WorldWideScience

Sample records for warfare advanced development

  1. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  2. MOSES, development of an Underwater Warfare Testbed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentze, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    The TNO underwater warfare (UWW) research programme results in a large number of models used in operational research projects. To enhance the accessibility and re-use of these models for new projects, TNO-FEL has developed the modelling environment ‘MOSES - Maritime Operations Simulation and

  3. New Developments in Chinese Strategic Psychological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Taoism , which coupled hardness with softness in warfare, was not the only influence on the theory of psychological operations in ancient China. Other...portraying Islamic martyrs who appear to speak to soldiers from the clouds.38 In contemporary wars, such as the Gulf War, the first targets attacked have

  4. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  5. Recent Advances in Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Wadood Khan; Sabna Kotta; Shahid Husain Ansari; Javed Ali; Rakesh Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The recent turmoil and volatile situation in many countries and the increased risk of terrorist activities have raised alarm bells for the field of defense against toxic chemical/materials. These situations poses threats to society as terrorists can take advantage of such situations to strike and cause public mayhem. A number of chemicals have the potential of being used as chemical warfare (CW) agents. CW agents could immediately kill or incapacitate the affected individuals even when they a...

  6. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.

  7. An Open Architecture Framework for Electronic Warfare Based Approach to HLA Federate Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyunSeo Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of electronic warfare models are developed in the Electronic Warfare Research Center. An Open Architecture Framework for Electronic Warfare (OAFEw has been developed for reusability of various object models participating in the electronic warfare simulation and for extensibility of the electronic warfare simulator. OAFEw is a kind of component-based software (SW lifecycle management support framework. This OAFEw is defined by six components and ten rules. The purpose of this study is to construct a Distributed Simulation Interface Model, according to the rules of OAFEw, and create Use Case Model of OAFEw Reference Conceptual Model version 1.0. This is embodied in the OAFEw-FOM (Federate Object Model for High-Level Architecture (HLA based distributed simulation. Therefore, we design and implement EW real-time distributed simulation that can work with a model in C++ and MATLAB API (Application Programming Interface. In addition, OAFEw-FOM, electronic component model, and scenario of the electronic warfare domain were designed through simple scenarios for verification, and real-time distributed simulation between C++ and MATLAB was performed through OAFEw-Distributed Simulation Interface.

  8. Institutional Challenges to Developing Metrics of Success in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    develop national policy and strategic goals. If an IW conflict has a 11 Richard L. Daft , Essentials...13 Richard L. Daft , Essentials of Organization Theory and Design (Mason, OH:Thomson Learning, 2003), 52. 14 Henry...37 Richard L. Daft , Essentials of Organization Theory & Design (Mason, OH: Thompson Learning, 2003), 52

  9. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colarik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.

  10. Expeditionary Warfare- Force Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Eric

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Systems Engineering and Analysis students were tasked to develop a system of systems conceptual solution to provide force protection for the Sea Base conceptualized in the 2002 Expeditionary Warfare study...

  11. Development of Bicarbonate-Activated Peroxide as a Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontaminant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, David E

    2006-01-01

    ...) and other chemistry for the decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. The mechanism of formation of the active oxidant, peroxymonocarbonate, has been investigated in detail. New surfoxidants...

  12. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  13. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  14. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  15. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...

  16. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  17. The potential impact of developments in electronic technology on the future conduct of air warfare, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Advances in microelectronics have resulted in circuit densities many orders of magnitude greater than in current usage, making possible higher speed circuitry and greater storage capacity. RF techniques are also leading to monolithic microwave integrated circuits and microstrip antennas with corresponding reductions in size and weight. In addition, rapid advances are taking place in computer architecture and software that will provide improved information processing and control. This, coupled with progress in artificial intelligence and man-machine interface, offers promise of greatly improved battle management in the cockpit. The scale of changes is such that the nature of air warfare should be significantly affected over the next twenty years. This study examined the potential of electronic technology and potential benefits such as improvements in information processing, reduction in size and weight, increased reliability and maintainability; determined the applicability of such improvements to avionics and command and control systems and such functions as navigation and guidance, communications, surveillance, cockpit engineering and electronic warfare; and examined the impact on air warfare in the time period 2000 to 2010.

  18. Methods of Advanced Wound Management for Care of Combined Traumatic and Chemical Warfare Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John S.; Gerlach, Travis W.; Logan, Thomas P.; Bonar, James P.; Fugo, Richard J.; Lee, Robyn B.; Coatsworth, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Chemical warfare agents are potential threats to military personnel and civilians. The potential for associated traumatic injuries is significant. Damage control surgery could expose medical personnel to agents contaminating the wounds. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate efficacy of surgical decontamination and assess exposure risk to attending personnel. Methods: Weanling pigs were randomly assigned to 2 of 4 debridement tools (scalpel, Bovie® knife, Fugo Blade®, and Versajet™ Hydrosurgery System). Penetrating traumatic wounds were created over the shoulder and thigh and then exposed to liquid sulfur mustard (HD) for 60 minutes. Excisional debridement of the injuries was performed while vapors over each site were collected. Gas chromatography was used to measure HD in samples of collected vapors. Unbound HD was quantified in presurgical wound swabs, excised tissues, and peripheral tissue biopsies following solvent extraction. Results: Excisional debridement produced agent-free wound beds (surgical decontamination). A significant amount of HD vapor was detected above the surgical fields with each tool. Apart from the Versajet™ producing significantly lower levels of HD detected over thigh wounds compared with those treated using the scalpel, there were no differences in the amount of agent detected among the tools. All measured levels significantly exceeded established safety limits. Vesicating levels of unbound HD were extracted from excised tissue. There was no measured lateral spreading of HD beyond the surgical margins. Conclusions: There is significant occupational exposure risk to HD during surgical procedures designed to stabilize agent-contaminated wounds. If appropriate protective measures are taken, surgical decontamination is both effective and safe. PMID:18716652

  19. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  20. Advanced reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to what the aims of advanced reactor development have to be, if a new generation of nuclear power is really to play an important role in man's energy generation activities in a fragile environment. The background given briefly covers present atmospheric evidence, the current situation in nuclear power, how reactors work and what can go wrong with them, and the present magnitudes of world energy generation. The central part of the paper describes what is currently being done in advanced reactor development and what can be expected from various systems and various elements of it. A vigorous case is made that three elements must be present in any advanced reactor development: (1) breeding; (2) passive safety; and (3) shorter-live nuclear waste. All three are possible. In the right advanced reactor systems the ways of achieving them are known. But R and D is necessary. That is the central argument made in the paper. Not advanced reactor prototype construction at this point, but R and D itself. (author)

  1. Advanced servomanipulator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) System consists of three major components: the ASM slave, the dual arm master controller (DAMC) or master, and the control system. The ASM is remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world

  2. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  3. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to

  4. Advanced Undersea Warfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Glider can self-destruct or enter a hibernation state to be retrieved at a future time. Figure 4.19: Glider Recovery Assisted by Helicopter Retrieval 97...analysis using a physics based sensor model is recommended.79 Finally, Simkit, an open source Java based program DES maintained by Professor Arnold Buss of

  5. MEANS AND METHODS OF CYBER WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  6. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fluorescence and other Optical Properties of Biological Particles for Biological Warfare Agent Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden; Optics of Biological Particles

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  7. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  8. Accelerating development of advanced inverters :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ropp, Michael; Schutz, Dustin

    2013-11-01

    The high penetration of utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) systems is causing heightened concern over the effect that variable renewable generation will have on the electrical power system (EPS). These concerns have initiated the need to amend the utility interconnection standard to allow advanced inverter control functionalities that provide: (1) reactive power control for voltage support, (2) real power control for frequency support and (3) better tolerance of grid disturbances. These capabilities are aimed at minimizing the negative impact distributed PV systems may have on EPS voltage and frequency. Unfortunately, these advanced control functions may interfere with island detection schemes, and further development of advanced inverter functions requires a study of the effect of advanced functions on the efficacy of antiislanding schemes employed in industry. This report summarizes the analytical, simulation and experimental work to study interactions between advanced inverter functions and anti-islanding schemes being employed in distributed PV systems.

  9. Development of advanced BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Masatoshi

    1982-01-01

    The Japanese technology and domestic production of BWR type nuclear power plants have been established through the experiences in the construction and operation of BWRs in addition to the technical agreement with the General Electric Co. In early days, the plants experienced some trouble such as stress corrosion cracking and some inconvenience in the operation and maintenance. The government, electric power companies and BWR manufacturers have endeavored to standardize and improve the design of LWRs for the purpose of improving the safety, reliability and the rate of operation and reducing the radiation exposure dose of plant workers. The first and second stages of the standardization and improvement of LWRs have been completed. Five manufacturers of BWRs in the world have continued the conceptual design of a new version of BWR power plants. It was concluded that this is the most desirable version of BWR nuclear power stations, but the technical and economic evaluation must be made before the commercial application. Six electric power companies and three manufacturers of BWRs in Japan set up the organization to develop the technology in cooperation. The internal pump system, the new control rod drive mechanism and others are the main features. (Kako, I.)

  10. Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. Don; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As a part of a high energy density materials (HEDM) development, the hot fire tests for Quadricyclane, 1,7 Octadiyne, AFRL-1, Biclopropylidene, and CINCH (Dimethyl amino ethyl azide) have been conducted at NASA/MSFC. The first 4 materials for this task are provided from Air Force Research Laboratory at Edward Air Force Base and US Army provided CINCH. The performance of these fuels is compared with RP-1. The preliminary results of these tests are presented. The preliminary results of Quadricyclane tests indicate that the specific impulse and c-star efficiency for quadricyclane at the mixture ratio 1.94 are approximately 5 sec and 105 ft/sec better than the RP-1 at mixture ratio 1.9. The 1,7 Octadiyne test indicate that the specific impulse and c-star efficiency at the mixture ratio 2.1 are approximately -1 sec and 89 ft/sec differ than the RP-1 at mixture ratio 2.04. The Quadricyclane soot buildup at the combustor is a little more than RP-1, but detail study of soot formation is not considered at this time. There was no visual soot buildup for the 1,7 Octadiyne and AFRL-1.

  11. The Information Warfare Life Cycle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett van Niekerk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information warfare (IW is a dynamic and developing concept, which constitutes a number of disciplines. This paper aims to develop a life cycle model for information warfare that is applicable to all of the constituent disciplines. The model aims to be scalable and applicable to civilian and military incidents where information warfare tactics are employed. Existing information warfare models are discussed, and a new model is developed from the common aspects of these existing models. The proposed model is then applied to a variety of incidents to test its applicability and scalability. The proposed model is shown to be applicable to multiple disciplines of information warfare and is scalable, thus meeting the objectives of the model.

  12. The Information Warfare Life Cycle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett van Niekerk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Information warfare (IW is a dynamic and developing concept, which constitutes a number of disciplines. This paper aims to develop a life cycle model for information warfare that is applicable to all of the constituent disciplines. The model aims to be scalable and applicable to civilian and military incidents where information warfare tactics are employed. Existing information warfare models are discussed, and a new model is developed from the common aspects of these existing models. The proposed model is then applied to a variety of incidents to test its applicability and scalability. The proposed model is shown to be applicable to multiple disciplines of information warfare and is scalable, thus meeting the objectives of the model.

  13. Drone warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusterson, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    Crude drones existed as early as World War I, but the technology matured in the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s and the current wars around the Middle East. The U.S. first used a weaponized drone in late 2001, in Afghanistan. Drones may cause more or less civilian casualties depending on the targeting protocols employed by their operators. There is an inherent ambiguity in determining who is an insurgent from several thousand feet, but civilian casualties are likely to be higher if targeters emphasize "signature strikes" over "personality strikes," if they engage in "double-tap strikes," if they rely too much on local informants, and if they rely too heavily on cellphone identification in the absence of corroboration from other intelligence sources. The legality of drone warfare is fairly clear in established battle zones such as Afghanistan, but is more problematic in terms of both international and domestic law when it comes to drone strikes in countries such as Yemen, Pakistan and Somalia with which the U.S. is not at war. Looking to the future, the U.S. would be well advised to sponsor negotiations for an international drone convention that might establish clear international rules for the use of drones, ban autonomous smart drones, and establish adjudicatory procedures to handle allegations of war crimes.

  14. Mongol Warfare in the Pre-Dissolution Period »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Mongols used many of the tactics and strategies that steppe nomads had used for centuries, the Mongols refined steppe warfare so that this style of warfare reached its apogee during the Mongol Empire. Furthermore, the Mongols developed a style of warfare that made them possibly the greatest military force in history. This work examines several facets of the pre-dissolution period (1200–1260. With the dissolution of the Mongol Empire, Mongol warfare once again changed. In some areas it remained complex while in others it regressed to traditional forces of steppe warfare, still potent but not as effective as the pre-dissolution period.

  15. The doctor and nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    At the 34th World Medical Assembly in Lisbon in 1981 the World Medical Association adopted a motion proposed by the American Medical Association that national medical associations should develop programs to educate the civilian population on the medical consequences of nuclear war. This article discusses the attitude the medical professions should have, should nuclear warfare in some form confront them in the future. The conclusion is drawn that defence against nuclear warfare is only a part of civil defence against any disaster, including the natural disasters such as flood and fire and the man-made disasters of transport accidents, even of problems at nuclear plants designed to supply energy

  16. Data management system advanced development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Katherine; Humphries, Terry

    1990-01-01

    The Data Management System (DMS) Advanced Development task provides for the development of concepts, new tools, DMS services, and for the testing of the Space Station DMS hardware and software. It also provides for the development of techniques capable of determining the effects of system changes/enhancements, additions of new technology, and/or hardware and software growth on system performance. This paper will address the built-in characteristics which will support network monitoring requirements in the design of the evolving DMS network implementation, functional and performance requirements for a real-time, multiprogramming, multiprocessor operating system, and the possible use of advanced development techniques such as expert systems and artificial intelligence tools in the DMS design.

  17. Hybrid Maritime Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Murphy, Martin; Hoffman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Russia’s use of hybrid warfare techniques has raised concerns about the security of the Baltic States. Gary Schaub, Jr, Martin Murphy and Frank G Hoffman recommend a series of measures to augment NATO’s Readiness Action Plan in the Baltic region, including increasing the breadth and depth of naval...... exercises, and improving maritime domain awareness through cooperative programmes. They also suggest unilateral and cooperative measures to develop a sound strategic communications strategy to counter Moscow’s information operations, reduce dependence on Russian energy supplies and build the resilience...

  18. THE CYBER DIMENSION OF MODERN HYBRID WARFARE AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin DUCARU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological development and the instant communication possibilities advanced not only economic and social developments, but also evolving threats from those who exploit the vulnerabilities of communication and information systems. The cyber threat landscape points to a significant increase of the frequency, intensity, duration and sophistication of cyber-attacks. One of the new and concerning trends is the use of cyber capabilities in relation with military of hybrid operations – the so-called cyber dimension of hybrid warfare. NATO’s strategy on countering hybrid warfare is based on the triad: prepare-deter-defend, which also applies to cyber. Nations represent the first line of defence in countering hybrid strategies. International cooperation is also a key factor in this sense. It is in this context that NATO’s response to cyber-attacks in the context of hybrid warfare must be further refined.

  19. Advanced express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Keig, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A practical book, guiding the reader through the development of a single page application using a feature-driven approach.If you are an experienced JavaScript developer who wants to build highly scalable, real-world applications using Express, this book is ideal for you. This book is an advanced title and assumes that the reader has some experience with node, Javascript MVC web development frameworks, and has heard of Express before, or is familiar with it. You should also have a basic understanding of Redis and MongoDB. This book is not a tutorial on Node, but aims to explore some of the more

  20. Strategic Analysis of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the same mathematical equations used by Lanchester .10 Irregular Warfare Theory and Doctrine It is time to develop new analytical methods and models...basis on which to build, similar to what Lanchester provided almost 100 years ago. Figure 9 portrays both Lanchester’s approach and an irregular 17

  1. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  2. Enzymatic Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raushel, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is the development of a versatile enzyme-based system that is fully optimized for the decontamination, destruction, and detection of know chemical warfare agents...

  3. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  4. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  5. Information Warfare and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of the practice of information warfare at both the national and corporate levels. Initially examining the present and past actions of individual hackers, it moves to the more organised, future military and economic warfare scenarios. It examines the lack of legal or policy initiatives in this area.

  6. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  7. Development of portable mass spectrometer with electron cyclotron resonance ion source for detection of chemical warfare agents in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Michiko; Sato, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Report on Advanced Detector Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Jewell

    2012-09-01

    Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

  9. Precision Warfare Enables Interdependent Fires and Maneuver in 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, John

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Army is in the midst of a revolution in military affairs (RMA). Significant advancements in informational technologies and precision weapons are providing unprecedented potential for future warfare...

  10. Developing a career advancement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinette, Shirley L

    2003-01-01

    Have you ever asked yourself, "What will I be doing five or ten years from now?" "Will I be doing the same thing I'm doing right now?" How would you feel if the answer were "yes"? I often wonder if any of my employees think the same thing. If they do, and the answer is "yes," just how does that make them feel? A day's work for managers can run the gamut--from billing and coding, to patient issues, to staff performance reviews, to CQI, to JCAHO-just to name a few. We're NEVER bored. Can we say the same of our employees, or do they do the same thing day in and day out? If so, it's no wonder that attitudes may become negative and motivation and productivity may decline. What are we as healthcare managers and administrators doing to value and continually train our employees so that staff morale, productivity and patient satisfaction remain high? What are we doing to keep those highly motivated employees motivated and challenged so that they don't get bored and want to move across town to our neighboring hospital or healthcare center? What are we doing to stop our employees from developing the "same job, different day" attitude? A Career Ladder program holds many benefits and opportunities for the motivated employee who seeks and needs additional challenges on the job. It affords them opportunities to learn new skills, demonstrate initiative, accept additional responsibilities and possibly advance into new positions. It also affords them opportunities to grow, to be challenged and to feel like an important and valued member of the radiology team and radiology department. For the manager, a Career Ladder program affords opportunities to retain valuable employees, attract new high-quality employees and maintain a workforce of well-trained highly motivated employees, which in turn will provide high quality products and services to our customers. A Career Ladder program is a "win-win" situation for everyone. For the last twelve months, I have been working with other

  11. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  12. Integrating Defense, Diplomacy, and Development (3 D) in the Naval Special Warfare Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    usually filling the executive positions, is equivalent to different roles of the players of a sports team and their coaches. The operators are the...them on what SOF resources can be provided to a country team’s counterterrorism campaign plan. 1. The Operator With Al Qaeda developing franchise

  13. Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Center for Army Leadership Technical Report 2006-2 Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development Christina Curnow...2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W91QF4-05-F-0026 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development 5c...ABSTRACT This report describes the development and implementation of an application of advanced learning theories to leadership development. A

  14. Advanced Messaging Concept Development Basic Safety Message

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains all Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) collected during the Advanced Messaging Concept Development (AMCD) field testing program. For this project, all of the Part...

  15. Development of the advanced CANDU technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Min, Byung Joo; Na, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Choi, J. H.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, S. N.; Jo, C. H.; Paik, J. S.; On, M. R.; Park, H. S.; Kim, S. R.

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the advanced design technology to improve safety, operability and economy and to develop and advanced safety evaluation system. More realistic and reasonable methodology and modeling was employed to improve safety margin in containment analysis. Various efforts have been made to verify the CATHENA code which is the major safety analysis code for CANDU PHWR system. Fully computerized prototype ECCS was developed. The feasibility study and conceptual design of the distributed digital control system have been performed as well. The core characteristics of advanced fuel cycle, fuel management and power upgrade have been studied to determine the advanced core. (author). 77 refs., 51 tabs., 108 figs

  16. Development of the advanced CANDU technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Y H; Lee, S Y; Choi, J H; Lee, B C; Kim, S N; Jo, C H; Paik, J S; On, M R; Park, H S; Kim, S R [Korea Electric Power Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the advanced design technology to improve safety, operability and economy and to develop and advanced safety evaluation system. More realistic and reasonable methodology and modeling was employed to improve safety margin in containment analysis. Various efforts have been made to verify the CATHENA code which is the major safety analysis code for CANDU PHWR system. Fully computerized prototype ECCS was developed. The feasibility study and conceptual design of the distributed digital control system have been performed as well. The core characteristics of advanced fuel cycle, fuel management and power upgrade have been studied to determine the advanced core. (author). 77 refs., 51 tabs., 108 figs.

  17. Advanced research reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Pak, H. D.; Kim, K. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The fabrication technology of the U{sub 3}Si fuel dispersed in aluminum for the localization of HANARO driver fuel has been launches. The increase of production yield of LEU metal, the establishment of measurement method of homogeneity, and electron beam welding process were performed. Irradiation test under normal operation condition, had been carried out and any clues of the fuel assembly breakdown was not detected. The 2nd test fuel assembly has been irradiated at HANARO reactor since 17th June 1999. The quality assurance system has been re-established and the eddy current test technique has been developed. The irradiation test for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed fuels at HANARO reactor has been carried out in order to compare the in-pile performance of between the two types of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuels, prepared by both the atomization and comminution processes. KAERI has also conducted all safety-related works such as the design and the fabrication of irradiation rig, the analysis of irradiation behavior, thermal hydraulic characteristics, stress analysis for irradiation rig, and thermal analysis fuel plate, for the mini-plate prepared by international research cooperation being irradiated safely at HANARO. Pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test were performed. The characterization on powders of U-(5.4 {approx} 10 wt%) Mo alloy depending on Mo content prepared by rotating disk centrifugal atomization process was carried out in order to investigate the phase stability of the atomized U-Mo alloy system. The {gamma}-U phase stability and the thermal compatibility of atomized U-16at.%Mo and U-14at.%Mo-2at.%X(: Ru, Os) dispersion fuel meats at an elevated temperature have been investigated. The volume increases of U-Mo compatibility specimens were almost the same as or smaller than those of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. However the atomized alloy fuel exhibited a better irradiation performance than the comminuted alloy. The RERTR-3 irradiation test of nano

  18. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the current strategic environment the United States is operating...

  19. Solid phase microextraction headspace sampling of chemical warfare agent contaminated samples : method development for GC-MS analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson Lepage, C.R.; Hancock, J.R. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Medicine Hat, AB (Canada); Wyatt, H.D.M. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Defence R and D Canada-Suffield (DRDC-Suffield) is responsible for analyzing samples that are suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, either collected by the Canadian Forces or by first-responders in the event of a terrorist attack in Canada. The analytical techniques used to identify the composition of the samples include gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. GC-MS and LC-MS generally require solvent extraction and reconcentration, thereby increasing sample handling. The authors examined analytical techniques which reduce or eliminate sample manipulation. In particular, this paper presented a screening method based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) headspace sampling and GC-MS analysis for chemical warfare agents such as mustard, sarin, soman, and cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate in contaminated soil samples. SPME is a method which uses small adsorbent polymer coated silica fibers that trap vaporous or liquid analytes for GC or LC analysis. Collection efficiency can be increased by adjusting sampling time and temperature. This method was tested on two real-world samples, one from excavated chemical munitions and the second from a caustic decontamination mixture. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Survey on Urban Warfare Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban warfare has become one of the main forms of modern combat in the twenty-first century. The main reason why urban warfare results in hundreds of casualties is that the situational information of the combatant is insufficient. Accessing information via an Augmented Reality system can elevate combatants’ situational awareness to effectively improve the efficiency of decision-making and reduce the injuries. This paper begins with the concept of Urban Warfare Augmented Reality (UWAR and illuminates the objectives of developing UWAR, i.e., transparent battlefield, intuitional perception and natural interaction. Real-time outdoor registration, information presentation and natural interaction are presented as key technologies of a practical UWAR system. Then, the history and current research state of these technologies are summarized and their future developments are highlighted from three perspectives, i.e., (1 Better integration with Geographic Information System and Virtual Geographic Environment; (2 More intelligent software; (3 More powerful hardware.

  1. Prospects for the development of advanced reactors. [Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, B. A.; Kupitz, J.; Cleveland, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Energy and Safety

    1992-01-01

    Energy supply is an important prerequisite for further socio-economic development, especially in developing countries where the per capita energy use is only a very small fraction of that in industrialized countries. Nuclear energy is an essentially unlimited energy resource with the potential to provide this energy in the form of electricity, district heat and process heat under environmentally acceptable conditions. However, this potential will be realized only if nuclear power plants can meet the challenges of increasingly demanding safety requirements, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. Worldwide a tremendous amount of experience has been accumulated during development, licensing, construction and operation of nuclear power reactors. The experience forms a sound basis for further improvements. Nuclear programmes in many countries are addressing the development of advanced reactors which are intended to have better economics, higher reliability and improved safety in order to overcome the current concerns of nuclear power. Advanced reactors now being developed could help to meet the demand for new plants in developed and developing countries, not only for electricity generation, but also for district heating, desalination and for process heat. The IAEA, as the only global international governmental organization dealing with nuclear power, promotes international information exchange and international co-operation between all countries with their own advanced nuclear power programmes and offers assistance to countries with an interest in exploratory or research programmes.

  2. Development of advanced ceramics at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, B.J.F.; MacEwen, S.R.; Sawicka, B.D.; Hayward, P.J.; Sridhar, S.

    1986-12-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has a long history of developing ceramics for nuclear fission and fusion applications. AECL is now applying its multidisciplinary materials R and D capabilities, including unique capabilities in ceramic processing and nondestructive evaluation, to develop advanced ceramic materials for commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an overview of the facilities and programs associated with the development of advanced ceramics at AECL

  3. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  4. Advanced dendritic web growth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A program to develop the technology of the silicon dendritic web ribbon growth process is examined. The effort is being concentrated on the area rate and quality requirements necessary to meet the JPL/DOE goals for terrestrial PV applications. Closed loop web growth system development and stress reduction for high area rate growth is considered.

  5. Special Forces and the Art of Influence: A Grassroots Approach to Psychological Operations in an Unconventional Warfare Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, II, Joel W

    2006-01-01

    This thesis researches the intricacies of the art of influence in an unconventional warfare environment to develop a model of influence that can be utilized by Special Forces conducting unconventional warfare...

  6. Advanced photovoltaic-trough development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.; Yasuda, K.; Merson, B.

    1982-04-01

    The scope of the work on photvoltaic troughs includes analytical studies, hardware development, and component testing. Various aspects of the system have been optimized and improvements have been realized, particularly in the receiver and reflecting surface designs. An empirical system performance model has been developed that closely agrees with measured system performance. This in-depth study of single-axis reflecting linear focus photovoltaic concentrators will be very beneficial in the development of improved models for similar systems as well as other phtovoltaic concentrator designs.

  7. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo......The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition...... of developing best practices in the education and implementation of IHL in capacity building of security forces....

  8. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  9. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  10. Advanced accelerator research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Research and development on the Positron-Electron Project (PEP), the electron rings, the superconducting accelerator (ESCAR), and the superconductivity program are reported. Efforts relating to the proposed PEP include work on: (1) the injection system; (2) the rf system; (3) the main-ring bend magnets; (4) the magnet power supplies and controls; (5) alignment; (6) radiation and shielding; (7) the vacuum system; and (8) conventional facilities (utilities, etc.). Experimental and theoretical work continued on the development of suitably intense electron rings as vehicles for the collective acceleration of ions. The most difficult problem was found to be the longitudinal (negative mass) instability. Design work was begun for ESCAR (Experimental Superconducting Accelerating Ring), a small proton synchrotron and storage ring using superconducting magnets, which should aid in the design of future large superconducting facilities. Magnet development was largely directed toward the detailed design of the dipole units. A superconducting beam transport line was installed at the Bevatron. (PMA)

  11. Cognitive Development: An Advanced Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Lamb, Michael E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This new text consists of parts of Bornstein and Lamb's Developmental Science, 6th edition along with new introductory material that as a whole provides a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of cognitive development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

  12. Fourth Generation Warfare: The Need for a Comprehensive Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benton, LeRoy D

    2008-01-01

    .... A definition of Fourth Generation Warfare is developed, based on Col. Thomas X. Hammes' writings. The definition is further developed to show relevance and applicability to current operations in the Long War on Terrorism...

  13. Advanced Research Reactor Fuel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. K.; Park, H. D.; Kim, K. H. (and others)

    2006-04-15

    RERTR program for non-proliferation has propelled to develop high-density U-Mo dispersion fuels, reprocessable and available as nuclear fuel for high performance research reactors in the world. As the centrifugal atomization technology, invented in KAERI, is optimum to fabricate high-density U-Mo fuel powders, it has a great possibility to be applied in commercialization if the atomized fuel shows an acceptable in-reactor performance in irradiation test for qualification. In addition, if rod-type U-Mo dispersion fuel is developed for qualification, it is a great possibility to export the HANARO technology and the U-Mo dispersion fuel to the research reactors supplied in foreign countries in future. In this project, reprocessable rod-type U-Mo test fuel was fabricated, and irradiated in HANARO. New U-Mo fuel to suppress the interaction between U-Mo and Al matrix was designed and evaluated for in-reactor irradiation test. The fabrication process of new U-Mo fuel developed, and the irradiation test fuel was fabricated. In-reactor irradiation data for practical use of U-Mo fuel was collected and evaluated. Application plan of atomized U-Mo powder to the commercialization of U-Mo fuel was investigated.

  14. Textile/metal-organic-framework composites as self-detoxifying filters for chemical-warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Maya, Elena; Montoro, Carmen; Rodríguez-Albelo, L Marleny; Aznar Cervantes, Salvador D; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Cenís, José Luis; Barea, Elisa; Navarro, Jorge A R

    2015-06-01

    The current technology of air-filtration materials for protection against highly toxic chemicals, that is, chemical-warfare agents, is mainly based on the broad and effective adsorptive properties of hydrophobic activated carbons. However, adsorption does not prevent these materials from behaving as secondary emitters once they are contaminated. Thus, the development of efficient self-cleaning filters is of high interest. Herein, we report how we can take advantage of the improved phosphotriesterase catalytic activity of lithium alkoxide doped zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to develop advanced self-detoxifying adsorbents of chemical-warfare agents containing hydrolysable P-F, P-O, and C-Cl bonds. Moreover, we also show that it is possible to integrate these materials onto textiles, thereby combining air-permeation properties of the textiles with the self-detoxifying properties of the MOF material. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Book Review: Diana Preston, A Higher Form of Killing: Six Weeks in World War I That Forever Changed the Nature of Warfare, New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Wise

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A Higher Form of Killing: Six Weeks in World War I That Forever Changed the Nature of Warfare is an awe-inspiring account of the role technology played in one of the largest conflicts of the twentieth century thus reflecting on both political and social history of World War I. Diana Preston demonstrates the ethical impact of warfare while providing a concise analysis of the three most influential technological advances that revolutionized World War I: the development of chlorine gas, the Unterseeboots or U-boats, and the Zeppelin.

  16. The Physics of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  17. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    combatant commanders develop special warfare cam- paign options for their theaters that can be integral parts of the national approach. Getting buy -in at...the resistance spawning franchise operations at home or abroad? – Is the resistance attracting funding or other forms of assistance (indigenous

  18. Development of advanced PWR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Itaru; Nakamura, Tomomichi

    1999-01-01

    In response to the increased power of the advanced PWR, it is necessary to develop a steam generator (SG) which has a large capacity with high performance and high reliability as well as being economical to produce. In this paper, the development of the design of a new SG for the advanced PWRs is described and compared with the design of a conventional SG. Moreover, an outline of a seismic verification test for the U-bend tube bundle which includes advanced anti-vibration bars (AVB) which are very important is described. As a result, it was verified that the bundle has sufficient strength and a relatively high attenuation to seismic loads. These results will be reflected in the detailed design of advanced AVBs. (author)

  19. Ethiopian Journal of Development Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Ethiopian Journal of Development Research: Advanced Search ... containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; ... Ethiopian Journal of Business and Economics (The), Ethiopian Journal of Development Research ...

  20. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shishkina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Actual problems and contradictions of electronic educational systems development are described: availability of education, quality of educational services; individualization of education; exposures and advantages in using of computer technology; standardization of technologies and resources. Tendencies of their solution in the view of development of new advanced technologies of e-education are specified. The essence and advantages of using the cloud computing technologies as a new platform of distributed learning are specified. Advanced directions of cloud-based data usage in executive system of education are declared: access management, content management, asset management, communications management.

  1. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    .... Some legal constraints will certainly apply to information warfare, either because the constraints explicitly regulate particular actions, or because more general principles of international law...

  2. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  3. Implications of Network Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Alvin

    2004-01-01

    .... These areas of dependence also provide numerous vulnerabilities. This paper will focus specifically on Network Centric Warfare's vulnerabilities in terms of sensors cyberterrorism/ Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP...

  4. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  5. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses

  6. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, William [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hughes, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Berry, Jonathan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Russell, Tamara [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lau, Y. C. [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Liu, Shan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Arnett, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Peck, Arthur [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Tralshawala, Nilesh [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Weber, Joseph [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Benjamin, Marc [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Iduate, Michelle [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Kittleson, Jacob [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Garcia-Crespo, Andres [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Delvaux, John [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Casanova, Fernando [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lacy, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Brzek, Brian [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Wolfe, Chris [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Palafox, Pepe [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Ding, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Badding, Bruce [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  7. Antifragile Electronic Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This letter introduces the concept of antifragile electronic warfare (EW), which we define as the ability to allow a communications link to improve performance due to the presence of a jammer. This concept should not be confused with jamming countermeasures (a.k.a. anti-jamming or electronic protection). Rather, antifragile EW can be thought of as the next step beyond simply avoiding or mitigating jamming. After introducing the concept we narrow down the subset of jammers this concept can be ...

  8. Advancing Work Practices Through Online Professional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    The natural expectation for professional development courses is that they will improve a participant’s work performance, but do they? This PhD research challenges several assumptions underlying the design of online professional development courses, revealing that it is after such interventions...... was not effective and subsequently terminate change that could have advanced their practices. This underlines the need to think beyond the course format to make online professional development interventions continuous, committing, and contextual. The research suggests rethinking online professional development...... as adaptive “just-in-time” technologies and proposes a design theory called “situated online professional development,” entailing six design principles for advancing work practices....

  9. Journal of Development and Communication Studies: Advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Journal of Development and Communication Studies: Advanced Search ... of characters; e.g., soci* morality would match documents containing "sociological" or "societal" .... Journal of Business and Administrative Studies, Journal of Business Research, Journal of Child ...

  10. Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Honjas, Bill [Optim

    2016-08-01

    J. N. Louie, Pullammanappallil, S., and Honjas, W., 2011, Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development: Proceedings of the New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2011, Nov. 21-23, Auckland, paper 32, 7 pp. Preprint available at http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/geothermal/Louie-NZGW11.pdf

  11. Development of advanced MCR task analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, E. S.; Cho, S. B.; Kang, J. S.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes task analysis methodology for advanced HSI designs. Task analyses was performed by using procedure-based hierarchical task analysis and task decomposition methods. The results from the task analysis were recorded in a database. Using the TA results, we developed static prototype of advanced HSI and human factors engineering verification and validation methods for an evaluation of the prototype. In addition to the procedure-based task analysis methods, workload estimation based on the analysis of task performance time and analyses for the design of information structure and interaction structures will be necessary

  12. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. I n order to achieve these objectives, NAC, a leading U.S. advanced ceramics component manufacturer, assembled a multidisciplinary, vertically integrated team. This team included: a major diesel engine builder, Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC); a corporate ceramics research division, SGIC's Northboro R and D Center; intelligent processing system developers, BDM Federal/MATSYS; a furnace equipment company, Centorr/Vacuum Industries; a sintering expert, Wittmer Consultants; a production OEM, Deco-Grand; a wheel manufacturer and grinding operation developer, Norton Company's Higgins Grinding Technology Center (HGTC); a ceramic machine shop, Chand Kare Technical Ceramics; and a manufacturing cost consultant, IBIS Associates. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration

  13. Advanced Cell Development and Degradation Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Herring, J.S.; O'Brien, R.C.; Condie, K.G.; Sohal, M.; Housley, G.K.; Hartvigsen, J.J.; Larsen, D.; Tao, G.; Yildiz, B.; Sharma, V.; Singh, P.; Petigny, N.; Cable, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cells for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900 C. From 2003-2009, this work was sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). Starting in 2010, the HTE research program has been sponsored by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. HTSE research priorities in FY10 are centered on understanding and reducing cell and stack performance degradation to an acceptable level to advance the technology readiness level of HTSE and to justify further large-scale demonstration activities. This report provides a summary of our FY10 experimental program, which has been focused on advanced cell and stack development and degradation studies. Advanced cell and stack development activities are under way at five technology partners: MSRI, Versa Power, Ceramatec, NASA Glenn, and St. Gobain. Performance evaluation of the advanced technology cells and stacks has been performed by the technology partners, by MIT and the University of Connecticut and at the INL HTE Laboratory. Summaries of these development activities and test results are presented.

  14. Advanced Cell Development and Degradation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; R. C. O' Brien; K. G. Condie; M. Sohal; G. K. Housley; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen; G. Tao; B. Yildiz; V. Sharma; P. Singh; N. Petigny; T. L. Cable

    2010-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cells for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. From 2003 – 2009, this work was sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). Starting in 2010, the HTE research program has been sponsored by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. HTSE research priorities in FY10 are centered on understanding and reducing cell and stack performance degradation to an acceptable level to advance the technology readiness level of HTSE and to justify further large-scale demonstration activities. This report provides a summary of our FY10 experimental program, which has been focused on advanced cell and stack development and degradation studies. Advanced cell and stack development activities are under way at five technology partners: MSRI, Versa Power, Ceramatec, NASA Glenn, and St. Gobain. Performance evaluation of the advanced technology cells and stacks has been performed by the technology partners, by MIT and the University of Connecticut and at the INL HTE Laboratory. Summaries of these development activities and test results are presented.

  15. Development of CANDU advanced fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, H. C.; Hwang, W.; Rhee, B. W.; Jung, S. H.; Chung, C. H.

    1992-05-01

    This research project is underway in cooperation with AECL to develop the CANDU advanced fuel bundle (so-called, CANFLEX) which can enhance reactor safety and fuel economy in comparison with the current CANDU fuel and which can be used with natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium and other advanced fuel cycle. As the final schedule, the advanced fuel will be verified by carrying out a large scale demonstration of the bundle irradiation in a commercial CANDU reactor for 1996 and 1997, and consequently will be used in the existing and future CANDU reactors in Korea. The research activities during this year include the detail design of CANFLEX fuel with natural enriched uranium (CANFLEX-NU). Based on this design, CANFLEX fuel was mocked up. Out-of-pile hydraulic scoping tests were conducted with the fuel in the CANDU Cold Test Loop to investigate the condition under which maximum pressure drop occurs and the maximum value of the bundle pressure drop. (Author)

  16. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment. Copyright

  17. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  18. Development of advanced neutron beam technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, B S; Lee, J S; Sim, C M [and others

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this work is to timely support the national science and technology policy through development of the advanced application techniques for neutron spectrometers, built in the previous project, in order to improve the neutron spectrometer techniques up to the world-class level in both quantity and quality and to reinforce industrial competitiveness. The importance of the research and development (R and D) is as follows: 1. Technological aspects - Development of a high value-added technology through performing the advanced R and D in the broad research areas from basic to applied science and from hard to soft condensed matter using neutron scattering technique. - Achievement of an important role in development of the new technology for the following industries aerospace, defense industry, atomic energy, hydrogen fuel cell etc. by the non-destructive inspection and analysis using neutron radiography. - Development of a system supporting the academic-industry users for the HANARO facility 2. Economical and Industrial Aspects - Essential technology in the industrial application of neutron spectrometer, in the basic and applied research of the diverse materials sciences, and in NT, BT, and IT areas - Broad impact on the economics and the domestic and international collaborative research by using the neutron instruments in the mega-scale research facility, HANARO, that is a unique source of neutron in Korea. 3. Social Aspects - Creating the scientific knowledge and contributing to the advanced industrial society through the neutron beam application - Improving quality of life and building a national consensus on the application of nuclear power by developing the RT fusion technology using the HANARO facility. - Widening the national research area and strengthening the national R and D capability by performing advanced R and D using the HANARO facility.

  19. Development of advanced neutron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, B. S.; Lee, J. S.; Sim, C. M.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to timely support the national science and technology policy through development of the advanced application techniques for neutron spectrometers, built in the previous project, in order to improve the neutron spectrometer techniques up to the world-class level in both quantity and quality and to reinforce industrial competitiveness. The importance of the research and development (R and D) is as follows: 1. Technological aspects - Development of a high value-added technology through performing the advanced R and D in the broad research areas from basic to applied science and from hard to soft condensed matter using neutron scattering technique. - Achievement of an important role in development of the new technology for the following industries aerospace, defense industry, atomic energy, hydrogen fuel cell etc. by the non-destructive inspection and analysis using neutron radiography. - Development of a system supporting the academic-industry users for the HANARO facility 2. Economical and Industrial Aspects - Essential technology in the industrial application of neutron spectrometer, in the basic and applied research of the diverse materials sciences, and in NT, BT, and IT areas - Broad impact on the economics and the domestic and international collaborative research by using the neutron instruments in the mega-scale research facility, HANARO, that is a unique source of neutron in Korea. 3. Social Aspects - Creating the scientific knowledge and contributing to the advanced industrial society through the neutron beam application - Improving quality of life and building a national consensus on the application of nuclear power by developing the RT fusion technology using the HANARO facility. - Widening the national research area and strengthening the national R and D capability by performing advanced R and D using the HANARO facility

  20. Equipment system for advanced nuclear fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuk Il; Ji, C. G.; Bae, S. O.

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of the settlement of equipment system for nuclear Fuel Technology Development Facility(FTDF) is to build a seismic designed facility that can accommodate handling of nuclear materials including <20% enriched Uranium and produce HANARO fuel commercially, and also to establish the advanced common research equipment essential for the research on advanced fuel development. For this purpose, this research works were performed for the settlement of radiation protection system and facility special equipment for the FTDF, and the advanced common research equipment for the fuel fabrication and research. As a result, 11 kinds of radiation protection systems such as criticality detection and alarm system, 5 kinds of facility special equipment such as environmental pollution protection system and 5 kinds of common research equipment such as electron-beam welding machine were established. By the settlement of exclusive domestic facility for the research of advanced fuel, the fabrication and supply of HANARO fuel is possible and also can export KAERI-invented centrifugal dispersion fuel materials and its technology to the nations having research reactors in operation. For the future, the utilization of the facility will be expanded to universities, industries and other research institutes

  1. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-04-05

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration. A high-power diesel engine valve for the DDC Series 149 engine was chosen as the demonstration part for this program. This was determined to be an ideal component type to demonstrate cost-effective process enhancements, the beneficial impact of advanced ceramics on transportation systems, and near-term commercialization potential. The baseline valve material was NAC's NT451 SiAION. It was replaced, later in the program, by an alternate silicon nitride composition (NT551), which utilized a lower cost raw material and a simplified powder-processing approach. The material specifications were defined based on DDC's engine requirements, and the initial and final component design tasks were completed.

  2. Development of fabrication technology for CANDU advanced fuel -Development of the advanced CANDU technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Beom; Kim, Hyeong Soo; Kim, Sang Won; Seok, Ho Cheon; Shim, Ki Seop; Byeon, Taek Sang; Jang, Ho Il; Kim, Sang Sik; Choi, Il Kwon; Cho, Dae Sik; Sheo, Seung Won; Lee, Soo Cheol; Kim, Yoon Hoi; Park, Choon Ho; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kang, Myeong Soo; Park, Kwang Seok; Oh, Hee Kwan; Jang, Hong Seop; Kim, Yang Kon; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Do Yeon; Beon, Yeong Cheol; Lee, Sang Uh; Sho, Dal Yeong; Han, Eun Deok; Kim, Bong Soon; Park, Cheol Joo; Lee, Kyu Am; Yeon, Jin Yeong; Choi, Seok Mo; Shon, Jae Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    The present study is to develop the advanced CANDU fuel fabrication technologies by means of applying the R and D results and experiences gained from localization of mass production technologies of CANDU fuels. The annual portion of this year study includes following: 1. manufacturing of demo-fuel bundles for out-of-pile testing 2. development of technologies for the fabrication and inspection of advanced fuels 3. design and munufacturing of fuel fabrication facilities 4. performance of fundamental studies related to the development of advanced fuel fabrication technology.

  3. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for the treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 2: evaluation of in vitro topical decontamination efficacy using undamaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Christopher H; Hall, Charlotte A; Lydon, Helen L; Chipman, J K; Graham, John S; Jenner, John; Chilcott, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    The risk of penetrating, traumatic injury occurring in a chemically contaminated environment cannot be discounted. Should a traumatic injury be contaminated with a chemical warfare (CW) agent, it is likely that standard haemostatic treatment options would be complicated by the need to decontaminate the wound milieu. Thus, there is a need to develop haemostatic products that can simultaneously arrest haemorrhage and decontaminate CW agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a number of candidate haemostats for efficacy as skin decontaminants against three CW agents (soman, VX and sulphur mustard) using an in vitro diffusion cell containing undamaged pig skin. One haemostatic product (WoundStat™) was shown to be as effective as the standard military decontaminants Fuller's earth and M291 for the decontamination of all three CW agents. The most effective haemostatic agents were powder-based and use fluid absorption as a mechanism of action to sequester CW agent (akin to the decontaminant Fuller's earth). The envisaged use of haemostatic decontaminants would be to decontaminate from within wounds and from damaged skin. Therefore, WoundStat™ should be subject to further evaluation using an in vitro model of damaged skin. Copyright © 2014 Crown copyright. Journal of Applied Toxicology © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  5. ARDENT to develop advanced dosimetric techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Earlier this week, the EU-supported Marie Curie training network ARDENT kicked off at a meeting held at CERN. The overall aim of the project is the development of advanced instrumentation for radiation dosimetry. The applications range from radiation measurements around particle accelerators, onboard commercial flights and in space, to the characterization of radioactive waste and medicine, where accurate dosimetry is of vital importance.   The ARDENT (Advanced Radiation Dosimetry European Network Training) project is both a research and a training programme, which aims at developing new dosimetric techniques while providing 15 Early-Stage Researchers (ESR) with state-of-the-art training. The project, coordinated by CERN, is funded by the European Union with a contribution of about 3.9 million euros over four years. The ARDENT initiative will focus on three main technologies: gas detectors, in particular Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) and Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPC); solid stat...

  6. Advancing CANDU technology AECL's Development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    AECL has a comprehensive product development program that is advancing all aspects of CANDU technology including fuel and fuel cycles, fuel channels, heavy water and tritium technology, safety technology, components and systems, constructability, health and environment, and control and instrumentation. The technology arising from these programs is being incorporated into the CANDU design through an evolutionary process. This evolutionary process is focused on improving economics, enhancing safety and ensuring fuel cycle flexibility to secure fuel supply for the foreseeable future. This strategic thrusts are being used by CANDU designers and researchers to set priorities and goals for AECL's development activities. The goals are part of a 25-year development program that culminates in the 'CANDU X'. The 'CANDU X' is not a specific design - it is a concept that articulates our best extrapolation of what is achievable with the CANDU design over the next 25 years, and includes the advanced features arising from the R and D and engineering to be done over that time. AECL's current product, the 700 MWe class CANDU 6 and the 900 MWe class CANDU 9, both incorporate output from the development programs as the technology become available. A brief description of each development areas is given below. The paper ends with the conclusion that AECL has a clear vision of how CANDU technology and products will evolve over the next several years, and has structured a comprehensive development program to take full advantage of the inherent characteristics of heavy water reactors. (author)

  7. The Advanced Stellar Compass, Development and Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    The science objective of the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite "Ørsted" is to map the magnetic field of the Earth, with a vector precision of a fraction of a nanotesla. This necessitates an attitude reference instrument with a precision of a few arcseconds onboard the satellite. To meet...... this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...

  8. Development activities on advanced LWR in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    CAREM, an Argentinean project, consists of the development, design and construction of a small Nuclear Power Plant. CAREM is an advanced reactor conceived with new generation design solutions and standing on the large experience accumulated in the safe operation of Light Water Reactors in the world. The CAREM is an indirect cycle reactor with some distinctive features that greatly simplify the reactor and also contribute to a high level of safety: integrated primary cooling system, self-pressurized, primary cooling by natural circulation and safety system relying on passive features. In this paper a brief description of the CAREM distinctive features and associated development activities are presented. (author)

  9. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  10. Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS developments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Mesa P. (Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Bend, OR); Bower, Ward Isaac; Mills-Price, Michael A. (Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Bend, OR); Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-03-01

    The Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) initiative is a three-year, three-stage project that includes conceptual design and market analysis (Stage 1), prototype development/testing (Stage 2), and commercialization (Stage 3). Projects focus on system development of solar technologies, expansion of intelligent renewable energy applications, and connecting large-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations into the electric grid. As documented in this report, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. (AE), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully collaborated to complete the final stage of the SEGIS initiative, which has guided new technology development and development of methodologies for unification of PV and smart-grid technologies. The combined team met all deliverables throughout the three-year program and commercialized a broad set of the developed technologies.

  11. Development of advanced retrofit FGD designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dene, C.E.; Boward, W.L.; Noblett, J.G.; Keeth, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment is a dramatic departure from previous legislation in that it affords the electric utility industry the flexibility to achieve their portion of the sulfur dioxide reduction in a myriad of ways. Each utility must look at its system overall. One strategy which may prove beneficial is to remove as much SO 2 as possible at facilities where there is an existing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system or where one is planned. In response to this need EPRI is developing a family of advanced retrofit FGD designs that incorporate recent advances in FGD technology. A range of design options are being investigated to determine both the SO 2 collection capability and the relative cost impacts of each option. Some of the design options considered include the use of trays, packing, additional liquid flow rate, and additives to boost the removal efficiency. These options are being investigated for limestone, and magnesium-enhanced lime systems. The sensitivity of these designs to changes in coal sulfur content, chloride content, unit size, gas velocity, and other factors are being investigated to determine how the performance of a designs is changed and the ability to meet compliance. This paper illustrates the type of analysis used to develop the advanced designs and presents the sensitivity of a Countercurrent spray tower design using limestone and forced oxidation to changes in specific design input parameters such as boiler load, tower height, and gas velocity

  12. Laser light scattering instrument advanced technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this advanced technology development (ATD) project has been to provide sturdy, miniaturized laser light scattering (LLS) instrumentation for use in microgravity experiments. To do this, we assessed user requirements, explored the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware, and both coordinated and participated in the hardware and software advances needed for a flight hardware instrument. We have successfully breadboarded and evaluated an engineering version of a single-angle glove-box instrument which uses solid state detectors and lasers, along with fiber optics, for beam delivery and detection. Additionally, we have provided the specifications and written verification procedures necessary for procuring a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument which will be used by the flight hardware project which resulted from this work and from this project's interaction with the laser light scattering community.

  13. Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg-Sitton, S.; Griffith, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Nuclear Fuel Development Research and Development (R and D) Pathway encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. To achieve significant operating improvements while remaining within safety boundaries, significant steps beyond incremental improvements in the current generation of nuclear fuel are required. Fundamental enhancements are required in the areas of nuclear fuel composition, cladding integrity, and fuel/cladding interaction to allow improved fuel economy via power uprates and increased fuel burn-up allowance while potentially improving safety margin through the adoption of an 'accident tolerant' fuel system that would offer improved coping time under accident scenarios. In a staged development approach, the LWRS program will engage stakeholders throughout the development process to ensure commercial viability of the investigated technologies. Applying minimum performance criteria, several of the top-ranked materials and fabrication concepts will undergo a rigorous series of mechanical, thermal and chemical characterization tests to better define their properties and operating potential in a relatively low-cost, nonnuclear test series. A reduced number of options will be recommended for test rodlet fabrication and in-pile nuclear testing under steady-state, transient and accident conditions. (author)

  14. The advanced software development workstation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Pitman, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) task is researching and developing the technologies required to support Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) with the emphasis on those advanced methods, tools, and processes that will be of benefit to support all NASA programs. Immediate goals are to provide research and prototype tools that will increase productivity, in the near term, in projects such as the Software Support Environment (SSE), the Space Station Control Center (SSCC), and the Flight Analysis and Design System (FADS) which will be used to support the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. Goals also include providing technology for development, evolution, maintenance, and operations. The technologies under research and development in the ASDW project are targeted to provide productivity enhancements during the software life cycle phase of enterprise and information system modeling, requirements generation and analysis, system design and coding, and system use and maintenance. On-line user's guides will assist users in operating the developed information system with knowledge base expert assistance.

  15. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the

  16. LOFT advanced fuel rod instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billeter, T.R.; Brown, R.L.; Chan, A.I.Y.; Day, C.K.; Meyers, S.C.; Sheen, E.M.; Stringer, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced fuel rod instrumentation for the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor is being developed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This effort calls for development of sensors to measure fuel rod axial motion, fuel centerline temperature (to 2200 0 C), fuel rod plenum gas pressure (to 2500 psig), and plenum gas temperature (to 1500 0 F). A parallel test and evaluation of several modified commercial sensors was undertaken and will result in commercial availability of the final qualified sensors. Necessary test facilities were prepared for the development and evaluation effort. Tests to date indicate a three coil Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT), operated from temperature compensating signal source and processing electronics, will meet the desired requirements

  17. Development for advanced materials and testing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishinuma, Akimichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Recent studies using a JMTR and research reactors of JRR-2 and JRR-3 are briefly summarized. Small specimen testing techniques (SSTT) required for an effective use of irradiation volume and also irradiated specimens have been developed focussing on tensile test, fatigue test, Charpy test and small punch test. By using the small specimens of 0.1 - several mm in size, similar values of tensile and fatigue properties to those by standard size specimens can be taken, although the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) depends strongly on Charpy specimen size. As for advanced material development, R and D about low activation ferritic steels have been done to investigate irradiation response. The low activation ferritic steel, so-called F82H jointly-developed by JAERI and NKK for fusion, has been confirmed to have good irradiation resistance within a limited dose and now selected as a standard material in the fusion material community. It is also found that TiAi intermetallic compounds, which never been considered for nuclear application in the past, have an excellent irradiation resistance under an irradiation condition. Such knowledge can bring about a large expectation for developing advanced nuclear materials. (author)

  18. Development of an automated on-line pepsin digestion-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry configuration for the rapid analysis of protein adducts of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol-Visser, J.; van der Schans, M.; Fidder, A.; Huist, A.G.; van Baar, B.L.M.; Irth, H.; Noort, D.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid monitoring and retrospective verification are key issues in protection against and non-proliferation of chemical warfare agents (CWA). Such monitoring and verification are adequately accomplished by the analysis of persistent protein adducts of these agents. Liquid chromatography-mass

  19. Chemical warfare agents. Classes and targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Michael

    2018-09-01

    Synthetic toxic chemicals (toxicants) and biological poisons (toxins) have been developed as chemical warfare agents in the last century. At the time of their initial consideration as chemical weapon, only restricted knowledge existed about their mechanisms of action. There exist two different types of acute toxic action: nonspecific cytotoxic mechanisms with multiple chemo-biological interactions versus specific mechanisms that tend to have just a single or a few target biomolecules. TRPV1- and TRPA-receptors are often involved as chemosensors that induce neurogenic inflammation. The present work briefly surveys classes and toxicologically relevant features of chemical warfare agents and describes mechanisms of toxic action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of an advanced robot manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomichi, Takeo; Higuchi, Masaru; Shimizu, Yujiro; Ohnishi, Ken

    1991-01-01

    A sophisticated manipulator system for an advanced robot was developed under the 'Advanced Robot Technology Development' Program promoted and supported by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of MITI. The authors have participated in the development of a fingered manipulator with force and tactile sensors applicable to a masterslave robot system. Our slave manipulator is equipped with four fingers. Though the finger needs many degrees of freedom so as to be suitable for skilful handing of an object, our fingers are designed to have minimum degree of freedom in order to reduce weight. Each finger tip was designed to be similar to a human finger which has flexibility, softness and contact feeling. The shape of the master finger manipulator was so designed that the movement of the fingers is smoother and that the constraint feeling of the operator is smaller. We were adopted to a pneumatic pressure system for transmitting the tactile feeling of the slave fingers to the master fingers. A multiple sensory bilateral control system which gives an operator a feeling of force and tactile reduces his feeling of constraint in carrying out work with a robot system. (author)

  1. Advanced systems: Status and development prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I.G.

    1983-01-01

    World reserves of coal, uranium, thorium and thermonuclear fuel (deuterium and lithium) are sufficient to provide mankind with energy for many centuries. The rate of increase in demand is unlikely to be a limiting factor, and it would seem that any ''limits to growth'' will be dictated by other, in particular ecological, factors. In the last two decades, world power production has developed a structure in which a predominant place is occupied by oil and gas; this will have to change as a result of the marked depletion of oil resources and the enhanced role played in the fuel balance by power from coal and nuclear fission, on which, it would seem, the long-term growth of world energy production will be based. The contribution of nuclear fission power towards meeting world energy needs will depend on a number of factors, the most important of which from a long-term point of view is the time and rate of introduction of advanced nuclear power systems and fuel cycles with high nuclear fuel surpluses (breeding ratios). The results of almost 30 years of development of nuclear power with thermal-neutron reactors may serve as a basis for the analysis, evaluation and forecasting of the development of advanced systems. (author)

  2. Advances and challenges in malaria vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Peter D; Pierce, Susan K; Miller, Louis H

    2010-12-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum remains a major public health threat, especially among children and pregnant women in Africa. An effective malaria vaccine would be a valuable tool to reduce the disease burden and could contribute to elimination of malaria in some regions of the world. Current malaria vaccine candidates are directed against human and mosquito stages of the parasite life cycle, but thus far, relatively few proteins have been studied for potential vaccine development. The most advanced vaccine candidate, RTS,S, conferred partial protection against malaria in phase II clinical trials and is currently being evaluated in a phase III trial in Africa. New vaccine targets need to be identified to improve the chances of developing a highly effective malaria vaccine. A better understanding of the mechanisms of naturally acquired immunity to malaria may lead to insights for vaccine development.

  3. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2 presents a general overview of cyber terrorism, including definitions of cyber terrorism and cyber terrorism support...

  4. Attrition in Network Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erbetta, John

    2003-01-01

    .... Information warfare means that positive attacks on systems themselves compound the problem. Emerging technologies applicable to NCW as a force multiplier need to be recognized as counter to the impediments to progress...

  5. The ethics of information warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare.The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications. The second part collects contributions focusing on Just War Theory and its application to the case of Information Warfare. The third part adopts alternative approaches to Just War Theory for analysing the ethical implications of this phenomenon. Finally, an afterword by Neelie Kroes - Vice President of the European Commission and European Digital Agenda Commissioner - concludes the volume. Her contribution describes the interests and commitments of the European Digital Agenda with respect to research for the developme...

  6. Development of advanced nuclear reactors in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotoudeh, M.; Silakhori, K.; Sepanloo, K.; Jahanfarnia, G.; Moattar, F.

    2008-01-01

    Several advanced reactor designs have been so far developed in Russia. The AES-91 and AES-92 plants with the VVER-1000 reactors have been developed at the beginning of 1990. However, the former design has been built in China and the latest which is certified meeting European Utility Requirements is being built in India. Moreover, the model VVER-1500 reactor with 50-60 MWd/t burn-up and an enhanced safety was being developed by Gidropress about 2005, excepting to be completed in 2007. But, this schedule has slipped in favor of development of the AES-2006 power plant incorporating a third-generation standardized VVER-1200 reactor of 1170 MWe. This is an evolutionary development of the well-proven VVER-1000 reactor in the AES-92 plant, with longer life, greater power and efficiency and its lead units are being built at Novovoronezh II, to start operation in 2012-13. Based on Atomenergoproekt declaration, the AES-2006 conforms to both Russian standards and European Utility Requirements. The most important features of the AES-2006 design are mentioned as: a design based on the passive safety systems, double containment, longer plant service life of 50 years with a capacity factor of 92%, longer irreplaceable components service life of 60 years, a 28.6% lower amount of concrete and metal, shorter construction time of 54 months, a Core Damage Frequency of 1x10 -7 / year and lower liquid and solid wastes by 70% and 80% respectively. The presented paper includes a comparative analysis of technological and safety features, economic parameters and environmental impact of the AES-2006 design versus the other western advanced reactors. Since the Bushehr phase II NPP and several other NPPs are planning in Iran, such analysis would be of a great importance

  7. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Kate L; Krabshuis, Justus; Ladep, Nimzing Gwamzhi; Mulder, Chris JJ; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Khan, Shahid A

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of “cascades” are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries. PMID:19533805

  8. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  9. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Shin, Y. J.; Do, J. B.; You, G. S.; Seo, J. S.; Lee, H. G.

    1998-03-01

    This study is to develop an advanced spent fuel management process for countries which have not yet decided a back-end nuclear fuel cycle policy. The aims of this process development based on the pyroreduction technology of PWR spent fuels with molten lithium, are to reduce the storage volume by a quarter and to reduce the storage cooling load in half by the preferential removal of highly radioactive decay-heat elements such as Cs-137 and Sr-90 only. From the experimental results which confirm the feasibility of metallization technology, it is concluded that there are no problems in aspects of reaction kinetics and equilibrium. However, the operating performance test of each equipment on an engineering scale still remain and will be conducted in 1999. (author). 21 refs., 45 tabs., 119 figs

  10. Development of Korea advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    Future nuclear power plants should not only have the features of improved safety and economic competitiveness but also provide a means to resolve spent fuel storage problems by minimizing volume of high level wastes. It is widely believed that liquid metal reactors (LMRs) have the highest potential of meeting these requirements. In this context, the LMR development program was launched as a national long-term R and D program in 1992, with a target to introduce a commercial LMR around 2030. Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor, is currently under the conceptual design study with the target schedule to complete its construction by the mid-2010s. This paper summarizes the KALIMER development program and major technical features of the reactor system. (author)

  11. Extending the GEMINI advanced review station development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadner, S.; Spahn, W.; Pepper, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recent changes in the objectives of arms control agreements will have a dramatic impact on the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Meeting the demands of the nuclear non-proliferation regime will require the utilisation of the best available technological means for verification. The following discussion focuses on the increasing demands for safeguards with a view towards the possible technological solutions available to meet these demands. Based on the assumption that the gap between the international nonproliferation verification agenda and the available financial means can only be bridged via technology, the following discussion hopes to offer a compelling argument for the adoption of remote monitoring technologies in safeguards applications, specifically, data collection and review. The GEMINI Advanced Review Station (GARS) was developed with initial support from USPOTAS. This poster presentation presents the latest developments in GARS, including its extension to other surveillance systems under IAEA consideration, NDA applications, and networked safeguards. (author)

  12. Advances in Robotic Servicing Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefke, Gardell G.; Janas, Alex; Pellegrino, Joseph; Sammons, Matthew; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) has matured robotic and automation technologies applicable to in-space robotic servicing and robotic exploration over the last six years. This paper presents the progress of technology development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center Servicing Technology Center and on the ISS, with an emphasis on those occurring in the past year. Highlighted advancements are design reference mission analysis for servicing in low Earth orbit (LEO) and asteroid redirection; delivery of the engineering development unit of the NASA Servicing Arm; an update on International Space Station Robotic Refueling Mission; and status of a comprehensive ground-based space robot technology demonstration expanding in-space robotic servicing capabilities beginning fall 2015.

  13. Automated Operations Development for Advanced Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Automated space operations command and control software development and its implementation must be an integral part of the vehicle design effort. The software design must encompass autonomous fault detection, isolation, recovery capabilities and also provide "single button" intelligent functions for the crew. Development, operations and safety approval experience with the Timeliner system onboard the International Space Station (ISS), which provided autonomous monitoring with response and single command functionality of payload systems, can be built upon for future automated operations as the ISS Payload effort was the first and only autonomous command and control system to be in continuous execution (6 years), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within a crewed spacecraft environment. Utilizing proven capabilities from the ISS Higher Active Logic (HAL) System, along with the execution component design from within the HAL 9000 Space Operating System, this design paper will detail the initial HAL System software architecture and interfaces as applied to NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in support of the Advanced Exploration Systems, Autonomous Mission Operations project. The development and implementation of integrated simulators within this development effort will also be detailed and is the first step in verifying the HAL 9000 Integrated Test-Bed Component [2] designs effectiveness. This design paper will conclude with a summary of the current development status and future development goals as it pertains to automated command and control for the HDU.

  14. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (a subsidiary of Babcock ampersand Wilcox) is conducting the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project (AECDP) which is aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for such controls may arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proceeds with implementation of requirements set forth in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA's) of 1990. Promulgation of air toxics emissions regulations for electric utility plants could dramatically impact utilities burning coal, their industrial and residential customers, and the coal industry. AECDP project work will supply the information needed by utilities to respond to potential HAPs regulations in a timely, cost-effective, enviromnentally-sound manner which supports the continued use of the Nation's abundant reserves of coal, such as those in the State of Ohio. The development work is being carried out using the 10 MW Clean Environment Development Facility wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems, (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. This project is supported by the Department of Energy, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development and Babcock ampersand Wilcox. A comprehensive assessment of HAP emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute concluded that with the exception of

  15. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  17. Reflections on nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The author looks back on his more than 70 years of familiarity with Americans involved in warfare, noting their loyal support for our country's objectives. Drawing on the Einstein equation, his own visits to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and current literature, he, as a physician, belatedly concurs with those who look on the use of nuclear weapons as irrational and untenable. Their employment under present circumstances would create a ''final epidemic'' to be avoided only by prevention. He suggests that medical perceptions must be considered by our national leaders in assessing the many factors that he hopes will lead to rational answers to this urgent, highly complex, and vital enigma. He cites physicians' efforts to help in finding answers and asks that his colleagues consider the issues with attention to the gravity of the situation and act according to their best judgment

  18. Development of nuclear fuel. Development of CANDU advanced fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Hwang, Woan; Jeong, Young Hwan; Jung, Sung Hoon

    1991-07-01

    In order to develop CANDU advanced fuel, the agreement of the joint research between KAERI and AECL was made on February 19, 1991. AECL conceptual design of CANFLEX bundle for Bruce reactors was analyzed and then the reference design and design drawing of the advanced fuel bundle with natural uranium fuel for CANDU-6 reactor were completed. The CANFLEX fuel cladding was preliminarily investigated. The fabricability of the advanced fuel bundle was investigated. The design and purchase of the machinery tools for the bundle fabrication for hydraulic scoping tests were performed. As a result of CANFLEX tube examination, the tubes were found to be meet the criteria proposed in the technical specification. The dummy bundles for hydraulic scoping tests have been fabricated by using the process and tools, where the process parameters and tools have been newly established. (Author)

  19. Study on the identification method of chemical warfare agents with spectroscopy of neutron induced γ rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Li Yun; Li Xiangbao

    1996-01-01

    The paper briefly describes some non-destructive verification technologies of chemical warfare agents in-site, and some application of neutron induced gamma ray analysis, such as multi-elements analysis of coal, hidden explosive detection and identification of chemical agents. It also describes some problems in developing the portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy for non-destructive evaluation of chemical warfare agents

  20. Development of demonstration advanced thermal reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Seiji; Oguchi, Isao; Touhei, Kazushige

    1982-08-01

    The design of the advanced thermal demonstration reactor with 600 MWe output was started in 1975. In order to make the compact core, 648 fuel assemblies, each comprising 36 fuel rods, were used, and the mean channel output was increased by 20% as compared with the prototype reactor. The heavy water dumping mechanism for the calandria was abolished. Advanced thermal reactors are suitable to burn plutonium, since the control rod worth does not change, the void reactivity coefficient of coolant shifts to the negative side, and the harmful influence of high order plutonium is small. The void reactivity coefficient is nearly zero, the fluctuation of output in relation to pressure disturbance is small, and the local output change of fuel by the operation of control rods is small, therefore, the operation following load change is relatively easy. The coolant recirculation system is of independent loop construction dividing the core into two, and steam and water are separated in respective steam drums. At present, the rationalizing design is in progress by the leadership of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. The outline of the demonstration reactor, the reactor construction, the nuclear-thermal-hydraulic characteristics and the output control characteristics are reported.

  1. Development of demonstration advanced thermal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Seiji; Oguchi, Isao; Touhei, Kazushige.

    1982-01-01

    The design of the advanced thermal demonstration reactor with 600 MWe output was started in 1975. In order to make the compact core, 648 fuel assemblies, each comprising 36 fuel rods, were used, and the mean channel output was increased by 20% as compared with the prototype reactor. The heavy water dumping mechanism for the calandria was abolished. Advanced thermal reactors are suitable to burn plutonium, since the control rod worth does not change, the void reactivity coefficient of coolant shifts to the negative side, and the harmful influence of high order plutonium is small. The void reactivity coefficient is nearly zero, the fluctuation of output in relation to pressure disturbance is small, and the local output change of fuel by the operation of control rods is small, therefore, the operation following load change is relatively easy. The coolant recirculation system is of independent loop construction dividing the core into two, and steam and water are separated in respective steam drums. At present, the rationalizing design is in progress by the leadership of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. The outline of the demonstration reactor, the reactor construction, the nuclear-thermal-hydraulic characteristics and the output control characteristics are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Won; Shin, Y. J.; Cho, S. H.

    2004-03-01

    The research on spent fuel management focuses on the maximization of the disposal efficiency by a volume reduction, the improvement of the environmental friendliness by the partitioning and transmutation of the long lived nuclides, and the recycling of the spent fuel for an efficient utilization of the uranium source. In the second phase which started in 2001, the performance test of the advanced spent fuel management process consisting of voloxidation, reduction of spent fuel and the lithium recovery process has been completed successfully on a laboratory scale. The world-premier spent fuel reduction hot test of a 5 kgHM/batch has been performed successfully by joint research with Russia and the valuable data on the actinides and FPs material balance and the characteristics of the metal product were obtained with experience to help design an engineering scale reduction system. The electrolytic reduction technology which integrates uranium oxide reduction in a molten LiCl-Li 2 O system and Li 2 O electrolysis is developed and a unique reaction system is also devised. Design data such as the treatment capacity, current density and mass transfer behavior obtained from the performance test of a 5 kgU/batch electrolytic reduction system pave the way for the third phase of the hot cell demonstration of the advanced spent fuel management technology

  3. Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapru, Krishna; Tan, Zhaosheng; Chao, Ben

    2010-09-30

    The main objective of the project is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (< 25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the same performance and durability. This final technical report summarizes the results of i) the details of the conversion of several small gasoline ICEs to run on hydrogen, ii) the durability test of a converted hydrogen engine and iii) the demonstration of a prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system. Peak power of the hydrogen engine achieves 60% of the power output of the gasoline counterpart. The efforts to boost the engine power with various options including installing the over-sized turbocharger, retrofit of custom-made pistons with high compression ratio, an advanced ignition system, and various types of fuel injection systems are not realized. A converted Honda GC160 engine with ACS system to run with hydrogen fuel is successful. Total accumulative runtime is 785 hours. A prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system having nominal capacity of 1.2 kg is designed, constructed and demonstrated. It is capable of supporting a wide range of output load of a hydrogen generator.

  4. Development of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection and Quantification of Surrogate Biological Warfare Agents in Building Debris and Leachate▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikaly, Pascal E.; Barlaz, Morton A.; de los Reyes, Francis L.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of the fate and transport of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills requires the development of specific and sensitive detection assays. The objective of the current study was to develop and validate SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays for the specific detection and quantification of surrogate BW agents in synthetic building debris (SBD) and leachate. Bacillus atrophaeus (vegetative cells and spores) and Serratia marcescens were used as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and Yersinia pestis (plague), respectively. The targets for SYBR green Q-PCR assays were the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and recA gene for B. atrophaeus and the gyrB, wzm, and recA genes for S. marcescens. All assays showed high specificity when tested against 5 ng of closely related Bacillus and Serratia nontarget DNA from 21 organisms. Several spore lysis methods that include a combination of one or more of freeze-thaw cycles, chemical lysis, hot detergent treatment, bead beat homogenization, and sonication were evaluated. All methods tested showed similar threshold cycle values. The limit of detection of the developed Q-PCR assays was determined using DNA extracted from a pure bacterial culture and DNA extracted from sterile water, leachate, and SBD samples spiked with increasing quantities of surrogates. The limit of detection for B. atrophaeus genomic DNA using the ITS and B. atrophaeus recA Q-PCR assays was 7.5 fg per PCR. The limits of detection of S. marcescens genomic DNA using the gyrB, wzm, and S. marcescens recA Q-PCR assays were 7.5 fg, 75 fg, and 7.5 fg per PCR, respectively. Quantification of B. atrophaeus vegetative cells and spores was linear (R2 > 0.98) over a 7-log-unit dynamic range down to 101 B. atrophaeus cells or spores. Quantification of S. marcescens (R2 > 0.98) was linear over a 6-log-unit dynamic range down to 102 S. marcescens cells. The developed Q-PCR assays are highly specific and sensitive and can

  5. Development of advanced LWR fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, S. Y.; Lee, M. H. [and others

    2000-04-01

    This report describes the results from evaluating the preliminary Zr-based alloys to develop the advanced Zr-based alloys for the nuclear fuel claddings, which should have good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties at high burn-up over 70,000MWD/MTU. It also includes the results from the basic studies for optimizing the processes which are involved in the development of the advanced Zr-based alloys. Ten(10) kinds of candidates for the alloys of which performance is over that of the existing Zircaloy-4 or ZIRLO alloy were selected out of the preliminary alloys of 150 kinds which were newly designed and repeatedly manufactured and evaluated to find out the promising alloys. First of all, the corrosion tests on the preliminary alloys were carried out to evaluate their performance in both pure water and LiOH solution at 360 deg C and in steam at 400 deg C. The tensile tests were performed on the alloys which proved to be good in the corrosion resistance. The creep behaviors were tested at 400 deg C for 10 days with the application of constant load on the samples which showed good performance in the corrosion resistance and tensile properties. The effect of the final heat treatment and A-parameters as well as Sn or Nb on the corrosion resistance, tensile properties, hardness, microstructures of the alloys was evaluated for some alloys interested. The other basic researches on the oxides, electrochemical properties, corrosion mechanism, and the establishment of the phase diagrams of some alloys were also carried out.

  6. Development of advanced LWR fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, S. Y.; Lee, M. H.

    2000-04-01

    This report describes the results from evaluating the preliminary Zr-based alloys to develop the advanced Zr-based alloys for the nuclear fuel claddings, which should have good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties at high burn-up over 70,000MWD/MTU. It also includes the results from the basic studies for optimizing the processes which are involved in the development of the advanced Zr-based alloys. Ten(10) kinds of candidates for the alloys of which performance is over that of the existing Zircaloy-4 or ZIRLO alloy were selected out of the preliminary alloys of 150 kinds which were newly designed and repeatedly manufactured and evaluated to find out the promising alloys. First of all, the corrosion tests on the preliminary alloys were carried out to evaluate their performance in both pure water and LiOH solution at 360 deg C and in steam at 400 deg C. The tensile tests were performed on the alloys which proved to be good in the corrosion resistance. The creep behaviors were tested at 400 deg C for 10 days with the application of constant load on the samples which showed good performance in the corrosion resistance and tensile properties. The effect of the final heat treatment and A-parameters as well as Sn or Nb on the corrosion resistance, tensile properties, hardness, microstructures of the alloys was evaluated for some alloys interested. The other basic researches on the oxides, electrochemical properties, corrosion mechanism, and the establishment of the phase diagrams of some alloys were also carried out

  7. U. S. Army Chemical Corps Historical Studies, Gas Warfare in World War I: The 32nd Division Advances to Fismes, August 1918

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-04-01

    ithdrawing tc ards the Bois de la Planchette . At once enemy artillery opened up on Cierges and the area to the south and for almost four hours...take the Bois de la Planchette , while the 64th Brigade advanced to Hill 230 to turn the strong point at Bellevue Farm. Planchette was to be directly...through the western edge of the Bois Meuniere and Patis de Chamery in the French sector. 4 3 For the attack on Planchette , the 126th Infantry replaced the

  8. Intelligence Strategy for Fourth Generation Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamison, Edward P

    2006-01-01

    ...." They have named this new era of war "fourth generation warfare." Currently the Department of Defense's intelligence strategy is designed to defeat conventional adversaries vise a fourth generation warfare opponent...

  9. Development of advanced PEM water electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Deschamps; C Etievant; C Puyenchet; V Fateev; S Grigoriev; A Kalinnikov; V Porembsky; P Millet

    2006-01-01

    Concerning the production of electrolytic hydrogen, the goal of present R and D is to develop advanced hydrogen generator based on proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers. PEM-based water electrolysis offers a number of advantages, such as ecological safety, high gas purity (more than 99.99% for hydrogen), the possibility of producing compressed gases (up to 200 bar) for direct pressurized storage without additional power inputs, etc. PEM electrolysers are considered as rather attractive devices to accelerate the transition to the hydrogen economy and develop a hydrogen infrastructure network (for example for the development of re-filling stations for cars, using electric power stations at night hours and renewable energy sources). The work presented here result from a cooperation between Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology Institute (HEPTI) of Russian Research Center (RRC) 'Kurchatov Institute', Universite Paris - Sud XI and Compagnie d'Etudes des Technologies de l'Hydrogene. This project is supported by the Commission of the European Communities within the frame of the 6. Framework Programme (GenHyPEM, STREP no 019802). (authors)

  10. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the by what method the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun, in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of ongoing efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of Silver-Exchanged Zeolites Under Development by University of Maine for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brickhouse, Mark D; Lalain, Teri A; D'Onofrio, Terrence G; Procell, Lawrence R; Zander, Zachary B

    2007-01-01

    This effort is for the evaluation of a non-toxic photo-catalytic decontamination technology based on silver-exchanged zeolites being developed by the University of Maine research team under the direction of Dr. Howard H...

  12. Advanced Ultrasupercritical (AUSC) Tube Membrane Panel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pschirer, James [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Burgess, Joshua [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Schrecengost, Robert [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2017-08-16

    Alstom Power Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Electric Company (GE), has completed the project “Advanced Ultrasupercritical (AUSC) Tube Membrane Panel Development” under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Award Number DE-FE0024076. This project was part of DOE’s Novel Crosscutting Research and Development to Support Advanced Energy Systems program. AUSC Tube Membrane Panel Development was a two and one half year project to develop and verify the manufacturability and serviceability of welded tube membrane panels made from high performance materials suitable for the AUSC steam cycles, defined as high pressure steam turbine inlet conditions of 700-760°C (1292-1400°F) and 24.5-35MPa (3500-5000psi). The difficulty of this challenge lies in the fact that the membrane-welded construction imposes demands on the materials that are unlike any that exist in other parts of the boiler. Tube membrane panels have been designed, fabricated, and installed in boilers for over 50 years with relatively favorable experience when fabricated from carbon and Cr-Mo low alloy steels. The AUSC steam cycle requires membrane tube panels fabricated from materials that have not been used in a weldment with metal temperatures in the range of 582-610°C (1080-1130°F). Fabrication materials chosen for the tubing were Grade 92 and HR6W. Grade 92 is a creep strength enhanced ferritic Cr-Mo alloy and HR6W is a high nickel alloy. Once the materials were chosen, GE performed the engineering design of the panels, prepared shop manufacturing drawings, and developed manufacturing and inspection plans. After the materials were purchased, GE manufactured and inspected the tube membrane panels, determined if post fabrication heat treatment of the tube membrane panels was needed, performed pre- and post-weld heat treatment on the Grade 92 panels, conducted final nondestructive inspection of any heat treated tube membrane panels, conducted destructive inspection of the completed tube

  13. Development in laser peening of advanced ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pratik; Smith, Graham C.; Waugh, David G.; Lawrence, Jonathan

    2015-07-01

    Laser peening is a well-known process applicable to surface treat metals and alloys in various industrial sectors. Research in the area of laser peening of ceramics is still scarce and a complete laser-ceramic interaction is still unreported. This paper focuses on laser peening of SiC ceramics employed for cutting tools, armor plating, dental and biomedical implants, with a view to elucidate the unreported work. A detailed investigation was conducted with 1064nm Nd:YAG ns pulse laser to first understand the surface effects, namely: the topography, hardness, KIc and the microstructure of SiC advanced ceramics. The results showed changes in surface roughness and microstructural modification after laser peening. An increase in surface hardness was found by almost 2 folds, as the diamond footprints and its flaws sizes were considerably reduced, thus, enhancing the resistance of SiC to better withstand mechanical impact. This inherently led to an enhancement in the KIc by about 42%. This is attributed to an induction of compressive residual stress and phase transformation. This work is a first-step towards the development of a 3-dimensional laser peening technique to surface treat many advanced ceramic components. This work has shown that upon tailoring the laser peening parameters may directly control ceramic topography, microstructure, hardness and the KIc. This is useful for increasing the performance of ceramics used for demanding applications particularly where it matters such as in military. Upon successful peening of bullet proof vests could result to higher ballistic strength and resistance against higher sonic velocity, which would not only prevent serious injuries, but could also help to save lives of soldiers on the battle fields.

  14. Nondestructive inspection of chemical warfare based on API-TOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Zheng Pu; He Tie; An Li; Yang Jie; Fan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Real-time, fast, accurate, nondestructive inspection (NDI) and quantitative analysis for chemical warfare are very imperative for chemical defense, anti-terror and nation security. Purpose: Associated Particles Technique (APT)/Neutron Time of Flight (TOF) has been developed for non-invasive inspection of sealed containers with chemical warfare agents. Methods: A prototype equipment for chemical warfare is consisted of an APT neutron generator with a 3×3 matrix of semiconductor detectors of associated alpha-particles, the shielding protection of neutron and gamma-ray, arrayed NaI(Tl)-based detectors of gamma-rays, fully-digital data acquisition electronics, data analysis, decision-making software, support platform and remote control system. Inelastic scattering gamma-ray pulse height spectra of sarin, VX, mustard gas and adamsite induced by 14-MeV neutron are measured. The energies of these gamma rays are used to identify the inelastic scattering elements, and the intensities of the peaks at these energies are used to reveal their concentrations. Results: The characteristic peaks of inelastic scattering gamma-ray pulse height spectra show that the prototype equipment can fast and accurately inspect chemical warfare. Conclusion: The equipment can be used to detect not only chemical warfare agents but also other hazardous materials, such as chemical/toxic/drug materials, if their chemical composition is in any way different from that of the surrounding materials. (authors)

  15. MELCOR development for existing and advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent efforts in MELCOR development to address previously identified deficiencies have resulted in release of MELCOR 1.8.2, a much-improved version of the code. Major new models have been implemented for direct containment heating, ice condensers, debris quenching, lower plenum debris behavior, core materials interactions' and radial relocation of debris. Significant improvements have also been made in the modeling of interfacial momentum exchange and in the modeling of fission product release, condensation/evaporation, and aerosol behavior. Efforts are underway to address two-phase hydrodynamics difficulties, to improve modeling of water condensation on structures and fine-scale natural circulation within the reactor vessel, and to implement CORCON-Mod3. Improvements are also being made to MELCOR's capability to handle new features of the advanced light water reactor designs, including drainage of water films on connected heat structures, heat transfer from the external surface of the reactor vessel to a flooded cavity, and creep rupture failure of the lower head. Additional development needs in other areas are discussed

  16. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields.

  17. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G.

    2007-06-01

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm 2 and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields

  18. Development of a gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system for on-site detection of chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Takahiro; Kakegawa, Ken; Aida, Mari; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Seto, Yasuo; Okino, Akitoshi

    2015-06-02

    A gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system was developed to realize a mobile on-site analytical device for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In this system, the plasma source was directly connected to the inlet of a mass spectrometer. The plasma can be generated with ambient air, which is drawn into the discharge region by negative pressure in the mass spectrometer. High-power density pulsed plasma of 100 kW could be generated by using a microhollow cathode and a laboratory-built high-intensity pulsed power supply (pulse width: 10-20 μs; repetition frequency: 50 Hz). CWAs were desorbed and protonated in the enclosed space adjacent to the plasma source. Protonated sample molecules were introduced to the mass spectrometer by airflow through the discharge region. To evaluate the analytical performance of this device, helium and air plasma were directly irradiated to CWAs in the gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system and the protonated molecules were analyzed by using an ion-trap mass spectrometer. A blister agent (nitrogen mustard 3) and nerve gases [cyclohexylsarin (GF), tabun (GA), and O-ethyl S-2-N,N-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX)] in solution in n-hexane were applied to the Teflon rod and used as test samples, after solvent evaporation. As a result, protonated molecules of CWAs were successfully observed as the characteristic ion peaks at m/z 204, 181, 163, and 268, respectively. In air plasma, the limits of detection were estimated to be 22, 20, 4.8, and 1.0 pmol, respectively, which were lower than those obtained with helium plasma. To achieve quantitative analysis, calibration curves were made by using CWA stimulant dipinacolyl methylphosphonate as an internal standard; straight correlation lines (R(2) = 0.9998) of the peak intensity ratios (target per internal standard) were obtained. Remarkably, GA and GF gave protonated dimer ions, and the ratios of the protonated dimer ions to the protonated

  19. Advancing LGBTQI2 rights in developing countries through research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-10

    May 10, 2018 ... Advancing LGBTQI2 rights in developing countries through research ... the role of research in advancing the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, ... cities were discussed at ADAPTO's second international workshop.

  20. Progress in development of the advanced Thomson scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatae, T; Naito, O; Howard, J; Ebizuka, N; Yoshida, H; Nakatsuka, M; Fujita, H; Kajita, S; Narihara, K; Yamada, I; Funaba, H; Hirano, Y; Koguchi, H

    2010-01-01

    We have been studied the advanced Thomson scattering diagnostics from viewpoints of new concepts, laser technology and spectrum analysis. This paper summarizes results of development on technologies for advanced Thomson scattering diagnostics.

  1. Status of developing advanced PWR in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yotaro

    1982-01-01

    During past eleven years since the first PWR power plant, Mihama Unit 1 of Kansai Electric Power Co., started the commercial operation in 1970, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries has endeavored to improve PWR technologies on the basis of the advice from electric power companies and the technical information to overcome difficulties in PWR power plants. Now, the main objective is to improve the overall plant performance, and the rate of operation of Japanese PWR power plants has significantly risen. The improvement of the reliability, the shortening of regular inspection period and the reduction of radioactive waste handling were attempted. In view of the satisfactory operational experience of Westinghouse type PWRs, the basic reactor concept has not been changed so far. Mitsubishi and Westinghouse reached basic agreement in August, 1981, to develop a spectral shift type large capacity reactor as the advanced PWRs for Japan. This type of PWRs hab higher degree of freedom for extended fuel cycle operation and enhances the advantage of entire fuel cycle economy, particularly the significant reduction of uranium use. The improved neutron economy is attainable by reducing neutron loss, and the core design with low power density and the economical use of plutonium are advantageous for the fuel cycle economy. (Kako, I.)

  2. "A Change of Paradigm" in Developing Land Forces Officers' Professional Skills in Accordance with Hybrid Warfare Task-Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Rizescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In future conflicts, not only traditional or asymmetric actions will be used, but also a combination of the two in order to solve the disputes involving national and international actors, materialized today in different manifestation forms called hybrid war. The hybrid threats tell about the evolution of the contemporary and future threats, about the necessity of a national effort concerted towards providing an immediate effective response to these threats. From a different perspective, the diversity and the complexity of the issues raised by the hybrid threats prove that it is necessary to go beyond the technical or sequential nowadays answers. It results first that it is required to develop an appropriate security strategy which will make possible the efficient action against hybrid risks and threats, in an effective, operational and unitary manner. Therefore, the present article aims at sequentially highlighting the aspects supporting the need to correlate the coordinates of the national security strategy to the planning, conduct and quality assessment of the process of training officers from the “change of paradigm” perspective, in order to acquire the professional skills conforming to the task-requirements specific to the hybrid war. Nothing more natural, more necessary and at the same time more current in this perspective than modernizing the military continuous education system in accordance with the strategic norm of competence.

  3. Recent developments in advanced aircraft aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dursun, Tolga; Soutis, Costas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To compete with composites, performance of aluminium alloys should be increased. • Al–Li alloys have higher strength, fracture and fatigue/corrosion resistance. • Improvements of aerospace Al alloys are due to optimised solute content and ratios. • In selecting new materials, there should be no reduction in the level of safety. • The use of hybrid materials could provide additional opportunities for Al alloys. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys have been the primary material for the structural parts of aircraft for more than 80 years because of their well known performance, well established design methods, manufacturing and reliable inspection techniques. Nearly for a decade composites have started to be used more widely in large commercial jet airliners for the fuselage, wing as well as other structural components in place of aluminium alloys due their high specific properties, reduced weight, fatigue performance and corrosion resistance. Although the increased use of composite materials reduced the role of aluminium up to some extent, high strength aluminium alloys remain important in airframe construction. Aluminium is a relatively low cost, light weight metal that can be heat treated and loaded to relatively high level of stresses, and it is one of the most easily produced of the high performance materials, which results in lower manufacturing and maintenance costs. There have been important recent advances in aluminium aircraft alloys that can effectively compete with modern composite materials. This study covers latest developments in enhanced mechanical properties of aluminium alloys, and high performance joining techniques. The mechanical properties on newly developed 2000, 7000 series aluminium alloys and new generation Al–Li alloys are compared with the traditional aluminium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of the joining methods, laser beam welding and friction stir welding, are also discussed

  4. The ethics of drone warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the compatibility of the modern technologies of warfare, specifically the use of offensive drones, with traditional military ethics and suggests that the new technologies radically change the value system of the military in ways which make large parts of the traditional military ethics inapplicable. The author suggests that Agamben’s concept of ‘effectivity’ through ‘special actions’ which mark one’s belonging to a particular community or profession is a useful conceptual strategy to explore the compatibility of drone warfare with traditional military ethics; this strategy shows mixed results at best.

  5. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  6. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  7. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in effluents...

  8. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H. J.; Breeveld, F. J.; Stijnis, C.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria

  9. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  10. The Anatomy of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Lars; Pedersen, Kenneth; Thruelsen, Peter Dahl

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the West has been increasingly involved in a tiresome and rather particular type of conflict: insurgency warfare. The bloody and shocking terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in September 2001 marked the beginning of a new era, and the introducti...

  11. Roots of Russian Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Crissy, your encouragement throughout my career and especially during this project has been...all of the Russian disinformation techniques in Ukraine came directly “from Soviet toolkits .” Maria Snegovaya, “Putin’s Information Warfare In

  12. Technology Transition for Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-16

    and Iraq. At the same time, the science and technology base must provide the disruptive technologies to defeat future conventional enemies. This... disruptive technologies will be needed to retain long-term technological superiority in conventional warfare. Incremental improvement is the most...technology to be missed. Disruptive technologies are the second type of technological change and involve revolutionary concepts involving large technological

  13. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabharwall, Piyush, E-mail: Piyush.Sabharwall@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Hastelloy N and 242, shows corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures. • Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in at 650, 700, and 850 °C for 200, 500, and 1000 h. • Thermal gradients and galvanic couples in the molten salts enhance corrosion rates. • Corrosion rates found were typically <10 mils per year. - Abstract: This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non-nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, that show good corrosion resistance in molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700 °C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in 58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF{sub 4} at 650, 700, and 850 °C for 200, 500, and 1000 h. Corrosion rates were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <100 μm per year after 1000 h of corrosion tests. No catastrophic corrosion was observed in the diffusion welded regions. For materials of construction, nickel-based alloys and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of the type of salt impurity and alloy composition, with respect to chromium and carbon, to better define the best conditions for corrosion resistance. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high-temperature components per American Society of Mechanical

  14. Environmental Development Plan for advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This EDP identifies the planning and management requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health, and safety aspects of the Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) program. Current AIS processes include the molecular and atomic vapor laser processes and the plasma process. This document covers the technology program, environmental concerns and requirements, and environmental strategy

  15. A identification system for chemical warfare agents with PGNAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Yin Guanghua; Yang Zhongping

    2006-01-01

    The principle and the experimental commanding of Chemical warfare Agents Identification with PGNAA method are discussed in this paper. The choosing of Detector, neutron source and the data processing method are detailed. Finally, a set of experimental instruments composed of Cf-232 and BGO detector is developed based on the theory discussed above. (authors)

  16. Identification system for chemical warfare agents with PGNAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Yin Guanghua; Yang Zhongpin

    2007-01-01

    The principle and the experimental commanding of Chemical warfare Agents Identification with PGNAA method are discussed in this paper. The choosing of detector, neutron source and the data processing method are detailed. Finally, a set of experimental instruments composed of Cf-232 and BGO detector is developed based on this theory discussed above. (authors)

  17. Advanced PWR technology development -Development of advanced PWR system analysis technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Moon Heui; Hwang, Yung Dong; Kim, Sung Oh; Yoon, Joo Hyun; Jung, Bub Dong; Choi, Chul Jin; Lee, Yung Jin; Song, Jin Hoh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The primary scope of this study is to establish the analysis technology for the advanced reactor designed on the basis of the passive and inherent safety concepts. This study is extended to the application of these technology to the safety analysis of the passive reactor. The study was performed for the small and medium sized reactor and the large sized reactor by focusing on the development of the analysis technology for the passive components. Among the identified concepts the once-through steam generator, the natural circulation of the integral reactor, heat pipe for containment cooling, and hydraulic valve were selected as the high priority items to be developed and the related studies are being performed for these items. For the large sized passive reactor, the study plans to extend the applicability of the best estimate computer code RELAP5/MOD3 which is widely used for the safety analyses of the reactor system. The improvement and supplementation study of the analysis modeling and the methodology is planned to be carried out for these purpose. The newly developed technologies are expected to be applied to the domestic advanced reactor design and analysis and these technologies will play a key role in extending the domestic nuclear base technology and consolidating self-reliance in the essential nuclear technology. 72 figs, 15 tabs, 124 refs. (Author).

  18. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  19. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  20. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  1. Development of the advanced CANDU technology -Development of CANDU advanced fuel fabrication technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Bum; Park, Choon Hoh; Park, Chul Joo; Kwon, Woo Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This project is carrying out jointly with AECL to develop CANFLEX fuel which can enhance reactor safety, fuel economy and can be used with various fuel cycles (natural U, slightly enriched U, other advanced fuel). The final goal of this research is to load the CANFLEX fuel in commercial CANDU reactor for demonstration irradiation. The annual portion of research activities performed during this year are followings ; The detail design of CANFLEX-NU fuel was determined. Based on this design, various fabrication drawings and process specifications were revised. The seventeen CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles for reactivity test in ZED-2 and out-pile test, two CANFLEX-SEU fuel bundles for demo-irradiation in NRU were fabricated. Advanced tack welding machine was designed and sequence control software of automatic assembly welder was developed. The basic researches related to fabrication processes, such as weld evaluation by ECT, effect of additives in UO{sub 2}, thermal stabilities of Zr based metallic glasses, were curried out. 51 figs, 22 tabs, 42 refs. (Author).

  2. History of chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szinicz, L.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents

  3. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  4. From Douhet to drones, air warfare, and the evolution of targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, F.P.B.; Roorda, M.P.; Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Through the prism of the experience of air warfare, this chapter identifies key factors that have shaped targeting. These include technological developments, organizational structures, and processes and inter-service competition for scarce resources. Moreover, targeting is informed by perspectives

  5. Advancements in the field of personality development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fruyt, Filip; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2014-07-01

    A summary is provided what the fields of personality and developmental psychology had to offer each other the past decade, reflected in the eleven contributions enclosed in this special issue. Strengths and opportunities to further advance the field are identified, including the extension of general trait with maladaptive trait models, the use of alternative methods to assess personality, and the adoption of configural approaches to describe traits in individuals, beyond more traditional person-centered approaches. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Unconventional Cyber Warfare: Cyber Opportunities in Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Internet service provider IW irregular warfare MCO major combat operations MySQL open-source relational database management system NATO North...today, often with no regard for legal or ethical constraints. A better course of action would be to conduct operations in cyberspace within the precepts...built in feature of MySQL that 97 John Markoff, “Before the Gunfire, Cyberattacks,” York Times, August 13, 2008, sec. Technology, 1, http

  7. Hybrid Warfare: the 21st Century Russian Way of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    to wage information operations— from television, to the Internet, to unconventional forces on the ground spreading the message word -of- mouth ...adversarial vulnerabilities. Many of the peculiarities of hybrid warfare described herein are inextricably linked to Russia’s social , political, and...the US election. Then they utilized various means of media to distribute that information with the goal to discredit the US political process and

  8. 2008 13th Expeditionary Warfare Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-23

    platforms – Emphasize a mixed fleet approach that spans the “iron triangle” – Integrate MRAP into the fleet mix – Transition to a fleet of tactical...Urban Warfare Mountain Warfare Desert Warfare Jungle Riverine Special Skills Recon LOG CSS ENG MT HS Ord Maint EOD Pers Retrival ...Detection (Specialized Platform FLGPR)Stand-off (60M) Scaleable Neutralization (Area coverage) ABV Delivery Ground Cueing Stand-off (800M) Scaleable

  9. Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takemoto, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    ...). This paper lays a foundation by defining the terminology associated with Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain, reviews the threat and illustrates the vulnerabilities of our information systems...

  10. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  11. Shadow Wars: An Analysis of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dogan, Osman

    2005-01-01

    ... of the current strategic approaches to counterinsurgency warfare. Toward this end, a systems model approach, which views insurgent organizations as open systems, is adapted to the insurgent environment...

  12. Advanced Reactor Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giessing, D. F.; Griffith, J. D.; McGoff, D. J.; Rosen, Sol [U. S. Department of Energy, Texas (United States)

    1990-04-15

    In the United States, three technologies are employed for the new generation of advanced reactors. These technologies are Advanced Light Water Reactors (A LWRs) for the 1990s and beyond, the Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (M HTGR) for commercial use after the turn of the century, and Liquid Metal Reactors (LWRs) to provide energy production and to convert reactor fission waste to a more manageable waste product. Each technology contributes to the energy solution. Light Water Reactors For The 1990s And Beyond--The U. S. Program The economic and national security of the United States requires a diversified energy supply base built primarily upon adequate, domestic resources that are relatively free from international pressures. Nuclear energy is a vital component of this supply and is essential to meet current and future national energy demands. It is a safe, economically continues to contribute to national energy stability, and strength. The Light Water Reactor (LWR) has been a major and successful contributor to the electrical generating needs of many nations throughout the world. It is being counted upon in the United States as a key to revitalizing nuclear energy option in the 1990s. In recent years, DOE joined with the industry to ensure the availability and future viability of the LWR option. This national program has the participation of the Nation's utility industry, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and several of the major reactor manufacturers and architect-engineers. Separate but coordinated parts of this program are managed by EPRI and DOE.

  13. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  14. The ethics of drone warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Fatić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates the compatibility of the modern technologies of warfare, specifically the use of offensive drones, with traditional military ethics and suggests that the new technologies radically change the value system of the military in ways which make large parts of the traditional military ethics inapplicable. The author suggests that Agamben’s concept of ‘effectivity’ through ‘special actions’ which mark one’s belonging to a particular communit...

  15. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardson, Kay

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive fallout, one of the major effects of nuclear warfare, will cause acute radiation sickness within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occur, and will cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. Estimates of collective doses and the approximate number of late casualties from the global contamination are presented for a given total explosion yield. (author)

  16. The development of advanced robotics for the nuclear industry -The development of advanced robotic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Park, Soon Woong; Cho, Jae Wan; Lee, Nam Ho; Kim, Woong Ki; Moon, Byung Soo; Lee, Young Jae; Kim, Chang Hoi; Kim, Seung Ho; Hwang, Seok Yong; Kim, Byung Soo; Moon, Jae Sun; Lee, Young Kwang; Choi, Kap Joo

    1996-07-01

    The comparison study of 3 kinds of stereo camera modules done in this final year of 4 year's longterm project shows that regenerating characteristics of stereo image of stereo camera using horizontally moving lens axis method is superior to the other two modules. Base on this comparison result, stereo camera module using horizontally moving lens method is developed. Also, stereo-Boom unit, high definition polarized stereo monitor(KAERI-PSM II) and 10.4sec. auto-stereogram TV using parallax barrier method are developed. These developed systems can be used for people involved in extremely hazardous working area to give vivid reality image of work environment. In the recognition and tracking section, auto-vergencing technology using focus fixation and cepstral filter, stereo camera calibration, range measurement technology using stereo camera module are developed. And active target tracking technology is developed also. In the sensing and intelligent control research part, active radioactivity image monitoring unit is developed. The spatial resolution of monitoring unit is 10cm at 1m distance, FOV is 60x40 deg [HXV], and radioactivity detection limit is 1mR/hr. Also, radiation-resistant inspection camera for nuclear facilities is designed. In the intelligent control section, fuzzy control algorithm for obstacle detouring navigation of mobile robot is developed. The smoothing techniques by fuzzy set is adapted to raise the pliability of obstacle detouring navigation of mobile robot. In order to raise robustness of developed fuzzy algorithm, fuzzy control algorithm is applied to 'Truck Backer Upper' problem and tuned. These advanced critical robot technology and telepresence techniques developed in this project can be applied to nozzle-dam installation/removal robot system, can be used to realize unmanned remotelization of nozzle-dam installation/removal task in steam generator of nuclear power plant, which can be contributed for people involved in extremely hazardous

  17. "International regime for advancing lunar development"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ

    2017-09-01

    A specific concern regarding the Moon Treaty is the provision for sharing the wealth gained from space with developing countries that have not invested and taken risks in making possible space materials utilization. Article 11, par. 7 states "The main purposes of the international regime to be established shall include: (a) The orderly and safe development of the natural resources of the moon; (b) The rational management of those resources; (c) The expansion of opportunities in the use of those resources; (d) An equitable sharing by all States Parties in the benefits derived from those resources, whereby the interests and needs of the developing countries, as well as the efforts of those countries which have contributed either directly or indirectly to the exploration of the moon, shall be given special consideration." Whether the Moon Treaty in its present form or modified to be acceptable to more parties or the Moon Treaty is ignored, the language of Article 11, paragraph 7 can be used to construct an international regime for lunar development that can meet the requirements of commercial business as well as of states that provide support for lunar development as well as developing countries that may have played a modest role in making lunar development possible. This paper will consider options for constructing an international regime for lunar development.

  18. High Temperature Materials Characterization and Advanced Materials Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H.

    2007-06-01

    The project has been carried out for 2 years in stage III in order to achieve the final goals of performance verification of the developed materials, after successful development of the advanced high temperature material technologies for 3 years in Stage II. The mechanical and thermal properties of the advanced materials, which were developed during Stage II, were evaluated at high temperatures, and the modification of the advanced materials were performed. Moreover, a database management system was established using user-friendly knowledge-base scheme to complete the integrated-information material database in KAERI material division

  19. Countermobilization: Unconventional Social Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    organizations IMF International Monetary Fund MB Muslim Brotherhood NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAFTA North... NAFTA ), the Ejercito Zapatista de Liberacion Nacional (EZLN) launched a rebellion in the southern state of Mexico, known as Chiapas. The EZLN...translated by the EZLN. www.ezln.org. 31 threat confronting Mexicans. An example of such consequences was the amendment to Article 27 of the constitution

  20. Changing Face of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    soldiers who had to use these shabby guns referred to them contemptuously as " pumpkin slingers.ൔ As with the Austrian rifled musket the Belgian rifle...Confederate forces divided. Part of the army detached to neutralize a Union garrison at Harpers Ferry while another part of the army was spread out heading...movements. The manual introduced squad tactics that spread out advancing infantrymen in loose-order formations. In theory, the attackers would be less

  1. Evolutionary developments of advanced PWR nuclear fuels and cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are provided. • Evolution of PWR advanced fuel in U.S.A. and in Korea is described. • Cutting-edge design features against grid-to-rod fretting and debris are explained. • High performance data of advanced grids, debris filters and claddings are given. -- Abstract: The evolutionary developments of advanced PWR fuels and cladding materials are explained with outstanding design features of nuclear fuel assembly components and zirconium-base cladding materials. The advanced PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are also provided along with verification tests, which can be used as guidelines for newcomers planning to develop an advanced fuel for the first time. The up-to-date advanced fuels with the advanced cladding materials may provide a high level of economic utilization and reliable performance even under current and upcoming aggressive operating conditions. To be specific, nuclear fuel vendors may achieve high fuel burnup capability of between 45,000 and 65,000 MWD/MTU batch average, overpower thermal margin of as much as 15% and longer cycle length up to 24 months on the one hand and fuel failure rates of around 10 −6 on the other hand. However, there is still a need for better understanding of grid-to-rod fretting wear mechanisms leading to major PWR fuel defects in the world and subsequently a driving force for developing innovative spacer grid designs with zero fretting wear-induced fuel failure

  2. Development and progress: advancing towards environmental crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez G, Luis Jair

    2011-01-01

    Physical, biological and social evolution is doubtless. One of its first manifestations is the arrival of technique when hominids emerge from pre-hominids. Those first technical developments implied a new relation man/environment that was expressed in three components that appeared successively and pushed each other in time and space like this: dominion over nature, population concentration (urbanism), and population growth. Techniques are to generate three notorious effects on the relation man/nature: 1. Deep intervention on the physical environment: mining and industrial transformation processes; 2. Deep intervention on the biological environment: development of agriculture with a decrease in biodiversity; and 3. Deep intervention on the social environment: going from a pre-modern communitarian world, to the individualism of modernity; and from the agrarian field to the big city. All these technical developments boosted dominion of the technosphere over the ecosphere, which led to the appearance of the Environmental Crisis, whose most notable manifestation is Climatic Change.

  3. Development of An Advanced JP-8 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    included the Microthermal Precipitation Test (MTP), Fuel Reactor Test, Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS), and Isothermal Corrosion Oxidation Test (ICOT... Microthermal Precipitation Test The impetus for this development effort was the need for a screening test that could discriminate between fuels of...varying propensity to produce thermally induced insoluble particulate material in the bulk fuel. The Microthermal Precipitation (MTP) test thermally

  4. Social and Personality Development: An Advanced Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael E., Ed.; Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This new text contains parts of Bornstein and Lamb's "Developmental Science, 6th edition", along with new introductory material, providing a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of social and personality development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

  5. The United States Advanced Reactor Technologies Research and Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Connor, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The following aspects are addressed: • Nuclear energy mission; • Reactor research development and deployment (RD&D) programs: - Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program; - Small Modular Reactor Licensing Technical Support; - Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART)

  6. The Fox Project: Advanced Development of Systems Software

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The long-term objectives of the Carnegie Mellon Fox Project are to improve the design and construction of systems software and to further the development of advanced programming language technology...

  7. The Fox Project: Advanced Development of Systems Software

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The long-term objectives of the Carnegie Mellon Fox Project are to improve the design and construction of systems software and to further the development of advanced programming language technology...

  8. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  9. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  10. The Third World War? In The Cyberspace. Cyber Warfare in the Middle East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a brief and comprehensive introduction to the issue of cyber warfare and to display the recent development in this area. Geographically, it focuses on the Middle East region, since the vast majority of the most important recent cyber attacks appeared just in there or were connected to it. The first part of the article tries to define the key notion of cyber warfare, compares it to the standard warfare and presents different types of cyber weapons that are known today. The second part points out examples of the most striking recent cyber attacks and uses them as evidences to demonstrate today's importance and dissemination of cyber warfare. Finally, the article sums up pros and cons of the cyber weapons and, in view of these, predicts a significant increase in their use in any future war conflicts.

  11. Hybrid Warfare: Preparing for Future Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    ciceromagazine.com/?s=getting+behind+hybrid+warfare. Brown , Col Leslie F. “Twenty-First Century Warfare Will be Hybrid.” Carlisle Barracks, PA...Lebanon and Gaza.” Rand Corporation Occasional Paper. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 2010. Jones, Gareth and Darya Korsunskaya. “U.S., EU

  12. Research for Foreign Advanced Ports for Protection and Development Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Tian, Mingjing; Zhao, Junjie; Shou, Youping; Wang, Ning; Qiao, Jianzhe; Li, Guanglou

    2018-04-01

    Into the twenty-first century, the process globalization of economic and trade is getting faster and faster, As of 2014, China's annual port trading amount topped the world, But in the port of environmental protection sustainable development approach with foreign advanced port environmental management concept has a big gap. Combined with the present situation of modern ports in China. Drawing lessons from foreign advanced environmental protection idea of port, in order to promote the protection of port environment in our country. The experience of protection and development of foreign advanced port environment will be discussed and discussed.

  13. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  14. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key

  15. Development Program of the Advanced HANARO Reactor in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, I.-S.; Ahn, J.-H.; Han, K.-I.; Parh, C.; Jun, B.-J.; Kim, Y.-J.

    2006-01-01

    The development program of an advanced HANARO (AHR) reactor started in Korea to keep abreast of the increasing future demand, from both home and abroad, for research activities. This paper provides a review of the status of research reactors in Korea, the operating experience of the HANARO, the design principles and preliminary features of an advanced HANARO reactor, and the specific strategy of an advanced HANARO reactor development program. The design principles were established in order to design a new multi-purpose research reactor that is safe, economically competitive and technically feasible. These include the adaptation of the HANARO design concept, its operating experience, a high ratio of flux to power, a high degree of safety, improved economic efficiency, improved operability and maintainability, increased space and expandability, and ALARA design optimization. The strategy of an advanced HANARO reactor development program considers items such as providing a digital advanced HANARO reactor in cyber space, a method for the improving the design quality and economy of research reactors by using Computer Integrated Engineering, and more effective advertising using diverse virtual reality. This development program will be useful for promoting the understanding of and interest in the operating HANARO as well as an advanced HANARO reactor under development in Korea. It will provide very useful information to a country that may need a research reactor in the near future for the promotion of public health, bio-technology, drug design, pharmacology, material processing, and the development of new materials. (author)

  16. Reactivity of Dual-Use Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    REACTIVITY OF DUAL-USE DECONTAMINANTS WITH CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS ECBC-TR-1384... Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Willis, Matthew P...extraction) of chemical warfare agents from materials. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent Liquid-phase

  17. Development of advanced LWR fuel pellet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kun Woo; Kang, K.W.; Kim, K. S.; Yang, J. H.; Kim, Y. M.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, J. B.; Kim, D. H.; Bae, S. O.; Jung, Y. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, S. H.

    2000-03-01

    A UO 2 pellet was designed to have a grain size of larger than 12 μm, and a new duplex design that UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 is in the core and UO 2 -Er 2 O 3 in the periphery was proposed. A master mixing method was developed to make a uniform mixture of UO 2 and additives. The open porosity of UO 2 pellet was reduced by only mixing AUC-UO 2 powder with ADU-UO 2 or milled powder. Duplex compaction tools (die and punch) were designed and fabricated, and duplex compacting procedures were developed to fabricate the duplex BA pellet. In UO 2 sintering, the relations between sintering variables (additive, sintering gas, sintering temperature) and pellet properties (density, grain size, pore size) were experimentally found. The UO 2 -U 3 O 8 powder which is inherently not sinterable to high density could be sintered well with the aid of additives. U 3 O 8 single crystals were added to UO 2 powder, and homogeneous powder mixture was pressed and sintered in a reducing atmosphere. This technology leads to a large-grained pellet of 12-20 μm. In UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 sintering, the relations between sintering variables (additives, sintering gas) and pellet properties (density, grain size) were experimentally found. The developed technology of fabricating a large-grained UO 2 pellet has been optimized in a lab scale. Pellet properties were investigated in the fields of (1) creep properties, (2) thermal properties, (3) O/M ratios and (4) unit cell lattice. (author)

  18. Development of advanced LWR fuel pellet technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kun Woo; Kang, K.W.; Kim, K. S.; Yang, J. H.; Kim, Y. M.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, J. B.; Kim, D. H.; Bae, S. O.; Jung, Y. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, S. H

    2000-03-01

    A UO{sub 2} pellet was designed to have a grain size of larger than 12 {mu}m, and a new duplex design that UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} is in the core and UO{sub 2}-Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the periphery was proposed. A master mixing method was developed to make a uniform mixture of UO{sub 2} and additives. The open porosity of UO{sub 2} pellet was reduced by only mixing AUC-UO{sub 2} powder with ADU-UO{sub 2} or milled powder. Duplex compaction tools (die and punch) were designed and fabricated, and duplex compacting procedures were developed to fabricate the duplex BA pellet. In UO{sub 2} sintering, the relations between sintering variables (additive, sintering gas, sintering temperature) and pellet properties (density, grain size, pore size) were experimentally found. The UO{sub 2}-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder which is inherently not sinterable to high density could be sintered well with the aid of additives. U{sub 3}O{sub 8} single crystals were added to UO{sub 2} powder, and homogeneous powder mixture was pressed and sintered in a reducing atmosphere. This technology leads to a large-grained pellet of 12-20 {mu}m. In UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintering, the relations between sintering variables (additives, sintering gas) and pellet properties (density, grain size) were experimentally found. The developed technology of fabricating a large-grained UO{sub 2} pellet has been optimized in a lab scale. Pellet properties were investigated in the fields of (1) creep properties, (2) thermal properties, (3) O/M ratios and (4) unit cell lattice. (author)

  19. Advanced atomic force microscopy: Development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Deron A.

    Over the decade since atomic force microscopy (AFM) was invented, development of new microscopes has been closely intertwined with application of AFM to problems of interest in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. New techniques such as tapping mode AFM move quickly in our lab from the designer's bench to the user's table-since this is often the same piece of furniture. In return, designers get ample feedback as to what problems are limiting current instruments, and thus need most urgent attention. Tip sharpness and characterization are such a problem. Chapter 1 describes an AFM designed to operate in a scanning electron microscope, whose electron beam is used to deposit sharp carbonaceous tips. These tips can be tested and used in situ. Another limitation is addressed in Chapter 2: the difficulty of extracting more than just topographic information from a sample. A combined AFM/confocal optical microscope was built to provide simultaneous, independent images of the topography and fluorescence of a sample. In combination with staining or antibody labelling, this could provide submicron information about the composition of a sample. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss two generations of small cantilevers developed for lower-noise, higher-speed AFM of biological samples. In Chapter 4, a 26 mum cantilever is used to image the process of calcite growth from solution at a rate of 1.6 sec/frame. Finally, Chapter 5 explores in detail a biophysics problem that motivates us to develop fast, quiet, and gentle microscopes; namely, the control of crystal growth in seashells by the action of soluble proteins on a growing calcite surface.

  20. Boiling heat transfer modern developments and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Lahey, Jr, RT

    2013-01-01

    This volume covers the modern developments in boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow, and is intended to provide industrial, government and academic researchers with state-of-the-art research findings in the area of multiphase flow and heat transfer technology. Special attention is given to technology transfer, indicating how recent significant results may be used for practical applications. The chapters give detailed technical material that will be useful to engineers and scientists who work in the field of multiphase flow and heat transfer. The authors of all chapters are members of the

  1. HTR fuel development for advanced application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.; Balthesen, E.; Graham, L.W.; Hick, H.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages of the HTR for nuclear steam supply systems are briefly outlined. Due to its great design flexibility a number of different designs have evolved and the main characteristics of existing experimental prototype and power reactor HTR designs are summarized. The present state of coated particle fuel, particularly with regard to performance, is considered. Some implications of producing higher temperatures are discussed. Finally some of the developments in progress such as minimising the temperature drop between fuel and coolant, and of improving fuel performance by better fission product retention, better chemical stability, and the use of alternative coated materials, are discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Advanced Development of Certified OS Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Mobile Processes,” ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst., vol. 32, no. 5, 2010. 220 [36] S. D. Brookes, “A Semantics for Concurrent Separation Logic,” in...the weights of traces. The logic can be used for interactive stack-bound development or as a backend for verified static analysis tools. For clarity...logic as a backend for static stack-bound analysis tools since they would be required to also prove memory safety. To meet Challenge 3, we

  3. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Development of advanced zirconium fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Hwan; Park, S. Y.; Lee, M. H.

    2007-04-01

    This report includes the manufacturing technology developed for HANA TM claddings, a series of their characterization results as well as the results of their in-pile and out-of pile performances tests which were carried out to develop some fuel claddings for a high burn-up (70,000MWd/mtU) which are competitive in the world market. Some of the HANA TM claddings, which had been manufactured based on the results from the 1st and 2nd phases of the project, have been tested in a research reactor in Halden of Norway for an in-pile performance qualification. The results of the in-pile test showed that the performance of the HANA TM claddings for corrosion and creep was better than 50% compared to that of Zircaloy-4 or A cladding. It was also found that the out-of pile performance of the HANA TM claddings for such as LOCA and RIA in some accident conditions corrosion creep, tensile, burst and fatigue was superior or equivalent to that of the Zircaloy-4 or A cladding. The project also produced the other many data which were required to get a license for an in-pile test of HANA TM claddings in a commercial reactor. The data for the qualification or characterization were provided for KNFC to assist their activities to get the license for the in-pile test of HANA TM Lead Test Rods(LTR) in a commercial reactor

  5. Advances in Therapeutic Development for Radiation Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaganapathy, Bharathi Raja; Jayabalan, Nirmal; Tyagi, Pradeep; Kaufman, Jonathan; Chancellor, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Radiation treatment for pelvic malignancies is typically associated with radiation injury to urinary bladder that can ultimately lead to radiation cystitis (RC). The late sequelae of radiation therapy may take many years to develop and include bothersome storage symptoms such as hematuria, which may be life-threatening in severe cases of hemorrhagic cystitis. Although no definitive treatment is currently available, various interventions are used for radiation and hemorrhagic cystitis including blood transfusion, bladder irrigation, intravesical instillation of substances such as alum, silver nitrate, prostaglandins or formalin, and fulguration of intravesical bleeding sites and surgery options such as supravesical urinary diversions and cystectomy. Effects of non-surgical treatments for radiation and hemorrhagic cystitis are of modest success and studies are lacking to control the effects caused by RC. When such measures have proven ineffective, use of bladder botulinum toxin injection has been reported. New therapy, such as intravesical immunosuppression with local tacrolimus formulation is being developed for the treatment of radiation hemorrhagic cystitis. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 3: Evaluation of in vitro topical decontamination efficacy using damaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Helen L; Hall, Charlotte A; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J Kevin; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that haemostatic products with an absorptive mechanism of action retain their clotting efficiency in the presence of toxic materials and are effective in decontaminating chemical warfare (CW) agents when applied to normal, intact skin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess three candidate haemostatic products for effectiveness in the decontamination of superficially damaged porcine skin exposed to the radiolabelled CW agents, soman (GD), VX and sulphur mustard (HD). Controlled physical damage (removal of the upper 100 μm skin layer) resulted in a significant enhancement of the dermal absorption of all three CW agents. Of the haemostatic products assessed, WoundStat™ was consistently the most effective, being equivalent in performance to a standard military decontaminant (fuller's earth). These data suggest that judicious application of haemostatic products to wounds contaminated with CW agents may be a viable option for the clinical management of casualties presenting with contaminated, haemorrhaging injuries. Further studies using a relevant animal model are required to confirm the potential clinical efficacy of WoundStat™ for treating wounds contaminated with CW agents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse. (I) Development of a model for screening studies in skin decontamination and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorandeu, F; Taysse, L; Boudry, I; Foquin, A; Hérodin, F; Mathieu, J; Daulon, S; Cruz, C; Lallement, G

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to lethal chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is no longer only a military issue due to the terrorist threat. Among the CWAs of concern are the organophosphorus nerve agent O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX) and the vesicant sulfur mustard (SM). Although efficient means of decontamination are available, most of them lose their efficacy when decontamination is delayed after exposure of the bare skin. Alternatively, CWA skin penetration can be prevented by topical skin protectants. Active research in skin protection and decontamination is thus paramount. In vivo screening of decontaminants or skin protectants is usually time consuming and may be expensive depending on the animal species used. We were thus looking for a suitable, scientifically sound and cost-effective model, which is easy to handle. The euthymic hairless mouse Crl: SKH-1 (hr/hr) BR is widely used in some skin studies and has previously been described to be suitable for some experiments involving SM or SM analogs. To evaluate the response of this species, we studied the consequences of exposing male anaesthetized SKH-1 mice to either liquid VX or to SM, the latter being used in liquid form or as saturated vapours. Long-term effects of SM burn were also evaluated. The model was then used in the companion paper (Taysse et al.(1)).

  8. Development of essential system technologies for advanced reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Y. Y.; Hwang, Y. D.; Cho, B. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    Basic design of SMART adopts the new advanced technologies which were not applied in the existing 1000MWe PWR. However, the R and D experience on these advanced essential technologies is lacking in domestic nuclear industry. Recently, a research on these advanced technologies has been performed as a part of the mid-and-long term nuclear R and D program, but the research was limited only for the small scale fundamental study. The research on these essential technologies such as helically coiled tube steam generator, self pressurizer, core cooling by natural circulation required for the development of integral reactor SMART have not been conducted in full scale. This project, therefore, was performed for the development of analysis models and methodologies, system analysis and thermal hydraulic experiments on the essential technologies to be applied to the 300MWe capacity of integral reactor SMART and the advanced passive reactor expected to be developed in near future with the emphasis on experimental investigation. (author)

  9. Recent advances in control and diagnostics development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, L.R.; King, R.W.; Lindsay, R.W.; Staffon, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The power industry is undergoing rapid technological advances and cultural changes. Technologies are advancing and evolving so rapidly that the industry is hard pressed to keep up and take full advantage of the many developments now in progress. Recent advantages in state-of-the-art computer technology are making in-roads in the form of advanced computer control, expert systems, on-line performance monitoring and diagnostics. Validation and verification schemes are being developed which provide increased confidence in the correctness and reliability of both computer hardware and software. Our challenge in the nuclear community is to effectively apply these new technologies to improve the operation, safety, and reliability of our plants. This presentation discusses two areas of development that are essential to advanced control strategies: application of diagnostic systems to improve fault-tolerance, and model-based graphic displays. 4 refs., 4 figs

  10. Technological advances in precision medicine and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Elaine; Patterson, Nicole E; Montagna, Cristina

    New technologies are rapidly becoming available to expand the arsenal of tools accessible for precision medicine and to support the development of new therapeutics. Advances in liquid biopsies, which analyze cells, DNA, RNA, proteins, or vesicles isolated from the blood, have gained particular interest for their uses in acquiring information reflecting the biology of tumors and metastatic tissues. Through advancements in DNA sequencing that have merged unprecedented accuracy with affordable cost, personalized treatments based on genetic variations are becoming a real possibility. Extraordinary progress has been achieved in the development of biological therapies aimed to even further advance personalized treatments. We provide a summary of current and future applications of blood based liquid biopsies and how new technologies are utilized for the development of biological therapeutic treatments. We discuss current and future sequencing methods with an emphasis on how technological advances will support the progress in the field of precision medicine.

  11. Advanced Turbo-Charging Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-02-27

    The objective of this project is to conduct analysis, design, procurement and test of a high pressure ratio, wide flow range, and high EGR system with two stages of turbocharging. The system needs to meet the stringent 2010MY emissions regulations at 20% + better fuel economy than its nearest gasoline competitor while allowing equivalent vehicle launch characteristics and higher torque capability than its nearest gasoline competitor. The system will also need to meet light truck/ SUV life requirements, which will require validation or development of components traditionally used only in passenger car applications. The conceived system is termed 'seriessequential turbocharger' because the turbocharger system operates in series at appropriate times and also sequentially when required. This is accomplished using intelligent design and control of flow passages and valves. Components of the seriessequential system will also be applicable to parallel-sequential systems which are also expected to be in use for future light truck/SUV applications.

  12. Advances in developing TiNi nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A. Torres; Cuellar, E. Lopez; Mendez, U. Ortiz; Yacaman, M. Jose

    2006-01-01

    The elaboration of nanoparticles has become a field of great interest for many scientists. Nanoparticles possess different properties than those ones shown in bulk materials. Shape memory alloys have the exceptional ability to recuperate its original shape by simple heating after being 'plastically' deformed. When this process is originated, important changes in properties, as mechanical and electrical, are developed in bulk material. If there is possible to obtain nanoparticles with shape memory effects, these nanoparticles could be used in the elaboration of nanofluids with the ability to change their electrical and thermal conductivity with temperature changes, i.e., smart nanofluids. In this work, some recent results and discussion of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by ion beam milling directly from a TiNi wire with shape memory are presented. The nanoparticles obtained by this process are about 2 nm of diameter with a composition of Ti-41.0 at.% Ni. Synthesized nanoparticles elaborated by this method have an ordered structure

  13. Advancing NOAA NWS Arctic Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyeva-Livezey, M. M.; Horsfall, F. M. C.; Meyers, J. C.; Churma, M.; Thoman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental changes in the Arctic require changes in the way the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) delivers hydrological and meteorological information to prepare the region's societies and indigenous population for emerging challenges. These challenges include changing weather patterns, changes in the timing and extent of sea ice, accelerated soil erosion due to permafrost decline, increasing coastal vulnerably, and changes in the traditional food supply. The decline in Arctic sea ice is opening new opportunities for exploitation of natural resources, commerce, tourism, and military interest. These societal challenges and economic opportunities call for a NOAA integrated approach for delivery of environmental information including climate, water, and weather data, forecasts, and warnings. Presently the NOAA Arctic Task Force provides leadership in programmatic coordination across NOAA line offices. National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Region and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide the foundational operational hydro-meteorological products and services in the Arctic. Starting in 2016, NOAA's NWS will work toward improving its role in programmatic coordination and development through assembling an NWS Arctic Task Team. The team will foster ties in the Arctic between the 11 NWS national service programs in climate, water, and weather information, as well as between Arctic programs in NWS and other NOAA line offices and external partners. One of the team outcomes is improving decision support tools for the Arctic. The Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) currently has more than 1100 registered users, including NOAA staff and technical partners. The tool has been available online since 2013 (http://nws.weather.gov/lcat/ ). The tool links trusted, recommended NOAA data and analytical capabilities to assess impacts of climate variability and climate change at local levels. A new capability currently being developed will

  14. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sienicki, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nellis, Gregory [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Klein, Sanford [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Fluids operating in the supercritical state have promising characteristics for future high efficiency power cycles. In order to develop power cycles using supercritical fluids, it is necessary to understand the flow characteristics of fluids under both supercritical and two-phase conditions. In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodology was developed for supercritical fluids flowing through complex geometries. A real fluid property module was implemented to provide properties for different supercritical fluids. However, in each simulation case, there is only one species of fluid. As a result, the fluid property module provides properties for either supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) or supercritical water (SCW). The Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) was employed to model the two-phase flow. HEM assumes two phases have same velocity, pressure, and temperature, making it only applicable for the dilute dispersed two-phase flow situation. Three example geometries, including orifices, labyrinth seals, and valves, were used to validate this methodology with experimental data. For the first geometry, S-CO2 and SCW flowing through orifices were simulated and compared with experimental data. The maximum difference between the mass flow rate predictions and experimental measurements is less than 5%. This is a significant improvement as previous works can only guarantee 10% error. In this research, several efforts were made to help this improvement. First, an accurate real fluid module was used to provide properties. Second, the upstream condition was determined by pressure and density, which determines supercritical states more precise than using pressure and temperature. For the second geometry, the flow through labyrinth seals was studied. After a successful validation, parametric studies were performed to study geometric effects on the leakage rate. Based on these parametric studies, an optimum design strategy for the see

  15. Advanced instrument development: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenleyside, G.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy water is used as a moderator and heat transport medium in CANDU reactors. It is a very expensive component of the reactor and any leaking or downgrading serves to increase the cost of electric power. Precise analytical measurements of the isotopic concentrations of water samples over the entire range of D 2 O concentrations are therefore vital for keeping such leaking or downgrading to a minimum. On-line isotopic analyzers offer many advantages over manual sampling; timely protection against leaks to the environment, continuous rather than discrete data for process control, accurate accounting for heavy water inventory, reduction in staff workloads, operational convenience and cost saving. This article outlines Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories' combined endeavours with Barringer Research Limited to find a viable approach to on-line D 2 O monitoring at CANDU power stations and heavy water plants. The development of heavy water monitors from their initial design, the Series 400 monitors, to their current one, the Series 4600, is traced

  16. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Cho, S. H.; You, G. S.

    2001-04-01

    Currently, the economic advantage of any known approach to the back end fuel cycle of a nuclear power reactor has not been well established. Thus the long term storage of the spent fuel in a safe manner is one of the important issues to be resolved in countries where the nuclear power has a relatively heavy weight in power production of that country. At KAERI, as a solution to this particular issue midterm storage of the spent fuel, an alternative approach has been developed. This approach includes the decladding and pulverization process of the spent PWR fuel rod, the reducing process from the uranium oxide to a metallic uranium powder using Li metal in a LiCl salt, the continuous casting process of the reduced metal, and the recovery process of Li from mixed salts by the electrolysis. We conducted the laboratory scale tests of each processes for the technical feasibility and determination for the operational conditions for this approach. Also, we performed the theoretical safety analysis and conducted integral tests for the equipment integration through the Mock-up facility with non-radioactive samples. There were no major issues in the approach, however, material incompatibility of the alkaline metal and oxide in a salt at a high temperature and the reactor that contains the salt became a show stopper of the process. Also the difficulty of the clear separation of the salt with metals reduced from the oxide became a major issue

  17. Advanced lightweight optics development for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbro, James W.

    1998-01-01

    A considerable amount of effort over the past year has been devoted to exploring ultra-lightweight optics for two specific NASA programs, the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the High Throughput X-ray Spectrometer (HTXS). Experimental investigations have been undertaken in a variety of materials including glass, composites, nickel, beryllium, Carbon fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide (CSiC), Reaction Bonded Silicon Carbide, Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide, and Silicon. Overall results of these investigations will be summarized, and specific details will be provided concerning the in-house development of ultra-lightweight nickel replication for both grazing incidence and normal incidence optics. This will include x-ray test results of the grazing incidence optic and cryogenic test results of the normal incidence optic. The status of two 1.5 meter diameter demonstration mirrors for NGST will also be presented. These two demonstrations are aimed at establishing the capability to manufacture and test mirrors that have an areal density of 15 kilograms per square meter. Efforts in thin membrane mirrors and Fresnel lenses will also be briefly discussed

  18. Romanian concern for advanced fuels development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research (ICN), a subsidiary of Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities, at Pitesti - Romania, has developed a preliminary design of a fuel bundle with 43 elements named SEU 43 for high burnup in CANDU Reactor. A very high experience in nuclear fuels manufacturing and control has also been accumulated. Additionally, on the nuclear site Pitesti there is the Nuclear Fuel Plant (NFP) qualified to manufacturing CANDU 6 type fuel, the main fuel supplier for NPP Cernavoda. A very good collaboration of ICN with NFP can lead to a low cost upgrading the facilities which ensure at present the CANDU standard fuel fabrication to be able of manufacturing also SEU 43 fuel for extended burnup. The financial founds are allocated by Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities of the Ministry of Industry and Resources to sustain the departmental R and D program 'Nuclear Fuel'. This Program has the main objective to establish a technology for manufacturing a new CANDU fuel type destined for extended burnup. It is studied the possibility to use the Recovered Uranium (RU) resulted from LWR spent fuel reprocessing facility existing in stockpiles. The International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) sustains also this program. By ROM/4/025/ Model Project, IAEA helps ICN to solve the problems regarding materials (RU, Zircaloy 4 tubes) purchasing, devices' upgrading and personnel training. The paper presents the main actions needing to be create the technical base for SEU 43 fuel bundle manufacturing. First step, the technological experiments and experimental fuel element manufacturing, will be accomplished in ICN installations. Second step, the industrial scale, need thorough studies for each installation from NFP to determine tools and technology modification imposed by the new CANDU fuel bundle manufacturing. All modifications must be done such as to the NFP, standard CANDU and SEU fuel bundles to be manufactured alternatively. (author)

  19. Advanced reactor development for non-electric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M.H.; Kim, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Advance in the nuclear reactor technology achieved through nuclear power programs carried out in the world has led nuclear communities to direct its attention to a better and peaceful utilization of nuclear energy in addition to that for power generation. The efforts for non-electric application of nuclear energy has been pursued in a limited number of countries in the world for their special needs. However, those needs and the associated efforts contributed largely to the development and practical realization of advanced reactors characterized by highly improved reactor safety and reliability by deploying the most up-to-date safety technologies. Due mainly to the special purpose of utilization, economic reasons and ease in implementation of new advanced technologies, small and medium reactors have become a major stream in the reactor developments for non-electric applications. The purpose of this paper is to provide, to the interested nuclear society, the overview of the development status and design characteristics of selected advanced nuclear reactors previously developed and/or currently under development specially for non-electric applications. Major design technologies employed in those reactors to enhance the reactor safety and reliability are reviewed to present the underlying principles of the design. Along with the overview, this paper also introduces a development program and major design characteristics of an advanced integral reactor (SMART) for co-generation purpose currently under conceptual development in Korea. (author)

  20. The state of art report on advanced reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keung Koo; Noh, J. M.; Hwang, D. H. and others

    1999-07-01

    Recently, researches on the advanced power reactors are being performed actively, that maximize the economics and enhance the reactor safety by introducing the inherent safety characteristics and passive safety features. In the development of advanced reactor technology, we developed the inherent core design technologies which can form a foundation of indigenous technologies to provide the basic technology for the core design of the domestic advanced reactor. In this report, we examined the neutronics design technologies and core thermal hydraulics design technologies for advanced reactors performed all over the world. Major efforts are focussed on the soluble boron free core design technology and high conversion core design technology. In addition to these, new conceptual core, such as a supercritical core, design technology development was also reviewed. The characteristics of critical heat flux have been investigated for non-square lattice rod bundles, such as triangular lattice and wire wrap lattice. Based on the status of advanced reactor development, the soluble boron free and hexagonal lattice core design technologies are elementary technology for the domestic advanced reactor core. These elementary core technologies would enhance the reactor safety and improve the economics. (author). 71 refs., 31 tabs., 74 figs

  1. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvarson, K.

    1975-01-01

    The radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions is one of the major effects of nuclear warfare. Those levels causing acute radiation sickness are to be expected only within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occurred and cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. The collective doses and the order of magnitude of late casualties from this global contamination are estimated for a given total explosion yield. (auth)

  2. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  3. [The debate on the development of advanced competences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimonte, Valerio; Palese, Alvisa; Chiari, Paolo; Laquintana, Dario; Tognoni, Gianni; Di Giulio, Paola

    2016-01-01

    . The debate on the development of advanced nursing competences. The dossier aims to describe and disentagle the present Italian and international debate on the development and recognition of advanced nursing competences. Following a general brief description of the legislative national background, the attention is first of all focused on the lack of clarity on the definition of advanced competence, which is further complicated by the issue of their formal, contractual and economic recognition. To explore these issues a list of contributions is presented and some proposals are formulated to favor a better oriented development of the debate: a. A convenience sample of 139 nurses were interviewed asking to describe problems occurred in the last month that could prompt the intervention of an expert nurse and to list the clinical, managerial and educational competences of a specialized nurse in their ward. The results document the quality and the dispersion of the definitions which are perceived and applied in the general settings of care. b. The issue the post basic courses (master, specialization) offered to nurses in 2015-2016 by Italian universities were described and their aims. While the contribution of the courses in increasing the theoretical knowledge is well defined, the aims and the description of the clinical training are badly developed and an acquisition of advanced competences would seem unlikely. c. The definition of advanced competences was explored in the international literature: while evidences are available on the impact of advanced nursing on patients' outcomes, what is advanced nursing is far from being clear, and an impressive list of roles, activities and functions are considered advanced. d. Although at national level there is no formal recognition for nurses with advanced competences (with the exception of the head nurse that holds mostly an organizational rather than clinical role), the opportunities for promoting the role of specialistic/advanced

  4. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran

    the entering vapors and gases to spin, providing good heat transfer and driving the condensed droplets to the wall through cyclonic action. This condenser design has been successfully demonstrated for the application on the pilot fluidized bed pyrolysis unit. After condensation, a stable aerosol is also typically formed which is difficult to be efficiently captured with conventional technologies. A pilot scale helicoidal rotary demister, a novel technology for removing persistent fine bio-oil droplets from gases using dynamic centrifugal forces, has been developed. The demister uses a helicoidal element, which consists of a metal sheet wound as a spiral, designed to rotate at high speeds within a cyclone body. Larger droplets are separated as they enter the cyclone housing, while the smaller droplets are carried by the gas into the helicoidal path of the rotating element, where they are centrifuged towards the outer collecting walls and, as a result of a specially designed baffle, may flow counter-currently to the gas and are drained out from the bottom of the rotating element. The mist-free gas leaves through a channel located at the center of the spiral. This unique demister design has demonstrated a high separation efficiency when tested offline with artificial submicron mist and tested online for demisting bio-oil aerosol on the pyrolysis unit. Bio-oil Upgrading: Very often, phase separation of bio-oil occurs naturally upon condensation of the bio-oil vapors, typically through the use of cyclonic condensers. The bio-oil is separated into an organic phase and an aqueous phase. Research has been conducted on the possibility to enhance the fuel properties and energy performance of the organic phase by reducing its water content, enhancing its heating value and improving its stability. Through the use of drying agents, a remarkable reduction of water content and an increase of heating value can be achieved. Moreover, the volumetric energy density can be greatly

  5. Development of guidelines to review advanced human-system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) will utilize advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than 10 yr ago, considerably prior to these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, evaluation, and current status of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline

  6. Development of guidelines to review advanced human-system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRS) will utilize advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operators overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well prior to these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, evaluation, and current status of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline, hereafter referred to as the ''Guideline.''

  7. Development of advanced diagnostic technologies for motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegi, Kotaro; Shimizu, Shunichi; Higuma, Koji; Nishino, Koji; Osaki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kazumi; Hamano, Frank

    2010-01-01

    As use of condition-based maintenance is allowed in the new regulatory inspection system employed in Japan's nuclear power plants in 2009, development of advanced diagnostic technologies for motor-operated valves (MOVs) is now required. This report discusses advanced technologies in valve-setup verification, valve performance evaluation, monitoring of valve/actuator conditions by performance diagnostic system and moreover detection of stem crack by ultrasonic diagnostic system. (author)

  8. Development of inherent core technologies for advanced reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keung Koo; Noh, J.M.; Hwang, D.H.

    1999-03-01

    Recently, the developed countries made their effort on developing the advanced reactor which will result in significantly enhanced safety and economy. However, they will protect the advanced reactor and its design technology with patent and proprietary right. Therefore, it is very important to develop our own key core concepts and inherent core design technologies which can form a foundation of indigenous technologies for development of the domestic advanced reactor in order to keep the superiority in the nuclear plant building market among the developing countries. In order to provide the basic technology for the core design of advanced reactor, this project is for developing the inherent core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies and technologies for core analyses. The feasibility study of constructing domestic critical facilities are performed by surveying the status and utilization of foreign facilities and by investigating the demand for domestic facilities. The research results developed in this project, such as core analysis methodologies for hexagonal core, conceptual core design based on hexagonal fuel assemblies and soluble boron core design and control strategies, will provide a technical foundation in developing core design of domestic advanced reactor. Furthermore, they will strengthen the competitiveness of Korean nuclear technology. We also expect that some of the design concepts developed in this project to improve the reactor safety and economy can be applicable to the design of advanced reactor. This will significantly reduce the public anxiety on the nuclear power plant, and will contribute to the economy of construction and operation for the future domestic reactors. Even though the critical facility will not be constructed right now, the investigation of the status and utilization of foreign critical facility will contribute to the future critical facility construction. (author). 150 refs., 34 tabs., 103

  9. Development of inherent core technologies for advanced reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keung Koo; Noh, J.M.; Hwang, D.H. [and others

    1999-03-01

    Recently, the developed countries made their effort on developing the advanced reactor which will result in significantly enhanced safety and economy. However, they will protect the advanced reactor and its design technology with patent and proprietary right. Therefore, it is very important to develop our own key core concepts and inherent core design technologies which can form a foundation of indigenous technologies for development of the domestic advanced reactor in order to keep the superiority in the nuclear plant building market among the developing countries. In order to provide the basic technology for the core design of advanced reactor, this project is for developing the inherent core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies and technologies for core analyses. The feasibility study of constructing domestic critical facilities are performed by surveying the status and utilization of foreign facilities and by investigating the demand for domestic facilities. The research results developed in this project, such as core analysis methodologies for hexagonal core, conceptual core design based on hexagonal fuel assemblies and soluble boron core design and control strategies, will provide a technical foundation in developing core design of domestic advanced reactor. Furthermore, they will strengthen the competitiveness of Korean nuclear technology. We also expect that some of the design concepts developed in this project to improve the reactor safety and economy can be applicable to the design of advanced reactor. This will significantly reduce the public anxiety on the nuclear power plant, and will contribute to the economy of construction and operation for the future domestic reactors. Even though the critical facility will not be constructed right now, the investigation of the status and utilization of foreign critical facility will contribute to the future critical facility construction. (author). 150 refs., 34 tabs., 103

  10. Energy and environmental consciousness. Differences between advanced and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to understand how much differences there are between advanced countries and developing countries in terms of environmental and energy consciousness. We are experiencing now a big dilemma of the human desire to continue to exist and, at the same time, to develop the economy against the worsening of the Earth's environmental conditions. Understanding international differences of environmental and energy consciousness is a short way to solve this dilemma. The results of the present study were that peoples from advanced countries feel that science and technology are sometimes unreliable, while those from developing countries, are willing to rely upon them. However regardless of the country, people share the same consciousness about Earth's environment. In both, advanced and developing countries, people are reluctant to give up living comforts, unless this leads to a higher standard of living. Based on this result, the author would like to conduct another survey concerning the consciousness of future lifestyle. (author)

  11. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  13. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-01-01

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions

  14. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova Anna Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  15. Teaching of Psychology in Countries with Advanced versus Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2014-01-01

    We compare structures and contents of psychology programmes from countries with developing and advanced economies. Respondents from 49 countries completed a survey of the International Union of Psychological Science on psychology education and training. In general, there are more similarities than differences between countries with developing and…

  16. Strategies in development of advanced fuels for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Muneo

    1976-12-01

    Overseas strategies in development of advanced fuels for LMFBR are reviewed. Recent irradiation experiment and out-of-pile test data of the fuels are given in detail. The present status of development of oxide fueled LMFBR is also treated. (auth.)

  17. Advanced reach tool (ART) : Development of the mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Tongeren, M. van; Cherrie, J.W.; Tischer, M.; Schneider, T.; Schinkel, J.; Kromhout, H.; Warren, N.; Goede, H.; Tielemans, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the mechanistic model within a collaborative project, referred to as the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) project, to develop a tool to model inhalation exposure for workers sharing similar operational conditions across different industries and locations in Europe.

  18. Advancing Empirical Scholarship to Further Develop Evaluation Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Good theory development is grounded in empirical inquiry. In the context of educational evaluation, the development of empirically grounded theory has important benefits for the field and the practitioner. In particular, a shift to empirically derived theory will assist in advancing more systematic and contextually relevant evaluation practice, as…

  19. Chemical and biological warfare. Should defenses be researched and deployed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orient, J M

    1989-08-04

    The threat of chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction has intensified because of improved delivery systems and advances in chemistry, genetics, and other sciences. Possible US responses to this threat include deterrence, defenses, and/or disarmament, including a reaffirmation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention of 1972, which is now in jeopardy. This article discusses the history of chemical and biological warfare, existing and potential weapons, the proliferation of weapons and delivery systems, ways to prevent the use of these weapons, and ways to protect populations from their effects.

  20. Career advancement and professional development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, Rita K; Smith-Glasgow, Mary Ellen; Bhattacharya, Anand; Xu, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Excellence underscores the need for nurses to keep their skills and competencies current through participation in professional development and career advancement. Evidence suggests that internationally educated nurses (IENs) progress relatively slowly through the career ladder and participate less in professional development compared with nurses educated in the United States (UENs). Mentorship and self-efficacy are considered major determinants of career advancement. The aim of the study was to understand the differences in levels of mentorship function and self-efficacy as well as the differences in participation in professional development and career advancement between UENs and IENs. A descriptive survey design was implemented using a Web-based survey. Significant disparities were noted in the role model function of mentoring and some professional development and career advancement measures between UENs and IENs. Mentorship is essential for professional growth. Sociodemographic characteristics of mentors are important because mentors are role models. Standardized career advancement structures are needed to promote professional growth. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  1. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper examines defensive tactics and strategies from the German defense in depth that emerged from World War I to the American Active Defense that developed in the Cold War and proposes a new mindset for DIW that draws on these operational concepts from military history.

  2. Technology readiness levels for advanced nuclear fuels and materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, W.J., E-mail: jon.carmack@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, L.A.; Wigeland, R.A. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Todosow, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Definition of nuclear fuels system technology readiness level. • Identification of evaluation criteria for nuclear fuel system TRLs. • Application of TRLs to fuel systems. - Abstract: The Technology Readiness process quantitatively assesses the maturity of a given technology. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) pioneered the process in the 1980s to inform the development and deployment of new systems for space applications. The process was subsequently adopted by the Department of Defense (DoD) to develop and deploy new technology and systems for defense applications. It was also adopted by the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the maturity of new technologies in major construction projects. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is needed to improve the performance and safety of current and advanced reactors, and ultimately close the nuclear fuel cycle. Because deployment of new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the assessment process to advanced fuel development is useful as a management, communication, and tracking tool. This article provides definition of technology readiness levels (TRLs) for nuclear fuel technology as well as selected examples regarding the methods by which TRLs are currently used to assess the maturity of nuclear fuels and materials under development in the DOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Program within the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC).

  3. Evaluation and development of advanced nuclear materials: IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inozemtsev, V.; Basak, U.; Killeen, J.; Dyck, G.; Zeman, A.; )

    2011-01-01

    Economical, environmental and non-proliferation issues associated with sustainable development of nuclear power bring about a need for optimization of fuel cycles and implementation of advanced nuclear systems. While a number of physical and design concepts are available for innovative reactors, the absence of reliable materials able to sustain new challenging irradiation conditions represents the real bottle-neck for practical implementation of these promising ideas. Materials performance and integrity are key issues for the safety and competitiveness of future nuclear installations being developed for sustainable nuclear energy production incorporating fuel recycling and waste transmutation systems. These systems will feature high thermal operational efficiency, improved utilization of resources (both fissile and fertile materials) and reduced production of nuclear waste. They will require development, qualification and deployment of new and advanced fuel and structural materials with improved mechanical and chemical properties combined with high radiation and corrosion resistance. The extensive, diverse, and expensive efforts toward the development of these materials can be more effectively organized within international collaborative programmes with wide participation of research, design and engineering communities. IAEA carries out a number of international projects supporting interested Member States with the use of available IAEA program implementation tools (Coordinated Research Projects, Technical Meetings, Expert Reviews, etc). The presentation summarizes the activities targeting material developments for advanced nuclear systems, with particular emphasis on fast reactors, which are the focal topics of IAEA Coordinated Research Projects 'Accelerator Simulation and Theoretical Modelling of Radiation Effects' (on-going), 'Benchmarking of Structural Materials Pre-Selected for Advanced Nuclear Reactors', 'Examination of advanced fast reactor fuel and core

  4. Warfare and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shann, Frank

    2010-05-01

    In 2007, 136 million children were born in the world, and 9.2 million died before they were 5 years old; 99.8% of these deaths were in developing countries, and 8.2 million were unnecessary. This is 23 000 unnecessary deaths every day. Approximately 0.2 million children die from the direct effects of war every year, and at least twice as many die from the indirect effects. However, most child deaths are caused by common childhood infections in communities that are not affected by war. In 2007, overseas development aid totalled only $104 billion, and world military expenditure totalled US$1339 billion. The 49 poorest countries in the world have a population of 1.3 billion; they spent only $27 per person on health in 2006, but the world spent $201 per person on military activity. The five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council account for 90% of weapons sales to developing countries, yet they are the very countries that have accepted responsibility for ensuring world security. Unfortunately, many governments in both rich and poor countries do not want to limit military spending - the vested interests that support military activity are too powerful. War is immensely harmful, but not primarily because of the horrible injuries, nor the large number of deaths it causes indirectly from infection, malnutrition, and social and political disruption. By far, the greatest harm comes from the diversion of huge amounts of money that could be used for beneficial development into harmful and destructive military activity.

  5. Physics of thin films advances in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Georg; Vossen, John L

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, Volume 12 reviews advances that have been made in research and development concerning the physics of thin films. This volume covers a wide range of preparative approaches, physics phenomena, and applications related to thin films. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with a discussion on metal coatings and protective layers for front surface mirrors used at various angles of incidence from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Thin-film materials and deposition conditions suitable for minimizing reflectance changes with

  6. Advanced remote handling developments for high radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.N.; Kring, C.T.; Feldman, M.J.; Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.; Rowe, J.C.; Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Remote Control Engineering Task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing advanced techniques for remote maintenance of future US fuel reprocessing plants. These efforts are based on the application of teleoperated, force-reflecting servomanipulators for dexterous remote handling with television viewing for large-volume hazardous applications. These developments fully address the nonrepetitive nature of remote maintenance in the unstructured environments encountered in fuel reprocessing. This paper covers the primary emphasis in the present program; the design, fabrication, and installation of a prototype remote handling system for reprocessing applications, the Advanced Integrated Maintenance System

  7. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  8. State of development progress of advanced boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomono, Katsuya

    1982-01-01

    Advanced BWRs being developed at present are those aiming at the improvement of reliability and safety, the reduction of radiation exposure, the improvement of operation performance and capacity ratio of plants, and the heightening of economical efficiency by concentrating the experience and excellent technology of BWR manufacturers in the world. Now in Japan, the independence with Japanese technology is possible in almost all fields of nuclear power generation, and the improvement and standardization project is in progress to obtain the steady results. However, in order to pursue the most desirable BWRs conceivable at present, five BWR manufacturers in the world organized the Advanced Engineering Team in July, 1978, and performed the feasibility study of advanced BWRs for more than one year. Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., evaluated the report on the results, and judged that it is desirable to advance into the next stage aiming at the practical use of advanced BWRs. For the purpose, the electric power common research on advanced BWRs has been in progress, and the A-BWR project is to be examined in the third improvement and standardization project of MITI. The main technical features such as the coolant recirculation system of internal pump type, reinforced concrete containment vessels, fine motion control rod drive, improved core and fuel and others are explained. (Kako, I.)

  9. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  10. Development of advanced, non-toxic, synthetic radiation shielding aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudgal, Manish; Chouhan, Ramesh Kumar; Verma, Sarika; Amritphale, Sudhir Sitaram; Das, Satyabrata [CSIR-Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, Bhopal (India); Shrivastva, Arvind [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL), Mumbai (India)

    2018-04-01

    For the first time in the world, the capability of red mud waste has been explored for the development of advanced synthetic radiation shielding aggregate. Red mud, an aluminium industry waste consists of multi component, multi elemental characteristics. In this study, red mud from two different sources have been utilized. Chemical formulation and mineralogical designing of the red mud has been done by ceramic processing using appropriate reducing agent and additives. The chemical analysis, SEM microphotographs and XRD analysis confirms the presence of multi-component, multi shielding and multi-layered phases in both the different developed advance synthetic radiation shielding aggregate. The mechanical properties, namely aggregate impact value, aggregate crushing value and aggregate abrasion value have also been evaluated and was compared with hematite ore aggregate and found to be an excellent material useful for making advanced radiation shielding concrete for the construction of nuclear power plants and other radiation installations.

  11. Cost/Benefit Prioritization for Advanced Safeguards Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.F.; Adeli, R.; Thomas, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    A system level study utilizing commercially available Extend TM software, has been initiated to perform cost/benefit analyses for advanced safeguards research and development. The methodology is focused on estimating standard error in the inventory difference (SEID) for reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities, for various proposed advanced safeguards measurement technologies. The inventory duration, and consequent number of inventories per year, is dictated by the detection of a significant quantity of special nuclear material (SNM). Detection is limited by the cumulative measurement uncertainty for the entire system. The cost of inventories is then compared with the cost of advanced instrumentation and/or process design changes. Current progress includes development of the methodology, future efforts will be focused on ascertaining estimated costs and performance. Case studies will be provided as examples of the methodology. (author)

  12. Verification tests for CANDU advanced fuel -Development of the advanced CANDU technology-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jang Hwan; Suk, Ho Cheon; Jeong, Moon Ki; Park, Joo Hwan; Jeong, Heung Joon; Jeon, Ji Soo; Kim, Bok Deuk

    1994-07-01

    This project is underway in cooperation with AECL to develop the CANDU advanced fuel bundle (so-called, CANFLEX) which can enhance reactor safety and fuel economy in comparison with the current CANDU fuel and which can be used with natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium and other advanced fuel cycle. As the final schedule, the advanced fuel will be verified by carrying out a large scale demonstration of the bundle irradiation in a commercial CANDU reactor, and consequently will be used in the existing and future CANDU reactors in Korea. The research activities during this year Out-of-pile hydraulic tests for the prototype of CANFLEX bundle was conducted in the CANDU-hot test loop at KAERI. Thermalhydraulic analysis with the assumption of CANFLEX-NU fuel loaded in Wolsong-1 was performed by using thermalhydraulic code, and the thermal margin and T/H compatibility of CANFLEX bundle with existing fuel for CANDU-6 reactor have been evaluated. (Author)

  13. Moltke as a Model for Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Daniel P

    1998-01-01

    ... with late 20th century Information Warfare (IW). Clausewitz, with his emphasis on concentrating forces for a decisive battle, or Sun Tzu, with his focus on an indirect approach and subduing the enemy without battle, might appear to be more...

  14. Gas Warfare in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintham, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of gas warfare during World War I was increased by the lack of a basic understanding of the behavior of gases on the part of the soldiers. This was a result of deficiencies in science education. (BB)

  15. Prehistoric ceremonial warfare: beginning of institutionalized violence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2017), s. 535-548 ISSN 1555-8622 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : human aggression * ceremonial warfare * archery symbolism * Neolithic * Chalcolithic * Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  16. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howes, Norman R; Mezzino, Michael; Sarkesain, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Cyber warfare then becomes a one-sided battle where the attacker makes all the strikes and the target of the attack responds so slowly that the attacker usually gets away without being identified...

  17. Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Muhammad

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the need for specialist training for mountain warfare. It analyzes the special characteristics of mountain and high altitude terrain which affect conduct of military operations...

  18. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  19. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  20. Insurgent Uprising: An Unconventional Warfare Wargame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Cleveland, Charles T. Connett, and Will Irwin. “Unconventional Warfare in the Gray Zone.” Joint Forces Quarterly 80, no. 1 (2016). Work, Robert O...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Today, and in the future, unconventional solutions will present U.S. policymakers with options for dealing...training objectives and will complement existing training exercises. 14. SUBJECT TERMS unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct

  1. Distributed computing environment for Mine Warfare Command

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Lane L.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Mine Warfare Command in Charleston, South Carolina has been converting its information systems architecture from a centralized mainframe based system to a decentralized network of personal computers over the past several years. This thesis analyzes the progress Of the evolution as of May of 1992. The building blocks of a distributed architecture are discussed in relation to the choices the Mine Warfare Command has made to date. Ar...

  2. Route survey periodicity for mine warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Coke, Hartwell F.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited One of the Navy's most long standing challenges has been conquering the mine warfare threat. As mines and mine warfare techniques evolve and become more sophisticated, so does the United States' ability to counter the threat. The United States newest technique for countering a potential mined harbor, or route, is a process known as "change detection." This concept uses previous side scan sonar images of the area prior to a mining event an...

  3. RELAP5 kinetics model development for the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, J.L.; Terry, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    A point-kinetics model of the Advanced Test Reactor has been developed for the RELAP5 code. Reactivity feedback parameters were calculated by a three-dimensional analysis with the PDQ neutron diffusion code. Analyses of several hypothetical reactivity insertion events by the new model and two earlier models are discussed. 3 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

  5. Method and Tools for Development of Advanced Instructional Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arend, J. van der; Riemersma, J.B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of advanced instructional systems (AISs), like computer-based training systems, intelligent tutoring systems and training simulators, is widely spread within the Royal Netherlands Army. As a consequence there is a growing interest in methods and tools to develop effective and

  6. New advances in cystic fibrosis - implications for developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New advances in cystic fibrosis - implications for developing countries. Heather J Zar, Eric Bateman, Michelle Ramsay. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM.

  7. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2005-11-04

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  8. Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2006-09-30

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  9. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2006-05-15

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  10. The Development of Conjunction Use in Advanced L2 Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszek, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the results of a longitudinal study of how the use of conjunctions, as an aspect of spoken discourse competence of 13 selected advanced students of English, developed throughout their 3-year English as a foreign language (EFL) tertiary education. The analysis was carried out in relation to a number of variables, including 2…

  11. Development of superconductor application technology -Advanced nuclear materials development-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Gyee Won; Won, Dong Yeon; Lee, Hui Gyun; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Chan Joong; Park, Soon Dong; Kim, Uh Kon; Kim, Ki Baek; Kwon, Seon Chil; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lim, Dae Ho; Kim, Jong Jin

    1994-06-01

    Formation of oxide superconducting phase, fabrication of superconducting wire, design and fabrication of precise superconducting magnet were studied for developing superconductor application technique. The CeO 2 addition reduced the particle size of Y 2 BaCuO 5 trapped in the matrix after the melt-texture growth. The anomally is not observed at low temperature, which indicates that the oxygen deficiency is not effective flux pinning site at these temperature. Powder-in-powder method was developed to make superconducting wire. The stacking method for bonding the high Tc superconducting tapes was developed and proto-type current lead was fabricated by this technique. The precise superconducting coil was designed and fabricated. The required 4.02tesla was obtained on 139 A. The field deviation along the z axis of 5 cm was below 10 ppm when using 4 terms of shim cols. (Author)

  12. Recent advances in fuel product and manufacturing process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slember, R.J.; Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses advancements in commercial nuclear fuel products and manufacturing made by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in response to the commercial nuclear fuel industry's demand for high reliability, increased plant availability and improved operating flexibility. The features and benefits of Westinghouse's most advanced fuel products--VANTAGE 5 for PWR plants and QUAD+ for BWR plants--are described, as well as 'high performance' fuel concepts now under development for delivery in the late 1980s. The paper also disusses the importance of in-process quality control throughout manufacturing towards reducing product variability and improving fuel reliability. (author)

  13. Nuclear techniques in the development of advanced ceramic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axe, J.D.; Hewat, A.W.; Maier, J.; Margaca, F.M.A.; Rauch, H.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of research, development and application of advanced materials is well understood by all developed and most developing countries. Amongst advanced materials, ceramics play a prominent role due to their specific chemical and physical properties. According to performance and importance, advanced ceramics can be classified as structural ceramics (mechanical function) and the so-called functional ceramics. In the latter class of materials, special electrical, chemical, thermal, magnetic and optical properties are of interest. The most valuable materials are multifunctional, for example, when structural ceramics combine beneficial mechanical properties with thermal and chemical sensitivity. Multifunctionality is characteristic of many composite materials (organic/inorganic composite). Additionally, properties of material can be changed by reducing its dimension (thin films, nanocrystalline ceramics). Nuclear techniques, found important applications in research and development of advanced ceramics. The use of neutron techniques has increased dramatically in recent years due to the development of advanced neutron sources, instrumentation and improved data analysis. Typical neutron techniques are neutron diffraction, neutron radiography, small angle neutron scattering and very small angle neutron scattering. Neutrons can penetrate deeply into most materials thus sampling their bulk properties. In determination of the crystal structure of HTSC, YBa 2 Cu 2 O 7 , XRD located the heavy metal atoms, but failed in finding many of the oxygen atoms, while the neutron diffraction located all atoms equally well in the crystal structure. Neutron diffraction is also unique for the determination of the magnetic structure of materials since the neutrons themselves have a magnetic moment. Application of small angle neutron scattering for the determination of the size of hydrocarbon aggregates within the zeolite channels is illustrated. (author)

  14. Developmental Testing of Liquid and Gaseous/Vaporous Decontamination on Bacterial Spores and Other Biological Warfare Agents on Military Relevant Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    Vaporous Decontamination on Bacterial Spores and Other Biological Warfare Agents on Military-Relevant Surfaces 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT... DECONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL SPORES AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS ON MILITARY-RELEVANT SURFACES Page Paragraph 1. SCOPE...surfaces before and after decontamination . The protocol in this TOP is based on the developed test methodologies from Edgewood Chemical Biological

  15. Robotics Technology Development Program Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, R.W.; Horschel, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    Need-based cross cutting technology is being developed which is broadly applicable to the clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste within the US Department of Energy's complex. Highly modular, reusable technologies which plug into integrated system architectures to meet specific robotic needs result from this research. In addition, advanced technologies which significantly extend current capabilities such as automated planning and sensor-based control in unstructured environments for remote system operation are also being developed and rapidly integrated into operating systems

  16. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  17. Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology program is developing next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. Performance goals of advanced radioisotope power systems include improvement over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. NASA has awarded ten contracts in the technology areas of Brayton, Stirling, Thermoelectric, and Thermophotovoltaic power conversion including five development contracts that deal with more mature technologies and five research contracts. The Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team includes members from NASA GRC, JPL, DOE and Orbital Sciences whose function is to review the technologies being developed under the ten Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology contracts and assess their relevance to NASA's future missions. Presented is an overview of the ten radioisotope power conversion technology contracts and NASA's Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team.

  18. On the Probability of Predicting and Mapping Traditional Warfare Measurements to the Cyber Warfare Domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyber warfare is a contentious topic, with no agreement on whether this is a real possibility or an unrealistic extension of the physical battlefield. This article will not debate the validity and legality of the concept of cyber warfare...

  19. Development in Diagnostics Application to Control Advanced Tokamak Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Y.

    2008-01-01

    For continuous operation expected in DEMO, all the plasma current must be non-inductively driven, with self-generated neoclassical bootstrap current being maximized. The control of such steady state high performance tokamak plasma (so-called 'Advanced Tokamak Plasma') is a challenge because of the strong coupling between the current density, the pressure profile and MHD stability. In considering diagnostic needs for the advanced tokamak research, diagnostics for MHD are the most fundamental, since discharges which violate the MHD stability criteria either disrupt or have significantly reduced confinement. This report deals with the development in diagnostic application to control advanced tokamak plasma, with emphasized on recent progress in active feedback control of the current profile and the pressure profile under DEMO-relevant high bootstrap-current fraction. In addition, issues in application of the present-day actuators and diagnostics for the advanced control to DEMO will be briefly addressed, where port space for the advanced control may be limited so as to keep sufficient tritium breeding ratio (TBR)

  20. Selection and development of advanced nuclear fuel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, David L.; Miller, Richard S.; Arnsberger, Peter L.

    2004-01-01

    The highly competitive international marketplace requires a continuing product development commitment, short development cycle times and timely, on-target product development to assure customer satisfaction and continuing business. Westinghouse has maintained its leadership position within the nuclear fuel industry with continuous developments and improvements to fuel assembly materials and design. This paper presents a discussion of the processes used by Westinghouse in the selection and refinement of advanced concepts for deployment in the highly competitive US and international nuclear fuel fabrication marketplace. (author)

  1. Objectives for the development of advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The scope of this report is to reiterate the broad objectives for the development of advanced nuclear plants, to set forth some related subobjectives and to propose some universal goals for the development programmes. The majority of these can be categorized under the headings of enhancing safety, improving reliability and gaining better economics. These categories are used in the report followed by additional categories considered to be important within the global framework intended. Additional broad objectives appear unlikely but more subobjectives may become evident as time progresses and the need arises to express them in the intended more global framework. The goals also may change. The scope is therefore a set of objectives for development of advanced nuclear plants. The objectives are believed to be universally acceptable; they have been reviewed on that basis. 13 refs

  2. Architectural development of an advanced EVA Electronic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An advanced electronic system for future EVA missions (including zero gravity, the lunar surface, and the surface of Mars) is under research and development within the Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center. As a first step in the development, an optimum system architecture has been derived from an analysis of the projected requirements for these missions. The open, modular architecture centers around a distributed multiprocessing concept where the major subsystems independently process their own I/O functions and communicate over a common bus. Supervision and coordination of the subsystems is handled by an embedded real-time operating system kernel employing multitasking software techniques. A discussion of how the architecture most efficiently meets the electronic system functional requirements, maximizes flexibility for future development and mission applications, and enhances the reliability and serviceability of the system in these remote, hostile environments is included.

  3. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloiu, Valentin A. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  4. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Development: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2005-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give an update of the Advanced Power Electronics and Components Technology being developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center for use in future Power Management and Distribution subsystems used in space power systems for spacecraft and lunar and planetary surface power. The initial description and status of this technology program was presented two years ago at the First International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference held at Portsmouth, Virginia, August 2003. The present paper will give a brief background of the previous work reported and a summary of research performed the past several years on soft magnetic materials characterization, dielectric materials and capacitor developments, high quality silicon carbide atomically smooth substrates, and SiC static and dynamic device characterization under elevated temperature conditions. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will also be briefly discussed.

  5. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  6. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarno, Kevin (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  7. Development of Operational Parameters for Advanced Voloxidation Process at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Won; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Yun, Y. W.; Park, G. I.; Lee, J. W.

    2010-10-01

    KAERI has been developing a voloxidation process as a head-end process of pyroprocessing technology with INL (Idaho National Laboratory). The work scope of KAERI is to develop the operation parameters for advanced voloxidation process at KAERI using surrogate materials and SIMFUEL. In order to evaluate operation conditions of an advanced voloxidation process, oxidation and vaporization behavior of metals and Cs compounds was investigated in terms of thermal treatment atmosphere and temperature by using thermodynamic data. And also, the oxidation and vaporization behavior of semi-volatile fission products with process pressure and temperature was investigated using surrogate materials. Particle size control for U 3 O 8 powder was investigated using SIMFUEL and a rotary voloxidizer. According to analysis of KAERI works, the operation conditions for advanced voloxiation process may be consisted of the following four steps: 1) oxidation of UO 2 pellet into U 3 O 8 powder at 500 .deg. C in oxidative atmosphere, 2) additional oxidation of noble metal alloy and vaporization of high vapor pressure of fission products at 700 .deg. C in oxidative atmosphere, 3) granulation of U 3 O 8 powder and vaporization of Cs compounds at 1200 .deg. C in an atmosphere of argon, and 4) reduction of UO 2+x granules into UO 2 granules at 1000 .deg. C in an atmosphere of 4%H 2 -Ar. This report will be used as a useful means for determining the operation parameters for advanced voloxidation process

  8. Status of advanced nuclear reactor development in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.R.; Kim, K.K.; Kim, Y.W.; Joo, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    The Korean nuclear industry is facing new challenges to solve the spent fuel storage problem and meet the needs to diversify the application areas of nuclear energy. In order to provide solutions to these challenges, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing advanced nuclear reactors including a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor, Very High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (VHTR), and System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART) with substantially improved safety, economics, and environment-friendly features. A fast reactor system is one of the most promising options for a reduction of radioactive wastes. The long-term plan for Advanced SFR development in conjunction with the pyro-process was authorized by the Korean Atomic Energy Commission in 2008. The development milestone includes specific design approval of a prototype SFR by 2020, and the construction of a prototype SFR by 2028. KAERI has been carrying out the preliminary design of a 150MWe SFR prototype plant system since 2012. The development of advanced SFR technologies and the basic key technologies necessary for the prototype SFR are also being carried out. By virtue of high-temperature heat, a VHTR has diverse applications including hydrogen production. KAERI launched a nuclear hydrogen project using a VHTR in 2006, which focused on four basic technologies: the development of design tools, very high-temperature experimental technology, TRISO fuel fabrication, and Sulfur-iodine thermo-chemical hydrogen production technology. The technology development project will be continued until 2017. A conceptual reactor design study was started in 2012 as collaboration between industry and government to enhance the early-launching of the nuclear hydrogen development and demonstration (NHDD) project. The goal of the NHDD project is to design and build a nuclear hydrogen demonstration system by 2030. KAERI has developed SMART which is a small-sized advanced integral reactor with a rated

  9. The development of advanced robotic technology -The development of advanced robotics for the nuclear industry-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Woong Ki; Park, Soon Yong; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Chang Hoi; Hwang, Suk Yeoung; Kim, Byung Soo; Lee, Young Kwang

    1994-07-01

    In this year (the second year of this project), researches and development have been carried out to establish the essential key technologies applied to robot system for nuclear industry. In the area of robot vision, in order to construct stereo vision system necessary to tele-operation, stereo image acquisition camera module and stereo image displayer have been developed. Stereo matching and storing programs have been developed to analyse stereo images. According to the result of tele-operation experiment, operation efficiency has been enhanced about 20% by using the stereo vision system. In a part of object recognition, a tele-operated robot system has been constructed to evaluate the performance of the stereo vision system and to develop the vision algorithm to automate nozzle dam operation. A nuclear fuel rod character recognition system has been developed by using neural network. As a result of perfomance evaluation of the recognition system, 99% recognition rate has been achieved. In the area of sensing and intelligent control, temperature distribution has been measured by using the analysis of thermal image histogram and the inspection algorithm has been developed to determine of the state be normal or abnormal, and the fuzzy controller has been developed to control the compact mobile robot designed for path moving on block-typed path. (Author)

  10. The Impact of Irregular Warfare on the US Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, III, Roger L

    2006-01-01

    Although the U.S. Army has yet to clearly define irregular warfare, it is imperative that the Army take near-term action to enhance the ability of Soldiers and units to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment...

  11. Dilemmas of Warfare in Densely Populated Civilian Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Tamir

    2012-01-01

    This essay attempts to present operational perspectives on conducting warfare in densely populated areas. It also distinguishes between three types of combat within this general category, with the goal of shedding light on this complex type of warfare.

  12. Advanced nuclear materials development -Development of superconductor application technology-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kye Won; Lee, Heui Kyoon; Lee, Hoh Jin; Kim, Chan Joong; Jang, Kun Ik; Kim, Kee Baek; Kwon, Sun Chil; Park, Hae Woong; Yoo, Jae Keun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jang, Joong Chul; Yang, Suk Woo

    1995-07-01

    Fabrication of high Tc bulk superconductor and its application, fabrication of superconducting wire for electric power device and analysis for cryogenic system were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies for electric power system. High quality YBaCuO bulk superconductor was fabricated by controlling initial powder preparation process and prototype fly wheel energy storage device was designed basically. The superconducting levitation force measuring device was made to examine the property of prepared superconductor specimen. Systematic studies on the method of starting powder preparation, mechanical fabrication process, heat treatment condition and analysis of plastic deformation were carried out to increase the stability and reproducibility of superconducting wire. A starting powder with good reactivity and fine particle size was obtained by emulsion drying method. Ag/BSCCO tape with good cross sectional shape and Tc of 16,000 A/cm 2 was fabricated by applying CIP packing procedure. Multifilamentary wire with the Jc of approx. 10000 A/cm 2 was fabricated by rolling method using square billet as starting shape. The joining of the multifilament wire was done by etching and pressing process and showed 50% of joining efficiency. Analysis on the heat loss in cryostat for high Tc superconducting device was carried out for optimum design of the future cryogenic system. 126 figs, 14 tabs, 214 refs. (Author)

  13. Advanced nuclear materials development -Development of superconductor application technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Kye Won; Lee, Heui Kyoon; Lee, Hoh Jin; Kim, Chan Joong; Jang, Kun Ik; Kim, Kee Baek; Kwon, Sun Chil; Park, Hae Woong; Yoo, Jae Keun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jang, Joong Chul; Yang, Suk Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Fabrication of high Tc bulk superconductor and its application, fabrication of superconducting wire for electric power device and analysis for cryogenic system were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies for electric power system. High quality YBaCuO bulk superconductor was fabricated by controlling initial powder preparation process and prototype fly wheel energy storage device was designed basically. The superconducting levitation force measuring device was made to examine the property of prepared superconductor specimen. Systematic studies on the method of starting powder preparation, mechanical fabrication process, heat treatment condition and analysis of plastic deformation were carried out to increase the stability and reproducibility of superconducting wire. A starting powder with good reactivity and fine particle size was obtained by emulsion drying method. Ag/BSCCO tape with good cross sectional shape and Tc of 16,000 A/cm{sup 2} was fabricated by applying CIP packing procedure. Multifilamentary wire with the Jc of approx. 10000 A/cm{sup 2} was fabricated by rolling method using square billet as starting shape. The joining of the multifilament wire was done by etching and pressing process and showed 50% of joining efficiency. Analysis on the heat loss in cryostat for high Tc superconducting device was carried out for optimum design of the future cryogenic system. 126 figs, 14 tabs, 214 refs. (Author).

  14. Comparisons among different development ways of advanced reactors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xingqu; Lin Jianwen; Wang Ruoli

    1992-03-01

    For the development of nuclear energy in the 21st century, China will select a new type reactor to develop, which will have higher fuel efficiency, high safety and better economics. The selection is among the types of FBR (fast breeder reactor), HTGR (high temperature gas-cooled reactor) and FFHR (fusion-fission hybrid reactor). Since the evaluation of advanced reactors involves many uncertain factors and the difficulty of quantization, both the AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method and expert consultation are adopted. Four aspects are taken in the norm system of AHP, i.e. safety, maturity of technology, economy and appropriateness. By using questionnaire method to experts and studying related documents, five types of advanced reactor are selected, i.e. oxide fueled FBR, metal fueled FBR, uranium fueled HTGR, U-Th fueled HTGR and FFBR. Their evaluation parameters are a comprehensively assessed and sorted. About 130 experts and professors who have been working in the research institutes and government agencies of nuclear field are asked to give their comments on the development of advanced reactors. The response rate of questionnaires is 86%, and the data collected are processed by computers. From the evaluation result of AHP method and expert consultation of the fast breeder reactor, especially, the metal fueled FBR, should have the priority in nuclear energy development in the 21st century in China

  15. The development of advanced robotics for the nuclear industry -The development of advanced robotic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Park, Soon Woong; Cho, Jae Wan; Lee, Nam Ho; Kim, Woong Ki; Moon, Byung Soo; Lee, Young Jae; Kim, Chang Hoi; Kim, Seung Ho; Hwang, Seok Yong; Kim, Byung Soo; Moon, Jae Sun; Lee, Young Kwang; Choi, Kap Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The comparison study of 3 kinds of stereo camera modules done in this final year of 4 year`s longterm project shows that regenerating characteristics of stereo image of stereo camera using horizontally moving lens axis method is superior to the other two modules. Base on this comparison result, stereo camera module using horizontally moving lens method is developed. Also, stereo-Boom unit, high definition polarized stereo monitor(KAERI-PSM II) and 10.4sec. auto-stereogram TV using parallax barrier method are developed. These developed systems can be used for people involved in extremely hazardous working area to give vivid reality image of work environment. In the recognition and tracking section, auto-vergencing technology using focus fixation and cepstral filter, stereo camera calibration, range measurement technology using stereo camera module are developed. And active target tracking technology is developed also. In the sensing and intelligent control research part, active radioactivity image monitoring unit is developed. The spatial resolution of monitoring unit is 10cm at 1m distance, FOV is 60x40 deg [HXV], and radioactivity detection limit is 1mR/hr. Also, radiation-resistant inspection camera for nuclear facilities is designed. In the intelligent control section, fuzzy control algorithm for obstacle detouring navigation of mobile robot is developed. The smoothing techniques by fuzzy set is adapted to raise the pliability of obstacle detouring navigation of mobile robot. In order to raise robustness of developed fuzzy algorithm, fuzzy control algorithm is applied to `Truck Backer Upper` problem and tuned. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Development of advanced spent fuel management process. System analysis of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, S.G.; Kang, D.S.; Seo, C.S.; Lee, H.H.; Shin, Y.J.; Park, S.W.

    1999-03-01

    The system analysis of an advanced spent fuel management process to establish a non-proliferation model for the long-term spent fuel management is performed by comparing the several dry processes, such as a salt transport process, a lithium process, the IFR process developed in America, and DDP developed in Russia. In our system analysis, the non-proliferation concept is focused on the separation factor between uranium and plutonium and decontamination factors of products in each process, and the non-proliferation model for the long-term spent fuel management has finally been introduced. (Author). 29 refs., 17 tabs., 12 figs

  17. The Institutionalization of Private Sector Strategic Planning Methods in a Public Sector Research & Development Organization: The Naval Surface Warfare Center Case 1982-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    infancy during Cycle I, at the novice level during Cycle II, and at the advanced beginner level during Cycle III. The next two sections and Chapters 6...5 Table 1 - 1983 NSWC Planning Activities . . . . . . . 14 Table 1A - Planning Activity Flowchart . . . . . . . 14.1 Table 2 - Sector/SBU

  18. Development of design and analysis software for advanced nuclear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yican; Hu Liqin; Long Pengcheng; Luo Yuetong; Li Yazhou; Zeng Qin; Lu Lei; Zhang Junjun; Zou Jun; Xu Dezheng; Bai Yunqing; Zhou Tao; Chen Hongli; Peng Lei; Song Yong; Huang Qunying

    2010-01-01

    A series of professional codes, which are necessary software tools and data libraries for advanced nuclear system design and analysis, were developed by the FDS Team, including the codes of automatic modeling, physics and engineering calculation, virtual simulation and visualization, system engineering and safety analysis and the related database management etc. The development of these software series was proposed as an exercise of development of nuclear informatics. This paper introduced the main functions and key techniques of the software series, as well as some tests and practical applications. (authors)

  19. Micro gravity - an important tool for development of advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, S.

    1995-01-01

    Microgravity provides the researchers the opportunity to investigate and improve the methods of creating advanced materials on earth. This can in turn assist in the advanced of economically significant technologies and technology infusement into the private sector. In some unique cases, involving inherently expensive materials that must have high purity, such as composites, high grade alloys etc. small amounts be made in space commercially and viably. A number of developed countries have gained sufficient expertise in material processing and other experiments under microgravity conditions, and their progress has been quite tremendous in this vital area of space research. The four important modes of platform, i.e., space shuttle/satellite, rocket flights, aircraft and drop tower tests have been employed for this purpose. Processing of materials in all such cases differs from the point of view of its cost effectiveness, time required to perform the expertise, instrumentation set up etc. In region of Far East and South East Asia, only one or two countries have made some advances in material processing experiments under microgravity conditions both in the upper atmosphere as well as using Drop Tower Test, but limited experimental means have made these countries to strive in this research area compared to work done in author advanced countries. The paper describes a brief history of microgravity experiments, their types and mode of transport employed for processing of novel materials under extreme low gravity or zero gravity conditions. This will definitely be useful and beneficial to developing nations of this region have entered an era of sophisticated and advanced materials processing and its utilization for industries such as aerospace, nuclear power plants, strategic materials, electronics, biological communication etc. (author)

  20. The development of advanced robotics for the nuclear industry -The development of advanced robotic technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Park, Soon Yong; Cho, Jae Wan; Lee, Nam Hoh; Kim, Woong Kee; Moon, Byung Soo; Kim, Seung Hoh; Kim, Chang Heui; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yong; Lee, Yung Kwang; Moon, Je Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Main activity in this year is to develop both remote handling system and telepresence techniques, which can be used for people involved in extremely hazardous working area to alleviate their burden. In the robot vision technology part, KAERI-PSM system, stereo imaging camera module, stereo BOOM/MOLLY unit, and stereo HMD unit are developed. Also, autostereo TV system which falls under the category of next generation stereo imaging technology has been studied. The performance of KAERI-PSM system for remote handling task is evaluated and compared with other stereo imaging systems as well as general TV imaging system. The result shows that KAERI-PSM system is superior to the other stereo imaging systems about remote operation speedup and accuracy. The automatic recognition algorithm of instrument panel is studied and passive visual target tracking system is developed. The 5 DOF camera serving unit has been designed and fabricated. It is designed to function like human`s eye. In the sensing and intelligent control research part, thermal image database system for thermal image analysis is developed and remote temperature monitoring technique using fiber optics is investigated. And also, two dimensional radioactivity sensor head for radiation profile monitoring system is designed. In the part of intelligent robotics, mobile robot is fabricated and its autonomous navigation using fuzzy control logic is studied. These remote handling and telepresence techniques developed in this project can be applied to nozzle-dam installation/removal robot system, reactor inspection unit, underwater nuclear pellet inspection and pipe abnormality inspection. And these developed remote handling and telepresence techniques will be applied in general industry, medical science, and military as well as nuclear facilities. 203 figs, 12 tabs, 72 refs. (Author).

  1. The development of advanced robotics for the nuclear industry -The development of advanced robotic technology-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Park, Soon Yong; Cho, Jae Wan; Lee, Nam Hoh; Kim, Woong Kee; Moon, Byung Soo; Kim, Seung Hoh; Kim, Chang Heui; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yong; Lee, Yung Kwang; Moon, Je Sun

    1995-07-01

    Main activity in this year is to develop both remote handling system and telepresence techniques, which can be used for people involved in extremely hazardous working area to alleviate their burden. In the robot vision technology part, KAERI-PSM system, stereo imaging camera module, stereo BOOM/MOLLY unit, and stereo HMD unit are developed. Also, autostereo TV system which falls under the category of next generation stereo imaging technology has been studied. The performance of KAERI-PSM system for remote handling task is evaluated and compared with other stereo imaging systems as well as general TV imaging system. The result shows that KAERI-PSM system is superior to the other stereo imaging systems about remote operation speedup and accuracy. The automatic recognition algorithm of instrument panel is studied and passive visual target tracking system is developed. The 5 DOF camera serving unit has been designed and fabricated. It is designed to function like human's eye. In the sensing and intelligent control research part, thermal image database system for thermal image analysis is developed and remote temperature monitoring technique using fiber optics is investigated. And also, two dimensional radioactivity sensor head for radiation profile monitoring system is designed. In the part of intelligent robotics, mobile robot is fabricated and its autonomous navigation using fuzzy control logic is studied. These remote handling and telepresence techniques developed in this project can be applied to nozzle-dam installation/removal robot system, reactor inspection unit, underwater nuclear pellet inspection and pipe abnormality inspection. And these developed remote handling and telepresence techniques will be applied in general industry, medical science, and military as well as nuclear facilities. It has been looking for these techniques to expand the working area of human, raise the working efficiencies of remote task to the highest degree, and enhance the industrial

  2. Advanced Boost System Developing for High EGR Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Harold

    2012-09-30

    To support industry efforts of clean and efficient internal combustion engine development for passenger and commercial applications • This program focuses on turbocharger improvement for medium and light duty diesel applications, from complete system optimization percepective to enable commercialization of advanced diesel combustion technologies, such as HCCI/LTC. • Improve combined turbocharger efficiency up to 10% or fuel economy by 3% on FTP cycle at Tier II Bin 5 emission level.

  3. Recent advances in developing small molecules targeting RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lirui; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-01-20

    RNAs are underexploited targets for small molecule drugs or chemical probes of function. This may be due, in part, to a fundamental lack of understanding of the types of small molecules that bind RNA specifically and the types of RNA motifs that specifically bind small molecules. In this review, we describe recent advances in the development and design of small molecules that bind to RNA and modulate function that aim to fill this void.

  4. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  5. Advancement of CMOS Doping Technology in an External Development Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amitabh; Chambers, James J.; Shaw, Judy B.

    2011-01-01

    The consumer appetite for a rich multimedia experience drives technology development for mobile hand-held devices and the infrastructure to support them. Enhancements in functionality, speed, and user experience are derived from advancements in CMOS technology. The technical challenges in developing each successive CMOS technology node to support these enhancements have become increasingly difficult. These trends have motivated the CMOS business towards a collaborative approach based on strategic partnerships. This paper describes our model and experience of CMOS development, based on multi-dimensional industrial and academic partnerships. We provide to our process equipment, materials, and simulation partners, as well as to our silicon foundry partners, the detailed requirements for future integrated circuit products. This is done very early in the development cycle to ensure that these requirements can be met. In order to determine these fundamental requirements, we rely on a strategy that requires strong interaction between process and device simulation, physical and chemical analytical methods, and research at academic institutions. This learning is shared with each project partner to address integration and manufacturing issues encountered during CMOS technology development from its inception through product ramp. We utilize TI's core strengths in physical analysis, unit processes and integration, yield ramp, reliability, and product engineering to support this technological development. Finally, this paper presents examples of the advancement of CMOS doping technology for the 28 nm node and beyond through this development model.

  6. Development of advanced CANDU PHWR -Development of the advanced CANDU technology-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Ho Cheon; Na, Yeong Hwan; Seok, Soo Dong; Lee, Bo Uk; Kwak, Ho Sang; Kim, Bong Ki; Kim, Seok Nam; Min, Byeong Joo; Park, Jong Ryunl; Shin, Jeong Cheol; Lee, Kyeong Ho; Lee, Dae Hee; Lee, Deuk Soo; Lee, Yeong Uk; Lee, Jeong Yang; Jwon, Jong Seon; Jwon, Chang Joon; Ji, Yong Kwan; Han, Ki Nam; Kim, Kang Soo; Kim, Dae Jin; Kim, Seon Cheol; Kim, Seong Hak; Kim, Yeon Seung; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Jeong Kyu; Kim, Jeong Taek; Kim, Hang Bae; Na, Bok Kyun; Namgung, In; Moon, Ki Hwan; Park, Keun Ok; Shon, Ki Chang; Song, In Ho; Shin, Ji Tae; Yeo, Ji Won; Oh, In Seok; Jang, Ik Ho; Jeong, Dae Won; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Ha, Jae Hong; Ha, Jeong Koo; Hong, Hyeong Pyo; Hwang, Jeong Ki

    1994-07-01

    The target of this project is to assess the feasibility of improving PHWR and to establish the parameter of the improved concept and requirements for developing it. To set up the requirements for the Improved Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor: (1) Design requirements of PHWR main systems and Safety Design Regulatory Requirements for Safety Related System i.e. Reactor Shutdown System, Emergency Core Cooling System and Containment System were prepared. (2) Licensing Basis Documents were summarized and Safety Analysis Regulatory. Requirements were reviewed and analyzed. To estimate the feasibility of improving PHWR and to establish the main parameters of the concept of new PHWR in future: (1) technical level/developing trend of PHWR in Korea through Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 design experience and Technical Transfer Program was investigated to analyze the state of basic technology and PHWR improvement potential. (2) CANDU 6 design improvement tendency, CANDU 3 design concept and CANDU 9 development state in other country was analyzed. (3) design improvement items to apply to the reactors after Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 were selected and Plant Design Requirements and Conceptual Design Description were prepared and the viability of improved HWR was estimated by analyzing economics, performance and safety. (4) PHWR technology improving research and development plan was established and international joint study initiated for main design improvement items

  7. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  8. Cooperative technology development: An approach to advancing energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, T.

    1989-09-01

    Technology development requires an enormous financial investment over a long period of time. Scarce national and corporate resources, the result of highly competitive markets, decreased profit margins, wide currency fluctuations, and growing debt, often preclude continuous development of energy technology by single entities, i.e., corporations, institutions, or nations. Although the energy needs of the developed world are generally being met by existing institutions, it is becoming increasingly clear that existing capital formation and technology transfer structures have failed to aid developing nations in meeting their growing electricity needs. This paper will describe a method for meeting the electricity needs of the developing world through technology transfer and international cooperative technology development. The role of nuclear power and the advanced passive plant design will be discussed. (author)

  9. SiGe-based re-engineering of electronic warfare subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Wynand

    2017-01-01

    This book equips readers with a thorough understanding of the applicability of new-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) electronic subsystems for the military purposes of electronic warfare and defensive countermeasures. The theoretical and technical background is extensively explained and all aspects of the integration of SiGe as an enabling technology for maritime, land, and airborne (including space) electronic warfare are addressed, including research, design, development, and implementation. The coverage is supported by mathematical derivations, informative illustrations, practical examples, and case studies. While SiGe technology provides speed, performance, and price advantages in many markets, sharing of information on its use in electronic warfare systems has to date been limited, especially in developing nations. This book will therefore be warmly welcomed as an engineering guideline that focuses especially on the speed and reliability of current-generation SiGe circuits and highlights emerging innov...

  10. Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

  11. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  12. Cyber Attacks, Information Attacks, and Postmodern Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuch Jozef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and differentiate between the phenomena of cyberwarfare and information warfare, as manifestations of what we perceive as postmodern warfare. We describe and analyse the current examples of the use the postmodern warfare and the reactions of states and international bodies to these phenomena. The subject matter of this paper is the relationship between new types of postmodern conflicts and the law of armed conflicts (law of war. Based on ICJ case law, it is clear that under current legal rules of international law of war, cyber attacks as well as information attacks (often performed in the cyberspace as well can only be perceived as “war” if executed in addition to classical kinetic warfare, which is often not the case. In most cases perceived “only” as a non-linear warfare (postmodern conflict, this practice nevertheless must be condemned as conduct contrary to the principles of international law and (possibly a crime under national laws, unless this type of conduct will be recognized by the international community as a “war” proper, in its new, postmodern sense.

  13. Personal protection during resuscitation of casualties contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents--a survey of medical first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Andrea; Prior, Kate; Schumacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The threat of mass casualties caused by an unconventional terrorist attack is a challenge for the public health system, with special implications for emergency medicine, anesthesia, and intensive care. Advanced life support of patients injured by chemical or biological warfare agents requires an adequate level of personal protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the personal protection knowledge of emergency physicians and anesthetists who would be at the frontline of the initial health response to a chemical/biological warfare agent incident. After institutional review board approval, knowledge of personal protection measures among emergency medicine (n = 28) and anesthetics (n = 47) specialty registrars in the South Thames Region of the United Kingdom was surveyed using a standardized questionnaire. Participants were asked for the recommended level of personal protection if a chemical/biological warfare agent(s) casualty required advanced life support in the designated hospital resuscitation area. The best awareness within both groups was regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome, and fair knowledge was found regarding anthrax, plague, Ebola, and smallpox. In both groups, knowledge about personal protection requirements against chemical warfare agents was limited. Knowledge about personal protection measures for biological agents was acceptable, but was limited for chemical warfare agents. The results highlight the need to improve training and education regarding personal protection measures for medical first receivers.

  14. Advances in research and development of mango industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S. E. Bally

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available World mango production is spread over 100 countries that produce over 34.3 million tons of fruit annually. Eighty percent of this production is based in the top nine producing nations that also consume upward of 90% of their production domestically. One to 2 percent of fruit is traded internationally in to markets in the European Community, USA, Arabian Peninsula and Asia. This paper outlines some of the recent research and development advances in mango breeding and genomics, rootstock development, disease management and harvest technologies that are influencing the production and quality of mango fruit traded domestically and internationally.

  15. Advanced and tendencies in the development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanets, I. N.

    2006-06-01

    Advances and key display applications are discussed. Computer, compact mobile, TV and collective large screen displays are mentioned. Flat panel displays step on CRT devices to leave them behind in 2007. Materials, active matricies and applications of bright radiative field emission and organic LED displays are developing successively and pressing other technologies to be used in photo-cameras, cellular phones, auto-cars and avionics. Progress in flexible screens can substantially extend the display design and application soon. 3D display systems are under intensive development, and laser is an important unit in some vaiants of holographic and volumetric 3D displays. Value forecast of different display markets is presented.

  16. Hydrogen-bromine fuel cell advance component development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, Joann; Reed, James

    1988-01-01

    Advanced cell component development is performed by NASA Lewis to achieve improved performance and longer life for the hydrogen-bromine fuel cells system. The state-of-the-art hydrogen-bromine system utilizes the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) technology, similar to the SPE technology developed for the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell system. These studies are directed at exploring the potential for this system by assessing and evaluating various types of materials for cell parts and electrode materials for Bromine-hydrogen bromine environment and fabricating experimental membrane/electrode-catalysts by chemical deposition.

  17. Advanced software development workstation project: Engineering scripting language. Graphical editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Software development is widely considered to be a bottleneck in the development of complex systems, both in terms of development and in terms of maintenance of deployed systems. Cost of software development and maintenance can also be very high. One approach to reducing costs and relieving this bottleneck is increasing the reuse of software designs and software components. A method for achieving such reuse is a software parts composition system. Such a system consists of a language for modeling software parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, an editor for combining parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates code for that application in the target language. The Advanced Software Development Workstation is intended to be an expert system shell designed to provide the capabilities of a software part composition system.

  18. Advancing sustainable development in Canada : policy issues and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliadis, P.; Slayen, S.

    2003-11-01

    This paper defined 7 policy-relevant issues that advance sustainable development in Canada. These were; (1) urban redesign, (2) freshwater management, (3) eco-region sustainability, (4) impacts of globalization on sustainable development in Canada, (5) designing signals and incentives that promote sustainable behaviour among citizens, (6) reducing the ecological burden of unsustainable lifestyles, and (7) international engagement in sustainable development. The authors questioned why these issues have not made greater progress, given that they have been on national and international agendas since 1972. They also questioned why it is so difficult to integrate environmental and economic signals. Finally, they examined whether enough ecological and political space can be provided to developing countries to achieve sustainable development while enhancing the standard of living in Canada and not threatening critical global systems. 173 refs

  19. Triptans and migraine: advances in use, administration, formulation, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macone, Amanda E; Perloff, Michael D

    2017-03-01

    Recent triptan development has focused on new administration methods and formulations, triptan combination therapies, treatment in menstrually related migraines, and novel serotonin receptor subtype agonists (5HTf). Areas covered: Clinical triptan research related to migraine was reviewed, analyzing EMBASE and PUBMED data bases from 01/01/2011 to 06/29/2016, with a focus on clinical trials of class 1 or 2 level of evidence. There have been advances in drug combination therapies, as well as administration devices that aid in ease of use, increase efficacy, and decrease adverse reactions. Some new agents and devices have similar or less efficacy compared to previous generic triptan formulations. New agents have action at the 5HTf receptor subtype, and avoid vascular side effects of classic 5Ht1b/d agonists, however adverse reactions may limit their clinic use. Long half-life triptans, frovatriptan and naratriptan, do appear to have good benefit in menstral related migraine. Expert opinion: Recent advances in triptan development can offer some advantages to migraine therapy and patient preferences, but have a much higher cost compared to individual generic triptan agents. In the coming years, triptan advances with high efficacy, limiting ADRs and cost are welcomed, in this regard the 5HT1b/d triptans are already well established.

  20. Adaptation through Collaboration: Developing Novel Platforms to Advance the Delivery of Advanced Therapies to Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Magdalini

    2017-01-01

    For the nascent field of advanced therapies, collaboration will be a game-changer, turning scientific progress that was once unimaginable into transformative medical practice. Despite promise for lifelong management and even cure of disease, skepticism remains about the feasibility of their delivery to patients, fueling investment risks. With the potential for long-term effectiveness in need of frequent reassessment, current approaches to predict real-life drug performance bear little relevance, necessitating novel and iterative schemes to monitoring the benefit-risk profiles throughout the life span of advanced therapies. This work explains that reinventing an adoption route for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products is as much about the scientific and clinical components, as it is about the organizational structures, requiring an unprecedented level of interactions between stakeholders not traditionally connected; from developers and regulators, to payers, patients, and funders. By reflecting on the successes and lessons learned from the growing space of global precompetitive consortia and public-private partnerships, as well as a number of emerging accelerated development pathways, this work aims to inform the foundations for a future roadmap that can smooth the path to approval, reimbursement, and access, while delivering value to all stakeholders. Echoing the growing demands to bring these transformative products to patients, it provides critical insights to enhance our capacity in three fundamental domains: deploying the operational flexibilities offered by the growing space of collaborations, utilizing emerging flexible and accelerated pathways to tackle challenges in quantifying long-term effectiveness, and building the necessary digital and clinical infrastructure for knowledge development.

  1. Adaptation through Collaboration: Developing Novel Platforms to Advance the Delivery of Advanced Therapies to Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalini Papadaki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For the nascent field of advanced therapies, collaboration will be a game-changer, turning scientific progress that was once unimaginable into transformative medical practice. Despite promise for lifelong management and even cure of disease, skepticism remains about the feasibility of their delivery to patients, fueling investment risks. With the potential for long-term effectiveness in need of frequent reassessment, current approaches to predict real-life drug performance bear little relevance, necessitating novel and iterative schemes to monitoring the benefit–risk profiles throughout the life span of advanced therapies. This work explains that reinventing an adoption route for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products is as much about the scientific and clinical components, as it is about the organizational structures, requiring an unprecedented level of interactions between stakeholders not traditionally connected; from developers and regulators, to payers, patients, and funders. By reflecting on the successes and lessons learned from the growing space of global precompetitive consortia and public–private partnerships, as well as a number of emerging accelerated development pathways, this work aims to inform the foundations for a future roadmap that can smooth the path to approval, reimbursement, and access, while delivering value to all stakeholders. Echoing the growing demands to bring these transformative products to patients, it provides critical insights to enhance our capacity in three fundamental domains: deploying the operational flexibilities offered by the growing space of collaborations, utilizing emerging flexible and accelerated pathways to tackle challenges in quantifying long-term effectiveness, and building the necessary digital and clinical infrastructure for knowledge development.

  2. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism.

  3. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower''s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable

  4. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr. [Voith Hydro, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  5. Method of advancing research and development of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In the long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization, fast breeder reactors are to be developed as the main of the future nuclear power generation in Japan, and when their development is advanced, it has been decided to positively aim at building up the plutonium utilization system using FBRs superior to the uranium utilization system using LWRs. Also it has been decided that the development of FBRs requires to exert incessant efforts for a considerable long period under the proper cooperation system of government and people, and as for its concrete development, hereafter the deliberation is to be carried out in succession by the expert subcommittee on FBR development projects of the Atomic Energy Commission. The subcommittee was founded in May, 1986, to deliberate on the long term promotion measures for FBR development, the measures for promoting the research and development, the examination of the basic specification of a demonstration FBR, the measures for promoting international cooperation, and other important matters. As the results of investigation, the situation around the development of FBRs, the fundamentals at the time of promoting the research and development, the subjects of the research and development and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. Korean views on needs for international cooperation in development and development of advanced nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Ku; Lee, Byong Whi; Shim, Chang Saeng.

    1993-01-01

    Korea methodology and experience in international cooperation in the field of construction and operation of nuclear power plants as well as Korean views on development and deployment of advanced nuclear nuclear power systems are presented

  7. ISIL's Hybrid Warfare in Syria & Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heine

    2016-01-01

    of and ability to synchronize various instruments of power with a view to achieving their end-state. With regards to the second part of the problem statement, the analysis demonstrates how ISIL employed horizontal escalation and ambiguity initially, but later on turned to vertical escalation, within the military......The case study specifically seeks to answer the following problem statement: Does ISIL qualify as an actor using hybrid warfare and if so what characterizes their particular use of this type of warfare? Based on an analysis of ISIL’s warfare from August 2012 to August 2016 the chapter argues......, that it is possible to answer the first part of the problem statement in an affirmative way. Hence, ISIL is not only theoretically prone to hybridity by organizational setup, and by the people comprising the organization, but has in fact continuously acted according to a hybrid logic in its prioritization...

  8. Recent advances in the development of aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Chen, Yongjun; Hu, Junling

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made on the development of aerospace materials for structural and engine applications. Alloys, such as Al-based alloys, Mg-based alloys, Ti-based alloys, and Ni-based alloys, are developed for aerospace industry with outstanding advantages. Composite materials, the innovative materials, are taking more and more important roles in aircrafts. However, recent aerospace materials still face some major challenges, such as insufficient mechanical properties, fretting wear, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion. Consequently, extensive studies have been conducted to develop the next generation aerospace materials with superior mechanical performance and corrosion resistance to achieve improvements in both performance and life cycle cost. This review focuses on the following topics: (1) materials requirements in design of aircraft structures and engines, (2) recent advances in the development of aerospace materials, (3) challenges faced by recent aerospace materials, and (4) future trends in aerospace materials.

  9. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A. [Coal Technology Corporation, Bristol, VA (United States); Ferris, D.D. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  10. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A.; Ferris, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal's heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation's coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel

  11. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh W. Rimmer

    2004-05-12

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the seventeen subprojects awarded in the first year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices. Due to the time taken up by the solicitation/selection process, these cover the initial 6-month period of project activity only. The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 1999, U.S. mining operations produced $66.7 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $533 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Originally set up by Virginia Tech and West Virginia University, this endeavor has been expanded into a seven-university consortium--Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, University of Utah, Montana Tech, New Mexico Tech and University of Nevada, Reno--that is supported through U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (1) Solid-solid separation (2) Solid-liquid separation (3) Chemical/Biological Extraction (4) Modeling and Control, and (5) Environmental Control.

  12. The influence of the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle on mobile warfare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article traces the story of how the author and a number of daring young commanders and soldiers had cast aside military textbooks in developing their own military doctrine for mobile warfare, South African style. It is clear that the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle had wielded huge influence on the development and ...

  13. Diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents: An essential tool to counteract chemical terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to

  14. Advances in nuclear fuel technology. 3. Development of advanced nuclear fuel recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arie, Kazuo; Abe, Tomoyuki; Arai, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    Fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycle technology has a technical characteristics flexibly easy to apply to diverse fuel compositions such as plutonium, minor actinides, and so on and fuel configurations. By using this characteristics, various feasibilities on effective application of uranium resources based on breeding of uranium of plutonium for original mission of FBR, contribution to radioactive wastes problems based on amounts reduction of transuranium elements (TRU) in high level radioactive wastes, upgrading of nuclear diffusion resistance, extremely upgrading of economical efficiency, and so on. In this paper, were introduced from these viewpoints, on practice strategy survey study on FBR cycle performed by cooperation of the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) with electric business companies and so on, and on technical development on advanced nuclear fuel recycle systems carried out at the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and so on. Here were explained under a vision on new type of fuels such as nitride fuels, metal fuels, and so on as well as oxide fuels, a new recycle system making possible to use actinides except uranium and plutonium, an 'advanced nuclear fuel cycle technology', containing improvement of conventional wet Purex method reprocessing technology, fuel manufacturing technology, and so on. (G.K.)

  15. Development of advanced boiling water reactor for medium capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuo Hisajima; Yutaka Asanuma

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a result of development of an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor for medium capacity. 1000 MWe was selected as the reference. The features of the current Advanced Boiling Water Reactors, such as a Reactor Internal Pump, a Fine Motion Control Rod Drive, a Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel, and three-divisionalized Emergency Core Cooling System are maintained. In addition, optimization for 1000 MWe has been investigated. Reduction in thermal power and application of the latest fuel reduced the number of fuel assemblies, Control Rods and Control Rod Drives, Reactor Internal Pumps, and Safety Relief Valves. The number of Main Steam lines was reduced from four to two. As for the engineered safety features, the Flammability Control System was removed. Special efforts were made to realize a compact Turbine Building, such as application of an in line Moisture Separator, reduction in the number of pumps in the Condensate and Feedwater System, and change from a Turbine-Driven Reactor Feedwater Pump to a Motor-Driven Reactor Feedwater Pump. 31% reduction in the volume of the Turbine Building is expected in comparison with the current Advanced Boiling Water Reactors. (authors)

  16. Developing a Model of Advanced Training to Promote Career Advancement for Certified Genetic Counselors: An Investigation of Expanded Skills, Advanced Training Paths, and Professional Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Bonnie J; Trepanier, Angela; Bennett, Robin L; Davis, Claire; Erby, Lori; Hippman, Catriona; Lerner, Barbara; Matthews, Anne; Myers, Melanie F; Robbins, Carol B; Singletary, Claire N

    2016-08-01

    There are currently multiple paths through which genetic counselors can acquire advanced knowledge and skills. However, outside of continuing education opportunities, there are few formal training programs designed specifically for the advanced training of genetic counselors. In the genetic counseling profession, there is currently considerable debate about the paths that should be available to attain advanced skills, as well as the skills that might be needed for practice in the future. The Association of Genetic Counseling Program Directors (AGCPD) convened a national committee, the Committee on Advanced Training for Certified Genetic Counselors (CATCGC), to investigate varied paths to post-master's training and career development. The committee began its work by developing three related grids that view career advancement from the viewpoints of the skills needed to advance (skills), ways to obtain these skills (paths), and existing genetic counselor positions that offer career change or advancement (positions). Here we describe previous work related to genetic counselor career advancement, the charge of the CATCGC, our preliminary work in developing a model through which to view genetic counselor advanced training and career advancement opportunities, and our next steps in further developing and disseminating the model.

  17. Network Centric Warfare Case Study: U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) During Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Operations (Mar-Apr 2003). Volume 3. Network Centric Warfare Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOPS), special information operations (IO), information assurance, physical security...nonlethal effects, such as operational 8 Network Centric Warfare Case Study security (OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOP...Support Operations Group ASR Alternate Supply Route; or, Ammunition Supply Rate ATACMS Army Tactical Missile System ATARS Advanced

  18. Cooperative Research and Development for Advanced Microturbines Program on Advanced Integrated Microturbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Bowman

    2007-05-30

    The Advanced Integrated Microturbine Systems (AIMS) project was kicked off in October of 2000 to develop the next generation microturbine system. The overall objective of the project was to develop a design for a 40% electrical efficiency microturbine system and demonstrate many of the enabling technologies. The project was initiated as a collaborative effort between several units of GE, Elliott Energy Systems, Turbo Genset, Oak Ridge National Lab and Kyocera. Since the inception of the project the partners have changed but the overall direction of the project has stayed consistent. The project began as a systems study to identify design options to achieve the ultimate goal of 40% electrical efficiency. Once the optimized analytical design was identified for the 40% system, it was determined that a 35% efficient machine would be capable of demonstrating many of the advanced technologies within the given budget and timeframe. The items that would not be experimentally demonstrated were fully produced ceramic parts. However, to understand the requirements of these ceramics, an effort was included in the project to experimentally evaluate candidate materials in representative conditions. The results from this effort would clearly identify the challenges and improvement required of these materials for the full design. Following the analytical effort, the project was dedicated to component development and testing. Each component and subsystem was designed with the overall system requirements in mind and each tested to the fullest extent possible prior to being integrated together. This method of component development and evaluation helps to minimize the technical risk of the project. Once all of the components were completed, they were assembled into the full system and experimentally evaluated.

  19. Combinatorial methods for advanced materials research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, R.; Dondorf, S.; Hauck, M.; Horbach, D.; Kaiser, M.; Krysta, S.; Kyrylov, O.; Muenstermann, E.; Philipps, M.; Reichert, K.; Strauch, G. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde

    2001-10-01

    The applicability of combinatorial methods in developing advanced materials is illustrated presenting four examples for the deposition and characterization of one- and two-dimensionally laterally graded coatings, which were deposited by means of (reactive) magnetron sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. To emphasize the advantages of combinatorial approaches, metastable hard coatings like (Ti,Al)N and (Ti,Al,Hf)N respectively, as well as Ge-Sb-Te based films for rewritable optical data storage were investigated with respect to the relations between structure, composition, and the desired materials properties. (orig.)

  20. Domestic and overseas development of advanced boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatazawa, Mamoru; Fuchino, Satoshi; Nakada, Kotaro

    2010-01-01

    Since Toshiba delivered the world's first advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) to The Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. in 1996, we have been devoting continuous efforts to the construction and operational support of ABWR systems as major products. We are now promoting the construction of domestic and overseas ABWR systems along with the standardization of ABWRs. We are also engaged in the research and development of core technologies to support further promotion of ABWRs as a concurrent solution to the issues of global warming and energy security for individual countries. (author)

  1. Applications of advanced transport aircraft in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.; Leshane, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four representative market scenarios were studied to evaluate the relative performance of air-and surface-based transportation systems in meeting the needs of two developing contries, Brazil and Indonesia, which were selected for detailed case studies. The market scenarios were: remote mining, low-density transport, tropical forestry, and large cargo aircraft serving processing centers in resource-rich, remote areas. The long-term potential of various aircraft types, together with fleet requirements and necessary technology advances, is determined for each application.

  2. The development of an advanced computerised control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugset, K.

    1988-01-01

    Control room improvements by use of computer technology is a major activity within the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The goal is to improve operational efficiency and safety by supplying the operator with the information relevant for the specific operational situation, assisting him both in identifying plant state, plan operational strategies and implement such plans. The research activity consists of development of specific operator support systems, validation of such systems under realistic conditions and integration under the scope of an advanced control room concept. The work is carried out in close cooperation with the many member organisations. (author) 2 figs., 8 refs

  3. Recent advances in vaccine development against Ebola threat as bioweapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Prachi; Gupta, Ankit; Verma, Priyanka; Singh, Joginder; Gupta, Jeena

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing rate of Ebola virus appearance, with multiple natural outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, it is worthy of consideration as bioweapon by anti-national groups. Further, with the non-availability of the vaccines against Ebola virus, concerns about the public health emerge. In this regard, this review summarizes the structure, genetics and potential of Ebola virus to be used as a bioweapon. We highlight the recent advances in the treatment strategies and vaccine development against Ebola virus. The understanding of these aspects might lead to effective treatment practices which can be applied during the future outbreaks of Ebola.

  4. Polymeric drugs: Advances in the development of pharmacologically active polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Fei; Chen, Yi; Oupický, David

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers play a critical role in pharmaceutical discovery and development. Current research and applications of pharmaceutical polymers are mainly focused on their functions as excipients and inert carriers of other pharmacologically active agents. This review article surveys recent advances in alternative pharmaceutical use of polymers as pharmacologically active agents known as polymeric drugs. Emphasis is placed on the benefits of polymeric drugs that are associated with their macromolecular character and their ability to explore biologically relevant multivalency processes. We discuss the main therapeutic uses of polymeric drugs as sequestrants, antimicrobials, antivirals, and anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26410809

  5. Development and comparison of different advanced absorption cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arh, S; Gaspersic, B [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ljubjana (YU)

    1990-01-01

    A method for the calculation of the coefficient of performance for any absorption cycle is described. This method was used for the evaluation of different advanced absorption cycles working between four temperature and two or three pressure levels. Similar cycles were compared in the same temperature range with regard to the coefficient of performance, exergy efficiency and two working fluid pairs, NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O-LiBr. Cycles and numerical results are presented and a computer-aided absorption cycle development system described. (author).

  6. Advanced Reactor Technology -- Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  7. Advanced Reactor Technology -- Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, Wayne Leland

    2015-01-01

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a ''critical path'' for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain ''minimum'' levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial ''first step'' in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by

  8. Advanced Reactor Technologies - Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-08-23

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  9. Development of Stitched Composite Structure for Advanced Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn; Przekop, Adam; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew; Velicki, Alex; Linton, Kim; Wu, Hsi-Yung; Baraja, Jaime; Thrash, Patrick; Hoffman, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project to develop technologies which will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations. NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to develop a structural concept that is lightweight and an advancement beyond state-of-the-art composites. The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is an integrally stiffened panel design where elements are stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. With the PRSEUS concept, through-the-thickness stitches are applied through dry fabric prior to resin infusion, and replace fasteners throughout each integral panel. Through-the-thickness reinforcement at discontinuities, such as along flange edges, has been shown to suppress delamination and turn cracks, which expands the design space and leads to lighter designs. The pultruded rod provides stiffening away from the more vulnerable skin surface and improves bending stiffness. A series of building blocks were evaluated to explore the fundamental assumptions related to the capability and advantages of PRSEUS panels. These building blocks addressed tension, compression, and pressure loading conditions. The emphasis of the development work has been to assess the loading capability, damage arrestment features, repairability, post-buckling behavior, and response of PRSEUS flat panels to out-of plane pressure loading. The results of this building-block program from coupons through an 80%-scale pressure box have demonstrated the viability of a PRSEUS center body for the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) transport aircraft. This development program shows that the PRSEUS benefits are also applicable to traditional tube-andwing aircraft, those of advanced configurations, and other

  10. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. A brief review of advances in complex networks of nuclear science and technology field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing

    2010-01-01

    A brief review of advances in complex networks of nuclear science and technology field at home and is given and summarized. These complex networks include: nuclear energy weapon network, network centric warfare, beam transport networks, continuum percolation evolving network associated with nuclear reactions, global nuclear power station network, (nuclear) chemistry reaction networks, radiological monitoring and anti-nuclear terror networks, and so on. Some challenge issues and development prospects of network science are pointed out finally. (authors)

  12. Preimplantation development of embryos in women of advanced maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chaplia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the influence of genetic component on the early embryo development, the retrospective study of morphokinetic characteristics of 717 embryos subjected to preimplantation genetic testing was conducted. Blastomere biopsy for FISH-based preimplantation genetic screening of 7 chromosomes was performed on the third day of culture, while embryo developmental potential and morphological features at the cleavage and blastulation stage were studied regarding maternal age particularly in the group of younger women and patients older than 36. Results of genetic testing revealed that euploid embryos rate gradually decreased with maternal age comprising 39.9% in young women group and 25.3% of specimen belonging to elder patients. At the cleavage stage, morphological characteristics of aneuploid and euploid embryos didn’t differ significantly regardless of the age of patients that could be accounted for the transcriptional silence of embryo genome till the third day of its development. However, in case of prolonged culture chromosomally balanced embryos rarely faced developmental arrest (in 7.9% and formed blastocysts half more frequently compared to aberrant embryos (respectively 75.6 versus 49.8%. Nevertheless, no substantial difference was found between blastocyst formation rate among embryos with similar genetic component regardless of the maternal age. Taking into consideration high rate of chromosomally unbalanced embryos specific to patients of advanced maternal age, the relative proportion of aneuplouid blastocysts was significantly higher in this group of embryos. Thus, without genetic screening there is a possibility of inaccurate selection of embryos for women of advanced reproductive age for transfer procedure even in case of prolonged culture. Consequently, increase of aneuploid embryos frequency associated with permanent preimplantation natural selection effectiveness along with the postimplantation natural selection failure

  13. The development of advanced robotics technology in high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jaiwan; Lee, Nam Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Park, Soon Yong; Lee, Jong Min; Park, Jin Suk; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Moon, Byung Soo

    1997-07-01

    In the tele-operation technology using tele-presence in high radiation environment, stereo vision target tracking by centroid method, vergence control of stereo camera by moving vector method, stereo observing system by correlation method, horizontal moving axis stereo camera, and 3 dimensional information acquisition by stereo image is developed. Also, gesture image acquisition by computer vision and construction of virtual environment for remote work in nuclear power plant. In the development of intelligent control and monitoring technology for tele-robot in hazardous environment, the characteristics and principle of robot operation. And, robot end-effector tracking algorithm by centroid method and neural network method are developed for the observation and survey in hazardous environment. 3-dimensional information acquisition algorithm by structured light is developed. In the development of radiation hardened sensor technology, radiation-hardened camera module is designed and tested. And radiation characteristics of electric components is robot system is evaluated. Also 2-dimensional radiation monitoring system is developed. These advanced critical robot technology and telepresence techniques developed in this project can be applied to nozzle-dam installation /removal robot system, can be used to realize unmanned remotelization of nozzle-dam installation / removal task in steam generator of nuclear power plant, which can be contributed for people involved in extremely hazardous high radioactivity area to eliminate their exposure to radiation, enhance their task safety, and raise their working efficiency. (author). 75 refs., 21 tabs., 15 figs.

  14. The development of advanced robotics technology in high radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jaiwan; Lee, Nam Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Park, Soon Yong; Lee, Jong Min; Park, Jin Suk; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Moon, Byung Soo.

    1997-07-01

    In the tele-operation technology using tele-presence in high radiation environment, stereo vision target tracking by centroid method, vergence control of stereo camera by moving vector method, stereo observing system by correlation method, horizontal moving axis stereo camera, and 3 dimensional information acquisition by stereo image is developed. Also, gesture image acquisition by computer vision and construction of virtual environment for remote work in nuclear power plant. In the development of intelligent control and monitoring technology for tele-robot in hazardous environment, the characteristics and principle of robot operation. And, robot end-effector tracking algorithm by centroid method and neural network method are developed for the observation and survey in hazardous environment. 3-dimensional information acquisition algorithm by structured light is developed. In the development of radiation hardened sensor technology, radiation-hardened camera module is designed and tested. And radiation characteristics of electric components is robot system is evaluated. Also 2-dimensional radiation monitoring system is developed. These advanced critical robot technology and telepresence techniques developed in this project can be applied to nozzle-dam installation /removal robot system, can be used to realize unmanned remotelization of nozzle-dam installation / removal task in steam generator of nuclear power plant, which can be contributed for people involved in extremely hazardous high radioactivity area to eliminate their exposure to radiation, enhance their task safety, and raise their working efficiency. (author). 75 refs., 21 tabs., 15 figs

  15. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Development for NASA RPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott; Collins, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) initiated development under contract to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and after a series of successful demonstrations, the ASC began transitioning from a technology development project to flight development project. The ASC has very high power conversion efficiency making it attractive for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) in order to make best use of the low plutonium-238 fuel inventory in the U.S. In recent years, the ASC became part of the NASA-Department of Energy Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Integrated Project. Sunpower held two parallel contracts to produce ASC convertors, one with the Department of Energy/Lockheed Martin to produce the ASC-F flight convertors, and one with NASA GRC for the production of ASC-E3 engineering units, the initial units of which served as production pathfinders. The integrated ASC technical team successfully overcame various technical challenges that led to the completion and delivery of the first two pairs of flight-like ASC-E3 by 2013. However, in late Fall 2013, the DOE initiated termination of the Lockheed Martin ASRG flight development contract driven primarily by budget constraints. NASA continues to recognize the importance of high efficiency ASC power conversion for RPS and continues investment in the technology including the continuation of ASC-E3 production at Sunpower and the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit #2. This paper provides a summary of ASC technical accomplishments, overview of tests at GRC, plans for continued ASC production at Sunpower, and status of Stirling technology development.

  16. Advanced Stirling Convertor Development for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott D.; Collins, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Sunpower Inc.'s Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) initiated development under contract to the NASA Glenn Research Center and after a series of successful demonstrations, the ASC began transitioning from a technology development project to a flight development project. The ASC has very high power conversion efficiency making it attractive for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) in order to make best use of the low plutonium-238 fuel inventory in the United States. In recent years, the ASC became part of the NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Integrated Project. Sunpower held two parallel contracts to produce ASCs, one with the DOE and Lockheed Martin to produce the ASC-F flight convertors, and one with NASA Glenn for the production of ASC-E3 engineering units, the initial units of which served as production pathfinders. The integrated ASC technical team successfully overcame various technical challenges that led to the completion and delivery of the first two pairs of flightlike ASC-E3 by 2013. However, in late fall 2013, the DOE initiated termination of the Lockheed Martin ASRG flight development contract driven primarily by budget constraints. NASA continues to recognize the importance of high-efficiency ASC power conversion for RPS and continues investment in the technology including the continuation of ASC-E3 production at Sunpower and the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit #2. This paper provides a summary of ASC technical accomplishments, overview of tests at Glenn, plans for continued ASC production at Sunpower, and status of Stirling technology development.

  17. Needs for development in nondestructive testing for advanced reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClung, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The needs for development of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and equipment were surveyed and analyzed relative to problem areas for the Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor, the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor, and the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor. The paper first discusses the developmental needs that are broad-based requirements in nondestrutive testing, and the respective methods applicable, in general, to all components and reactor systems. Next, the requirements of generic materials and components that are common to all advanced reactor systems are examined. Generally, nondestructive techniques should be improved to provide better reliability and quantitativeness, improved flaw characterization, and more efficient data processing. Specific recommendations relative to such methods as ultrasonics, eddy currents, acoustic emission, radiography, etc., are made. NDT needs common to all reactors include those related to materials properties and degradation, welds, fuels, piping, steam generators, etc. The scope of applicability ranges from initial design and material development stages through process control and manufacturing inspection to in-service examination

  18. Russian Perspectives on Network-Centric Warfare: The Key Aim of Serdyukov’s Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    has faced with its GLObal’naya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema —(GLONASS) system, and introducing advanced digitized communications in the armed...of targeting data will be accomplished by organizing virtual channels for data transmission or via a web -portal. The successful function- ing of the...Operations: Tactical Web Takes Shape,” Signal, November 2003; Col. Alan D. Campen, USAF (Ret.), “Look Closely At Network-Centric Warfare: Technology Can

  19. Promoting the Scientific Development of the Construction of Psychological Warfare of Our Army with System Theory%以系统论促进我军心理战建设科学发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓华; 白莉

    2011-01-01

    我军心理战建设应汲取系统论的营养,从明确目标上破题,整体推进,重点优化组织指挥体制。%The construction of psychological warfare of our army should absorb nutrition from system theory,in which the-goal should be clear,the process should work integrated,andfoc-using on optimizing commanding system.

  20. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2005-01-20

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2003, U.S. mining operations produced $57 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $564 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (1) Solid-solid separation; (2) Solid-liquid separation; (3) Chemical/Biological Extraction; (4) Modeling and Control; and (5) Environmental Control.

  1. The development of an advanced information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Performing a PSA requires a lot of data to analyze, to evaluate the risk, to trace the process of results and to verify the results. KAERI is developing a PSA information database system, AIMS (Advanced Information Management System for PSA). The objective of AIMS development is to integrate and computerize all the distributed information of a PSA into a system and to enhance the accessibility to PSA information for all PSA related activities. We designed the PSA information database system for the following purposes: integrated PSA information management software, sensitivity analysis, quality assurance, anchor to another reliability database. The AIMS consists of a PSA Information database, Information browsing (searching) modules, and PSA automatic quantification manager modules

  2. B ampersand W PWR advanced control system algorithm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winks, R.W.; Wilson, T.L.; Amick, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses algorithm development of an Advanced Control System for the B ampersand W Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. The paper summarizes the history of the project, describes the operation of the algorithm, and presents transient results from a simulation of the plant and control system. The history discusses the steps in the development process and the roles played by the utility owners, B ampersand W Nuclear Service Company (BWNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Foxboro Company. The algorithm description is a brief overview of the features of the control system. The transient results show that operation of the algorithm in a normal power maneuvering mode and in a moderately large upset following a feedwater pump trip

  3. The development of an advanced information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Performing a PSA requires a lot of data to analyze, to evaluate the risk, to trace the process of results and to verify the results. KAERI is developing a PSA information database system, AIMS (Advanced Information Management System for PSA). The objective of AIMS development is to integrate and computerize all the distributed information of a PSA into a system and to enhance the accessibility to PSA information for all PSA related activities. We designed the PSA information database system for the following purposes: integrated PSA information management software, sensitivity analysis, quality assurance, anchor to another reliability database. The AIMS consists of a PSA Information database, Information browsing (searching) modules, and PSA automatic quantification manager modules.

  4. Advancing Early Childhood Development: from Science to Scale 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614

  5. Development of Advanced Nuclear Materials for Extreme Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jinsung; Rhee, Chang Kyu; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2011-09-01

    One of the critical paths to develop and deploy the Generation IV nuclear systems is to procure the materials necessary to the key components of the systems. Very high temperature gas-cooled reactor, which is anticipated to run at the reactor out-let temperature of about 900 .deg. C. Therefore high temperature materials that can sustain the system at that high temperature region for long design life such as tens of years is pre-requisite. Commercial high temperature materials could be a first consideration, but some improvement by modification is essential for the development of the system, and development of advanced new materials is anticipated to be eventually required. Materials development, however, need a long lead time compared with other research and development areas. In this project NC (nano cluster) strengthened Ni-base alloys are attempted for the development for the very high temperature applications. Three commercial Ni-base high temperature alloys were used as the matrix phase, and nano-sized yttria particles are dispersed by mechanical alloying. Alternative methods to prepare the nano-sized composite powders were investigated. Ni-base nano composite powders, which were characterized by one of the methods, were characterized and confirmed to be useful

  6. Advanced Accelerator Development Strategy Report: DOE Advanced Accelerator Concepts Research Roadmap Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-03

    Over a full two day period, February 2–3, 2016, the Office of High Energy Physics convened a workshop in Gaithersburg, MD to seek community input on development of an Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) research roadmap. The workshop was in response to a recommendation by the HEPAP Accelerator R&D Subpanel [1] [2] to “convene the university and laboratory proponents of advanced acceleration concepts to develop R&D roadmaps with a series of milestones and common down selection criteria towards the goal for constructing a multi-TeV e+e– collider” (the charge to the workshop can be found in Appendix A). During the workshop, proponents of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (LWFA), particle-beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA), and dielectric wakefield acceleration (DWFA), along with a limited number of invited university and laboratory experts, presented and critically discussed individual concept roadmaps. The roadmap workshop was preceded by several preparatory workshops. The first day of the workshop featured presentation of three initial individual roadmaps with ample time for discussion. The individual roadmaps covered a time period extending until roughly 2040, with the end date assumed to be roughly appropriate for initial operation of a multi-TeV e+e– collider. The second day of the workshop comprised talks on synergies between the roadmaps and with global efforts, potential early applications, diagnostics needs, simulation needs, and beam issues and challenges related to a collider. During the last half of the day the roadmaps were revisited but with emphasis on the next five to ten years (as specifically requested in the charge) and on common challenges. The workshop concluded with critical and unanimous endorsement of the individual roadmaps and an extended discussion on the characteristics of the common challenges. (For the agenda and list of participants see Appendix B.)

  7. Warfare and the Teaching of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salevouris, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that history teachers must challenge simplistic romantic notions about war. Proposes two approaches to teaching about war: the use of personal war narratives; and examining the relationship between warfare and society. Discusses literature related to these approaches. Contends that only through realistic assessments of war can peace be…

  8. The technical Dimensions of Nuclear Warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    This text, written by Engelbert Broda in 1977 is about the dimensions of nuclear warfare. Broda describes the devastating effects of the nuclear bombs dropped in 1945 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and compares these effects with the explosive power of Hydrogen weapons. He also expresses his concerns about another nuclear ware and analyses possible worsening situations like change in the military doctrine. (nowak)

  9. Book Review COMPOSITE WARFARE: THE CONDUCT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPOSITE WARFARE: THE CONDUCT OF. SUCCESSFUL GROUND FORCE. OPERATIONS IN AFRICA. Eeben Barlow. Abel Esterhuyse, PhD. Stellenbosch University. Pinetown: 30 Degrees South Publishers. 2015, 576 pages. ISBN 9781928211761. Africa is still one of the most conflict-ridden places on earth – from ...

  10. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview is presented of the major methods that are presently available for biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents, i.e., nerve agents and sulfur mustard. These methods can be applied for a variety of purposes such as diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of casualties, verification

  11. A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

    2007-01-01

    This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

  12. Laboratory analysis of chemical warfare agents, adducts, and metabolites in biomedial samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, M.J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are the most toxic compounds ever produced. To develop medical countermeasures against the effects of these agents, analytical procedures to analyze these agents in biological matrices are essential for a better understanding of the toxicological process. The need for

  13. On modeling of the evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, S.N.; Winter, S.; Karlsson, E.; Hin, A.; Oeseburg, F.

    1998-01-01

    A model for evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground has been developed. The process of evaporation is described in three steps: (1) the immediate drop enlargement due to impact momentum is modeled using an empirical correlation from technical literature; (2) further enlargement caused

  14. Addressing Pressing Needs in the Development of Advanced Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, David; Ussi, Anton; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The commercial development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) represents great opportunity for therapeutic innovation but is beset by many challenges for its developers. Although the ATMP field continues to progress at a rapid pace, evidenced by the increasing number of clinical trials conducted over the past few years, several factors continue to complicate the introduction of ATMPs as a curative treatment for multiple disease types, by blocking their translational pathway from research to the patient. While several recent publications (Trounson and McDonald, 2015; Abou-El-Enein et al., 2016a,b) as well as an Innovative Medicines Initiative consultation (IMI, 2016) this year have highlighted the major gaps in ATMP development, with manufacturing, regulatory, and reimbursement issues at the forefront, there remains to be formulated a coherent strategy to address these by bringing the relevant stakeholders to a single forum, whose task it would be to design and execute a delta plan to alleviate the most pressing bottlenecks. This article focuses on two of the most urgent areas in need of attention in ATMP development, namely manufacturing and reimbursement, and promotes the concept of innovation-dedicated research infrastructures to support a multi-sector approach for ensuring the successful development, entry, and ensuing survival of ATMPs in the healthcare market.

  15. Addressing Pressing Needs in the Development of Advanced Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs represents great opportunity for therapeutic innovation but is beset by many challenges for its developers. Although the ATMP field continues to progress at a rapid pace, evidenced by the increasing number of clinical trials conducted over the past few years, several factors continue to complicate the introduction of ATMPs as a curative treatment for multiple disease types, by blocking their translational pathway from research to the patient. While several recent publications (Trounson and McDonald, 2015; Abou-El-Enein et al., 2016a,b as well as an Innovative Medicines Initiative consultation (IMI, 2016 this year have highlighted the major gaps in ATMP development, with manufacturing, regulatory, and reimbursement issues at the forefront, there remains to be formulated a coherent strategy to address these by bringing the relevant stakeholders to a single forum, whose task it would be to design and execute a delta plan to alleviate the most pressing bottlenecks. This article focuses on two of the most urgent areas in need of attention in ATMP development, namely manufacturing and reimbursement, and promotes the concept of innovation-dedicated research infrastructures to support a multi-sector approach for ensuring the successful development, entry, and ensuing survival of ATMPs in the healthcare market.

  16. Advances in Artificial Neural Networks – Methodological Development and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Huang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks as a major soft-computing technology have been extensively studied and applied during the last three decades. Research on backpropagation training algorithms for multilayer perceptron networks has spurred development of other neural network training algorithms for other networks such as radial basis function, recurrent network, feedback network, and unsupervised Kohonen self-organizing network. These networks, especially the multilayer perceptron network with a backpropagation training algorithm, have gained recognition in research and applications in various scientific and engineering areas. In order to accelerate the training process and overcome data over-fitting, research has been conducted to improve the backpropagation algorithm. Further, artificial neural networks have been integrated with other advanced methods such as fuzzy logic and wavelet analysis, to enhance the ability of data interpretation and modeling and to avoid subjectivity in the operation of the training algorithm. In recent years, support vector machines have emerged as a set of high-performance supervised generalized linear classifiers in parallel with artificial neural networks. A review on development history of artificial neural networks is presented and the standard architectures and algorithms of artificial neural networks are described. Furthermore, advanced artificial neural networks will be introduced with support vector machines, and limitations of ANNs will be identified. The future of artificial neural network development in tandem with support vector machines will be discussed in conjunction with further applications to food science and engineering, soil and water relationship for crop management, and decision support for precision agriculture. Along with the network structures and training algorithms, the applications of artificial neural networks will be reviewed as well, especially in the fields of agricultural and biological

  17. Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Hull

    2009-10-31

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2003, U.S. mining operations produced $57 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $564 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Originally set up by Virginia Tech and West Virginia University, this endeavor has been expanded into a seven-university consortium -- Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, University of Utah, Montana Tech, New Mexico Tech and University of Nevada, Reno - that is supported through U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (1) Solid-solid separation; (2) Solid-liquid separation; (3) Chemical/biological extraction; (4) Modeling and control; and (5) Environmental control. Distribution of funds is handled via competitive solicitation of research proposals through Site Coordinators at the seven member universities. These were first reviewed and ranked by a group of technical reviewers (selected primarily from industry). Based on these reviews, and an assessment of overall program requirements, the CAST Technical Committee made an initial selection/ranking of proposals and forwarded these to the DOE/NETL Project Officer for final review and approval. The successful projects are listed by category, along with brief abstracts of their aims and objectives.

  18. Component and Technology Development for Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-01-30

    The following report details the significant developments to Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) technologies made throughout the course of this funding. This report will begin with an overview of the sodium loop and the improvements made over the course of this research to make it a more advanced and capable facility. These improvements have much to do with oxygen control and diagnostics. Thus a detailed report of advancements with respect to the cold trap, plugging meter, vanadium equilibration loop, and electrochemical oxygen sensor is included. Further analysis of the university’s moving magnet pump was performed and included in a section of this report. A continuous electrical resistance based level sensor was built and tested in the sodium with favorable results. Materials testing was done on diffusion bonded samples of metal and the results are presented here as well. A significant portion of this work went into the development of optical fiber temperature sensors which could be deployed in an SFR environment. Thus, a section of this report presents the work done to develop an encapsulation method for these fibers inside of a stainless steel capillary tube. High temperature testing was then done on the optical fiber ex situ in a furnace. Thermal response time was also explored with the optical fiber temperature sensors. Finally these optical fibers were deployed successfully in a sodium environment for data acquisition. As a test of the sodium deployable optical fiber temperature sensors they were installed in a sub-loop of the sodium facility which was constructed to promote the thermal striping effect in sodium. The optical fibers performed exceptionally well, yielding unprecedented 2 dimensional temperature profiles with good temporal resolution. Finally, this thermal striping loop was used to perform cross correlation velocimetry successfully over a wide range of flow rates.

  19. Advanced Materials and Nano technology for Sustainable Energy Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Z.; Wu, Ch.H.; Zhu, Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Energy is the material foundation of human activities and also the single most valuable resource for the production activities of human society. Materials play a pivotal role in advancing technologies that can offer efficient renewable energy solutions for the future. This special issue has been established as an international foremost interdisciplinary forum that aims to publish high quality and original full research articles on all aspects of the study of materials for the deployment of renewable and sustainable energy technologies. The special issue covers experimental and theoretical aspects of materials and prototype devices for sustainable energy conversion, storage, and saving, together with materials needed for renewable energy production. It brings together stake holders from universities, industries, government agents, and businesses that are involved in the invention, design, development, and implementation of sustainable technologies. The research work has already been published in this special issue which discusses comprehensive technologies for wastewater treatment, strategies for controlling gaseous pollutant releases within chemical plant, evaluation of FCC catalysis poisoning mechanism, clean technologies for fossil fuel use, new-type photo catalysis material design with controllable morphology for solar energy conversion, and so forth. These studies describe important, intriguing, and systematic investigations on advanced materials and technologies for dealing with the key technologies and important issues that continue to haunt the global energy industry. They also tie together many aspects of current energy transportation science and technology, exhibiting outstanding industrial insights that have the potential to encourage and stimulate fresh perspectives on challenges, opportunities, and solutions to energy and environmental sustainability

  20. Advance Organizers: Their Construction and Use in Instructional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, John

    This chapter presents a review of the latest research on advance organizers, and provides instructions for constructing and using them. The theoretical background of the advance organizers research is presented, beginning with the work of Ausubel, and this work is related to the writings of Piaget. An outline of advance organizer research is then…

  1. Development of New Heats of Advanced Ferritic/Martensitic Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pestovich, Kimberly Shay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderoglu, Osman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aydogan, Eda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-23

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program is investigating methods of transmuting minor actinides in various fuel cycle options. To achieve this goal, new fuels and cladding materials must be developed and tested to high burnup levels (e.g. >20%) requiring cladding to withstand very high doses (greater than 200 dpa) while in contact with the coolant and the fuel. To develop and qualify materials to a total fluence greater than 200 dpa requires development of advanced alloys and irradiations in fast reactors to test these alloys. Recent results from testing numerous ferritic/martensitic steels at low temperatures suggest that improvements in low temperature radiation tolerance can be achieved through carefully controlling the nitrogen content in these alloys. Thus, four new heats of HT-9 were produced with controlled nitrogen content: two by Metalwerks and two by Sophisticated Alloys. Initial results on these new alloys are presented including microstructural analysis and hardness testing. Future testing will include irradiation testing with ions and in reactor.

  2. Advances in electronic-nose technologies developed for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D; Baietto, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry.

  3. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry.

  4. Feasibility study on the development of advanced LWR fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Youn Ho; Sohn, D. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Song, K. W.; Song, K. N.; Chun, T. H.; Bang, J. G.; Bae, K. K.; Kim, D. H. and others.

    1997-07-01

    Worldwide R and D trends related to core technology of LWR fuels and status of patents have been surveyed for the feasibility study. In addition, various fuel cycle schemes have been studied to establish the target performance parameters. For the development of cladding material, establishment of long-term research plan for alloy development and optimization of melting process and manufacturing technology were conducted. A work which could characterize the effect of sintering additives on the microstructure of UO 2 pellet has been experimentally undertaken, and major sintering variables and their ranges have been found in the sintering process of UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 burnable absorber pellet. The analysis of state of the art technology related to flow mixing device for spacer grid and debris filtering device for bottom nozzle and the investigation of the physical phenomena related to CHF enhancement and the establishment of the data base for thermal-hydraulic performance tests has been done in this study. In addition, survey on the documents of the up-to-date PWR fuel assemblies developed by foreign vendors have been carried out to understand their R and D trends and establish the direction of R and D for these structural components. And, to set the performance target of the new fuel, to be developed, fuel burnup and economy under the extended fuel cycle length scheme were estimated. A preliminary study on the failure mechanism of CANDU fuel, key technology and advanced coating has been performed. (author). 190 refs., 31 tabs., 129 figs

  5. Advanced fusion technologies developed for JT-60 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasai, Akira; Ishida, S.; Matsukawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    The modification of JT-60U is planned as a full superconducting tokamak (JT-60SC). The objectives of the JT-60SC program are to establish scientific and technological bases for the steady-state operation of high performance plasmas and utilization of reduced-activation materials in economically and environmentally attractive DEMO reactor. Advanced fusion technologies relevant to DEMO reactor have been developed in the superconducting magnet technology and plasma facing components for the design of JT-60SC. To achieve a high current density in a superconducting strand, Nb 3 Al strands with a high copper ratio of 4 have been newly developed for the toroidal field coils (TFC) of JT-60SC. The R and D to demonstrate applicability of Nb 3 Al conductor to the TFC by a react-and-wind technique have been carried out using a full-size Nb 3 Al conductor. A full-size NbTi conductor with low AC loss using Ni-coated strands has been successfully developed. A forced cooling divertor component with high heat transfer using screw tubes has been developed for the first time. The heat removal performance of the CFC target was successfully demonstrated on the electron beam irradiation stand. (author)

  6. The development of advanced gas cooled reactor iodine adsorber systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddings, P.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGRs) are provided with plants to process the carbon dioxide coolant prior to its discharge to atmosphere. Included in these are beds of granular activated charcoal, contained within a suitable pressure vessel, through which the high pressure carbon dioxide is passed for the purpose of retaining iodine and iodine-containing compounds. Carry-over carbon dust from the adsorption beds was identified during active in-situ commissioning testing, radio-iodine being transported with the particulate material due to gross disturbance of the adsorber carbon bed and displacement of the vessel internals. The methods used to identify the causes of the problems and find solutions are described. A development programme for the Heysham-2 and Torness reactors iodine adsorber units was set up to identify a method of de-dusting granular charcoal and develop it for full-scale use, of assess the effect under conditions of high gas density of approach velocity on charcoal fines production and to establish the pressure drop characteristics of a packed granular bed and to develop an effective design of inlet gas diffuser manifold to ensure an acceptable velocity distribution. This has involved the construction of a small scale high pressure carbon dioxide rig and development of an air flow model. This work is described. (UK)

  7. A Predictive Model of Surface Warfare Officer Retention: Factors Affecting Turnover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gjurich, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    Junior Surface Warfare Officer retention is in a crisis. The Surface Warfare Officer community anticipates an inability to fill Department Head billets due to the number of junior Surface Warfare Officers leaving military service...

  8. Dosimetry of external radiation: Recent developments. Advanced training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.; Boehm, J.; Doerschel, B.

    1999-02-01

    Between February 24 and 26, 1999, the Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. held an advanced training course in Tabarz/Thuringia on the subject 'Dosimetry of external radiation: Recent developments'. The following subject matters were dealt with: New concepts and measurands; Present national and international rules; Measurement of the body dose; Exposure conditions at workplaces; and Present state of dosimetric metrology. In correspondence with the subject, the course was organized by the working group 'Dosimetry of external radiation'. Target groups of the course were persons bearing responsibility in the radiation protection sector and interested persons with basic knowledge of this field. The present report comprises the written versions of lectures delivered at the meeting. (orig.) [de

  9. Development of Advanced Robotic Hand System for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Kazuo; Akita, Kenzo; Mikami, Tatsuo; Komada, Satoru

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Robotic Hand System (ARH) is a precise telerobotics system with a semi dexterous hand for future space application. The ARH will be tested in space as one of the missions of the Engineering Tests Satellite 7 (ETS-7) which will be launched in 1997. The objectives of the ARH development are to evaluate the capability of a possible robot hand for precise and delicate tasks and to validate the related technologies implemented in the system. The ARH is designed to be controlled both from ground as a teleoperation and by locally autonomous control. This paper presents the overall system design and the functional capabilities of the ARH as well as its mission outline as the preliminary design has been completed.

  10. Phase 1 Development Testing of the Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Nicholas L.; Eddleman, David E.; Calvert, Marty R.; Bullard, David B.; Martin, Michael A.; Wall, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Development Breadboard Engine (BBE) is a pressure-fed liquid oxygen/pump-fed liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) expander cycle engine that was built and operated by NASA at Marshall Space Flight Center's East Test Area. The breadboard engine was conceived as a technology demonstrator for the additive manufacturing technologies for an advanced upper stage prototype engine. The components tested on the breadboard engine included an ablative chamber, injector, main fuel valve, turbine bypass valve, a main oxidizer valve, a mixer and the fuel turbopump. All parts minus the ablative chamber were additively manufactured. The BBE was successfully hot fire tested seven times. Data collected from the test series will be used for follow on demonstration tests with a liquid oxygen turbopump and a regeneratively cooled chamber and nozzle.

  11. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of work performed from January 1, 1977 through March 31, 1977 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Process Heat and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (impure Helium), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes progress to date on alloy selection for VHTR Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) applications and for DCHT applications. The present status on the simulated reactor helium loop design and on designs for the testing and analysis facilities and equipment is discussed

  12. Development of a system model for advanced small modular reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a system model that can be used to analyze three advance small modular reactor (SMR) designs through their lifetime. Neutronics of these reactor designs were evaluated using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX/6). The system models were developed in Matlab and Simulink. A major thrust of this research was the initial scoping analysis of Sandias concept of a long-life fast reactor (LLFR). The inherent characteristic of this conceptual design is to minimize the change in reactivity over the lifetime of the reactor. This allows the reactor to operate substantially longer at full power than traditional light water reactors (LWRs) or other SMR designs (e.g. high temperature gas reactor (HTGR)). The system model has subroutines for lifetime reactor feedback and operation calculations, thermal hydraulic effects, load demand changes and a simplified SCO2 Brayton cycle for power conversion.

  13. Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) pulse power technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.; Branum, D.; Cook, E.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed linear induction accelerator with the following design parameters: 50 MeV, 10 kA, 70 ns, and 1 kHz in a ten-pulse burst. Acceleration is accomplished by means of 190 ferrite-loaded cells, each capable of maintaining a 250 kV voltage pulse for 70 ns across a 1-inch gap. The unique characteristic of this machine is its 1 kHz burst mode capability at very high currents. This paper dscribes the pulse power development program which used the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) technology as a starting base. Considerable changes have been made both electrically and mechanically in the pulse power components with special consideration being given to the design to achieve higher reliability. A prototype module which incorporates all the pulse power components has been built and tested for millions of shots. Prototype components and test results are described

  14. Advanced treatment and reuse system developed for oilfield process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin

    2011-01-15

    An innovative plant to treat oilfield produced wastewater is being constructed in Trinidad and Tobago following recent regulations and industrial water supply challenges. The 4,100m3/day treatment system, developed by Golder Associates, will produce water for industrial reuse and effluent that meets new regulations. The treatment stages include: oil-water separation by gravity, equalization with a two-day capacity basin, dissolved air flotation, cooling, biotreatment/settling with immobilized cell bioreactors (ICB) technology, prefiltration/reverse osmosis and effluent storage/transfer. This advanced system will provide several important benefits including the elimination of inland discharge of minimally-treated water and the reduction of environmental and public health concerns. In addition, it will provide a new source of industrial water, resulting in a decrease in demand for fresh water. The success of this plant could lead to additional facilities in other oil field locations, expanding economic and environmental benefits of water reuse.

  15. New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Cowan, B.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Mullowney, P.J.; Messmer, P.; Esarey, E.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Improved computational methods are essential to the diverse and rapidly developing field of advanced accelerator concepts. We present an overview of some computational algorithms for laser-plasma concepts and high-brightness photocathode electron sources. In particular, we discuss algorithms for reduced laser-plasma models that can be orders of magnitude faster than their higher-fidelity counterparts, as well as important on-going efforts to include relevant additional physics that has been previously neglected. As an example of the former, we present 2D laser wakefield accelerator simulations in an optimal Lorentz frame, demonstrating and gt;10 GeV energy gain of externally injected electrons over a 2 m interaction length, showing good agreement with predictions from scaled simulations and theory, with a speedup factor of ∼2,000 as compared to standard particle-in-cell.

  16. The FEL development at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, N. D.; Benson, C.; Berg, S.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Chae, Y. C.; Crosbie, E. A.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R. J.; Den Hartog, P.; Deriy, B.; Dortwegt, R.; Edrmann, M.; Freund, H. P.; Friedsam, H.; Galayda, J. N.; Gluskin, E.; Goeppner, G. A.; Grelick, A.; Huang, Z.; Jones, J.; Kang, Y.; Kim, K.-J.; Kim, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Lewellen, J. W.; Lill, R.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Makarov, O.; Markovich, G. M.; Milton, S. V.; Moog, E. R.; Nassiri, A.; Ogurtsov, V.; Pasky, S.; Power, J.; Tieman, B.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Travish, G.; Vasserman, I.; Walters, D. R.; Wang, J.; Xu, S.; Yang, B.

    1999-01-01

    Construction of a single-pass free-electron laser (FEL) based on the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode of operation is nearing completion at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) with initial experiments imminent. The APS SASE FEL is a proof-of-principle fourth-generation light source. As of January 1999 the undulator hall, end-station building, necessary transfer lines, electron and optical diagnostics, injectors, and initial undulatory have been constructed and, with the exception of the undulatory, installed. All preliminary code development and simulations have also been completed. The undulator hall is now ready to accept first beam for characterization of the output radiation. It is the project goal to push towards fill FEL saturation, initially in the visible, but ultimately to W and VUV, wavelengths

  17. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  18. Development of Human Performance Analysis and Advanced HRA Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dea; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan; Kim, Seong Whan; Kim, Man Cheol; Ha, Je Joo

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this project is to build a systematic framework that can evaluate the effect of human factors related problems on the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as develop a technology that can be used to enhance human performance. The research goal of this project is twofold: (1) the development of a human performance database and a framework to enhance human performance, and (2) the analysis of human error with constructing technical basis for human reliability analysis. There are three kinds of main results of this study. The first result is the development of a human performance database, called OPERA-I/II (Operator Performance and Reliability Analysis, Part I and Part II). In addition, a standard communication protocol was developed based on OPERA to reduce human error caused from communication error in the phase of event diagnosis. Task complexity (TACOM) measure and the methodology of optimizing diagnosis procedures were also finalized during this research phase. The second main result is the development of a software, K-HRA, which is to support the standard HRA method. Finally, an advanced HRA method named as AGAPE-ET was developed by combining methods MDTA (misdiagnosis tree analysis technique) and K-HRA, which can be used to analyze EOC (errors of commission) and EOO (errors of ommission). These research results, such as OPERA-I/II, TACOM, a standard communication protocol, K-HRA and AGAPE-ET methods will be used to improve the quality of HRA and to enhance human performance in nuclear power plants.

  19. Development of Human Performance Analysis and Advanced HRA Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Dea; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan; Kim, Seong Whan; Kim, Man Cheol; Ha, Je Joo

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to build a systematic framework that can evaluate the effect of human factors related problems on the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as develop a technology that can be used to enhance human performance. The research goal of this project is twofold: (1) the development of a human performance database and a framework to enhance human performance, and (2) the analysis of human error with constructing technical basis for human reliability analysis. There are three kinds of main results of this study. The first result is the development of a human performance database, called OPERA-I/II (Operator Performance and Reliability Analysis, Part I and Part II). In addition, a standard communication protocol was developed based on OPERA to reduce human error caused from communication error in the phase of event diagnosis. Task complexity (TACOM) measure and the methodology of optimizing diagnosis procedures were also finalized during this research phase. The second main result is the development of a software, K-HRA, which is to support the standard HRA method. Finally, an advanced HRA method named as AGAPE-ET was developed by combining methods MDTA (misdiagnosis tree analysis technique) and K-HRA, which can be used to analyze EOC (errors of commission) and EOO (errors of ommission). These research results, such as OPERA-I/II, TACOM, a standard communication protocol, K-HRA and AGAPE-ET methods will be used to improve the quality of HRA and to enhance human performance in nuclear power plants

  20. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management: Development and Demonstrations - 12532

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky; Gorton, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MSIN K9-33, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hubbard, Susan S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50B-4230, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Moulton, J. David; Dixon, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS B284, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM), Technology Innovation and Development is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of capabilities, which are organized into Platform and Integrated Tool-sets and a High-Performance Computing Multi-process Simulator. The Platform capabilities target a level of functionality to allow end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model and management of data for model input. The High-Performance Computing capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, tool-sets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The new capabilities are demonstrated through working groups, including one focused on the Hanford Site Deep Vadose Zone. The ASCEM program focused on planning during the first year and executing a prototype tool-set for an early demonstration of individual components. Subsequently, ASCEM has focused on developing and demonstrating an integrated set of capabilities, making progress toward a version of the capabilities that can be used to engage end users. Demonstration of capabilities continues to be implemented through working groups. Three different working groups, one focused on EM problems in the deep vadose zone, another investigating attenuation mechanisms for metals and radionuclides, and a third focusing on waste tank performance assessment, continue to make progress. The project

  1. The development of heat exchangers with advanced thermomechanical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capra, Marcello

    1997-07-01

    Current metallurgical limitations necessarily impose a number of restrictions on the efficiency of power plant and combustion systems. These limitations include both temperature and corrosion resistance. If significant improvements can be made in these areas, then not only will it be possible to obtain higher system efficiencies, but it will also be possible to further exploit new technologies. Consequently, there is appreciable interest in the development of ceramic tubes for heat exchangers. Such tubes would offer the potential of operation at much higher temperatures combined with a much improved resistance to chemical attack. They are unlikely to be suitable for high pressure operation, at least in the foreseeable future, and hence their use would be limited generally to gas to gas exchangers. In spite of the limitations on details and specific technological solutions imposed by industrial property conditions, this report provides an overview on the development of these components, which is in charge of all the major international industrial companies of the field, in consideration of the relevant benefits coming from their large industrialization. After an analysis of the industrial situation of the product, in terms both of possible applications and economical impacts on the market, an overview of major on-going R and D programmes is carried out. At present, these programmes are mostly within the general frame of the study of advanced thermomechanical components and the related manufacturing technologies development

  2. Fabrication development for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, B.W.; Copeland, G.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the fuel fabrication development for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The fuel element is similar to that successfully fabricated and used in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for many years, but there are two significant differences that require some development. The fuel compound is U 3 Si 2 rather than U 3 O 8 , and the fuel is graded in the axial as well as the radial direction. Both of these changes can be accomplished with a straightforward extension of the HFIR technology. The ANS also requires some improvements in inspection technology and somewhat more stringent acceptance criteria. Early indications were that the fuel fabrication and inspection technology would produce a reactor core meeting the requirements of the ANS for the low volume fraction loadings needed for the highly enriched uranium design (up to 1.7 Mg U/m 3 ). Near the end of the development work, higher volume fractions were fabricated that would be required for a lower- enrichment uranium core. Again, results look encouraging for loadings up to ∼3.5 Mg U/m 3 ; however, much less evaluation was done for the higher loadings

  3. Advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy; Aitchison, Lindsay; Rhodes, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the method by which the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun; in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of on-going efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  4. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis.

  5. The advanced neutron source research and development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is being designed as a user-oriented neutron research laboratory centered around the most intense continuous beams of thermal and subthermal neutrons in the world (an order of magnitude more intense than beams available from the most advanced existing reactors). The ANS will be built around a new research reactor of 330-MW fission power, producing an unprecedented peak thermal flux of >7 · 10 19 · m -2 · s -1 . Primarily a research facility, the ANS will accommodate more than 1000 academic, industrial, and government researchers each year. They will conduct basic research in all branches of science as well as applied research leading to better understanding of new materials, including high temperature super conductors, plastics, and thin films. Some 48 neutron beam stations will be set up in the ANS beam rooms and the neutron guide hall for neutron scattering and for fundamental and nuclear physics research. There also will be extensive facilities for materials irradiation, isotope production, and analytical chemistry. The top level work breakdown structure (WBS) for the project. As noted in this figure, one component of the project is a research and development (R ampersand D) program (WBS 1.1). This program interfaces with all of the other project level two WBS activities. Because one of the project guidelines is to meet minimum performance goals without relying on new inventions, this R ampersand D activity is not intended to produce new concepts to allow the project to meet minimum performance goals. Instead, the R ampersand D program will focus on the four objectives described

  6. Developing novel 3D antennas using advanced additive manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Milad

    In today's world of wireless communication systems, antenna engineering is rapidly advancing as the wireless services continue to expand in support of emerging commercial applications. Antennas play a key role in the performance of advanced transceiver systems where they serve to convert electric power to electromagnetic waves and vice versa. Researchers have held significant interest in developing this crucial component for wireless communication systems by employing a variety of design techniques. In the past few years, demands for electrically small antennas continues to increase, particularly among portable and mobile wireless devices, medical electronics and aerospace systems. This trend toward smaller electronic devices makes the three dimensional (3D) antennas very appealing, since they can be designed in a way to use every available space inside the devise. Additive Manufacturing (AM) method could help to find great solutions for the antennas design for next generation of wireless communication systems. In this thesis, the design and fabrication of 3D printed antennas using AM technology is studied. To demonstrate this application of AM, different types of antennas structures have been designed and fabricated using various manufacturing processes. This thesis studies, for the first time, embedded conductive 3D printed antennas using PolyLactic Acid (PLA) and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) for substrate parts and high temperature carbon paste for conductive parts which can be a good candidate to overcome the limitations of direct printing on 3D surfaces that is the most popular method to fabricate conductive parts of the antennas. This thesis also studies, for the first time, the fabrication of antennas with 3D printed conductive parts which can contribute to the new generation of 3D printed antennas.

  7. Design and analysis of CANDU advanced fuel -Development of the advanced CANDU technology-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Ho Cheon; Shim, Ki Seop; Byeon, Taek Sang; Park, Kwang Seok; Kim, Bong Ki; Lee, Yeong Uk; Jeong, Chang Joon; Oh, Deok Joo; Lee, Ui Joo; Park, Joo Hwan; Lee, Sang Yong; Jeong, Beop Dong; Choi, Han Rim; Lee, Yeong Jin; Choi, Cheol Jin; Choi, Jong Ho; Lee, Kwang Won; Cho, Cheon Hyi; On, Myeong Ryong; Kim, Taek Mo; Lim, Hong Sik; Lee, Kang Moon; Lee, Nam Ho; Lee, Kyu Hyeong

    1994-07-01

    It has been projected that a total of 5 pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR) including Wolsong 1 under operation and Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 under construction will be operated by 2006, and so about 500 ton of natural uranium will be consumed every year and a lot of spent fuels will be generated. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this R and D project is to develop the CANDU advanced fuel having the following capabilities compared with existing standard fuel: (1) To reduce linear heat generation rating by more than 15% (i.e., less than 50 kW/m), (2) To extend fuel burnup by more than 3 times (i.e., higher than 21,000 MWD/MTU), and (3) To increase critical channel power by more than 5%. In accordance, the followings are performed in this fiscal year: (1) Undertake CANFLEX-NU design and thermalmechanical performance analysis, and prepare design documents, (2) Establish reactor physics analysis code system, and investigate the compativility of the CANFLEX-NU fuel with the standard 37-element fuel in the CANDU-6 reactor. (3) Establish safety analysis methodology with the assumption of the CANFLEX-NU loaded CANDU-6 reactor, and perform the preliminary thermalhydraulic and fuel behavior for the selected DBA accidents, (4) Investigate reactor physics analysis code system as pre-study for CANFLEX-SEU loaded reactors

  8. Information operation/information warfare modeling and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Buettner, Raymond

    2000-01-01

    Information Operations have always been a part of warfare. However, this aspect of warfare is having ever-greater importance as forces rely more and more on information as an enabler. Modern information systems make possible very rapid creation, distribution, and utilization of information. These same systems have vulnerabilities that can be exploited by enemy forces. Information force-on-force is important and complex. New tools and procedures are needed for this warfare arena. As these t...

  9. Development of the newly advanced alarm system for APWR plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Manabu; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Tani, Mamoru; Kobashi, Shuichi [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    We have been developing AMCB (Advanced Main Control Board) for APWR consisting of a large overview display and on operator console. We have adopted the alarm prioritizing functions, which are already in use in the existing Japanese PWR plants, for easier identification of the high priority alarms. Moreover, we have developed an alarm system with a large overview display, which presents alarms on the plant process flow diagram. This enhances the location aids and pattern recognition in the alarm identification process. This time, we made further improvement and studies for better and various functions combining a large overview display with a CRT display. We determined the alarm system specification as follows, taking account of flexible alarm recognition processes. (1) The high priority alarms can be identified upon the LOD (large overview display). On the display, the alarms are described on the plant flow diagram, and the alarm status is shown on the fixed position of process or equipment symbols. (2) Other alarms are identified on large overview display and on CRTs using a hierarchical process. (3) The alarm messages are divided into 4 different groups according to the plant systems, thus enabling to undertake the countermeasure operations, using only the CRT. Moreover, we integrated a computerized ARPs (Alarm Response Procedures) into the alarm system. (author). 4 figs, 5 tabs.

  10. Development of the newly advanced alarm system for APWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Manabu; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Tani, Mamoru; Kobashi, Shuichi

    1997-01-01

    We have been developing AMCB (Advanced Main Control Board) for APWR consisting of a large overview display and on operator console. We have adopted the alarm prioritizing functions, which are already in use in the existing Japanese PWR plants, for easier identification of the high priority alarms. Moreover, we have developed an alarm system with a large overview display, which presents alarms on the plant process flow diagram. This enhances the location aids and pattern recognition in the alarm identification process. This time, we made further improvement and studies for better and various functions combining a large overview display with a CRT display. We determined the alarm system specification as follows, taking account of flexible alarm recognition processes. (1) The high priority alarms can be identified upon the LOD (large overview display). On the display, the alarms are described on the plant flow diagram, and the alarm status is shown on the fixed position of process or equipment symbols. (2) Other alarms are identified on large overview display and on CRTs using a hierarchical process. (3) The alarm messages are divided into 4 different groups according to the plant systems, thus enabling to undertake the countermeasure operations, using only the CRT. Moreover, we integrated a computerized ARPs (Alarm Response Procedures) into the alarm system. (author). 4 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Advanced Electrical, Optical and Data Communication Infrastructure Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon Cobb

    2011-04-30

    The implementation of electrical and IT infrastructure systems at the North Carolina Center for Automotive Research , Inc. (NCCAR) has achieved several key objectives in terms of system functionality, operational safety and potential for ongoing research and development. Key conclusions include: (1) The proven ability to operate a high speed wireless data network over a large 155 acre area; (2) Node to node wireless transfers from access points are possible at speeds of more than 50 mph while maintaining high volume bandwidth; (3) Triangulation of electronic devices/users is possible in areas with overlapping multiple access points, outdoor areas with reduced overlap of access point coverage considerably reduces triangulation accuracy; (4) Wireless networks can be adversely affected by tree foliage, pine needles are a particular challenge due to the needle length relative to the transmission frequency/wavelength; and (5) Future research will use the project video surveillance and wireless systems to further develop automated image tracking functionality for the benefit of advanced vehicle safety monitoring and autonomous vehicle control through 'vehicle-to-vehicle' and 'vehicle-to-infrastructure' communications. A specific advantage realized from this IT implementation at NCCAR is that NC State University is implementing a similar wireless network across Centennial Campus, Raleigh, NC in 2011 and has benefited from lessons learned during this project. Consequently, students, researchers and members of the public will be able to benefit from a large scale IT implementation with features and improvements derived from this NCCAR project.

  12. Construction and engineering report for advanced nuclear fuel development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Kwon, S.J.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, I. J.; Yu, C. H.

    2003-09-01

    The design and construction of the fuel technology development facility was aimed to accommodate general nuclear fuel research and development for the HANARO fuel fabrication and advanced fuel researches. 1. Building size and room function 1) Building total area : approx. 3,618m 2 , basement 1st floor, ground 3th floor 2) Room function : basement floor(machine room, electrical room, radioactive waste tank room), 1st floor(research reactor fuel fabrication facility, pyroprocess lab., metal fuel lab., nondestructive lab., pellet processing lab., access control room, sintering lab., etc), 2nd floor(thermal properties measurement lab., pellet characterization lab., powder analysis lab., microstructure analysis lab., etc), 3rd floor(AHU and ACU Room) 2. Special facility equipment 1) Environmental pollution protection equipment : ACU(2sets), 2) Emergency operating system : diesel generator(1set), 3) Nuclear material handle, storage and transport system : overhead crane(3sets), monorail hoist(1set), jib crane(2sets), tank(1set) 4) Air conditioning unit facility : AHU(3sets), packaged air conditioning unit(5sets), 5) Automatic control system and fire protection system : central control equipment(1set), lon device(1set), fire hose cabinet(3sets), fire pump(3sets) etc

  13. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. and others

    2005-03-01

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division

  14. Advanced Percussive Drilling Technology for Geothermal Exploration and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Raymond, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prasad, Somuri [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolfer, Dale [Atlas-Copco Secoroc LLC, Fagersta (Sweden)

    2017-06-12

    Percussive hammers are a promising advance in drilling technology for geothermal since they rely upon rock reduction mechanisms that are well-suited for use in the hard, brittle rock characteristic of geothermal formations. The project research approach and work plan includes a critical path to development of a high-temperature (HT) percussive hammer using a two phase approach. The work completed in Phase I of the project demonstrated the viability of percussive hammers and that solutions to technical challenges in design, material technology, and performance are likely to be resolved. Work completed in Phase II focused on testing the findings from Phase I and evaluating performance of the materials and designs at high operating temperatures. A high-operating temperature (HOT) drilling facility was designed, built, and used to test the performance of the DTH under extreme conditions. Results from the testing indicate that a high-temperature capable hammer can be developed and is a viable alternative for use in the driller’s toolbox.

  15. Operation and Recent Developments of the Photon Factory Advanced Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Miyajima, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Kiyokazu; Haga, Kaiichi; Harada, Kentaro; Hori, Yoichiro; Ieiri, Takao; Isagawa, Shigeru; Kageyama, Tatsuya; Kasuga, Toshio; Katoh, Tadahiko; Kawata, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Kudo, Kikuo; Mitsuhashi, Toshiyuki; Nagahashi, Shinya; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Nogami, Takashi; Obina, Takashi; Ohsawa, Yasunobu; Ono, Masaaki; Ozaki, Toshiyuki; Sakai, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Sakanaka, Shogo; Sato, Masayuki; Satoh, Masato; Shioya, Tatsuro; Suetake, Masaaki; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Tadano, Mikito; Takahashi, Takeshi; Takasaki, Seiji; Tanimoto, Yasunori; Tejima, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Kimichika; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ueda, Akira; Umemori, Kensei; Xing Cheng, Wei; Yamamoto, Noboru; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshimoto, S

    2005-01-01

    The Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) is a synchrotron light source dedicated to X-ray research. The PF-AR is usually operated at a beam energy of 6.5 GeV, but a 5.0 GeV mode is also available for medical application. In 6.5 GeV mode the typical lifetime of 15 hrs and the beam current of 60 mA with a single-bunch have been archived. Almost full-time single-bunch operation for pulse X-ray characterize the PF-AR. However, single-bunch high-current caused several problems to be solved, including the temperature rise of the some of the vacuum component, a pressure increase in the ring, and a sudden drop in lifetime. In order to avoid these issues the developments of new methods have been continued. In this paper, the status and the recent developments of the PF-AR will be presented. It concerns: the successful operation with two-bunch high-current in 5.0 GeV mode; varying the vertical beam size for the medical application; modulating the RF acceleration phase in order to elongate the length of bunch; stabilizi...

  16. Development of the Advanced Nuclear Safety Information Management (ANSIM) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jae Min; Ko, Young Cheol; Song, Tai Gil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Korea has become a technically independent nuclear country and has grown into an exporter of nuclear technologies. Thus, nuclear facilities are increasing in significance at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), and it is time to address the nuclear safety. The importance of nuclear safety cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, a management system is needed urgently to manage the safety of nuclear facilities and to enhance the efficiency of nuclear information. We have established ISP (Information Strategy Planning) for the Integrated Information System of nuclear facility and safety management. The purpose of this paper is to develop a management system for nuclear safety. Therefore, we developed the Advanced Nuclear Safety Information Management system (hereinafter referred to as the 'ANSIM system'). The ANSIM system has been designed and implemented to computerize nuclear safety information for standardization, integration, and sharing in real-time. Figure 1 shows the main home page of the ANSIM system. In this paper, we describe the design requirements, contents, configurations, and utilizations of the ANSIM system

  17. Advanced tendencies in development of photovoltaic cells for power engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebkov, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Development of solar power engineering must be based on original innovative Russian and world technologies. It is necessary to develop promising Russian technologies of manufacturing of photovoltaic cells and semiconductor materials: chlorine-free technology for obtaining solar silicon; matrix solar cell technology with an efficiency of 25-30% upon the conversion of concentrated solar, thermal, and laser radiation; encapsulation technology for high-voltage silicon solar modules with a voltage up to 1000 V and a service life up to 50 years; new methods of concentration of solar radiation with the balancing illumination of photovoltaic cells at 50-100-fold concentration; and solar power systems with round-the-clock production of electrical energy that do not require energy storage devices and reserve sources of energy. The advanced tendency in silicon power engineering is the use of high-temperature reactions in heterogeneous modular silicate solutions for long-term (over one year) production of heat and electricity in the autonomous mode.

  18. Feasibility study on the development of advanced LWR fuel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Youn Ho; Sohn, D. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Song, K. W.; Song, K. N.; Chun, T. H.; Bang, J. G.; Bae, K. K.; Kim, D. H. and others

    1997-07-01

    Worldwide R and D trends related to core technology of LWR fuels and status of patents have been surveyed for the feasibility study. In addition, various fuel cycle schemes have been studied to establish the target performance parameters. For the development of cladding material, establishment of long-term research plan for alloy development and optimization of melting process and manufacturing technology were conducted. A work which could characterize the effect of sintering additives on the microstructure of UO{sub 2} pellet has been experimentally undertaken, and major sintering variables and their ranges have been found in the sintering process of UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} burnable absorber pellet. The analysis of state of the art technology related to flow mixing device for spacer grid and debris filtering device for bottom nozzle and the investigation of the physical phenomena related to CHF enhancement and the establishment of the data base for thermal-hydraulic performance tests has been done in this study. In addition, survey on the documents of the up-to-date PWR fuel assemblies developed by foreign vendors have been carried out to understand their R and D trends and establish the direction of R and D for these structural components. And, to set the performance target of the new fuel, to be developed, fuel burnup and economy under the extended fuel cycle length scheme were estimated. A preliminary study on the failure mechanism of CANDU fuel, key technology and advanced coating has been performed. (author). 190 refs., 31 tabs., 129 figs.

  19. Development of an advanced spacecraft tandem mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Russell C.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to apply current advanced technology in electronics and materials to the development of a miniaturized Tandem Mass Spectrometer that would have the potential for future development into a package suitable for spacecraft use. The mass spectrometer to be used as a basis for the tandem instrument would be a magnetic sector instrument, of Nier-Johnson configuration, as used on the Viking Mars Lander mission. This instrument configuration would then be matched with a suitable second stage MS to provide the benefits of tandem MS operation for rapid identification of unknown organic compounds. This tandem instrument is configured with a newly designed GC system to aid in separation of complex mixtures prior to MS analysis. A number of important results were achieved in the course of this project. Among them were the development of a miniaturized GC subsystem, with a unique desorber-injector, fully temperature feedback controlled oven with powered cooling for rapid reset to ambient conditions, a unique combination inlet system to the MS that provides for both membrane sampling and direct capillary column sample transfer, a compact and ruggedized alignment configuration for the MS, an improved ion source design for increased sensitivity, and a simple, rugged tandem MS configuration that is particularly adaptable to spacecraft use because of its low power and low vacuum pumping requirements. The potential applications of this research include use in manned spacecraft like the space station as a real-time detection and warning device for the presence of potentially harmful trace contaminants of the spacecraft atmosphere, use as an analytical device for evaluating samples collected on the Moon or a planetary surface, or even use in connection with monitoring potentially hazardous conditions that may exist in terrestrial locations such as launch pads, environmental test chambers or other sensitive areas. Commercial development of the technology

  20. Development of advanced-RCCA in PWR (2). Design of advanced-RCCA and verification test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, T.; Naitou, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kawahara, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Kuriyama, H. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Fujii, S. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Takamatsu (Japan); Murakami, S. [Kyusyu Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Murota, M. [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Advanced-RCCA enhances control rod worth by adopting boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) with enriched {sup 10}B (hybrid structure B{sub 4}C/Ag-In-Cd). In APWR, advanced-RCCA result in the reduction of the number of RCCA. In conventional PWR, large MOX or high burn-up fuel loading could be introduced without the additional RCCAs. The duplex cladding structure with Cr plating on each outside surface increases the reliability against the RCCA-wear and results in reduction of inspection cost (inspection-equipment, and inspection-interval). Design of advanced-RCCA and verification are also discussed. (author)

  1. Evolution of war and cyber attacks in the concept of conventional warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kuru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanity have witnessed many confrontations of states whose interests challenge at some points and their struggle to neutralize problems in battlefield. While war was perceived as a way of eliminating deadlocks for some parties, some considered it as one of the international policy materials. The definition and content of conventional warfare have been subject to change for centuries, while the new weapons and technologies have been developed by human beings that it has brought constant change in the law of war and at the same time more lethal and devastating consequences. The struggle for superiority in international relations played an impulsive role in the development of weapons used in the battlefield. Countries have used their labor and financial resources to improve their military skills. Beginning with stones and sticks in the battlefield, this struggle has reached the point of using the next generation satellite controlled unmanned and armed aircrafts and having nuclear weapons has become more deterrent than using them. The struggle between strong countries and the limited countries in terms of technology and armed groups that do not have enough technology and skills completely changed the definition of conventional warfare. This fight has led Asymmetric warfare born which can turn commercial airline planes full of innocent people into a weapon like September-11 attacks. In this study, the historical development and the change in the content of the warfare were briefly explained and then cyber-attacks in the concept of the fourth generation warfare was analyzed taking into account of prominent attacks.

  2. Military Engineers and Chemical Warfare Troops (Inzhenernye Voiska Khimicheskie Voiska),

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS, MILITARY ENGINEERING , INFANTRY, AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS, MINELAYING, ARMORED VEHICLES, NUCLEAR...RADIATION, DOSIMETERS, CHEMICAL WARFARE, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, DECONTAMINATION, HEALTH PHYSICS.

  3. Electronic Warfare: Comprehensive Strategy Needed for Suppressing Enemy Air Defenses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... To achieve this suppression, the services use specialized aircraft designed to neutralize, destroy, or temporarily degrade enemy air defense systems through either physical attack or electronic warfare...

  4. Are Current Psychological Operations Procedures Adequate in Information Warfare?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duff, Murray

    1997-01-01

    .... While some aspects of information warfare are conducted domestically, many are executed on foreign soil and involve extensive interaction with other governments, their population, non-governmental...

  5. The establishment of master plan for developing advanced I and C technology -The development of advanced instrumentation and control technology-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Chang Shik; Lee, Byung Sun; Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Dong Young; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Jang Soo; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Jung, Chul Hwan; Na, Nan Ju; Dong, In Sook; Kang, Soon Gu; Lyu, Chan Ho; Song, Soon Ja

    1994-07-01

    Although several organizations are performing their tasks making efforts to develop new digital technology for application to existing nuclear power plants as well as new plants of the future, their projects are similar to each other and have possibilities of redundant investment. Therefore, KAERI have established a Master Plan to define the suitable work-scope of each Instrumentation and Control (I and C) development project and proceed its development items continuously. Furthermore, in the project, several kinds of advanced technology for application of computer science and digital electronics were studied to obtain better reliability of the I and C systems and reduce opertor's burden. For establishing the Master Plan, functions of I and C system of NPPs were surveyed. Especially EPRI URD was deeply analyzed for setting up a basis of the foreign countries were referred for the Master Plan. For the new technology survey, fault-tolerant control technology and control system performance analysis methods were studied. Requirements of alarm and information system as well as technology of I and C network system of NPPs were also established to introduce the advantages of commercial distributed control system. (Author)

  6. Advanced CANDU reactor development: a customer-driven program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) product development program is well under way. The development approach for the ACR is to ensure that all activities supporting readiness for the first ACR project are carded out in parallel, as parts of an integrated whole. In this way design engineering, licensing, development and testing, supply chain planning, construct ability and module strategy, and planning for commissioning and operations, all work in synergy with one another. Careful schedule management :ensures that program focus stays on critical path priorities.'This paper provides an overview of the program, with an emphasis on integration to ensure maximum project readiness, This program management approach is important now that AECL is participating as the reactor vendor in Dominion Energy's DOE-sponsored Combined Construction/Operating License (COL) program. Dominion Energy selected the ACR-700 as their reference reactor technology for purposes of demonstrating the COL process. AECL's development of the ACR is unique in that pre-licensing activities are being carded out parallel in the USA and Canada, via independent, but well-communicated programs. In the short term, these programs are major drivers of ACR development. The ACR design approach has been to optimize to achieve major design objectives: capital cost reduction, robust design with ample margins, proveness by using evolutionary change from existing :reference plants, design for ease :of operability. The ACR development program maintains these design objectives for each of the program elements: Design: .Carefully selected design innovations based on the SEU fuel/light water coolant:/heavy water moderator approach. Emphasis on lessons-learned review from operating experience and customer feedback Licensing: .Safety case based on strengths of existing CANDU plus benefits of optimised design Development and Test: Choice of materials, conditions to enable incremental testing building on existing CANDU and LWR

  7. Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Ellen; McGuire, Raymond

    2002-08-05

    A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, "L-Gel", consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of its thixotropic nature, clings to walls and ceilings, and does not harm carpets or painted surfaces. The new reagent also addresses the most demanding requirements for decontamination in the civilian sector, including availability, low maintenance, ease of application and deployment by a variety of dispersal mechanisms, minimal training and acceptable expense. Experiments to test the effectiveness of L-Gel were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and independently at four other locations. L-Gel was tested against all classes of chemical warfare agents and against various biological warfare agent surrogates, including spore-forming bacteria and non-virulent strains of real biological agents. Testing showed that L-Gel is as effective against chemical agents and biological materials, including spores, as the best military decontaminants.

  8. Dengue human infection models to advance dengue vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Christian P; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P

    2015-12-10

    Dengue viruses (DENV) currently infect approximately 400 million people each year causing millions to seek care and overwhelming the health care infrastructure in endemic areas. Vaccines to prevent dengue and therapeutics to treat dengue are not currently available. The efficacy of the most advanced candidate vaccine against symptomatic dengue in general and DENV-2 in particular was much lower than expected, despite the ability of the vaccine to induce neutralizing antibody against all four DENV serotypes. Because seroconversion to the DENV serotypes following vaccination was thought to be indicative of induced protection, these results have made it more difficult to assess which candidate vaccines should or should not be evaluated in large studies in endemic areas. A dengue human infection model (DHIM) could be extremely valuable to down-select candidate vaccines or therapeutics prior to engaging in efficacy trials in endemic areas. Two DHIM have been developed to assess the efficacy of live attenuated tetravalent (LATV) dengue vaccines. The first model, developed by the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the U. S. National Institutes of Health, utilizes a modified DENV-2 strain DEN2Δ30. This virus was derived from the DENV-2 Tonga/74 that caused only very mild clinical infection during the outbreak from which it was recovered. DEN2Δ30 induced viremia in 100%, rash in 80%, and neutropenia in 27% of the 30 subjects to whom it was given. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is developing a DHIM the goal of which is to identify DENV that cause symptomatic dengue fever. WRAIR has evaluated seven viruses and has identified two that meet dengue fever criteria. Both of these models may be very useful in the evaluation and down-selection of candidate dengue vaccines and therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  10. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...

  11. Development of advanced materials and devices for nuclear radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadkari, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of technologically important materials are grown in the Crystal Technology Section of the Technical Physics Division, BARC. These crystals find applications as scintillators and dosimeters in nuclear radiation detection/measurements. Scintillator crystals of some advanced materials like cerium doped Gd 3 Ga 3 Al 2 O 12 , Lu 2 SiO 5 , YAIO 3 etc and some conventional materials such as Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 , CsI:Tl, NaI:Tl, etc have been grown from melts using the Czochralski and Bridgman techniques. Portable gamma-ray spectrometers that work from a USB port of a laptop have been developed using the grown scintillator crystals. In recent years there has been a flurry of research activities on materials containing Li 6 , B 10 , etc that have large capture cross-sections for neutrons to develop solid state detectors for neutrons. For this purpose single crystals of cerium doped Li 6 Y(BO 3 ) 3 and silver doped Li 2 B 4 O 7 have been developed. Optical, thermo-luminescence, photo-luminescence and scintillation properties of these crystals have been investigated with a view to develop detectors and dosimeters. The Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Ag is a tissue equivalent material (Z eff = 7.3 close to 7.4 of tissue) useful in the personal and medical dosimetry applications. As the emission of Ag + lies in the UV region (267 nm), a customized TL measurement set-up has been developed using a solar blind PMT that enabled the measurement of very low doses below 5 μGy and linearity up to 100 Gy. Films of CsI:TI in the 10 nm to 3 μm thickness range were deposited on silicon substrates using the physical vapor deposition technique under vacuum conditions. The deposited films investigated using SEM and AFM revealed a columnar growth behavior with a preferential orientation along <200>. The growth of single crystals from melts, recent efforts in the development of detectors and results of experiments conducted to detect thermal neutrons are described. (author)

  12. Mapping the Spread of Mounted Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Turchin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Military technology is one of the most important factors affecting the evolution of complex societies. In particular, mounted warfare, the use of horse-riders in military operations, revolutionized war as it spread to different parts of Eurasia and Africa during the Ancient and Medieval eras, and to the Americas during the Early Modern period. Here we use a variety of sources to map this spread.

  13. UML modelling of network warfare examples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ] Affects both civilian and military domains [8] [9] Related to the concepts of infowar, information operations, hacking, hackivism, cyberterrorism and cybotage depending on motivations and techniques [10] Encompasses both technological solutions...]. In addition, Williers as well as Qingbao and Anwar discuss more offensive aspects of information security and Network Warfare like Hacking, Vulnerability Injection, Network Attacks, Denial of Capability, Interception and Blockage [6] [18] [19]. Various...

  14. Maritime Trade Warfare Against a Modern Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Malaysian and Singaporean support. Operational Environment The previous sections have assessed that an oil embargo would be effective at influencing...will be addressed. The first approach is to stop the trade at its source. This approach forms the foundation of many contemporary sanctions. Under...antisubmarine warfare capable ships, could be sufficient to defend against forces attempting to break a blockade, and a carrier battle group in the Indian Ocean

  15. Navy Operational Planner - Undersea Warfare Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    concepts are considered in NOP–USW that are not in previous research: time phasing of missions, mutually exclusive missions, and asset availability...operational planning efforts. NOP–USW suggests the correct allocation of assets across a wide theater of operation to accomplish missions in the...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAVY OPERATIONAL PLANNER – UNDERSEA WARFARE MODULE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Guy A. Molina 7

  16. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare: Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    language, proficiency in small-unit tactics, and the ability to build and fight alongside indigenous combat formations in a permissive, uncertain, or...counterinsurgency through and with indigenous forces or personnel.”1 The report has four aims: (1) to adapt conventional operational art to the unique...perfect near-real-time situational awareness,” at least at the tactical level of land warfare in complex terrain. But the idea of leveraging information

  17. Research and development of advanced robots for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Hideo; Hirukawa, Hirohisa; Kitagaki, Kosei; Liu, Yunhui; Onda, Hiromu; Nakamura, Akira

    1994-01-01

    Social and economic demands have been pressing for automation of inspection tasks, maintenance and repair jobs of nuclear power plants, which are carried out by human workers under circumstances with high radiation level. Since the plants are not always designed for introduction of automatic machinery, sophisticated robots shall play a crucial role to free workers from hostile environments. We have been studying intelligent robot systems and regarded nuclear industries as one of the important application fields where we can validate the feasibility of the methods and systems we have developed. In this paper we firstly discuss on the tasks required in nuclear power plants. Secondly we introduce current status of R and D on special purpose robots, versatile robots and intelligent robots for automatizing the tasks. Then we focus our discussions on three major functions in realizing robotized assembly tasks under such unstructured environments as in nuclear power plants; planning, vision and manipulation. Finally we depict an image of a prototype robot system for nuclear power plants based on the advanced functions. (author) 64 refs

  18. Hormonal influence on language development in physically advanced children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, P; Wilson, B E

    1990-04-01

    Sex differences in language performance have long been noted, with females more verbal and males superior in visual-spatial tasks. Two theories seek to explain the differences in language function. Waber (1976, Science, 193, 572-574) suggests that these sex differences are secondary to differences in bilateral language function related to the faster maturation rate in girls. Geschwind and Galaburda (1985, Archives of Neurology, 42,(I), 428-459; (II), 521-552; (III), 634-654) on the other hand posit an intimate interrelationship of sex hormones, the immune system, and laterality as influencing the ultimate asymmetry of the nervous system, which in turn could account for such differences. In the present study, language function was examined in patients with accelerated maturation caused by conditions with sex hormone elevation (idiopathic precocious puberty and congenital adrenal hyperplasia). The degree of maturational advancement was similar between the two groups. However, significant language performance differences were noted between androgen- vs. estrogen-exposed patients, regardless of genetic sex or diagnosis of the patient, indicating a hormonal effect on language development over time. These data support Geschwind and Galaburda's multifactorial theory for the origin of sex differences in language performance, and argue against Waber's maturational hypothesis.

  19. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, DonaldF.

    2001-08-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (protective ensemble marked an advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability, and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit.

  20. Advances in the design and development of oncolytic measles viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutzen B

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brian Hutzen,1 Corey Raffel,2 Adam W Studebaker1 1Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Neurological Surgery and Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: A successful oncolytic virus is one that selectively propagates and destroys cancerous tissue without causing excessive damage to the normal surrounding tissue. Oncolytic measles virus (MV is one such virus that exhibits this characteristic and thus has rapidly emerged as a potentially useful anticancer modality. Derivatives of the Edmonston MV vaccine strain possess a remarkable safety record in humans. Promising results in preclinical animal models and evidence of biological activity in early phase trials contribute to the enthusiasm. Genetic modifications have enabled MV to evolve from a vaccine agent to a potential anticancer therapy. Specifically, alterations of the MV genome have led to improved tumor selectivity and delivery, therapeutic potency, and immune system modulation. In this article, we will review the advancements that have been made in the design and development of MV that have led to its use as a cancer therapy. In addition, we will discuss the evidence supporting its use, as well as the challenges associated with MV as a potential cancer therapeutic. Keywords: virotherapy, measles virus, oncolytic therapy

  1. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  2. Development of vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Manz, H.

    2009-03-15

    Windows constitute a weak link in the building envelope and hence contribute significantly to the total heating energy demand in buildings. By evacuating the glazing cavity a vacuum glazing is created and heat transfer can be significantly reduced. This project was designed to build knowledge and technology necessary to fabricate vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties. More specifically, various strategies for improvement of conventional technology were investigated. Of central importance was the development of a novel edge sealing approach which can in theory circumvent the main limitation of conventional glass soldering technology. This approach which is rapid, low temperature, low cost and completely vacuum compatible was filed for patenting in 2008. With regards to thermal insulation performance and glazing deflection, numerical studies were performed demonstrating the importance of nonlinear behavior with glazing size and the results published. A detailed service life prediction model was elaborated which defines a set of parameters necessary to keep the expected pressure increase below a threshold value of 0.1 Pa after 30 years. The model takes into account four possible sources of pressure increase and a getter material which acts as a sink. For the production of 0.5 m by 0.5 m glazing assembly prototypes, a high vacuum chamber was constructed and a first sealing prototype realized therein. The manufacture of improved prototypes and optimization of the anodic bonding edge sealing technology with emphasis on process relevant aspects is the goal of a follow-up project. (authors)

  3. Development of Experimental Facilities for Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, G. S.; Jung, W. M.; Ku, J. H. [and others

    2004-07-01

    The advanced spent fuel management process(ACP), proposed to reduce the overall volume of the PWR spent fuel and improve safety and economy of the long-term storage of spent fuel, is under research and development. This technology convert spent fuels into pure metal-base uranium with removing the highly heat generating materials(Cs, Sr) efficiently and reducing of the decay heat, volume, and radioactivity from spent fuel by 1/4. In the next phase(2004{approx}2006), the demonstration of this technology will be carried out for verification of the ACP in a laboratory scale. For this demonstration, the hot cell facilities of {alpha}-{gamma} type and auxiliary facilities are required essentially for safe handling of high radioactive materials. As the hot cell facilities for demonstration of the ACP, a existing hot cell of {beta}-{gamma} type will be refurbished to minimize construction expenditures of hot cell facility. In this study, the design requirements are established, and the process detail work flow was analysed for the optimum arrangement to ensure effective process operation in hot cell. And also, the basic and detail design of hot cell facility and process, and safety analysis was performed to secure conservative safety of hot cell facility and process.

  4. Development of the advanced package system for miscellaneous LLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.

    1991-01-01

    Miscellaneous LLW (low-level radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes) such as parts of machines, pieces of piping, HEPA filter, incineration ashes from nuclear power plants will be disposed in shallow land after stuffing into 200 liter steel drums. The package system of these miscellaneous LLW is required to contain such radionuclides as 14 C, 137 Cs and etc. for a few hundred years. The advanced package system for miscellaneous LLW has been developed. This package system is composed of steel drums with resin mortar inner liner and non shrinkage fills with high flowability. Resin mortar liners have stronger water permeability resistance and higher compressive strength than other cement mortars. Strong water permeability resistance of resin mortar liners prevent underground water from infiltration into fills and solid wastes. On the other hand, as the high flowabilities and non shrinkage of this fills give very low gross void fraction of the package system and have strong adsorption ability of radionuclides. In addition, steel drums with resin mortar inner liners have merits in their high density, uniformity and simplicity in manufacturing. Consequently, this package system is promising candidate barrier for the containment of radionuclides from miscellaneous LLW. (J.P.N.)

  5. Recent development of advanced BWR technology for plant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Tetsuo; Sakurai, Mikio; Mase, Noriaki; Oyamada, Osamu; Nakadaira, Shiro.

    1988-01-01

    The development of advanced BWRs (ABWR) was completed in 1985. Through the authorization as the third improved and standardized plants of LWRs by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, the detailed design phase of the actual project has begun, and the improved technology to be applied to the plants has been steadily verified and put in practical use. In the ABWRs, the operational capability, safety and economical efficiency as the general characteristics of the plants were further heightened by simplifying, heightening the performance and compactifying. Particularly internal pumps brought about the improvement of the operational capability and safety of the plants together with improved control rod driving system, besides promoting the simplification and compactification of the reactor system. Also the reinforced concrete containment vessels constructed into one body with the buildings have the compact structure and the solid property sufficiently withstanding hypothetical accidents, and contribute to the improvement of the economical efficiency and safety. These key improvement technologies completed their tests for practical use, and it was shown that the expected objectives are realized with the characteristics of high level, thus the steady steps toward the construction of the actual plants are promoted. (Kako, I.)

  6. Advanced neutron source design: burnout heat flux correlation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Mochizuki, T.

    1988-01-01

    In the advanced neutron source reactor (ANSR) fuel element region, heat fluxes will be elevated. Early designs corresponded to average and estimated hot-spot fluxes of 11 to 12 and 21 to 22 MW/m 2 , respectively. Design changes under consideration may lower these values to ∼ 9 and 17 MW/m 1 . In either event, the development of a satisfactory burnout heat flux correlation is an important element among the many thermal-hydraulic design issues, since the critical power ratio will depend in part on its validity. Relatively little work in the area of subcooled-flow burnout has been published over the past 12 yr. The authors have compared seven burnout correlations and modifications therefore with several sets of experimental data, of which the most relevant to the ANS core are those referenced. The best overall agreement between the correlations tested and these data is currently provided by a modification of Thorgerson et al. correlation. The variable ranges of the experimental data are outlined and the results of the correlation comparisons are summarized

  7. Advanced radiation detector development: Advanced semiconductor detector development: Development of a oom-temperature, gamma ray detector using gallium arsenide to develop an electrode detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    The advanced detector development project at the University of Michigan has completed the first full year of its current funding. Our general goals are the development of radiation detectors and spectrometers that are capable of portable room temperature operation. Over the past 12 months, we have worked primarily in the development of semiconductor spectrometers with open-quotes single carrierclose quotes response that offer the promise of room temperature operation and good energy resolution in gamma ray spectroscopy. We have also begun a small scale effort at investigating the properties of a small non-spectroscopic detector system with directional characteristics that will allow identification of the approximate direction in which gamma rays are incident. These activities have made use of the extensive clean room facilities at the University of Michigan for semiconductor device fabrication, and also the radiation measurement capabilities provided in our laboratory in the Phoenix Building on the North Campus. In addition to our laboratory based activities, Professor Knoll has also been a participant in several Department of Energy review activities held in the Forrestal Building and at the Germantown site. The most recent of these has been service on a DOE review panel chaired by Dr. Hap Lamonds that is reviewing the detector development programs supported through the Office of Arms Control and International Security

  8. Development of the Advanced CANDU Reactor control centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, S.; Leger, R.

    2004-01-01

    The next generation CANDU control centre is being designed for the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) station. The design is based upon the recent Qinshan control room with further upgrades to meet customer needs with respect to high capacity factor with low Operation, Maintenance and Administration (OM and A) costs. This evolutionary design includes the long proven functionality at several existing CANDU control centres such as the 4-unit station at Darlington, with advanced features made possible by new control and display technology. Additionally, ACR control centres address characteristics resulting from Human Factors Engineering (HFE) analysis of control centre operations in order to further enhance personnel awareness of system and plant status. Statistics show that up to 70% of plant significant events, which have caused plant outages, have a root cause attributable to the human from such sources as complex interfaces, procedures, maintenance and management practices. Consequently, special attention is made for the application of HFE throughout the ACR design process. The design process follows a systematic analytical approach to define operations staff information and information presentation requirements. The resultant human-system interfaces (HSI) such as those for monitoring, annunciation and control information are then verified and validated against the system design requirements to provide a high confidence level that adequate and correct information is being provided in a timely manner to support the necessary operational tasks. The ACR control centre provides plant staff with an improved operability capability due to the combination of systematic design and enhanced operating features. Significant design processes (i.e. development) or design features which contribute to this improved operability, include: Design Process: Project HFE Program Plan - intent, scope, timeliness and interfacing; HFE aspects of design process - procedures and instructions

  9. Development of the advanced CANDU reactor control centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, S.; Leger, R.

    2004-01-01

    The next generation CANDU control centre is being designed for the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) station. The design is based upon the recent Qinshan control room with further upgrades to meet customer needs with respect to high capacity factor with low Operation, Maintenance and Administration (OM and A) costs. This evolutionary design includes the long proven functionality at several existing CANDU control centres such as the 4-unit station at Darlington, with advanced features made possible by new control and display technology. Additionally, ACR control centres address characteristics resulting from Human Factors Engineering (HFE) analysis of control centre operations in order to further enhance personnel awareness of system and plant status. Statistics show that up to 70% of plant significant events, which have caused plant outages, have a root cause attributable to the human from such sources as complex interfaces, procedures, maintenance and management practices. Consequently, special attention is made for the application of HFE throughout the ACR design process. The design process follows a systematic analytical approach to define operations staff information and information presentation requirements. The resultant human-system interfaces (HSI) such as those for monitoring, annunciation and control information are then verified and validated against the system design requirements to provide a high confidence level that adequate and correct information is being provided in a timely manner to support the necessary operational tasks. The ACR control centre provides plant staff with an improved operability capability due to the combination of systematic design and enhanced operating features. Significant design processes (i.e. development) or design features which contribute to this improved operability, include: Design Process: Project HFE Program Plan - intent, scope, timeliness and interfacing; HFE aspects of design process - procedures and instructions

  10. Overview and Summary of the Advanced Mirror Technology Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. P.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology project to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. The developed mirror technology must enable missions capable of both general astrophysics & ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. Just as JWST’s architecture was driven by launch vehicle, a future UVOIR mission’s architectures (monolithic, segmented or interferometric) will depend on capacities of future launch vehicles (and budget). Since we cannot predict the future, we must prepare for all potential futures. Therefore, to provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We derived engineering specifications for potential future monolithic or segmented space telescopes based on science needs and implement constraints. And we are maturing six inter-linked critical technologies to enable potential future large aperture UVOIR space telescope: 1) Large-Aperture, Low Areal Density, High Stiffness Mirrors, 2) Support Systems, 3) Mid/High Spatial Frequency Figure Error, 4) Segment Edges, 5) Segment-to-Segment Gap Phasing, and 6) Integrated Model Validation Science Advisory Team and a Systems Engineering Team. We are maturing all six technologies simultaneously because all are required to make a primary mirror assembly (PMA); and, it is the PMA’s on-orbit performance which determines science return. PMA stiffness depends on substrate and support stiffness. Ability to cost-effectively eliminate mid/high spatial figure errors and polishing edges depends on substrate stiffness. On-orbit thermal and mechanical performance depends on substrate stiffness, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and thermal mass. And, segment-to-segment phasing depends on substrate & structure stiffness

  11. Advances in dual-tone development for pitch frequency doubling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Carlos; Somervell, Mark; Scheer, Steven; Kuwahara, Yuhei; Nafus, Kathleen; Gronheid, Roel; Tarutani, Shinji; Enomoto, Yuuichiro

    2010-04-01

    Dual-tone development (DTD) has been previously proposed as a potential cost-effective double patterning technique1. DTD was reported as early as in the late 1990's2. The basic principle of dual-tone imaging involves processing exposed resist latent images in both positive tone (aqueous base) and negative tone (organic solvent) developers. Conceptually, DTD has attractive cost benefits since it enables pitch doubling without the need for multiple etch steps of patterned resist layers. While the concept for DTD technique is simple to understand, there are many challenges that must be overcome and understood in order to make it a manufacturing solution. Previous work by the authors demonstrated feasibility of DTD imaging for 50nm half-pitch features at 0.80NA (k1 = 0.21) and discussed challenges lying ahead for printing sub-40nm half-pitch features with DTD. While previous experimental results suggested that clever processing on the wafer track can be used to enable DTD beyond 50nm halfpitch, it also suggest that identifying suitable resist materials or chemistries is essential for achieving successful imaging results with novel resist processing methods on the wafer track. In this work, we present recent advances in the search for resist materials that work in conjunction with novel resist processing methods on the wafer track to enable DTD. Recent experimental results with new resist chemistries, specifically designed for DTD, are presented in this work. We also present simulation studies that help and support identifying resist properties that could enable DTD imaging, which ultimately lead to producing viable DTD resist materials.

  12. Advanced Mirror Technology Development for Very Large Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. P.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology project to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. The developed mirror technology must enable missions capable of both general astrophysics & ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. Just as JWST’s architecture was driven by launch vehicle, a future UVOIR mission’s architectures (monolithic, segmented or interferometric) will depend on capacities of future launch vehicles (and budget). Since we cannot predict the future, we must prepare for all potential futures. Therefore, to provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We derived engineering specifications for potential future monolithic or segmented space telescopes based on science needs and implement constraints. And we are maturing six inter-linked critical technologies to enable potential future large aperture UVOIR space telescope: 1) Large-Aperture, Low Areal Density, High Stiffness Mirrors, 2) Support Systems, 3) Mid/High Spatial Frequency Figure Error, 4) Segment Edges, 5) Segment-to-Segment Gap Phasing, and 6) Integrated Model Validation Science Advisory Team and a Systems Engineering Team. We are maturing all six technologies simultaneously because all are required to make a primary mirror assembly (PMA); and, it is the PMA’s on-orbit performance which determines science return. PMA stiffness depends on substrate and support stiffness. Ability to cost-effectively eliminate mid/high spatial figure errors and polishing edges depends on substrate stiffness. On-orbit thermal and mechanical performance depends on substrate stiffness, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and thermal mass. And, segment-to-segment phasing depends on substrate & structure stiffness

  13. Research and development on the application of advanced control technologies to advanced nuclear reactor systems: A US national perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.D.; Monson, L.R.; Carrol, D.G.; Dayal, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Control system designs for nuclear power plants are becoming more advanced through the use of digital technology and automation. This evolution is taking place because of: (1) the limitations in analog based control system performance and maintenance and availability and (2) the promise of significant improvement in plant operation and availability due to advances in digital and other control technologies. Digital retrofits of control systems in US nuclear plants are occurring now. Designs of control and protection systems for advanced LWRs are based on digital technology. The use of small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers in these designs is the first step of an evolutionary process described in this paper. Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, GE Nuclear Energy and several universities are performing research and development in the application of advances in control theory, software engineering, advanced computer architectures, artificial intelligence, and man-machine interface analysis to control system design. The target plant concept for the work described in this paper is the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module reactor (PRISM), an advanced modular liquid metal reactor concept. This and other reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. 18 refs., 5 figs

  14. Development on JET of Advanced Tokamak Operations for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuccillo, A.A.; Crisanti, F.; Litaudon, X.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research on Advanced Tokamak in JET has focused on scenarii with both monotonic and reversed shear q profiles having plasma parameters as relevant as possible for extrapolation to ITER. Wide ITBs, R∼3.7m, are formed at ITER relevant triangularity δ∼0.45, with n e /n G ∼60% and ELMs moderated by Ne injection. At higher current (I P ≤3.5MA, δ∼0.25) wide ITBs sitting at R≥ 3.5m (positive shear region) have been developed, generally MHD events terminate these barrier otherwise limited in strength by power availability. ITBs with core density close to Greenwald value are obtained with plasma target preformed by opportune timing of LHCD, pellet injection and small amount of NBI power. ITB start with toroidal rotation 4 times lower than the standard NBI heated ITBs. Full CD is achieved in reversed shear ITBs at 3T/1.8 MA, by using 10MW NBI, 5MW ICRH and 3MW LH. Wide ITBs located at R=3.6m, without impurity accumulation and type-III ELMs edge can be sustained for a time close to neo-classical resistive time. These discharges have been extended to the maximum duration allowed by subsystems (20s) with the JET record of injected energy: E∼330 MJ. Integrated control of pressure and current profile isit; feature used in these discharges. Central ICRF mode conversion electron heating, added to about 14MW NBI power, produced impressive ITBs with equivalent Q DT ∼ 0.25. Conversely ion ITBs are obtained with low torque injection, by ICRH 3 He minority heating of ions, on pure LHCD electron ITBs. Similarity experiments between JET and AUG have compared the dynamics of ITBs and have been the starting point of Hybrid Scenarios activity, then developed at ρ* as low as ρ*∼3*10 -3 . The development of hybrid regime with dominant electron heating has also started. Injection of trace of tritium and a mixture of Ar/Ne allowed studying fuel and impurities transport in many of the explored AT scenarios. (author)

  15. Development of expert evaluation system for advanced nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mengjia; Ren Junsheng; Zhou Zhiwei; Zhang Qi; Zhu Shutang

    2005-01-01

    The wheels of the nuclear power industry in China are going to roll on the fast rails soon: It is important to establish an expert evaluation system for optimally selecting new types of NPPs in the future based on scientific evaluation. Under such a background, an expert evaluation system is developed to evaluate Various types of NPPs for the following two decades by taking into account the advices of selected top specialists in Chinese nuclear power industry, and by adopting different evaluation methods. The evaluation system is designed to use the database-MS-SQL Server or Oracle for manipulating experts' knowledge and objective data for scaling NPPs by user-selected evaluation methods for evaluating NPPs. The system includes two subsystems: one is called the Data Management Module and the other called the Evaluation Arithmetic Module. The Data Management Module is used to manage expert knowledge in forms of item marks of the NPPs given by experts of nuclear engineering. The Evaluation Arithmetic Module is used to analyze and deal with the evaluation based on the data in the Database by certain designed evaluation method, and to provide the evaluation results. Based on the users' selection, the evaluation of the NPPs is processed, and the results can be dynamically listed in table or displayed in graphics. So it can be used as a consulting tool to help users make optimal selection of prospective NPPs. The system is developed in architecture of the mixture framework C/S(Client/Server) and B/S(Browse/Server), thus is safe, advanced, extensible and user- friendly. The present system is computer network based, so it can be used not only in personal PC and local network, but also in the Web Server which can be browsed by remote users. To develop such an evaluation system is an initiative R and D project in Chinese nuclear R and D activities. Although the evaluation system is far from perfect, however, the preliminary evaluation results produced by the evaluation

  16. Biomass supply management for advanced energy: applications in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranney, J W [Joint Institute for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States); Perlack, R D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Advanced biomass energy systems, including new biomass resource enhancement technologies, should be developed only where compelling situations for investors or communities exist to economically do so. These situations, or minimum viable operating conditions, are assessed from a pragmatic perspective. They are determined by specific circumstances and divergent interests that take time to define and integrate. Customized solutions are necessary and can change quickly with geography and market circumstances New technologies offer more options but are not necessarily the best. The example of energy crop technology is used to demonstrate the interdependencies that exist between new resource enhancement technology and biomass energy systems operations. The ability to genetically increase the energy density of energy crops is compared to other enhancement measures such as increasing the number of tonnes grown per hectare-year, reducing costs per tonne and improving other characteristics. Issues that need to be considered include significant knowledge gaps, lack of commitments in R and D, specificity of conversion system requirements, handling capabilities and opportunity costs. Broader biomass procurement strategies, which may be more important than resource enhancement technologies, are discussed. Biomass cost-supply is utilized as a strong analytical feature to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass procurement strategies and new biomass production technologies. Some past experiences are reviewed. Cost-supply is assessed from the perspective of the whole biomass energy system to expose the interdependencies between production operations, conversion scale and technologies, and community markets and service. Investment limits, for example, may be as important a determinant as the cost-efficiency of a new technology, which, in turn, affects biomass cost-supply-quality requirements. The cost of new technologies can then be compared to the changed performance of the overall

  17. Biomass supply management for advanced energy: applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, J.W.; Perlack, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced biomass energy systems, including new biomass resource enhancement technologies, should be developed only where compelling situations for investors or communities exist to economically do so. These situations, or minimum viable operating conditions, are assessed from a pragmatic perspective. They are determined by specific circumstances and divergent interests that take time to define and integrate. Customized solutions are necessary and can change quickly with geography and market circumstances New technologies offer more options but are not necessarily the best. The example of energy crop technology is used to demonstrate the interdependencies that exist between new resource enhancement technology and biomass energy systems operations. The ability to genetically increase the energy density of energy crops is compared to other enhancement measures such as increasing the number of tonnes grown per hectare-year, reducing costs per tonne and improving other characteristics. Issues that need to be considered include significant knowledge gaps, lack of commitments in R and D, specificity of conversion system requirements, handling capabilities and opportunity costs. Broader biomass procurement strategies, which may be more important than resource enhancement technologies, are discussed. Biomass cost-supply is utilized as a strong analytical feature to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass procurement strategies and new biomass production technologies. Some past experiences are reviewed. Cost-supply is assessed from the perspective of the whole biomass energy system to expose the interdependencies between production operations, conversion scale and technologies, and community markets and service. Investment limits, for example, may be as important a determinant as the cost-efficiency of a new technology, which, in turn, affects biomass cost-supply-quality requirements. The cost of new technologies can then be compared to the changed performance of the overall

  18. Development of the advanced CANDU technology -Development of basic technology for HWR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Ho Cheon; Seok, Soo Dong; Lee, Sang Yong

    1996-07-01

    It is believed that it is easier for Korea to become self-reliant in PHWR technology than in PWR technology, mainly because of the lower design pressure and temperature and because of the simplicity, economy, flexibility of the fuel cycle in comparison with PWR systems. Even though one has no doubt about the safety and the economics of the PHWR's that are now being operated or constructed in Korea. It is necessary to develop the advanced design technology for even safer and more economical PHWR systems to overcome the ever growing international resistance to sharing of nuclear technology and to meet the even more stringent requirements for the future public acceptance of nuclear power. This study is to develop the more advance design technology compared to the existing one, especially in the field of reactor physics, safety systems and safety evaluation to realize the above requirements. 71 tabs., 147 figs., 143 refs. (Author)

  19. Development of the advanced CANDU technology -Development of basic technology for HWR design-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Hoh Chun; Lee, Sang Yong; Suk, Soo Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    It is believed that it is easier for Korea to become self-reliant in PHWR technology than in PWR technology, mainly because of the lower design pressure and temperature and because of the simplicity, economy, flexibility of the fuel cycle in comparison with PWR systems. Even though one has no doubt about the safety and the economics of the PHWR`s that are now being operated or constructed in Korea, it is necessary to develop the advanced design technology for even safer and more economical PHWR systems to overcome the ever growing international resistance to sharing of nuclear technology and to meet the even more stringent requirements for the future public acceptance of nuclear power. This study is to develop the more advance design technology compared to the existing one, by performing in-depth studies especially in the field of reactor physics, safety systems and safety evaluation to realize the above requirements. 90 figs, 50 tabs, 38 refs. (Author).

  20. Development of the advanced CANDU technology -Development of basic technology for HWR design-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Hoh Chun; Lee, Sang Yong; Suk, Soo Dong

    1995-07-01

    It is believed that it is easier for Korea to become self-reliant in PHWR technology than in PWR technology, mainly because of the lower design pressure and temperature and because of the simplicity, economy, flexibility of the fuel cycle in comparison with PWR systems. Even though one has no doubt about the safety and the economics of the PHWR's that are now being operated or constructed in Korea, it is necessary to develop the advanced design technology for even safer and more economical PHWR systems to overcome the ever growing international resistance to sharing of nuclear technology and to meet the even more stringent requirements for the future public acceptance of nuclear power. This study is to develop the more advance design technology compared to the existing one, by performing in-depth studies especially in the field of reactor physics, safety systems and safety evaluation to realize the above requirements. 90 figs, 50 tabs, 38 refs. (Author)

  1. Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

  2. The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Storm

    2016-01-01

    by its economic, political and ideological characteristics. With the single assumption of economic rationality in human behaviour, Cycle of Warfare is not only coherent, it is applicable to all entities engaged in competition anywhere in the world at any point in history. The Cycle of Warfare can be used...

  3. Surface Warfare Officers Initial Training For Future Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    9 A school is initial rating specific technical training that is given to sailors. 14 Figure 4. Less...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS— INITIAL TRAINING FOR FUTURE SUCCESS March 2018...professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS—INITIAL TRAINING FOR FUTURE SUCCESS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Arron J

  4. Anti-Air Warfare Research for Naval Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, A.A.F.; Witberg, R.

    2000-01-01

    AAW is a warfare area with wide-spread spectrum. Command and Control Systems, sensors, effectors and electronic warfare are integrated to a system, they influence each other and must eventually be effective in coordinated action. This complexity asks for Operations Research methods to measure

  5. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard,

  6. The IRIS consortium: international cooperation in advanced reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.; Petrovic, B.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Besides its many outstanding technical innovations in the design and safety, the most innovative feature of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), is perhaps the international cooperation which carries on its development. IRIS is designed by an international consortium which currently numbers 21 organizations from ten countries across four continents. It includes reactor, fuel and fuel cycle vendors, component manufacturers, laboratories, academia, architect engineers and power producers. The defining organizational characteristics of IRIS is that while Westinghouse has overall lead and responsibility, this lead is of the type of 'primus inter pares' (first among equals) rather than the traditional owner versus suppliers/contractors relationship. All members of the IRIS consortium contribute and expect to have a return, should IRIS be successfully deployed, commensurate to their investment. The nature of such return will be tailored to the type of each organization, because it will of course be of a different nature for say a component manufacturer, university, or architect engineer. One fundamental tenet of the consortium is that all members, regardless of their amount of contribution, have equal access to all information developed within the project. Technical work is thus being coordinated by integrated subgroups and the whole team meets twice a year to perform an overall review of the work, discuss policy and strategy and plan future activities. Personnel from consortium members have performed internships, mostly at Westinghouse locations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Windsor, Connecticut, but also at other members, as it has been the case for several graduate students. In fact, more than one hundred students at the various universities have been working on IRIS, most of them conducting graduate theses at the master or doctoral level. The IRIS experience has proved very helpful to the students in successfully landing their employment choice

  7. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature, pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system; (2) develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amount of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. High compression ratio can be achieved to allow minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities; and (3) integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of

  8. FreedomCAR Advanced Traction Drive Motor Development Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Josh (UQM Technologies, Inc.); Lutz, Jon (UQM Technologies, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to design and develop an advanced traction motor that will meet the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) 2010 goals and the traction motor technical targets. The motor specifications are given in Section 1.3. Other goals of the program include providing a cost study to ensure the motor can be developed within the cost targets needed for the automotive industry. The program has focused on using materials that are both high performance and low costs such that the performance can be met and cost targets are achieved. In addition, the motor technologies and machine design features must be compatible with high volume manufacturing and able to provide high reliability, efficiency, and ruggedness while simultaneously reducing weight and volume. Weight and volume reduction will become a major factor in reducing cost, material cost being the most significant part of manufacturing cost at high volume. Many motor technology categories have been considered in the past and present for traction drive applications, including: brushed direct current (DC), PM (PM) brushless dc (BLDC), alternating current (AC) induction, switched reluctance and synchronous reluctance machines. Of these machine technologies, PM BLDC has consistently demonstrated an advantage in terms of power density and efficiency. As rare earth magnet cost has declined, total cost may also be reduced over the other technologies. Of the many different configurations of PM BLDC machines, those which incorporate power production utilizing both magnetic torque as well as reluctance torque appear to have the most promise for traction applications. There are many different PM BLDC machine configurations which employ both of these torque producing mechanisms; however, most would fall into one of two categories--some use weaker magnets and rely more heavily on reluctance torque (reluctance-dominant PM machines), others use strong PMs and supplement with reluctance torque

  9. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Seyfettin EROL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main security issues for the West and especially for NATO after the Russia-Ukraine crisis. Russian military strategies, called “hybrid warfare” by the western countries, resulted in the successful annexation of Crimea and, caused a serious security problem for the West resulting important structural and functional changes for the military system of NATO. Russian activities, which have been based on surprise, ambiguity and deniability, presented a unique example for hybrid warfare studies.

  10. Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Report: Development of Advanced Window Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Ladena A.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.

    2014-08-05

    Advanced fenestration technologies for light and thermal management in building applications are of great recent research interest for improvements in energy efficiency. Of these technologies, there is specific interest in advanced window coating technologies that have tailored control over the visible and infrared (IR) scattering into a room for both static and dynamic applications. Recently, PNNL has investigated novel subwavelength nanostructured coatings for both daylighting, and IR thermal management applications. Such coatings rese still in the early stages and additional research is needed in terms of scalable manufacturing. This project investigates aspects of a potential new methodology for low-cost scalable manufacture of said subwavelength coatings.

  11. Forgeting Lessons Learned: The United States Army’s Inability To Embrace Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Revolutionary Development Support, commonly referred to as “CORDS”, was established in 1967 under Robert “Blowtorch” Komer. As the director of CORDS, Robert ...combat operations spanning the complete spectrum of warfare. As Robert Citino, the author of Blitzkrieg to Desert Storm wrote about the development of...US forces in Somalia. Haiti In 1915, Smedley Butler and 3,000 Marines invaded Haiti and quickly pacified the entire island. Eighty years

  12. Advanced oxidation technologies for chemical demilitarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Korzekwa, R.A.; Monagle, M.; Coogan, J.J.; Tennant, R.A.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1996-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The main project objective was to establish a technical basis for future program development in the area of chemical warfare agent destruction using a Los Alamos-developed advanced oxidation process: a two-stage device consisting of thermal packed-bed reactor (PBR) and a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor. Various compounds were evaluated as potential surrogates for chemical warfare (CW) agents. Representative effluent mass balances were projected for future comparisons with incinerators. The design and construction of lab-scale PBR/NTP reactors (consisting of a liquid injection and metering system, electric furnace, condensers, chemical traps, plasma reactors, power supplies, and chemical diagnostics) has been completed. This equipment, the experience gained from chemical-processing experiments, process modeling, and an initial demonstration of the feasibility of closed-loop operation, have provided a technical basis for further demonstrations and program development efforts.

  13. Laser Light Scattering, from an Advanced Technology Development Program to Experiments in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Tscharnuter, Walther W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Dautet, Henri; Deschamps, Pierre; Boucher, Francois; Zuh, Jixiang; Tin, Padetha; Rogers, Richard B.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advancements in laser light scattering hardware are described. These include intelligent single card correlators; active quench/active reset avalanche photodiodes; laser diodes; and fiber optics which were used by or developed for a NASA advanced technology development program. A space shuttle experiment which will employ aspects of these hardware developments is previewed.

  14. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  15. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  16. Development of Cathelicidin-derived peptides for the treatment of infectious diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molhoek, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics has encouraged strong efforts to develop new antimicrobial agents. In addition, exposure to biological warfare agents may cause highly progressive, acute infections that may be lethal. Unfortunately, an attack by biological warfare

  17. Development of advanced blade pitching kinematics for cycloturbines and cyclorotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary Howard

    Cycloturbines and cyclorotors are established concepts for extracting freesteam fluid energy and producing thrust which promise to exceed the performance of traditional horizontal axis turbines and rotors while maintaining unique operational advantages. However, their potential is not yet realized in widespread applications. A central barrier to their proliferation is the lack of fundamental understanding of the aerodynamic interaction between the turbine and the freestream flow. In particular, blade pitch must be precisely actuated throughout the revolution to achieve the proper blade angle of attack and maximize performance. So far, there is no adequate method for determining or implementing the optimal blade pitching kinematics for cyclorotors or cycloturbines. This dissertation bridges the pitching deficiency by introducing a novel low order model to predict improved pitch kinematics, experimentally demonstrating improved performance, and evaluating flow physics with a high order Navier-Stokes computational code. The foundation for developing advanced blade pitch motions is a low order model named Fluxline Theory. Fluid calculations are performed in a coordinate system fixed to streamlines whose spatial locations are not pre-described in order to capture the flow expansion/contraction and bending through the turbine. A transformation then determines the spatial location of streamlines through the rotor disk and finally blade element method integrations determine the power and forces produced. Validation against three sets of extant cycloturbine experimental data demonstrates improvement over other existing streamtube models. Fluxline Theory was extended by removing dependence on a blade element model to better understand how turbine-fluid interaction impacts thrust and power production. This pure momentum variation establishes a cycloturbine performance limit similar to the Betz Limit for horizontal axis wind turbines, as well as the fluid deceleration required

  18. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations with NGOs, relations with other armies, the impact of the rules of engagement (ROEs, training and education, and operational experiences. The paper ends with a discussion of the lessons learned.

  19. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  20. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.