angles less than two degrees (realtive to the direct-path to the seafloor at the receiver location). Results focus on fluctuations after acoustic penetration into the sediment. These fluctuations are correlated with environmental influences.

  6. Panama disease in banana and neoliberal governance: towards a political ecology of risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, de la, Jaye

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of Panama disease Tropical Race 4 (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) or TR4 – a fungal disease in banana that is considered by horticulture experts as not only one of the most destructive diseases in the world (Ploetz 1994) but one with no on-hand socio-cultural or chemical method to control it satisfactorily (Ploetz 2015) – has generated conversations, dialogue, inquiry and at times controversy, on how this risk is to be managed. The onslaught of Tropical Race 1 (TR1) in the 19...

  7. Preliminary Hybrid Modeling of the Panama Canal: Operations and Salinity Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the initial modeling of water salinity and its diffusion into the lakes during lock operation on the Panama Canal. A hybrid operational model was implemented using the AnyLogic software simulation environment. This was accomplished by generating an operational discrete-event simulation model and a continuous simulation model based on differential equations, which modeled the salinity diffusion in the lakes. This paper presents that unique application and includes the effective integration of lock operations and its impact on the environment.

  8. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Condit

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country.

  9. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Farris

    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21-25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of <1 wt. %, and plot in mid-ocean ridge/back-arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5-0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100-1190°C magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5. However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm. require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the

  10. Impact of increased tobacco tax on revenue and prices in Panama 2009 - 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Hugo Herrera Ballesteros; Ilais Moreno; Beatriz Gómez; Reina Roa

    2018-01-01

    Background To demonstrate the impact of the increase of the Selective Tax on the Consumption of Cigarettes and other tobacco products (ISC) in the tax collection and increases in the prices of cigarettes, after 2009. Methods The primary source of information is the database of the 2015 cigarette market survey conducted in the districts of Panama, Colón, David, Barú, San Miguelito and the indigenous districts of Guna Yala and Ngäbe-Buglé in July 2015. The fiscal collection d...

  11. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Foster, David; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21–25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5–0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100–1190°C) magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5). However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm.) require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the idea that Panama arc crust fractured during collision

  12. Just War and Postmodern Warfare: A German Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    warfare construct, Germany is shaping a military concept based on recent conflicts and unfettered by biases of conventional strategies, organizations...remain sovereign while subconsciously evolving toward liberal democratic ideas. In respecting each country’s political sensitivities, Germany’s...before exhausting all diplomatic, economic and information instruments. Whereas the term AU/ACSC/PINSON/AY15 13 “interests” may bias the United

  13. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the body,” and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, bans the use of chemical and biological weapons .11 On 8 April 1975, President Ford issued Executive...E Funding – PE 63851M) (accessed 15 December 2006). The American Journal of Bioethics . “Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons .” Bioethics.net...CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Richard L. Scott September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader

  14. Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    respectively. The avionics in Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner require approximately 6.5 million lines of code while the current S-Class Mercedes Benz requires over 20...leaders (demonstrated through outdated policy, theory, and doctrine) and the reality of warfare in 1914 (dictated by innovation, technology , and...or the guidelines to military action codified in doctrine? How are states using the latest technological innovations as violent instruments of

  15. Attacking the infrastructure: exploring potential uses of offensive information warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Elam, Donald Emmett.

    1996-01-01

    The world has entered the Third Wave; it has entered the Information Age. One of the fundamentals of this paradigm shift is the fact that information is power. The side that controls information more effectively will be victorious. Thus, countries and militaries must change their mentality in order to survive. A new form of conflict, Information Warfare, has been born. This new discipline is large, dynamic, and complex. The need exists for education among military officers and other concerned...

  16. Built to Outlast: Operational Approaches to Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    29Robert T. Ames, Sun Tzu: The Art of War (New York: Ballantine Books, 1993), 78-80; Mao Tse -Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel B. Griffith...Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1961), 25, 42.The works of Sun Tzu and Mao Tse -Tung both illustrate aspects of this concept. In a work...toreador’s cape, not the toreador himself. - Norman B. Hannah, The Key to Failure: Laos and the Vietnam War114 Against the backdrop of the Cold

  17. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dimijian, Gregory G.

    2010-01-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth ...

  18. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Kuizhi; Liu Wenlin; Li Guanxiong; Ji Jinzu; Yu Dazhao

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS) of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carr...

  19. Annihilation Prediction for Lanchester-Type Models of Modern Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, G.G.; Taylor, J.

    1983-01-01

    Operations Research, 31, p.752. This paper introduces important new functions for analytic solution of Launch-ester-type equations of modern warfare for combat between two homogeneous forces modeled by power attrtition-rate coefficients with "no offset". Tabulations of these Lanchester-Clifford-Schlatii (or LCS) functions allow one to study this particular variable-coefficient model almost as easily and thoroughly as Lanchester's classic constant-coefficient one. LCS functions allow one ...

  20. Inside the Wire: American Security and Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Roberts, Kerry V. " SUN TZU and The Art of Cyber Warfare." Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International 19, no. 1(Spring 2013): 12-4...12. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-03-2017 Bibliography 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Inside the Wire: American Security...MCDERMOTT LIBRARY U.S. AIR FORCE ACADEMY 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT USAF ACADEMY CO 80840-6214 NUMBER(S) Special Bibliography Series # 119 12

  1. Hungarys Alternative to Counter Hybrid Warfare - Small States Weaponized Citizenry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    said “Resilience as a terminological and operational factor, will become the newest ‘ brand ’ and communication name for the Alliance.”70 He also...audiences to influence their emotions , motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and...so-called influence warfare. His study pinpointed the importance of emotion over rational facts in messages. Second, Edward Lucas and Ben Nimmo on

  2. Recent Advances in Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Wadood Khan; Sabna Kotta; Shahid Husain Ansari; Javed Ali; Rakesh Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The recent turmoil and volatile situation in many countries and the increased risk of terrorist activities have raised alarm bells for the field of defense against toxic chemical/materials. These situations poses threats to society as terrorists can take advantage of such situations to strike and cause public mayhem. A number of chemicals have the potential of being used as chemical warfare (CW) agents. CW agents could immediately kill or incapacitate the affected individuals even when they a...

  3. Cyber warfare:terms, issues, laws and controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Seviş, Kamile Nur; Şeker, Ensar

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have shown us the importance of cybersecurity. Especially, when the matter is national security, it is even more essential and crucial. Increasing cyber attacks, especially between countries in governmental level, created a new term cyber warfare. Creating some rules and regulations for this kind of war is necessary therefore international justice systems are working on it continuously. In this paper, we mentioned fundamental terms of cyber...

  4. Littoral Combat Ship Open Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    maintain stealth and its defense in order to properly conduct an attack on a surface vessel (Sternhell and Thorndike 2014, 102). This statement...its target, the surface combatants can counter by increasing their speed (Sternhell and Thorndike 2014). While the maximum speed of the current...120316_PS.pdf Sternhell, Charles M, and Alan M Thorndike . 2014. “Antisubmarine Warfare in World War II.” CNA Analysis & Solutions. Accessed April 14, 2014

  5. Russian and Chinese Information Warfare: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Integral neurolinguistic programming •Placing essential programs into the conscious or sub- conscious mind •Subconscious suggestions that modify human...Generators of special rays •Optical systems • Neurolinguistic programming •Computer psychotechnology •The mass media •Audiovisual effects •Special effects...Information Warfare: Theory and Practice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  6. The problem of fuzzy cause-specific death rates in mortality context analysis: the case of Panama City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, S; Gans, P

    1993-05-01

    In studies of mortality, small and fluctuating numbers of deaths are problems which are caused by infrequent reporting and small spatial unit reporting. To use Panama City as an example, the paper will introduce a Monte Carlo simulation which allows for the analysis of mortality even with small absolute numbers. In addition, Panama City will be used as an example where good medical care is available in every city district, so that social class differences between the districts have a negligible effect on most cause-specific death rates and infant mortality.

  7. Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Anayansi; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2011-12-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

  8. Special Forces and the Art of Influence: A Grassroots Approach to Psychological Operations in an Unconventional Warfare Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, II, Joel W

    2006-01-01

    This thesis researches the intricacies of the art of influence in an unconventional warfare environment to develop a model of influence that can be utilized by Special Forces conducting unconventional warfare...

  9. Chemical warfare agents identification by thermal neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Ai Xianyun; Tan Daoyuan; Zhang Dianqin

    2000-01-01

    The hydrogen concentration determination by thermal neutron detection is a non-destructive, fast and effective method to identify chemical warfare agents and TNT that contain different hydrogen fraction. When an isotropic neutron source is used to irradiate chemical ammunition, hydrogen atoms of the agent inside shell act as a moderator and slow down neutrons. The number of induced thermal neutrons depends mainly upon hydrogen content of the agent. Therefore measurement of thermal neutron influence can be used to determine hydrogen atom concentration, thereby to determine the chemical warfare agents. Under a certain geometry three calibration curves of count rate against hydrogen concentration were measured. According to the calibration curves, response of a chemical agent or TNT could be calculated. Differences of count rate among chemical agents and TNT for each kind of shells is greater than five times of standard deviations of count rate for any agent, so chemical agents or TNT could be identified correctly. Meanwhile, blast tube or liquid level of chemical warfare agent could affect the response of thermal neutron count rate, and thereby the result of identification. (author)

  10. Quality of Life in Iranian Chemical Warfare Veteran's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Abbas; Moradian, Tayeb; Mollahadi, Mohsen; Saeed, Yaser; Refahi, Ali Akbar

    2014-05-01

    Mustard gas has different effects on different body systems such as respiratory tract, blood, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, endocrine and peripheral nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life in chemical warfare veterans due to sulfur mustard exposure. In a cross-sectional and analytic study, 242 patients who had a chemical injury during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1983) and their lung damage was proven were investigated in our study. The quality of life was measured in these patients using an extensively validated Iranian version of SF-36. The mean age of veterans was 44.12 ± 4.9 ranging from 22 to 62 years. Our results showed that chemical warfare had a decreased quality of life in all subscales of the SF-36. The lowest scores in SF-36 subscales were related to role physical and general health. The data also showed a significant relationship between the number of organs involved and the quality of life in these patients (P chemical warfare survivors suffering from late complications have a low health related quality of life.

  11. Building Participation in Large-scale Conservation: Lessons from Belize and Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Guite Hastings

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by biogeography and a desire for alignment with the funding priorities of donors, the twenty-first century has seen big international NGOs shifting towards a large-scale conservation approach. This shift has meant that even before stakeholders at the national and local scale are involved, conservation programmes often have their objectives defined and funding allocated. This paper uses the experiences of Conservation International′s Marine Management Area Science (MMAS programme in Belize and Panama to explore how to build participation at the national and local scale while working within the bounds of the current conservation paradigm. Qualitative data about MMAS was gathered through a multi-sited ethnographic research process, utilising document review, direct observation, and semi-structured interviews with 82 informants in Belize, Panama, and the United States of America. Results indicate that while a large-scale approach to conservation disadvantages early national and local stakeholder participation, this effect can be mediated through focusing engagement efforts, paying attention to context, building horizontal and vertical partnerships, and using deliberative processes that promote learning. While explicit consideration of geopolitics and local complexity alongside biogeography in the planning phase of a large-scale conservation programme is ideal, actions taken by programme managers during implementation can still have a substantial impact on conservation outcomes.

  12. The presence of coconut in southern Panama in pre-Columbian times: clearing up the confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Luc; Gunn, Bee F; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    The pre-Columbian presence of coconut on the Pacific coast of Panama is attested by a number of independent written accounts. However, recent papers question their accuracy and conclude that coconut was introduced to the region by the Spaniards after their conquests. Scope In order to examine the value of such claims, an extensive search was conducted of the relevant historical accounts of coconut in America and in the Orient. The Spanish chronicler Oviedo (1478-1557) is found to have effectively used fruit and seed size to distinguish coconut from other palms. In addition, it is shown that he has been inaccurately faulted with incorrectly representing a cluster of coconuts. The original drawing, a cluster of a native Bactris, was in the marginalia and was only assigned to coconut after Oviedo's death. Finally, the location is identified of a coastal Panamanian site described by Pedro Mártir de Anglería and where tidal dispersal of coconuts was observed. This previously overlooked evidence confirms the pre-historical presence of coconut in Panama. Genetic data indicate that it must have been brought there directly or indirectly from the Philippines. But when, where and by whom remains a subject of research. Further molecular marker studies, computer simulation of natural drift and archaeological research could contribute to this research.

  13. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection.

  14. Ark and Archive: Making a Place for Long-Term Research on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Megan

    2015-12-01

    Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, may be the most studied tropical forest in the world. A 1,560-hectare island created by the flooding of the Panama Canal, BCI became a nature reserve and biological research station in 1923. Contemporaries saw the island as an "ark" preserving a sample of primeval tropical nature for scientific study. BCI was not simply "set aside," however. The project of making it a place for science significantly reshaped the island through the twentieth century. This essay demonstrates that BCI was constructed specifically to allow long-term observation of tropical organisms--their complex behaviors, life histories, population dynamics, and changing species composition. An evolving system of monitoring and information technology transformed the island into a living scientific "archive," in which the landscape became both an object and a repository of scientific knowledge. As a research site, BCI enabled a long-term, place-based form of collective empiricism, focused on the study of the ecology of a single tropical island. This essay articulates tropical ecology as a "science of the archive" in order to examine the origins of practices of environmental surveillance that have become central to debates about global change and conservation.

  15. Corrosion study of steels exposed over five years to the humid tropical atmosphere of Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaén, Juan A., E-mail: juan.jaen@up.ac.pa [Departamento de Química Física, Edificio de Laboratorios Científicos-VIP (Panama); Iglesias, Josefina [Laboratorio de Análisis Industriales y Ciencias Ambientales (Panama)

    2017-11-15

    The results of assessing five-year corrosion of low-carbon and conventional weathering steels exposed to the Panamanian tropical atmosphere is presented. Two different test sites, one in Panama City: 5 km from the shoreline of the Pacific Ocean, and another in the marine environment of Fort Sherman, Caribbean coast of Panama; namely, Fort Sherman Coastal site: 100 m from coastline. The corrosion products, formed in the skyward and earthward faces in the studied tropical environment, were mainly identified using room temperature and low temperature (15 K) Mössbauer spectroscopy, and ATR-FTIR. In all samples, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and goethite (α-FeOOH) were the main constituents. Some maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), was also identified in Tocumen by Mössbauer spectroscopy and traces of feroxyhyte (δ-FeOOH) using ATR-FTIR. The corrosion rate values obtained are discussed in light of the atmospheric exposure conditions and atmospheric pollutants.

  16. Advances and limitations of the integrated water resources management in Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalante Henriquez, Luis Carlos; Charpentier, Claudia; Diez Hernandez, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Panama competitiveness depends largely on quality and abundance of natural resources, which are being progressively degraded by a disordered urban and economic development. The availability of water in adequate quantity and quality poses serious problems in some areas of the country. This affects both the quality of life of the population and key sectors such as agriculture, industry, hydro and tourism; and stimulates social conflicts related to access, use and disposal of used water. To prevent the degradation of water resources has been promoted a holistic, known as integrated in water resources management (IWRM) strategy. From the Summit of Mar del Plata, Argentina (1977) until the 5th Forum world of the water in Istanbul in Turkey (2009), international meetings that have contributed to defining the principles and recommendations for the IWRM have been held. This work presents a methodological model of IWRM designed for Panama. Essentially consists of a perfected in how to manage water, requiring changes in the political, social, economic and administrative systems of water resource management approach

  17. Hydrometric, Hydrochemical, and Hydrogeophysical Runoff Characterization Across Multiple Land Covers in the Agua Salud Project, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Guy Finley

    As the Panama Canal Authority faces sensitivity to water shortages, managing water resources becomes crucial for the global shipping industry's security. These studies address knowledge gaps in tropical water resources to aid hydrological model development and validation. Field-based hydrological investigations in the Agua Salud Project within the Panama Canal Watershed employed multiple tools across a variety of land covers to investigate hydrological processes. Geochemical tracers informed where storm runoff in a stream comes from and identified electrical conductivity (EC) as an economical, high sample frequency tracer during small storms. EC-based hydrograph separation coupled with hydrograph recession rate analyses identified shallow and deep groundwater storage-discharge relationships that varied by season and land cover. A series of plot-scale electrical resistivity imaging geophysical experiments coupled with rainfall simulation characterized subsurface flow pathway behavior and quantified respectively increasing infiltration rates across pasture, 10 year old secondary succession forest, teak (tectona grandis), and 30 year old secondary succession forest land covers. Additional soil water, groundwater, and geochemical studies informed conceptual model development in subsurface flow pathways and groundwater, and identified future research needs.

  18. Synanthropic Mammals as Potential Hosts of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Bermúdez

    Full Text Available Synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in Panama, spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR and Borrelia relapsing fever (RF spirochetes. One hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos, four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. To evaluate exposure to SFGR, serum samples from the animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA using Rickettsia rickettsii and Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii antigen. Immunoblotting was performed using Borrelia turicatae protein lysates and rGlpQ, to assess infection caused by RF spirochetes. One coyote (25% and 27 (43% opossums showed seroreactivity to SFGR. Of these opossums, 11 were seroreactive to C. R. amblyommii. Serological reactivity was not detected to B. turicatae in mammal samples. These findings may reflect a potential role of both mammals in the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Panama.

  19. Catalogo General de Universidades, 1970-1971: Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama (General Catalog of Universities, 1970-1971: Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama, Guatemala City (Guatemala).

    This document contains the 1970-1971 catalogues of five universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC). The catalogues provide information on university administrators and staff, historical background, admission requirements, degree programs, scholarships, and courses. The catalogues included…

  20. United States Coast Guard Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) in the Maritime Defense Zone (MDZ) - A Strategic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    RIC ILE COPY AIR WAR COLLGE REEAC R~pCR UNITED STATES COAST GUARD ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE (ASW) IN THE MARITIME DEFENSE ZONE (MDZ) -A STRATEGIC...going to perform in these MDZs. Those tasks identified so far include: port and coastal physical security & preventive safety, mine warfare

  1. The Utility of Freedom: A Principal-Agent Model for Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Lanchester Model of Guerrilla Warfare,‖ Operations Research 10, no. 6 (December 1962): 818–827; William A. Niskanen, ―Review: The Economics of Insurgency...http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/DDRS?locID=navalps. Deitchman, S. J. ―A Lanchester Model of Guerrilla Warfare.‖ Operations Research 10, no

  2. Understanding the elementary considerations in a network warfare environment: an introductory framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available . It seeks to offer a better introductory understanding to the field of network warfare. This paper addresses the requirements for a network warfare capability and will look at the high-level approach, constraints, focus areas, levels, techniques...

  3. Metal organic frameworks for the catalytic detoxification of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Katz, Michael J.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-04-18

    A method of using a metal organic framework (MOF) comprising a metal ion and an at least bidendate organic ligand to catalytically detoxify chemical warfare nerve agents including exposing the metal-organic-framework (MOF) to the chemical warfare nerve agent and catalytically decomposing the nerve agent with the MOF.

  4. Study on the identification method of chemical warfare agents with spectroscopy of neutron induced γ rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Li Yun; Li Xiangbao

    1996-01-01

    The paper briefly describes some non-destructive verification technologies of chemical warfare agents in-site, and some application of neutron induced gamma ray analysis, such as multi-elements analysis of coal, hidden explosive detection and identification of chemical agents. It also describes some problems in developing the portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy for non-destructive evaluation of chemical warfare agents

  5. Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area.

  6. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: The case of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mottaghi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  7. 75 FR 6642 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Recruiting Directorate announces the submission... any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the...

  8. 77 FR 66505 - To Implement the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... eligible for the benefits of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). 5. Consistent with section 201(a...) are necessary to reflect that Panama is no longer eligible to receive the benefits of the GSP, the... officials collectively exercising those functions are all to be officers required to be appointed by the...

  9. The Ritual "Play of the Congos" of North-Central Panama: Its Sociolinguistic Implications. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Luz Graciela

    An excerpt from the "Play of the Congos," given in Congo, Spanish, and English, exemplifies the sociolinguistic features of the combined play and ritual language used by the Afro-Hispanic population in the Caribbean region of the Costa Abajo in north-central Panama. The sociolinguistic norms are an important part of the "regulation…

  10. The Implications of the Transfer of Authority of the Panama Canal Zone on Us Southern Command's Theater Engagement Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallengren, Charlotte

    2000-01-01

    .... As a result of the provisions of these treaties, U.S. Southern Command will need to compensate for the loss of forward basing in Panama in order to continue to perform its anti-drug regional mission. U.S...

  11. Radiation inactivation of Salmonella panama and Escherichia coli K 12 present on deep-frozen broiler carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation have been used to extend the shelf life of refrigerated poultry carcasses and to reduce the numbers of Salmonellae present. This report gives results of experiments on irradiation of deep-frozen poultry carcasses which were, before freezing, artificially contaminated with Salmonella panama and with a nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K 12. The D-values (decimal reduction) obtained with the inoculated carcasses were compared with D-values obtained with carcasses which were slaughtered in the normal way. The D-values for S.panama and for E.coli K 12 were 64.9 krad and 55.9 krad in the dripwater. Under commercial conditions approximately 100 krad were required for one decimal reduction of the Enterobacteriaceae present. The D-values estimated on the skin were higher for S.panama than for E.coli K 12 (128.6 krad vs 57.6 krad). If it is assumed that 1 positive carcass in 10,000 is allowed, the deep-frozen carcasses should be irradiated with doses of at least 700 krad to be sure of the absence of the tested S.panama strain. (orig.) [de

  12. An assessment of the terrestrial mammal communities in forests of Central Panama, using camera-trap surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, N.F.V.; Esser, H.J.; Moreno, R.; Langevelde, van F.; Liefting, Y.; Ros Oller, D.; Vogels, C.B.F.; Carver, A.D.; Nielsen, C.K.; Jansen, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Isthmus of Panama, part of the planet’s third largest megadiversity hotspot, and connecting the faunas of North and South America, has lost more than half of its forest due to agriculture and economicdevelopment. It is unknown to what degree the remaining forest, which is fragmented and subject

  13. Radiation inactivation of Salmonella panama and Escherichia coli K 12 present on deep-frozen broiler carcasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, R W.A.W. [Spelderholt Inst. for Poultry Research, Beekbergen (Netherlands). Processing Dept.

    1976-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation have been used to extend the shelf life of refrigerated poultry carcasses and to reduce the numbers of Salmonellae present. This report gives results of experiments on irradiation of deep-frozen poultry carcasses which were, before freezing, artificially contaminated with Salmonella panama and with a nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K 12. The D-values (decimal reduction) obtained with the inoculated carcasses were compared with D-values obtained with carcasses which were slaughtered in the normal way. The D-values for S.panama and for E.coli K 12 were 64.9 krad and 55.9 krad in the dripwater. Under commercial conditions approximately 100 krad were required for one decimal reduction of the Enterobacteriaceae present. The D-values estimated on the skin were higher for S.panama than for E.coli K 12 (128.6 krad vs 57.6 krad). If it is assumed that 1 positive carcass in 10,000 is allowed, the deep-frozen carcasses should be irradiated with doses of at least 700 krad to be sure of the absence of the tested S.panama strain.

  14. 75 FR 34687 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh False Coriander From Panama Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... continental United States of fresh false coriander from Panama. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis..., based on the findings of a pest- risk analysis, can be safely imported subject to one or more of the... publishes a notice in the Federal Register announcing the availability of the pest risk analysis that...

  15. 77 FR 15600 - Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix; Saint Andrew Bay; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix; Saint Andrew Bay; Panama City, FL... navigable waters during the Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix high speed boat races. Entry into... needed to safeguard persons and vessels from safety hazards associated with the Emerald Coast Super Boat...

  16. In the Aftermath of War: US Support for Reconstruction and Nation-Building in Panama Following Just Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Politics, 3d ed. (New York : University Press of America, 1988); Richard Shultz, "Can Democratic Governments Use Military Force in the War...Porras, Arnulfo Arias Madrid (Panama: Litho- Impresora , S. A., 1980); Ropp, Panamanian Politics ; and Milled . 10 . Nordlinger. While there is a rich

  17. Environmental radiological Monitoring to the Pb-210 in waters and soils in the Boquete region in Panama Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, E.; Scotland, E.E.; De Infante, M.; Fernandez, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Natural water samples were analyzed in Brazil Institutes and shows activities high to 1000 mBq/I in Polonium 210. Later on samples were analyzed in the Departamento de Salud Radiologica de la Caja de Seguro Social to Panama Republic and the results reported to 16.08 mBq/I and 2.4 Bq/Kg respectively

  18. Nonstandard Logistics Success in Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    water from local farms , vendors, and markets. The PACE plan would be con- stantly updated as the operational picture changes, such as a variation in...sus- tainability. For example, if a forward element is purchasing a noticeable amount of rice from a local farm , the team might begin purchasing rice...another OE be forced to use another item that has value. Cash may work in a city center, but a goat in a rural area is just as valuable and easily sold

  19. Long-term scenario alternatives and their implications: LEAP model application of Panama's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, Madeleine; Karney, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Panama recently enacted a new law, which aims to promote wind energy by mandating long term power purchase tenders. The implications of this new law lend some uncertainty to Panama's electricity development pathway. This paper quantitatively analyzes the current status of power generation in Panama, and explores various potential future scenarios and the associated impacts on the system marginal cost, global warming potential, and resource diversity index. To this end, this study applies the scenario development methodology developed by Schwartz in the context of the energy-economic modeling platform ‘Long-range Energy Alternative Planning’ (LEAP). Four scenarios are developed and analyzed. The Business as Usual scenario extrapolates the electricity generation trend that has been observed over the last decade; it is compared to three alternative scenarios which have more specific objectives. Scenario 1 encourages climate mitigation without incorporating new technologies in the generation mix, Scenario 2 maximizes resource diversity, and Scenario 3 minimizes global warming potential. For each scenario, the composition of the electricity generation profile, system marginal cost, global warming potential, and resource diversity is predicted quantitatively. These scenarios to not attempt to forecast likely developments, but rather illuminate the tradeoffs that different development pathways entail. - Highlights: • This paper models Panama's electricity sector using the LEAP model platform. • Four scenarios are developed and analyzed. • Impact analysis includes: system cost, global warming potential, resource diversity index. • Panama can achieve a sustainable grid with existing technologies and costs. • There is an tradeoff between the resource diversity and global warming potential

  20. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Xavier Kirby

    Full Text Available Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y., having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone, is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a

  1. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michael Xavier; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2008-07-30

    Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y.), having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma) than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma) and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma) formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma) than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone), is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a peninsula

  2. Early neogene history of the central American arc from Bocas del Toro, western Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Anthony G.; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Collins, Laurel S.; Kunk, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A newly discovered sequence of lower to middle Miocene rocks from the eastern Bocas del Toro archipelago, western Panama, reveals the timing and environment of the earliest stages in the rise of the Isthmus of Panama in this region. Two new formations, the Punta Alegre Formation (lower Miocene, Aquitanian to Burdigalian) and the Valiente Formation (middle Miocene, Langhian to Serravallian), are here named and formally described. The Punta Alegre Formation contains a diagnostic microfauna of benthic and planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils that indicate deposition in a 2000-m-deep pre-isthmian neotropical ocean from as old as 21.5–18.3 Ma. Its lithology varies from silty mudstone to muddy foraminiferal ooze with rare thin microturbidite layers near the top. The Valiente Formation, which ranges in age from 16.4 to ca. 12.0 Ma, lies with slight angular unconformity on the Punta Alegre Formation and consists of five lithofacies: (1) columnar basalt and flow breccia, (2) pyroclastic deposits, (3) coarse-grained volcaniclastic deposits, (4) coral-reef limestone with diverse large coral colonies, and (5) marine debris-flow deposits and microturbidites. These lithofacies are interpreted to indicate that after ca. 16 Ma a volcanic arc developed in the region of Bocas del Toro and that by ca. 12 Ma an extensively emergent archipelago of volcanic islands had formed. 39Ar/40Ar dating of basalt flows associated with the fossiliferous sedimentary rocks in the upper part of the Valiente Formation strongly confirms the ages derived from planktic foraminifera and nannofossils. Paleobathymetric analysis of the two new formations in the Valiente Peninsula and Popa Island, in the Bocas del Toro archipelago, shows a general shallowing from lower- through upper-bathyal to upper-neritic and emergent laharic and fluviatile deposits from ca. 19 to 12 Ma. The overlying nonconformable Bocas del Toro Group contains a lower transgressive sequence ranging from basal nearshore

  3. Cybersecurity protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio

  4. Getting the Next War Right: Beyond Population-centric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    respectively: Che Guevara and Mao Tse -tung. Che’s foco theory, as we have discussed, advocates mobilizing from the top. The armed challenger chooses an...example, Thomas A. Marks, “Guerrillas in the Mist: Hmong Resistance Continues in Laos ,” Combat and Survival 8, no. 5 (August 1996), 4–11. 12 Theory and...Mao Tse -tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. and ed. Samuel B. Grif!th (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2005). The book is available from a wide

  5. Chemical and biological warfare. Should defenses be researched and deployed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orient, J M

    1989-08-04

    The threat of chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction has intensified because of improved delivery systems and advances in chemistry, genetics, and other sciences. Possible US responses to this threat include deterrence, defenses, and/or disarmament, including a reaffirmation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention of 1972, which is now in jeopardy. This article discusses the history of chemical and biological warfare, existing and potential weapons, the proliferation of weapons and delivery systems, ways to prevent the use of these weapons, and ways to protect populations from their effects.

  6. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...... residues in connection with the installation of the pipelines. Novel exposure and toxicity assessments are presented and the risk is assessed. The overall conclusion is that there is a negligible acute added CWA risk towards the fish community from the installation of the pipelines....

  7. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  8. Anthropogenic mortality on coral reefs in Caribbean Panama predates coral disease and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Katie L; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Angioletti, Christopher V; Leonard-Pingel, Jill; Guilderson, Thomas P

    2012-06-01

    Caribbean reef corals have declined precipitously since the 1980s due to regional episodes of bleaching, disease and algal overgrowth, but the extent of earlier degradation due to localised historical disturbances such as land clearing and overfishing remains unresolved. We analysed coral and molluscan fossil assemblages from reefs near Bocas del Toro, Panama to construct a timeline of ecological change from the 19th century-present. We report large changes before 1960 in coastal lagoons coincident with extensive deforestation, and after 1960 on offshore reefs. Striking changes include the demise of previously dominant staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and oyster Dendrostrea frons that lives attached to gorgonians and staghorn corals. Reductions in bivalve size and simplification of gastropod trophic structure further implicate increasing environmental stress on reefs. Our paleoecological data strongly support the hypothesis, from extensive qualitative data, that Caribbean reef degradation predates coral bleaching and disease outbreaks linked to anthropogenic climate change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Evolving protected-area impacts in Panama: impact shifts show that plans require anticipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruna, Akiko; Pfaff, Alexander; Van den Ende, Sander; Joppa, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are the leading forest conservation policy, so accurate evaluation of future PA impact is critical in conservation planning. Yet by necessity impact evaluations use past data. Here we argue that forward-looking plans should blend such evaluations with anticipation of shifts in threats. Applying improved methods to evaluate past impact, we provide rigorous support for that conceptual approach by showing that PAs’ impacts on deforestation shifted with land use. We study the Republic of Panama, where species-dense tropical forest faces real pressure. Facing variation in deforestation pressure, the PAs’ impacts varied across space and time. Thus, if shifts in pressure levels and patterns could be anticipated, that could raise impact. (paper)

  10. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Estimation of Dwelling Times of Panama Metro Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Berbey Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow modeling and station dwelling time estimation are significant elements for railway mass transit planning, but system operators usually have limited information to model the passenger flow. In this paper, an artificial-intelligence technique known as fuzzy logic is applied for the estimation of the elements of the origin-destination matrix and the dwelling time of stations in a railway transport system. The fuzzy inference engine used in the algorithm is based in the principle of maximum entropy. The approach considers passengers’ preferences to assign a level of congestion in each car of the train in function of the properties of the station platforms. This approach is implemented to estimate the passenger flow and dwelling times of the recently opened Line 1 of the Panama Metro. The dwelling times obtained from the simulation are compared to real measurements to validate the approach.

  11. Towards A Model Of Knowledge Extraction Of Text Mining For Palliative Care Patients In Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cedeno Moreno

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solutions using information technology is an innovative way to manage the information hospice patients in hospitals in Panama. The application of techniques of text mining for the domain of medicine especially information from electronic health records of patients in palliative care is one of the most recent and promising research areas for the analysis of textual data. Text mining is based on new knowledge extraction from unstructured natural language data. We may also create ontologies to describe the terminology and knowledge in a given domain. In an ontology conceptualization of a domain that may be general or specific formalized. Knowledge can be used for decision making by health specialists or can help in research topics for improving the health system.

  12. Isotopic paleoceanography of the Caribbean and east Pacific: role of Panama uplift in late Neogene time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keigwin, L.

    1982-01-01

    Comparisons of carbon isotopic data on benthic foraminifera from Deep Sea Drilling Project sites 502 (western Caribbean) and 503 (eastern Pacific) indicate that the difference between the Atlantic and the Pacific in the per mil enrichment in carbon-13 of total dissolved carbon dioxide increased about 6 million years ago and again 3 million years ago, when the difference reached the modern level (1 per mil). Comparisons of planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotopic data for the Caribbean and the Pacific suggest that the salinity of Caribbean surface waters began increasing 4 million years ago, possibly in response to shoaling of the Panama isthmus. These results suggest that modern circulation patterns in the Caribbean and eastern Pacific developed by 3 million years ago in concert with changing tectonic, climatic, and biogeographic patterns

  13. Diagnosis of contagious ecthyma in goats in a quarantine station in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Magaña Ch.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an outbreak of contagious ecthyma (CE in a herd of goats at Paso Canoas quarantine station, Panama. The goats were adult intact females. Visible clinical signs became apparent from day 13 after the start of quarantine. We performed clinical examination. Serum biopsy and scabs were collected from crusted lesions in the epithelium of the lips, nose and eyelid corners. Samples were studied by histopathology,complement fixation test, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, DAS-ELISA, viral isolationand nucleic acid amplification tests. Histopathology revealed ortho and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, viral inclusion bodies, keratinocytes with balonoid degeneration, vesicles with neutrophils and degenerated cells, in superficial dermis there is marked neovascularization. Complement fixation test, DAS-ELISA and nucleic acid amplification tests resulted positive for contagious ecthyma. TEM showed viral particles, consistent with Parapoxvirus. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with poxvirus infection in the quarantine goat herd.

  14. Assessment of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus(Perciformes: Coryphaenidae fishery in Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor M Guzman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurusis a highly migratory pelagic species commercially exploited by industrial, artisanal and recreational fisheries in tropical and subtropical areas of the world's oceans. Herein, we evaluated the dolphinfish industrial fishery in Pacific Panama for the first time generating a growth model and examining fluctuations in annual total catch and in catch per unit effort (CPUE over a four-year period (2006-2009. Annual and monthly catch values and biological parameters of 14 913 individuals were obtained onboard industrial vessels, landing sites and records from processing plants. Size frequency for industrial vessels showed a normal distribution between 353 and 1 715 mm (average, 1 010.85 mm; n = 10 459. Fish weight averaged 4.94 kg (SD. Sex ratio was slightly biased toward females. More than 90% of the analyzed fish were sexually mature. The length-weight relationship was positive and significant, reflecting allometric growth. Growth parameters using the von Bertalanffy equation revealed a growth efficiency of 0 = 4.61, which is within the reported range for Coryphaena hippurus(3.95-4.70. The largest fish were between age classes 2 and 3 (7001 400 mm. Total catch per year and catch per unit effort (CPUE per year fluctuated, with the highest values recorded between 2008 and 2009. Catch values reported herein are preliminary and appear to be below those recorded elsewhere in the region and cautiously may represent an indicator of sustainable use of this marine resource even considering the absence of management actions in Panama.

  15. Land Cover Influence on Wet Season Storm Runoff Generation and Hydrologic Flowpaths in Central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, A. L.; Stallard, R. F.; Barnard, H. R.

    2017-12-01

    While relationships between land use/land cover and hydrology are well studied and understood in temperate parts of the world, little research exists in the humid tropics, where hydrologic research is often decades behind. Specifically, quantitative information on how physical and biological differences across varying land covers influence runoff generation and hydrologic flowpaths in the humid tropics is scarce; frequently leading to poorly informed hydrologic modelling and water policy decision making. This research effort seeks to quantify how tropical land cover change may alter physical hydrologic processes in the economically important Panama Canal Watershed (Republic of Panama) by separating streamflow into its different runoff components using end member mixing analysis. The samples collected for this project come from small headwater catchments of four varying land covers (mature tropical forest, young secondary forest, active pasture, recently clear-cut tropical forest) within the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Agua Salud Project. During the past three years, samples have been collected at the four study catchments from streamflow and from a number of water sources within hillslope transects, and have been analyzed for stable water isotopes, major cations, and major anions. Major ion analysis of these samples has shown distinct geochemical differences for the potential runoff generating end members sampled (soil moisture/ preferential flow, groundwater, overland flow, throughfall, and precipitation). Based on this finding, an effort was made from May-August 2017 to intensively sample streamflow during wet season storm events, yielding a total of 5 events of varying intensity in each land cover/catchment, with sampling intensity ranging from sub-hourly to sub-daily. The focus of this poster presentation will be to present the result of hydrograph separation's done using end member mixing analysis from this May-August 2017 storm dataset. Expected

  16. New drug developments in the Latin Americas (Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, T A; Galvan, L; Udabe, R U; Vergara, L; Zoch, C

    1974-07-01

    New drug developments in four Latin American countries, i.e. Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama and the United States were compared. In contradistinction to the United States, clinical investigations with newly developed drugs in the four countries are based on contracts between individual investigators and the pharmaceutical industry without governmental interference. There are no adequate facilities to develop new psychoactive preparation in the four Latin American countries. Nevertheless, psychopharmacological practices are essentially the same as in the United States or Canada and all important psychoactive preparations used in the United States are available in the Latin Americas. Some of the newer-thioxanthene, butyrophenone and diphenylbutylpiperidine preparations which are still under clinical investigation in the United States are already available for clinical use in Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama. While there is less governmental control than in the United States or Canada, with regard to clinical investigations of drugs or with regard to marketing newly developed preparations, there is no evidence of abuse. Finally, it should be noted that the introduction of psychotropic drugs brought about a new era in psychiatry in the Latin Americas. It becomes increasingly obvious that psychiatry today is practiced on the basis of knowledge derived from clinical impressions and on the basis of findings verified in clinical testings, i.e. on the basis of two different standards. Accordingly, as in Europe and North America, a re-examination of traditional concepts has begun in the Latin Americas. There are indications that biological psychiatry in general, and psychopharmacology in particular, are gaining increasing importance in the Latin Americas. This has led to the creation of a training program in biological psychiatry by the World Health Organization in Montreal, in cooperation with the Division of Psychopharmacology of the Department of

  17. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,pGuatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza activity and should be incorporated into country-specific influenza transmission models

  18. Ancient nursery area for the extinct giant shark megalodon from the Miocene of Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Pimiento

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As we know from modern species, nursery areas are essential shark habitats for vulnerable young. Nurseries are typically highly productive, shallow-water habitats that are characterized by the presence of juveniles and neonates. It has been suggested that in these areas, sharks can find ample food resources and protection from predators. Based on the fossil record, we know that the extinct Carcharocles megalodon was the biggest shark that ever lived. Previous proposed paleo-nursery areas for this species were based on the anecdotal presence of juvenile fossil teeth accompanied by fossil marine mammals. We now present the first definitive evidence of ancient nurseries for C. megalodon from the late Miocene of Panama, about 10 million years ago. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected and measured fossil shark teeth of C. megalodon, within the highly productive, shallow marine Gatun Formation from the Miocene of Panama. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other fossil accumulations, the majority of the teeth from Gatun are very small. Here we compare the tooth sizes from the Gatun with specimens from different, but analogous localities. In addition we calculate the total length of the individuals found in Gatun. These comparisons and estimates suggest that the small size of Gatun's C. megalodon is neither related to a small population of this species nor the tooth position within the jaw. Thus, the individuals from Gatun were mostly juveniles and neonates, with estimated body lengths between 2 and 10.5 meters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the Miocene Gatun Formation represents the first documented paleo-nursery area for C. megalodon from the Neotropics, and one of the few recorded in the fossil record for an extinct selachian. We therefore show that sharks have used nursery areas at least for 10 millions of years as an adaptive strategy during their life histories.

  19. Historical, Demographic, and Economic Correlates of Land-Use Change in the Republic of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Joseph. Wright

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Panama recently experienced a limited forest transition. After five decades of decline, the total forest cover increased by 0.36% yr-1 between 1992 and 2000; however, mature forest cover simultaneously decreased by 1.3% yr-1. This limited forest transition at the national scale comprised two distinctly different patterns of recent forest-cover change related to historical land use. Districts that were largely deforested when the first national survey of forest cover was completed in 1947 experienced a strong forest transition between 1992 and 2000. In these, the proportion of the population employed in agriculture decreased by an average of 31% and natural secondary forest succession increased the total forest cover by an average of 85% between 1992 and 2000. In contrast, no forest transition was evident for districts that were largely forested in 1947. In these, the absolute number of people employed in agriculture remained constant, old-growth forest cover decreased by 8% on average, and natural secondary forest succession increased, so that the total forest cover tended to be static between 1992 and 2000. Historical land use, an index of human poverty, and the population density of agricultural workers explained 61% of the among-district variation in forest cover in 2000, with forest concentrated in areas where populations were small and poor. Historical land use and gross income per hectare from agriculture explained 23.5% of the among-district variation in forest-cover change between 1992 and 2000. The early history of forest loss, an uneven distribution of people, and disparities in farm income contributed to the limited forest transition observed in Panama.

  20. Genetic composition and connectivity of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Hunter, Margaret; Guzmán, Héctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic diversity and haplotype composition of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) population from the San San Pond Sak wetland in Bocas del Toro, Panama was studied using a segment of mitochondrial DNA (D’loop). No genetic information has been published to date for Panamanian populations. Due to the secretive behavior and small population size of the species in the area, DNA extraction was conducted from opportunistically collected fecal (N=20), carcass tissue (N=4) and bone (N=4) samples. However, after DNA processing only 10 samples provided good quality DNA for sequencing (3 fecal, 4 tissue and 3 bone samples). We found three haplotypes in total; two of these haplotypes are reported for the first time, J02 (N=3) and J03 (N=4), and one J01 was previously published (N=3). Genetic diversity showed similar values to previous studies conducted in other Caribbean regions with moderate values of nucleotide diversity (π= 0.00152) and haplotipic diversity (Hd= 0.57). Connectivity assessment was based on sequence similarity, genetic distance and genetic differentiation between San San population and other manatee populations previously studied. The J01 haplotype found in the Panamanian population is shared with populations in the Caribbean mainland and the Gulf of Mexico showing a reduced differentiation corroborated with Fst value between HSSPS and this region of 0.0094. In contrast, comparisons between our sequences and populations in the Eastern Caribbean (South American populations) and North Western Caribbean showed fewer similarities (Fst =0.049 and 0.058, respectively). These results corroborate previous phylogeographic patterns already established for manatee populations and situate Panamanian populations into the Belize and Mexico cluster. In addition, these findings will be a baseline for future studies and comparisons with manatees in other areas of Panama and Central America. These results should be considered to inform management decisions

  1. Characterization and Modelling of a Tropical Groundwater Basin:La Villa Watershed, Republic of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrellon Romero, M. G.; Foglia, L.; Fogg, G. E.; Pulido Silva, G.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater resources in the tropics are often poorly understood due to lack of systematic data gathering. In the case of Panama, abundance of water resources for many years created the myth that groundwater was "infinite" and no research had been done to characterize and quantify this resource until very recently. Therefore, basic information such as a complete database of all the wells in the country is missing and hydrogeological maps have been constructed only at a national scale, which is not enough to develop studies for regional groundwater analysis. The study area chosen, La Villa Watershed, is a predominantly agricultural and cattle farming watershed located in the Azuero Peninsula (South Central Panama). Average annual precipitation in this region corresponds to 1,400 mm/year, which is about half the national average of 2,924 mm/year. About 90% of the rain occurs during the wet season (May-December) and 10% occurs during the dry season (January-April). The geology is characterized by intercalation of volcanic rocks, volcaniclastic sediments and consolidated sedimentary rocks, thus, the aquifer characteristics likely depend on secondary permeability of the rocks. Understanding the groundwater dynamics in this complex system is crucial for securing water availability for future generations. The presented work illustrates the challenges of setting up effective monitoring and field-based data gathering campaigns and also explains our approach for characterizing and modelling a groundwater basin with fractured-rock hydrogeology and very little information. The model reveals a pattern of groundwater flow that closely follows the topography of the region and also gives insights of the volume of groundwater available for extraction.

  2. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Tom; Cunningham, Sarah L; Guzmán, Héctor M; Mair, James M; Guevara, José M; Betts, Tanja

    2010-09-01

    Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development.

  3. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: the case of Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghi, Ahmad; Hoseinzade, Abolfath; Zamani, Elham; Araghizade, Habib Allah

    2012-01-01

    Little evidence is available regarding the dental health of victims of chemical warfare in Iran. Therefore, in this study, we examined the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN), and saliva secretion rate of chemical warfare victims living in the province of Isfahan in Iran. This case-control study was conducted with 300 chemical warfare victims as the treatment group and 300 age-matched individuals without exposure to chemical warfare as the control group. DMFT and CPITN indices and saliva secretion rate were measured and compared between the two groups. Chemical warfare victims had significantly higher scores than the control group for decayed teeth (4.25 ± 3.88 vs 3.52 ± 2.81; P=0.009), missing teeth (8.79 ± 9.3 vs 6.15 ± 8.43; Pwarfare victims was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.71 ± 0.05 vs 3.85 ± 1.95 cc/5 min; PChemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  4. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  5. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hjortdal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare and shows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element in China's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasons are: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; military technological espionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionage to gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in using cyberspace offensively than other actors, such as the United States, since it has more to gain from spying on and deterring the United States than the other way around. The article also documents China's progress in cyber warfare and shows how it works as an extension of its traditional strategic thinking and the current debate within the country. Several examples of cyber attacks traceable to China are also presented. This includes cyber intrusions on a nuclear arms laboratory, attacks on defense ministries (including the Joint Strike Fighter and an airbase and the U.S. electric grid, as well as the current Google affair, which has proved to be a small part of a broader attack that also targeted the U.S. Government. There are, however, certain constraints that qualify the image of China as an aggressive actor in cyberspace. Some believe that China itself is the victim of just as many attacks from other states. Furthermore, certain actors in the United States and the West have an interest in overestimating China's capabilities in cyberspace in order to maintain their budgets.

  6. Biodiversity conservation and armed conflict: a warfare ecology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Thor

    2018-04-23

    The activities involved in preparing for, executing, and recovering from armed conflict are globally pervasive and consequential, with significant impacts on natural systems. Effects on biodiversity are predominantly negative, produced by direct and indirect battlefield impacts, as well as the general breakdown of social, economic, and governance systems during wartime. Certain conservation opportunities do occur, however, particularly on lands set aside for training exercises, buffer zones, and peace parks. Here, the relationship between armed conflict and biodiversity is reviewed using the temporal framework of warfare ecology, which defines warfare as an ongoing process of three overlapping stages: preparations, war (armed conflict), and postwar activities. Several themes emerge from recent studies, including a heightened awareness of biodiversity conservation on military lands, the potential for scientific and conservation engagement to mitigate negative biodiversity impacts in war zones, and the importance of the postwar period for incorporating biodiversity priorities into reconstruction and recovery efforts. Research limitations and knowledge gaps are also discussed. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. HIV transmitted drug resistance in adult and pediatric populations in Panama Farmacorresistencia transmitida del VIH en poblaciones adultas y pediátricas en Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Castillo; Griselda Arteaga; Yaxelis Mendoza; Alexander A. Martínez; Rigoberto Samaniego; Dora Estripeaut; Kathleen R. Page; Rebecca E. Smith; Nestor Sosa; Juan M. Pascale

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant HIV among adults in Panama by using a modified World Health Organization Threshold Survey (WHO-TS) and to investigate rates of initial resistance among HIV-positive infants in Panama. METHODS: At the Gorgas Memorial Institute, 47 HIV-positive adults were genotyped for mutations associated with transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the reverse transcriptase and protease genes of HIV-1, according to WHO-TS guidelines, modifie...

  8. A new species of Heliconia (Heliconiaceae with pendent inflorescence, from Chucantí Private Nature Reserve, eastern Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Flores

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heliconia berguidoi (Heliconiaceae, a new species from premontane forest of eastern Panama, is described, illustrated and its conservation status evaluated. H. berguidoi bears pink flowers, an uncommon color in this group. It differs from the Colombian species Heliconia rhodantha and Heliconia sanctae-theresae, the most similar taxa, by the combination of a petiole glabrous except for the woolly base, a very long peduncle, the perianth pubescent at the apex and staminode with cuspidate apex. H. berguidoi is also similar to Heliconia pogonantha in all four of its varieties and to Heliconia ramonensis in two of its four varieties, but differs by a combination of the long peduncle, pink flowers and staminode with cuspidate apex. Fifty-six Heliconia species have been found in Panama, eighteen of them endemic.

  9. Along the Road: The Ngäbe-Buglé Struggle to Protect Environmental Resources in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Cansari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people in Panama do not enjoy full autonomy within their comarcas (traditional land reserves: they only control surface resources, while the state retains control of underground resources. This article analyses direct action by the Ngäbe-Buglé, who successfully defeated the latest attempt by the government to exploit underground resources within their comarcas. It describes government strategies for retaining control over Indigenous people’s land and analyses how the Ngäbe-Buglé counteracted these strategies with support from burgeoning civil society movements. We argue that this is due to an unprecedented alliance between Indigenous people and other social movements in Panama, as well as to the fact that Indigenous people have succeeded in federating all major civil society organizations around their discourses and actions.

  10. Chiral separation of G-type chemical warfare nerve agents via analytical supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, Shane A; Zulli, Steven; Jones, Jonathan L; Dephillipo, Thomas; Cerasoli, Douglas M

    2014-12-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are extremely toxic organophosphorus compounds that contain a chiral phosphorus center. Undirected synthesis of G-type CWNAs produces stereoisomers of tabun, sarin, soman, and cyclosarin (GA, GB, GD, and GF, respectively). Analytical-scale methods were developed using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system in tandem with a mass spectrometer for the separation, quantitation, and isolation of individual stereoisomers of GA, GB, GD, and GF. Screening various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for the capacity to provide full baseline separation of the CWNAs revealed that a Regis WhelkO1 (SS) column was capable of separating the enantiomers of GA, GB, and GF, with elution of the P(+) enantiomer preceding elution of the corresponding P(-) enantiomer; two WhelkO1 (SS) columns had to be connected in series to achieve complete baseline resolution. The four diastereomers of GD were also resolved using two tandem WhelkO1 (SS) columns, with complete baseline separation of the two P(+) epimers. A single WhelkO1 (RR) column with inverse stereochemistry resulted in baseline separation of the GD P(-) epimers. The analytical methods described can be scaled to allow isolation of individual stereoisomers to assist in screening and development of countermeasures to organophosphorus nerve agents. © 2014 The Authors. Chirality published by John Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Panama Canal: Writings of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Officers Who Conceived and Built It

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    which included the railroad), franchises , and equipment. During the following year the American-backed revolt against Colombia produced the... disadvantages of the proposed Nicaragua route. Published separately by the New York Evening Post Printing House,1898. 6 _____. “The New Panama Canal...June 1903):321-26. Followed by a reply by George S. Morison, “The Advantages of Lake Bohio at the Higher Level,” pp. 326-28. Abbot favors a dual

  12. Estimating national landfill methane emissions: an application of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Waste Model in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Melissa; Coburn, Jeffrey B; Salinas, Edgar

    2008-05-01

    This paper estimates national methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites in Panama over the time period 1990-2020 using both the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model spreadsheet and the default emissions estimate approach presented in the 1996 IPCC Good Practice Guidelines. The IPCC Waste Model has the ability to calculate emissions from a variety of solid waste disposal site types, taking into account country- or region-specific waste composition and climate information, and can be used with a limited amount of data. Countries with detailed data can also run the model with country-specific values. The paper discusses methane emissions from solid waste disposal; explains the differences between the two methodologies in terms of data needs, assumptions, and results; describes solid waste disposal circumstances in Panama; and presents the results of this analysis. It also demonstrates the Waste Model's ability to incorporate landfill gas recovery data and to make projections. The former default method methane emissions estimates are 25 Gg in 1994, and range from 23.1 Gg in 1990 to a projected 37.5 Gg in 2020. The Waste Model estimates are 26.7 Gg in 1994, ranging from 24.6 Gg in 1990 to 41.6 Gg in 2020. Emissions estimates for Panama produced by the new model were, on average, 8% higher than estimates produced by the former default methodology. The increased estimate can be attributed to the inclusion of all solid waste disposal in Panama (as opposed to only disposal in managed landfills), but the increase was offset somewhat by the different default factors and regional waste values between the 1996 and 2006 IPCC guidelines, and the use of the first-order decay model with a time delay for waste degradation in the IPCC Waste Model.

  13. Information and Communications Technologies Health Projects in Panama: A Systematic Review and their Relation with Public Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gema Anabel Castillo; Berbey, Aranzazu; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a review about Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) health projects in Panama. The main contribution is to provide a vision of the situation in Panama, allowing an understanding of the dynamics of health policies and how they have affected the implementation of ICT's Projects to improve the health of Panamanians. We analyze the projects found with ICT's in health of Panama, which allow us to see a perspective of projects information is obtained from 2000 to 2016, however it is important to highlight that there may be other projects that we do not know because we did not find enough information or evidence of the same. That is why this review has interviews with key personnel, who have guided us with the search for information. 56% of technology projects are concentrated in the capital city and only 16% in the province of Chiriquí. 64% of these projects are focused on the development of information systems, mainly focused on electronic patient registration. And 60% refers to projects related to primary health care. The MINSA and CSS both with a 20% participation in ICT project, in addition we can notice the dispersion of projects for hospitals, where each one is developing programs per their needs or priorities. The national information about ICT projects of Health, it has been notorious the state of dispersion and segmented of public health information. We consider that it is a natural consequence of Policy in Panamanian Health System. This situation limits the information retrieval and knowledge of ICT in Health of Panama. To stakeholders, this information is directed so that health policies are designed towards a more effective and integral management, administering the ICT's as tools for the well-being of most the Panamanian population, including indigenous group.

  14. 78 FR 34047 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... levels for these animals may be estimated using TTS data from marine mammals and relationships between... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  15. 78 FR 47282 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ..., and location) and marine mammal and/or indicator presence, species, number of animals, their behavior... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  16. Naval Medical R and D News. March 2017, Volume 9, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Researchers from the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division and the Naval Postgraduate School spent the voyage conducting experiments to...Hoffman’s was the most cited author for scientific papers on malaria. As Director of the NMRI/NMRC malaria program from 1987-2000, Hoffman and his

  17. Information Warfare: Issues Associated with the Defense of DOD Computers and Computer Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franklin, Derek

    2002-01-01

    ... that may threaten the critical information pathways of the armed forces An analysis of the history of computer information warfare reveals that there was an embarrassing lack of readiness and defense...

  18. Cerium oxide for the destruction of chemical warfare agents: A comparison of synthetic routes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janos, P.; Henych, Jiří; Pelant, O.; Pilařová, V.; Vrtoch, L.; Kormunda, M.; Mazanec, K.; Štengl, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 304, MAR (2016), s. 259-268 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Cerium oxide * Chemical warfare agents * Organophosphate compounds * Decontamination Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  19. From Douhet to drones, air warfare, and the evolution of targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, F.P.B.; Roorda, M.P.; Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Through the prism of the experience of air warfare, this chapter identifies key factors that have shaped targeting. These include technological developments, organizational structures, and processes and inter-service competition for scarce resources. Moreover, targeting is informed by perspectives

  20. CRUSER's Warfare Innovation Workshop Focused on Hybrid War in the Urban Littorals

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    News Stories Archive The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and Research, CRUSER, hosted its annual Warfare Innovation Workshop (WIW) in Glasgow Hall, Sept. 18-21.

  1. Electronic Warfare: Towed Decoys Could Improve Survivability of Current Navy Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aiken, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, DOD'S combat aircraft have used on-board electronic warfare devices called jammers for self-protection against radar-controlled weapons, including missiles and anti-aircraft artillery...

  2. Surface Warfare Officer Retention: Analysis of Individual Ready Reserve Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoker, Carol; Crawford, Alice

    2008-01-01

    ... (including morale and lack of mentoring), push both men and women out of the Navy. Nonetheless, the Navy s primary effort to improve retention has been to introduce the Surface Warfare Officer Continuation Pay (SWOCP...

  3. Understanding "Understanding" Flow for Network-Centric Warfare: Military Knowledge-Flow Mechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nissen, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Network-centric warfare (NCW) emphasizes information superiority for battlespace efficacy, but it is clear that the mechanics of how knowledge flows are just as important as those pertaining to the networks and communication...

  4. DRES Database of Methods for the Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Paul

    1997-01-01

    .... Update of the database continues as an ongoing effort and the DRES Database of Methods for the Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents is available panel in hardcopy form or as a softcopy Procite or Wordperfect file...

  5. The Rapier or the Club: The Relationship between Attrition and Maneuver Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Springman, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    ...? This project compares the relationship between attrition and maneuver warfare. The study considers whether there are times when wars of attrition should be fought, and whether there are conditions that force wars of attrition...

  6. Diagnosis of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: A Comprehensive Literature Survey 1990-2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noort, D

    2006-01-01

    This report is an update of TNO report PML 2003-A63. In this report an overview is presented of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e...

  7. Anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in Iranian survivors of chemical warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Farnoosh; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Desai, Mayur M; Falahati, Farahnaz; Kasl, Stanislav; Southwick, Steven

    2006-08-02

    In the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War, extensive use of chemical weapons resulted in high rates of morbidity and mortality. While much is known about the physical consequences of chemical warfare, there is a paucity of information about the long-term effects of chemical attacks on mental health. To assess the long-term psychological impact of chemical warfare on a civilian population. Cross-sectional randomized survey conducted in July 2004 of 153 civilians in 3 towns exposed to warfare in northwestern Iran: Oshnaviyeh (low-intensity conventional warfare), Rabat (high-intensity conventional warfare), and Sardasht (both high-intensity conventional warfare and chemical weapons). Full or partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms were assessed using Farsi versions of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Hamilton Scale for Anxiety, and Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Overall participation rate was 93%. Respondents had a mean age of 45 years and were all of Kurdish ethnicity. Among individuals exposed to both high-intensity warfare and chemical weapons, prevalence rates for lifetime PTSD, current PTSD, major anxiety symptoms, and severe depressive symptoms were 59%, 33%, 65%, and 41%, respectively. Among the low-intensity warfare group, the corresponding rates were 8%, 2%, 18%, and 6%, respectively, while intermediate rates were found among those exposed to high-intensity warfare but not to chemical weapons (31%, 8%, 26%, and 12%, respectively). Compared with individuals exposed to low-intensity warfare, those exposed to both high-intensity warfare and chemical weapons were at higher risk for lifetime PTSD (odds ratio [OR], 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.8-59.4), current PTSD (OR, 27.4; 95% CI, 3.4-218.2), increased anxiety symptoms (OR, 14.6; 95% CI, 6.0-35.6), and increased depressive symptoms (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 3.3-15.9). Exposure to high-intensity warfare but not to chemical weapons was also

  8. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2006-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  9. A new General Purpose Decontamination System for Chemical and Biological Warfare and Terrorism Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khetan, Sushil; Banerjee, xdDeboshri; Chanda, Arani; Collins, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Partial contents: Fe-TAML Activator of Peroxide,Activators of Hydrogen peroxide,Biological Warfare Agents,Bacterial Endospore,Bacterial Spore Deactivation,Modeling Studies,Deactivation Studies with Bacillus spores...

  10. Second NATO/SIBCA Exercise on Sampling of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wils, E

    1999-01-01

    In order to practise the sampling of chemical warfare agents under realistic conditions, the Netherlands participated successfully in the second NATO/SIBCA sampling exercise conducted in Poland on 1-3...

  11. The Third World War? In The Cyberspace. Cyber Warfare in the Middle East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a brief and comprehensive introduction to the issue of cyber warfare and to display the recent development in this area. Geographically, it focuses on the Middle East region, since the vast majority of the most important recent cyber attacks appeared just in there or were connected to it. The first part of the article tries to define the key notion of cyber warfare, compares it to the standard warfare and presents different types of cyber weapons that are known today. The second part points out examples of the most striking recent cyber attacks and uses them as evidences to demonstrate today's importance and dissemination of cyber warfare. Finally, the article sums up pros and cons of the cyber weapons and, in view of these, predicts a significant increase in their use in any future war conflicts.

  12. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2005-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  13. Special Operations Forces: C-130 Upgrade Plan Could Help Fix Electronic Warfare Deficiencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    In response to a concern that threats to the U.S. Special Operations Command's (USSOCOM) aircraft are increasing, while funds available for electronic warfare are decreasing, the General Accounting Office...

  14. Combinatorial Auction Theory Applied to the Selection of Surface Warfare Officer Retention Incentives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denmond, Constance M; Johnson, Derek N; Lewis, Chavius G; Zegley, Christopher R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the potential retention and cost impacts of offering combinations of retention base incentives to members of the Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) community...

  15. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  16. Cyber crime and cyber warfare with international cyber collaboration for RSA – preparing communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available aspects come into play that may have an influence on the manner in which the military reacts to cyber attacks (Wilson 2007): ? new national security policy issues; ? consideration of psychological operations used to affect friendly nations... relationship between modern cyber space, cyber warfare and traditional legislation. As a starting point, cyber warfare is defined for the purpose of this article as the use of exploits in cyber space as a way to intentionally cause harm to people, assets...

  17. Modeling Anti-Air Warfare With Discrete Event Simulation and Analyzing Naval Convoy Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    W., & Scheaffer, R. L. (2008). Mathematical statistics with applications . Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. 118 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION AND ANALYZING NAVAL CONVOY OPERATIONS by Ali E. Opcin June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Arnold H. Buss Co...REPORT DATE June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING ANTI-AIR WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT

  18. Drone Warfare: Is the United States Violating the Law of Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    NOTE AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY DRONE WARFARE: IS THE UNITED STATES VIOLATING THE LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT? by Barbara E. Shestko, Col...Base, Alabama. 1 Introduction The United States has become increasingly dependent upon the use of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) or “ drones ” to...kill targeted members of al-Qaeda and the Taliban.1 Due to the success of drone warfare, we can expect the United States to continue its current

  19. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Bryant, Miranda F; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Johanns, Casey K; McNellan, Claire R; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State) and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama) and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico) women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001), 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001), and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women). Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-2.61), compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81), primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68), informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63), and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79) also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26) and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19). Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and

  20. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny V Colombara

    Full Text Available Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001, 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001, and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women. Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.44-2.61, compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81, primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68, informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63, and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79 also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26 and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19. Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and

  1. Benthic foraminiferal response to the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and coincident paleoceanographic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.

    1996-01-01

    Late Cenozoic benthic foraminiferal faunas from the Caribbean Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 502 (3052 m) and East Pacific DSDP Site 503 (3572 m) were analyzed to interpret bottom-water masses and paleoceanographic changes occurring as the Isthmus of Panama emerged. Major changes during the past 7 Myr occur at 6.7-6.2, 3.4, 2.0, and 1.1 Ma in the Caribbean and 6.7-6.4, 4.0-3.2, 2.1, 1.4, and 0.7 Ma in the Pacific. Prior to 6.7 Ma, benthic foraminiferal faunas at both sites indicate the presence of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). After 6.7 Ma benthic foraminiferal faunas indicate a shift to warmer water masses: North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) in the Caribbean and Pacific Deep Water (PDW) in the Pacific. Flow of NADW may have continued across the rising sill between the Caribbean and Pacific until 5.6 Ma when the Pacific benthic foraminiferal faunas suggest a decrease in bottom-water temperatures. After 5.6 Ma deep-water to intermediate-water flow across the sill appears to have stopped as the bottom-water masses on either side of the sill diverge. The second change recorded by benthic foraminiferal faunas occurs at 3.4 Ma in the Caribbean and 4.0-3.2 Ma in the Pacific. At this time the Caribbean is flooded with cold AABW, which is either gradually warmed or is replaced by Glacial Bottom Water (GBW) at 2.0 Ma and by NADW at 1.1 Ma. These changes are related to global climatic events and to the depth of the sill between the Caribbean and Atlantic rather than the rising Isthmus of Panama. Benthic foraminiferal faunas at East Pacific Site 503 indicate a gradual change from cold PDW to warmer PDW between 4.0 and 3.2 Ma. The PDW is replaced by the warmer, poorly oxygenated PIW at 2.1 Ma. Although the PDW affects the faunas during colder intervals between 1.4 and 0.7 Ma, the PIW remains the principal bottom- water mass in the Guatemala Basin of the East Pacific.

  2. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McGowan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA, Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77% from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2 and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.

  3. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimijian, Gregory G

    2010-07-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at "human nature" and contrasts the "dark side" of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side.

  4. Information Warfare on Social Media: A Brand Management Perspective

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    Kalpokas Ignas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Employing a perspective informed by brand management, this article aims at understanding information warfare operations in social media. The state, seen as brand, must project an image of itself to both internal and foreign audiences to unite the domestic audience and/or attract global support. However, in constructing a brand, states are vulnerable to ‘sofa warriors’ – ordinary individuals who have been unwittingly recruited by hostile actors to disseminate (over social media or other platforms a counter-brand, harmful to the state concerned. These new threats are investigated in light of recent tendencies in online branding, elucidating their status as a national security threat, with the potential to significantly disrupt life in political communities.

  5. Book Review: Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare

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    Gary C. Kessler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Libicki, M.C. (2007. Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare. New York: Cambridge University Press. 323 pages, ISBN: 978-0-521-69214-4 (paper, US$80Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduMany books -- and even movies ("Live Free or Die Hard" -- are based upon the premise of an impending information war. In these scenarios -- made all too plausible by the increased frequency with which we read about and experience major information security incidents -- a Bad Guy exploits known computer security vulnerabilities in order to control major national infrastructures via the Internet so as to reap financial, economic, and/or personal power.(see PDF for full review

  6. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  7. Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

  8. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-01-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch

  9. [Cutaneous and systemic toxicology of vesicants used in warfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, R; Vidal-Asensi, S

    2010-01-01

    Vesicants are a group of chemicals used in warfare. The most representative agent is yperite, also known as mustard gas. The blisters that appeared on those exposed to yperite during combat in the First World War are responsible for the current name--vesicants--for this group of chemicals. Their affects are produced mainly through localized action of liquid or vapor forms on the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. However, the high absorption of the liquid form through the skin or the vapor form on inhalation may cause substantial systemic effects. Here we analyze these effects, treatment of intoxication, and long-term sequelae, drawing on our experience and a review of the literature.

  10. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  11. Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, J.; Srinivasan, Sree [Molecular Sciences and Engineering Team, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Nagarajan, R., E-mail: Ramanathan.Nagarajan@us.army.mil [Molecular Sciences and Engineering Team, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 (United States)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Summary of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in current use. {yields} Application of method of molecular similarity to CWA and simulants. {yields} Quantitative metric for CWA-simulant similarity. {yields} Rank ordering of simulants in current use. {yields} Potential of method to identify simulants for emerging agents. - Abstract: Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use 'simulants,' namely, analogous chemicals that closely resemble the CWAs but are less toxic, with the expectation that the results attained for simulants can be correlated to how the CWAs would perform. Simulants have been traditionally chosen by experts, by means of intuition, using similarity in one or more physical properties (such as vapor pressure or aqueous solubility) or in the molecular structural features (such as functional groups) between the stimulant and the CWA. This work is designed to automate the simulant identification process backed by quantitative metrics, by means of chemical similarity search software routinely used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The question addressed here is: By the metrics of such software, how similar are traditional simulants to CWAs? That is, what is the numerical 'distance' between each CWA and its customary simulants in the quantitative space of molecular descriptors? The answers show promise for finding close but less toxic simulants for the ever-increasing numbers of CWAs objectively and fast.

  12. Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, J.; Srinivasan, Sree; Nagarajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Summary of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in current use. → Application of method of molecular similarity to CWA and simulants. → Quantitative metric for CWA-simulant similarity. → Rank ordering of simulants in current use. → Potential of method to identify simulants for emerging agents. - Abstract: Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use 'simulants,' namely, analogous chemicals that closely resemble the CWAs but are less toxic, with the expectation that the results attained for simulants can be correlated to how the CWAs would perform. Simulants have been traditionally chosen by experts, by means of intuition, using similarity in one or more physical properties (such as vapor pressure or aqueous solubility) or in the molecular structural features (such as functional groups) between the stimulant and the CWA. This work is designed to automate the simulant identification process backed by quantitative metrics, by means of chemical similarity search software routinely used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The question addressed here is: By the metrics of such software, how similar are traditional simulants to CWAs? That is, what is the numerical 'distance' between each CWA and its customary simulants in the quantitative space of molecular descriptors? The answers show promise for finding close but less toxic simulants for the ever-increasing numbers of CWAs objectively and fast.

  13. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; hide

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  14. Mosquito-host interactions during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis in Eastern Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayra G Navia-Gine

    Full Text Available Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology.

  15. Vanadium century record from Caribbean reef corals: A tracer of oil pollution in Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, H.M.; Jarvis, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Caribbean region is potentially one of the largest oil-producing areas in the world, and contamination by petroleum is threatening the marine environment. Vanadium (V), an abundant element in crude oils, was used as proxy tracer of oil pollution along the Caribbean coast of Panama. We develop a century chronology based on the concentration of vanadium (using ICP-MS) incorporated into annual growth bands of coral skeletons. The chronology for vanadium showed a relatively clear pattern where background seawater concentrations were observed in the early history of the corals followed by an increase after 1962, the initiation of a refinery operation. The vanadium chronology suggests that a major degradation process in the coastal zone could have started around the 1960s, but we were unable to confirm such an assumption due to the lack of long-term ecological and pollution data. The gradual increase of vanadium into the marine environment might be used as a pointer to oil pollution. 46 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  16. Tree Carbohydrate Dynamics Across a Rainfall Gradient in Panama During the 2016 ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, L. T.; Xu, C.; Behar, H.; McDowell, N.

    2017-12-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) provide a measure of the carbon supply available to support respiration, growth, and defense. Support for a role of carbon starvation - or depletion of NSC stores - in drought induced tree mortality is varied without consensus for the tropics. The 2016 ENSO drought provided a unique opportunity to capture drought impacts on tropical forest carbohydrate dynamics. To quantify these impacts, we collected monthly NSC samples across a rainfall gradient in Panama for the duration of the ENSO. We observed high variability in foliar NSC among species within sites. Foliage contained very little starch, indicating that total NSC dynamics are driven by soluble sugars. Foliar NSC depletion did not progress with drought duration as predicted, but showed little variation over course of the ENSO. Foliar NSC did, however, increase with rainfall, suggesting NSC depletion may occur with longer-term drought. These results suggest that, while short-term droughts like the 2016 ENSO may not have a significant impact on carbon dynamics, we may observe greater impacts as drought progresses over longer timescales. These results will be used to evaluate whether the current implementation of carbon starvation in climate models are capturing observed trends in tropical forest carbon allocation and mortality, and to tune model parameters for improved predictive capability.

  17. Functional classification of pulmonary hypertension in children: Report from the PVRI pediatric taskforce, Panama 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Astrid E; Adatia, Ian; Cerro, Maria Jesus Del; Diaz, Gabriel; Freudenthal, Alexandra Heath; Freudenthal, Franz; Harikrishnan, S; Ivy, Dunbar; Lopes, Antonio A; Raj, J Usha; Sandoval, Julio; Stenmark, Kurt; Haworth, Sheila G

    2011-08-02

    The members of the Pediatric Task Force of the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI) were aware of the need to develop a functional classification of pulmonary hypertension in children. The proposed classification follows the same pattern and uses the same criteria as the Dana Point pulmonary hypertension specific classification for adults. Modifications were necessary for children, since age, physical growth and maturation influences the way in which the functional effects of a disease are expressed. It is essential to encapsulate a child's clinical status, to make it possible to review progress with time as he/she grows up, as consistently and as objectively as possible. Particularly in younger children we sought to include objective indicators such as thriving, need for supplemental feeds and the record of school or nursery attendance. This helps monitor the clinical course of events and response to treatment over the years. It also facilitates the development of treatment algorithms for children. We present a consensus paper on a functional classification system for children with pulmonary hypertension, discussed at the Annual Meeting of the PVRI in Panama City, February 2011.

  18. Modiolarca lateralis (Pteryomorphia: Mytilidae: bivalve associated to six species of ascidians from Bocas del Toro, Panama

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    Juan I Cañete

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the presence of the bivalve Modiolarca lateralis (Say, 1822 in six tropical ascidians Ascidia curvata, A. sydneiensis, A. panamensis, A. interrupta, Herdmania pallida and Polycarpa spongiabilis collected at depths of 1-3 m on coral reefs, mangrove roots and dock supports in Almirante Bay, Bocas del Toro, Panama (9°18'N, 82°13'W during June-July 2011. Bivalve prevalence varied between 9-30% across species, but was mainly associated with A. panamensis, P. spongiabilis and A. interrupta. Prevalence seems to be influenced by tunic thickness rather than by the ascidian size. Bivalves varied in size (0.6-11 mm shell length, with the smallest individual found in A. sydneiensis. There were only one or two bivalves per ascidians, although a maximum of 18 was found in one A. panamensis. M. lateralis seems to behave similarly to its temperate counterparts: it has a variety of hosts, occurs mainly in the anterior region of the ascidians, and has a variable abundance per host.

  19. Assistive Technologies for Improving Communication of Hearing Impairment in the Higher Education in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineth Alain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to communicate, specifically the gift of hearing, is a necessity often taken for granted. A lack of sense of hearing affects the intellectual and emotional development of the human being who suffers from it. It prevents the fluid exchange of knowledge, thoughts and ideas that allow personal growth and development. This article emerges due to an interest in providing assistive technologies that can be considered to improve communication among hearing impaired and normal hearing listeners in the class-room of a higher education level in the Republic of Panama. Information has been compiled from various primary and secondary sources highlighting the communication problem facing this group of disabled people. Information about the situation of hearing impairment, laws, organizations, the reality with the higher education system, and finally, we will talk about Information and Communication Technologies (TICs that will work as technology support in order to improve communication in the classroom in higher education among normal-hearing and deaf people.

  20. Treatment of Displaced Indigenous Populations in Two Large Hydro Projects in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Consultation practices with affected populations prior to hydro concessions often remained poor in the decade since the World Commission on Dams (WCD although, in some cases the involvement of local people in the details of resettlement has improved. Numerous international and national actors, such as state agencies, multilateral banks, corporate shareholders, and pro-business media, support the development of dams, but intergovernmental agencies struggle to assure the protection of fundamental civil, human, and indigenous rights at the permitting and construction stages. We analyse two large-scale Panamanian dams with persistent disrespect for indigenous land tenure. Free, prior, and informed consent was sidestepped even though each dam required or will require Ngöbe, Emberá, or Kuna villages to relocate. When populations protested, additional human rights violations occurred, including state-sponsored violence. International bodies are slowly identifying and denouncing this abuse of power. Simultaneously, many nongovernmental organisations (NGOs seek change in Panama consistent with WCD’s good-practice guidelines. A number of NGOs have tied hydro projects to unethical greenhouse gas (GHG emissions trade. As private and state institutions market formerly collective water and carbon resources for profit, these Panamanian cases have become central to a public debate over equitable and green hydro development. Media communication feeds disputes through frontline coverage of cooperation and confrontation.

  1. Understanding adaptation and transformation through indigenous practice: the case of the Guna of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina J. Apgar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is emerging as a promising vehicle for improving management of social-ecological systems that can potentially lead to more sustainable arrangements between environmental and social spheres. Central to an understanding of how to support resilience is the need to understand social change and its links with adaptation and transformation. Our aim is to contribute to insights about and understanding of underlying social dynamics at play in social-ecological systems. We argue that longstanding indigenous practices provide opportunities for investigating processes of adaptation and transformation. We use in-depth analysis of adaptation and transformation through engagement in participatory action research, focusing on the role of cultural and social practices among the Guna indigenous peoples in Panama. Our findings reveal that cultural practices facilitating leadership development, personhood development, and social networking are critical for enabling both adaptation and transformation. Further, we argue that Guna ritual practice builds additional skills, such as critical self-reflection and creative innovation, that are important for supporting the deeper changes required by transformation.

  2. Diversity of Perceptions on REDD+ Implementation at the Agriculture Frontier in Panama

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    Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonist farmers have been largely ignored to date in national consultations on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+. Yet, good practices suggest that understanding all relevant stakeholders’ perspectives, goals, and issues is a precondition for the development of successful environmental policies. The present research documents perceptions of the civil society and the government on the possibility of successfully implementing REDD+ activities with colonist farmers. The focus is on Eastern Panama. The perceptions on REDD+ vary greatly depending on the stakeholders’ origins. The government perceives REDD+ as a possibility for improving laws, increasing control over the national territory, and investing more resources for conservation and public institutions, whereas respondents from colonist backgrounds mostly insist on the potential economic benefits and/or the negative implications that could encompass REDD+. Noncolonist participants from regional, national, and international organizations instead try to balance concerns of communities and conservation objectives. Because one of our results highlighted the difficulty of colonist farmers in speaking as a united voice, we carried out a case study of a successful colonists association in order to identify the characteristics and practices found to facilitate communal organization.

  3. Molluscan subfossil assemblages reveal the long-term deterioration of coral reef environments in Caribbean Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Katie L; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S; Rodríguez, Félix; Jackson, Jeremy B C

    2015-07-15

    Caribbean reef corals have declined sharply since the 1980s, but the lack of prior baseline data has hindered identification of drivers of change. To assess anthropogenic change in reef environments over the past century, we tracked the composition of subfossil assemblages of bivalve and gastropod mollusks excavated from pits below lagoonal and offshore reefs in Bocas del Toro, Panama. The higher prevalence of (a) infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves and herbivorous and omnivorous gastropods in lagoons and (b) epifaunal and suspension-feeding bivalves and carnivorous and suspension-feeding gastropods offshore reflected the greater influence of land-based nutrients/sediments within lagoons. Temporal changes indicated deteriorating environmental conditions pre-1960 in lagoons and post-1960 offshore, with offshore communities becoming more similar to lagoonal ones since 1960. Relative abundances of dominant bivalve species tracked those of their coral hosts, revealing broader ecosystem effects of coral community change. The nature and timing of changes implicate land-based runoff in reef deterioration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Building Oncofertility Core Competency in Developing Countries: Experience From Egypt, Tunisia, Brazil, Peru, and Panama

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    Mahmoud Salama

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Little is known about oncofertility practice in developing countries that usually suffer from a shortage of health services, especially those related to cancer care. Materials and Methods: To learn more about oncofertility practice in developing countries, we generated a survey to explore the barriers and opportunities associated with oncofertility practice in five developing countries from Africa and Latin America within our Oncofertility Consortium Global Partners Network. Responses from Egypt, Tunisia, Brazil, Peru, and Panama were collected, reviewed, and discussed. Results: Common barriers were identified by each country, including financial barriers (lack of insurance coverage and high out-of-pocket costs for patients, lack of awareness among providers and patients, cultural and religious constraints, and lack of funding to help to support oncofertility programs. Conclusion: Despite barriers to care, many opportunities exist to grow the field of oncofertility in these five developing countries. It is important to continue to engage stakeholders in developing countries and use powerful networks in the United States and other developed countries to aid in the acceptance of oncofertility on a global level.

  5. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew J; Lips, Karen R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-08-03

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity.

  6. Variation in mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, C.E.; Feller, Ilka C.; McKee, K.L.; Thompson, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics were examined in the extensive mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama. Forest structure was characterized to determine if spatial vegetation patterns were repeated over the Bocas del Toro landscape. Using a series of permanent plots and transects we found that the forests of Bocas del Toro were dominated by Rhizophora mangle with very few individuals of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Despite this low species diversity, there was large variation in forest structure and in edaphic conditions (salinity, concentration of available phosphorus, Eh and sulphide concentration). Aboveground biomass varied 20-fold, from 6.8 Mg ha-1 in dwarf forests to 194.3 Mg ha-1 in the forests fringing the land. But variation in forest structure was predictable across the intertidal zone. There was a strong tree height gradient from seaward fringe (mean tree height 3.9 m), decreasing in stature in the interior dwarf forests (mean tree height 0.7 m), and increasing in stature in forests adjacent to the terrestrial forest (mean tree height 4.1 m). The predictable variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among edaphic and plant factors. Identifying predictable patterns in forest structure will aid in scaling up the ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests in coastal landscapes. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

  7. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An agreement by exchange of letters of 6 November 1995 and 17 November 2003 with the Republic of Panama in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Exchange of Letters constitutes an agreement confirming that: the Safeguards Agreement of 23 March 1984, concluded between the Republic of Panama and the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty), also satisfies the obligation of Panama under Article III of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA; the safeguards set forth in the Safeguards Agreement shall also apply, as regards Panama, in connection with the NPT; the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement shall apply as long as Panama is party to the NPT or the Tlatelolco Treaty or both. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 20 November 2003, and pursuant to its terms, entered into force on that date

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND STRESS FACED BY SOLDIERS WHO OPERATE IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE ENVIRONMENTS: EXPERIENCES IN THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of anxiety, stress and psychological discomfort that can affect soldiers sent on asymmetric warfare operations. It is based on secondary analysis of the data of two important field researches whose results have recently (2013 been published. Although the two researches adopted different methodologies, the testimonies are fully comparable and show that soldiers from different countries and cultures display common or similar reactions when they are placed in the stress conditions that the asymmetric environment involves. The approach of the paper is drawn up in such a way as to make the reader a participating observer of the reality of such missions. It is therefore centered on the personal testimonies of the soldiers interviewed in the two researches, testimonies reported just as they are, in their simplicity and, often, drama, with comments by the author kept to a minimum in order to give readers ample opportunity to evaluate and interpret the reported texts on their own. The research data, drawn from the declarations of those directly concerned, reveal the existence of a problem of psychological distress resulting from deployment in asymmetric warfare situations that is in part different in the causes of the problems resulting from deployment in traditional combat and affects percentages of participating soldiers that are not high but definitely significant. The highest incidence appears to be constituted by problems relating to reintegration into normal social and working life upon returning from the mission. This is followed in percentage terms by anxiety situations relating to life far from the family, due in large part to a sense of powerlessness for the scant possibility of managing family situations that may have cropped up or already existed beforehand.

  9. Revolution at Sea Starts Here. A 1987 History of the Naval Surface Warfare Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    and 1987-iocused internal efforts toward achieving an appropriate balance in the development of new capabilities for providing the systems the Navy...NSWC’s technical programs to maintain a work balance of 60 percent for systems development, 20 percent for exploratory development, and 20 percent for in...of initiatives in 1987 to keep pace with the growing pains at DahIgren and to enhance the quality of worklife there. For example, the dramatic

  10. Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division at Warminster Environmental Materials Program. Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-24

    potential for saving significant man -hours: 1) no engine cooldown would be required; 2) no dilution would be needed since the products are available...1 Watertown, MA 02172 Betz MetGhem ...................... ......................... 1 Attn: R. lezzi 4636 Somerton Rd. Trevose

  11. Undersea Laser Communications Field Test at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    narrow- beam lasercom through natural waters. As part of the objective, the demonstration would produce a transceiver design as a building block for...25.7 × 27.25 NA Limited only by iris and vignetting Located after the alignment beam splitter , between two lenses, the iris was used to limit the...plane images predicted by undersea optical propagation models. Several of our experiment design choices – the size of beam , field-of-view filtering, and

  12. Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division Technical Digest. Advanced Materials Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    for CRC Crit. Rev. Sol . State and Mat. Sci. 15(4), 367. 1989. the HgCdTe alloys. Large-area CdTe substrates 5. Carver, G. P.. et al.. "Dependence of...1( andnergy Dependence of Range in 1976. he graduated cumi Iisi tri hutioilsand Stoippi ng Powers for Nitrogen Ions in laude with B.S. degrees in Sol ...the seawater.2 4 nutrients were then added. and Ec~orr and Rp were measured again: finally, the Oceano - spirilhln was added and the measurements MIC

  13. Range Condition Assessment Report for Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Laboratory Ranges, Dahlgren, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Barbette/DU Contamination) was contaminated with DU. Detectable radiation was measured at the crack between the top of the cylinder and the 4...Building 482 (Paint Shop) and were moved outside to the Paint Can Crusher (SWMU 61). The paints primarily used in the Paint Shop are oil based enamel ...the concrete floor of the holding tank/filter room was stained and cracked . The underlying site soils were removed in March 2004 and a Site Close

  14. Naval Surface Warfare Center Technical Digest. Research and Technology - Shaping Future Naval Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    SiO2 are heated at 700 12 to 26 pm were mixed with celsian in to 900 0 C to form topaz, and in reaction (2), topaz 106 amounts from 10 to 40 volume...Ceram. Vidrio .. Vol. 15, No. 6, 1976, pp. 379-381. Celsian ceramics were prepared and 7. Talmy. I. G. and Haught, D. A., Ceramics in the System i o

  15. Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar Surfaces of Living Plants Maintained in a Surety Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    RAIN-INDUCED WASH-OFF OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT (VX) FROM FOLIAR SURFACES OF LIVING PLANTS MAINTAINED IN A...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2014 – Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar...galli Foliage Chemical warfare agent (CWA) O-ethyl-S-(2

  16. Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Nieves-Aldrey

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, representing the main land habitats of Coiba National Park were surveyed. 4942 galls of 50 insect and 9 mite species inducing galls on 50 vascular plants from 30 botanical families were colleted. 62.7% of the galls were induced by gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, 15.3% by mites, Eriophyidae, 8.5% by Homoptera, Psyllidae, 6.8% by Coccidae and 5.1% by Phlaeothripidae (Tysanoptera. The host plant families with the most galls were Myrtaceae with seven, Bignoniaceae with five and Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Melastomataceae with four. Leaf galls accounted for about 93% of collected galls. Most leaf galls were pit/blister galls followed by covering and pouch galls. Gall richness per collecting site was between 1 and 19 species. Coiba’s gall diversity is discussed in relation to data available from other tropical sites from continental Panama and the Neotropical region. Our results support the idea that it may be premature to conclude that species richness of gall inducers declines near the equator. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1269-1286. Epub 2008 September 30.El interés por el estudio de las agallas y los artrópodos que las inducen ha crecido en todo el mundo en los últimos veinte años. Sin embargo, los artrópodos que inducen agallas en la región Neotropical son probablemente los menos estudiados. Un estudio de la riqueza y composición de artrópodos que inducen agallas fue desarrollado en el Parque Nacional Coiba en la Republica de Panamá. Los datos provienen de

  17. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  18. Decadal increase in seagrass biomass and temperature at the CARICOMP site in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. López-Calderón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (CARICOMP was launched in 1993 to study regional long-term interactions between land and sea, taking standardized measurements of productivity and biomass of mangroves, coral reefs and seagrasses. Since 1999 continuous measurements of seagrass (Thalassia testudinum parameters as well as environmental data have been recorded in Caribbean Panama. Replicate stations were selected near the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Bocas del Toro. Sediment cores and quadrants were placed there to estimate biomass and productivity, respectively. Mean values for productivity, standing crop, turnover rate, total dry biomass, and Leaf Area Index were 1.74gDW/m²/d, 66.6gDW/m², 2.62%/d, 1 481 gDW/m², and 4.65, respectively. Total dry biomass (shoots, rhizomes and roots and LAI of T. testudinum increased significantly during the study period. Mean values for total rainfall, Secchi disk depth, sea surface temperature, and salinity were 3 498mm, 8.24m, 28.79°C, and 32.26psu, respectively. Sea surface temperature was the only environmental variable with a statistically significant change, increasing from 1999 to 2010. Correlation between sea surface temperature and T. testudinum parameters (total biomass and LAI were both positive and significant. Human population has increased dramatically over the last ten years in Bocas del Toro region, increasing pressure (deforestation, runoff, wastewater over coastal ecosystems (seagrasses, mangroves, coral reefs. Change in the abundance of T. testudinum may be linked to ocean warming, as a consequence to satisfy plant’s metabolic requirements, although other local factors need to be analyzed (reduced grazing and increased eutrophication. A further warming of the ocean could have a negative effect on T. testudinum population, increasing respiratory demands and microbial metabolism.

  19. Assessing the ecological effects of human impacts on coral reefs in Bocas del Toro, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Janina; González, Cindy T; Carballo-Bolaños, Rodrigo; Berry, Kathryn; Heiss, Georg A; Struck, Ulrich; Leinfelder, Reinhold R

    2014-03-01

    Environmental and biological reef monitoring was conducted in Almirante Bay (Bahía Almirante) in Bocas del Toro, Panama, to assess impacts from anthropogenic developments. An integrated monitoring investigated how seasonal temperature stress, turbidity, eutrophication and physical impacts threatened reef health and biodiversity throughout the region. Environmental parameters such as total suspended solids [TSS], carbon isotopes (δ(13)C), C/N ratios, chlorophyll a, irradiance, secchi depth, size fractions of the sediments and isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC] of the water were measured throughout the years 2010 and 2011 and were analysed in order to identify different impact sources. Compared to data from Collin et al. (Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 38:324-334, 2009) chlorophyll a has doubled at sites close to the city and the port Almirante (from 0.46-0.49 to 0.78-0.97 μg l(-1)) and suspension load increased, visible by a decrease in secchi depth values. Visibility decreased from 9-13 m down to 4 m at the bay inlet Boca del Drago, which is strongly exposed to river run off and dredging for the shipping traffic. Eutrophication and turbidity levels seemed to be the determining factor for the loss of hard coral diversity, most significant at chlorophyll a levels higher than 0.5 μg l(-1) and TSS levels higher than 4.7 mg l(-1). Hard coral cover within the bay has also declined, at some sites down to turbidity and eutrophication compared to other hard coral species in the bay. Serious overfishing was detected in the region by a lack of adult and carnivorous fish species, such as grunts, snappers and groupers. Study sites less impacted by anthropogenic activities and/or those with local protection showed a higher hard coral cover and fish abundance; however, an overall loss of hard coral diversity was observed.

  20. Comparative genetic structure of two mangrove species in Caribbean and Pacific estuaries of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerón-Souza Ivania

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mangroves are ecologically important and highly threatened forest communities. Observational and genetic evidence has confirmed the long distance dispersal capacity of water-dispersed mangrove seeds, but less is known about the relative importance of pollen vs. seed gene flow in connecting populations. We analyzed 980 Avicennia germinans for 11 microsatellite loci and 940 Rhizophora mangle for six microsatellite loci and subsampled two non-coding cpDNA regions in order to understand population structure, and gene flow within and among four major estuaries on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama. Results Both species showed similar rates of outcrossing (t= 0.7 in A. germinans and 0.8 in R. mangle and strong patterns of spatial genetic structure within estuaries, although A. germinans had greater genetic structure in nuclear and cpDNA markers (7 demes > 4 demes and Sp= 0.02 > 0.002, and much greater cpDNA diversity (Hd= 0.8 > 0.2 than R. mangle. The Central American Isthmus serves as an exceptionally strong barrier to gene flow, with high levels nuclear (FST= 0.3-0.5 and plastid (FST= 0.5-0.8 genetic differentiation observed within each species between coasts and no shared cpDNA haplotypes between species on each coast. Finally, evidence of low ratios of pollen to seed dispersal (r = −0.6 in A. germinans and 7.7 in R. mangle, coupled with the strong observed structure in nuclear and plastid DNA among most estuaries, suggests low levels of gene flow in these mangrove species. Conclusions We conclude that gene dispersal in mangroves is usually limited within estuaries and that coastal geomorphology and rare long distance dispersal events could also influence levels of structure.

  1. Comparative genetic structure of two mangrove species in Caribbean and Pacific estuaries of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mangroves are ecologically important and highly threatened forest communities. Observational and genetic evidence has confirmed the long distance dispersal capacity of water-dispersed mangrove seeds, but less is known about the relative importance of pollen vs. seed gene flow in connecting populations. We analyzed 980 Avicennia germinans for 11 microsatellite loci and 940 Rhizophora mangle for six microsatellite loci and subsampled two non-coding cpDNA regions in order to understand population structure, and gene flow within and among four major estuaries on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama. Results Both species showed similar rates of outcrossing (t= 0.7 in A. germinans and 0.8 in R. mangle) and strong patterns of spatial genetic structure within estuaries, although A. germinans had greater genetic structure in nuclear and cpDNA markers (7 demes > 4 demes and Sp= 0.02 > 0.002), and much greater cpDNA diversity (Hd= 0.8 > 0.2) than R. mangle. The Central American Isthmus serves as an exceptionally strong barrier to gene flow, with high levels nuclear (FST= 0.3-0.5) and plastid (FST= 0.5-0.8) genetic differentiation observed within each species between coasts and no shared cpDNA haplotypes between species on each coast. Finally, evidence of low ratios of pollen to seed dispersal (r = −0.6 in A. germinans and 7.7 in R. mangle), coupled with the strong observed structure in nuclear and plastid DNA among most estuaries, suggests low levels of gene flow in these mangrove species. Conclusions We conclude that gene dispersal in mangroves is usually limited within estuaries and that coastal geomorphology and rare long distance dispersal events could also influence levels of structure. PMID:23078287

  2. Overdose Problem Associated with Treatment Planning Software for High Energy Photons in Response of Panama's Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attalla, E.M.; Lotayef, M.M.; Khalil, E.M.; El-Hosiny, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify dose distribution errors by comparing actual dose measurements with the calculated values done by the software. To evaluate the outcome of radiation overexposure related to Panama's accident and in response to ensure that the treatment planning systems (T.P.S.) are being operated in accordance with the appropriate quality assurance programme, we studied the central axis and pripheral depth dose data using complex field shaped with blocks to quantify dose distribution errors. Material and Methods: Multi data T.P.S. software versions 2.35 and 2.40 and Helax T.P.S. software version 5.1 B were assesed. The calculated data of the software treatment planning systems were verified by comparing these data with the actual dose measurements for open and blocked high energy photon fields (Co-60, 6MV and 18MV photons). Results: Close calculated and measured results were obtained for the 2-D (Multi data) and 3-D treatment planning (TMS Helax). These results were correct within 1 to 2% for open fields and 0.5 to 2.5% for peripheral blocked fields. Discrepancies between calculated and measured data ranged between 13. to 36% along the central axis of complex blocked fields when normalisation point was selected at the Dmax, when the normalisation point was selected near or under the blocks, the variation between the calculated and the measured data was up to 500% difference. Conclusions: The present results emphasize the importance of the proper selection of the normalization point in the radiation field, as this facilitates detection of aberrant dose distribution (over exposure or under exposure)

  3. Overdose problem associated with treatment planning software for high energy photons in response of Panama's accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attalla, Ehab M; Lotayef, Mohamed M; Khalil, Ehab M; El-Hosiny, Hesham A; Nazmy, Mohamed S

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify dose distribution errors by comparing actual dose measurements with the calculated values done by the software. To evaluate the outcome of radiation overexposure related to Panama's accident and in response to ensure that the treatment planning systems (T.P.S.) are being operated in accordance with the appropriate quality assurance programme, we studied the central axis and pripheral depth dose data using complex field shaped with blocks to quantify dose distribution errors. Multidata T.P.S. software versions 2.35 and 2.40 and Helax T.P.S. software version 5.1 B were assesed. The calculated data of the software treatment planning systems were verified by comparing these data with the actual dose measurements for open and blocked high energy photon fields (Co-60, 6MV & 18MV photons). Close calculated and measured results were obtained for the 2-D (Multidata) and 3-D treatment planning (TMS Helax). These results were correct within 1 to 2% for open fields and 0.5 to 2.5% for peripheral blocked fields. Discrepancies between calculated and measured data ranged between 13. to 36% along the central axis of complex blocked fields when normalisation point was selected at the Dmax, when the normalisation point was selected near or under the blocks, the variation between the calculated and the measured data was up to 500% difference. The present results emphasize the importance of the proper selection of the normalization point in the radiation field, as this facilitates detection of aberrant dose distribution (over exposure or under exposure).

  4. Neogene reef coral assemblages of the Bocas del Toro region, Panama: the rise of Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J. S.; McNeill, D. F.; Budd, A. F.; Coates, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    Temporal patterns are evaluated in Neogene reef coral assemblages from the Bocas del Toro Basin of Panama in order to understand how reef ecosystems respond to long-term environmental change. Analyses are based on a total of 1,702 zooxanthellate coral specimens collected from six coral-bearing units ranging in age from the earliest Late Miocene to the Early Pleistocene: (1) Valiente Formation (12-11 Ma), (2) Fish Hole Member of the Old Bank Formation (5.8-5.6 Ma), (3) La Gruta Member of the Isla Colon Formation (2.2-1.4 Ma), (4) Ground Creek Member of the Isla Colon Formation (2.2-1.4 Ma), (5) Mimitimbi Member of the Urracá Formation (1.2-0.8 Ma), and (6) Hill Point Member of the Urracá Formation (1.2-0.8 Ma). Over 100 coral species occur in the six units, with faunal assemblages ranging from less than 10% extant taxa (Valiente Formation) to over 85% extant taxa (Ground Creek Member). The collections provide new temporal constraints on the emergence of modern Caribbean reefs, with the La Gruta Member containing the earliest occurrence of large monospecific stands of the dominant Caribbean reef coral Acropora palmata, and the Urracá Formation containing the last fossil occurrences of 15 regionally extinct taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis of 41 Late Miocene to Recent reef coral assemblages from the Caribbean region suggests changes in community structure coincident with effective oceanic closure of the Central American Seaway (~3.5 Ma). These changes, including increased Acropora dominance, may have contributed to a protracted period of elevated extinction debt prior to the major peak in regional coral extinctions (~2-1 Ma).

  5. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Different Species of Piper from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Ana I; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of leaf essential oils from 11 species of Piper from Panama was analyzed by a combination GC-FID and GC-MS procedures. Six of them had sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as major constituents, three were characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons, one by a diterpene, and one by a phenylpropanoid, dillapiole. The main components identified in each species were: cembratrienol (25.4 %) in Piper augustum; β-pinene (26.6 %) in Piper corrugatum; α-pinene (19.4 %) in Piper curtispicum; trans-β-farnesene (63.7 %) in Piper darienense; p-cymene (43.9 %) in Piper grande; dillapiole (57.7 %) in Piper hispidum; linalool (14.5 %), α-phellandrene (13.8 %), and limonene (12.2 %) in Piper jacquemontianum; β-caryophyllene (45.2 %) in Piper longispicum; linalool (16.5 %), α-phellandrene (11.8 %), limonene (11.4 %), and p-cymene (9.0 %) in Piper multiplinervium; β-selinene (19.0 %), β-elemene (16.1 %), and α-selinene (15.5 %) in Piper reticulatum; and germacrene D (19.7 %) in Piper trigonum. The essential oils of P. hispidum and P. longispicum at a concentration of 250 µg/mL showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, while the oils from P. curtispicum, P. multiplinervium, P. reticulatum, and P. trigonum were inactive (LC100 ≥ 500 µg/mL). The essential oils of P. grande, P. jacquemontianum, and P. multiplinervium showed no significant antifungal activity (MIC > 250 µg/mL) against several yeasts and filamentous fungal strains. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Smith, Charlotte D; Goodridge, Amador; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-05-01

    Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0.9%) grab samples collected at random times were positive for total coliform bacteria and only one was positive for E. coli. Only nine of 496 (1.8%) samples had turbidity >1.0 NTU and all samples had ≥0.2 mg/L free chlorine residual. In contrast, water quality was often degraded during the first-flush period (when supply first returned after an outage). Still, routine and first-flush water quality under intermittent supply was much better in Arraiján than that reported in a previous study conducted in India. Better water quality in Arraiján could be due to better water quality leaving the treatment plant, shorter supply outages, higher supply pressures, a more consistent and higher chlorine residual, and fewer contaminant sources near pipes. The results illustrate that intermittent supply and its effects on water quality can vary greatly between and within distribution networks. The study also demonstrated that monitoring techniques designed specifically for intermittent supply, such as continuous pressure monitoring and sampling the first flush, can detect water quality threats and degradation that would not likely be detected with conventional monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Basset

    Full Text Available Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama between an old (1923-1943 and a recent (1993-2013 period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923-2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species. However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint.

  8. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923-1943) and a recent (1993-2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923-2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint.

  9. Reptiles as potential vectors and hosts of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Vanessa L; Ibáñez, Roberto; Green, David M

    2011-12-06

    Chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is considered to be a disease exclusively of amphibians. However, B. dendrobatidis may also be capable of persisting in the environment, and non-amphibian vectors or hosts may contribute to disease transmission. Reptiles living in close proximity to amphibians and sharing similar ecological traits could serve as vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis, harbouring the organism on their skin without succumbing to disease. We surveyed for the presence of B. dendrobatidis DNA among 211 lizards and 8 snakes at 8 sites at varying elevations in Panama where the syntopic amphibians were at pre-epizootic, epizootic or post-epizootic stages of chytridiomycosis. Detection of B. dendrobatidis DNA was done using qPCR analysis. Evidence of the amphibian pathogen was present at varying intensities in 29 of 79 examined Anolis humilis lizards (32%) and 9 of 101 A. lionotus lizards (9%), and in one individual each of the snakes Pliocercus euryzonus, Imantodes cenchoa, and Nothopsis rugosus. In general, B. dendrobatidis DNA prevalence among reptiles was positively correlated with the infection prevalence among co-occurring anuran amphibians at any particular site (r = 0.88, p = 0.004). These reptiles, therefore, may likely be vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis and could serve as disease transmission agents. Although there is no evidence of B. dendrobatidis disease-induced declines in reptiles, cases of coincidence of reptile and amphibian declines suggest this potentiality. Our study is the first to provide evidence of non-amphibian carriers for B. dendrobatidis in a natural Neotropical environment.

  10. Potential Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050: Selected Projections Made in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    ARL-TR-8283 ● FEB 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Potential Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050...Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050: Selected Projections Made in 2017 by Alexander Kott Office of the Director...Brian Sadler Vehicle Technology Directorate, ARL Ananthram Swami Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Approved for

  11. Maternal invasion history of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus into the Isthmus of Panama: Implications for the control of emergent viral disease agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Gilberto A.; Rovira, Jose R.; Smith, Octavio; Miller, Matthew J.; Bennett, Kelly L.; McMillan, W. Owen

    2018-01-01

    Despite an increase in dengue outbreaks and the arrival of chikungunya and Zika disease in Panama, studies on the demographic history of the invasive Aedes mosquitoes that are the principle vectors of these diseases are still lacking in this region. Here, we assess the genetic diversity of these mosquitoes in order to decipher their invasion histories into the Isthmus of Panama. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene obtained from 30 localities in 10 provinces confirmed the presence of more than one mitochondrial haplogroup (i.e., maternal lineage) in each species. The invasion of Aedes albopictus was likely from temperate European countries, as the most frequent and widespread haplogroup in Panama harbored variants that are uncommon elsewhere in the Americas. Two infrequent and geographically restricted Ae. albopictus haplotypes appear to have subsequently invaded Panama from neighboring Costa Rica and the USA, respectively. In addition, we recovered two deeply divergent mitochondrial clades in Panamanian Aedes aegypti. The geographic origins of these clades is unknown, given that divergence in the mitochondrial genome is probably due to ancient population processes within the native range of Ae. aegypti, rather than due to its global expansion out of Africa. However, Panamanian Ae. aegypti mitochondrial sequences within the first clade were closely related to others from Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico and the USA, suggesting two separate invasions from Western Hemisphere source populations. The pattern of increased genetic diversity in Aedes mosquitoes in Panama is likely facilitated by the numerous land and water inter-connections across the country, which allows them to enter via sea- and land-transportation from Europe, North, Central and South America. Our results here should be considered in disease mitigation programs if emergent arboviruses are to be effectively diminished in Panama through vector suppression. PMID:29579112

  12. The formative platform of the Congress of Panama (1810-1826: the Pan-American conjecture revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. De la Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the formative platform of the Congress of Panama of 1826. It seeks to support the hypothesis that the nature and scope of the first test of integration in the Western Hemisphere depended critically on the platform created by Simón Bolívar and other Latin American Independence heroes from the Declaration of Independence of Venezuela in 1810 until the last bilateral agreement of 1826. In that respect, it corroborates the Latin American Identity of the initiative.

  13. The formative platform of the Congress of Panama (1810-1826): the Pan-American conjecture revisited

    OpenAIRE

    De la Reza, Germán A.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the formative platform of the Congress of Panama of 1826. It seeks to support the hypothesis that the nature and scope of the first test of integration in the Western Hemisphere depended critically on the platform created by Simón Bolívar and other Latin American Independence heroes from the Declaration of Independence of Venezuela in 1810 until the last bilateral agreement of 1826. In that respect, it corroborates the Latin American Identity of the initiative. Este a...

  14. A Cataloger’s Guide to the LMARS Report Number Authority File in Use at the Naval Underwater Systems Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-15

    FORCE CAMBRIDGE AFCRL-70-0018 RESEARCH LAB AFETR AIR FORCE EASTERN TEST RANGE APETR-TR-76-13 AFEWC AIR FORCE ELECTRONIC AFEWC-OP-1-77 WARFARE CENTER... EFFECTS TECHNOLOGY INC ETI-CR79-623 EUDAC EUROPEAN COMMAND DEFENSE EUDAC-DASJ-3-78 ANALYSIS EWIS (Electroniz Warfare EWIS-R-02-76 Inte 11 igence...AEO-76-066 JHU-APL-POR-1999. ..etc. JMEM (Joint Munitions Effectiveness JMEM-61JTCG/ME-1-2 Manual) jpl *See CIT-JPL (California Institute of Technology

  15. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  16. Simulation-based planning for theater air warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popken, Douglas A.; Cox, Louis A., Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Planning for Theatre Air Warfare can be represented as a hierarchy of decisions. At the top level, surviving airframes must be assigned to roles (e.g., Air Defense, Counter Air, Close Air Support, and AAF Suppression) in each time period in response to changing enemy air defense capabilities, remaining targets, and roles of opposing aircraft. At the middle level, aircraft are allocated to specific targets to support their assigned roles. At the lowest level, routing and engagement decisions are made for individual missions. The decisions at each level form a set of time-sequenced Courses of Action taken by opposing forces. This paper introduces a set of simulation-based optimization heuristics operating within this planning hierarchy to optimize allocations of aircraft. The algorithms estimate distributions for stochastic outcomes of the pairs of Red/Blue decisions. Rather than using traditional stochastic dynamic programming to determine optimal strategies, we use an innovative combination of heuristics, simulation-optimization, and mathematical programming. Blue decisions are guided by a stochastic hill-climbing search algorithm while Red decisions are found by optimizing over a continuous representation of the decision space. Stochastic outcomes are then provided by fast, Lanchester-type attrition simulations. This paper summarizes preliminary results from top and middle level models.

  17. Back to the future: aerial warfare in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Nunes Vicente

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A century after the first air bomb mission, a new intervention in the same geographic space has made evident the changes in Airpower. The Aerial Warfare in Libya has radically changed the civil war, complying with a UN mission to protect Libyan population, imposing a no-fly zone and an arms embargo. Therefore, Operation Unified Protector became one of the most successful campaigns in the history of NATO. We aim to assess the operational efficiency of Airpower in the conflict in Libya, focusing on the challenges of a War essentially Aerial. Despite the military results and the fact that some political objectives were met, we can identify some concerning trends that, if not shifted, may negatively influence future NATO operations. We do not aim to draw general and universal conclusions on the strategic value of Airpower based on the analysis of a specific case. Above all, we focus on identifying some lessons which have influenced OUP operational efficiency. Thus, we must analyze some factors, such as the scope of objectives, the type of opposing action and aerial strategy used by the coalition and then focus on the challenges arising from the OUP.

  18. Drone Warfare: Twenty-First Century Empire and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Howley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger project that examines drones from a social-construction of technology perspective, considers drone warfare in light of Harold Innis’s seminal work on empire and communication. Leveraging leading-edge aeronautics with advanced optics, data processing, and networked communication, drones represent an archetypal “space-biased” technology. Indeed, by allowing remote operators and others to monitor, select, and strike targets from half a world away, and in real-time, these weapon systems epitomize the “pernicious neglect of time” Innis sought to identify and remedy in his later writing. With Innis’s time-space dialectic as a starting point, then, the paper considers drones in light of a longstanding paradox of American culture: the impulse to collapse the geographical distance between the United States and other parts of the globe, while simultaneously magnifying the cultural difference between Americans and other peoples and societies. In the midst of the worldwide proliferation of drones, this quintessentially sublime technology embodies this (disconnect in important, profound, and ominous ways.

  19. Prevalence of Asthma in Children of Chemical Warfare Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Methods Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. Findings The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Conclusion Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV. PMID:23056804

  20. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  1. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  3. SiGe-based re-engineering of electronic warfare subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Wynand

    2017-01-01

    This book equips readers with a thorough understanding of the applicability of new-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) electronic subsystems for the military purposes of electronic warfare and defensive countermeasures. The theoretical and technical background is extensively explained and all aspects of the integration of SiGe as an enabling technology for maritime, land, and airborne (including space) electronic warfare are addressed, including research, design, development, and implementation. The coverage is supported by mathematical derivations, informative illustrations, practical examples, and case studies. While SiGe technology provides speed, performance, and price advantages in many markets, sharing of information on its use in electronic warfare systems has to date been limited, especially in developing nations. This book will therefore be warmly welcomed as an engineering guideline that focuses especially on the speed and reliability of current-generation SiGe circuits and highlights emerging innov...

  4. THE CYBER DIMENSION OF MODERN HYBRID WARFARE AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin DUCARU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological development and the instant communication possibilities advanced not only economic and social developments, but also evolving threats from those who exploit the vulnerabilities of communication and information systems. The cyber threat landscape points to a significant increase of the frequency, intensity, duration and sophistication of cyber-attacks. One of the new and concerning trends is the use of cyber capabilities in relation with military of hybrid operations – the so-called cyber dimension of hybrid warfare. NATO’s strategy on countering hybrid warfare is based on the triad: prepare-deter-defend, which also applies to cyber. Nations represent the first line of defence in countering hybrid strategies. International cooperation is also a key factor in this sense. It is in this context that NATO’s response to cyber-attacks in the context of hybrid warfare must be further refined.

  5. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

  7. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C

    2011-11-01

    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efikasnost sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava / Efficiency of antiaircraft system in electronic warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Šepec

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu je primenjena teorija masovnog opsluživanja u analizi efikasnosti sistema protivvazduhoplovne odbrane (sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava protivnika. Prikazan je model za ocenu efikasnosti sistema PVO i predstavljeni su izrazi za procenu efikasnosti sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava. / In this article the theory of mass servicing is used in the analysis of efficiency of antiaircraft system in the conditions of electronic warfare. The model for analysis of the antiaircraft system efficiency has been shown and formulas for qualitative analysis of antiaircraft system efficiency have been presented in the conditions of electronic warfare.

  10. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  11. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias [Oak Ridge, TN; Sanders, Charlene A [Knoxville, TN

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  12. Ancient ecology of 15-million-year-old browsing mammals within C3 plant communities from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadden, Bruce J; Higgins, Pennilyn

    2004-06-01

    Middle Miocene mammals are known from approximately 15 million-year-old sediments exposed along the Panama Canal of Central America, a region that otherwise has an exceedingly poor terrestrial fossil record. These land mammals, which represent a part of the ancient terrestrial herbivore community, include an oreodont Merycochoerus matthewi, small camel-like protoceratid artiodactyl Paratoceras wardi, two horses Anchitherium clarencei and Archaeohippus sp., and two rhinos Menoceras barbouri and Floridaceras whitei. Bulk and serial carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of the tooth enamel carbonate allow reconstruction of the ancient climate and ecology of these fossil mammals. Ancient Panama had an equable climate with seasonal temperature and rainfall fluctuations less than those seen today. The middle Miocene terrestrial community consisted predominantly, or exclusively, of C3 plants, i.e., there is no evidence for C4 grasses. Statistically different mean carbon isotope values for the mammalian herbivores indicate niche partitioning of the C3 plant food resources. The range of individual carbon isotope analyses, i.e., delta13C from -15.9 to -10.1 per thousand, indicates herbivores feeding on diverse plants from different habitats with extrapolated delta13C values of -29.9 to -24.2 per thousand, possibly ranging from dense forest to more open country woodland. The ecological niches of individual mammalian herbivore species were differentiated either by diet or body size.

  13. The importance of sponges and mangroves in supporting fish communities on degraded coral reefs in Caribbean Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Janina; Yingst, Alexandra; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Edgar, Graham J; Altieri, Andrew H

    2018-01-01

    Fish communities associated with coral reefs worldwide are threatened by habitat degradation and overexploitation. We assessed coral reefs, mangrove fringes, and seagrass meadows on the Caribbean coast of Panama to explore the influences of their proximity to one another, habitat cover, and environmental characteristics in sustaining biomass, species richness and trophic structure of fish communities in a degraded tropical ecosystem. We found 94% of all fish across all habitat types were of small body size (≤10 cm), with communities dominated by fishes that usually live in habitats of low complexity, such as Pomacentridae (damselfishes) and Gobiidae (gobies). Total fish biomass was very low, with the trend of small fishes from low trophic levels over-represented, and top predators under-represented, relative to coral reefs elsewhere in the Caribbean. For example, herbivorous fishes comprised 27% of total fish biomass in Panama relative to 10% in the wider Caribbean, and the small parrotfish Scarus iseri comprised 72% of the parrotfish biomass. We found evidence that non-coral biogenic habitats support reef-associated fish communities. In particular, the abundance of sponges on a given reef and proximity of mangroves were found to be important positive correlates of reef fish species richness, biomass, abundance and trophic structure. Our study indicates that a diverse fish community can persist on degraded coral reefs, and that the availability and arrangement within the seascape of other habitat-forming organisms, including sponges and mangroves, is critical to the maintenance of functional processes in such ecosystems.

  14. A distinctive avian assemblage (Aves: Passeriformes in Western Darién, Panama is uncovered through a disease surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic knowledge about the distribution of flora and fauna is lacking for most tropical areas. Improving our knowledge of the tropical biota will help address contemporary global problems, including emerging tropical diseases. Less appreciated is the role that applied studies can have in improving our understanding of basic biological patterns and processes in the tropics. Here, I describe a novel avifauna assemblage uncovered in Western Darién province in the Republic of Panama that was uncovered during a vector-borne disease surveillance program. I compared the passerine bird species composition at 16 sites using records from recent ornithological expeditions sponsored by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Central and Eastern Panama. Based on the results of a Mantel test, geographic distance did not correlate with pairwise distinctiveness of sites. Instead, based on an index of distinctiveness modified from the Chao-Jaccard index, most sites were more or less similarly distinctive, with one site, Aruza Abajo, significantly more distinctive than the rest. I found that the distinctiveness of this site was due not only to the presence of several rare and range-restricted taxa, but also to the absence of taxa that are common elsewhere. This finding provides more evidence of high species composition turnover (beta-diversity in the Panamanian biota, which appears to be driven by a combination of soil and climate differences over narrow distances. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2: 711-717. Epub 2014 June 01.

  15. Evaluation of PCR for cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis and species identification using filter paper samples in Panama, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A; Saldaña, A; González, K; Paz, H; Santamaría, G; Samudio, F; Calzada, J E

    2012-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major vectorborne disease in Panama. In this study, the diagnostic performance and usefulness of two DNA extraction procedures from skin scraping samples collected on FTA filter paper for subsequent PCR diagnosis of CL was evaluated. A positive CL laboratory diagnosis was based on a positive parasitological test (Giemsa-stained smears or in vitro culture) and/or positive PCR test performed from skin scrapings collected in TE buffer (PCR-TE). Of 100 patients with skin lesions suggestive of CL, 82 (82%) were confirmed as CL positive. The sensitivity was calculated for each of the PCR approaches from samples collected on filter paper. The highest sensitivity was achieved by PCR-FTA processed by Chelex 100 (PCR-Chelex) (0.94). PCR-FTA extracted using the FTA purification reagent presented a lower sensitivity (0.60). Good concordance between routine PCR-TE and PCR-Chelex was observed (percent agreement=0.88, κ index=0.65). In conclusion, use of FTA filter paper for skin scraping collection combined with PCR is a reliable and convenient method for CL diagnosis in Panama, with comparable performance to the routine PCR method and with improved sensitivity compared with those of conventional parasitological methods. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anthropogenic influence on the distribution, abundance and diversity of sandfly species (Diptera: Phlebotominae: Psychodidae, vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayansi Valderrama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Panama, species of the genus Lutzomyia are vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. There is no recent ecological information that may be used to develop tools for the control of this disease. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the composition, distribution and diversity of Lutzomyia species that serve as vectors of ACL. Sandfly sampling was conducted in forests, fragmented forests and rural environments, in locations with records of ACL. Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia panamensis and Lutzomyia trapidoi were the most widely distributed and prevalent species. Analysis of each sampling point showed that the species abundance and diversity were greatest at points located in the fragmented forest landscape. However, when the samples were grouped according to the landscape characteristics of the locations, there was a greater diversity of species in the rural environment locations. The Kruskal Wallis analysis of species abundance found that Lu. gomezi and Lu. trapidoi were associated with fragmented environments, while Lu. panamensis, Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor and Lutzomyia ylephiletor were associated with forested environments. Therefore, we suggest that human activity influences the distribution, composition and diversity of the vector species responsible for leishmaniasis in Panama.

  17. "Estoy viejo" [I'm old]: internalized ageism as self-referential, negative, ageist speech in the Republic of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Irma D; Stripling, Ashley M; Heesacker, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Ageism is a form of discrimination that anyone may experience at some point in life (Palmore 2004). Yet ageism is rarely the focus of behavioral research (Nelson 2005). Age can be understood as a social construct that reflects social norms (Lemus and Exposito 2005). Based on our review of the published literature, there were two studies on perceptions of aging among Latina/os in the United States (Beyene et al. 2002; Sarkisian et al. 2006). These studies investigated perceptions and expectations of aging among older Latina/o adults rather than direct experiences of ageism. It is important to note that Latina/os are not a homogenous group and that there are within-group differences. For this reason, this study explored internalized, negative ageism specifically in the Republic of Panama. Although Panama has unique characteristics, it also reflects Central American culture and therefore should provide initial insights regarding Central American self-referential, negative, ageist talk, which we labeled "Estoy viejo." Flanagan's Critical Incident Technique was used to access and understand participants' (ages 18-65) negative ageist talk (n=159). Participants who reported engaging in "Estoy viejo." (46.3% of those sampled) were significantly younger than participants who did not (pexplanation is that younger participants may have been more influenced by North American culture and its strongly negative ageist stereotypes than older participants, who may have identified primarily with Central American culture.

  18. Sediment redistribution and grainsize effects on 230Th-normalized mass accumulation rates and focusing factors in the Panama Basin

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    Loveley, Matthew R.; Marcantonio, Franco; Lyle, Mitchell; Ibrahim, Rami; Hertzberg, Jennifer E.; Schmidt, Matthew W.

    2017-12-01

    Here, we examine how redistribution of differing grain sizes by sediment focusing processes in Panama Basin sediments affects the use of 230Th as a constant-flux proxy. We study representative sediments of Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) time slices from four sediment cores from two different localities close to the ridges that bound the Panama Basin. Each locality contains paired sites that are seismically interpreted to have undergone extremes in sediment redistribution, i.e., focused versus winnowed sites. Both Holocene and LGM samples from sites where winnowing has occurred contain significant amounts (up to 50%) of the 230Th within the >63 μm grain size fraction, which makes up 40-70% of the bulk sediment analyzed. For sites where focusing has occurred, Holocene and LGM samples contain the greatest amounts of 230Th (up to 49%) in the finest grain-sized fraction (winnowed sites. Corrections made using a model by Kretschmer et al. (2010) suggest a maximum change of about 30% in 230Th-derived MARs and focusing factors at focused sites, except for our most focused site which requires an approximate 70% correction in one sample. Our 230Th-corrected 232Th flux results suggest that the boundary between hemipelagically- and pelagically-derived sediments falls between 350 and 600 km from the continental margin.

  19. An ecosystem report on the Panama Canal: Monitoring the status of the forest communities and the watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, R.; Condit, R.; Angehr, G.; Aguilar, S.; Garcia, T.; Martinez, R.; Sanjur, A.; Stallard, R.; Wright, S.J.; Rand, A.S.; Heckadon, S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Republic of Panama's Environmental Authority, with support from the United States Agency for International Development, undertook a comprehensive program to monitor the ecosystem of the Panama Canal watershed. The goals were to establish baseline indicators for the integrity of forest communities and rivers. Based on satellite image classification and ground surveys, the 2790 km2 watershed had 1570 km2 of forest in 1997, 1080 km2 of which was in national parks and nature monuments. Most of the 490 km2 of forest not currently in protected areas lies along the west bank of the Canal, and its management status after the year 2000 turnover of the Canal from the U.S. to Panama remains uncertain. In forest plots designed to monitor forest diversity and change, a total of 963 woody plant species were identified and mapped. We estimate there are a total of 850-1000 woody species in forests of the Canal corridor. Forests of the wetter upper reaches of the watershed are distinct in species composition from the Canal corridor, and have considerably higher diversity and many unknown species. These remote areas are extensively forested, poorly explored, and harbor an estimated 1400-2200 woody species. Vertebrate monitoring programs were also initiated, focusing on species threatened by hunting and forest fragmentation. Large mammals are heavily hunted in most forests of Canal corridor, and there was clear evidence that mammal density is greatly reduced in hunted areas and that this affects seed predation and dispersal. The human population of the watershed was 113 000 in 1990, and grew by nearly 4% per year from 1980 to 1990. Much of this growth was in a small region of the watershed on the outskirts of Panama City, but even rural areas, including villages near and within national parks, grew by 2% per year. There is no sewage treatment in the watershed, and many towns have no trash collection, thus streams near large

  20. Lutzomyia sand fly diversity and rates of infection by Wolbachia and an exotic Leishmania species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azpurua

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in the genus Lutzomyia are the predominant vectors of the protozoan disease leishmaniasis in the New World. Within the watershed of the Panama Canal, the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis is a continuous health threat for residents, tourists and members of an international research community. Here we report the results of screening a tropical forest assemblage of sand fly species for infection by both Leishmania and a microbe that can potentially serve in vector population control, the cytoplasmically transmitted rickettsia, Wolbachia pipientis. Knowing accurately which Lutzomyia species are present, what their evolutionary relationships are, and how they are infected by strains of both Leishmania and Wolbachia is of critical value for building strategies to mitigate the impact of this disease in humans.We collected, sorted and then used DNA sequences to determine the diversity and probable phylogenetic relationships of the Phlebotominae occurring in the understory of Barro Colorado Island in the Republic of Panama. Sequence from CO1, the DNA barcoding gene, supported 18 morphology-based species determinations while revealing the presence of two possible "cryptic" species, one (Lu. sp. nr vespertilionis within the Vespertilionis group, the other (Lu. gomezi within the Lutzomyia-cruciata series. Using ITS-1 and "minicircle" primers we detected Leishmania DNA in 43.3% of Lu. trapidoi, 26.3% of Lu. gomezi individuals and in 0% of the other 18 sand fly species. Identical ITS-1 sequence was obtained from the Leishmania infecting Lu. trapidoi and Lu. gomezi, sequence which was 93% similar to Leishmania (viannia naiffi in GenBank, a species previously unknown in Panama, but recognized as a type of cutaneous leishmaniasis vectored broadly across northern and central South America. Distinct strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia were detected in three of 20 sand fly species, including Lu. trapidoi