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Sample records for warblers wilsonia pusilla

  1. Density-dependent mass gain by Wilson's Warblers during stopover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    The need restore energetic reserves at stopover sites constrains avian migration ecology. To describe that constraint, we examined relationships among mass gained by Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) during stopover, abundance of Wilson's Warblers (i.e. capture rate), and arthropod abundance during autumn migration. We found that amount...

  2. Breeding habitat use by sympatric and allopatric populations of Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, J.M.; Stanley, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    We studied Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) habitat use in allopatric and sympatric populations in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming in order to better understand the different habitat needs and interactions of these two species. Foraging Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers used very similar habitat, both selecting larger, more open shrubs. In spite of similar foraging habitat, comparisons of habitat use by the two species at the sympatric sites yielded no evidence of foraging habitat partitioning or exclusion. There was evidence of nesting habitat partitioning. Wilson's Warblers nested on the ground, with some evidence that they used smaller, more densely stemmed shrubs under which to nest. Yellow Warblers are shrub nesters and selected larger, more open shrubs in which to nest. Results provide no evidence that Yellow Warblers can be blamed for population declines in Wilson's Warblers.

  3. Arthropod prey of Wilson's Warblers in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

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    Hagar, J.C.; Dugger, K.M.; Starkey, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  4. Diet of Wilson's warblers and distribution of arthropod prey in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Dugger, Kate; Starkey, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  5. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging...

  6. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, I.J.; Perez-Eman, J. L.; Sullivan, J.P.; Banks, R.C.; Fiorentino, I.; Cordoba-Cordoba, S.; Echeverry-Galvis, M.; Barker, F.K.; Burns, K.J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, Scott M.; Bermingham, E.

    2010-01-01

    The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Kirtland's Warbler (Setophaga kirtlankii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Deahn M. Donner

    2011-01-01

    Spring travelers from around the world are attracted to the young jack pine forests of Michigan for a chance to hear the loud distinct song of the endangered Kirtland's Warbler. This blue-gray-backed warbler with a yellow underside can be heard singing from its perch in the tops of standing snags or jack pine trees, or seen hopping from tree to tree or to the...

  8. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  9. Song and Male Quality in Prairie Warblers

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    Bruce E. Byers; Michael E. Akresh; David I. King; W. Koenig

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the songs of male prairie warblers could potentially reveal to female listeners information about the quality of singers, we compared various aspects of prairie warbler song structure and performance to attributes that might reflect a male singer's potential to enhance the fitness of his mate. We found that all the tested male attributes—arrival...

  10. Ongoing movement of the hermit warbler X Townsend's warbler hybrid zone.

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    Meade Krosby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Movements of hybrid zones - areas of overlap and interbreeding between species - are difficult to document empirically. This is true because moving hybrid zones are expected to be rare, and because movement may proceed too slowly to be measured directly. Townsend's warblers (Dendroica townsendi hybridize with hermit warblers (D. occidentalis where their ranges overlap in Washington and Oregon. Previous morphological, behavioral, and genetic studies of this hybrid zone suggest that it has been steadily moving into the geographical range of hermit warblers, with the more aggressive Townsend's warblers replacing hermit warblers along ∼2000 km of the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska. Ongoing movement of the zone, however, has yet to be empirically demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared recently sampled hybrid zone specimens to those collected 10-20 years earlier, to test directly the long-standing hypothesis of hybrid zone movement between these species. Newly sampled specimens were more Townsend's-like than historical specimens, consistent with ongoing movement of the zone into the geographical range of hermit warblers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While movement of a hybrid zone may be explained by several possible mechanisms, in this case a wealth of existing evidence suggests that movement is being driven by the competitive displacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers. That no ecological differences have been found between these species, and that replacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers is proceeding downward in latitude and elevation - opposite the directions of range shifts predicted by recent climate change - further support that this movement is not being driven by alternative environmental factors. If the mechanism of competitive displacement is correct, whether this process will ultimately lead to the extinction of hermit warblers will depend on the continued maintenance of the

  11. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla.

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    Carvalho-Paulo, Dario; de Morais Magalhães, Nara G; de Almeida Miranda, Diego; Diniz, Daniel G; Henrique, Ediely P; Moraes, Isis A M; Pereira, Patrick D C; de Melo, Mauro A D; de Lima, Camila M; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Sherry, David F; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla , that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D) morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy ( n = 249 cells) with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period ( n = 250 cells). Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes may play

  12. Phenology and abundance of Enoicyla pusilla in conifer stands

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    M. J. Lombardero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study. We study the abundance of Enoicyla pusilla (Burmeister in pine plantations and the effects of silvicultural thinning on insect population. This species is considered a rare member of the order Trichoptera, reported as absent or occasional in conifer forests. It has been suggested that the proliferation of conifer plantations may be a threat for this species by favoring population isolation. Area of study. Plantations of native and non-native pines in Galicia (NW of Spain.Material and Methods. We used different traps systems, including 28 pitfall traps, to compared populations of insects in 14 thinned and unthinned plots of Pinus pinaster and P. radiata distributed across 3 forest stands. Traps were checked every 15 days during one year.Main results.  We caught 1.219 larvae of E. pusilla. It was the third most abundant species captured in pitfall traps. Larval activity extended from January to late July. They were more abundant in the stands of P. radiata, probably because the denser foliage produced limits sunlight and helped to maintain litter moisture. Additionally needles of P. radiata had lower toughness and higher nitrogen content, which probably makes it a higher quality resource for the detritivorous larvae. Thinning did not affect larvae population.Research highlights: Although managed forests cannot match the biodiversity value of native mixed species stands, if managed appropriately, they may provide habitat for native fauna while also allowing for forest productionKey words: caddisfly; Pinus pinaster; Pinus radiate; plantations; thinning.

  13. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla

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    Dario Carvalho-Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla, that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy (n = 249 cells with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period (n = 250 cells. Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes

  14. Antihyperglycemic activity of Arbutus unedo, Ammoides pusilla and Thymelaea hirsuta.

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    Bnouham, M; Merhfour, F Z; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Maâllem, S; Ziyyat, A

    2007-08-01

    The effect of the water extract (WE) of three medicinal plants used as antidiabetic medication in Eastern Morocco (Arbutus unedo: Au, Ammoides pusilla: Ap and Thymelaea hirsuta: Th) was tested in rats with the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT). In the OGTT the rats received water, glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) or WE (500 mg/kg for Au and 250 mg/kg for Th and Ap) 30 min before glucose loading (glucose: 1 g/kg). The WE of Au, Ap and Th produced a significant decrease in glycemia after glucose loading. In the IVGTT the WE of Ap and Th produced a significant decrease in glycemia 60 min after i.v. glucose loading (0.5 g/kg). The addition of the WE of Au (500 mg/kg), Ap or Th (250 mg/kg) induced a significant inhibition of jejunal glucose absorption, (31.6%, 28.5% and 40.5% respectively). This effect could explain in part the significant antihyperglycemic effect observed in the OGTT model but it does not exclude other effects on glucose homeostasis, particularly for Ap and Th. Toxicity tests (high LD50 value) suggest no adverse effect of the use of these plants.

  15. Diel Variations in Optical Properties of Micromonas pusilla, a Prasinophyte

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    DuRand, Michele D.; Green, Rebecca E.; Sosik, Heidi M.; Olson, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted on cultures of Micromonas pusilla, a marine prasinophyte, to investigate how cell growth and division affect the optical properties over the light:dark cycle. Measurements were made of cell size and concentration, attenuation and absorption coefficients, flow cytometric light scattering (in forward and side directions), chlorophyll and carbon content. Refractive index was calculated using the anomalous diffraction approximation Cells were about 1.5 micrometers in diameter and exhibited phased division, with the major division burst occurring during the night. Typical diel variations were observed, with cells increasing in size and light scattering during the day as they photosynthesize and decreasing at night upon division. The cells were in ultradian growth, with more than one division per day, at a light level of 120 Mu-mol photons m/sq/sec. Since these cells are similar in size to small phytoplankton that are typically abundant in field samples, these results can be used in the interpretation of diel variations in light scattering in natural populations of phytoplankton.

  16. First record of Microlynchia pusilla (Diptera: Hippoboscidae in Northeastern Brazil Primeiro registro de Microlynchia pusilla (Diptera: Hippoboscidae no Nordeste do Brasil

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    Honara Morgana da Silva

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the occurrence of Microlynchia pusilla in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN on Leptotila verreauxi approximans from a deciduous forest fragment located in the municipality of Macaíba. A specimen of L. v. approximans was collected in June 2012, wrapped in paper towels and kept under refrigeration in a plastic bag for later analysis of parasite fauna, taxidermy, and eventual storage in the Ornithological Collection of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN. During the search for ectoparasites, a specimen of M. pusilla was found among feathers of the ventral region; it was collected and stored in the Entomological Collection ‘Adalberto Antônio Varela-Freire’ of the same university. This report extends the knowledge about geographical distribution and confirms the association of M. pusilla with hosts Columbiformes, contributing to the knowledge of the family Hippoboscidae in the country.Este trabalho registra a ocorrência de Microlynchia pusilla no estado do Rio Grande do Norte em Leptotila verreauxi approximans oriunda de um fragmento de floresta estacional decidual localizado no município de Macaíba. Um espécime de L. v. approximans foi coletado em junho de 2012, envolvido em papel toalha e conservado sob refrigeração em saco plástico para posterior análise da fauna parasitária, taxidermia e depósito na Coleção Ornitológica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN. Durante a busca por ectoparasitos foi encontrado um espécime de M. pusilla nas penas da região ventral, o qual foi coletado e depositado na Coleção Entomológica Adalberto Antônio Varela-Freire da mesma universidade. Este relato amplia o conhecimento sobre a distribuição geográfica de M. pusilla e confirma sua associação com hospedeiros Columbiformes, contribuindo para o conhecimento da família Hippoboscidae no país.

  17. Two reported cytotypes of the emergent orchid model species Erycina pusilla are two different species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeh, Hsuan Yu; Lin, Choun Sea; Jong, de Hans; Chang, Song-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Each species is characterized by a specific set of chromosomes, which is described as the chromosome portrait or karyotype. In general, such a karyotype is the same for all individuals in the population. An exception to that rule has recently been found in the orchid Erycina pusilla, which has

  18. Islands in a desert : breeding ecology of the African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus in Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, CM; Komdeur, J; Buys, J; Reemer, M; Richardson, DS; Richardson, David S.

    The continental African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus, like its relative the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, breeds in isolated patches. We studied the mating system of the African Reed Warbler to see whether this species, like the Seychelles Warbler, shows co-operative

  19. Incidence of nest material kleptoparasitism invlovling cerulean warblers

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    Kelly C. Jones; Kirk L. Roth; Kamal Islam; Paul B. Hamel; Carl G. III Smith

    2007-01-01

    document 21 observations of interspecific stealing of nesting material involving Cerulean Warblers (Dendroica cerulea), Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus/i>), Blue-gray Gnatcatchers (Polioptila caerulea/i>), Northern Parulas (Parula americana/i>), Black-throated Green Warblers (D. virens), American Redstarts (

  20. Understanding Survival And Abundance Of Overwintering Warblers: Does Rainfall Matter?

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    Katie M. Dugger; John G Faaborg; Wayne J. Arendt; Keith A. Hobson

    2004-01-01

    We investigated relationships between warbler abundance and survival rates measured on a Puerto Rican wintering site and rainfall patterns measured on the wintering site and in regions where these warblers breed, as estimated using stable-isotope analysis (δD) of feathers collected from wintering birds. We banded birds using constant-effort mist netting...

  1. Growth on ATP Elicits a P-Stress Response in the Picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla.

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    LeAnn P Whitney

    Full Text Available The surface waters of oligotrophic oceans have chronically low phosphate (Pi concentrations, which renders dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP an important nutrient source. In the subtropical North Atlantic, cyanobacteria are often numerically dominant, but picoeukaryotes can dominate autotrophic biomass and productivity making them important contributors to the ocean carbon cycle. Despite their importance, little is known regarding the metabolic response of picoeukaryotes to changes in phosphorus (P source and availability. To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate P utilization in oligotrophic environments, we evaluated transcriptomes of the picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla grown under Pi-replete and -deficient conditions, with an additional investigation of growth on DOP in replete conditions. Genes that function in sulfolipid substitution and Pi uptake increased in expression with Pi-deficiency, suggesting cells were reallocating cellular P and increasing P acquisition capabilities. Pi-deficient M. pusilla cells also increased alkaline phosphatase activity and reduced their cellular P content. Cells grown with DOP were able to maintain relatively high growth rates, however the transcriptomic response was more similar to the Pi-deficient response than that seen in cells grown under Pi-replete conditions. The results demonstrate that not all P sources are the same for growth; while M. pusilla, a model picoeukaryote, may grow well on DOP, the metabolic demand is greater than growth on Pi. These findings provide insight into the cellular strategies which may be used to support growth in a stratified future ocean predicted to favor picoeukaryotes.

  2. Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?

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    Laura L. Patton

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3 for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%. All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1 for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp., clematis vine (Clematis spp., and blackberry (Rubus spp. were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add

  3. Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area Comprehensive Conservation Plan

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    Department of the Interior — The Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) for Kirtland’s Warbler Wildlife Management Area (WMA) was signed on September 10, 2009, completing a planning process that...

  4. Spatial distribution and general population characteristics of Pseudanchialina pusilla (Crustacea: Mysida) in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.

    'un projet de recherche marine multidisciplinaire sur le programme d'évaluation des ressources du vivant . P. pusilla présente une large gamme de variations dans la dynamique des populations de la zone d'étude et leur densité de population sur l'ensemble de... la zone d'étude variait de 0 à 12000 ind.1000 m-3. La plus forte abondance durant la mousson du sud-ouest (SWM) de 2004 (43,4% de la population totale de l'échantillonnage), suivie par l'inter mousson (IM) de 2005 (37,0%) et le Nord- mousson (NEM...

  5. Biosynthesis and Total Synthesis of Pyrronazol B: a Secondary Metabolite from Nannocystis pusilla.

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    Witte, Swjatoslaw N R; Hug, Joachim J; Géraldy, Magalie N E; Müller, Rolf; Kalesse, Markus

    2017-11-13

    The first stereoselective total synthesis of the natural product pyrronazol B, which contains a chlorinated pyrrole-oxazole-pyrone framework, has been achieved. Genome sequencing of the myxobacterial producer strain Nannocystis pusilla Ari7 led to the identification of the putative biosynthetic gene cluster. The proposed biosynthetic pathway was supported by feeding experiments with stable isotopes of three biosynthetic building blocks, namely l-proline, l-serine, and l-methionine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. El Grupo Cerúleo: Collaboration to assess nonbreeding range of Cerulean Warbler in South America

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    Gabriel Colorado; Paul Hamel; Amanda Rodewals; Wayne Thogmartin

    2008-01-01

    Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea. Parulidae) has been listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature because of recent population declines. An international, proactive approach to Cerulean Warbler conservation, the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group, was founded in 2001. One of its subcommittees, El Grupo...

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of Porzana fusca and Porzana pusilla and phylogenetic relationship of 16 Rallidae species.

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    Chen, Peng; Han, Yuqing; Zhu, Chaoying; Gao, Bin; Ruan, Luzhang

    2017-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Porzana fusca and Porzana pusilla were determined. The two avian species share a high degree of homology in terms of mitochondrial genome organization and gene arrangement. Their corresponding mitochondrial genomes are 16,935 and 16,978 bp and consist of 37 genes and a control region. Their PCGs were both 11,365 bp long and have similar structure. Their tRNA gene sequences could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA Ser (AGY) , which lost its "DHU" arm. Based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial DNA genes of 16 Rallidae species, reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and analysis of the molecular clock of P. fusca and P. pusilla indicated that these species from a sister group, which in turn are sister group to Rallina eurizonoides. The genus Gallirallus is a sister group to genus Lewinia, and these groups in turn are sister groups to genus Porphyrio. Moreover, molecular clock analyses suggested that the basal divergence of Rallidae could be traced back to 40.47 (41.46‒39.45) million years ago (Mya), and the divergence of Porzana occurred approximately 5.80 (15.16‒0.79) Mya.

  8. Improving aquatic warbler population assessments by accounting for imperfect detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs designed to assess changes in population size over time need to account for imperfect detection and provide estimates of precision around annual abundance estimates. Especially for species dependent on conservation management, robust monitoring is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of management. Many bird species of temperate grasslands depend on specific conservation management to maintain suitable breeding habitat. One such species is the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola, which breeds in open fen mires in Central Europe. Aquatic Warbler populations have so far been assessed using a complete survey that aims to enumerate all singing males over a large area. Because this approach provides no estimate of precision and does not account for observation error, detecting moderate population changes is challenging. From 2011 to 2013 we trialled a new line transect sampling monitoring design in the Biebrza valley, Poland, to estimate abundance of singing male Aquatic Warblers. We surveyed Aquatic Warblers repeatedly along 50 randomly placed 1-km transects, and used binomial mixture models to estimate abundances per transect. The repeated line transect sampling required 150 observer days, and thus less effort than the traditional 'full count' approach (175 observer days. Aquatic Warbler abundance was highest at intermediate water levels, and detection probability varied between years and was influenced by vegetation height. A power analysis indicated that our line transect sampling design had a power of 68% to detect a 20% population change over 10 years, whereas raw count data had a 9% power to detect the same trend. Thus, by accounting for imperfect detection we increased the power to detect population changes. We recommend to adopt the repeated line transect sampling approach for monitoring Aquatic Warblers in Poland and in other important breeding areas to monitor changes in population size and the effects of

  9. Increasing P-stress and viral infection impact lipid remodeling of the picophytoplankter Micromonas pusilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, D. S.; Bale, N. J.; Hopmans, E. C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.; Brussaard, C. P. D.

    2015-09-01

    The intact polar lipid (IPL) composition of phytoplankton is plastic and dependent on environmental factors. Previous studies have shown that phytoplankton under phosphorus (P)-stress substitute phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) with sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs). However, these studies focused merely on P-depletion, while phytoplankton in the natural environment often experience P-limitation whereby the degree of limitation depends on the supply rate of the limiting nutrient. Here we demonstrate a linear increase in SQDG : PG and DGDG : PG ratios with increasing cellular P-stress in the picophotoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla, obtained by P-replete, P-limited (chemostat) and P-starved (no supply of P) culturing conditions. These ratios were not affected by the degree of the P-limiting conditions itself (i.e. 0.97 and 0.32 μmax chemostats), suggesting there is a minimum requirement of PGs for the maintenance of cell growth. Viral infection reduced the increase in SQDG : PG and DGDG : PG ratios in P-starved cells, but the extent did depend on the growth rate of the cultures before infection. The membrane of M. pusilla virus MpV itself was lacking some IPLs compared to the host as, e.g. no monogalactosyldiacylglycerols could be detected. Growth of the phytoplankton cultures under enhanced CO2 concentration did not affect the lipid remodeling results. The present study provides new insights into how the P-related trophic state of an ecosystem as well as viral infection can affect phytoplankton IPL composition, and therefore influence food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycling.

  10. Influence of age on reproductive performance in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    I studied age-related breeding performance of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) on Cousin Island, Seychelles, during 14 years. The annual number of young that fledged is significantly related to territory quality and number of helpers in the breeding group.

  11. Spatial behaviour and food choice of the Garden Warbler Sylvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, we investigated the 50% and 95% kernel density home-range size and overlap as well as food choice of 10 radio-tracked Garden Warblers at Amurum, central Nigeria and Obudu, south-eastern Nigeria. Home-range overlap was estimated using the kernelUD function within the package adehabitat in R. The ...

  12. Densities of Palearctic warblers and Afrotropical species within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Densities of Palearctic warblers and Afrotropical species within the same guild in Sahelian West Africa. Jared M Wilson, Will Cresswell. Abstract. Declines in populations of Palearctic migrants wintering in the Sahel of Africa have been linked to the impacts of climate change and habitat degradation in the region. Despite this ...

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of African sunbird-like warblers: Moho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic relationships of African sunbird-like warblers: Moho ( Hypergerus atriceps ), Green Hylia ( Hylia prasina ) and Tit-hylia ( Pholidornis rushiae ) ... different points in avian evolution reduces the phylogenetic signal in molecular sequence data, making difficult the reconstruction of relationships among taxa resulting ...

  14. Influence of summer biogeography on wood warbler stopover abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Rob Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Frank R. Moore; Wang Yong

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of summer biogeography of migrant wood warblers (Parulidae) on their stopover abundance. To characterize abundance patterns, we used mist-net capture data from spring and fall migration in the Middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico, spring migration on the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, and fall migration on the Gulf Coast of Alabama. To describe the...

  15. Adaptive forest management to improve habitats for cerulean warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hamel

    2006-01-01

    Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea, Aves: Parulidae) is a Neotropical migratory bird with a declining population. These birds are a focal species of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Thus, the birds properly may be considered to be a conservation...

  16. In vitro study of Vellozia pusilla pohl (Velloziaceae), a Brazilian plant species: antitumoral activity and labeling of blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado de; Feliciano, Glaucio; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Vellozia pusilla Pohl is a species of the botanic family Velloziaceae that occurs in the subtropical regions of South America and, although it lives under conditions of high solar irradiation and low water availability, shows great longevity. The methanol extract of roots, stem and leaf sheaths of this species showed an anti tumoral activity through the inhibition of the enzyme Topoisomerase I when analyzed by an in vitro bioassay employing DNA repair or recombination deficient mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the evaluation of the effect of Vellozia pusilla methanol extract on the labeling of RBC, blood of mice was treated with 99m Tc tracer solutions. The percentage of radioactivity (% ATI) bound to plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) was determined. The %ATI in the insoluble fraction of plasma (IF) was also evaluate, and the results showed that there was a decrease in %ATI in this fraction that represents the plasmatic proteins. (author)

  17. Discovery of a dsRNA virus infecting the marine photosynthetic protist Micromonas pusilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Noordeloos, A.A.M.; Sandaa, R.-A.; Heldal, M.; Bratbak, G.

    2004-01-01

    We report the isolation of the first double-stranded (ds) RNA virus in the family Reoviridae that infects a protist (microalga Micromonas pusilla, Prasinophyceae). The dsRNA genome was composed of 11 segments ranging between 0.8 and 5.8 kb, with a total size of approximately 25.5 kb. The virus (MpRNAV-01B) could not be assigned to the genus level because host type, genome size, and number of segments smaller than 2 kb did not correspond to either of the two existing 11-segmented dsRNA genera Rotavirus and Aquareovirus. MpRNAV-01B has a particle size of 65-80 nm, a narrow host range, a latent period of 36 h, and contains five major proteins (120, 95, 67, 53, and 32 kDa). MpRNAV-01B was stable to freeze-thawing, resistant to chloroform, ether, nonionic detergents, chelating and reducing agents. The virus was inactivated at temperatures above 35 deg. C and by ionic detergent, ethanol, acetone, and acidic conditions (pH 2-5)

  18. Natal dispersal patterns are not associated with inbreeding avoidance in the Seychelles Warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, C.; Komdeur, J.; Richardson, D. S.

    In this study, we test whether patterns of territory inheritance, social mate choice and female-biased natal dispersal act as inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler. Our results show that Seychelles warblers do not reduce the likelihood of inbreeding by

  19. Status of the cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) in Northern Alabama, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Carpenter; Eric C. Soehren; Adrian A. Lesak; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2005-01-01

    The cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) is a Neotropic-Nearctic migratory passerine that breeds in eastern North America and winters in northwestern South America (Dunn and Garrett 1997, Hamel 2000a, 2000b). The northern two-thirds of Alabama historically represented the southernmost extension of the Cerulean Warbler's breeding range, where...

  20. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Deahn Donner; Carol I. Bocetti; Steve Sjogren

    2003-01-01

    The threatened Kirtland`s warbler Dendroica kirtlandii breeds in stands of young jack pine Pinus banksiana growing on well-drained soils in Michigan, USA. We summarize information documenting the range expansion of Kirtland`s warbler due to increased habitat management in the core breeding range in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan...

  1. Predation risk affects trade-off between nest guarding and foraging in Seychelles warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Kats, RKH

    1999-01-01

    The fitness costs of egg loss for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) on Cousin Island are considerable because warblers have a single-egg clutch and no time to lay a successful replacement clutch. On the islands of Cousin and Cousine, with equal densities of Seychelles fodies (Foudia

  2. El Grupo Cerúleo: Cooperation for Non-breeding Season Conservation of the Cerulean Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Mehlman; Paul. Hamel

    2010-01-01

    Without collaboration, conservation is impossible for long-distance migrants such as the Cerulean Warbler, a declining forest breeding bird in North America that overwinters in the Andes Mountains of South America. The Cerulean Warbler, one of the fastest declining woodland birds of eastern North America, is considered Vulnerable by BirdLife international, in the...

  3. Increasing P limitation and viral infection impact lipid remodeling of the picophytoplankter Micromonas pusilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, Douwe S.; Bale, Nicole J.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2016-03-01

    The intact polar lipid (IPL) composition of phytoplankton is plastic and dependent on environmental factors. Previous studies have shown that phytoplankton under low phosphorus (P) availability substitutes phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) with sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs). However, these studies focused merely on P depletion, while phytoplankton in the natural environment often experience P limitation whereby the strength depends on the supply rate of the limiting nutrient. Here we report on the IPL composition of axenic cultures of the picophotoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla under different degrees of P limitation, i.e., P-controlled chemostats at 97 and 32 % of the maximum growth rate, and P starvation (obtained by stopping P supply to these chemostats). P-controlled cultures were also grown at elevated partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) to mimic a future scenario of strengthened vertical stratification in combination with ocean acidification. Additionally, we tested the influence of viral infection for this readily infected phytoplankton host species. Results show that both SQDG : PG and DGDG : PG ratios increased with enhanced P limitation. Lipid composition was, however, not affected by enhanced (750 vs. 370 µatm) pCO2. In the P-starved virally infected cells the increase in SQDG : PG and DGDG : PG ratios was lower, whereby the extent depended on the growth rate of the host cultures before infection. The lipid membrane of the virus MpV-08T itself lacked some IPLs (e.g., monogalactosyldiacylglycerols; MGDGs) in comparison with its host. This study demonstrates that, besides P concentration, also the P supply rate, viral infection and even the history of the P supply rate can affect phytoplankton lipid composition (i.e., the non-phospholipid : phospholipid ratio), with possible consequences for the nutritional quality of phytoplankton.

  4. How we can learn more about the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, P.B.; Dawson, D.K.; Keyser, P.D.

    2004-01-01

    A sense of urgency attends the study of species of concern, like the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea). Sharpened by Robbins et al. (1992) and Hamel (1992), such concern prompted the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to commission a status assessment of the Cerulean Warbler (Hamel 2000a). Shortly after the status review was published, a petition (Ruley 2000) was delivered to the USFWS urging that the species be listed as “threatened” under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The account of the Cerulean Warbler in the Birds of North America series also appeared that year (Hamel 2000b). Substantial attention is currently focused on the species, and the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group (CWTG) was formed in 2002 (see Appendix).This overview consists of two parts. The first, prepared primarily by P.B.H., attempts to summarize current knowledge and suggest productive avenues to pursue in our efforts to understand the biology and conserve populations of Cerulean Warblers. The second, written by D.K.D. and P.D.K., is a summary of the structure and priorities of the CWTG, an organization that can spur and facilitate research and conservation action directed at this species and serve as a model for conservation of other forest birds (Appendix). Further information on Cerulean Warblers and activities of the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group can be found on the CWTG website (see Acknowledgments).

  5. Elevational gradient in clutch size of Red-faced Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Kristen G.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of life history evolution has benefited from debates regarding the underlying causes, and geographic ubiquity, of spatial patterns in avian clutch sizes. Past studies have revealed that birds lay smaller clutch sizes at higher elevation. However, in most previous studies, investigators have failed to adequately control for elevational differences in breeding phenology. To better understand the elevational gradient in avian clutch size, we need to know how clutch size changes across the entire elevational breeding range of a species (i.e., the shape of the relationship between elevation and clutch size), and whether the elevational gradient in clutch size is merely an artifact of elevational gradients in breeding phenology or breeding season length. We examined the relationship between breeding elevation and clutch size of Red-faced Warblers (Cardellina rubrifrons) along a 1000-m elevational gradient in Arizona. Our objectives were to determine how clutch size changed with elevation, and if the relationship between clutch size and elevation merely reflected elevational changes in breeding season length or phenology. The proportion of 5-egg clutches decreased and the proportion of 3- and 4-egg clutches increased non-linearly with increasing elevation, even after controlling for the elevational gradient in nest initiation date. Thus, average clutch size declined across the elevational breeding range of Red-faced Warblers, but this decline was not due to elevational variation in breeding phenology. Timing of breeding changed, but the duration of the breeding season did not change appreciably across the elevational gradient. Hence, elevational differences in breeding season length or breeding phenology cannot explain why Red-faced Warblers (and perhaps other birds) breeding at higher elevations have smaller clutches.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphone..._NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=26 ...

  7. Pre-nesting and nesting behavior of the Swainson's warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, B.

    1969-01-01

    The Swainson?s Warbler is one of the least known of southern birds. Although fairly common in some parts of its summer range, observations of its breeding biology have been made by very few persons. The present study was conducted mostly at Macon, Georgia; Pendleton Ferry, Arkansas; and Dismal Swamp, Virginia....In central Georgia and east-central Arkansas, Swainson?s Warblers usually arrive on their territories during the first two weeks in April. Territories in several localities ranged in size from 0.3 to 4.8 acres. A color-marked Arkansas male occupied the same territory for at least four months. Hostile encounters between territorial male Swainson?s Warblers usually take place along the boundary of adjacent territories. Paired males were more aggressive than unpaired males. Toward the end of an encounter one of the two males would usually perform a display in which the wing and tail feathers were spread and the tail vibrated. Following boundary encounters males drifted back onto their territories and usually sang unbroken courses of songs for several minutes.....During pre-nesting at Macon, a mated pair spent the day mostly on the ground within 20 feet of each other, often foragin g 3 to 4 feet apart. What may have been a form of courtship display, in which the male flew from a perch down to the female and either pecked her rump or pounced on her, occurred about three times each hour throughout the day. During this period the male sang less than at other times during the breeding season.....First nests are usually built by the first week in May. Although other investigators reported finding nests of this species outside of the defended territory, all nests that I have found were within the territory. The large, bulky nest of this species usually is placed 2-6 feet above the ground. It is built by the female from materials gathered close to the nest site; and takes two or three days to complete.....Three and occasionally four white eggs are laid. The female

  8. The epiphytic orchids Ionopsis utricularioides and Psygmorchis pusilla associate with different Ceratobasidium lineages at Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Borges da Silva Valadares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Orchidaceae, association with symbiotic fungi is required for seed germination and seedling development, thereby being the main energy source during the first steps of germination. Colombia is one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity of orchids, with an estimated 3,200 species, but few studies on orchid mycorrhiza have been conducted. In our study, we isolated and sequenced the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region of fungi from two co-occurring Colombian epiphytic orchids, I. utricularioides and P. pusilla, both belonging to the subtribe Oncidiinae. All sequences were recognized as belonging to the genus Ceratobasidium, known to be a common orchid mycorrhizal fungus in both tropical and temperate orchids. One sequence was 100% similar to fungi isolated from I. utricularioides in Costa Rica in a previous study. I. utricularioides was confirmed to be a specialist, associating with only one clade of mycorrhizal fungi. However, P. pusilla was shown to be a generalist, associating with three clades. This finding indicates that the variation in mycorrhizal specificity could be an important factor in the co-existence of orchids. The high affinity between the subtribe Oncidiinae and Ceratobasidium was also reinforced.

  9. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers RWJ Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Niles, Lawrence [Conserve Wildlife, 109 Market Lane, Greenwich, NJ (United States); Dey, Amanda [NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, NJ (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Rd, Bernardsville, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  10. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Dey, Amanda; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Tsipoura, Nellie

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  11. Parentage assignment and extra-group paternity in a cooperative breeder : the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, DS; Jury, FL; Blaakmeer, K; Komdeur, J; Burke, T

    We describe the development and initial application of a semiautomated parentage testing system in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). This system used fluorescently labelled primers for 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in two multiplex loading groups to genotype efficiently over

  12. The song of the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, an island endemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catchpole, C.K.; Komdeur, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis is a resident, cooperative breeder in a saturated, island environment, whose song structure diners significantly from European marshland Acrocephalus species. The song is transmitted within a more restricted frequency range, that which propagates most

  13. Sex-specific associative learning cues and inclusive fitness benefits in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, DS; Burke, T; Komdeur, J

    In cooperative, breeding vertebrates, indirect fitness benefits would be maximized by subordinates that accurately assess their relatedness to group offspring and preferentially help more closely related kin. In the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we found a positive relationship

  14. Estimating breeding season abundance of golden-cheeked warblers in Texas, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Mathewson, Heather A.; Groce, Julie E.; Mcfarland, Tiffany M.; Morrison, Michael L.; Newnam, J. Cal; Snelgrove, R. Todd; Collier, Bret A.; Wilkins, R. Neal

    2012-01-01

    relied on localized population studies on public lands and qualitative-based methods. Our goal was to estimate breeding population size of male warblers using a predictive model based on metrics for patches of woodland habitat throughout the species

  15. Regional habitat needs of a nationally listed species, Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis, in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Ball

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that affect the distribution and abundance of species is critical to developing effective management plans for conservation. Our goal was to quantify the distribution and abundance of Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis, a threatened old-forest associate in Alberta, Canada. The Canada Warbler has declined across its range, including in Alberta where habitat loss and alteration from urban expansion, forestry, and energy development are changing the forest landscape. We used 110,427 point count survey visits from 32,287 unique survey stations to model local-level (150-m radius circular buffers and stand-level (564-m radius circular buffers habitat associations of the Canada Warbler. We found that habitat supporting higher densities of Canada Warblers was locally concentrated yet broadly distributed across Alberta's boreal forest region. Canada Warblers were most commonly associated with older deciduous forest at the local scale, particularly near small, incised streams, and greater amounts of deciduous forest at the stand scale. Predicted density was lower in other forest types and younger age classes measured at the local scale. There was little evidence that local-scale fragmentation (i.e., edges created by linear features influenced Canada Warbler abundance. However, current forestry practices in the province likely will reduce the availability of Canada Warbler habitat over time by cutting old deciduous forest stands. Our results suggest that conservation efforts aimed at Canada Warbler focus on retaining large stands of old deciduous forest, specifically stands adjacent to streams, by increasing the width of deciduous retention buffers along streams during harvest and increasing the size and number of old forest residual patches in harvested stands.

  16. Does fragmentation of wetlands affect gene flow in sympatric Acrocephalus warblers with different migration strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Ceresa, Francesco; Belda, E.J.; Kvist, Laura; Rguibi-Idrissi, Hamid; Monrós González, Juan Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are naturally patchy habitats, but patchiness has been accentuated by the extensive wetlands loss due to human activities. In such a fragmented habitat, dispersal ability is especially important to maintain gene flow between populations. Here we studied population structure, genetic diversity and demographic history of Iberian and North African populations of two wetland passerines, the Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus and the moustached warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon....

  17. Can we explain vagrancy in Europe with the autumn migration phenology of Siberian warbler species in East Russia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozó László

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the autumn migration phenology of nine Siberian breeding songbirds: Thick-billed Warbler (Iduna aedon, Black-browed Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus bistrigiceps, Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler (Locustella certhiola, Lanceolated Warbler (L. lanceolata, Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus, Arctic Warbler (Ph. borealis, Dusky Warbler (Ph. fuscatus, Radde’s Warbler (Ph. schwarzi, Two-barred Warbler (Ph. plumbeitarsus and compared the migration dynamic characteristics with their European occurrence time. The study was carried out within the Amur Bird Project in the Russian Far East along the river Amur at Muraviovka Park between 2011 and 2014. The birds were caught with mistnets and ringed with individually numbered rings. For the characterization of the migration, we used timing, the intervals and the peaks of the migration, the percentage of the recaptures and the average time between the first and the last captures. The timing of migration in the studied species differed in the timing, the intervals (30-67 days and the migration peaks (14 August - 17 September.

  18. Stopover ecology of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) at coastal deltas of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchwell, Roy T.

    Avian migration is one of the wonders of the natural world. Stored fats are the main source of nutrients and fuel for avian migration and it is assumed the fat deposition at stopover sites is a critical component of a successful migration. Stopover sites are crucial in the successful migration of many birds, but particularly for arctic-breeding shorebirds that migrate long distances from breeding to wintering grounds. Despite the importance of stopover sites, it is often difficult to determine the importance of these sites to migrating shorebirds. I investigated three aspects of stopover ecology of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) foraging at coastal deltas on the Beaufort Sea coast, Alaska. First, I quantified the spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of the benthic macroinvertebrate community living within the mudflats. I found that there were two ecological groups of macroinvertebrates using river deltas, one originated in terrestrial freshwater habitats and most importantly could withstand freezing in delta sediments over the winter, and the other originated from the marine environment, could not withstand freezing and had to migrate to intertidal habitats each summer from deeper water areas that did not freeze over the winter. Stable isotope analysis allowed me to describe the origin of carbon consumed by invertebrates in intertidal habitats. I predicted freshwater invertebrates would consume terrestrial carbon, and marine invertebrates would consume marine carbon, but I found that both groups utilized the same carbon, which was a mixture of terrestrial and marine sources. My second research question determined the importance of delta foraging habitat for fall migrating Semipalmated Sandpipers. I mapped the temporal distribution and abundance of birds and quantified this relationship to invertebrate distribution and abundance. I researched fattening rates of shorebirds by measuring triglycerides in the blood of shorebirds I captured. I

  19. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisermann, Knut; Schulz, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2000 and 2400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala). The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus), the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus), the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens), the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzi), and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus). Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Serensen similarity index 0.85), indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, approximately 27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla). The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia), and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring.

  20. Molecular Phylogeny and Phylogeography of the Australian Freshwater Fish Genus Galaxiella, with an Emphasis on Dwarf Galaxias (G. pusilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmack, Peter J.; Bagley, Justin C.; Adams, Mark; Hammer, Michael P.; Johnson, Jerald B.

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater fauna of Southern Australia is primarily restricted to the southwestern and southeastern corners of the continent, and is separated by a large, arid region that is inhospitable to this biota. This geographic phenomenon has attracted considerable interest from biogeographers looking to explain evolutionary diversification in this region. Here, we employed phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches to evaluate the effect of this barrier on a group of four galaxiid fish species (Galaxiella) endemic to temperate Southern Australia. We also tested if continental shelf width has influenced connectivity among populations during low sea levels when rivers, now isolated, could have been connected. We addressed these questions by sampling each species across its range using multiple molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, nuclear S7 intron sequences, and 49 allozyme loci). These data also allowed us to assess species boundaries, to refine phylogenetic affinities, and to estimate species ages. Interestingly, we found compelling evidence for cryptic species in G. pusilla, manifesting as allopatric eastern and western taxa. Our combined phylogeny and dating analysis point to an origin for the genus dating to the early Cenozoic, with three of the four species originating during the Oligocene-Miocene. Each Galaxiella species showed high levels of genetic divergences between all but the most proximate populations. Despite extensive drainage connections during recent low sea levels in southeastern Australia, populations of both species within G. pusilla maintained high levels of genetic structure. All populations experienced Late Pleistocene-Holocene population growth, possibly in response to the relaxation of arid conditions after the last glacial maximum. High levels of genetic divergence and the discovery of new cryptic species have important implications for the conservation of this already threatened group of freshwater species. PMID:22693638

  1. Identifying Aspects of the Post-Transcriptional Program Governing the Proteome of the Green Alga Micromonas pusilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltman, Peter H.; Guo, Jian; Reistetter, Emily Nahas; Purvine, Samuel; Ansong, Charles K.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Wong, Chee-Hong; Wei, Chia-Lin; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Mills, Ken

    2016-07-19

    Micromonas is a unicellular green alga that belongs to the prasinophytes, a sister lineage to land plants. This picoeukaryotic (<2 μm diameter) alga is widespread in the marine environment but still not understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine the mRNA and protein level changes that take place over the course of the day-night cycle using mid-exponential nutrient replete cultures of Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 grown and analyzed in biological triplicate. During the experiment, samples were collected at key transition points during the diel for evaluation using high-throughput LC-MS proteomics. We also sequenced matched mRNA samples from the same time points, using pair-ended directional Illumina RNA-Seq to investigate the dynamics and relationship between the mRNA and protein expression programs of M. pusilla. Similar to a prior study of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, we found significant divergence in the mRNA and proteomics expression dynamics in response to the light:dark cycle. Additionally, expressional responses of genes and the proteins they encoded could also be variable within the same metabolic pathway, such as the oxygenic photosynthesis pathway. A regression framework was used to predict protein levels using both mRNA expression and gene-specific sequence-based features. Several features in the genome sequence were found to influence protein abundance including the codon usage and the length of the 3’ UTR. Collectively, our studies provide insights into the regulation of the proteome over a diel as relationships between the transcriptional and translational programs in the widespread marine green alga Micromonas.

  2. Identifying Aspects of the Post-Transcriptional Program Governing the Proteome of the Green Alga Micromonas pusilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Waltman

    Full Text Available Micromonas is a unicellular motile alga within the Prasinophyceae, a green algal group that is related to land plants. This picoeukaryote (<2 μm diameter is widespread in the marine environment but is not well understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine shifts in mRNA and protein expression over the course of the day-night cycle using triplicated mid-exponential, nutrient replete cultures of Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545. Samples were collected at key transition points during the diel cycle for evaluation using high-throughput LC-MS proteomics. In conjunction, matched mRNA samples from the same time points were sequenced using pair-ended directional Illumina RNA-Seq to investigate the dynamics and relationship between the mRNA and protein expression programs of M. pusilla. Similar to a prior study of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, we found significant divergence in the mRNA and proteomics expression dynamics in response to the light:dark cycle. Additionally, expressional responses of genes and the proteins they encoded could also be variable within the same metabolic pathway, such as we observed in the oxygenic photosynthesis pathway. A regression framework was used to predict protein levels from both mRNA expression and gene-specific sequence-based features. Several features in the genome sequence were found to influence protein abundance including codon usage as well as 3' UTR length and structure. Collectively, our studies provide insights into the regulation of the proteome over a diel cycle as well as the relationships between transcriptional and translational programs in the widespread marine green alga Micromonas.

  3. Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Australian freshwater fish genus Galaxiella, with an emphasis on dwarf galaxias (G. pusilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Unmack

    Full Text Available The freshwater fauna of Southern Australia is primarily restricted to the southwestern and southeastern corners of the continent, and is separated by a large, arid region that is inhospitable to this biota. This geographic phenomenon has attracted considerable interest from biogeographers looking to explain evolutionary diversification in this region. Here, we employed phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches to evaluate the effect of this barrier on a group of four galaxiid fish species (Galaxiella endemic to temperate Southern Australia. We also tested if continental shelf width has influenced connectivity among populations during low sea levels when rivers, now isolated, could have been connected. We addressed these questions by sampling each species across its range using multiple molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, nuclear S7 intron sequences, and 49 allozyme loci. These data also allowed us to assess species boundaries, to refine phylogenetic affinities, and to estimate species ages. Interestingly, we found compelling evidence for cryptic species in G. pusilla, manifesting as allopatric eastern and western taxa. Our combined phylogeny and dating analysis point to an origin for the genus dating to the early Cenozoic, with three of the four species originating during the Oligocene-Miocene. Each Galaxiella species showed high levels of genetic divergences between all but the most proximate populations. Despite extensive drainage connections during recent low sea levels in southeastern Australia, populations of both species within G. pusilla maintained high levels of genetic structure. All populations experienced Late Pleistocene-Holocene population growth, possibly in response to the relaxation of arid conditions after the last glacial maximum. High levels of genetic divergence and the discovery of new cryptic species have important implications for the conservation of this already threatened group of freshwater

  4. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 1. A review of the russet bush-warbler Bradypterus seebohmi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1895)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Round, P.D.; Rozendaal, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    The bush-warbler Bradypterus mandelli (Brooks, 1875) was described from Sikkim, and numerous specimens from India were identified with it, but it was synonymised with the brown bush-warbler Bradypterus luteoventris (Hodgson, 1845) in 1881. In 1952, east Asian populations were grouped under the name

  5. Avian response to timber harvesting applied experimentally to manage Cerulean Warbler breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Buehler, David A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Wigley, T. Bently; Boves, Than J.; George, Gregory A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Beachy, Tiffany A.; Evans, Andrea; McDermott, Molly E.; Newell, Felicity L.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Timber harvesting has been proposed as a management tool to enhance breeding habitat for the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), a declining Neotropical–Nearctic migratory songbird that nests in the canopy of mature eastern deciduous forests. To evaluate how this single-species management focus might fit within an ecologically based management approach for multiple forest birds, we performed a manipulative experiment using four treatments (three intensities of timber harvests and an unharvested control) at each of seven study areas within the core Cerulean Warbler breeding range. We collected pre-harvest (one year) and post-harvest (four years) data on the territory density of Cerulean Warblers and six additional focal species, avian community relative abundance, and several key habitat variables. We evaluated the avian and habitat responses across the 3–32 m2 ha−1 residual basal area (RBA) range of the treatments. Cerulean Warbler territory density peaked with medium RBA (∼16 m2 ha−1). In contrast, territory densities of the other focal species were negatively related to RBA (e.g., Hooded Warbler [Setophaga citrina]), were positively related to RBA (e.g., Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapilla]), or were not sensitive to this measure (Scarlet Tanager [Piranga olivacea]). Some species (e.g., Hooded Warbler) increased with time post-treatment and were likely tied to a developing understory, whereas declines (e.g., Ovenbird) were immediate. Relative abundance responses of additional species were consistent with the territory density responses of the focal species. Across the RBA gradient, greatest separation in the avian community was between early successional forest species (e.g., Yellow-breasted Chat [Icteria virens]) and closed-canopy mature forest species (e.g., Ovenbird), with the Cerulean Warbler and other species located intermediate to these two extremes. Overall, our results suggest that harvests within 10–20 m2 ha−1 RBA yield the largest

  6. Modelling the winter distribution of a rare and endangered migrant, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Bruno A; Schäffer, Norbert; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2007-01-01

    . Such model predictions may be useful guidelines to focus further field research on the Aquatic Warbler. Given the excellent model predictions in this study, this novel technique may prove useful to model the distribution of other rare and endangered species, thus providing a means to guide future survey......The Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola is one of the most threatened Western Palearctic passerine species, classified as globally Vulnerable. With its breeding grounds relatively secure, a clear need remains for the monitoring and protection of the migration and wintering grounds of this rare...... and endangered migrant. Recent research has shown that the Aquatic Warbler migrates through northwest Africa in autumn and spring. The wintering grounds are apparently limited to wetlands of sub-Saharan West Africa, with records from only about 20 localities in Mauritania, Mali, Senegal and Ghana. Given the lack...

  7. Biometry and phenology of two sibling Phylloscopus warblers on their circum-Mediterranean migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven; Bensusan, Keith J; Perez, Charles E; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is known as an ecological barrier for numerous migratory birds flying from European breeding grounds to African wintering sites. Birds generally avoid migration over open sea and fly over land. In the Mediterranean Basin, few land bridges or bottlenecks for migratory birds exist. The narrowest are at the western and eastern extremes: the Strait of Gibraltar and Israel. Comparative studies between these locations are extremely rare to date. Therefore, in order to elucidate the differences between the two flyways, we compared data collected simultaneously for two sister leaf warbler species, the Bonelli's Warbler complex, Phylloscopus bonelli and Phylloscopus orientalis, at ringing stations in the western Mediterranean Basin Gibraltar, and the eastern Eilat, Israel. Data on biometrics and passage dates of individuals trapped at Gibraltar and Eilat were used, and it was found that mean arrival date of Western Bonelli's Warblers at Gibraltar was 15 days later than Eastern Bonelli's Warblers at Eilat. Furthermore, Western Bonelli's Warblers had shorter wings than Eastern Bonelli's Warblers. On the other hand, birds in Eilat were in poorer body condition than individuals in Gibraltar. The comparison between geographically distant stop-over sites contributes to furthering our understanding of the development of migration strategies across ecological barriers in sibling species. Our study showed that populations that breed in southwestern Europe migrate through Gibraltar and winter in West Africa are able to accomplish migration in comparatively good body condition. This is in contrast to those that winter in East Africa, migrate through Israel and have to endure the combined challenge of crossing the Sahel, Sahara and Sinai deserts before reaching their breeding grounds across southeast Europe and southwest Asia. Hence, the discrepancies described between the western and the eastern flyway suggest that individuals in the west, in general, migrate

  8. A probabilistic risk assessment for the Kirtland's warbler potentially exposed to chlorpyrifos and malathion during the breeding season and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dwayne Rj; Priest, Colleen D; Olson, Adric D; Teed, R Scott

    2018-03-01

    Two organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos and malathion, are currently undergoing reregistration in the United States and were recently used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as case studies to develop a national procedure for evaluating risks to endangered species. One of the endangered bird species considered by the USEPA was the Kirtland's warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii). The Kirtland's warbler is an endangered migratory species that nests exclusively in young jack pine stands in Michigan and Wisconsin, and winters in the Bahamas. We developed probabilistic models to assess the risks of chlorpyrifos and malathion to Kirtland's warblers during the breeding season and the spring and fall migrations. The breeding area model simulates acute and chronic exposure and risk to each of 10 000 birds over a 60-d period following initial pesticide application. The model is highly species specific with regard to the foraging behavior of Kirtland's warblers during the breeding season. We simulated the maximum application rate and number of applications allowed on the labels for representative use patterns that could be found within 3 km of the breeding areas of Kirtland's warbler. The migration model simulates 10 000 birds during the course of their 12- to 23-d migration between their breeding area and the Bahamas. The model takes advantage of more than a century of observations of when, where, and for how long Kirtland's warblers forage in different habitats during the course of their migration. The data indicate that warblers only infrequently stop over in habitats that could be treated with chlorpyrifos and malathion. The breeding area and migration models resulted in predictions of very low acute and chronic risk for both pesticides to Kirtland's warblers. These results were expected, given that field observations indicate that the Kirtland's warbler has dramatically increased in abundance in recent decades. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018

  9. Predicting patch occupancy in fragmented landscapes at the rangewide scale for an endangered species: an example of an American warbler

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2011-08-25

    AIM: Our objective was to identify the distribution of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) in fragmented oak-juniper woodlands by applying a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model to better assist decision-makers in identifying suitable habitat across the species breeding range on which conservation or mitigation activities can be focused and thus prioritize management and conservation planning. LOCATION: Texas, USA. METHODS: We used repeated double-observer detection/non-detection surveys of randomly selected (n = 287) patches of potential habitat to evaluate warbler patch-scale presence across the species breeding range. We used a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model with remotely sensed habitat metrics (patch size and landscape composition) to predict patch-scale occupancy of golden-cheeked warblers in the fragmented oak-juniper woodlands of central Texas, USA. RESULTS: Our spatially explicit model indicated that golden-cheeked warbler patch occupancy declined from south to north within the breeding range concomitant with reductions in the availability of large habitat patches. We found that 59% of woodland patches, primarily in the northern and central portions of the warbler\\'s range, were predicted to have occupancy probabilities ≤0.10 with only 3% of patches predicted to have occupancy probabilities >0.90. Our model exhibited high prediction accuracy (area under curve = 0.91) when validated using independently collected warbler occurrence data. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a distinct spatial occurrence gradient for golden-cheeked warblers as well as a relationship between two measurable landscape characteristics. Because habitat-occupancy relationships were key drivers of our model, our results can be used to identify potential areas where conservation actions supporting habitat mitigation can occur and identify areas where conservation of future potential habitat is possible. Additionally, our results can be

  10. Becoming-Speckled Warbler: Re/Creating Australian Natural History Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    The speckled warbler and other woodland birds of south-eastern Australia have declined dramatically since European settlement; many species are at risk of becoming locally and/or nationally extinct. Coincidently, Australian environmental education research of the last decade has largely been silent on the development of pedagogy that reflects the…

  11. Factors affecting golden-cheeked warbler nest survival in urban and rural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson; Rebecca G. Peak

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses concerning temporal, landscape, and habitat effects on nest survival of golden-cheeked warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) in an urban and a rural landscape during the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006 in central Texas, USA. We found support for temporal effects of year and cubic effect of date and included them in candidate...

  12. Reproductive success and habitat characteristics of Golden-winged Warblers in high-elevation pasturelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Aldinger, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is one of the most rapidly declining vertebrate species in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the subject of extensive range-wide research and conservation action. However, little is known about this species' breeding ecology in high-elevation pasturelands, a breeding habitat with conservation potential considering the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service's Working Lands for Wildlife program targeting private lands in the Appalachian Mountains. We located 100 nests of Golden-winged Warblers in pastures in and around the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia during 2008–2012. Daily nest survival rate (mean ± SE  =  0.962 ± 0.006), clutch size (4.5 ± 0.1), and number of young fledged per nest attempt (2.0 ± 0.2) and successful nest (4.0 ± 0.1) fell within the range of values reported in other parts of the species' range and were not significantly affected by year or the presence/absence of cattle grazing. Classification tree analysis revealed that nests were in denser vegetation (≥52%) and closer to forest edges (Golden-winged Warblers. High-elevation pasturelands may provide a refuge for remaining populations of Golden-winged Warblers in this region.

  13. Long-term fitness benefits of egg sex modification by the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    Sex-ratio theory states that if the fitness costs to the parents of producing one offspring's sex relative to the other are higher, parents should discount these costs by producing fewer individuals of the more costly sex. In the co-operatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

  14. Why Seychelles Warblers fail to recolonize nearby islands : unwilling or unable to fly there?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Piersma, T; Kraaijeveld, K; Kraaijeveld-Smit, F; Richardson, DS; Richardson, David S.

    The Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis is a rare island endemic which, from 1920 to 1988, occurred only on Cousin Island (29 ha) in the Seychelles. Despite the saturated nature of this population and the possibility of obtaining higher reproductive success on new nearby islands,

  15. Inter-island transfers and population dynamics of Seychelles Warblers Acrocephalus sechellensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    1997-01-01

    In the 1950s the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis was a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300–360

  16. Conserving the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis by translocation : a transfer from Cousin Island to Aride Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Bullock, Ian D.; Rands, Michael R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Seychelles Warbler was once a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300-360 birds. Given the vulnerability of one

  17. Direct benefits and the evolution of female-biased cooperative breeding in Seychelles warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, David S.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Dunn, P.

    2002-01-01

    Inclusive fitness benefits have been suggested to be a major selective force behind the evolution of cooperative breeding. We investigated the fitness benefits selecting for cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler, Acroccphalus sechellensis. A microsatellite-based genotyping method was used

  18. The African migration and wintering grounds of the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, Norbert; Walther, Bruno A.; Gutteridge, Kim

    2006-01-01

    the edges of backwaters, flood basins, lagoons, lakes, ponds, rivers and wadis. Recent research suggests that at least some Aquatic Warblers may actually winter further south than the present data suggest, in countries such as The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana...

  19. Mate guarding in the Seychelles warbler is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Males may increase their fitness through extra-pair copulations (copulations outside the pair bond) that result in extra-pair fertilizations, but also risk lost paternity when they leave their own mate unguarded. The fitness costs of cuckoldry for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) are

  20. Research on golden-winged warblers: recent progress and current needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry M. Streby; Ronald W. Rohrbaugh; David A. Buehler; David E. Andersen; Rachel Vallender; David I. King; Tom. Will

    2016-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in knowledge about Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) in the past decade. Recent employment of molecular analysis, stable-isotope analysis, telemetry-based monitoring of survival and behavior, and spatially explicit modeling techniques have added to, and revised, an already broad base of published...

  1. Basal metabolic rate, food intake, and body mass in cold- and warm-acclimated Garden Warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Oltrogge, M.; Trost, L.

    2004-01-01

    We address the question of whether physiological flexibility in relation to climate is a general feature of the metabolic properties of birds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-raised Garden Warblers (Sylvia borin), long-distance migrants, which normally do not experience great temperature

  2. Seasonal timing of reproduction in a tropical bird, the Seychelles warbler : A field experiment using translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    Reproduction of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), a single-island endemic species living close to the equator, is characterized by a pronounced annual rhythm. The bird usually raises only one or two clutches of one egg each per year. Observational data suggest that seasonal changes

  3. Egg mimicry in cuckoos parasitizing four sympatric species of Acrocephalus warblers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edvardsen, E.; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.; Oien, I. J.; Honza, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 4 (2001), s. 829-837 ISSN 0010-5422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : brood parasitism * egg mimicry * Acrocephalus warblers Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.104, year: 2001 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1370116

  4. Is shared male assistance with antiparasitic nest defence costly in the polygynous great reed warbler?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2013), s. 615-621 ISSN 0003-3472 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : great reed warbler * aggressive behaviour * brood parasitism * common cuckoo * mating status Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.068, year: 2013

  5. Conservation planning and accomplishments for protection of Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea) nonbreeding habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Skolnik; David Wiedenfeld; Randy Dettmers; Constantino Aucca; Lina Daza; Heidy Valle; Francisco Sornoza; Javier Robayo; David Diaz; Jane Fitzgerald; Daniel Lebbin; Paul B. Hamel

    2012-01-01

    Vital to the work of the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group has been the collaboration among members to evaluate population status and coordinate planning for future activities, principally in conservation implementation. Two plans have been produced, one a general strategy for the conservation and management of the species over its entire range, and a more restricted...

  6. Reed Warbler Hosts Fine-Tune their Defenses to Track Three Decades of Cuckoo Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between avian hosts and brood parasites can provide a model for how animals adapt to a changing world. Reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) hosts employ costly defenses to combat parasitism by common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus). During the past three decades cuckoos have declined markedly across England, reducing parasitism at our study site (Wicken Fen) from 24% of reed warbler nests in 1985 to 1% in 2012. Here we show with experiments that host mobbing and egg rejection defenses have tracked this decline in local parasitism risk: the proportion of reed warbler pairs mobbing adult cuckoos (assessed by responses to cuckoo mounts and models) has declined from 90% to 38%, and the proportion rejecting nonmimetic cuckoo eggs (assessed by responses to model eggs) has declined from 61% to 11%. This is despite no change in response to other nest enemies or mimetic model eggs. Individual variation in both defenses is predicted by parasitism risk during the host’s egg-laying period. Furthermore, the response of our study population to temporal variation in parasitism risk can also explain spatial variation in egg rejection behavior in other populations across Europe. We suggest that spatial and temporal variation in parasitism risk has led to the evolution of plasticity in reed warbler defenses. PMID:24299407

  7. Arthropods of native and exotic vegetation and their association with willow flycatchers and Wilson's warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch; Sandra Brantley; Richard Fagerlund; Michael D. Means; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    1999-01-01

    We compared abundance of migrating Willow Flycatchers and Wilson's Warblers to the abundance of arthropods in exotic and native vegetation at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. We trapped arthropods using glue-boards in 1996 and 1997 in the same cottonwood, saltcedar, and willow habitats where we mist-netted birds during spring and fall migration. There...

  8. Insights into Wilson's Warbler migration from analyses of hydrogen stable-isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Viorel Atudorei; Zachary D. Sharp; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    Our ability to link the breeding locations of individual passerines to migration stopover sites and wintering locations is limited. Stable isotopes of hydrogen contained in bird feathers have recently shown potential in this regard. We measured hydrogen stable-isotope ratios (deltaD) of feathers from breeding, migrating, and wintering Wilson's Warblers. Analyses...

  9. Estimating breeding season abundance of golden-cheeked warblers in Texas, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Mathewson, Heather A.

    2012-02-15

    Population abundance estimates using predictive models are important for describing habitat use and responses to population-level impacts, evaluating conservation status of a species, and for establishing monitoring programs. The golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is a neotropical migratory bird that was listed as federally endangered in 1990 because of threats related to loss and fragmentation of its woodland habitat. Since listing, abundance estimates for the species have mainly relied on localized population studies on public lands and qualitative-based methods. Our goal was to estimate breeding population size of male warblers using a predictive model based on metrics for patches of woodland habitat throughout the species\\' breeding range. We first conducted occupancy surveys to determine range-wide distribution. We then conducted standard point-count surveys on a subset of the initial sampling locations to estimate density of males. Mean observed patch-specific density was 0.23 males/ha (95% CI = 0.197-0.252, n = 301). We modeled the relationship between patch-specific density of males and woodland patch characteristics (size and landscape composition) and predicted patch occupancy. The probability of patch occupancy, derived from a model that used patch size and landscape composition as predictor variables while addressing effects of spatial relatedness, best predicted patch-specific density. We predicted patch-specific densities as a function of occupancy probability and estimated abundance of male warblers across 63,616 woodland patches accounting for 1.678 million ha of potential warbler habitat. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, our approach yielded a range-wide male warbler population estimate of 263,339 (95% CI: 223,927-302,620). Our results provide the first abundance estimate using habitat and count data from a sampling design focused on range-wide inference. Managers can use the resulting model as a tool to support conservation planning

  10. Site Safety and Food Affect Movements of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla Migrating Through the Upper Bay of Fundy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J. Sprague

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The upper Bay of Fundy is a critical stopover site for Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla during their fall migration. However, little is known about factors that influence selection of feeding and roosting sites by these birds, or the extent to which birds move between different sites during their time in the region. Using radio-telemetry, we studied movement patterns, examined habitat use, and tested hypotheses associated with factors influencing foraging and roost-site selection. Movements of radio-tagged sandpipers were tracked in the upper Bay of Fundy in August 2004 and 2005. In 2004, sandpipers from the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia and Chignecto Bay, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, were tracked, and in 2005, sandpipers were tracked only in Chignecto Bay. Sandpipers were highly mobile in both the Minas Basin 2004 and Chignecto Bay 2005, making daily movements of up to 20 km between foraging and roosting sites, although very little movement was detected in Chignecto Bay in 2004. Migrating sandpipers appeared to select foraging sites based on relative safety, as measured by distance to cover, provided that these sites offered an adequate food supply. Similarly, roosting sandpipers preferred sites that were far from nearby trees that might offer cover to predators. This preference for safe sites became more apparent later in their stay in the Bay of Fundy, when birds were heavier and, therefore, possibly more vulnerable to predation. Semipalmated Sandpipers appear to be flexible during their time in the upper Bay of Fundy, displaying year-to-year and site-to-site variability in movement and mudflat usage. Therefore, multiple, synchronized population counts should be conducted at known roost sites in order to more accurately estimate Semipalmated Sandpiper abundance in this region. Furthermore, in a highly dynamic system where food can be variable, landscape features such as distance to cover may be important factors to consider when

  11. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Natasha I; Morrow, James M; Chang, Belinda S W; Price, Trevor D

    2015-02-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors-historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20 Ma. During this process, the SWS2 gene accumulated six substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Stand and within-stand factors influencing Golden-winged Warbler use of regenerating stands in the central Appalachian Mountains

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    Marja H. Bakermans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera is currently being considered for protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The creation of breeding habitat in the Appalachian Mountains is considered a conservation priority for this songbird, which is dependent on extensively forested landscapes with adequate availability of young forest. We modeled abundance of Golden-winged Warbler males in regenerating harvested forest stands that were 0-17 years postharvest at both mid-Appalachian and northeast Pennsylvania regional scales using stand and within-stand characteristics of 222 regenerating stands, 2010-2011. Variables that were most influential at the mid-Appalachian scale were different than those in the northeast region. Across the mid-Appalachian ecoregion, the proportion of young forest cover, i.e., shrub/scrub cover, within 1 km of regenerating stands best explained abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Golden-winged Warbler response was best explained by a concave quadratic relationship in which abundance was highest with 5-15% land in young forest cover. We also found evidence that the amount of herbaceous cover, i.e., the amount of grasses and forbs, within a regenerating stand positively influenced abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. In northeastern Pennsylvania, where young forest cover is found in high proportions, the distance to the nearest regenerating stand best explained variation in abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Abundance of Golden-winged Warblers was 1500 m away. When modeling within-stand features in the northeast region, many of the models were closely ranked, indicating that multiple variables likely explained Golden-winged Warbler response to within-stand conditions. Based on our findings, we have proposed several management guidelines for land managers interested in creating breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers using commercial timber operations. For example, we recommend when managing for

  13. Senescence in the wild: Insights from a long-term study on Seychelles warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Martijn; Kingma, Sjouke A; Bebbington, Kat; van de Crommenacker, Janske; Spurgin, Lewis G; Richardson, David S; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L; Komdeur, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Senescence--the progressive age-dependent decline in performance--occurs in most organisms. There is considerable variation in the onset and rate of senescence between and within species. Yet the causes of this variation are still poorly understood, despite being central to understanding the evolution of senescence. Long-term longitudinal studies on wild animals are extremely well-suited to studying the impact of environmental and individual characteristics (and the interaction between the two) on senescence, and can help us to understand the mechanisms that shape the evolution of senescence. In this review, we summarize and discuss the insights gained from our comprehensive long-term individual-based study of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). This species provides an excellent model system in which to investigate the evolution of senescence in the wild. We found that Seychelles warblers show senescent declines in survival and reproduction, and discuss how individual characteristics (body condition, body size) and environmental effects (low- versus high-quality environments) may affect the onset and rate of senescence. Further, we highlight the evidence for trade-offs between early-life investment and senescence. We describe how key cellular and physiological processes (oxidative stress and telomere shortening) underpinning senescence are affected by individual and environmental characteristics in the Seychelles warbler (e.g. food availability, reproductive investment, disease) and we discuss how such physiological variation may mediate the relationship between environmental characteristics and senescence. Based on our work using Seychelles warblers as a model system, we show how insights from long-term studies of wild animals may help unravel the causes of the remarkable variation in senescence observed in natural systems, and highlight areas for promising future research.

  14. Case study: Prioritization strategies for reforestation of minelands to benefit Cerulean Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Molly E.; Shumar, Matthew B.; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2013-01-01

    The central Appalachian landscape is being heavily altered by surface coal mining. The practice of Mountaintop Removal/Valley Fill (MTRVF) mining has transformed large areas of mature forest to non-forest and created much forest edge, affecting habitat quality for mature forest wildlife. The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative is working to restore mined areas to native hardwood forest conditions, and strategies are needed to prioritize restoration efforts for wildlife. We present mineland reforestation guidelines for the imperiled Cerulean Warbler, considered a useful umbrella species, in its breeding range. In 2009, we surveyed forest predicted to have Cerulean Warblers near mined areas in the MTRVF region of West Virginia and Kentucky. We visited 36 transect routes and completed songbird surveys on 151 points along these routes. Cerulean Warblers were present at points with fewer large-scale canopy disturbances and more mature oak-hickory forest. We tested the accuracy of a predictive map for this species and demonstrated that it can be useful to guide reforestation efforts. We then developed a map of hot spot locations that can be used to determine potential habitat suitability. Restoration efforts would have greatest benefit for Cerulean Warblers and other mature forest birds if concentrated near a relative-abundance hot spot, on north- and east-facing ridgetops surrounded by mature deciduous forest, and prioritized to reduce edges and connect isolated forest patches. Our multi-scale approach for prioritizing restoration efforts using an umbrella species may be applied to restore habitat impacted by a variety of landscape disturbances.

  15. Habitat selection of two Acrocephalus warblers breeding in reed beds near Malacky (Western Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokešová, Jarmila; Kocian, Ľ.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2004), s. 637-644 ISSN 0006-3088 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/7197/20; VEGA(SK) 1/0017/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : reed warblers * breeding * habitat selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.207, year: 2004 http://biologia.savba.sk/59_5_04/Prokesova_J.pdf

  16. Reproductive success and habitat characteristics of Golden-winged Warblers in high-elevation pasturelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Aldinger, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is one of the most rapidly declining vertebrate species in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the subject of extensive range-wide research and conservation action. However, little is known about this species' breeding ecology in high-elevation pasturelands, a breeding habitat with conservation potential considering the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service's Working Lands for Wildlife program targeting private lands in the Appalachian Mountains. We located 100 nests of Golden-winged Warblers in pastures in and around the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia during 2008–2012. Daily nest survival rate (mean ± SE  =  0.962 ± 0.006), clutch size (4.5 ± 0.1), and number of young fledged per nest attempt (2.0 ± 0.2) and successful nest (4.0 ± 0.1) fell within the range of values reported in other parts of the species' range and were not significantly affected by year or the presence/absence of cattle grazing. Classification tree analysis revealed that nests were in denser vegetation (≥52%) and closer to forest edges (the male's territory. Successful nests had significantly more woody cover (≥9%) within 1 m than failed nests. Our results suggest that cattle grazing at 1.2–2.4 ha of forage/animal unit with periodic mowing can create and maintain these characteristics without interfering with the nesting of Golden-winged Warblers. High-elevation pasturelands may provide a refuge for remaining populations of Golden-winged Warblers in this region.

  17. Population decline of the Elfin-woods Warbler Setophaga angelae in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Arendt; S.S. Qian; K. Mineard

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the population density of the globally threatened Elfin-woods Warbler Setophaga angelae within two forest types at different elevations in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in north-eastern Puerto Rico. Population densities ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 individuals/ha in elfin woodland and 0.06–0.26 individuals/ha in palo colorado forest in 2006, with average...

  18. Museum DNA reveals the demographic history of the endangered Seychelles warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, Lewis G; Wright, David J; van der Velde, Marco; Collar, Nigel J; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2014-11-01

    The importance of evolutionary conservation - how understanding evolutionary forces can help guide conservation decisions - is widely recognized. However, the historical demography of many endangered species is unknown, despite the fact that this can have important implications for contemporary ecological processes and for extinction risk. Here, we reconstruct the population history of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) - an ecological model species. By the 1960s, this species was on the brink of extinction, but its previous history is unknown. We used DNA samples from contemporary and museum specimens spanning 140 years to reconstruct bottleneck history. We found a 25% reduction in genetic diversity between museum and contemporary populations, and strong genetic structure. Simulations indicate that the Seychelles warbler was bottlenecked from a large population, with an ancestral N e of several thousands falling to Seychelles warbler, and our results will inform conservation practices. Reconstructing the population history of this species also allows us to better understand patterns of genetic diversity, inbreeding and promiscuity in the contemporary populations. Our approaches can be applied across species to test ecological hypotheses and inform conservation.

  19. Mate guarding in the Seychelles warbler is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komdeur, J

    2001-10-22

    Males may increase their fitness through extra-pair copulations (copulations outside the pair bond) that result in extra-pair fertilizations, but also risk lost paternity when they leave their own mate unguarded. The fitness costs of cuckoldry for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) are considerable because warblers have a single-egg clutch and, given the short breeding season, no time for a successful replacement clutch. Neighbouring males are the primary threat to a male's genetic paternity. Males minimize their loss of paternity by guarding their mates to prevent them from having extra-pair copulations during their fertile period. Here, I provide experimental evidence that mate-guarding behaviour is energetically costly and that the expression of this trade-off is adjusted to paternity risk (local male density). Free-living males that were induced to reduce mate guarding spent significantly more time foraging and gained significantly better body condition than control males. The larger the reduction in mate guarding, the more pronounced was the increase in foraging and body condition (accounting for food availability). An experimental increase in paternity risk resulted in an increase in mate-guarding intensity and a decrease in foraging and body condition, and vice versa. This is examined using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. This study on the Seychelles warbler offers experimental evidence that mate guarding is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk.

  20. Comparative nest-site habitat of painted redstarts and red-faced warblers in the Madrean Sky Islands of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; William M. Block; Jamie S. Sanderlin; Jose M. Iniguez

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of avian species requires understanding their nesting habitat requirements. We compared 3 aspects of habitat at nest sites (topographic characteristics of nest sites, nest placement within nest sites, and canopy stratification within nest sites) of 2 related species of ground-nesting warblers (Red-faced Warblers, Cardellina rubrifrons, n = 17...

  1. Establishing quantitative habitat targets for a "Critically Endangered" neotropical migrant (golden-cheeked warbler Dendroica chrysoparia) during the non-breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Carlin C. Chandler; John H. Rappole; Richard B. Chandler; David W. Mehlman

    2012-01-01

    The Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia is a federally endangered Neotropical migrant that inhabits montane pine-oak forests in Mexico and northern Central America during the non-breeding season. Although it is known that Golden-cheeked Warblers are closely associated with ‘encino’ oaks (...

  2. Agra, arboreal beetles of Neotropical forests: pusilla group and piranha group systematics and notes on their ways of life (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini, Agrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Revisions of two new species groups of the genus Agra Fabricius are presented with the following species described as new: pusilla group - Agra cruciaria sp. n. (Brazil, Agra grace sp. n. (Ecuador, Perú, Agra max sp. n. (Brazil, Agra minasianus sp. n. (Brazil, Agra notpusilla sp. n. (Brazil, Agra pseudopusilla sp. n. (Brazil; piranha group - Agra ce sp. n. (Perú, Agra risseri sp. n. (Bolivia, Brazil, Agra maia sp. n. (Bolivia, Agra piranha sp. n. (Ecuador; Agra tiputini sp. n. (Ecuador. Species of these two groups have adults that are the smallest in the entire genus, although this does not indicate they are closely related based on other attributes. All species are Amazonian in distribution.

  3. Modeling the flocking propensity of passerine birds in two Neotropical habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Lars Y; Cooper, Robert J; Petit, Lisa J

    2007-08-01

    We examined the importance of mixed-species flock abundance, individual bird home range size, foraging height, and foraging patch characteristics in predicting the propensity for five Neotropical passerine bird species (Slaty Antwren, Myrmotherula schisticolor; Golden-crowned Warbler, Basileuterus culicivorus; Slate-throated Redstart, Myioborus miniatus; Wilson's Warbler, Wilsonia pusilla; and Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta varia) to forage within flocks, rather than solitarily. We used study plots in primary mid-elevation forest and in shade coffee fields in western Panama. We expected that all species would spend as much time as possible flocking, but that the social and environmental factors listed above would limit compatibility between flock movements and individual bird movements, explaining variability in flocking propensity both within and among species. Flocking propensity was well predicted by home range size and flock abundance together, for four of the five species. While flock abundance was uniform across plots, home range sizes varied among species and plots, so that home range size appeared to be the principle factor limiting flocking propensity. Estimates of flock abundance were still required, however, for calculating flocking propensity values. Foraging height and patch characteristics slightly improved predictive ability for the remaining species, M. miniatus. In general, individual birds tended to join flocks whenever one was available inside their home range, regardless of a flock's specific location within the home range. Flocking propensities of individual species were lower in shade coffee fields than in forests, and probably vary across landscapes with variations in habitat. This variability affects the stability and species composition of flocks, and may affect survival rates of individual species.

  4. Phylogeography of a habitat specialist with high dispersal capability: the Savi's Warbler Locustella luscinioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio M Neto

    Full Text Available In order to describe the influence of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic structure and demography of a highly mobile, but specialized, passerine, the Savi's Warbler (Locustella luscinioides, mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and microsatellites were analysed in c.330 individuals of 17 breeding and two wintering populations. Phylogenetic, population genetics and coalescent methods were used to describe the genetic structure, determine the timing of the major splits and model the demography of populations. Savi's Warblers split from its sister species c.8 million years ago and have two major haplotype groups that diverged in the early/middle Pleistocene. One of these clades originated in the Balkans and is currently widespread, showing strong evidence for population expansion; whereas the other is restricted to Iberia and remained stable. Microsatellites agreed with a genetic break around the Pyrenees, but showed considerable introgression and a weaker genetic structure. Both genetic markers showed an isolation-by-distance pattern associated with the population expansion of the eastern clade. Breeding populations seem to be segregated at the wintering sites, but results on migratory connectivity are preliminary. Savi's Warbler is the only known migratory bird species in which Iberian birds did not expand beyond the Pyrenees after the last glaciation. Despite the long period of independent evolution of western and eastern populations, complete introgression occurred when these groups met in Iberia. Mitochondrial sequences indicated the existence of refugia-within-refugia in the Iberian Peninsula during the last glacial period, which is surprising given the high dispersal capacity of this species. Plumage differences of eastern subspecies seemed to have evolved recently through natural selection, in agreement with the glacial expansion hypothesis. This study supports the great importance of the Iberian Peninsula and its role for the conservation

  5. Factors driving territory size and breeding success in a threatened migratory songbird, the Canada Warbler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Tyler Flockhart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful conservation of migratory birds demands we understand how habitat factors on the breeding grounds influences breeding success. Multiple factors are known to directly influence breeding success in territorial songbirds. For example, greater food availability and fewer predators can have direct effects on breeding success. However, many of these same habitat factors can also result in higher conspecific density that may ultimately reduce breeding success through density dependence. In this case, there is a negative indirect effect of habitat on breeding success through its effects on conspecific density and territory size. Therefore, a key uncertainty facing land managers is whether important habitat attributes directly influence breeding success or indirectly influence breeding success through territory size. We used radio-telemetry, point-counts, vegetation sampling, predator observations, and insect sampling over two years to provide data on habitat selection of a steeply declining songbird species, the Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis. These data were then applied in a hierarchical path modeling framework and an AIC model selection approach to determine the habitat attributes that best predict breeding success. Canada Warblers had smaller territories in areas with high shrub cover, in the presence of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, at shoreline sites relative to forest-interior sites and as conspecific density increased. Breeding success was lower for birds with smaller territories, which suggests competition for limited food resources, but there was no direct evidence that food availability influenced territory size or breeding success. The negative relationship between shrub cover and territory size in our study may arise because these specific habitat conditions are spatially heterogeneous, whereby individuals pack into patches of preferred breeding habitat scattered throughout the landscape, resulting in reduced

  6. A hierarchical spatial model of avian abundance with application to Cerulean Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sauer, John R.; Knutson, Melinda G.

    2004-01-01

    Surveys collecting count data are the primary means by which abundance is indexed for birds. These counts are confounded, however, by nuisance effects including observer effects and spatial correlation between counts. Current methods poorly accommodate both observer and spatial effects because modeling these spatially autocorrelated counts within a hierarchical framework is not practical using standard statistical approaches. We propose a Bayesian approach to this problem and provide as an example of its implementation a spatial model of predicted abundance for the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) in the Prairie-Hardwood Transition of the upper midwestern United States. We used an overdispersed Poisson regression with fixed and random effects, fitted by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We used 21 years of North American Breeding Bird Survey counts as the response in a loglinear function of explanatory variables describing habitat, spatial relatedness, year effects, and observer effects. The model included a conditional autoregressive term representing potential correlation between adjacent route counts. Categories of explanatory habitat variables in the model included land cover composition and configuration, climate, terrain heterogeneity, and human influence. The inherent hierarchy in the model was from counts occurring, in part, as a function of observers within survey routes within years. We found that the percentage of forested wetlands, an index of wetness potential, and an interaction between mean annual precipitation and deciduous forest patch size best described Cerulean Warbler abundance. Based on a map of relative abundance derived from the posterior parameter estimates, we estimated that only 15% of the species' population occurred on federal land, necessitating active engagement of public landowners and state agencies in the conservation of the breeding habitat for this species. Models of this type can be applied to any data in which the response

  7. Patterns of gene flow and selection across multiple species of Acrocephalus warblers: footprints of parallel selection on the Z chromosome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reifová, R.; Majerová, V.; Reif, J.; Ahola, M.; Lindholm, A.; Procházka, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 130 (2016), s. 130 ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Adaptive radiation * Speciation * Gene flow * Parallel adaptive evolution * Z chromosome * Acrocephalus warblers Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2016

  8. Conserving the seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis by translocation from Cousin Island to the islands of Aride and Cousine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis was once a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300-360 birds.

  9. Seasonal productivity and nest survival of Golden-cheeked Warblers vary with forest type and edge density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca G. Peak; Frank R., III Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the demography and habitat requirements of the endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is needed for its recovery, including measures of productivity instead of reproductive indices. We report on breeding phenology and demography, calculate model-based estimates of nest survival and seasonal productivity and evaluate...

  10. A proxy of social mate choice in prairie warblers is correlated with consistent, rapid, low-pitched singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Byers; Michael E. Akresh; David I. King

    2015-01-01

    In songbirds, female mate choice may be influenced by how well a male performs his songs. Performing songs well may be especially difficult if it requires maximizingmultiple aspects of performance simultaneously.We therefore hypothesized that, in a population of prairie warblers, the males most attractive to females would be those with superior performance in more than...

  11. Experimental evidence that kin discrimination in the Seychelles warbler is based on association and not on genetic relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Richardson, DS; Burke, T; Richardson, David S.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperative breeding systems driven by kin selection, effective kin-recognition cues are important. Recognition could be achieved by the direct assessment of the genetic relatedness of individuals or by learning through association. In the Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis, female

  12. Does conspicuous colouration of Magpies Pica pica influence aggressive behaviour in nesting Great Reed Warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Požgayová, Milica

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2017), s. 108-111 ISSN 0006-3657 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Magpies Pica pica * Great Reed Warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 0.925, year: 2016

  13. [Book review] The Kirtland's Warbler: The Story of a Bird's Fight against extinction and the People Who Saved It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahn M. Donner

    2013-01-01

    The population recovery of Kirtland's Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii) is one of the most fascinating success stories of an endangered species in the past 60 years. As the author states, the story transcends the bird and its environment. By including the human dimension of recovery efforts, this book keeps the reader involved throughout what ends...

  14. Microsatellite DNA markers for delineating population structure and kinship among the endangered Kirtland’s warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIM L. KING; MICHAEL S. EACKLES; ANNE P. HENDERSON; CAROL I. BOCETTI; DAVE CURRIE; JR WUNDERLE

    2005-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of 23 microsatellite DNA markers for the endangered Kirtland’s warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), a Nearctic/Neotropical migrant passerine. This suite of markers revealed moderate to high levels of allelic diversity (averaging 7.7 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 72%). Genotypic frequencies at 22 of 23 (95%)...

  15. Male Kirtland's Warblers' patch-level response to landscape structure during periods of varying population size and habitat amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahn M. Donner; Christine A. Ribic; John R. Probst

    2009-01-01

    Forest planners must evaluate how spatiotemporal changes in habitat amount and configuration across the landscape as a result of timber management will affect species' persistence. However, there are few long-term programs available for evaluation. We investigated the response of male Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) to 26 years of...

  16. Social pairing of Seychelles warblers under reduced constraints: MHC, neutral heterozygosity, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David J; Brouwer, Lyanne; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and significance of precopulatory mate choice remains keenly debated. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, and variation at the MHC influences individual survival. Although MHC-dependent mate choice has been documented in certain species, many other studies find no such pattern. This may be, at least in part, because in natural systems constraints may reduce the choices available to individuals and prevent full expression of underlying preferences. We used translocations to previously unoccupied islands to experimentally reduce constraints on female social mate choice in the Seychelles warbler ( Acrocephalus sechellensis ), a species in which patterns of MHC-dependent extrapair paternity (EPP), but not social mate choice, have been observed. We find no evidence of MHC-dependent social mate choice in the new populations. Instead, we find that older males and males with more microsatellite heterozygosity are more likely to have successfully paired. Our data cannot resolve whether these patterns in pairing were due to male-male competition or female choice. However, our research does suggest that female Seychelles warblers do not choose social mates using MHC class I to increase fitness. It may also indicate that the MHC-dependent EPP observed in the source population is probably due to mechanisms other than female precopulatory mate choice based on MHC cues.

  17. Radio-transmitters do not affect seasonal productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Gesmundo, Callie; Johnson, Michael K.; Fish, Alexander C.; Lehman, Justin A.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the potential effects of handling and marking techniques on study animals is important for correct interpretation of research results and to effect progress in data-collection methods. Few investigators have compared the reproductive output of radio-tagged and non-radio-tagged songbirds, and no one to date has examined the possible effect of radio-tagging adult songbirds on the survival of their fledglings. In 2011 and 2012, we compared several parameters of reproductive output of two groups of female Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) breeding in Minnesota, including 45 females with radio-transmitters and 73 females we did not capture, handle, or mark. We found no difference between groups in clutch sizes, hatching success, brood sizes, length of incubation and nestling stages, fledging success, number of fledglings, or survival of fledglings to independence. Thus, radio-tags had no measurable impact on the productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers. Our results build upon previous studies where investigators have reported no effects of radio-tagging on the breeding parameters of songbirds by also demonstrating no effect of radio-tagging through the post-fledging period and, therefore, the entire breeding season.

  18. Mercury contamination, a potential threat to the globally endangered aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Aneta Dorota; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Jiguet, Frédéric; Polkowska, Żaneta; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is considered a global concern for humans and wildlife, and although the number of studies dealing with that issue continues to increase, some taxonomic groups such as small passerine birds are largely understudied. In this paper, concentration of mercury in the aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) feathers, a globally threatened passerine species, was examined. The concentration differences between two ages and sexes were investigated. The comparison of feathers taken on autumn migrants of two age categories act as a comparison of the species' exposure within the two different areas (European breeding or African wintering grounds). The average Hg concentration for all sampled individuals [2.32 μg/g dw (range 0.38-12.76)] is relatively high, compared with values found in other passerine species. An age difference was found, with first-year individuals displaying higher mercury concentrations than adults. This indicates that birds are exposed to mercury pollution during the breeding season, i.e., in the continental floodplains of eastern Europe. The average Hg concentration in feathers grown on the breeding grounds was 3.88 ± 2.59 μg/g dw, closer to the critical value of 5 μg/g dw, which is considered to impair the health of individuals. The findings suggest that mercury pollution may constitute a threat so far neglected for the endangered aquatic warbler.

  19. Coping with shifting nest predation refuges by European reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Halupka

    Full Text Available Predation, the most important source of nest mortality in altricial birds, has been a subject of numerous studies during past decades. However, the temporal dynamics between changing predation pressures and parental responses remain poorly understood. We analysed characteristics of 524 nests of European reed warblers monitored during six consecutive breeding seasons in the same area, and found some support for the shifting nest predation refuge hypothesis. Nest site characteristics were correlated with nest fate, but a nest with the same nest-site attributes could be relatively safe in one season and vulnerable to predation in another. Thus nest predation refuges were ephemeral and there was no between-season consistency in nest predation patterns. Reed warblers that lost their first nests in a given season did not disperse farther for the subsequent reproductive attempt, compared to successful individuals, but they introduced more changes to their second nest sites. In subsequent nests, predation risk remained constant for birds that changed nest-site characteristics, but increased for those that did not. At the between-season temporal scale, individual birds did not perform better with age in terms of reducing nest predation risk. We conclude that the experience acquired in previous years may not be useful, given that nest predation refuges are not stable.

  20. Nesting ecology of Townsend's warblers in relation to habitat characteristics in a mature boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, Colleen M.; Roby, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the nesting ecology of Townsend's Warblers (Dendroica townsendi) from 1993-1995 in an unfragmented boreal forest along the lower slopes of the Chugach Mountains in southcentral Alaska. We examined habitat characteristics of nest sites in relation to factors influencing reproductive success. Almost all territory-holding males (98%, n = 40) were successful in acquiring mates. Nest success was 54% (n = 24 nests), with nest survivorship greater during incubation (87%) than during the nestling period (62%). Most nesting failure (80%) was attributable to predation, which occurred primarily during the nestling period. Fifty-five percent of nests containing nestling were infested with the larvae of bird blow-flies (Protocalliphora braueri and P. spenceri), obligatory blood-feeding parasites. The combined effects of Protocalliphora infestation and inclement weather apparently resulted in nestling mortality in 4 of the 24 nests. Nests that escaped predation were placed in white spruce with larger diameter than those lost to predation: nests that escaped blow-fly parasitism were located higher in nest trees and in areas with lower densities of woody shrubs than those that were infested. The availability of potential nest sites with these key features may be important in determining reproductive success in Townsend's Warblers.

  1. Simulating range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Duarte,; Hatfield, Jeffrey; Todd M. Swannack,; Michael R. J. Forstner,; M. Clay Green,; Floyd W. Weckerly,

    2015-01-01

    Population viability analyses provide a quantitative approach that seeks to predict the possible future status of a species of interest under different scenarios and, therefore, can be important components of large-scale species’ conservation programs. We created a model and simulated range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler, the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia). Habitat-transition probabilities were estimated across the warbler's breeding range by combining National Land Cover Database imagery with multistate modeling. Using these estimates, along with recently published demographic estimates, we examined if the species can remain viable into the future given the current conditions. Lastly, we evaluated if protecting a greater amount of habitat would increase the number of warblers that can be supported in the future by systematically increasing the amount of protected habitat and comparing the estimated terminal carrying capacity at the end of 50 years of simulated habitat change. The estimated habitat-transition probabilities supported the hypothesis that habitat transitions are unidirectional, whereby habitat is more likely to diminish than regenerate. The model results indicated population viability could be achieved under current conditions, depending on dispersal. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with the population projections due to parametric uncertainty. Model results suggested that increasing the amount of protected lands would have a substantial impact on terminal carrying capacities at the end of a 50-year simulation. Notably, this study identifies the need for collecting the data required to estimate demographic parameters in relation to changes in habitat metrics and population density in multiple regions, and highlights the importance of establishing a common definition of what constitutes protected habitat, what management goals are suitable within those protected

  2. Hatchling sex ratio and female mating status in the great reed warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Aves, Passeriformes): further evidence for offspring sex ratio manipulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Prokop, P.; Kašová, M.; Sobeková, Karolina; Kocian, Ľ.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2012), s. 212-217 ISSN 1125-0003 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Great reed warbler * sex ratio * social polygyny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.890, year: 2012

  3. A Genetic and Chemical Perspective on Symbiotic Recruitment of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Nostoc into the Host Plant Blasia pusilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Liaimer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Liverwort Blasia pusilla L. recruits soil nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of genus Nostoc as symbiotic partners. In this work we compared Nostoc community composition inside the plants and in the soil around them from two distant locations in Northern Norway. STRR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA phylogeny reconstruction showed a remarkable local diversity among isolates assigned to several Nostoc clades. An extensive web of negative allelopathic interactions was recorded at an agricultural site, but not at the undisturbed natural site. The cell extracts of the cyanobacteria did not show antimicrobial activities, but four isolates were shown to be cytotoxic to human cells. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were mapped by MALDI-TOF MS, and the most prominent ions were further analysed by Q-TOF for MS/MS aided identification. Symbiotic isolates produced a great variety of small peptide-like substances, most of which lack any record in the databases. Among identified compounds we found microcystin and nodularin variants toxic to eukaryotic cells. Microcystin producing chemotypes were dominating as symbiotic recruits but not in the free-living community. In addition, we were able to identify several novel aeruginosins and banyaside-like compounds, as well as nostocyclopeptides and nosperin.

  4. A Genetic and Chemical Perspective on Symbiotic Recruitment of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Nostoc into the Host Plant Blasia pusilla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaimer, Anton; Jensen, John B.; Dittmann, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Liverwort Blasia pusilla L. recruits soil nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of genus Nostoc as symbiotic partners. In this work we compared Nostoc community composition inside the plants and in the soil around them from two distant locations in Northern Norway. STRR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA phylogeny reconstruction showed a remarkable local diversity among isolates assigned to several Nostoc clades. An extensive web of negative allelopathic interactions was recorded at an agricultural site, but not at the undisturbed natural site. The cell extracts of the cyanobacteria did not show antimicrobial activities, but four isolates were shown to be cytotoxic to human cells. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were mapped by MALDI-TOF MS, and the most prominent ions were further analyzed by Q-TOF for MS/MS aided identification. Symbiotic isolates produced a great variety of small peptide-like substances, most of which lack any record in the databases. Among identified compounds we found microcystin and nodularin variants toxic to eukaryotic cells. Microcystin producing chemotypes were dominating as symbiotic recruits but not in the free-living community. In addition, we were able to identify several novel aeruginosins and banyaside-like compounds, as well as nostocyclopeptides and nosperin. PMID:27847500

  5. Sex-specific associative learning cues and inclusive fitness benefits in the Seychelles warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D S; Burke, T; Komdeurs, J

    2003-09-01

    In cooperative breeding vertebrates, indirect fitness benefits would be maximized by subordinates that accurately assess their relatedness to group offspring and preferentially help more closely related kin. In the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we found a positive relationship between subordinate-nestling kinship (determined using microsatellite marker genotypes) and provisioning rates, but only for female subordinates. Female subordinates that helped were significantly more related to the nestlings than were nonhelpers, and the decision to help appears to be based on associative learning cues. High levels of female infidelity means that subordinates cannot trust their legitimacy through the male line, consequently they appear to use the continued presence of the primary female, but not the primary male, as a reliable cue to determine when to feed nestlings. By using effective discrimination, female subordinates are able to maximize the indirect benefits gained within a cooperative breeding system otherwise driven primarily by direct breeding benefits.

  6. Differential timing and latitudinal variation in sex ratio of Aquatic Warblers during the autumn migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Chrostek, Małgorzata E.; Jiguet, Frédéric; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Neto, Júlio M.

    2017-12-01

    Differential migration has been extensively reported in spring, but less so in autumn, particularly in relation to sex in monomorphic bird species. Here, we analysed the autumn passage of a monomorphic, globally threatened passerine, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola throughout Western Europe, with regard to age and sex. We showed that, overall, adults migrated earlier than first-year birds, and males migrated earlier than females during the autumn migration. This may be caused by an overall social dominance of adults over immatures, and differentiated migration strategy of males and females. In addition, we found male-skewed sex proportions, with a tendency to an equalised ratio in more southern stopover sites. This may indicate a male bias in the global population or different migration strategies of the sexes. Differential migration may cause the age and sex classes to be exposed differently to various threats affecting demographic structure of the species.

  7. Molecular characterization of putative Hepatozoon sp. from the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; Kloch, Agnieszka; Migalska, Magdalena; Bielański, Wojciech

    2013-05-01

    We characterized partial sequences of 18S rDNA from sedge warblers infected with a parasite described previously as Hepatozoon kabeeni. Prevalence was 47% in sampled birds.We detected 3 parasite haplotypes in 62 sequenced samples from infected animals. In phylogenetic analyses, 2 of the putative Hepatozoon haplotypes closely resembled Lankesterella minima and L. valsainensis. The third haplotype grouped in a wider clade composed of Caryospora and Eimeria. None of the haplotypes showed resemblance to sequences of Hepatozoon from reptiles and mammals. Molecular detection results were consistent with those from microscopy of stained blood smears, confirming that the primers indeed amplified the parasite sequences. Here we provide evidence that the avian Hepatozoon-like parasites are most likely Lankesterella, supporting the suggestion that the systematic position of avian Hepatozoon-like species needs to be revised.

  8. Contrasting results from GWAS and QTL mapping on wing length in great reed warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Bengt; Sigeman, Hanna; Stervander, Martin; Tarka, Maja; Ponnikas, Suvi; Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2018-04-15

    A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic basis of adaptive traits. In migratory birds, wing morphology is such a trait. Our previous work on the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) shows that wing length is highly heritable and under sexually antagonistic selection. Moreover, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis detected a pronounced QTL for wing length on chromosome 2, suggesting that wing morphology is partly controlled by genes with large effects. Here, we re-evaluate the genetic basis of wing length in great reed warblers using a genomewide association study (GWAS) approach based on restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) data. We use GWAS models that account for relatedness between individuals and include covariates (sex, age and tarsus length). The resulting association landscape was flat with no peaks on chromosome 2 or elsewhere, which is in line with expectations for polygenic traits. Analysis of the distribution of p-values did not reveal biases, and the inflation factor was low. Effect sizes were however not uniformly distributed on some chromosomes, and the Z chromosome had weaker associations than autosomes. The level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the population decayed to background levels within c. 1 kbp. There could be several reasons to why our QTL study and GWAS gave contrasting results including differences in how associations are modelled (cosegregation in pedigree vs. LD associations), how covariates are accounted for in the models, type of marker used (multi- vs. biallelic), difference in power or a combination of these. Our study highlights that the genetic architecture even of highly heritable traits is difficult to characterize in wild populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Medina, Juan Pablo; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patricia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) is reported from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. has subspherical oöcysts, measuring on average 26.6 × 25.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall, c.1.3 μm thick. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, measuring on average 19.0 × 12.0 µm, with a knob-like Stieda body, a trapezoidal sub-Stieda body and sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  10. Isospora celata n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Bruno Pereira; Medina, Juan Pablo; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-11-01

    A new coccidian species (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) collected in the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico at 3,000 metres above sea level. Isospora celata n. sp. has subspheroidal oöcysts, measuring 28.4 × 26.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.2 μm thick. Micropyle and polar granule are absent, but oöcyst residuum is present as a compact mass. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 18.2 × 12.8 µm. Stieda body knob-like and sub-Stieda body irregular and barely discernible. Sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the third description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  11. Songbird response to increased willow (Salix spp.) growth in Yellowstone's northern range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Lisa M; Hansen, Andrew J; Renkin, Roy; Lawrence, Rick

    2011-09-01

    After nearly a century of height suppression, willows (Salix spp.) in the northern range of Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., are increasing in height growth as a possible consequence of wolf (Canis lupus) restoration, climate change, or other factors. Regardless of the drivers, the recent release of this rare but important habitat type could have significant implications for associated songbirds that are exhibiting declines in the region. Our objective was to evaluate bird response to releasing willows by comparing willow structure and bird community composition across three willow growth conditions: height suppressed, recently released, and previously tall (i.e., tall prior to the height increase of released willows). Released and previously tall willows exhibited high and similar vertical structure, but released willows were significantly lower in horizontal structure. Suppressed willows were significantly shorter and lower in horizontal cover than released or previously tall willows. Bird richness increased along a gradient from lowest in suppressed to highest in previously tall willows, but abundance and diversity were similar between released and previously tall willows, despite lower horizontal cover in the released condition. Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) and Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii) were found in all three growth conditions; however, Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia), Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus), Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodii) were present in released and previously tall willows only. Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) was found in previously tall willows only, appearing to specialize on tall, dense willows. The results of our a priori habitat models indicated that foliage height diversity was the primary driver of bird richness, abundance, and diversity. These results indicate that vertical structure was a more important driver of bird community variables than horizontal

  12. Age-specific haemosporidian infection dynamics and survival in Seychelles warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Martijn; Komdeur, Jan; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Hutchings, Kimberly; Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Gilroy, Danielle L.; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites may severely impact the fitness and life-history of their hosts. After infection, surviving individuals may suppress the growth of the parasite, or completely clear the infection and develop immunity. Consequently, parasite prevalence is predicted to decline with age. Among elderly individuals, immunosenescence may lead to a late-life increase in infection prevalence. We used a 21-year longitudinal dataset from one population of individually-marked Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) to investigate age-dependent prevalence of the GRW1 strain of the intracellular protozoan blood parasite Haemoproteus nucleocondensus and whether infections with this parasite affect age-dependent survival. We analyzed 2454 samples from 1431 individuals and found that H. nucleocondensus infections could rarely be detected in nestlings. Prevalence increased strongly among fledglings and peaked among older first year birds. Prevalence was high among younger adults and declined steeply until ca 4 years of age, after which it was stable. Contrary to expectations, H. nucleocondensus prevalence did not increase among elderly individuals and we found no evidence that annual survival was lower in individuals suffering from an infection. Our results suggest that individuals clear or suppress infections and acquire immunity against future infections, and provide no evidence for immunosenescence nor an impact of chronic infections on survival. PMID:27431430

  13. The impact of conservation-driven translocations on blood parasite prevalence in the Seychelles warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Hutchings, Kimberly; Gilroy, Danielle L.; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduced populations often lose the parasites they carried in their native range, but little is known about which processes may cause parasite loss during host movement. Conservation-driven translocations could provide an opportunity to identify the mechanisms involved. Using 3,888 blood samples collected over 22 years, we investigated parasite prevalence in populations of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) after individuals were translocated from Cousin Island to four new islands (Aride, Cousine, Denis and Frégate). Only a single parasite (Haemoproteus nucleocondensus) was detected on Cousin (prevalence = 52%). This parasite persisted on Cousine (prevalence = 41%), but no infection was found in individuals hatched on Aride, Denis or Frégate. It is not known whether the parasite ever arrived on Aride, but it has not been detected there despite 20 years of post-translocation sampling. We confirmed that individuals translocated to Denis and Frégate were infected, with initial prevalence similar to Cousin. Over time, prevalence decreased on Denis and Frégate until the parasite was not found on Denis two years after translocation, and was approaching zero prevalence on Frégate. The loss (Denis) or decline (Frégate) of H. nucleocondensus, despite successful establishment of infected hosts, must be due to factors affecting parasite transmission on these islands. PMID:27405249

  14. Primary peak and chronic malaria infection levels are correlated in experimentally infected great reed warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad; Westerdahl, Helena; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Ilieva, Mihaela; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2012-09-01

    Malaria parasites often manage to maintain an infection for several months or years in their vertebrate hosts. In humans, rodents and birds, most of the fitness costs associated with malaria infections are in the short initial primary (high parasitaemia) phase of the infection, whereas the chronic phase (low parasitaemia) is more benign to the host. In wild birds, malaria parasites have mainly been studied during the chronic phase of the infection. This is because the initial primary phase of infection is short in duration and infected birds with severe disease symptoms tend to hide in sheltered places and are thus rarely caught and sampled. We therefore wanted to investigate the relationship between the parasitaemia during the primary and chronic phases of the infection using an experimental infection approach. We found a significant positive correlation between parasitaemia in the primary peak and the subsequent chronic phase of infection when we experimentally infected great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) with Plasmodium ashfordi. The reason for this association remains to be understood, but might arise from individual variation in exoerythrocytic parasite reservoirs in hosts, parasite antigenic diversity and/or host genetics. Our results suggest that the chronic phase parasitaemia can be used to qualitatively infer the parasitaemia of the preceding and more severe primary phase, which is a very important finding for studies of avian malaria in wild populations.

  15. Emulating natural disturbances for declining late-successional species: A case study of the consequences for Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Newell, Felicity L.; George, Gregory A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Evans, Andrea; Beachy, Tiffany A.; McDermott, Molly E.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew; Wigley, T. Bently

    2013-01-01

    Forest cover in the eastern United States has increased over the past century and while some late-successional species have benefited from this process as expected, others have experienced population declines. These declines may be in part related to contemporary reductions in small-scale forest interior disturbances such as fire, windthrow, and treefalls. To mitigate the negative impacts of disturbance alteration and suppression on some late-successional species, strategies that emulate natural disturbance regimes are often advocated, but large-scale evaluations of these practices are rare. Here, we assessed the consequences of experimental disturbance (using partial timber harvest) on a severely declining late-successional species, the cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea), across the core of its breeding range in the Appalachian Mountains. We measured numerical (density), physiological (body condition), and demographic (age structure and reproduction) responses to three levels of disturbance and explored the potential impacts of disturbance on source-sink dynamics. Breeding densities of warblers increased one to four years after all canopy disturbances (vs. controls) and males occupying territories on treatment plots were in better condition than those on control plots. However, these beneficial effects of disturbance did not correspond to improvements in reproduction; nest success was lower on all treatment plots than on control plots in the southern region and marginally lower on light disturbance plots in the northern region. Our data suggest that only habitats in the southern region acted as sources, and interior disturbances in this region have the potential to create ecological traps at a local scale, but sources when viewed at broader scales. Thus, cerulean warblers would likely benefit from management that strikes a landscape-level balance between emulating natural disturbances in order to attract individuals into areas where current structure is

  16. The Effects of Supplementary Food on the Breeding Performance of Eurasian Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus; Implications for Climate Change Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Vafidis

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate variation can drive population changes requires information linking climate, local conditions, trophic resources, behaviour and demography. Climate change alters the seasonal pattern of emergence and abundance of invertebrate populations, which may have important consequences for the breeding performance and population change of insectivorous birds. In this study, we examine the role of food availability in driving behavioural changes in an insectivorous migratory songbird; the Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. We use a feeding experiment to examine the effect of increased food supply on different components of breeding behaviour and first-brood productivity, over three breeding seasons (2012-2014. Reed warblers respond to food-supplementation by advancing their laying date by up to 5.6 days. Incubation periods are shorter in supplemented groups during the warmest mean spring temperatures. Nestling growth rates are increased in nests provisioned by supplemented parents. In addition, nest predation is reduced, possibly because supplemented adults spend more time at the nest and faster nestling growth reduces the period of vulnerability of eggs and nestlings to predators (and brood parasites. The net effect of these changes is to advance the fledging completion date and to increase the overall productivity of the first brood for supplemented birds. European populations of reed warblers are currently increasing; our results suggest that advancing spring phenology, leading to increased food availability early in the breeding season, could account for this change by facilitating higher productivity. Furthermore, the earlier brood completion potentially allows multiple breeding attempts. This study identifies the likely trophic and behavioural mechanisms by which climate-driven changes in invertebrate phenology and abundance may lead to changes in breeding phenology, nest survival and net

  17. Warm springs, early lay dates, and double brooding in a North American migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K Townsend

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have correlated the advancement of lay date in birds with warming climate trends, yet the fitness effects associated with this phenological response have been examined in only a small number of species. Most of these species--primarily insectivorous cavity nesters in Europe--exhibit fitness declines associated with increasing asynchrony with prey. Here, we use 25 years of demographic data, collected from 1986 to 2010, to examine the effects of spring temperature on breeding initiation date, double brooding, and annual fecundity in a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens. Data were collected from birds breeding at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA, where long-term trends toward warmer springs have been recorded. We found that black-throated blue warblers initiated breeding earlier in warmer springs, that early breeders were more likely to attempt a second brood than those starting later in the season, and that double brooding and lay date were linked to higher annual fecundity. Accordingly, we found selection favored earlier breeding in most years. However, in contrast to studies of several other long-distance migratory species in Europe, this selection pressure was not stronger in warmer springs, indicating that these warblers were able to adjust mean lay date appropriately to substantial inter-annual variation in spring temperature. Our results suggest that this North American migratory songbird might not experience the same fecundity declines as songbirds that are unable to adjust their timing of breeding in pace with spring temperatures.

  18. Autumn phenology and morphometrics in the Garden Warbler Sylvia borin at the Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye B.; Hedenström, Anders; Ottosson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    not significantly vary over the years. Median passage dates were 24 August, 30 August and 2 September for adults, juveniles and birds of unknown age, respectively. Median passage did not change significantly over the years. Among adults, larger individuals passed the observatory earlier than smaller individuals......Trapping and ringing near ecological barriers can provide useful information about the migration strategies of bird species. In this paper we analyzed ringing data of the Garden Warbler, collected within the period of 1950-2008 at the Ottenby Bird Observatory, south-eastern Sweden, and describe...

  19. Long-distance Dispersal Patterns of Male Cerulean Warblers (Dendroica cerulea Measured by Stable-hydrogen Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Katherine. Girvan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fundamental role played by long-distance dispersal in population dynamics, the mechanisms promoting or inhibiting dispersal by migratory songbirds are poorly understood. We used stable-hydrogen isotopes (δD to evaluate several hypotheses related to long-distance dispersal in the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea, a migratory songbird at the center of considerable conservation attention. Feather samples were collected from 103 males throughout the breeding range. We assumed feathers were molted in late summer on the breeding grounds and thus δD values provided an estimate of breeding or hatching location for the previous year. We used a likelihood-based assignment test to estimate the origin of birds the previous year and derived expected δD values for the entire Cerulean Warbler breeding range from precipitation-based maps. Using Bayes' Rule, we also incorporated a prior probability of breeding origin based on estimated rates of site fidelity and survival between breeding seasons. We found that long-distance breeding dispersal by adult male Cerulean Warblers was a fairly common occurrence with 20 of 71 (28.2% individuals originating from a region other than the one they were sampled in. Surprisingly, long-distance natal dispersal was uncommon; only three of 32 (9.4% second-year birds were estimated to have hatched in a region outside their capture region. Young males may be using a form of post-fledging prospecting or conspecific attraction when selecting their first breeding habitats. Populations on the breeding range periphery, such as Ontario and Tennessee, tended to receive fewer long-distance dispersers than did other regions but produced more dispersing individuals than did core regions, suggesting that these areas could act as important sources for other regions. The tendency of a region to produce dispersing individuals was not significantly related to its relative abundance, implying that population abundance is not a

  20. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Eisermann

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2 000 and 2 400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus, the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus, the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens, the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzii, and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus. Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Sørensen similarity index 0.85, indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, ~27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson’s Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla. The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia, and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 577-594. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Las alturas del norte de Centroamérica han sido reconocidas como región de aves endémicas, pero se conoce poco sobre las comunidades de aves en bosques nubosos de Guatemala. De 1997 a 2001 se han detectado 142 especies de aves entre 2 000 y 2 400 msnm en el bosque nuboso y áreas agr

  1. Sex and age differences in site fidelity, food resource tracking, and body condition of wintering Kirtland's Warblers (Setophaga Kirtlandii) in the Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.; Patricia K. Lebow; Jennifer D. White; Dave Currie; David N. Ewert

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of nonbreeding migrant birds in relation to variation in food availability has been hypothesized to result from the interaction of dominance hierarchies and variable movement responses, which together may have sex- and age-specific consequences. We predicted that site fidelity, movements, and abundance of Kirtland’s Warblers (Setophaga kirtlandii...

  2. Egg discrimination in the Australian reed warbler (Acrocephalus australis) : rejection response toward model and conspecific eggs depending on timing and mode of artificial parasitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welbergen, J; Komdeur, J; Kats, R; Berg, M

    2001-01-01

    In a coevolutionary arms race between an interspecific brood parasite and its host species, bath are expected to evolve adaptations and counteradaptations. We studied egg discrimination in the Australian warbler (Acrocephalus australis). This species is currently not significantly parasitized by the

  3. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival.

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    Kaja Wierucka

    Full Text Available Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus, mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941-0.996 than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727-0.937. Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August, while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898-0.958, when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00-1.000, when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality.

  4. Breeding biology of the Three-striped warbler in Venezuela: A contrast between tropical and temperate parulids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, W.A.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    We document reproductive life history traits of the Three-striped Warbler (Basileuterus tristriatus) from 146 nests in Venezuela and compare our results to data from the literature for other tropical and temperate parulid species. Mean (?? SE) clutch size was 1.96 ?? 0.03 eggs (n = 96) and fresh egg mass was 2.09 ?? 0.02 g. The incubation period was 15.8 ?? 0.2 days (n = 23) and the nestling period was 10.5 ?? 0.3 days (n = 12). Males did not incubate and rarely provided food for females during incubation. Females had 57 ?? 2% (n = 49) nest attentiveness (% of time on the nest incubating), which caused egg temperature to commonly become cold relative to development. Both adults fed nestlings and feeding rates increased with nestling age. The growth rate constant for nestlings based on mass was K 0.490, which is slower than for north temperate warblers. Predation was the primary source of nest failure and only 22% of nests were successful based on a Mayfield daily predation rate of 0.048 ?? 0.006. Our literature review indicates parulids differ strongly in life histories between temperate and tropical/subtropical sites with species in the tropics having, on average, smaller clutches, longer incubation periods, lower nest attentiveness, longer off-bouts, and longer nestling periods. ?? 2009 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  5. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-04-21 to 1966-05-28 (NODC Accession 6600712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  6. Subordinate females in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler obtain direct benefits by joining unrelated groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, Frank; Kingma, Sjouke A; Hammers, Martijn; Dugdale, Hannah L; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S; Komdeur, Jan

    2018-05-11

    1.In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersing to breed independently. However, in many species individuals disperse to a subordinate position in a non-natal group ("subordinate between-group" dispersal), despite losing the kin-selected and nepotistic benefits of remaining in the natal group. It is unclear which social, genetic and ecological factors drive between-group dispersal. 2.We aim to elucidate the adaptive significance of subordinate between-group dispersal by examining which factors promote such dispersal, whether subordinates gain improved ecological and social conditions by joining a non-natal group, and whether between-group dispersal results in increased lifetime reproductive success and survival. 3.Using a long-term dataset on the cooperatively-breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we investigated 4.how a suite of proximate factors (food availability, group composition, age and sex of focal individuals, population density) promote subordinate between-group dispersal by comparing such dispersers with subordinates that dispersed to a dominant position or became floaters. We then analysed whether subordinates that moved to a dominant or non-natal subordinate position, or became floaters, gained improved conditions relative to the natal territory, and compared fitness components between the three dispersal strategies. 5.We show that individuals that joined another group as non-natal subordinates were mainly female and that, similar to floating, between-group dispersal was associated with social and demographic factors that constrained dispersal to an independent breeding position. Between-group dispersal was not driven by improved ecological or social conditions in the new territory and did not result in higher survival. Instead, between-group dispersing females often became co

  7. Seasonal Patterns in Hydrogen Isotopes of Claws from Breeding Wood-Warblers (Parulidae: Utility for Estimating Migratory Origins

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    Kevin C. Fraser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in many species of migratory birds has focused attention on the extent of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering populations. Stable-hydrogen isotope (δD analysis of feathers is a useful technique for measuring connectivity, but is constrained by features of molt location and timing. Claws are metabolically inert, keratinous tissues that grow continuously and can be sampled at any point in the annual cycle, thus providing potentially useful clues about an individual's previous movements. However, variation in the rate at which claws incorporate local δD values is not well described. We measured δD values in claws of two species of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant wood-warblers (Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler breeding in eastern Ontario, Canada to investigate the rate of δD change through the breeding season and the utility of claw δD values for estimating migratory origins. δD values of claw tips from 66 different individuals, each sampled once during the breeding season, showed an average change of -0.3‰ to -0.4‰ per day in the direction of the expected local Ontario value. There were no significant sex or species differences in the rate of change. These results suggest δD values of claw tips in Parulids may reflect those of the non-breeding area for 3-7 weeks after arrival on the breeding grounds, and are useful estimators of non-breeding migratory origin. Our results also suggest that these species may leave the breeding ground before claw tips fully incorporate a local δD signature, as claws sampled at the end of the breeding season did not match locally grown feather and claw δD values. This is the first study to examine the seasonal rate of the change in δD values of claws in long-distance, insectivorous, migratory birds.

  8. Effect of Brood Age on Nestling Diet and Prey Composition in a Hedgerow Specialist Bird, the Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria.

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    Grzegorz Orłowski

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of food provided to nestling birds influence their growth and development and offers key insight into the ecological requirements of birds. One bird species whose feeding ecology is poorly understood is the Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria, which utilizes semi-natural shrubby vegetation in agroecosystems. Because Barred Warbler nestlings vary greatly in body mass we hypothesised that diet and prey properties (size, diversity, taxonomic composition, and chitin content and resulting body hardness and digestibility would differ as the nestlings aged. We quantified the diet based on faecal analysis, sampling faecal sacs from the nestlings pooled into three age classes: 2-3 days old, 4-6 d old, and 7-9 d old. Nestlings were provided a wide diversity of food and a strong relationship existed between food characteristics and nestling age. The youngest nestlings (2-3 d old had the lowest values of each dietary characteristic (diversity, number and total biomass of prey, and individual prey weight, that were significantly lower than the oldest nestlings (7-9 d old. Nestlings aged 4-6 d exhibited intermediate dietary characteristics. Differences in dietary composition of the six major food types showed marked differences between the individual broods and age categories. Percentages of the number and biomass of soft-bodied prey were highest in the diet of 2-3 d and 4-6 d old nestlings, and decreased with increasing age, whereas the opposite trend was observed in the percentage of intermediately and heavily chitinised prey. Parent Barred Warblers probably preferentially select soft-bodied prey for the youngest nestlings, and satisfy the greater energy demands of the older ones by providing them with a greater variety of prey containing more chitin, as well as plant food. The provisioning of less-readily digestible prey to older nestlings suggests that as the quality of food decreases the quantity increases, implying that the

  9. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-12-01

    The Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  10. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife

  11. Spatio-temporal variation in territory quality and oxidative status: a natural experiment in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Crommenacker, Janske; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2011-05-01

    1. Fluctuations in the quality of the habitat in which an animal lives can have major consequences for its behaviour and physiological state. In poor-quality habitat with low food availability, metabolically intensive foraging activity is likely to result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species, while scarcity of food can lead to a weakening of exogenously derived antioxidant defences. The consequent oxidant/antioxidant imbalance may lead to elevated oxidative stress. 2. Although the link between food availability and oxidative stress has been studied in the laboratory, very little is known about this relationship in the wild. Here, we investigate the association between territory quality (measured through food availability) and oxidative stress in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). 3. Seychelles warblers are insectivorous birds that inhabit a fixed feeding territory year round. Individuals experience profound and rapid local fluctuations in territory quality within these territories, owing to changing patterns of vegetation defoliation resulting from seasonal changes in prevailing wind direction and wind-borne salt spray. 4. As expected, oxidant generation (measured as reactive oxygen metabolites; ROMs) was higher when territory quality was low, but there was no correlation between territory quality and antioxidant capacity (OXY). The negative correlation between territory quality and ROMs was significant between individuals and approached significance within individuals, indicating that the pattern resulted from individual responses to environmental variation. 5. ROMs and OXY levels within individuals were positively correlated, but the relationship between territory quality and ROMs persisted after including OXY as a covariate, implying that oxidative stress occurs in low territory quality conditions. 6. Our results indicate that the oxidative stress balance of an individual is sensitive to relatively short-term changes in territory

  12. Extreme MHC class I diversity in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus); selection patterns and allelic divergence suggest that different genes have different functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; O'Connor, Emily; Sebastian, Alvaro; Migalska, Magdalena; Radwan, Jacek; Zając, Tadeusz; Bielański, Wojciech; Solarz, Wojciech; Ćmiel, Adam; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-07-05

    Recent work suggests that gene duplications may play an important role in the evolution of immunity genes. Passerine birds, and in particular Sylvioidea warblers, have highly duplicated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, which are key in immunity, compared to other vertebrates. However, reasons for this high MHC gene copy number are yet unclear. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) allows MHC genotyping even in individuals with extremely duplicated genes. This HTS data can reveal evidence of selection, which may help to unravel the putative functions of different gene copies, i.e. neofunctionalization. We performed exhaustive genotyping of MHC class I in a Sylvioidea warbler, the sedge warbler, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, using the Illumina MiSeq technique on individuals from a wild study population. The MHC diversity in 863 genotyped individuals by far exceeds that of any other bird species described to date. A single individual could carry up to 65 different alleles, a large proportion of which are expressed (transcribed). The MHC alleles were of three different lengths differing in evidence of selection, diversity and divergence within our study population. Alleles without any deletions and alleles containing a 6 bp deletion showed characteristics of classical MHC genes, with evidence of multiple sites subject to positive selection and high sequence divergence. In contrast, alleles containing a 3 bp deletion had no sites subject to positive selection and had low divergence. Our results suggest that sedge warbler MHC alleles that either have no deletion, or contain a 6 bp deletion, encode classical antigen presenting MHC molecules. In contrast, MHC alleles containing a 3 bp deletion may encode molecules with a different function. This study demonstrates that highly duplicated MHC genes can be characterised with HTS and that selection patterns can be useful for revealing neofunctionalization. Importantly, our results highlight the need to consider the

  13. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Cobalt, Arsenic and Selenium in the Blood of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla from Suriname, South America: Age-related Differences in Wintering Site and Comparisons with a Stopover Site in New Jersey, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand contaminant exposure and to compare levels of contaminants in organisms at different ages to determine if there is bioaccumulation, and to compare levels encountered in different geographical areas. In this paper, we report levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt, arsenic and selenium in the blood of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla wintering in Suriname as a function of age, and compare them to blood levels in northbound migrants at a stopover in Delaware Bay, New Jersey. We found (1 young birds had higher levels of cadmium, cobalt, and lead than adults (after second year birds; (2 there were no age-related differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium; (3 only four of the possible 16 inter-metal correlations were significant, at the 0.05 level; (4 the highest correlation was between cadmium and lead (Kendall tau = 0.37; and (5 the adult sandpipers had significantly higher levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium in Suriname than in New Jersey, while the New Jersey birds had significantly higher levels of arsenic. Suriname samples were obtained in April, after both age classes had spent the winter in Suriname, which suggests that sandpipers are accumulating higher levels of trace elements in Suriname than in Delaware Bay. The levels of selenium may be within a range of concern for adverse effects, but little is known about adverse effect levels of trace elements in the blood of wild birds.

  14. The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David J; Spurgin, Lewis G; Collar, Nigel J; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2014-05-01

    Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short- and long-term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity, and how this affects genetic structure among the conserved populations overall, have received little investigation. We compared the impact of translocating different numbers of founders on both microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I diversity over a 23-year period in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). We found low and stable microsatellite and MHC diversity in the source population and evidence for only a limited loss of either type of diversity in the four new populations. However, we found evidence of significant, but low to moderate, genetic differentiation between populations, with those populations established with fewer founders clustering separately. Stochastic genetic capture (as opposed to subsequent drift) was the main determinant of translocated population diversity. Furthermore, a strong correlation between microsatellite and MHC differentiation suggested that neutral processes outweighed selection in shaping MHC diversity in the new populations. These data provide important insights into how to optimize the use of translocation as a conservation tool. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. On geographic barriers and Pleistocene glaciations: Tracing the diversification of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata) along the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    We studied the phylogeography and plumage variation of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata), from Venezuela to Bolivia, with focus on populations from Ecuador and northern Peru. We analyzed sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, geographic distributions, as well as photographs of specimens deposited at museum collections. Phylogenetic analyses identified three major lineages formed by populations from: Venezuela and Colombia (M. c. regulus), Ecuador and northern Peru (M. elata, M. castaneiceps, M. orientalis, M. c. chapmani), and central Peru and Bolivia (M. c. coronata). We found further population structure within M. c. regulus and M. c. coronata, and population structure and complexity of plumage variation within the Ecuador-northern Peru lineage. Time-calibrated trees estimated that most intraspecific variation originated during the Pleistocene; however, this pattern may not be attributed to an increase in diversification rate during that period. We discuss these results in the context of the importance of geographic-ecological barriers in promoting lineage diversification along the Andes and put forward a preliminary taxonomic proposal for major lineages identified in this study. PMID:29522515

  16. On geographic barriers and Pleistocene glaciations: Tracing the diversification of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata) along the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Torres, David A; Cuervo, Andrés M; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    We studied the phylogeography and plumage variation of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata), from Venezuela to Bolivia, with focus on populations from Ecuador and northern Peru. We analyzed sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, geographic distributions, as well as photographs of specimens deposited at museum collections. Phylogenetic analyses identified three major lineages formed by populations from: Venezuela and Colombia (M. c. regulus), Ecuador and northern Peru (M. elata, M. castaneiceps, M. orientalis, M. c. chapmani), and central Peru and Bolivia (M. c. coronata). We found further population structure within M. c. regulus and M. c. coronata, and population structure and complexity of plumage variation within the Ecuador-northern Peru lineage. Time-calibrated trees estimated that most intraspecific variation originated during the Pleistocene; however, this pattern may not be attributed to an increase in diversification rate during that period. We discuss these results in the context of the importance of geographic-ecological barriers in promoting lineage diversification along the Andes and put forward a preliminary taxonomic proposal for major lineages identified in this study.

  17. Two pectin lyase genes, pnl-1 and pnl-2, from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae differ in a cellulose-binding domain and in their expression during infection of Malva pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yangdou; Shih, Jenny; Li, Jieran; Goodwin, Paul H

    2002-07-01

    Two pectin lyase genes, designated pnl-1 and pnl-2, were cloned from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae, a pathogen of round-leaved mallow (Malva pusilla). pnl-1 was isolated using cDNA from infected plant material; pnl-2 was isolated using cDNA from 3-day-old mycelia grown in mallow-cell-wall extract (MCWE) broth. pnl-1 is the first pectinase gene described thus far to encode a cellulose-binding domain (CBD), which is common in cellulases and xylanases, whereas pnl-2 encodes a pectin lyase that lacks a CBD. In pure culture, pnl-1 expression could be detected when purified pectin or glucose was the sole carbon source, but not when MCWE was the sole carbon source. The lack of pnl-1 expression appeared to be due to gene repression by some unknown factor(s) in the cell-wall extract. In contrast, expression of pnl-2 was detected in cultures when MCWE, but not when purified pectin or glucose, was the sole carbon source. In infected tissue, detection of pnl-1 expression by Northern-blot hybridization and by RT-PCR began with the onset of the necrotrophic phase of infection. Expression ofpnl-2 was not detectable by Northern-blot hybridization, but was observed byRT-PCR in both the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection. The differences between pnl-1 and pnl-2 (i.e. pnl-1 encoding a CBD and differences in the expression patterns of both genes) may be related to the requirements of C. gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae to be able to grow in host tissue under the different conditions present during the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection.

  18. Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, R.J.; Pratt, T.K.; Marshall, A.P.; Amidon, F.; Williams, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The avifauna of the Mariana Islands, an archipelago in the western Pacific, faces the threats of rapid economic development and the spread of non-native species, particularly a devastating predator, Brown Tree Snake Boiga irregularis. In this paper, we examine the status and trends of the land bird fauna of Saipan Island based on three island-wide surveys conducted in 1982, 1997, and 2007. During this period, the human population on Saipan increased more than four-fold and much of the island has been developed. The surveys employed standard point-transect methods based on Distance Sampling. Remarkably, we found nearly all species of land birds - 11 native species and three introduced species - to be common or abundant. The exception was the Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperouse, a historically rare species that was not observed on the 2007 survey, although it does persist on Saipan and other Mariana islands. A comparison of species densities among the three surveys showed that seven species, mainly fruit and seed-eaters, had increased and three species of insectivorous birds had decreased - Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia, and Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei. Of these three, Nightingale Reed-warbler is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and as an Endangered Species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Reed-warbler densities on Saipan decreased by more than half between 1982 and 2007. Although point transect sampling worked well for this species, density estimates and trends assessment could be improved by reallocating sampling stations among habitats and by more frequent sampling. ?? BirdLife International 2009.

  19. Population and habitat viability assessments for Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos: Usefulness to Partners in Flight Conservation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardmore, C.J.; Hatfield, J.S.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos are Neotropical migratory birds that are federally listed as endangered. Recovery plans for both species advise the use of viability modeling as a tool for setting specific recovery and management targets. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment workshops were conducted to develop population targets and conservation recommendations for these species. Results of the workshops were based on modeling demographic and environmental factors, as well as discussions of management issues, management options, and public outreach strategies. The approach is intended to be iterative, and to be tracked by research and monitoring efforts. This paper discusses the consensus-building workshop process and how the approach could be useful to Partners in Flight. Population and Habitat Viability Assessments (PHVA) were used to develop population targets and conservation recommendations for Golden-cheeked Warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) and Black-capped Vireos (Vireo atricapillus). This paper explains what PHVAs are, discusses how they are conducted, describes the general results that are produced, and suggests how Partners in Flight (PIF) might use a similar process for bird conservation planning. Detailed results of the assessments are not discussed here; however they can be found elsewhere (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996a, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996b). PHVAs were considered for Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos because they are controversial, endangered species, and the species? recovery plans list PHVAs as tools to develop recovery recommendations. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) realized that the data needed to perform PHVAs for these species is limited, but that various conservation efforts, such as the Balcones Canyonlands Conservation Plan and other endeavors, were proceeding without benefit of the biological summarization and guidance that a PHVA could provide.

  20. Age-specific survival of male Golden-cheeked Warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA. However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  1. Age-specific survival of male golden-cheeked warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA). However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ) probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  2. Palaeoclimatic events, dispersal and migratory losses along the Afro-European axis as drivers of biogeographic distribution in Sylvia warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Gary; Light, Jessica E

    2011-06-14

    The Old World warbler genus Sylvia has been used extensively as a model system in a variety of ecological, genetic, and morphological studies. The genus is comprised of about 25 species, and 70% of these species have distributions at or near the Mediterranean Sea. This distribution pattern suggests a possible role for the Messinian Salinity Crisis (from 5.96-5.33 Ma) as a driving force in lineage diversification. Other species distributions suggest that Late Miocene to Pliocene Afro-tropical forest dynamics have also been important in the evolution of Sylvia lineages. Using a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis and other methods, we seek to develop a biogeographic hypothesis for Sylvia and to explicitly assess the roles of these climate-driven events. We present the first strongly supported molecular phylogeny for Sylvia. With one exception, species fall into one of three strongly supported clades: one small clade of species distributed mainly in Africa and Europe, one large clade of species distributed mainly in Africa and Asia, and another large clade with primarily a circum-Mediterranean distribution. Asia is reconstructed as the ancestral area for Sylvia. Long-distance migration is reconstructed as the ancestral character state for the genus, and sedentary behavior subsequently evolved seven times. Molecular clock calibration suggests that Sylvia arose in the early Miocene and diverged into three main clades by 12.6 Ma. Divergence estimates indicate that the Messinian Salinity Crisis had a minor impact on Sylvia. Instead, over-water dispersals, repeated loss of long-distance migration, and palaeo-climatic events in Africa played primary roles in Sylvia divergence and distribution.

  3. Assessing the cost of helping: the roles of body condition and oxidative balance in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janske van de Crommenacker

    Full Text Available In cooperatively breeding species, helping close relatives may provide important fitness benefits. However, helping can be energetically expensive and may result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can lead to higher oxidative stress susceptibility. Given the potential costs of helping, it may be that only individuals with a sufficiently good body condition and/or stable oxidative balance can afford to help. Knowledge about relationships between social status and oxidative balance in cooperatively breeding systems is still limited. Studying these relationships is important for understanding the costs of helping and physiological pressures of reproduction. Here we evaluate the relationship between helping behaviour, body condition and oxidative balance in a wild population of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis. In this species, some subordinate individuals help dominant birds with the rearing of young, while others refrain from any assistance. We assessed body condition and oxidative parameters of birds of different social status caught during different breeding stages. We found that, prior to breeding, female subordinates that did not subsequently help (non-helpers had significantly lower body condition and higher ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites than helpers and dominants. During the later stages of breeding, body condition was low in dominants and helpers, but high in non-helpers. Differences in oxidative balance between individuals of different social status were found only during nest care: Dominant males occupied with guarding behaviours tended to have relatively high oxidative stress susceptibility. Furthermore, dominant and helper females showed elevated antioxidant capacity (measured as OXY in the weeks just prior to egg-laying, possibly representing a change in their reproductive physiology. The results imply that an individuals

  4. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the Philippine Sea and South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1964-02-24 to 1964-03-11 (NODC Accession 6400683)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  5. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the Eastern China Sea and other locations in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-09-19 to 1966-09-27 (NODC Accession 6600396)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the Eastern China Sea...

  6. How a simple and stereotyped acoustic signal transmits individual information: the song of the White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, a common bird of the BrazilianAtlantic forest, emits only one distinct song type in the context of territorial defense. Individual or neighbor-stranger recognition may be more difficult when birds share similar songs. In fact, the analysis of songs of different individuals reveals slight differences in the temporal and the frequency domains. Effectively, a careful examination of the signals of different individuals (21 by 5 complementary methods of analysis reveals first, that one or two gaps in frequency occur between two successive notes at different moments of the song, and second, that their temporal and frequency positions are stereotyped for each individual. Playback experiments confirm these findings. By propagation experiments, we show that this individual information can be only transmitted at short range (O Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, um pássaro comum da Mata Atlântica, emite um único e distintivo tipo de canto para defesa territorial. O reconhecimento individual ou entre vizinho e estranho pode ser mais difícil quando as aves compartilham cantos semelhantes. De fato, a análise dos cantos de diferentes indivíduos revelou ligeiras diferenças nos domínios temporal e das freqüências. Efetivamente, um exame cuidadoso dos sinais de 21 indivíduos diferentes por 5 métodos complementares de análise revelou que, primeiro, um ou dois espaços na série tonal ocorrem entre duas notas sucessivas em determinados momentos do canto e, segundo, ocupam posições em tempo e freqüência estereotipadas para cada indivíduo. Experiências de "play-back" confirmam esses dados. Através de experiências de propagação, mostramos que esta informação individual pode ser transmitida somente a curta distância ( < 100 m na mata. Considerando o tamanho e a repartição dos territórios, este processo de comunicação mostra-se eficiente e bem adaptado.

  7. Spatially explicit models of full-season productivity and implications for landscape management of Golden-winged Warblers in the western Great Lakes Region: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Andersen, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between landscape structure and composition and full-season productivity (FSP) is poorly understood for most birds. For species of high conservation concern, insight into how productivity is related to landscape structure and composition can be used to develop more effective conservation strategies that increase recruitment. We monitored nest productivity and fledgling survival of Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera), a species of high conservation concern, in managed forest landscapes at two sites in northern Minnesota, and one site in southeastern Manitoba, Canada from 2010 to 2012. We used logistic exposure models to identify the influence of landscape structure and composition on nest productivity and fledgling survival. We used the models to predict spatially explicit, FSP across our study sites to identify areas of low relative productivity that could be targeted for management. We then used our models of spatially explicit, FSP to simulate the impact of potential management actions on our study sites with the goal of increasing total population productivity. Unlike previous studies that suggested wetland cover types provide higher quality breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers, our models predicted 14% greater productivity in upland cover types. Simulated succession of a 9-ha grassland patch to a shrubby upland suitable for nesting increased the total number of fledglings produced by that patch and adjacent upland shrublands by 30%, despite decreasing individual productivity by 13%. Further simulated succession of the same patch described above into deciduous forest reduced the total number of fledglings produced to independence on a landscape by 18% because of a decrease in the area available for nesting. Simulated reduction in the cumulative length of shrubby edge within a 50-m radius of any location in our landscapes from 0.6 to 0.3 km increased FSP by 5%. Our models demonstrated that the effects of any single management

  8. Toll-like receptor variation in the bottlenecked population of the Seychelles warbler: computer simulations see the 'ghost of selection past' and quantify the 'drift debt'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, D L; Phillips, K P; Richardson, D S; van Oosterhout, C

    2017-07-01

    Balancing selection can maintain immunogenetic variation within host populations, but detecting its signal in a postbottlenecked population is challenging due to the potentially overriding effects of drift. Toll-like receptor genes (TLRs) play a fundamental role in vertebrate immune defence and are predicted to be under balancing selection. We previously characterized variation at TLR loci in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), an endemic passerine that has undergone a historical bottleneck. Five of seven TLR loci were polymorphic, which is in sharp contrast to the low genomewide variation observed. However, standard population genetic statistical methods failed to detect a contemporary signature of selection at any TLR locus. We examined whether the observed TLR polymorphism could be explained by neutral evolution, simulating the population's demography in the software DIYABC. This showed that the posterior distributions of mutation rates had to be unrealistically high to explain the observed genetic variation. We then conducted simulations with an agent-based model using typical values for the mutation rate, which indicated that weak balancing selection has acted on the three TLR genes. The model was able to detect evidence of past selection elevating TLR polymorphism in the prebottleneck populations, but was unable to discern any effects of balancing selection in the contemporary population. Our results show drift is the overriding evolutionary force that has shaped TLR variation in the contemporary Seychelles warbler population, and the observed TLR polymorphisms might be merely the 'ghost of selection past'. Forecast models predict immunogenetic variation in this species will continue to be eroded in the absence of contemporary balancing selection. Such 'drift debt' occurs when a gene pool has not yet reached its new equilibrium level of polymorphism, and this loss could be an important threat to many recently bottlenecked populations. © 2017

  9. Effects of asymmetric nuclear introgression, introgressive mitochondrial sweep, and purifying selection on phylogenetic reconstruction and divergence estimates in the Pacific clade of Locustella warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovetski, Sergei V; Semenov, Georgy; Red'kin, Yaroslav A; Sotnikov, Vladimir N; Fadeev, Igor V; Koblik, Evgeniy A

    2015-01-01

    When isolated but reproductively compatible populations expand geographically and meet, simulations predict asymmetric introgression of neutral loci from a local to invading taxon. Genetic introgression may affect phylogenetic reconstruction by obscuring topology and divergence estimates. We combined phylogenetic analysis of sequences from one mtDNA and 12 nuDNA loci with analysis of gene flow among 5 species of Pacific Locustella warblers to test for presence of genetic introgression and its effects on tree topology and divergence estimates. Our data showed that nuDNA introgression was substantial and asymmetrical among all members of superspecies groups whereas mtDNA showed no introgression except a single species pair where the invader's mtDNA was swept by mtDNA of the local species. This introgressive sweep of mtDNA had the opposite direction of the nuDNA introgression and resulted in the paraphyly of the local species' mtDNA haplotypes with respect to those of the invader. Тhe multilocus nuDNA species tree resolved all inter- and intraspecific relationships despite substantial introgression. However, the node ages on the species tree may be underestimated as suggested by the differences in node age estimates based on non-introgressing mtDNA and introgressing nuDNA. In turn, the introgressive sweep and strong purifying selection appear to elongate internal branches in the mtDNA gene tree.

  10. Composition of Bacterial Assemblages in Different Components of Reed Warbler Nests and a Possible Role of Egg Incubation in Pathogen Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanja B Brandl

    Full Text Available Bacteria play a central role in animal health. Yet, little is known about the acquisition of bacteria and the extent to which bacteria are acquired from different environmental sources. For example, bird nests host diverse bacteria associated with the eggs, nestlings and nesting material, but previous research has typically focussed on only a limited number of nest components at a time. It therefore remains unknown to what extent bacteria are transmitted between these components. Using both molecular and culture techniques, we characterised nest-associated bacterial assemblages throughout the entire nesting cycle of reed warblers by sampling bacteria on eggs before and during incubation, within nestling faeces, and on the nesting material of post-breeding nests. We found that bacterial assemblages clustered by nest component. Yet some overlap existed between nest components, suggesting that bacterial transmission across components is likely to occur. Eggs and nestlings from the same nest harboured more similar bacteria than expected by chance, suggesting an influence of environment or genetics on bacterial assemblages. Bacterial loads were not lower on incubated eggs. Instead, incubation was associated with a change in the structure of assemblages, including a decrease in potentially-harmful Gram-negative bacteria. In addition we show for the first time, that incubation is associated with the complete extinction of harmful haemolytic bacteria. Overall, our study appears to be the first to demonstrate differences in bacterial assemblages between bird nest components. In addition, we highlight the complexity of nest bacterial assemblages and provide new insights into the benefits of incubation.

  11. Multiple plumage traits convey information about age and within-age-class qualities of a canopy-dwelling songbird, the Cerulean Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Wigley, T. Ben

    2014-01-01

    Colorful plumage traits in birds may convey multiple, redundant, or unreliable messages about an individual. Plumage may reliably convey information about disparate qualities such as age, condition, and parental ability because discrete tracts of feathers may cause individuals to incur different intrinsic or extrinsic costs. Few studies have examined the information content of plumage in a species that inhabits forest canopies, a habitat with unique light environments and selective pressures. We investigated the information content of four plumage patches (blue-green crown and rump, tail white, and black breast band) in a canopy-dwelling species, the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), in relation to age, condition, provisioning, and reproduction. We found that older males displayed wider breast bands, greater tail white, and crown and rump feathers with greater blue-green (435–534 nm) chroma and hue than males in their first potential breeding season. In turn, older birds were in better condition (short and long term) and were reproductively superior to younger birds. We propose that these age-related plumage differences (i.e. delayed plumage maturation) were not a consequence of a life history strategy but instead resulted from constraints during early feather molts. Within age classes, we found evidence to support the multiple messages hypothesis. Birds with greater tail white molted tails in faster, those with more exaggerated rump plumage (lower hue, greater blue-green chroma) provisioned more, and those with lower rump blue-green chroma were in better condition. Despite evidence of reliable signaling in this species, we found no strong relationships between plumage and reproductive performance, potentially because factors other than individual differences more strongly influenced fecundity.

  12. Yellow Warbler Range - CWHR [ds607

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  13. Salicornia pusilla Woods (Eenbloemige zeekraal) na 25 jaar weer aangetroffen in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorsel, van René C.M.J.; Janssen, John A.M.; Zonderland, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Terschelling. Het areaal van deze soort is beperkt tot Noordwest-Europa (Ierland, Groot-Brittanië, Nederland, België en Noordwest-Frankrijk). In dit artikel worden eerdere vondsten van deze soort kort gememoreerd. De verschillen met de twee andere Nederlandse Zeekraal-soorten worden besproken,

  14. Patterns of cowbird parasitism in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain and Piedmont.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Kilgo; C.E. Moorman

    2003-09-01

    Until recently, little information was available on patterns of brood parasitism by Brownheaded Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in the southeastern United States, a region into which cowbirds expanded their range only during the last half of the Twentieth Century and where their abundance is relatively low. We compiled parasitism data from several published and unpublished studies conducted in Georgia and South Carolina from 1993-2000 to examine levels of brood parasitism and determine frequent host species. The combined dataset included 1,372 nests of 24 species reported in the literature to have been parasitized by cowbirds. The parasitism rate on all species combined was 8.2%. Considering only those species that served as hosts in these studies (n = I2), the parasitism rate was 9.3%. Seven species were parasitized at rates 2 10%. Based on the extent of parasitism (among studies and locations), their relative abundance, and the sample size of nests, Prairie Warblers (Dendroicta discolor), Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina), Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens), and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), all shrub nesters, appear to be the most important cowbird hosts in the region. Parasitism on some species reported as frequent hosts elsewhere was extremely low or not documented. We conclude that the impact of brood parasitism on the seasonal fecundity of hosts in the region probably is minimal, but additional work is warranted on species of concern, such as the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris).

  15. Poročilo o obročkanju ptic v Sloveniji v letu 2016 in pojavljanje mušje listnice Phylloscopus inornatus v 25 letih v Sloveniji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrezec Al

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, data on 176 bird species were gathered during bird ringing activities in Slovenia. A total of 65,711 birds of 165 different species were ringed. Furthermore, 148 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 245 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1840 local recoveries were made. The most frequently ringed species was the Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla. Among the ringed nestlings, Great Tits Parus major, Tree Sparrows Passer montanus and White Storks Ciconia ciconia predominated. Considering recoveries of birds ringed or found abroad, the most frequent were finds based on colour rings, especially of Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Mute Swans Cygnus olor and Common Terns Sterna hirundo. As far as local recoveries are concerned, most data were collected for Great Tit and Siskin Spinus spinus. Among rare species, two Yellow-browed Warblers Phylloscopus inornatus were ringed, one Paddyfield Warbler Acrocephalus agricola, one Little Emberiza pusilla and one Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala, the latter as a singing male, which probably also bred in 2016. The catch frequency of the Yellow-browed Warblers has indeed been increasing in Slovenia in the last 25 years, but this is still a rare and irregular vagrant on autumn migration.

  16. Fitness consequences of cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David; Burke, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Inclusive fitness benefits have been suggested as the selective force behind the evolution of cooperative breeding. Assessing the benefits accrued to individual males and females is crucial to understanding the sex-specific helping behavior observed in many cooperatively breeding species. We

  17. Population predictions for Seychelles warblers in novel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, Jo; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David; Sutherland, William J.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge for population ecology is to be able to predict population sizes in novel conditions, as in those following habitat loss or translocation. To do this successfully, we show here that it is necessary to understand the behavioral basis of dispersal decisions as they affect fitness.

  18. Experimental evidence for innate predator recognition in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Thor; Richardson, David S.; Blaakmeer, Karen; Komdeur, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Nest predation is a major determinant of fitness in birds and costly nest defence behaviours have evolved in order to reduce nest predation. Some avian studies have suggested that predator recognition is innate whereas others hate stressed the importance: of learning. However, none of these studies

  19. Effects of reed cutting on density and breeding success of reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpacaeus and sedge warbler A. schoenobaenus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1999-01-01

    The management of reedbeds for birds is often a controversial issue in discussions between conservationists, reed harvesters and managers. At the same time, data on the density and nesting success of birds in cut and uncut reed are scarce. This paper presents the results of a study on the density

  20. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  1. Evolution in Australasian mangrove forests: multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the Gerygone warblers (Aves: Acanthizidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád S Nyári

    Full Text Available The mangrove forests of Australasia have many endemic bird species but their evolution and radiation in those habitats has been little studied. One genus with several mangrove specialist species is Gerygone (Passeriformes: Acanthizidae. The phylogeny of the Acanthizidae is reasonably well understood but limited taxon sampling for Gerygone has constrained understanding of its evolution and historical biogeography in mangroves. Here we report on a phylogenetic analysis of Gerygone based on comprehensive taxon sampling and a multilocus dataset of thirteen loci spread across the avian genome (eleven nuclear and two mitochondrial loci. Since Gerygone includes three species restricted to Australia's coastal mangrove forests, we particularly sought to understand the biogeography of their evolution in that ecosystem. Analyses of individual loci, as well as of a concatenated dataset drawn from previous molecular studies indicates that the genus as currently defined is not monophyletic, and that the Grey Gerygone (G. cinerea from New Guinea should be transferred to the genus Acanthiza. The multilocus approach has permitted the nuanced view of the group's evolution into mangrove ecosystems having occurred on multiple occasions, in three non-overlapping time frames, most likely first by the G. magnirostris lineage, and subsequently followed by those of G. tenebrosa and G. levigaster.

  2. Rescue of the Seychelles warbler on Cousin Island, Seychelles : The role of habitat restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Pels, MD; Pels, Mariëtte D.

    Management policies to save threatened species are not always successful, often due to the lack of a scientific basis and evaluation of the species response. We describe the ecological studies and the conservation actions taken between 1985 and 1992 on Cousin Island (29 ha, Seychelles) to safeguard

  3. Parental care in the multi-brooded Black-throated Blue Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk W Stodola; Eric T Linder; David A Buehler; Kathleen E Franzreb; Robert J. Cooper

    2009-01-01

    Maximizing reproductive output often entails a trade-off between energy spent on current breeding attempts and that saved for future reproductive opportunities. For species with biparental care, energy spent on the current breeding attempt represents not only a trade-off with future breeding opportunities but also an interaction with the energetic effort of one’s mate...

  4. Evaluation of Mist-net Sampling as an Index to Productivity in Kirtland's Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnathan Bart; Cameron Kepler; Paul Sykes; Carol Bocetti

    1999-01-01

    Many applied and theoretical investigations require information on how productivity varies in time and space (Temple and Wiens 1989, DeSante 1995). Examples include studies of habitat quality, population trends, life-history tactics, and metapopulation dynamics. From a demographic perspective, reproductivity is the number of young, counted at a given time of year,...

  5. Phylogeography of a habitat specialist with high dispersal capability: the Savi’s Warbler Locustella luscinioides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neto, J. M.; Arroyo, J. L.; Bargain, B.; Monrós, J. S.; Mátrai, N.; Procházka, Petr; Zehtindjiev, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), e38497 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cross-species amplification * Iberian glacial refugium * Extra-pair paternity * Population-structure * Genetic differentiation * Microsatellite loci * Software * Mitochondrial diversification * Bird Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  6. Moulting and wintering grounds of Marsh Warblers Acrocephalus palustris: evidence from stable isotopes and ring recoveries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Kralj, J.; Pearson, D. J.; Yohannes, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2014), s. 193-200 ISSN 0001-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bird migration * feather stable isotopes * ring recoveries * stopover * migratory connectivity * δ13C * δ15N Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  7. Cross-continental migratory connectivity and spatiotemporal migratory patterns in the great reed warbler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koleček, Jaroslav; Procházka, Petr; El-Arabany, N.; Tarka, M.; Ilieva, M.; Hahn, S.; Honza, Marcel; de la Puente, J.; Bermejo, A.; Gürsoy, A.; Bensch, S.; Zehtindjiev, P.; Hasselquist, D.; Hansson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2016), s. 756-767 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Light-level geolocators * Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Bird migration * Palearctic passerines * Wintering ground * Migrant birds * Wide tracking * Complete molt * Annual cycle * West Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2016

  8. Breeding success and brood parasitism affect return rate and dispersal distances in the great reed warbler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koleček, Jaroslav; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Trnka, A.; Baslerová, P.; Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 11 (2015), s. 1845-1853 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404; GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Adult survival * Breeding care * Fidelity * Host-parasite interaction * Polygyny * Social status Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.382, year: 2015

  9. Timing of natal nests is an important factor affecting return rates of juvenile Great Reed Warblers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosnovcová, Kateřina; Koleček, Jaroslav; Požgayová, Milica; Jelínek, Václav; Šulc, Michal; Steidlová, Petra; Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 1 (2018), s. 183-190 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Juvenile condition * Juvenile survival * Local dispersal distances * Natal philopatry Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  10. Airborne laser altimetry and multispectral imagery for modeling Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven E. Sesnie; James M. Mueller; Sarah E. Lehnen; Scott M. Rowin; Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Robust models of wildlife population size, spatial distribution, and habitat relationships are needed to more effectively monitor endangered species and prioritize habitat conservation efforts. Remotely sensed data such as airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and digital color infrared (CIR) aerial photography combined with well-designed field studies can help fill these...

  11. Intraspecific variation in the wing shape and genetic differentiation of Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus in Croatia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kralj, J.; Procházka, Petr; Fainová, Drahomíra; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Tutiš, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2010), s. 51-58 ISSN 0001-6454 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : wing morphology * migration * microsatellites * genetic diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.889, year: 2010

  12. Male Seychelles warblers use territory budding to maximize lifetime fitness in a saturated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Edelaar, P

    2001-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, helping at the nest and budding off part of the natal territory have been advanced as strategies to increase fitness in an environment that is saturated with territories. The importance of helping or territory budding as a determinant of lifetime reproductive

  13. Environmental determinism, and not interspecific competition, drives morphological variability in Australasian warblers (Acanthizidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, Vicente; Rodríguez-Rey, Marta; Marki, Petter Z; Christidis, Les

    2018-04-01

    Interspecific competition is thought to play a key role in determining the coexistence of closely related species within adaptive radiations. Competition for ecological resources can lead to different outcomes from character displacement to, ultimately, competitive exclusion. Accordingly, divergent natural selection should disfavor those species that are the most similar to their competitor in resource use, thereby increasing morphological disparity. Here, we examined ecomorphological variability within an Australo-Papuan bird radiation, the Acanthizidae, which include both allopatric and sympatric complexes. In addition, we investigated whether morphological similarities between species are related to environmental factors at fine scale (foraging niche) and/or large scale (climate). Contrary to that predicted by the competition hypothesis, we did not find a significant correlation between the morphological similarities found between species and their degree of range overlap. Comparative modeling based on both a priori and data-driven identification of selective regimes suggested that foraging niche is a poor predictor of morphological variability in acanthizids. By contrast, our results indicate that climatic conditions were an important factor in the formation of morphological variation. We found a significant negative correlation between species scores for PC1 (positively associated to tarsus length and tail length) and both temperature and precipitation, whereas PC2 (positively associated to bill length and wing length) correlated positively with precipitation. In addition, we found that species inhabiting the same region are closer to each other in morphospace than to species outside that region regardless of genus to which they belong or its foraging strategy. Our results indicate that the conservative body form of acanthizids is one that can work under a wide variety of environments (an all-purpose morphology), and the observed interspecific similarity is probably driven by the common response to environment.

  14. Survey of the Golden-Cheeked Warbler on Fort Hood in Support of NEPA Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or...contained 3 nestlings , which was the same number of fledglings observed being fed by both adults for at least 3 weeks within its territory. The sec- ond...nest was found on 17 May 2006 with a female incubating. Observa- tions were made of both adults feeding an unknown number of nestlings but the final

  15. Pre-ovulation control of hatchling sex ratio in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Magrath, MJL; Krackow, S

    2002-01-01

    Females of some bird species have a high degree of control over the sex ratio of their offspring at laying. Although several mechanisms have been put forward to explain how females might control the sex of their eggs, virtually nothing is known. As females are the heterogametic sex in birds,

  16. Factors affecting reed warbler risk of brood parasitism by the common cuckoo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Clarke, A. L.; Oien, I. J.; Honza, Marcel; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 2 (2001), s. 534-538 ISSN 0004-8038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/97/0168 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Cuculus canorus * nests Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2001 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4089817

  17. Survival of reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus clutches in relation to nest position

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Oein, I. J.; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, c. 1 (1998), s. 104-108 ISSN 0006-3657 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/93/2241 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.534, year: 1997 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bto/ bird /1998/00000045/00000001/451104

  18. Nest defence, enemy recognition and nest inspection behaviour of experimentally parasitized Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Grim, T.; Čapek Jr., Miroslav; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2004), s. 256-263 ISSN 0006-3657 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/P046; GA AV ČR IAA6093203; GA MŠk VS96019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Cuculus canorus * brood parasitism * eggs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2004 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bto/ bird /2004/00000051/00000003/art00009

  19. Within- and between-season repeatability of eggshell colouration in the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Požgayová, Milica

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2012), s. 91-96 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * eggs hell coloration * repeatability Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.020, year: 2012

  20. Nest as an extended phenotype signal of female quality in the great reed warbler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2016), s. 428-437 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca * cross-fostering experiment * male reproductive success * cuckoos Cuculus canorus * egg color * sexual selection * clutch size * Acrocephalus arundinaceus * functional significance * Pygoscelis antarctica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2016

  1. Choosing suitable hosts: common cuckoos Cuculus canorus parasitize great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus of high quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polačiková, Lenka; Procházka, Petr; Cherry, M. I.; Honza, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2009), s. 879-891 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536; GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Brood parasitism * Cuckoo * Host quality * Host selection * Spectrophotometry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.193, year: 2009

  2. Distribution and Habitat Use of Swainson's Warblers in Eastern and Northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Bednarz; Petra Stiller-Krehel; Brian Cannon

    2005-01-01

    Systematic surveys of hardwood forests along the Buffalo National River, the St. Francis Sunken Lands Wildlife Management Area, St. Francis National Forest, Bayou Meto Wildlife Management Area, and the White River National Wildlife Refuge in eastern and northern Arkansas were undertaken between 5 April and 30 June 2000 and 2001 to document current status, distribution...

  3. The common cuckoo Cuculus canorus is not locally adapted to its reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus host

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Avilés, J. M.; Vikan, J. R.; Fossoy, F.; Antonov, A.; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.; Shykoff, J.A.; Moller, A. P.; Jensen, H.; Procházka, Petr; Stokke, B. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2011), s. 314-325 ISSN 1010-061X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : coevolution * geographical mosaic * local adaptation * mimicry * specialization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.276, year: 2011

  4. Breeding in the monsoon : semi-annual reproduction in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Daan, Serge

    2005-01-01

    Despite the absence of pronounced changes in day length, there is considerable climatological seasonality in the tropics. Its expression can be complex like in the monsoon climate of the Indian Ocean Islands. The land mass distribution on both sides of the equator leads to seasonal changes in

  5. Delineating large-scale migratory connectivity of reed warblers using integrated multistate models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Hahn, S.; Rolland, S.; van der Jeugd, H.; Csörgő, T.; Jiguet, F.; Mokwa, T.; Liechti, F.; Vangeluwe, D.; Korner-Nievergelt, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2017), s. 27-40 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus scirpaceus * band encounter data * bird migration * loop migration * migratory connectivity * ring recovery data * ring recovery model * species distribution * survival Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.391, year: 2016

  6. Parent presence, delayed dispersal, and territory acquisition in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, C.; Richardson, D. S.; Komdeur, J.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of parents in the natal territory may play an important, but often overlooked, role in natal dispersal and the consequent acquisition of a territory. Living with parents in a territory may confer a fitness advantage to subordinates through, for example, the nepotistic behavior of the

  7. Evidence that helping at the nest does not result in territory inheritance in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Edelaar, Pim

    2001-01-01

    In an environment that has a shortage of territories, helping to rear younger siblings ('alloparenting') is proposed to facilitate territory acquisition in two ways: (i) through group augmentation that leads to an increase of the territory with subsequent partial inheritance (budding); and (ii)

  8. Birds of a feather winter together: migratory connectivity in the Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Hobson, K. A.; Karcza, Z.; Kralj, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2008), s. 141-150 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus scirpaceus * migratory connectivity * migratory divide * ringing recoveries * stable isotopes Sub ject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.465, year: 2008

  9. Importance of the 2014 Colorado River Delta pulse flow for migratory songbirds: Insights from foraging behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Abigail J.; Greeney, Harold F.; van Riper, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The Lower Colorado River provides critical riparian areas in an otherwise arid region and is an important stopover site for migrating landbirds. In order to reverse ongoing habitat degradation due to drought and human-altered hydrology, a pulse flow was released from Morelos Dam in spring of 2014, which brought surface flow to dry stretches of the Colorado River in Mexico. To assess the potential effects of habitat modification resulting from the pulse flow, we used foraging behavior of spring migrants from past and current studies to assess the relative importance of different riparian habitats. We observed foraging birds in 2000 and 2014 at five riparian sites along the Lower Colorado River in Mexico to quantify prey attack rates, prey attack maneuvers, vegetation use patterns, and degree of preference for fully leafed-out or flowering plants. Prey attack rate was highest in mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in 2000 and in willow (Salix gooddingii) in 2014; correspondingly, migrants predominantly used mesquite in 2000 and willow in 2014 and showed a preference for willows in flower or fruit in 2014. Wilson’s warbler (Cardellina pusilla) used relatively more low-energy foraging maneuvers in willow than in tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) or mesquite. Those patterns in foraging behavior suggest native riparian vegetation, and especially willow, are important resources for spring migrants along the lower Colorado River. Willow is a relatively short-lived tree dependent on spring floods for dispersal and establishment and thus spring migrants are likely to benefit from controlled pulse flows.

  10. Effects of vegetation, corridor width and regional land use on early successional birds on powerline corridors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Askins

    Full Text Available Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management.

  11. Protein (Viridiplantae): 203761 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 017 ... 38832:3226 ... 38833:3539 ... 564608:3539 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MHPPLTLENHPLCKDVVIALKRCHRDNPWARAWGACNEQKWALDDCLKKQKLFKFRANHAKAKAQQDRLRRRVEKYGHATTNGQFKG

  12. Hopeless solicitation? Host-absent vocalization in the common cuckoo has no effect on feeding rate of reed warblers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šicha, Václav; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2007), s. 147-152 ISSN 0289-0771 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus scirpaceus * begging * brood parasitism * cuckoo * food provisioning * vocalization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.947, year: 2007 http://www.springerlink.com/content/w13261705p747606/fulltext.pdf

  13. Assessment of oak wilt threat to habitat of the golden-cheeked warbler, an endangered species, in central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Appel; Kim S. Camilli

    2010-01-01

    A major epidemic of oak wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, has been killing trees in Central Texas for at least 40 years. This has created large and expanding canopy gaps in the vast, homogenous live oak woodlands (Quercus fusiformis Small) in the Edwards Plateau region of Texas. The changes in stand...

  14. Predicting patch occupancy in fragmented landscapes at the rangewide scale for an endangered species: an example of an American warbler

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.; Groce, Julie E.; Morrison, Michael L.; Newnam, John C.; Campomizzi, Andrew J.; Farrell, Shannon L.; Mathewson, Heather A.; Snelgrove, Robert T.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Wilkins, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    -makers in identifying suitable habitat across the species breeding range on which conservation or mitigation activities can be focused and thus prioritize management and conservation planning. LOCATION: Texas, USA. METHODS: We used repeated double-observer detection

  15. Great Reed Warbler singing behavior and conspicuous song structures are not nest-location cues for the Common Cuckoo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Miroslav; Petrusková, T.; Šebelíková, Z.; Serrano, J. C.; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel; Požgayová, Milica

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 4 (2017), s. 925-933 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-12262S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Brood parasitism * Cuculus canorus * Eavesdropping * Host activity hypothesis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  16. Offspring sex ratio variation in relation to brood size and mortality in a promiscuous species: the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyrcz, A.; Sauer-Gurth, H.; Tkadlec, Emil; Wink, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 2 (2004), s. 269-280 ISSN 0019-1019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : adaptive modification * birds * reproduction Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.206, year: 2004

  17. Latitudinal gradients in the productivity of European migrant warblers have not shifted northwards during a period of climate change.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eglington, S; Juliard, R; Gargallo, G; Van der Jeugd, Henk; Pearce Higgins, J; Baillie, S.R.; Robinson, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim As global temperatures have increased, many species distributions have exhibited polewards shifts, a trend that is predicted to continue in future decades. However, the mechanisms underlying such shifts are not well understood. Here we quantify the impact of large-scale variation in temperature

  18. High synchrony of egg laying in common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) and their great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) hosts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moskát, C.; Barta, Z.; Hauber, M. E.; Honza, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2006), s. 159-167 ISSN 0394-9370 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605 Grant - others:OTKA(HU) T29570; OTKA(HU) T48397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : adaptation * brood parasitism * laying pattern * multiple parasitism * reproductive success Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2006 http://ejour-fup.unifi.it/index.php/eee/article/viewFile/1140/1085

  19. Nest defence in a cuckoo host: great reed warblers risk themselves equally for their own and parasitic chicks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Šicha, Václav; Požgayová, Milica

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 147, 5-6 (2010), s. 741-756 ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * chick discrimination * cuckoo * mobbing * nest defence * nestlingnestling recognition * parental investment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.480, year: 2010

  20. Mixed effects of geolocators on reproduction and survival of Cerulean Warblers, a canopy-dwelling, long-distance migrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas W. Raybuck; Jeffrey L. Larkin; Scott H. Stoleson; Than J. Boves

    2017-01-01

    Light-level geolocators, miniature devices used for tracking avian migration over the full annual cycle, are being widely deployed on small migratory passerines. However, the effects of carrying geolocators on the breeding biology of songbirds are unclear, and variable species- and guild-specific conclusions have been drawn regarding their effects on return rates (...

  1. The variability of territorial behavior of Sylvia warblers depending on the habitats structure of and population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matantseva Maria Valer

    2017-09-01

    The research was conducted partially under the theme № 0221-2014-0037 "The dynamics of the fauna of birds and mammals of the Russian European North in conditions of intensive anthropogenic and climate changes: monitoring, management and conservation of biodiversity" (№ АААА-А17-117022850042-8, and partially with the support of RFBR (projects №№ 06-05-64368, 12-04-31872, and 15-05-03493.

  2. Conflicting short and long-term management goals: Fire effects in endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina M. Andruk; Norma L. Fowler

    2015-01-01

    Decades of fire suppression have significantly altered the vegetation structure and composition of savannas, woodlands, and forests. The presence of endangered species and other species of conservation concern in these fire-suppressed systems makes re-introducing fire more challenging. In oak-juniper woodlands of central Texas, we are presented with the challenge of re...

  3. No effects of a feather mite on body condition, survivorship, or grooming behavior in the Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowling, DK; Richardson, DS; Komdeur, J; Dowling, Damian K.; Richardson, David S.; Czeschlik, T.

    A common assumption of studies examining host-symbiont interactions is that all symbiotic organisms are parasitic. Feather mites are widespread symbionts of birds that do not appear to deplete the host of any vital resources. Instead they feed on the oily secretions that cover the feathers and the

  4. Assessing the Cost of Helping : The Roles of Body Condition and Oxidative Balance in Seychelles Warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Crommenacker, Janske; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.; Rands, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, helping close relatives may provide important fitness benefits. However, helping can be energetically expensive and may result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can lead to higher oxidative stress

  5. First insights into the migration route and migratory connectivity of the Paddyfield Warbler using geolocator tagging and stable isotope analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brlík, Vojtěch; Ilieva, M.; Lisovski, S.; Voigt, C. C.; Procházka, Petr

    (2018) ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bird migration * Indo-European flyway * Light-level geolocation * Migration direction Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  6. Spatio-temporal variation in territory quality and oxidative status : a natural experiment in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Crommenacker, Janske; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S.; Nussey, Dan

    P>1. Fluctuations in the quality of the habitat in which an animal lives can have major consequences for its behaviour and physiological state. In poor-quality habitat with low food availability, metabolically intensive foraging activity is likely to result in increased generation of reactive oxygen

  7. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-04-27

    Executive SummaryWe operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was established in 2010 as part of a long-term monitoring program for neotropical migratory birds during spring migration and for breeding birds as part of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program.During spring migration (April and May), 2011–15, we captured 1,760 individual birds of 54 species, 91 percent (1,595) of which were newly banded, fewer than 1 percent (3) of which were recaptures that were banded in previous years, and 9 percent (143 hummingbirds, 2 hawks, and 17 other birds) of which we released unbanded. We observed an additional 22 species that were not captured. Thirty-four individuals were captured more than once. Bird capture rate averaged 0.49 ± 0.07 captures per net-hour (range 0.41–0.56). Species richness per day averaged 6.87 ± 0.33. Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s warbler) was the most abundant spring migrant captured, followed by Empidonax difficilis (Pacific-slope flycatcher), Vireo gilvus (warbling vireo), Zonotrichia leucophrys (white-crowned sparrow), and Selasphorus rufus (rufous hummingbird). Captures of white-crowned sparrow decreased, and captures of Pacific-slope flycatcher increased, over the 5 years of our study. Fifty-six percent of known-sex individuals were male and 44 percent were female. The peak number of new species arriving per day ranged from April 1 (2013-six species) to April 16 (2012-five species). A significant correlation was determined between the number of migrants captured each day per net-hour and the density of echoes on the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) images across all 5 years, and in each year except 2014. NEXRAD radar imagery appears to be a useful tool for detecting pulses in migration.Our results indicate that Point Loma provides stopover habitat during migration for 76 migratory species, including 20

  8. Protein (Viridiplantae): 746637 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 218 ... 38832:274 ... 38833:414 ... 564608:414 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MAQLPSYEVDDGEDSMPGAPGEGPMTDSMQGPPVEVPTSDSM...PGAPGEVPTMDSMHGPPVEVPTMDSMHGAPVEVPMMDSMPGAPVEVPTMDSMQGPPVEVPTMDSMQGAPGEGPMTDSMHGAPGEGPTMDSMNSGNPTKCVVPDWCSTYPPEMQKSKPECQCPDDSHP

  9. Protein (Viridiplantae): 780231 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 401 ... 38832:1362 ... 38833:877 ... 564608:877 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MQDSMHDTMHDSIQDSMHDSIQDSMQDSM...AKEEEEPAEPPAKEEEAHAEPPAKEEEAHAEPPAKEEDYAEPPAKEEDYAEPPAKEEAHSMDSMDSMDSMDSMDSMDSMHSMDSMDSMDSMDSMHSMDSMDSMDSM...DSMHSMDSMDSMDSMDSMDSMDSMHSMDTSIDAVDAAANVTDAADTAGAAANVTDAADTAGAAAEEKPPENASVDSLDSLLDG

  10. Gross morphology betrays phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Fregin, Silke

    2011-01-01

    .). Superficial morphological similarity to cisticolid warblers has previously clouded the species true relationship. Detailed morphology, such as facial bristles and claw and footpad structure, also supports a closer relationship to Cettiidae and some other non-cisticolid warblers....

  11. Using stable hydrogen isotopes (delta2H) and ring recoveries to trace natal origins in a Eurasian passerine with a migratory divide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Van Wilgenburg, S. L.; Neto, J. M.; Yosef, R.; Hobson, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2013), s. 541-550 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930508; GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus * autumn migration * sedge warblers * population declines * willow warblers * dispersal Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2013

  12. Across a migratory divide: divergent migration directions and non-breeding grounds of Eurasian reed warblers revealed by geolocators and stable isotopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Brlík, Vojtěch; Yohannes, E.; Meister, B.; Auerswald, J.; Ilieva, M.; Hahn, S.

    (2018) ISSN 0908-8857 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus scirpaceus * non‐breeding distribution * flyway use * light‐level geolocation * Palearctic–African migration Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2016

  13. Experimental enlargement of nest size does not increase risk of predation or brood parasitism in the Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Václav; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 2 (2015), s. 396-400 ISSN 0019-1019 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Common Cuckoo * nest survival * predation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.804, year: 2015

  14. Integrating conservation management, species protection, and economic viability into sustainable land use practices for the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea) in the Appalachian and Northern Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Smith; Jorge Botero; Jeff L. Larkin; Amanda D. Rodewald; Petra B. Wood; Patrick N. Angel; Scott E. Eggerud

    2012-01-01

    We monitored 15 radio-collared raccoons (Procyon lotor) on Davies Island in March 1987 - May 1988 to determine the extent to which individual tree attributes or spatial configuration of plant associations (habitat types) across the land-scape influenced den use. Of 1091 verified den sites, 428 were in tree cavities. Raccoon occurrence among 4 cover...

  15. Chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from New World warblers (Passeriformes: Parulidae) from Costa Rica, with descriptions of four new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kounek, F.; Sychra, O.; Čapek, Miroslav; Literák, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3137, - (2011), s. 56-63 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : lice * new species * Costa Rica * new host-louse associations * Menoponidae * Myrsidea * Amblycera * Parulidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2011 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2011/f/zt03137p063.pdf

  16. Crumbling Diversity: Comparison of Historical Archived and Contemporary Natural Populations Indicate Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increasing Genetic Differentiation in the Golden-Cheeked Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    clavata. Heredity 101:120–126 Crow JF, Denniston C (1988) Inbreeding and variance effective population numbers. Evolution 42:482–495 Dixo M, Metzger JP...University Press, Cambridge, pp 361–366 Young A, Boyle T, Brown T (1996) The population genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation for plants . Trends

  17. An avifaunal survey of the Istranca mountains, turkish thrace: novel breeding bird records including the first breeding record of Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkan, Korhan

    2011-01-01

    A breeding bird survey in the Istranca (Yıldız) mountains of Turkish Thrace seawards to the Black sea was conducted May–August 2009. Eighty-eight days of field work in 697 locations generated novel breeding evidence for several species. The survey provided the first certain evidence of Wood Warbl...

  18. Primer reporte del híbrido intergenérico Vermivora chrysoptera x Vermivora pinus (“Brewsters Warbler”) en Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Arendt; M.A. Tórrez

    2008-01-01

    This article is in Spanish. During an inventory to assess avian biodiversity among the critical watersheds that flow into the Pacific from Nicaragua, we captured a hybrid Vermivora chrysoptera (“Golden-winged Warbler”) with V. pinus (“Blue-winged Warbler”) known as Brewster’s Warbler (V. leucobronchialis). The capture ocurred on November 30, 2007 in dry forest (...

  19. gene from soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... 2Plant Biotechnology Institute, National Research Council, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0W9, Canada. .... pusilla. RNA extraction, first-strand cDNA synthesis and quantitative .... expression in the other four chosen tissues, root, stem,.

  20. Non-Indigenous Marine Species (NIMS) in Biofouling on RAN Vessels: Threat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Gulf of Mexico, and its range extends from the Caribbean to Brazil and Hawaii. It was first recorded in Australia on the German barque “Gorch Flock” in...4.2.2.10 Paracaprella pusilla (caprellid) P. pusilla is a tropical species native to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and now common along the Atlantic coast...is found predominately in mangrove areas common to this region. This species was identified on HMAS Wewak (May 2004) on its return to HMAS Cairns

  1. Appendix 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blyth's Reed Warbler x Marsh Warbler hybrid Acrocephalus dumetorum x A. palustris ............1. Number of .... in May 2009 when the finding date was given as “in December. 2005” ...... worn, brown wing feathers would not be replaced until the ...

  2. Using the spatial and spectral precision of satellite imagery to predict wildlife occurrence patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward J. Laurent; Haijin Shi; Demetrios Gatziolis; Joseph P. LeBouton; Michael B. Walters; Jianguo Liu

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the potential of using unclassified spectral data for predicting the distribution of three bird species over a -400,000 ha region of Michigan's Upper Peninsula using Landsat ETM+ imagery and 433 locations sampled for birds through point count surveys. These species, Black-throated Green Warbler, Nashville Warbler, and Ovenbird. were known to be...

  3. Do common cuckoo chicks suffer nest predation more than host nestlings?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Václav; Karasová, Tereza; Weidinger, K.; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 11 (2016), s. 1975-1987 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Brood parasitism * Great reed warbler * Nest survival * Reed warbler Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.185, year: 2016

  4. [Book review] Massachusetts breeding bird atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2005-01-01

    A glance at the dust jacket of this handsome volume drives home the conservation message that breeding bird atlases are designed to promote—that bird populations are changing over vast areas and, unless we become aware of changes in status and take remedial action, some species will disappear from our neighborhoods and even our county or state. A case in point involves the closely related Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) and Blue- winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus). The males are shown in the atlas with their breeding distribution maps. When I was an active birder in the Boston suburbs in the 1930s, the Golden-winged Warbler was a common breeder and it was a treat to find a Blue-winged Warbler. The atlas map 40 years later (1974–1979) shows only five confirmed records statewide for the Golden-winged Warbler, compared with 73 for the Blue-winged Warbler, and the Golden-winged Warbler is now listed as endangered by the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Nationally, it is a species of management concern.

  5. New and interesting marine and littoral diatoms from sea point, near Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Steenbras, South Western Cape and mentions that the species had not until then been re corded from South African waters. ? 591, 592. C. serpentina var. pusilla (GREvILLE) PERAGALLO. ? Small individuals of this variety, sometimes less than the 25?SO... ~ given for length (1-lusTaD 1. C.: 50) are easily overlooked when both C. serpentina var. pusilla and C. an,gu/osa are present in a sample. They can only be distin guished by counting the striae viz. 14?20 in 10 it for C. angulosa and 22?25 in 10...

  6. The effects of prey size on diet differentiation of seven passerine species at two spring stopover sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, C.M.; Locatelli, D.P.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.; Baldaccini, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    Prey size was evaluated for seven passerine trans-Saharan migrant species at two spring stopover sites in Sardinia, Italy. The species considered were Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata, Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Garden Warbler Sylvia borin, Whitethroat

  7. Site occupancy of brown-headed nuthatches varies with habitat restoration and range-limit context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Stanton; Frank R. Thompson; Dylan C. Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about species’ responses to habitat restoration can inform subsequent management and reintroduction planning. We used repeated call-response surveys to study brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) patch occupancy at the current limits of its apparently expanding range in an area with active habitat restoration. We fit a probit occupancy...

  8. Resource configuration and abundance affect space use of a cooperatively breeding resident bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Stanton; Dylan C. Kesler; Frank R. Thompson III

    2014-01-01

    Movement and space use of birds is driven by activities associated with acquiring and maintaining access to critical resources. Thus, the spatial configuration of resources within home ranges should influence bird movements, and resource values should be relative to their locations. We radio-tracked 22 Brown-headed Nuthatches (Sitta pusilla) and...

  9. Cost of Parasitism Incurred by Two Songbird Species and Their Quality As Cowbird Hosts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk Burhans; Frank R. Thompson III

    2000-01-01

    We measured the costs of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism incurred by Field Sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea). We predicted that the frequent occurrence of nest desertion as a response to cowbird parasitism in Field Sparrows would be reflected by a higher cost of...

  10. Análisis filogénetico del género Pseudopaludicola (Anura: Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo, Fernando

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones filogenéticas entre las especies del género Pseudopaludicola son analizadas en base a caracteres externos y osteológicos. Se estudiaron once especies de Physalaemus las que fueron empleadas como grupo externo en análisis donde se trataron ambos géneros en conjunto. Se hicieron corridas enraizando alternativamente en las distintas especies de Physalaemus y sumando además a Leplodactylus en la matriz verificándose la monofilia del género Pseudopaludicola. Como resultado de este análisis se obtuvieron tres topologias de relaciones entre las especies del género, siendo el consenso estricto: (ternelsi mineira (sallica falcipes(myslacalis (pusilla (boliviana (ceralophyes /lanera. En este trabajo se apoya la monofilia del grupo pusilla proponiéndose una hipótesis distinta de relaciones entre sus integrantes a la propuesta por Lynch (1989. Phylogenetics relationships between ftogs of the leptodactylid genus Pseudopaludicola are analyzed using both osteological and external characters. Some species of Physalaemus (eleven are included in the analysis with Pseudopaludicola. Rooting with Leptodactylus or with any species of Physalaemus the monophyly ofthe genus is maintained. Three different trees for Pseudopaludicola were obtained, their strict consensus is: (temetzi mineira (saltica falcipes (mystacalis (pusilla (boliviana (ceratophyes /lanera. According to Lynch (1989 the pusilla group is monophyletic, but the internal arrangement among its species is different in this analysis.

  11. Louse flies on birds of Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  12. Do staging semipalmated sandpipers spend the high-tide period in flight over the Ocean to Avoid Falcon Attacks along Shore?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, D.; Dekker, I.; Christie, D.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of aerial predators and migrant Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) was studied at Mary's Point in the upper Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, during August of 2009 and 2010. Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) were locally reintroduced and increased from one active nest

  13. Microglia and neurons in the hippocampus of migratory sandpipers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla and the spotted sandpiper Actitis macularia are long- and short-distance migrants, respectively. C. pusilla breeds in the sub-arctic and mid-arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the north and east coasts of South America. A. macularia breeds in a broad distribution across most of North America from the treeline to the southern United States. It winters in the southern United States, and Central and South America. The autumn migration route of C. pusilla includes a non-stop flight over the Atlantic Ocean, whereas autumn route of A. macularia is largely over land. Because of this difference in their migratory paths and the visuo-spatial recognition tasks involved, we hypothesized that hippocampal volume and neuronal and glial numbers would differ between these two species. A. macularia did not differ from C. pusilla in the total number of hippocampal neurons, but the species had a larger hippocampal formation and more hippocampal microglia. It remains to be investigated whether these differences indicate interspecies differences or neural specializations associated with different strategies of orientation and navigation.

  14. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 1916, United States-Great Britain (on behalf of Canada), 39 Stat..., Gallinago stenura Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala Wilson's, Gallinago delicata (the “common” snipe hunted in..., Spizella pusilla Five-striped, Aimophila quinquestriata Fox, Passerella iliaca Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia...

  15. Front affecting the distribution of seabirds in the northern Bering Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Nancy M.; L Hunt Jr., George; Cooney, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    We observed seabirds aggregated at a front marking the boundary between two water masses in the Bering Sea. Least Auklets (Aethia pusilla) were most abundant at the front; surface-feeding species including Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Red Phalaropes (Phalaropusfuscus) were also present.

  16. Some new or noteworthy species of Mortierella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gams, W.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two species of Mortierella are described and distributed over the sections defined by Gams (1970) which include the following new species: Section Pusilla: M. roseo-nana; Section Alpina: M. globalpina and M. polygonia Section Simplex: M. amoeboidea; Section Hygrophila : M. elongatula, M.

  17. Heritable Variation in Quinone-Induced Haustorium Development in the Parasitic Plant Triphysaria1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Denneal S.; Yoder, John I.

    2001-01-01

    We are using the facultative hemiparasite, Triphysaria, as a model for studying host-parasite signaling in the Scrophulariaceae. Parasitic members of this family form subterranean connections, or haustoria, on neighboring host roots to access host water and nutrients. These parasitic organs develop in response to haustorial-inducing factors contained in host root exudates. A well-characterized inducing factor, 2, 6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (DMBQ), can be used to trigger in vitro haustorium formation in the roots of Triphysaria. We have assayed three species, Triphysaria eriantha (Benth.) Chuang and Heckard, Triphysaria pusilla (Benth.) Chuang and Heckard, and Triphysaria versicolor Fischer and C. Meyer, for haustorium development in response to DMBQ. There were significant differences between the species in their ability to recognize and respond to this quinone. Ninety percent of T. versicolor individuals responded, whereas only 40% of T. pusilla and less than 10% of T. eriantha formed haustoria. Within field collections of self-pollinating T. pusilla, differential responsiveness to DMBQ was seen in distinct maternal families. Assaying haustorium development in subsequent generations of self-pollinated T. pusilla showed that DMBQ responsiveness was heritable. Reciprocal crosses between T. eriantha and T. versicolor demonstrated that DMBQ responsiveness was influenced by maternal factors. These results demonstrate heritable, natural variation in the recognition of a haustorial-inducing factor by a parasitic member of the Scrophulariaceae. PMID:11299366

  18. Phytoplankton Virus Production Negatively Affected by Iron Limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, H.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2016-01-01

    Fe-limited monocultures of the ubiquitous algae Micromonas pusilla and Phaeocystis globosa were infected with their respective viruses (MpV and PgV) to ascertain the effect of Fe-limitation on phytoplankton host-virus dynamics. The effect of the viral shunt on Fe concentrations and bioavailability

  19. Atlantic Flyway review: Region IV - Fall 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2004-01-01

    We welcome the Eden Mill station in northeastern Maryland to Region IV this year. With three stations reporting their worst year ever, we really need to be refreshed. After a cool and wet July, August was hot and wet in the east. Temperatures in September remained close to normal, but thanks to tropical storms Henri (6-8 Sep) and Isabel (18 Sep), rainfall was excessive in the Chesapeake Bay states. The entire Northeast had cool weather in October, starting with an early freeze on 3 Oct that triggered some good banding days in our region. Precipitation was unusually spotty in October, but plentiful at most of the Region IV stations. November temperatures were consistently well above the norm, starting with a record-breaking 81 ø in Baltimore on the 1st.Four of the five Maryland stations had their best day on 19 or 20 Oct. One might expect some of the Virginia coastal stations, Chincoteague, Kiptopeke, and Back Bay, to share the same best day, but they did not. Three stations reported an increase in birds per net hour this year, while seven had a decline. Summarizing the changes in rank in Table 2, Gray Catbird was the species with the most (5) increases in rank (in excess of decreases), followed by junco (4) and Myrtle Warbler and Swamp Sparrow (3 each). Yellowthroat had the most decreases (5), followed by redstart (3).Myrtle Warbler (4572) was once again the most commonly banded species in Region IV, followed by White-throated Sparrow (1723), Gray Catbird (1349), and Western Palm Warbler (1090). Michelle Davis' station on Key Biscayne is the envy of the rest of us. Her top eight species were all warblers and there was not a Myrtle among them. Imagine having Parula, Prairie, and Worm-eating warblers fighting for sixth place!Not showing among the top ten, however, are other surprises. Several banders commented on Sawwhet Owls and Bicknell's Thrushes. Deanna Dawson banded a Cerulean Warbler at Patuxent. Danny Bystrak caught 138 Swamp Sparrows at Jug Bay. In addition

  20. Evaluating outcomes of management targeting the recovery of a migratory songbird of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Andersen, David

    2018-01-01

    Assessing outcomes of habitat management is critical for informing and adapting conservation plans. From 2013 – 2019, a multi-stage management initiative aims to create >25,000 ha of shrubland and early-successional vegetation to benefit Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) in managed forested landscapes of the western Great Lakes region. We studied a dense breeding population of Golden-winged Warblers at Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Minnesota, USA, where shrubs and young trees were sheared during the winter of 2014-2015 in a single treatment supported in part by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC) and in part by other funding source(s) to benefit Golden-winged Warblers and other species associated with young forest [e.g., American Woodcock (Scalopax minor)] and as part of maintenance of early successional forest cover on the refuge.

  1. An evaluation and comparison of conservation guidelines for an at-risk migratory songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin J. McNeil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For at-risk wildlife species, it is important to consider conservation within the process of adaptive management. Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera are Neotropical migratory songbirds that are experiencing long-term population declines due in part to the loss of early-successional nesting habitat. Recently-developed Golden-winged Warbler habitat management guidelines are being implemented by USDA: Natural Resource Conservation Service (2014 and its partners through the Working Lands For Wildlife (WLFW program. During 2012–2014, we studied the nesting ecology of Golden-winged Warblers in managed habitats of the eastern US that conformed to WLFW conservation practices. We evaluated five NRCS “management scenarios” with respect to nesting success and attainment of recommended nest site vegetation conditions outlined in the Golden-winged Warbler breeding habitat guidelines. Using estimates of territory density, pairing rate, nest survival, and clutch size, we also estimated fledgling productivity (number of fledglings/ha for each management scenario. In general, Golden-winged Warbler nest survival declined as each breeding season advanced, but nest survival was similar across management scenarios. Within each management scenario, vegetation variables had little influence on nest survival. Still, percent Rubus cover and density of >2 m tall shrubs were relevant in some management scenarios. All five management scenarios rarely attained recommended levels of nest site vegetation conditions for Golden-winged, yet nest survival was high. Fledgling productivity estimates for each management scenario ranged from 2.1 to 8.6 fledglings/10 hectares. Our results indicate that targeted habitat management for Golden-winged Warblers using a variety of management techniques on private lands has the capability to yield high nest survival and fledgling productivity, and thus have the potential to contribute to the species recovery.

  2. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  3. Phytoplankton of the Boguchany reservoir in 2016-2017 at the stations in front of the hydroelectric dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Usoltseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The species structure and seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton of the dam area of the Boguchany Reservoir were studied in the first years of operation of the hydroelectric power station in 2016-2017. Two peaks of algal bloom are noted in spring and summer. Mass species were: diatom Stephanodiscus minutulus and dinophyte Gymnodinium baicalense in spring; diatoms Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria crotonensis, blue-green Dolichospermum lemmermannii, D. flosaquae, D. flosaquae f. spiroides and Aphanizomenon flosaquae; green Sphaerocystis planctonica and dinophyte Ceratium hirundinella in summer; diatoms F. crotonensis and A. formosa, cryptophytic Rhodomonas pusilla and Cryptomonas ovata in autumn. The cryptophyte R. pusilla and the Cryptomonas species were dominated under the ice. The maximum number of phytoplankton (9 million cells in liter was recorded in the spring. According to the indixes of saprobity, the purity of water corresponded to II-III quality classes (pure and moderately polluted water.

  4. New records of amphoroid diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from Cachoeira River, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KP Cavalcante

    Full Text Available Amphoroid taxa have been revised in recent decades. Many species formerly assigned to Amphora have been transferred to other recently proposed genera, as Seminavis (Naviculaceae and Halamphora (Catenulaceae. In Brazil, there are few studies focused on amphoroid taxonomy. This study presents a taxonomic investigation of five uncommon amphoroid taxa from Brazilian diatom flora: Seminavis pusilla, S. strigosa, Amphora ectorii, Halamphora ghanensis and Halamphora sp. Seminavis strigosa is identical in valve morphology and morphometrical data to Amphora twenteana, and its synonymy is proposed. Seminavis pusilla, poorly found in Brazilian waters, has expanded its distribution. Halamphora ghanensis is a new record to American continent while Amphora ectorii are new to Brazilian aquatic systems. Halamphora sp. has distinct ultrastructural features in relation to similar species and is probably new for science.

  5. New species in the Hungarian avifauna in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadarics Tibor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species appeared in the Hungarian avifauna in 2014: the Spanish Sparrow and the Blyth’s Reed Warbler. One pair of Spanish Sparrow was breeding in Bácsborsód between June 13th and July 31st in the side of a stork nest. The Blyth’s Reed Warbler was trapped and ringed near Tömörd on August 15th. With the observations of these species the number of bird species that have ever been proven to occur in Hungary has risen to 411.

  6. Evaluating outcomes of management targeting the recovery of a migratory songbird of conservation concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M; Kramer, Gunnar R; Peterson, Sean M; Andersen, David E

    2018-01-01

    Assessing outcomes of habitat management is critical for informing and adapting conservation plans. From 2013-2019, a multi-stage management initiative, led by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC), aims to create >25,000 ha of shrubland and early-successional vegetation to benefit Golden-winged Warblers ( Vermivora chrysoptera ) in managed forested landscapes of the western Great Lakes region. We studied a dense breeding population of Golden-winged Warblers at Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Minnesota, USA, where ABC initiative management was implemented to benefit the species. We monitored abundance before (2011-2014) and after (2015-2016) management, and we estimated full-season productivity (i.e., young recruited into the fall population) from predictive, spatially explicit models, informed by nest and fledgling survival data collected at sites in the western Great Lakes region, including Rice Lake NWR, during 2011 and 2012. Then, using biologically informed models of bird response to observed and predicted vegetation succession, we estimated the cumulative change in population recruitment over various scenarios of vegetation succession and demographic response. We observed an 32% decline in abundance of breeding pairs and estimated a 27% decline in per-pair full-season productivity following management, compared to no change in a nearby control site. In models that ranged from highly optimistic to progressively more realistic scenarios, we estimated a net loss of 72-460 juvenile Golden-winged Warblers produced from the managed site in the 10-20 years following management. Even if our well-informed and locally validated productivity models produced erroneous estimates and the management resulted in only a temporary reduction in abundance (i.e., no change in productivity), our forecast models still predicted a net loss of 137-260 juvenile Golden-winged Warblers from the managed area over the same time frame. Our study site represents only a small

  7. Genetic Diversity of Nostoc Symbionts Endophytically Associated with Two Bryophyte Species

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, José-Luis; Paulsrud, Per; Rikkinen, Jouko; Lindblad, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of the endophytic Nostoc symbionts of two thalloid bryophytes, the hornwort Anthoceros fusiformis and the liverwort Blasia pusilla, was examined using the tRNALeu (UAA) intron sequence as a marker. The results confirmed that many different Nostoc strains are involved in both associations under natural conditions in the field. The level of Nostoc diversity within individual bryophyte thalli varied, but single DNA fragments were consistently amplified from individual symbiotic col...

  8. Three cryptic new species of Aristea (Iridaceae from southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Field work in southern Africa over the past several years has resulted in the discovery of three new species of the sub- Saharan African and Madagascan genus Aristea Aiton, which now comprises some 53 species. Aristea has a pronounced centre in southern Africa and a centre of diversity in the winter rainfall zone of the subcontinent, where all three new species occur, one extending eastward into the adjacent southern edge of the summer rainfall zone. All three novelties have been collected in the past but were confused with related species. A elliptica (subgenus Eucapsulares, confused in the past with A. pusilla (Thunb. Ker Gawl., has a more robust habit, usually with 4 or 5 flower clusters per flowering stem, pale blue flowers, smooth ellipsoid seeds with flattened surface cells, and pollen shed as monads, whereas A. pusilla usually has 1-3 flower clusters per flowering stem, dark blue flowers, pollen shed as tetrads, and globose seeds with faint foveate sculpturing and colliculate surface cells. A. nana (also subgenus  Eucapsulares, known from few collections, and also confused with A. pusilla or A. anceps Eckl. ex Klatt. has the unbranched and leafless flowering stem of the latter but has large green floral spathes, flowers borne on long pedicels, and lacks a leaf subtending the single terminal flower cluster in contrast to nearly sessile flowers in A. pusilla and A. anceps, and in the latter, dry, rusty spathes. A. cistiflora (subgenus Pseudaristea closely resembles A. teretifoha Goldblatt & J.C.Manning but has linear to narrowly sword-shaped leaves and ± secund flowers with the outer tepals only slightly smaller than the inner and with small, dark brown markings at the bases of all the tepals. In contrast, A. teretifolia has narrower, sometimes terete leaves and flowers held upright with the outer tepals notice-ably smaller than the inner and bearing dark markings covering the lower half, whereas the inner tepals are unmarked.

  9. Měkkýši navrhované PR Údolí Vrchlice u Kutné Hory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Juřičková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings the first malacological research of the proposal nature reserve Vrchlice Valley (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic after hundred years. Altogether, 44 mollusc species have been recorded in a very diverse mosaic of floodplain forests, cliffs and meadows. Rare or locally important species Vertigo pusilla, Semilimax semilimax, Daudebardia rufa, Isognomostoma isognomostomos, Oxyloma elegans, Vitrea crystallina and Laciniaria plicata were recorded in the area of the reserve.

  10. Exploring trophic strategies of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda): Comparison between habitat types and native vs introduced distribution ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Macarena; Tierno de Figueroa, José Manuel; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Lacerda, Mariana Baptista; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Masunari, Setuko

    2014-02-01

    The trophic ecology of non-native species is a key aspect to understand their invasion success and the community effects. Despite the important role of caprellid amphipods as trophic intermediates between primary producers and higher levels of marine food webs, there is very little information on their feeding habits. This is the first comprehensive study on the trophic strategies of two co-occurring introduced caprellids in the Spanish coasts: Caprella scaura and Paracaprella pusilla. The diet of 446 specimens of C. scaura and 230 of P. pusilla was analyzed to investigate whether there were differences in the feeding habits in relation to habitat characteristics (natural vs artificial hard substrata), type of host substrata (bryozoans and hydroids) and native vs introduced distribution ranges (Brazil vs Spain). Results revealed differences in diet preferences of the two species that have important implications for their trophic behaviour and showed a limited food overlap, which may favour their coexistence in introduced areas. In general terms, P. pusilla is a predator species, showing preference by crustacean prey in all of its life stages, while C. scaura feeds mainly on detritus. Although no sex-related diet shifts were observed in either of the species, evidence of ontogenetic variation in diet of C. scaura was found, with juveniles feeding on more amount of prey than adults. No diet differences were found between native and introduced populations within the same habitat type. However, P. pusilla exhibited a shift in its diet when different habitats were compared in the same distribution area, and C. scaura showed a flexible feeding behaviour between different host substrata in the same habitat type. This study shows that habitat characteristics at different scales can have greater influence on the feeding ecology of exotic species than different distribution ranges, and support the hypothesis that a switch between feeding strategies depending on habitat

  11. Incorporating territory compression into population models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, J; Komdeur, J; Sutherland, WJ; Sutherland, William J.

    The ideal despotic distribution, whereby the lifetime reproductive success a territory's owner achieves is unaffected by population density, is a mainstay of behaviour-based population models. We show that the population dynamics of an island population of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus

  12. Jak určovat stáří rákosníků velkých (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) po úplném pelichání

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Honza, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, X (2012), s. 57-73 ISSN 0231-7796 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Great Reed Warbler * ageing * bare parts colouration * iris colour * juvenile characters * sex differences * tarsus colour * tongue spots Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.birdlife.cz/index.php?ID=2400

  13. Inherent limits of light-level geolocation may lead to over-interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisovski, S.; Schmaljohann, H.; Bridge, E.S.; Bauer, S.; Farnsworth, A.; Gauthreaux, S.A.; Hahn, S.; Hallworth, M.T.; Hewson, C.M.; Kelly, J.F.; Liechti, F.; Marra, P.P.; Rakhimberdiev, E.; Ross, J.D.; Seavy, N.E.; Sumner, M.D.; Taylor, C.M.; Winkler, D.W.; Wotherspoon, S.J.; Wunder, M.B.

    2018-01-01

    In their 2015 Current Biology paper, Streby et al. [1] reported that Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera), which had just migrated to their breeding location in eastern Tennessee, performed a facultative and up to “>1,500 km roundtrip” to the Gulf of Mexico to avoid a severe tornadic

  14. Comment: 193 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Cettia_diphone_L.png 193.png Takeru Nakazato (...: Takeru Nakazato (Database Center for Life Science) ウグイス Cettia diphone cantans nakazato 2008/12/22 10:09:51 2010/01/14 20:05:22 ...

  15. Common cuckoo females are not choosy when removing an egg during parasitism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, Michal; Procházka, Petr; Čapek, Miroslav; Honza, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2016), s. 1642-1649 ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * coevolution * egg removal * great reed warbler * host and parasite * mimicry * reflectance * spotting pattern Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.311, year: 2016

  16. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology - Vol 74, No 1 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic relationships of African sunbird-like warblers: Moho (Hypergerus atriceps), Green Hylia (Hylia prasina) and Tit-hylia (Pholidornis rushiae) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Patterns of endemism in African birds: how much does taxonomy matter? ... AJ Tree, NTW Klages, 74-80.

  17. Breeding success of a brood parasite is associated with social mating status of its host

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Prokop, P.; Honza, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2012), s. 1187-1194 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * great reed warbler * polygyny * reproductive success Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.752, year: 2012

  18. Molecular analysis of faecal samples from birds to identify potential crop pests and useful biocontrol agents in natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R A; Symondson, W O C; Thomas, R J

    2015-06-01

    Wild habitats adjoining farmland are potentially valuable sources of natural enemies, but also of pests. Here we tested the utility of birds as 'sampling devices', to identify the diversity of prey available to predators and particularly to screen for pests and natural enemies using natural ecosystems as refugia. Here we used PCR to amplify prey DNA from three sympatric songbirds foraging on small invertebrates in Phragmites reedbed ecosystems, namely the Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) and Cetti's Warbler (Cettia cetti). A recently described general invertebrate primer pair was used for the first time to analyse diets. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced, then identified by reference to the Barcoding of Life Database and to our own sequences obtained from fresh invertebrates. Forty-five distinct prey DNA sequences were obtained from 11 faecal samples, of which 39 could be identified to species or genus. Targeting three warbler species ensured that species-specific differences in prey choice broadened the range of prey taken. Amongst the prey found in reedbeds were major pests (including the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea) as well as many potentially valuable natural enemies including aphidophagous hoverflies and braconid wasps. Given the mobility of birds, this approach provides a practical way of sampling a whole habitat at once, providing growers with information on possible invasion by locally resident pests and the colonization potential of natural enemies from local natural habitats.

  19. Breeding season concerns and response to forest management: Can forest management produce more breeding birds? Ornitologia Neotropical

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Larkin; P.B. Wood; T.J. Boves; J. Sheehan; D.A. Buehler

    2012-01-01

    Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea), one of the fastest declining avian species in North America, are associated with heterogeneous canopies in mature hardwood forests. However, the age of most second and third-growth forests in eastern North American is not sufficient for natural tree mortality to maintain structurally diverse canopies. Previous research suggests...

  20. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  1. Do nest light conditions affect rejection of parasitic eggs? A test of the light environment hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Morongová, Klára; Čapek, Miroslav; Jelínek, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 6 (2011), s. 539-546 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * nest light conditions * egg recognition * Great reed warbler * cuckoo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  2. The influence of vegetation structure on bird communities in a Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest species nesting in gardens during this study was the Cape Sparrow (Passer melanurus), followed by the Laughing Dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), and Greater Striped Swallow (Hirundo cucullata). Bar-throated Apalis (Apalis thoracica), Namaqua Warbler (Phragmacia substriata), Fiscal Flycatcher ...

  3. 75 FR 7287 - John Hay National Wildlife Refuge, Merrimack County, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... shape the almost 80 acres of mature upland forest to maintain the cultural legacy, encourage natural... Canada warbler and wood thrush). Natural processes would also shape the fens, vernal pools, and other... and riparian corridor along the approximately 1,750 feet of Beech Brook on the refuge for species...

  4. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 1774 (2014), s. 20132665 ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * egg coloration * egg mimicry * great reed warbler Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014

  5. Foreign egg retention by avian hosts in repeated brood parasitism : Why do rejecters accept?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moskat, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E.; Elek, Zoltan; Gommers, Moniek; Ban, Miklos; Groenewoud, Frank; Versluijs, Tom S. L.; Hoetz, Christiaan W. A.; Komdeur, Jan

    Great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) are frequently parasitized by egg-mimetic common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) in Hungary, and these hosts reject about a third of parasitic eggs. The timing of parasitism is important, in that the probability of rejection decreases with advancing breeding

  6. 75 FR 67765 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... collect leaf tissue and seeds from the following endangered plants: South Texas ambrosia (Ambrosia... transportation, at the Miller Park Zoo. Permit TE-24625A Applicant: Wendy Leonard, San Antonio, Texas. Applicant...-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) and black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) within Texas. Permit TE...

  7. Reconnaissance Waccamaw River Basin North Carolina and South Carolina. Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    carota), horseweed (Erigeron canadensis), plantain (Plantago lanceolata, P. virginica, P. aristata), horse nettle (Solanum carolinense), dog fennel... insects that are used for food by the red-eyed vireo, scarlet tanager, tufted titmouse, common flicker, and various warblers. The abundant birds and...Detritivores, including immature stages of aquatic insects , small arthropods, and annelid worms, which thrive in this wetland community are consumed

  8. Diet preferences of goats in a subtropical dry forest and implications for habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genie M. Fleming; Joseph Wunderle Jr.; David N. Ewert

    2016-01-01

    As part of an experimental study of using controlled goat grazing to manage winter habitat of the Kirtland’s warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii), an endangered Nearctic neotropical migratory bird, we evaluated diet preferences of domesticated goats within early successional subtropical dry forest in The Bahamas. We expected goats would show a low preference for two plants (...

  9. How far could a squirrel travel in the treetops? A prehistory of the southern forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hamel; Edward R. Buckner

    1998-01-01

    Conservation activities aimed at protecting old-growth forests; at maintaining populations of desired species groups, such as oaks (Quercus sp.), wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), other game species or Neotropical migratory birds; and at increasing populations of endangered species, such as red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), Bachman's warblers (...

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for Long-Term Vegetation Control for Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-14

    domingensis Florida Black Bear Ursus americanus floridanus Phragmites Phragmites australis American Alligator Alligator mississippiensis White Cedar...Cont’d) Tulip Poplar Liriodendron tulipifera Indigo Snake Drymarchon corais Sweet Bay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana American Beaver Castor canadensis Red...Bay Persea borbonia Parula Warbler Parula americana Wetland and Riparian Ecological Association (Saltwater) Black Needle Rush Juncus roemerianus

  11. Journal of East African Natural History - Vol 106, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two red-capped robin-chats Cossypha natalensis imitate antiphonal duet of black-faced rufous warblers Bathmocercus rufus · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Thomas T. Struhsaker, 53-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/028.106.0201 ...

  12. Seasonal behavioral responses of an arid-zone passerine in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, Nicholas B; Smit, Ben

    2017-10-01

    Many arid-zone animals have to forage under extremely hot conditions to maintain water and energy balance. The effect of high air temperatures (T air ) on the behavioral patterns of small endothermic animals-characterized by their high energy and water demands-will provide a valuable framework for understanding species vulnerability to climate warming. We determined the seasonal behavioral responses to changes in T air in a~10-g arid-zone passerine, the rufous-eared warbler (Malcorus pectoralis), in the Karoo semi-desert, South Africa. Rufous-eared warblers showed significant temperature-dependence in their behavior in summer, but not in winter. During summer, the warblers frequently experienced T air exceeding 40°C in the shade. For all observations 36°C, the warblers showed reductions in preening (40% decrease), foraging effort (56% decrease), and foraging success (15% decrease), as well as a significant increase in time spent engaged in evaporative cooling behavior. Moreover, as T air increased the warblers shifted increasingly off the ground and out of the full sun, into microsites in the shade (131% increase) and in shrubs (23% increase). In this regard, behavior varied seasonally, with the time spent in the shade 23% higher, and foraging effort 28% higher, in summer compared to winter across a range of moderate T air (15-30°C). Our findings emphasize the link between behavior and temperature in small birds inhabiting hot, arid environments, as well as the importance of understanding these responses for predicting biologically meaningful responses (and hence, vulnerability) of arid-zone avian communities to climactic shifts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Invasive parasites, habitat change and heavy rainfall reduce breeding success in Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadom, Arno; Ulloa, Angel; Meidl, Patrick; Zöttl, Markus; Zöttl, Elisabet; Fessl, Birgit; Nemeth, Erwin; Dvorak, Michael; Cunninghame, Francesca; Tebbich, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Invasive alien parasites and pathogens are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide, which can contribute to the extinction of endemic species. On the Galápagos Islands, the invasive parasitic fly Philornis downsi poses a major threat to the endemic avifauna. Here, we investigated the influence of this parasite on the breeding success of two Darwin's finch species, the warbler finch (Certhidea olivacea) and the sympatric small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus), on Santa Cruz Island in 2010 and 2012. While the population of the small tree finch appeared to be stable, the warbler finch has experienced a dramatic decline in population size on Santa Cruz Island since 1997. We aimed to identify whether warbler finches are particularly vulnerable during different stages of the breeding cycle. Contrary to our prediction, breeding success was lower in the small tree finch than in the warbler finch. In both species P. downsi had a strong negative impact on breeding success and our data suggest that heavy rain events also lowered the fledging success. On the one hand parents might be less efficient in compensating their chicks' energy loss due to parasitism as they might be less efficient in foraging on days of heavy rain. On the other hand, intense rainfalls might lead to increased humidity and more rapid cooling of the nests. In the case of the warbler finch we found that the control of invasive plant species with herbicides had a significant additive negative impact on the breeding success. It is very likely that the availability of insects (i.e. food abundance)is lower in such controlled areas, as herbicide usage led to the removal of the entire understory. Predation seems to be a minor factor in brood loss.

  14. Invasive parasites, habitat change and heavy rainfall reduce breeding success in Darwin's finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Cimadom

    Full Text Available Invasive alien parasites and pathogens are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide, which can contribute to the extinction of endemic species. On the Galápagos Islands, the invasive parasitic fly Philornis downsi poses a major threat to the endemic avifauna. Here, we investigated the influence of this parasite on the breeding success of two Darwin's finch species, the warbler finch (Certhidea olivacea and the sympatric small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus, on Santa Cruz Island in 2010 and 2012. While the population of the small tree finch appeared to be stable, the warbler finch has experienced a dramatic decline in population size on Santa Cruz Island since 1997. We aimed to identify whether warbler finches are particularly vulnerable during different stages of the breeding cycle. Contrary to our prediction, breeding success was lower in the small tree finch than in the warbler finch. In both species P. downsi had a strong negative impact on breeding success and our data suggest that heavy rain events also lowered the fledging success. On the one hand parents might be less efficient in compensating their chicks' energy loss due to parasitism as they might be less efficient in foraging on days of heavy rain. On the other hand, intense rainfalls might lead to increased humidity and more rapid cooling of the nests. In the case of the warbler finch we found that the control of invasive plant species with herbicides had a significant additive negative impact on the breeding success. It is very likely that the availability of insects (i.e. food abundanceis lower in such controlled areas, as herbicide usage led to the removal of the entire understory. Predation seems to be a minor factor in brood loss.

  15. La fauna de caprélidos (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea de la costa de Coquimbo, centro-norte de Chile, con una clave taxonómica para la identificación de las especies The caprellid fauna (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea from the coast of Coquimbo, Northern-central Chile, with a taxonomic key for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ M. GUERRA-GARCÍA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Los caprélidos son comunes y abundantes en muchos hábitats litorales del ambiente marino. Sin embargo este grupo de anfípodos no ha sido muy bien estudiado en la costa chilena. El estudio de los caprélidos se ha visto dificultado por su gran variabilidad morfológica y el hecho de que la literatura así como los especímenes de los museos son difíciles de localizar. El objetivo de este estudio fue entregar las herramientas taxonómicas para la identificación de las especies de crustáceos caprélidos comunes en el centro-norte de la costa de Chile. Se muestrearon distintos hábitats (boyas, bolones intermareales, praderas de algas y fanerógamas marinas y se encontraron seis especies distintas de caprélidos: Caprellina longicollis (Nicolet, 1849, Caprella equilibra Say, 1818, C. scaura Templeton, 1836, C. verrucosa Boeck, 1871; Deutella venenosa Mayer, 1890 y Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890. Caprella scaura, C. verrucosa y D. venenosa fueron muy abundantes sobre las algas, hidrozoos y briozoos asociados a boyas. Caprella equilibra, también presente en boyas, fue más abundante bajo piedras en zonas intermareales rocosas expuestas, donde también se encontraron ejemplares de D. venenosa y de P. pusilla. Caprella scaura también se encontró sobre algas rojas de las playas arenosas, especialmente sobre Gracilaria chilensis y sobre la fanerógama marina Heterozostera tasmanica, donde cohabitó junto a Caprellina longicollis. Paracaprella pusilla constituye una nueva cita para las costas pacíficas sudamericanas, siendo nueva para la fauna de Chile. La especie D. venenosa, que se cita por primera vez después de la descripción original de Mayer en el año 1890, es considerada una especie endémica de la costa central de ChileCaprellids are abundant in many littoral habitats of the marine environment. Nevertheless, this group of amphipods has been scarcely studied along the coast of Chile. The study of the Caprellidea is particularly

  16. Morfoanatomia foliar de microorquídeas de Ornithocephalus Hook. e Psygmorchis Dodson & Dressler Leaf anatomy of micro-orchids of Ornithocephalus Hook. and Psygmorchis Dodson & Dressler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayza Carla Lopes Della Colleta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a morfoanatomia foliar de Ornithocephalus bicornis Lindl. ex Benth., Ornithocephalus myrticola Lindl., Psygmorchis pusilla (L. e Psygmorchis glossomystax (Rchb. f., a fim de identificar caracteres de valor taxonômico e significado ecológico. Folhas expandidas foram coletadas na região de Alta Floresta, MT. As amostras foram incluídas em metacrilato, cortadas em micrótomo de mesa e corados com azul de toluidina. As lâminas foram montadas em resina sintética ou gelatina glicerinada. Epidermes foliares foram dissociadas e testes histoquímicos aplicados. As plantas observadas neste estudo são epífitas, carnosas e não apresentam pseudobulbos. A epiderme é uniestratificada e delgada com exceção de O. bicornis que é espessa, apresentando cutícula delgada e lisa. As espécies estudadas apresentam folhas anfiestomáticas com os estômatos presentes no mesmo nível das células epidérmicas. Os estômatos geralmente são anomocíticos e tetracíticos em O. myrticola, P. pusilla e P. glossomystax. Em O. bicornis ocorrem tetracítico, anisocítico e actinocítico. As células-guarda são de paredes periclinais espessas e as câmaras subestomática são pequenas, exceto em P. pusilla. Com exceção de O. bicornis, o mesofilo das espécies é heterogêneo, sendo constituído de diferentes tipos de parênquima. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais. As espécies foram consideradas mesófilas.Leaf anatomy of O. bicornis Lindl. ex Benth., O. myrticola Lindl., P. pusilla (L. and P. glossomystax (Rchb. f. was analyzed to identify valuable taxonomic and ecological traits. Expanded leaves were collected in the Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, region. Leaf samples embedded in methacrylate were cut with a table microtome and stained with toluidine blue. Slides were mounted in synthetic resin or in glycerin gelatin. Leaf tissues were dissociated and histochemical tests applied. Plants observed in this study are succulent epiphytes without

  17. Body fat influences departure from stopover sites in migratory birds: evidence from whole-island telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Spina, Fernando; Ferri, Andrea; Fusani, Leonida

    2010-01-01

    Migration remains one of the great mysteries of animal life. Small migratory birds rely on refuelling stopovers after crossing ecological barriers such as deserts or seas. Previous studies have suggested that fuel reserves may determine stopover duration but this hypothesis could not be tested because of methodological limitations. Here, we provide evidence that subcutaneous fat stores determine stopover duration by measuring the permanence of migratory garden warblers (Sylvia borin) on a small Mediterranean island during spring migration with telemetry methods. Garden warblers with large amounts of fat stores departed the island significantly sooner than lean birds. All except one fat bird left the island on the same evening after capture, with a mean total stopover estimate of 8.8 hours. In contrast, the mean estimated total stopover duration of lean birds was 41.3 hours. To our knowledge, this is the first study that measures the true minimum stopover duration of a songbird during migration. PMID:20164077

  18. Habitat constraints on the distribution of passerine residents and neotropical migrants in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    With continuing tropical deforestation, there is increased concern for birds that depend on forest habitats in Latin America. During the past 10 northern winters, we have conducted quantitative studies of habitat use by wintering migrant songbirds and by residents in the Greater Antilles, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Many migrants, but few residents, winter in forest fragments and in certain arboreal agricultural habitats (citrus, cacao, shade coffee). Many other agricultural habitats (sun coffee, mango, commercial banana plantations, and heavily grazed pasture) are avoided by most birds. Some species, such as thrushes and ground-feeding warblers, depend on closed-canopy forest. Some, such as Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), winter primarily in mangroves or other swamp forests. The majority of neotropical migrant passerines winter in forest fragments and certain agricultural habitats, as well as mature forest; but many resident species, especially suboscines (Furnariidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Papridae), are heavily impacted by loss and fragmentation of the forest.

  19. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Priest River, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 105.41 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 26.95 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland habitat provides 23.78 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scmb-shrub vegetation provides 54.68 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer.

  20. Blue-green eggshell coloration is not a sexually selected signal of female quality in an open-nesting polygynous passerine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Cherry, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 6 (2011), s. 493-499 ISSN 0028-1042 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Blue-green chroma * Egg colour * Female condition * Great reed warbler * Polygyny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2011

  1. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of Facilities in Support of the 343d Training Squadron, 37th Training Group, Security Forces Apprentice Course at JBSA-Camp Bullis, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    territorial seas . Jurisdictional boundaries for waters of the U.S. are defined in the field as the ordinary high water mark, which is that line on...Lynx rufus), gray fox, coyote, and occasionally mountain lion (Felis concolor) (U.S. Army 2007). The northern cardinal (Cardinal cardinalis) and... parasitism . Surveys have been conducted for golden-cheeked warbler on JBSA-Camp Bullis since 1991, and individuals have been detected in every training

  2. Birds use eggshell UV reflectance when recognizing non-mimetic parasitic eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, Michal; Procházka, Petr; Čapek, Miroslav; Honza, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2016), s. 677-684 ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * common cuckoo * egg recognition * Eurasian reed warbler * mimicry * parasitic egg * ultraviolet (UV) reflectance Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.311, year: 2016

  3. Legacy Bird Species at Risk Monitoring in and Around Camp Navajo and the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    19th century due to a convergence of complex stressors such as overgrazing, timber harvest, drought , and fire suppression (Allen et al. 2002, Moore... pinus 16 Olive Warbler Peucedramus taeniatus 5 Plumbeous Vireo Vireo solitarius 60 Pygmy Nuthatch Sitta pygmaea 177 Red Crossbill Loxia...Dove Zenaida macroura 14 Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus 50 Pine Siskin Carduelis pinus 58 Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus cooperi 1

  4. Sex-specific defence behaviour against brood parasitism in a host with female-only incubation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2009), s. 34-38 ISSN 0376-6357 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Aggression * Cuckoo * Egg ejection * Great reed warbler * Nest guarding * Parental roles Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2009

  5. The impact of a central Apennine wind-farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Forconi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We monitored raptors and investigated collision rate of birds with 2 turbines of a central Apennine wind-farm. We detected 1,18/raptors/km2/h. We have not found bird fatalities with turbines. We found 2 carcasses: one Subalpine Warbler, Sylvia cantillans, died by collision with a close communication tower and a Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, died by electrocution with an MT power-line starting from the communication tower.

  6. Are tits really unsuitable hosts for the Common Cuckoo?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, T.; Samaš, P.; Procházka, Petr; Rutila, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2014), s. 166-177 ISSN 0030-5685 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cuculus canorus chicks * hole nest ing bird s * reed warbler hosts * parasitic bird s * brood parasite * parental care * egg eviction * great * virulence * discrimination Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.612, year: 2014 http://www.ornisfennica.org/pdf/early/4Grim.pdf

  7. Double keystone bird in a keystone species complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R; Haddad, N M

    1993-01-01

    Species in a Colorado subalpine ecosystem show subtle interdependences. Red-naped sapsuckers play two distinct keystone roles. They excavate nest cavities in fungus-infected aspens that are required as nest sites by two species of swallows, and they drill sap wells into willows that provide abundant nourishment for themselves, hummingbirds, orange-crowned warblers, chipmunks, and an array of other sap robbers. The swallows thus depend on, and the sap robbers benefit from, a keystone species c...

  8. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Expansion of Sortie-Operations at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    regulations, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act makes it unlawful to (or attempt to) pursue, hunt, take, capture, or kill any migratory bird, nest, or egg...of bald or golden eagles in the United States. The Act defines “take” as “pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill , capture, trap, collect... mockingbird (Mimus polyglottus), eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), and summer tanager (Piranga rubra). There are

  9. Juvenile survival in a neotropical migratory songbird is lower than expected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew I McKim-Louder

    Full Text Available Attempts to estimate and identify factors influencing first-year survival in passerines, survival between fledging and the first reproductive attempt (i.e. juvenile survival, have largely been confounded by natal dispersal, particularly in long-distance migratory passerines. We studied Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea breeding in nest boxes to estimate first-year survival while accounting for biases related to dispersal that are common in mark-recapture studies. The natal dispersal distribution (median = 1420 m; n = 429 and a distance-dependent recruitment rate, which controls for effects of study site configuration, both indicated a pattern of short-distance natal dispersal. This pattern was consistent with results of a systematic survey for birds returning outside the nest box study sites (up to 30 km in all directions within a majority (81% of total available bottomland forest habitat, further suggesting that permanent emigration outside of the study system was rare. We used multistate mark-recapture modeling to estimate first-year survival and incorporated factors thought to influence survival while accounting for the potential confounding effects of dispersal on recapture probabilities for warblers that fledged during 2004-2009 (n = 6093. Overall, the average first-year survival for warblers reared without cowbird nestmates was 0.11 (95% CI = 0.09-0.13, decreased with fledging date (0.22 early to 0.03 late and averaged 40% lower for warblers reared with a brood parasite nestmate. First-year survival was less than half of the rate thought to represent population replacement in migratory passerines (∼0.30. This very low rate suggests that surviving the first year of life for many Neotropical migratory species is even more difficult than previously thought, forcing us to rethink estimates used in population models.

  10. Repeatability of host female and male aggression towards a brood parasite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Požgayová, Milica; Samaš, P.; Honza, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 10 (2013), s. 907-917 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cuckoo Cuculus canorus * Great reed warblers * Nest defense * Behavioral syndromes * Plumage polymorphism * Enemy recognition * Potential hosts * Practical guide * Zebra finches Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2013

  11. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Crossman

    Full Text Available Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  12. Search behavior of arboreal insectivorous migrants at gulf coast stopover sites in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Chieh; Barrow, W.C.; Ouchley, K.; Hamilton, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Search behavior of arboreal insectivorous migrants was studied at three stopover sites along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico during spring migrations, 1993–1995. We examined if search behavior was affected by phylogeny, or by environmental factors. A sequence of search movements (hop, flutter, or flight) in a foraging bout was recorded for each migrant encountered. Search rate, frequency, and distance of movements were calculated for each species. Search rate was positively correlated with proportion of hop, but negatively correlated to flight distance. Hop distance was positively correlated to tarsus length, as was flight distance to wing length for the 31 species of migrants. Cluster analysis indicated closely related species generally have similar foraging modes, which range from “sit-and-wait” of flycatchers to “widely foraging” of warblers. Migrants tended to use more hops in dense vegetation, but more flights in areas with sparse vegetation. Migrants also used more flights when foraging in mixed-species flocks and during periods of high migrant density. Logistic models indicated warblers were more influenced by environmental factors than vireos, possibly because warblers are near-perch searchers and more affected by these factors.

  13. Variation in the Structure of Bird Nests between Northern Manitoba and Southeastern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Carla A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.; Martin, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis) where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations. PMID:21552515

  14. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  15. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Carla A; Rohwer, Vanya G; Martin, Paul R

    2011-04-28

    Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis) where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  16. Trophic cascades: linking ungulates to shrub-dependent birds and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Teichman, Kristine; Nielsen, Scott E; Roland, Jens

    2013-11-01

    1. Studies demonstrating trophic cascades through the loss of top-down regulatory processes in productive and biologically diverse terrestrial ecosystems are limited. 2. Elk Island National Park, Alberta and surrounding protected areas have a wide range of ungulate density due to the functional loss of top predators, management for high ungulate numbers and variable hunting pressure. This provides an ideal setting for studying the effects of hyper-abundant ungulates on vegetation and shrub-dependent bird and butterfly species. 3. To examine the cascading effects of high ungulate density, we quantified vegetation characteristics and abundances of yellow warbler Dendroica petechia and Canadian tiger swallowtail Papilio canadensis under different ungulate density in and around Elk Island National Park. 4. Using Structural Equation Models we found that ungulate density was inversely related to shrub cover, whereas shrub cover was positively related to yellow warbler abundance. In addition, chokecherry Prunus virginiana abundance was inversely related to browse impact but positively related to P. canadensis abundance. 5. These results demonstrate a cascade resulting from hyper-abundant ungulates on yellow warblers and Canadian tiger swallowtails through reductions in shrub cover and larval host plant density. The combined effect of the functional loss of top predators and management strategies that maintain high ungulate numbers can decouple top-down regulation of productive temperate ecosystems. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  17. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication.

  18. Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested

  19. Evaluating outcomes of management targeting the recovery of a migratory songbird of conservation concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry M. Streby

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Assessing outcomes of habitat management is critical for informing and adapting conservation plans. From 2013–2019, a multi-stage management initiative, led by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC, aims to create >25,000 ha of shrubland and early-successional vegetation to benefit Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera in managed forested landscapes of the western Great Lakes region. We studied a dense breeding population of Golden-winged Warblers at Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR in Minnesota, USA, where ABC initiative management was implemented to benefit the species. Methods We monitored abundance before (2011–2014 and after (2015–2016 management, and we estimated full-season productivity (i.e., young recruited into the fall population from predictive, spatially explicit models, informed by nest and fledgling survival data collected at sites in the western Great Lakes region, including Rice Lake NWR, during 2011 and 2012. Then, using biologically informed models of bird response to observed and predicted vegetation succession, we estimated the cumulative change in population recruitment over various scenarios of vegetation succession and demographic response. Results We observed an 32% decline in abundance of breeding pairs and estimated a 27% decline in per-pair full-season productivity following management, compared to no change in a nearby control site. In models that ranged from highly optimistic to progressively more realistic scenarios, we estimated a net loss of 72–460 juvenile Golden-winged Warblers produced from the managed site in the 10–20 years following management. Even if our well-informed and locally validated productivity models produced erroneous estimates and the management resulted in only a temporary reduction in abundance (i.e., no change in productivity, our forecast models still predicted a net loss of 137–260 juvenile Golden-winged Warblers from the managed area over the same time

  20. Daily survival rate and habitat characteristics of nests of Wilson's Plover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Elizabeth; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed habitat characteristics and measured daily survival rate of 72 nests of Charadrius wilsonia (Wilson's Plover) during 2012 and 2013 on South Island and Sand Island on the central coast of South Carolina. At both study areas, nest sites were located at slightly higher elevations (i.e., small platforms of sand) relative to randomly selected nearby unused sites, and nests at each study area also appeared to be situated to enhance crypsis and/or vigilance. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests ranged from 0.969 to 0.988 among study sites and years, and the probability of nest survival ranged from 0.405 to 0.764. Flooding and predation were the most common causes of nest failure at both sites. At South Island, DSR was most strongly related to maximum tide height, which suggests that flooding and overwash may be common causes of nest loss for Wilson's Plovers at these study sites. The difference in model results between the 2 nearby study sites may be partially due to more-frequent flooding at Sand Island because of some underlying yet unmeasured physiographic feature. Remaining data gaps for the species include regional assessments of nest and chick survival and habitat requirements during chick rearing.

  1. Blood parasites shape extreme major histocompatibility complex diversity in a migratory passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; Bielański, Wojciech; Ćmiel, Adam; Solarz, Wojciech; Zając, Tadeusz; Migalska, Magdalena; Sebastian, Alvaro; Westerdahl, Helena; Radwan, Jacek

    2018-06-01

    Pathogens are one of the main forces driving the evolution and maintenance of the highly polymorphic genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although MHC proteins are crucial in pathogen recognition, it is still poorly understood how pathogen-mediated selection promotes and maintains MHC diversity, and especially so in host species with highly duplicated MHC genes. Sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) have highly duplicated MHC genes, and using data from high-throughput MHC genotyping, we were able to investigate to what extent avian malaria parasites explain temporal MHC class I supertype fluctuations in a long-term study population. We investigated infection status and infection intensities of two different strains of Haemoproteus, that is avian malaria parasites that are known to have significant fitness consequences in sedge warblers. We found that prevalence of avian malaria in carriers of specific MHC class I supertypes was a significant predictor of their frequency changes between years. This finding suggests that avian malaria infections partly drive the temporal fluctuations of the MHC class I supertypes. Furthermore, we found that individuals with a large number of different supertypes had higher resistance to avian malaria, but there was no evidence for an optimal MHC class I diversity. Thus, the two studied malaria parasite strains appear to select for a high MHC class I supertype diversity. Such selection may explain the maintenance of the extremely high number of MHC class I gene copies in sedge warblers and possibly also in other passerines where avian malaria is a common disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Telecoupling framework for research on migratory species in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Hulina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Migratory species are an important component of biodiversity and provide essential ecosystem services for humans, but many are threatened and endangered. Numerous studies have been conducted on the biology of migratory species, and there is an increased recognition of the major role of human dimensions in conserving migratory species. However, there is a lack of systematic integration of socioeconomic and environmental factors. Because human activities affect migratory species in multiple places, integrating socioeconomic and environmental factors across space is essential, but challenging. The holistic framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances has the potential to help meet this challenge because it enables researchers to integrate human and natural interactions across multiple distant places. The use of the telecoupling framework may also lead to new conservation strategies and actions. To demonstrate its potential, we apply the framework to Kirtland’s warblers ('Setophaga kirtlandii' , a conservation-reliant migratory songbird. Results show accomplishments from long-term research and recovery efforts on the warbler in the context of the telecoupling framework. The results also show 24 research gaps even though the species has been relatively well-studied compared to many other species. An important gap is a lack of systematic studies on feedbacks among breeding, wintering, and stopover sites, as well as other “spillover” systems that may affect and be affected by migration (e.g., via tourism, land use, or climate change. The framework integrated scattered information and provided useful insights about new research topics and flow-centered management approaches that encapsulate the full annual cycle of migration. We also illustrate the similarities and differences between Kirtland’s warblers and several other migratory species, indicating the applicability of the telecoupling framework to

  3. Avian use of forest habitats in the Pembina Hills of northeastern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.; Andrew, Jonathan M.

    1983-01-01

    North Dakota has the least extensive total area of forested habitats of any of the 50 United States. Although occurring in limited area, forest communities add considerably to the total ecological diversity of the State. The forests of the Pembina Hills region in northeastern North Dakota are one of only three areas large enough to be considered of commercial value. During 1981 we studied the avifauna of the upper valley of the Pembina River in the Pembina Hills. Field work extended from 20 April to 23 July; breeding bird censuses were conducted 7 June to 2 July. Of the 120 bird species recorded during the study period, 79 species were recorded during the breeding season. The total breeding population was estimated at nearly 76,000 breeding pairs. The wood warblers (Parulidae) were the most numerous family, accounting for about 28,000 breeding pairs. The yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia) was the most abundant breeding species, making up 19.4% of the population. American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) was second in abundance, accounting for 10.5% of the breeding population. Largest breeding densities occurred in the willow (Salix sp.) shrub community. Although supporting the lowest mean breeding density, quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) forests supported the highest species diversity. First State breeding records were recorded for alder flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) and golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera). Records were obtained for 12 species considered rare or unusual in North Dakota during the breeding season. The status of all species known to have occurred in the study area is described in an annotated species list.

  4. Sea Surface Temperatures Mediated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation Affect Birds Breeding in Temperate Coastal Rain Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Gaston

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the timing of breeding and juvenile/adult ratios among songbirds in temperate rain forests over four years on the Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands archipelago, British Columbia. In May 1998, air temperatures in Haida Gwaii were above average, whereas in 1999 they were the lowest in 20 yr: temperatures in the other two years were closer to normal, although 2001 was almost as cold as 1999. Temperatures closely followed the patterns of sea surface temperatures created by the 1997-1998 El Niño, i.e., warm, event and the subsequent strong La Niña, i.e., cool, event. Timing of breeding, as measured by the first capture of juveniles or by direct observations of hatching, varied by approximately 19 d between the earliest (1998 and latest (1999 years. In 1998, the proportion of juveniles among birds trapped increased steeply as soon as young birds began to appear. In other years, the rate of increase was slower. In 1999, the peak proportions of hatching-year individuals among the foliage-gleaning insectivores, i.e., the Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata, Townsend's Warbler (Dendroica townsendi, and the Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa, were lower than in other years, with almost no young Orange-crowned Warblers captured at all. The pattern of variation in the timing of breeding and in the proportion of hatching-year individuals trapped fitted the temperature data well, although rainfall may also have contributed. We concluded that changes mediated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO in sea surface temperatures off northern British Columbia, through their effects on air temperatures, had a strong effect on the breeding of forest birds, to the point of causing nearly complete reproductive failure for one species in 1999. An intensification of the ENSO cycle could lead to more erratic reproduction for some species.

  5. Contrasting Seasonal Survivorship of Two Migratory Songbirds Wintering in Threatened Mangrove Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance migrants wintering in tropical regions face a number of critical conservation threats throughout their lives, but seasonal estimates of key demographic parameters such as winter survival are rare. Using mist-netting-based mark-recapture data collected in coastal Costa Rica over a six-year period, we examined variation in within- and between-winter survivorship of the Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea; 753 young and 376 adults banded, a declining neotropical habitat specialist that depends on threatened mangrove forests during the nonbreeding season. We derived parallel seasonal survivorship estimates for the Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis; 564 young and 93 adults banded, a cohabitant mangrove specialist that has not shown the same population decline in North America, to assess whether contrasting survivorship might contribute to the observed differences in the species’ population trajectories. Although average annual survival probability was relatively similar between the two species for both young and adult birds, monthly estimates indicated that relative to Northern Waterthrush, Prothonotary Warblers exhibited: greater interannual variation in survivorship, especially within winters; greater variation in survivorship among the three study sites; lower average between-winter survivorship, particularly among females, and; a sharp decline in between-winter survivorship from 2003 to 2009 for both age groups and both sexes. Rather than identifying one seasonal vital rate as a causal factor of Prothonotary Warbler population declines, our species comparison suggests that the combination of variable within-winter survival with decreasing between-winter survival demands a multi-seasonal approach to the conservation of this and other tropical-wintering migrants.

  6. Aridity influences the recovery of vegetation and shrubland birds after wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Gironès, Roger; Brotons, Lluís; Pons, Pere

    2017-01-01

    Wildfires play a determining role in the composition and structure of many plant and animal communities. On the other hand, climate change is considered to be a major driver of current and future fire regime changes. Despite increases in drought in many areas of the world, the effects of aridity on post-fire colonization by animals have been rarely addressed. This study aims to analyse how a regional aridity gradient affects post-fire recovery of vegetation, bird species richness and the numbers of four early to middle-successional warbler species associated with the shrub cover. The database contains bird relative abundance and environmental variables from 3072 censuses in 695 transects located in 70 recently burnt areas (1 to 11 years after wildfire) in Catalonia (Spain), which were sampled between 2006 and 2013. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that plant cover was affected by time since fire, aridity and forest management. However, only the highest vegetation height layer (>100 cm) recovered slower in arid areas after fire. Time since fire positively influenced bird species richness and the relative abundance of the four focal species. The post-fire recovery of Melodious (Hippolais polyglotta) and Subalpine warblers (Sylvia cantillans) was hampered by aridity. Although this was not demonstrated for Dartford (S. undata) and Sardinian warblers (S. melanocephala), their occurrence was low in the driest areas during the first three years after fire. Overall, this study suggests that future increases in aridity can affect plant regeneration after fire and slow down the recovery of animal populations that depend on understorey and shrublands. Given the recently highlighted increases in aridity and fire frequency in Mediterranean-climate regions, improved knowledge on how aridity affects ecological succession is especially necessary.

  7. Auklet (Charadriiformes: Alcidae, Aethia spp.) chick meals from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, have a very low incidence of plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Jones, Ian L; Williams, Jeffrey C; Byrd, G Vernon

    2010-08-01

    The ingestion of plastic marine debris is a chronic problem for some of the world's seabird species, contributing to reduced chick survival, population declines, and deposition of contaminants via absorption in birds' gastrointestinal tract. We analysed the frequency of ingested plastic in chick meals delivered by adults in four species of auklet - Crested (Aethia cristatella), Least (A. pusilla), Parakeet (A. psittacula), and Whiskered (A. pygmaea) - from three breeding colonies in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA over a 14-year period from 1993 to 2006. Among 2541 chick meals, we found plastic in only one - from a Whiskered Auklet on Buldir Island in 1993. While adult Parakeet Auklets have a high frequency of plastic ingestion (over 90%), no chick meals contained plastic. Unlike other seabirds, the planktivorous auklets do not appear to offload plastic to their chicks, and we conclude that auklet chicks are probably at a low risk of contamination from plastic debris. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Freshwater fish as a dietary source of vitamin A in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; Chamnan, Chhoun; Loeung, Deap

    2007-01-01

    determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in samples of raw, whole fish from 29 fish species and in raw, edible parts from 24 species. Replicate samples were analysed in seven selected species. Two species, Parachela siamensis and Rasbora tornieri had very high vitamin A contents >1500 RAE/100 g...... raw, whole fish, and six species (Barbodes altus, Barbodes gonionatus, Dermogenys pusilla, Puntioplites proctozysron and Thynnichthys thynnoides) had high contents of 500-1500RAE/100 g raw, whole fish. Two species, Puntioplites proctozysron and Thynnichthys thynnoides had high vitamin A contents...... of carotenoid bioefficacy for the control of vitamin A deficiency in developing countries. Journal of Nutrition, 132, 2920S-2926S]. Dehydroretinoids (vitamin A(2)) are not converted to all-trans-retinol but have similar metabolic functions. In this paper, RAE refers to the functional bioefficacy as defined...

  9. [Algo-bacterial communities of the Kulunda steppe (Altai region, Russia) soda lakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samylina, O S; Sapozhnikov, F V; Gaĭnanova, O Iu; Riabova, A V; Nikitin, M A; Sorokin, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    The composition and macroscopic structure of the floating oxygenic phototrophic communities from Kulunda steppe soda lakes (Petukhovskoe sodovoe, Tanatara VI, and Gorchiny 3) was described based on the data of the 2011 and 2012 expeditions (Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology). The algo-bacterial community with a green alga Ctenocladus circinnatus as an edificator was the typical one. Filamentous Geitlerinema sp. and Nodosilinea sp. were the dominant cyanobacteria. Apart from C. circinnatus, the algological component of the community contained unicellular green algae Dunaliella viridis and cf. Chlorella minutissima, as well as diatoms (Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brchysira brebissonii, Brachysira zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia communis, and Nitzschia sp.1). The latter have not been previously identified in the lakes under study. In all lakes, a considerable increase in salinity was found to result in changes in the composition and macroscopic structure of algo-bacterial communities.

  10. Polychaetes from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara with the description of a new species of Polydora (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. ÇINAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft-bottom material collected from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara (off Küçükçekmece included a total of 67 species belonging to 24 polychaete families. Three species (Brania pusilla, Lysidice cf. margaritacea and Sabellaria spinulosa are new records for the Sea of Marmara. Three alien species (Polydora cornuta, Prionospio pulchra and Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata were found at the shallow-water stations. Different polychaete assemblages occurred in the area and the mud percentage of sediment and salinity were the main factors related to their distribution. A new Polydora species, which is mainly characterized in having brownish pigmentation solely on the antero-dorsal sides of the body, and falcate major spines with only a bulge (anterior ones or with a bulge and a small tooth, is described.

  11. Microhabitat partitioning between leiuperidae and bufonidae species (amphibia: anura) in tropical dry forest areas in Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Torres, Argelina; Bonilla Gomez, Maria Argenis

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed partitioning of microhabitats by five species of frogs in the families, Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, r. granulosa), and Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops and Pseudopaludicola pusilla) in six different localities of the Colombian Caribbean with tropical dry forest fragments and different land uses. We identified 29 types of microhabitats; permanent ponds in pastures with trees (CPPA) and flooded pastures without trees (PISA) were the most important environmental used. Engystomops pustulosus used the must microhabitats, and none are used by specialist species. Thus, differences in the use of resource on regional and local scales appeared. Dynamics of microhabitat uses was influenced by the climatic variations of the tropical dry forest. Microhabitats distribution as a mechanism of coexistence in these species is implemented for dry season but in rainfall season this mechanism not exists.

  12. Species diversity of the Genus Hoya (Asclepiadaceae in Bukit Batikap Sanctuary Forest, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI RAHAYU

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The Genus Hoya (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae is being appreciated as exotic ornamental plant in Europe, USA and Australia, while in Indonesia as the country of origin still neglected. Indonesia was predicted have the highest Hoya species diversity (about 60 species from 150 species in the world. Among the major Islands in Indonesia, Kalimantan was predicted have the highest diversity in Hoya species. The inventory of the species has been done in the Bukit Batikap Sanctuary Forest, Muller Mountain in Central Kalimantan. Nine Hoya species of about thirties species in Kalimantan were found in Bukit Batikap, namely: H. coronaria Blume, H. cf. erythrostemma Kerr., H. latifolia G. Don., H. mitrata Kerr., H. nummularioides Const., H. pusilla Rintz, H. revoluta Wight, H. scortechinii King & Gamble, and Hoya cf. vaccinioides Hook.f.

  13. USE OF DIATOMS TO ASSES WATER QUALITY OF ANTHROPOGENICALLY MODIFIED MATYSÓWKA STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Noga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matysówka stream is small, under 6 km long watercourse, which is a right-bank tributary of Strug River. In 2009–2011studies on the subject of diversity of diatom communities using diatom indices IPS, GDI and TDI for water quality assessment were conducted. On the stream 271 diatom taxa were identified, among which: Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, Navicula cryptotenella, N. gregaria, N. lanceolata, N. tripunctata, Nitzschia linearis, N. pusilla, N. recta, Planothidium frequentissimum, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata were the most frequent. Middle and lower section of Matysówka stream was characterized by increased concentrations of phosphates, nitrites, ammonium, total phosphorus and nitrogen, BOD5. On the basis of diatom indices IPS and GDI waters were characterized as III–IV quality classes, while the TDI index revealed the worst water quality classes (IV–V.

  14. Do females invest more into eggs when males sing more attractively? Postmating sexual selection strategies in a monogamous reed passerine

    OpenAIRE

    Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta; Majtan, Juraj; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Hoi, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Maternal investment can play an important role for offspring fitness, especially in birds, as females have to provide their eggs with all the necessary nutrients for the development of the embryo. It is known that this type of maternal investment can be influenced by the quality of the male partner. In this study, we first verify that male song is important in the mate choice of female Eurasian reed warblers, as males mate faster when their singing is more complex. Furthermore, female egg inv...

  15. Foraging behavior of three passerines in mature bottomland hardwood forests during summer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffington, J., Matthew; Kilgo, John, C.; Sargent, Robert, A.; Miller, Karl, V.; Chapman, Brian, R.

    2001-08-01

    Attention has focused on forest management practices and the interactions between birds and their habitat, as a result of apparent declines in populations of many forest birds. Although avian diversity and abundance have been studied in various forest habitats, avian foraging behavior is less well known. Although there are published descriptions of avian foraging behaviors in the western United States descriptions from the southeastern United States are less common. This article reports on the foraging behavior of the White-eyed Vireo, Northern Parula, and Hooded Warbler in mature bottomland hardwood forests in South Carolina.

  16. Closer clutch inspection—quicker egg ejection: timing of host responses toward parasitic eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Polačiková, Lenka; Honza, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2011), s. 46-51 ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * brood parasitism * egg discrimination * egg ejection time * great reed warbler * nest inspection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.083, year: 2011

  17. Double keystone bird in a keystone species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R; Haddad, N M

    1993-01-15

    Species in a Colorado subalpine ecosystem show subtle interdependences. Red-naped sapsuckers play two distinct keystone roles. They excavate nest cavities in fungus-infected aspens that are required as nest sites by two species of swallows, and they drill sap wells into willows that provide abundant nourishment for themselves, hummingbirds, orange-crowned warblers, chipmunks, and an array of other sap robbers. The swallows thus depend on, and the sap robbers benefit from, a keystone species complex comprised of sapsuckers, willows, aspens, and a heartwood fungus. Disappearance of any element of the complex could cause an unanticipated unraveling of the community.

  18. Variación temporal y espacial de aves playeras en la laguna Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, en tres temporadas no reproductivas Temporal and spatial variation of shorebirds in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Jalisco, during three non-breeding seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hay un escaso conocimiento de las aves playeras en los humedales costeros de Jalisco, y en particular en la laguna Barra de Navidad. El presente trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de este grupo de aves y describe su distribución temporal y espacial en la laguna Barra de Navidad durante tres temporadas no reproductivas (1999-2000, 2006-2007 y 2008-2009. Se realizaron censos mensuales de noviembre-abril en las tres temporadas con el fin de registrar todas las especies de aves playeras. Se identificaron 19 especies (tres residentes y 16 visitantes de invierno, de las cuales Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa y Tringa semipalmata presentaron la mayor abundancia. Doce especies son consideradas como prioritarias en la “Estrategia para la Conservación y Manejo de las Aves Playeras y su Hábitat en México”. El mayor número de especies fue registrado en noviembre, diciembre y marzo en la primera y tercera temporada. El mayor número de individuos fue registrado alimentándose en marea baja, principalmente en diciembre, enero y febrero de la primera y tercera temporada. En marea baja hubo un mayor número de especies e individuos alimentándose en la zona C. Esta zona se caracterizó por tener sustratos lodosos expuestos durante marea baja y que fueron aprovechados por las aves para alimentarse. La laguna Barra de Navidad proporcionó hábitats de alimentación y descanso para las aves residentes y migratorias. Sin embargo, estos hábitats se ven amenazados por las actividades humanas realizadas dentro de la laguna, que sin duda tendrán consecuencias negativas para la distribución y abundancia de las aves playeras.Resident and migratory shorebirds inhabit different kinds of wetlands such as lagoons, rivers and seashores among others. In recent years, these areas have been importantly affected by urban, agriculture and touristic activities, such as the Barra de Navidad lagoon, for which little information is available to support conservation

  19. Notes on the Birds of Central Oaxaca, Part III: Hirundinidae to Fringillidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Forcey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Notas sobre las aves de Oaxaca central, parte II: Hirundinidae a Fringillidae Se reportan nuevos datos que amplían y clarifican nuestro conocimiento del estatus y distribución de 112 especies de aves en la región central del Estado de Oaxaca. Las observaciones se realizaron abarcando partes de los distritos de Centro, Etla, Ixtlan, Tlacolula, y Zaachila dentro de 35 km alrededor de la Ciudad de Oaxaca. El reporte se basa en observaciones tomadas durante 752 días, comprendidos entre diciembre 1996 y mayo 2002. Los principales hábitats del área son de pino-encino (incluyendo zonas pequeñas de pino-encino-oyamel y pino-encino mezclado con pastizales, matorral de encino, matorral subtropical, vegetación riparia, y vegetación secundaria, campos agrícolas y otros (incluyendo áreas urbanas, jardines, y parques. Las siguientes especies se reportan por primera vez en la zona: Progne sinaloae (registro nuevo en el estado de Oaxaca, Thryothorus felix, Hylocichla mustelina, Vermivora pinus, Vermivora chrysoptera, Dendroica pensylvanica, Dendroica magnolia, Dendroica fusca, Dendroica graciae, Oporornis philadelphia, Wilsonia canadensis, y Spiza americana.Además, las siguientes nueve especies se han reportado solamente en los Conteos Navideños o por registros únicos: Tachycineta bicolor, Dumetella carolinensis, Vermivora peregrina, Dendroica dominica, Dendroica discolor, y Piranga erythrocephala (en temporada de reproducción. Se reportan datos de la reproducción de 43 especies, 18 de los cuales no se habían registrado en estado reproductivo antes en esta zona. De estos 43, 39 se pueden agrupar como reproduciéndose en los meses de abril a julio.

  20. Assessing the Impact of Spectral Resolution on Classification of Lowland Native Grassland Communities Based on Field Spectroscopy in Tasmania, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Melville

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study for the analysis of endangered lowland native grassland communities in the Tasmanian Midlands region using field spectroscopy and spectral convolution techniques. The aim of the study was to determine whether there was significant improvement in classification accuracy for lowland native grasslands and other vegetation communities based on hyperspectral resolution datasets over multispectral equivalents. A spectral dataset was collected using an ASD Handheld-2 spectroradiometer at Tunbridge Township Lagoon. The study then employed a k-fold cross-validation approach for repeated classification of a full hyperspectral dataset, a reduced hyperspectral dataset, and two convoluted multispectral datasets. Classification was performed on each of the four datasets a total of 30 times, based on two different class configurations. The classes analysed were Themeda triandra grassland, Danthonia/Poa grassland, Wilsonia rotundifolia/Selliera radicans, saltpan, and a simplified C3 vegetation class. The results of the classifications were then tested for statistically significant differences using ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc comparisons. The results of the study indicated that hyperspectral resolution provides small but statistically significant increases in classification accuracy for Themeda and Danthonia grasslands. For other classes, differences in classification accuracy for all datasets were not statistically significant. The results obtained here indicate that there is some potential for enhanced detection of major lowland native grassland community types using hyperspectral resolution datasets, and that future analysis should prioritise good performance in these classes over others. This study presents a method for identification of optimal spectral resolution across multiple datasets, and constitutes an important case study for lowland native grassland mapping in Tasmania.

  1. Variación temporal y espacial de aves playeras en la laguna Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, en tres temporadas no reproductivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hay un escaso conocimiento de las aves playeras en los humedales costeros de Jalisco, y en particular en la laguna Barra de Navidad. El presente trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de este grupo de aves y describe su distribución temporal y espacial en la laguna Barra de Navidad durante tres temporadas no reproductivas (1999-2000, 2006-2007 y 2008-2009. Se realizaron censos mensuales de noviembre-abril en las tres temporadas con el fin de registrar todas las especies de aves playeras. Se identificaron 19 especies (tres residentes y 16 visitantes de invierno, de las cuales Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa y Tringa semipalmata presentaron la mayor abundancia. Doce especies son consideradas como prioritarias en la “Estrategia para la Conservación y Manejo de las Aves Playeras y su Hábitat en México”. El mayor número de especies fue registrado en noviembre, diciembre y marzo en la primera y tercera temporada. El mayor número de individuos fue registrado alimentándose en marea baja, principalmente en diciembre, enero y febrero de la primera y tercera temporada. En marea baja hubo un mayor número de especies e individuos alimentándose en la zona C. Esta zona se caracterizó por tener sustratos lodosos expuestos durante marea baja y que fueron aprovechados por las aves para alimentarse. La laguna Barra de Navidad proporcionó hábitats de alimentación y descanso para las aves residentes y migratorias. Sin embargo, estos hábitats se ven amenazados por las actividades humanas realizadas dentro de la laguna, que sin duda tendrán consecuencias negativas para la distribución y abundancia de las aves playeras.

  2. Bird diversity and distribution in relation to urban landscape types in northern Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesire, T; Nsabimana, D; Nyiramana, A; Seburanga, J L; Mirville, M O

    2014-01-01

    Using the point count method, linear mixed models, Shannon's diversity index, and Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, we conducted a study of the effect of urban fabric layout on bird diversity and distribution in northern Rwanda. The results showed a significant effect of city landscapes on bird richness and relative abundance; residential neighborhoods, institutional grounds, and informal settlements had the highest species diversity in comparison to other microlandscape types. Riversides were characterized by specialized bird species, commonly known to be restricted to wetland environments. Built-up areas and open field landscapes had comparable results. One Albertine Rift endemic bird species, the Ruwenzori Double-collared Sunbird (Cinnyris stuhlmanni), was recorded. Three migratory birds were found in Musanze city for the first time: the Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos), the Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata), and the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus). Two bird species have not been previously reported in Rwanda: the Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin) and the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina). The implications of this study are particularly relevant to urban decision makers who should consider the existence of a great diversity of avian fauna when developing and implementing master plans, especially when villages and cities are in proximity of protected areas or natural reserves.

  3. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  4. Postbreeding elevational movements of western songbirds in Northern California and Southern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegardt, Andrew; Wolfe, Jared; Ralph, C John; Stephens, Jaime L; Alexander, John

    2017-10-01

    Migratory species employ a variety of strategies to meet energetic demands of postbreeding molt. As such, at least a few species of western Neotropical migrants are known to undergo short-distance upslope movements to locations where adults molt body and flight feathers (altitudinal molt migration). Given inherent difficulties in measuring subtle movements of birds occurring in western mountains, we believe that altitudinal molt migration may be a common yet poorly documented phenomenon. To examine prevalence of altitudinal molt migration, we used 29 years of bird capture data in a series of linear mixed-effect models for nine commonly captured species that breed in northern California and southern Oregon. Candidate models were formulated a priori to examine whether elevation and distance from the coast can be used to predict abundance of breeding and molting birds. Our results suggest that long-distance migrants such as Orange-crowned Warbler ( Oreothlypis celata ) moved higher in elevation and Audubon's Warbler ( Setophaga coronata ) moved farther inland to molt after breeding. Conversely, for resident and short-distance migrants, we found evidence that birds either remained on the breeding grounds until they finished molting, such as Song Sparrow ( Melospiza melodia ) or made small downslope movements, such as American Robin ( Turdus migratorius ). We conclude that altitudinal molt migration may be a common, variable, and complex behavior among western songbird communities and is related to other aspects of a species' natural history, such as migratory strategy.

  5. Transoceanic migration by a 12 g songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, William V; Woodworth, Bradley K; Rimmer, Christopher C; Marra, Peter P; Taylor, Philip D; McFarland, Kent P; Mackenzie, Stuart A; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Many fundamental aspects of migration remain a mystery, largely due to our inability to follow small animals over vast spatial areas. For more than 50 years, it has been hypothesized that, during autumn migration, blackpoll warblers (Setophaga striata) depart northeastern North America and undertake a non-stop flight over the Atlantic Ocean to either the Greater Antilles or the northeastern coast of South America. Using miniaturized light-level geolocators, we provide the first irrefutable evidence that the blackpoll warbler, a 12 g boreal forest songbird, completes an autumn transoceanic migration ranging from 2270 to 2770 km (mean ± s.d.: 2540 ± 257) and requiring up to 3 days (62 h ± 10) of non-stop flight. This is one of the longest non-stop overwater flights recorded for a songbird and confirms what has long been believed to be one of the most extraordinary migratory feats on the planet. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular phylogenetics of finches and sparrows: consequences of character state removal in cytochrome b sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, J G

    1998-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial cytochrome b genes of 53 genera of oscine passerine birds representing the major groups of finches and some allies were compared. Phylogenetic trees resulting from three levels of character partition removal (no data removed, transitions at third positions of codons removed, and all transitions removed [transversion parsimony]) were generally concordant, and all supported several basic statements regarding relationships of finches and finch-like birds, including: (1) larks (Alaudidae) show no close relationship to any finch group; (2) Peucedramus (olive warbler) is phylogenetically far removed from true wood warblers; (3) a clade consisting of fringillids, passerids, motacillids, and emberizids is supported, and this clade is characterized by evolution of a vestigial 10th wing primary; and (4) Hawaiian honeycreepers are derived from within the cardueline finches. Excluding transition substitutions at third positions of codons resulted in phylogenetic trees similar to, but with greater bootstrap nodal support than, trees derived using either all data (equally weighted) or transversion parsimony. Relative to the shortest trees obtained using all data, the topologies obtained after elimination of third-position transitions showed only slight increases in realized treelength and homoplasy. These increases were negligable compared to increases in overall nodal support; therefore, this partition removal scheme may enhance recovery of deep phylogenetic signal in protein-coding DNA datasets. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  7. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  8. Breeding biology and natural history of the Slate-throated Whitestart in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggera, R.A.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We provide details on the breeding biology of the Slate-throated Whitestart (Myioborus miniatus) from 126 nests found during seven breeding seasons, 2002-2008, at Yacamb?? National Park, Venezuela. Nesting activity peaked in late April and May. Only the female built the nest and incubated the eggs. Males rarely visited the nest during these stages. Mean clutch size (2.1 ?? 0.04 eggs, n = 93) was the smallest recorded for the Slate-throated Whitestart. Incubation and nestling period lengths were 15.3 ?? 0.31 (n = 21) and 10.8 ?? 0.24 (n = 7) days, respectively. Attentiveness (% of time on the nest) during incubation (59 ?? 1.6%, n = 52) was similar to other tropical warblers and much lower than northern relatives. This caused a relatively low egg temperature (34.40 ?? 0.33u C, n = ?? nests, 20 days) compared with north temperate birds. Both parents fed nestlings and increased their provisioning rates with nestling age. Growth rate based on nestling mass (k = 0.521 ?? 0.015) was faster than for other tropical passerines but slower than northern relatives. Predation was the main cause of nesting failure and rate of predation increased with age of the nest. An estimated 15% of nests were successful based on an overall Mayfield daily predation rate of 0.053 ?? 0.007. This study confirms a strong latitudinal variation in life history traits of warblers. ?? 2010 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  9. Ghrelin affects stopover decisions and food intake in a long-distance migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Lupi, Sara; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Fusani, Leonida

    2017-02-21

    Billions of birds migrate long distances to either reach breeding areas or to spend the winter at more benign places. On migration, most passerines frequently stop over to rest and replenish their fuel reserves. To date, we know little regarding how they decide that they are ready to continue their journey. What physiological signals tell a bird's brain that its fuel reserves are sufficient to resume migration? A network of hormones regulates food intake and body mass in vertebrates, including the recently discovered peptide hormone, ghrelin. Here, we show that ghrelin reflects body condition and influences migratory behavior of wild birds. We measured ghrelin levels of wild garden warblers ( Sylvia borin ) captured at a stopover site. Further, we manipulated blood concentrations of ghrelin to test its effects on food intake and migratory restlessness. We found that acylated ghrelin concentrations of garden warblers with larger fat scores were higher than those of birds without fat stores. Further, injections of unacylated ghrelin decreased food intake and increased migratory restlessness. These results represent experimental evidence that appetite-regulating hormones control migratory behavior. Our study lays a milestone in migration physiology because it provides the missing link between ecologically dependent factors such as condition and timing of migration. In addition, it offers insights in the regulation of the hormonal system controlling food intake and energy stores in vertebrates, whose disruption causes eating disorders and obesity.

  10. Nest predation risk explains variation in avian clutch size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Kristen G.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2018-01-01

    Questions about the ecological drivers of, and mechanistic constraints on, productivity have driven research on life-history evolution for decades. Resource availability and offspring mortality are considered among the 2 most important influences on the number of offspring per reproductive attempt. We used a factorial experimental design to manipulate food abundance and perceived offspring predation risk in a wild avian population (red-faced warblers; Cardellina rubrifrons) to identify the mechanistic cause of variation in avian clutch size. Additionally, we tested whether female quality helped explain the extant variation in clutch size. We found no support for the Food Limitation or Female Quality Hypotheses, but we did find support for both predictions of the Nest Predation Risk Hypothesis. Females that experienced an experimentally heightened perception of offspring predation risk responded by laying a smaller clutch than females in the control group. Additionally, predation rates at artificial nests were highest where red-faced warbler clutch size was smallest (at high elevations). Life-history theory predicts that an individual should invest less in reproduction when high nest predation risk reduces the likely benefit from that nesting attempt and, indeed, we found that birds exhibit phenotypic plasticity in clutch size by laying fewer eggs in response to increasing nest predation risk.

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Calispell Creek Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Calispell Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in February 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Calispell Creek Project provides a total of 138.17 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 5.16 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Grassland provides 132.02 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 0.99 HUs for yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Calispell Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  12. The effects of force-fledging and premature fledging on the survival of nestling songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Iknayan, Kelly J.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the broad consensus that force-fledging of nestling songbirds lowers their probability of survival and therefore should be generally avoided by researchers, that presumption has not been tested. We used radiotelemetry to monitor the survival of fledglings of OvenbirdsSeiurus aurocapilla and Golden-winged Warblers Vermivora chrysoptera that we unintentionally force-fledged (i.e. nestlings left the nest in response to our research activities at typical fledging age), that fledged prematurely (i.e. nestlings left the nest earlier than typical fledging age), and that fledged independently of our activities. Force-fledged Ovenbirds experienced significantly higher survival than those that fledged independent of our activities, and prematurely fledged Ovenbirds had a similarly high survival to those that force-fledged at typical fledging age. We observed a similar, though not statistically significant, pattern in Golden-winged Warbler fledgling survival. Our results suggest that investigator-induced force-fledging of nestlings, even when deemed premature, does not necessarily result in reduced fledgling survival in these species. Instead, our results suggest that a propensity or ability to fledge in response to disturbance may be a predictor of a higher probability of fledgling survival.

  13. Partners in flight bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Butcher, G.; Fitzgerald, J.; Shieldcastle, J.

    2001-01-01

    1 November 2001. Conservation of bird habitats is a major focus of effort by Partners in Flight, an international coalition of agencies, citizens, and other groups dedicated to 'keeping common birds common'. USGS worked on a planning team to publish a bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain ecoregion (PIF 16), which includes large portions of southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan and parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The conservation plan outlines specific habitat restoration and bird population objectives for the ecoregion over the next decade. The plan provides a context for on-the-ground conservation implementation by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the US Forest Service, states, and conservation groups. Citation: Knutson, M. G., G. Butcher, J. Fitzgerald, and J. Shieldcastle. 2001. Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for The Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16). USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center in cooperation with Partners in Flight, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Download from website: http://www.blm.gov/wildlife/pifplans.htm. The Upper Great Lakes Plain covers the southern half of Michigan, northwest Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and small portions of southwest Minnesota and northwest Iowa. Glacial moraines and dissected plateaus are characteristic of the topography. Broadleaf forests, oak savannahs, and a variety of prairie communities are the natural vegetation types. A oDriftless Areao was not glaciated during the late Pleistocene and emerged as a unique area of great biological diversity. Priority bird species for the area include the Henslow's Sparrow, Sedge Wren, Bobolink, Golden-winged Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black-billed Cuckoo, and Red-headed Woodpecker. There are many large urban centers in this area whose growth and sprawl will continue to consume land. The vast majority of the presettlement forest and

  14. Studies in American orchids VII Studies in American orchids VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garay Leslie A.

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla rubra (Lam. Urb. in Fedde Rep. Beih, 5: 157, 1920 / Elleanthus Kalbreyeri Garay, nom. nov. / Elleanthus lancifolius Presl, Rel. Haenk. 97, 1827 / Pleurothallis cardiothallis Rchb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 15: 158, 1857 / Pleurothallis excelsa Garay, sp. nov. / Platystele Johnstonii (Ames Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele propinqua (Ames, Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele xiphochila (Rchb. f. Garay, comb. nov. / Lepanthopsis serrulata (Cogn. Hespenheide & Garay, comb. nov. / Masdevallia bulbophyllopsis Krzl. in Fedde Rep. 17: 412, 1921. / Masdevallia heteroptera Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 3: 590, 1875. / Masdevallia velutina  Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 4: 420, 1875 / Epidendrum bracteolatum Presl, ReI. Haenk. 100, 1827 / Epidendrum infaustum Rchb. f. in Hamb. Gartenz. 19: 13, 1863 / Epidendrum jejunum Rchb. f. in Otia Bot. Hamb, 12, 1878 / Epidendrum vernixium Rchb. f. & Warsc. in Bonpl. 2: 110, 1854 / Maxillaria ochracea (Rchb. f. Garay, comb. nov / Odontoglossum narthecioides (Krzl. Garay, comb. nov. / Sigmatostalix auriculata, Garay, sp. nov. / Sigmatostalix  Brownii Garay,· sp. nov / Rusbyella pusilla (C. Schweinf. Garay, comb. nov / Sphyrastylis ecuadorensis Garay, sp. nov / Pterostemma  calceolaris Garay, sp. nov.Vanilla rubra (Lam. Urb. in Fedde Rep. Beih, 5: 157, 1920 / Elleanthus Kalbreyeri Garay, nom. nov. / Elleanthus lancifolius Presl, Rel. Haenk. 97, 1827 / Pleurothallis cardiothallis Rchb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 15: 158, 1857 / Pleurothallis excelsa Garay, sp. nov. / Platystele Johnstonii (Ames Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele propinqua (Ames, Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele xiphochila (Rchb. f. Garay, comb. nov. / Lepanthopsis serrulata (Cogn. Hespenheide & Garay, comb. nov. / Masdevallia bulbophyllopsis Krzl. in Fedde Rep. 17: 412, 1921. / Masdevallia heteroptera Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 3: 590, 1875. / Masdevallia velutina  Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 4: 420, 1875 / Epidendrum bracteolatum Presl, ReI. Haenk. 100, 1827

  15. Analysis of vegetation in an Imperata grassland of Barak valley, Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapati, Ashim Das; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Imperata grassland at Dorgakona, Barak valley, North Eastern India was analyzed for species composition and diversity pattern in relation to traditional management practices. 19 families were in the burnt and unburnt plots of the study site with Poaceae as the most dominant one. 29 species occurred in the burnt plot and 28 in the unburnt plot. Most of the species were common in both the plots. The pattern of frequency diagrams indicated that the vegetation was homogeneous. Imperata cylindrica, a rhizomatous grass was the dominant species based on density (318.75 and 304.18 nos. m(-2)), basal cover (158.22 and 148.34 cm2 m(-2)) and Importance value index (IVI) (132.64 and 138.74) for the burnt and unburnt plots respectively. Borreria pusilla was the co-dominant species constituting Imperata-Borreria assemblage of the studied grassland. It was observed that B. pusilla (162.25 nos. m(-2) and 50.37 nos. m(-2), I. cylindrica (318.75 nos. m(-2) and 304.18 nos. m(-2)) and Setaria glauca (24.70 nos. m(-2) and 16.46 nos. m(-2) were benefited from burning as shown by the values sequentially placed for burnt and unburnt plots. Certain grasses like Chrysopogon aciculatus and Sacciolepis indica were restricted to burnt plot while Oxalis corniculata showed its presence to unburnt plot. Grasses dominated the grassland as revealed by their contribution to the mean percentage cover of 72% in burnt plot and 76% in umburnt plot. The dominance-diversity curves in the study site approaches a log normal series distribution suggesting that the resources are shared by the constituent species. Seasonal pattern in diversity index suggested definite influence of climatic seasonality on species diversity; rainy season was conducive for maximum diversity (1.40 and 1.38 in the burnt and unburnt plots, respectively). Dominance increased with concentration of fewer species (0.0021 in burnt plot and 0.0055 in unbumt plot) in summer and behaves inversely to index of diversity. This study showed

  16. Birds, Lower Sangay National Park, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental ofEcuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay NationalPark (SNP. One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, includingnoteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846 (WhitebeardedHermit, Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan, Phylloscartes orbitalis(Cabanis 1873 (Spectacled Bristle Tyrant, and Microcerculus bambla (Boddaert 1783 (Wing-banded Wren.We also obtained information on threatened species such as Aburria aburri (Lesson 1828 (Wattled Guan,Phlogophilus hemileucurus Gould 1860 (Ecuadorian Piedtail, and Dendroica cerulea (Wilson 1810 (CeruleanWarbler and reproductive data on one species, Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin 1789 (Scaled Pigeon. To ourknowledge this is a first ornithological survey carried out at this specific site of the SNP.

  17. Nocturnal activity of nesting shrubland and grassland passerines: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Christy M.; Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine; Smith, Kimberly G.; Schmitz, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nocturnal activity of nesting passerines is largely undocumented in field situations. We used video recordings to quantify sleep patterns of four shrubland and three grassland bird species during the nestling period. All species exhibited “back sleep” (bill tucked under scapular feathers); individuals woke frequently for vigils of their surroundings. Sleep-bout duration varied from 6 minutes (grasshopper sparrow) to 28 minutes (blue-winged warbler, field sparrow). Duration on nest varied from 6.4 hours (field sparrow) to 8.8 hours (indigo bunting). Adults woke 20–30 minutes before sunrise. First morning absence from the nest was short; nestlings were fed within 12 minutes of a parent’s departure. Further research is needed to understand energetic costs of sleep and behavioral adaptations to environmental pressures.

  18. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  19. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment/management plan and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Priest River Project, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 140.73 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 60.05 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow habitat provides 7.39 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 71.13 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Open water habitat provides 2.16 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. The objective of using HEP at the Priest River Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  1. In silico peptide-binding predictions of passerine MHC class I reveal similarities across distantly related species, suggesting convergence on the level of protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, Elna; Karlsson, Maria; Lundegaard, Claus; Nielsen, Morten; Wallin, Stefan; Paulsson, Kajsa; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-04-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes found in the vertebrate genome, and they encode proteins that play an essential role in the adaptive immune response. Many songbirds (passerines) have been shown to have a large number of transcribed MHC class I genes compared to most mammals. To elucidate the reason for this large number of genes, we compared 14 MHC class I alleles (α1-α3 domains), from great reed warbler, house sparrow and tree sparrow, via phylogenetic analysis, homology modelling and in silico peptide-binding predictions to investigate their functional and genetic relationships. We found more pronounced clustering of the MHC class I allomorphs (allele specific proteins) in regards to their function (peptide-binding specificities) compared to their genetic relationships (amino acid sequences), indicating that the high number of alleles is of functional significance. The MHC class I allomorphs from house sparrow and tree sparrow, species that diverged 10 million years ago (MYA), had overlapping peptide-binding specificities, and these similarities across species were also confirmed in phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences. Notably, there were also overlapping peptide-binding specificities in the allomorphs from house sparrow and great reed warbler, although these species diverged 30 MYA. This overlap was not found in a tree based on amino acid sequences. Our interpretation is that convergent evolution on the level of the protein function, possibly driven by selection from shared pathogens, has resulted in allomorphs with similar peptide-binding repertoires, although trans-species evolution in combination with gene conversion cannot be ruled out.

  2. Landscape capability models as a tool to predict fine-scale forest bird occupancy and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Zachary G.; DeLuca, William; Harrison, Daniel J.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Rolek, Brian W.; Wood, Petra B.

    2018-01-01

    ContextSpecies-specific models of landscape capability (LC) can inform landscape conservation design. Landscape capability is “the ability of the landscape to provide the environment […] and the local resources […] needed for survival and reproduction […] in sufficient quantity, quality and accessibility to meet the life history requirements of individuals and local populations.” Landscape capability incorporates species’ life histories, ecologies, and distributions to model habitat for current and future landscapes and climates as a proactive strategy for conservation planning.ObjectivesWe tested the ability of a set of LC models to explain variation in point occupancy and abundance for seven bird species representative of spruce-fir, mixed conifer-hardwood, and riparian and wooded wetland macrohabitats.MethodsWe compiled point count data sets used for biological inventory, species monitoring, and field studies across the northeastern United States to create an independent validation data set. Our validation explicitly accounted for underestimation in validation data using joint distance and time removal sampling.ResultsBlackpoll warbler (Setophaga striata), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and Louisiana (Parkesia motacilla) and northern waterthrush (P. noveboracensis) models were validated as predicting variation in abundance, although this varied from not biologically meaningful (1%) to strongly meaningful (59%). We verified all seven species models [including ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), blackburnian (Setophaga fusca) and cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea)], as all were positively related to occupancy data.ConclusionsLC models represent a useful tool for conservation planning owing to their predictive ability over a regional extent. As improved remote-sensed data become available, LC layers are updated, which will improve predictions.

  3. Differences in breeding bird assemblages related to reed canary grass cover cover and forest structure on the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Gray, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain forest of the Upper Mississippi River provides habitat for an abundant and diverse breeding bird community. However, reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea invasion is a serious threat to the future condition of this forest. Reed canary grass is a well-known aggressive invader of wetland systems in the northern tier states of the conterminous United States. Aided by altered flow regimes and nutrient inputs from agriculture, reed canary grass has formed dense stands in canopy gaps and forest edges, retarding tree regeneration. We sampled vegetation and breeding birds in Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest edge and interior areas to 1) measure reed canary grass cover and 2) evaluate whether the breeding bird assemblage responded to differences in reed canary grass cover. Reed canary grass was found far into forest interiors, and its cover was similar between interior and edge sites. Bird assemblages differed between areas with more or less reed canary grass cover (.53% cover breakpoint). Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, black-capped chickadee Parus atricapillus, and rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus were more common and American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, great crested flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, and Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula were less common in sites with more reed canary grass cover. Bird diversity and abundance were similar between sites with different reed canary grass cover. A stronger divergence in bird assemblages was associated with ground cover ,15%, resulting from prolonged spring flooding. These sites hosted more prothonotary warbler Protonotaria citrea, but they had reduced bird abundance and diversity compared to other sites. Our results indicate that frequently flooded sites may be important for prothonotary warblers and that bird assemblages shift in response to reed canary grass invasion.

  4. Binational climate change vulnerability assessment of migratory birds in the Great Lakes Basins: Tools and impediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Rempel

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global concern, requiring international strategies to reduce emissions, however, climate change vulnerability assessments are often local in scope with assessment areas restricted to jurisdictional boundaries. In our study we explored tools and impediments to understanding and responding to the effects of climate change on vulnerability of migratory birds from a binational perspective. We apply and assess the utility of a Climate Change Vulnerability Index on 3 focal species using distribution or niche modeling frameworks. We use the distributional forecasts to explore possible changes to jurisdictional conservation responsibilities resulting from shifting distributions for: eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna, wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina, and hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina. We found the Climate Change Vulnerability Index to be a well-organized approach to integrating numerous lines of evidence concerning effects of climate change, and provided transparency to the final assessment of vulnerability. Under this framework, we identified that eastern meadowlark and wood thrush are highly vulnerable to climate change, but hooded warbler is less vulnerable. Our study revealed impediments to assessing and modeling vulnerability to climate change from a binational perspective, including gaps in data or modeling for climate exposure parameters. We recommend increased cross-border collaboration to enhance the availability and resources needed to improve vulnerability assessments and development of conservation strategies. We did not find evidence to suggest major shifts in jurisdictional responsibility for the 3 focal species, but results do indicate increasing responsibility for these birds in the Canadian Provinces. These Provinces should consider conservation planning to help ensure a future supply of necessary habitat for these species.

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Beaver Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 14, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 232.26 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 136.58 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 20.02 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetland habitat provides 7.67 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 22.69 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetlands provide 35.04 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Open water provided 10.26 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Upper Trimble Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Upper Trimble property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in March 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Upper Trimble Project provides a total of 250.67 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Wet meadow provides 136.92 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Mixed forest habitat provides 111.88 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 1.87 HUs for yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Upper Trimble Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Tacoma Creek South Project, Technical Report 2003-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Tacoma Creek South property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in June 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Tacoma Creek South Project provides a total of 190.79 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetlands provide 20.51 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Grassland provides 1.65 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 11.76 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 139.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forest also provides 19.15 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Tacoma Creek South Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  8. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Carey Creek, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    In August 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Carey Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Carey Creek Project provides a total of 172.95 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 4.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetlands provide 52.68 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 2.82 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow and grassland meadow provide 98.13 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Emergent wetlands provide 11.53 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Open water provides 2.88 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Carey Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  9. Assessing the sensitivity of avian species abundance to land cover and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Jaymi J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Thompson, Frank R.; Dijak, William D.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate projections for the Midwestern United States predict southerly climates to shift northward. These shifts in climate could alter distributions of species across North America through changes in climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation), or through climate-induced changes on land cover. Our objective was to determine the relative impacts of land cover and climate on the abundance of five bird species in the Central United States that have habitat requirements ranging from grassland and shrubland to forest. We substituted space for time to examine potential impacts of a changing climate by assessing climate and land cover relationships over a broad latitudinal gradient. We found positive and negative relationships of climate and land cover factors with avian abundances. Habitat variables drove patterns of abundance in migratory and resident species, although climate was also influential in predicting abundance for some species occupying more open habitat (i.e., prairie warbler, blue-winged warbler, and northern bobwhite). Abundance of northern bobwhite increased with winter temperature and was the species exhibiting the most significant effect of climate. Models for birds primarily occupying early successional habitats performed better with a combination of habitat and climate variables whereas models of species found in contiguous forest performed best with land cover alone. These varied species-specific responses present unique challenges to land managers trying to balance species conservation over a variety of land covers. Management activities focused on increasing forest cover may play a role in mitigating effects of future climate by providing habitat refugia to species vulnerable to projected changes. Conservation efforts would be best served focusing on areas with high species abundances and an array of habitats. Future work managing forests for resilience and resistance to climate change could benefit species already susceptible to climate impacts.

  10. Estimating the Effects of Habitat and Biological Interactions in an Avian Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Dorazio

    Full Text Available We used repeated sightings of individual birds encountered in community-level surveys to investigate the relative roles of habitat and biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of each species. To analyze these data, we developed a multispecies N-mixture model that allowed estimation of both positive and negative correlations between abundances of different species while also estimating the effects of habitat and the effects of errors in detection of each species. Using a combination of single- and multispecies N-mixture modeling, we examined for each species whether our measures of habitat were sufficient to account for the variation in encounter histories of individual birds or whether other habitat variables or interactions with other species needed to be considered. In the community that we studied, habitat appeared to be more influential than biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of most avian species. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that abundances of forest specialists are negatively affected by forest fragmentation. Our results also suggest that many species were associated with particular types of vegetation as measured by structural attributes of the forests. The abundances of 6 of the 73 species observed in our study were strongly correlated. These species included large birds (American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus that forage on the ground in open habitats and small birds (Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus, House Wren (Troglodytes aedon, Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina, and Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor that are associated with dense shrub cover. Species abundances were positively correlated within each size group and negatively correlated between groups. Except for the American Crow, which preys on eggs and nestlings of small song birds, none of the other 5 species is known to display direct interactions, so we

  11. Effects on forest birds of DDT used for gypsy moth control in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Pough, R.H.

    1946-01-01

    1. Systematic censuses of the birds on three 40-acre tracts of forest near Scranton, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, were made between May 1 and June 27, 1945, to determine the breeding populations....2. Between May 24 and June 1 a 600-acre area enclosing the first (Mile Square) was sprayed by airplane with DDT in oil solution at 5 pounds per acre. On June 9 a 350-acre area enclosing the second tract (Maple Lake) was sprayed with 1pound of DDT per acre. The third tract (Check) was not treated....3. Within 48 hours after treatment of the Mile Square tract, five sick birds were found with symptoms of DDT poisoning, and all died. Two other dead birds were found, and two nests apparently were abandoned. Species involved were red-eyed vireo (3), black-and-white warbler, black-throated blue warbler (nest abandoned), ovenbird (bird died, nest abandoned), redstart, and scarlet tanager....Within 48 hours after application of DDT to the final portion of the tract (on June 1) the population of living birds appeared to have been much reduced, and this condition continued. Before spraying the population total for all species was 1.6 pairs (3.2 birds) per acre. Three days after spraying had been completed there were only two singing males in the entire area; but on June 13 the estimated population was 0.5 bird per acre.....4. After DDT was applied to the Maple Lake tract, careful watch was kept for changes in the bird population and as to nest conditions there and on the Check tract. The apparent total reduction for all species in the Maple Lake tract was from 2.7 pairs to 2.6 pairs per acre; and in the Check tract from 2.7 pairs to 2.4 pairs per acre. Neither these changes nor the observed abandonment of nests and nestling mortality could be attributed to use of DDT.

  12. Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassirer, E. Frances

    1995-06-01

    Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

  13. The distribution of seabirds and fish in relation to ocean currents in the southeastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Wells, John L.; MacCharles, Andrea; Fadely, Brian S.; Montevecchi, W.A.; Gaston, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late August 1988, we studied the distribution of seabirds in the southeastern Chukchi Sea, particularly in waters near a major seabird colony at Cape Thompson. Foraging areas were characterized using hydrographic data obtained from hydroacoustic surveys for fish. Murres (Uria spp.) and Black-legged Kitttiwakes Rissa tridactyla breeding at Cape Thompson fed mostly on Arctic cod, which are known from previous studies to be the most abundant pelagic fish in the region. Our hydroacoustic surveys revealed that pelagic fish were distributed widely, but densities were estimated to be low (e.g., 0.1-10 g∙m-3) throughout the study area and a few schools were recorded. Large feeding flocks of murres and kittiwakes were observed over fish schools with densities estimated to exceed 15 g∙m-3. Fish densities were higher in shallow Alaska Coastal Current waters than offshore in Bering Sea waters, and most piscivorous seabirds foraged in coastal waters. Poor kittiwake breeding success and a low frequency of fish in murre and kittiwake stomachs in late August suggested that fish densities were marginal for sustaining breeding seabirds at that time. Planktivorous Least Auklets Aethia pusilla and Parakeet Auklets Cyclorrhynchus psittacula foraged almost exclusively in Bering Sea waters. Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris and Tufted Puffins Fratercula cirrhata foraged in transitional waters at the front between Coastal and Bering Sea currents.

  14. Rare birds in Slovenia in 2015 – Slovenian Rarities Committee’s Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanžel Jurij

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report by the Slovenian Rarities Committee presents records of rare bird species in Slovenia in 2015, with some addenda for previous years. The numbers in brackets refer to the number of records (first number and individuals (second number recorded between 1 Jan 1950 and 31 Dec 2014. Since 1 Jan 2013, submission to the Committee has been required for 37 additional species, 17 of which are regional rarities. Records of these species are not numbered, since records from previous years were not collected by the Committee. One new species, the Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti, was added to category A. Other notable observations were the first record of Parrot Crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus after 1909, the second record of Baillon’s Crake Zapornia pusilla, the third and fourth records of Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra, the fourth of Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus, the fifth of Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi and the sixth of Grey Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius. Four species were added to category E: Bahama Pintail Anas bahamensis, Rosy-billed Pochard Netta peposaca, Harris’s Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus and Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria. The list of birds recorded in Slovenia (as of 31 Dec 2015 contains 386 species (371 in category A, 6 in category B, 9 exclusively in category C; 4 species are both in categories A and C. Category D contains 6 species, while category E contains 38, two of which are classified into subcategory E*. These two categories are not part of the list.

  15. Taxonomy of North and South Island snipe (Aves : Scolopacidae : Coenocorypha), with analysis of a remarkable collection of snipe bones from Greymouth, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthy, T.H.; Miskelly, C.M.; Ching, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The taxonomy of the extinct New Zealand snipe (Coenocorypha spp.), formerly resident in both the North and South islands, is addressed by morphometric analysis of fossil bones from widespread localities in both islands compared with a large sample of South Island snipe bones from a fossil site at Cobden Quarry, Greymouth. A single radiocarbon age of 3656 ± 80 yr BP and the presence of the Pacific rat Rattus exulans, introduced to New Zealand c. 650 yr BP or perhaps as early as 2000 yr BP, indiates a Late Holocene age for the Cobden fauna. Comparisons of the North and South Island fossil bones with historically known or extant taxa from offshore islands support the specific distinction of North and South Island birds, and their referral to C. barrierensis Oliver, 1995 or North Island snipe and C. iredalei Rothschild, 1921 or South Island snipe, respectively. In addition, the mensural data support the elevation of the Snares Island snipe to species level as C. huegeli. The data support the taxonomic status quo for Chatham Island snipe C. pusilla, Auckland Island snipe C. aucklandica, and Antipodes Island snipe C. a. meinertzhagenae Rothschild, 1927. The status of the extinct Forbes' snipe C. chathamica was not examined. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  16. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  17. Arabinogalactan proteins occur in the free-living cyanobacterium genus Nostoc and in plant-Nostoc symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Owen; Taylor, Oliver; Adams, David G; Knox, J Paul

    2012-10-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) are a diverse family of proteoglycans associated with the cell surfaces of plants. AGP have been implicated in a wide variety of plant cell processes, including signaling in symbioses. This study investigates the existence of putative AGP in free-living cyanobacterial cultures of the nitrogen-fixing, filamentous cyanobacteria Nostoc punctiforme and Nostoc sp. strain LBG1 and at the symbiotic interface in the symbioses between Nostoc spp. and two host plants, the angiosperm Gunnera manicata (in which the cyanobacterium is intracellular) and the liverwort Blasia pusilla (in which the cyanobacterium is extracellular). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that three AGP glycan epitopes (recognized by monoclonal antibodies LM14, MAC207, and LM2) are present in free-living Nostoc cyanobacterial species. The same three AGP glycan epitopes are present at the Gunnera-Nostoc symbiotic interface and the LM2 epitope is detected during the establishment of the Blasia-Nostoc symbiosis. Bioinformatic analysis of the N. punctiforme genome identified five putative AGP core proteins that are representative of AGP classes found in plants. These results suggest a possible involvement of AGP in cyanobacterial-plant symbioses and are also suggestive of a cyanobacterial origin of AGP.

  18. Nostopeptolide plays a governing role during cellular differentiation of the symbiotic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaimer, Anton; Helfrich, Eric J N; Hinrichs, Katrin; Guljamow, Arthur; Ishida, Keishi; Hertweck, Christian; Dittmann, Elke

    2015-02-10

    Nostoc punctiforme is a versatile cyanobacterium that can live either independently or in symbiosis with plants from distinct taxa. Chemical cues from plants and N. punctiforme were shown to stimulate or repress, respectively, the differentiation of infectious motile filaments known as hormogonia. We have used a polyketide synthase mutant that accumulates an elevated amount of hormogonia as a tool to understand the effect of secondary metabolites on cellular differentiation of N. punctiforme. Applying MALDI imaging to illustrate the reprogramming of the secondary metabolome, nostopeptolides were identified as the predominant difference in the pks2(-) mutant secretome. Subsequent differentiation assays and visualization of cell-type-specific expression of nostopeptolides via a transcriptional reporter strain provided evidence for a multifaceted role of nostopeptolides, either as an autogenic hormogonium-repressing factor or as a chemoattractant, depending on its extracellular concentration. Although nostopeptolide is constitutively expressed in the free-living state, secreted levels dynamically change before, during, and after the hormogonium differentiation phase. The metabolite was found to be strictly down-regulated in symbiosis with Gunnera manicata and Blasia pusilla, whereas other metabolites are up-regulated, as demonstrated via MALDI imaging, suggesting plants modulate the fine-balanced cross-talk network of secondary metabolites within N. punctiforme.

  19. Bioindicators of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Western Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K

    2017-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as HCHs and DDTs, are still used as pesticides in the Southern Hemisphere and can reach the North Pacific due to long range atmospheric transfer. Marine mammals (Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus), the seabirds (Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, crested auklet Aethia cristatella, auklet crumb Aethia pusilla, northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, and grey petrel Oceanodroma furcata) and Pacific salmon (pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum O. keta, chinook O. tshawytscha, and sockeye O. nerka) were collected near the Kuril Islands (the northern-western part of the Pacific Ocean), in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. The total OCPs concentration (HCHs + DDTs) was found in each organism, including the Pacific walrus (70-90,263 ng/g lipid), the seabirds (29-16,095 ng/g lipid), and the Pacific salmon (41-7103 ng/g lipid). The concentrations and possible sources of OCPs in marine organisms as biological indicators are discussed.

  20. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  1. The Effects of Salinity on Growth and Distribution of Four Freshwater Diatom Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayati, Attayeb A

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower salinity limits of Nitzschia acicularis, Nitzschia pusilla, Nitzschia palea and Synedra acus, which were isolated from the Damour River, Lebanon, were determined from laboratory cultures. Growth responses of the investigated diatoms showed maximum growth in the enriched Damour River natural water (salinity = 0.24 ppt). With an increase in salinity there was a gradual decrease in the growth until the upper limit was reached. At higher salt concentrations near the upper limit a lag phase was observed, during the first two days of the growing culture, where the growth was greatly declined. This reduction in growth can be attributed to high osmotic stress experienced by the investigated diatoms when transferred to flasks containing salinities near the extremes of their tolerance. The investigated diatoms appear to be very resistant and capable of adaptation to new situations because they grew better after this two days lag period. The results of this study also showed that all the investigated diatom species have broader salinity tolerance limits than those reported in the literature and this would enable their distribution at localities with higher or lower salinities than those typical of the Damour River, Lebanon. (author)

  2. Three new species of Diascia (Scrophulariaceae from the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Steiner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new annual species of Diascia Link & Otto are described from the Western Cape Province of South Africa. D. collina is characterized by greyish magenta flowers with two divergent yellow sacs containing oil-secreting trichomes. It is restricted to granite outcrops in the vicinity of Saldanha Bay, from the West Coast National Park and Langebaan north to Vredenburg. D. pusilla is closely related to D. collina. but differs from that species in having smaller flowers with shorter, ± parallel sacs, and posticous filaments that lack a protuberance where they bend sharply backwards towards the upper lip. It occurs in grey to whitish sands usually near seasonally moist or wet areas. It has not been found more than 35 km from the coast and ranges from Modderrivier, south o f Darling, north to Lambert’s Bay. D. appendiculata is related to D. diffusa (Thunb. Benth. and is characterized by having small, mainly reddish lilac to greyish magenta flowers, two shallow depressions in the corolla tube at the base of the upper lip, and posticous filaments with sterile appendages. It is known from only six localities in the general vicinity of Citrusdal and occurs in fynbos vegetation on lower mountain slopes or flats, in loose alluvial sands derived from Table Mountain Sandstone.

  3. To flock or fight: neurochemical signatures of divergent life histories in sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, James L; Wilson, Leah C; Schrock, Sara E

    2012-06-26

    Many bird species exhibit dramatic seasonal switches between territoriality and flocking, but whereas neuroendocrine mechanisms of territorial aggression have been extensively studied, those of seasonal flocking are unknown. We collected brains in spring and winter from male field sparrows (Spizella pusilla), which seasonally flock, and male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), which are territorial year-round in much of their range. Spring collections were preceded by field-based assessments of aggression. Tissue series were immunofluorescently multilabeled for vasotocin, mesotocin (MT), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, tyrosine hydroxylase, and aromatase, and labeling densities were measured in many socially relevant brain areas. Extensive seasonal differences are shared by both species. Many measures correlate significantly with both individual and species differences in aggression, likely reflecting evolved mechanisms that differentiate the less aggressive field sparrow from the more aggressive song sparrow. Winter-specific species differences include a substantial increase of MT and CRH immunoreactivity in the dorsal lateral septum (LS) and medial amygdala of field sparrows but not song sparrows. These species differences likely relate to flocking rather than the suppression of winter aggression in field sparrows, because similar winter differences were found for two other emberizids that are not territorial in winter--dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), which seasonally flock, and eastern towhees (Pipilo erythropthalmus), which do not flock. MT signaling in the dorsal LS is also associated with year-round species differences in grouping in estrildid finches, suggesting that common mechanisms are targeted during the evolution of different life histories.

  4. Bird ringing in Slovenia in 2014 and results of the first telemetry study of an African migrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrezec Al

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 162 bird species were recorded during the bird ringing activities in Slovenia. Of 155 species, 62,275 birds were ringed, and 107 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 148 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1395 local recoveries were recorded. The most frequently ringed species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla and Great Tit Parus major. As far as ringed nestlings are concerned, Great Tits and Barn Swalllows Hirundo rustica predominated. Considering the recoveries ringed of found birds abroad, the commonest were Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus and Mute Swans Cygnus olor. The farthest recovery was a Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (5171 km away. Among the more interesting finds was also the so far southernmost recovery of a Sand Martin Riparia riparia found in Israel. Let us also mention the first recovery of a Corncrake Crex crex, which bred and was ringed in 2013 at Planinsko polje (central Slovenia and was found in the 2014 breeding season in the Czech Republic. Among rare species, two Little Buntings Emberiza pusilla were caught and ringed. After nine years, the Roller Coracias garrulus bred again in Slovenia in 2014 and its nestlings were ringed. The paper also brings the description of the migration route of the first African migrant, the Black Stork Ciconia nigra, marked with a GPS/GSM telemetric device, which migrated across the Adriatic Sea, Sicily and Sahara to Nigeria.

  5. Caprellidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) from the Red Sea and Suez Canal, with the redescription of Metaprotella africana and Paradeutella multispinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeina, Amr F; Guerra-García, José M

    2016-04-06

    The Caprellidae from the Red Sea are reviewed based on the literature data and new collections from the Hurghada coasts. So far, only six valid species has been reported from the Red Sea and Suez Canal: Caprella equilibra Say, 1818, Hemiaegina minuta Mayer, 1890, Metaprotella africana Mayer, 1903, Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 and Paradeutella multispinosa Schellenberg, 1928 and Pseudocaprellina pambanensis Sundara Raj, 1927. The type material of M. africana (deposited in the Muséum nacional d'Histoire naturelle, Paris) and Paradeutella multispinosa (deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin) are redescribed and illustrated in detail. P. pambanensis and H. minuta were the most abundant species in the collections along the northern coast. Most of the sampling effort has been focused on algae from shallow waters; additional substrates such as sediments, hydroids and coral rubble, especially from areas deeper than 15 meters should be explored. The number of caprellid species in the Red Sea is low compared to adjacent waters, as the Mediterranean Sea. However, further research and more extensive caprellid collections should be conducted along the coasts of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Sudan and Eritrea, which are still unexplored.

  6. Use of Occupancy Models to Evaluate Expert Knowledge-based Species-Habitat Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica N. Iglecia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships are used extensively to guide conservation planning, particularly when data are scarce. Purported relationships describe the initial state of knowledge, but are rarely tested. We assessed support in the data for suitability rankings of vegetation types based on expert knowledge for three terrestrial avian species in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Experts used published studies, natural history, survey data, and field experience to rank vegetation types as optimal, suitable, and marginal. We used single-season occupancy models, coupled with land cover and Breeding Bird Survey data, to examine the hypothesis that patterns of occupancy conformed to species-habitat suitability rankings purported by experts. Purported habitat suitability was validated for two of three species. As predicted for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens and Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla, occupancy was strongly influenced by vegetation types classified as "optimal habitat" by the species suitability rankings for nuthatches and wood-pewees. Contrary to predictions, Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus models that included vegetation types as covariates received similar support by the data as models without vegetation types. For all three species, occupancy was also related to sampling latitude. Our results suggest that covariates representing other habitat requirements might be necessary to model occurrence of generalist species like the woodpecker. The modeling approach described herein provides a means to test expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships, and hence, help guide conservation planning.

  7. DIATOMS (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE IN RIVERS AND STREAMS AND ON CULTIVATED SOILS OF THE PODKARPACIE REGION IN THE YEARS 2007–2011

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    Teresa Noga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms Bacillariophyceae are a specialized, systematic group of algae, living in different types of ecosystems, and they are very good indicators of water quality. Recently, detailed studies have been carried out in the territory of the Podkarpacie Province on the diversity of diatoms in running waters. The area of study covers mostly the catchment of the biggest rivers of the province (mainly the River Wisłok and cultivated soils. Running waters in the Podkarpacie Province are characterized by a huge species richness of diatoms, 738 different taxa have been found so far. The highest number of taxa was noted in the Wisłok River (400, while the Żołynianka and Różanka streams and the Mleczka were also characterized by huge diversity (from 200 to over 350 taxa. In the majority of studied sites diatoms of alkaline (pH>7 and nutrient rich (eutrophic waters dominated: Navicula lanceolata, N. gregaria, N. capitatoradiata, Nitzschia palea, N. dissipata ssp. dissipata, Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, A. pyrenaicum, Amphora pediculus, Diatoma vulgaris, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata, Planothidium lanceolatum, Cocconeis pediculus and C. placentula var. lineata. About 150 taxa were indentified on cultivated soils, among which the largest populations were formed by Hantzschia amphioxys, Mayamaea atomus, Nitzschia palea, N. pusilla, Pinnularia obscura and Stauroneis thermicola.

  8. Structure of a bat assemblage (Mammalia, Chiroptera in Serra do Caraça Reserve, South-east Brazil

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    Falcão Fábio de C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.

  9. How Far into Europe Did Pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) Go during the Pleistocene? New Evidence from Central Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplana, César; Sevilla, Paloma; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Baquedano, Enrique; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first find of pika remains in the Iberian Peninsula, at a site in central Spain. A fragmented mandible of Ochotona cf. pusilla was unearthed from Layer 3 (deposited some 63.4±5.5 ka ago as determined by thermoluminescence) of the Buena Pinta Cave. This record establishes new limits for the genus geographic distribution during the Pleistocene, shifting the previous edge of its known range southwest by some 500 km. It also supports the idea that, even though Europe’s alpine mountain ranges represented a barrier that prevented the dispersal into the south to this and other taxa of small mammals from central and eastern Europe, they were crossed or circumvented at the coldest time intervals of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and of the Late Pleistocene. During those periods both the reduction of the forest cover and the emersion of large areas of the continental shelf due to the drop of the sea level probably provided these species a way to surpass this barrier. The pika mandible was found accompanying the remains of other small mammals adapted to cold climates, indicating the presence of steppe environments in central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:26535576

  10. Cytogenetics and cytotaxonomy of some Brazilian species of Cymbidioid orchids

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    Leonardo Pessoa Félix

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cymbidioid phylad presents the widest chromosome number variation among orchids, with records varying from 2n = 10 in Psygmorchis pusilla to 2n = 168 in two species of Oncidium. In the present work, a total of 44 species were studied belonging to 20 Cymbidioid genera, as a contribution to clarifying the karyological evolution of the group. All the plants investigated were collected in Brazil, mainly in the northeast region. The chromosome variation found was similar to that previously registered in the literature. Chromosome numbers observed were: 2n = 54 (subtribe Eulophiinae, 2n = 44, 46, 92 (subtribe Cyrtopodiinae, 2n = 54, ca. 108 (subtribe Catasetinae, 2n = 52, ca. 96 (subtribe Zygopetalinae, 2n = 40, 80 (subtribe Lycastinae, 2n = 40, 42 (subtribe Maxillariinae, 2n = 40 (subtribe Stanhopeinae, 2n = 56 (subtribe Ornithocephalinae, and 2n = 12, 20, 30, 36, 42, 44, 56, 112, ca. 168 (subtribe Oncidiinae. Interphase nuclei varied widely from simple chromocenter to complex chromocenter types, with no apparent cytotaxonomic value. In the genera Catasetum and Oncidium, the terrestrial and lithophytic species presented higher ploidy levels than the epiphytic species, suggesting a higher adaptability of the polyploids to those habitats. The primary base number x = 7 seems to be associated to the haploid chromosome numbers of most Cymbidioid groups, although n = 7 was observed only in two extant genera of Oncidiinae. For each tribe, subtribe and genus the probable base numbers were discussed along with the possible relationships to the primary base number x1 = 7 admitted for the whole phylad.O clado Cymbidioid apresenta a mais ampla variação cromossômica numérica entre as orquidáceas, com registros desde 2n = 10 em Psygmorchis pusilla, até 2n = 168 em duas espécies de Oncidium. No presente trabalho, foram estudadas um total de 44 espécies pertencentes a 20 gêneros deste grupo, visando contribuir para esclarecer a evolução cariol

  11. Trias de Tripolitaine (Libye. Nouvelles données biostratigraphiques et palynologiques Trias of Tripolitania (Libya. New Biostratigraphic and Palynological Data (Part Two

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    Massa D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le Trias du nord-ouest de la Libye (Tripolitaine, a été antérieurement étudié en grand détail sur les zones d'affleurements. Les datations proposées étaient peu précises voire inexactes. . . Dans ce travail ont été étudiés les sondages pétroliers antérieurement forés. Cinq unités ont été définies pour le Trias, basées sur les électrofaciès et sur les séquences lithologiques. On peut établir facilement les corrélations régionales de ces unités, toujours caractérisables malgré d'importantes variations d'épaisseur. En combinant les données de la micropaléontologie et de la palynologie, il est possible de proposer une biostratigraphie satisfaisante des différentes unités du Trias. Le Permien moyen/supérieur est daté par une microflore assez classique. Le Scythien supérieur, transgressif est caractérisé par la microfaune, notamment Meandrospira pusilla. Le Trias moyen (Anisien et Ladinien est daté par palynologie. Le Carnien renferme une riche association de Spores, de Pollens, de Foraminifères, d'Algues et de Coprolites. Le Norien semble bien être représenté entre le Carnien supérieur et l'Infra-Lias, bien que l'association palynologique soit peu diversifiée. IL semble bien établi que le Trias soit complet, sans lacunes. On tentera de reconstituer les milieux de dépôts successifs. On recherchera les affinités et les différences entre le Trias tripolitain et le Trias des domaines germanique, alpin et mésogéen. The outcrops of the Trias of North-West Libya (Tripolitania have been studied in great detail. The proposed age dating was not always precise and sometimes not exact. This recent study was done on several oil exploration wells. Five Units have been defined for the Trias, based on Electrofacies and on lithological sequences. These Units are easily correlated in the region, maintaining their character despite important thickness variations. Combining the micropaleontological and palynological

  12. Quantifying the importance of patch-specific changes in habitat to metapopulation viability of an endangered songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jon S; Strickler, Katherine M; Alldredge, Mathew

    2011-10-01

    A growing number of programs seek to facilitate species conservation using incentive-based mechanisms. Recently, a market-based incentive program for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) was implemented on a trial basis at Fort Hood, an Army training post in Texas, USA. Under this program, recovery credits accumulated by Fort Hood through contracts with private landowners are used to offset unintentional loss of breeding habitat of Golden-cheeked Warblers within the installation. Critical to successful implementation of such programs is the ability to value, in terms of changes to overall species viability, both habitat loss and habitat restoration or protection. In this study, we sought to answer two fundamental questions: Given the same amount of change in breeding habitat, does the change in some patches have a greater effect on metapopulation persistence than others? And if so, can characteristics of a patch (e.g., size or spatial location) be used to predict how the metapopulation will respond to these changes? To answer these questions, we describe an approach for using sensitivity analysis of a metapopulation projection model to predict how changes to specific habitat patches would affect species viability. We used a stochastic, discrete-time projection model based on stage-specific estimates of survival and fecundity, as well as various assumptions about dispersal among populations. To assess a particular patch's leverage, we quantified how much metapopulation viability was expected to change in response to changing the size of that patch. We then related original patch size and distance from the largest patch to each patch's leverage to determine if general patch characteristics could be used to develop guidelines for valuing changes to patches within a metapopulation. We found that both the characteristic that best predicted patch leverage and the magnitude of the relationship changed under different model scenarios

  13. Habitats and landscapes associated with bird species in a lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem

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    Edmund J. Zlonis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced effects on lowland conifer forests in hemiboreal regions are increasing because of expanded use of these northern ecosystems for raw materials, energy, and minerals as well as the potential effects of climatic changes. These forests support many breeding bird species across the Holarctic and allow the persistence of several boreal bird species in hemiboreal and even temperate regions. These bird species are of particular conservation concern as shifting patterns northward in forest composition caused by climate change will likely affect their populations. However, effective management and conservation options are limited because the specifics of these species' breeding habitats are not well understood. We modeled and mapped habitat suitability for 11 species of boreal birds that breed in the lowland conifer forests of the Agassiz Lowlands Ecological Subsection in northern Minnesota and are likely to have reduced breeding habitat in the future: Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis, Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus, Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris, Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus, Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa, Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis, Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum, and Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis. Sets of 7 to 16 potential environmental covariates, including both stand-level and landscape attributes, were used to develop individual species models. Within this lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem, we found significant selection for specific forest and landscape characteristics by all but one of these species, with the best models including between one and nine variables. Habitat suitability maps were developed from these models and predictions tested with an independent dataset. Model performance depended on species, correctly predicting 56-96% of

  14. Evaluating the ability of regional models to predict local avian abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Jaymi J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Miller, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial modeling over broad scales can potentially direct conservation efforts to areas with high species-specific abundances. We examined the performance of regional models for predicting bird abundance at spatial scales typically addressed in conservation planning. Specifically, we used point count data on wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) from 2 time periods (1995-1998 and 2006-2007) to evaluate the ability of regional models derived via Bayesian hierarchical techniques to predict bird abundance. We developed models for each species within Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 23 in the upper midwestern United States at 800-ha, 8,000-ha, and approximately 80,000-ha scales. We obtained count data from the Breeding Bird Survey and land cover data from the National Land Cover Dataset (1992). We evaluated predictions from the best models, as defined by an information-theoretic criterion, using point count data collected within an ecological subregion of BCR 23 at 131 count stations in the 1990s and again in 2006-2007. Competing (Deviance Information Criteria rs = 0.57; P = 0.14), the survey period that most closely aligned with the time period of data used for regional model construction. Wood thrush models exhibited positive correlations with point count data for all survey areas and years combined (rs = 0.58, P ≤ 0.001). In comparison, blue-winged warbler models performed worse as time increased between the point count surveys and vintage of the model building data (rs = 0.03, P = 0.92 for Iowa and rs = 0.13, P = 0.51 for all areas, 2006-2007), likely related to the ephemeral nature of their preferred early successional habitat. Species abundance and sensitivity to changing habitat conditions seems to be an important factor in determining the predictive ability of regional models. Hierarchical models can be a useful tool for concentrating efforts at the scale of management units and should be one of many tools used by

  15. Marine bird abundance around the Pribilof Islands: A multi-year comparison

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    Jahncke, Jaime; Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Decker, Mary Beth; Hunt, George L., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We examined trends in the abundance and distribution of 12 species of marine birds around the Pribilof Islands, southeastern Bering Sea, over the period from 1977 to 2004. We contrasted patterns among piscivores and planktivores and related these to known and hypothesized changes in the abundance and distribution of prey in the vicinity of the islands. Planktivorous and piscivorous species of marine birds showed different patterns of abundance over time. Planktivorous seabirds that breed away from the Pribilof Islands (e.g., short-tailed shearwaters [ Puffinus tenuirostris], fork-tailed storm-petrels [ Oceanodroma furcata] and red phalaropes [ Phalaropus fulicarius]) were scarce in the 1970s, were abundant in the 1980s, and declined in abundance in the 1990s and from 1999 to 2004. Planktivorous alcids combined (parakeet [ Aethia psittacula], crested [ A. cristatella] and least [ A. pusilla]) that breed on the Pribilof Islands showed a similar remarkable four-fold increase from the 1970s to the 1980s, but then a small increase into the 1990s followed by a rapid decline in the 2000s to numbers similar to those present during the 1970s. The abundance of piscivores kittiwakes ( Rissa spp.) and murres ( Una spp.) was high in the 1970s and declined through the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. In 1999 and 2004, the total number of all seabirds at sea around the Pribilof Islands was well below the numbers seen at any other survey period. We hypothesize that changes in the abundances and types of seabirds present through time reflect changes in the structure of the marine ecosystem of the eastern Bering Sea shelf. We suggest that changes in pathways of energy flow may be responsible for these shifts, though the possibility that there has been a reduction in productivity cannot be ruled out given the scarcity of available data.

  16. Foraging ecology as related to the distribution of planktivorous auklets in the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, George L.; Harrison, Nancy M.; Piatt, John F.

    1993-01-01

    We review recent accounts of the foraging ecologies of  five species of small auklets found in the Bering Sea. These birds eat a wide variety of zooplankton and micronekton. Least Auklets Aethia pusilla and Whiskered Auklets A. pygmaea, as far as is known, primarily eat copepods, whereas Created Auklets A. cristatella appear to specialize on euphausiids, at least during the breeding season. The diet of Parakeet Auklets Cyclorrhynchus psittacula is much broader than that of most other Aethia species, and includes many gelatinous species and their commensals. Little is known of the diet of Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus in the Bering Sea, although elsewhere they take large copepods, euphausiids, and larval fish.There are considerable differences in the at-sea distributions and foraging behaviors of these five species of auklet. Least Auklets in the norhtern Bering Sea concentrate their foraging activities over strongly stratified water and near fronts where pycnoclines may approach the surface. In the Aleutian Islands, Least Auklets forage where oceanic and tidal currents strike the shelf between the islands and rise toward the surface carrying plankton. Least Auklets and Crested Auklets are often found in large flocks, whereas Parakeet Auklets are rarely found in groups of more than three birds and are usually widely dispersed. The few at-sea observations of Whiskered Auklets have been of small flocks in turbulent waters of island passes. We relate prey types taken, foraging dispersion, and the use of hydrographic features by these auklet species.

  17. The first hop: Use of Beaufort Sea deltas by hatch-year semipalmated sandpipers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchwell, Roy T.; Kendall, Steve J.; Brown, Stephen C.; Blanchard, Arny L.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Powell, Abby

    2018-01-01

    River deltas along Alaska’s Beaufort Sea coast are used by hatch-year semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) after leaving their terrestrial natal sites, but the drivers of their use of these stopover sites on the first “hop” of fall migration are unknown. We quantified sandpiper temporal distribution and abundance as related to food resources at three river deltas during the beginning of their fall migration (post-breeding period) to compare the habitat quality among these deltas. We conducted population counts, sampled invertebrates, and captured birds to collect blood samples from individuals for triglyceride and stable isotope analyses to determine fattening rates and diet. Patterns of sandpiper and invertebrate abundance were complex and varied among deltas and within seasons. River deltas were used by sandpipers from late July to late August, and peak sandpiper counts ranged from 1000 to 4000 individuals, of which 98% were hatch-year semipalmated sandpipers. Isotopic signatures from blood plasma samples indicated that birds switched from a diet of upland tundra to delta invertebrate taxa as the migration season progressed, suggesting a dependence on delta invertebrates. Despite differences in diet among deltas, we found no differences in fattening rates of juvenile sandpipers as indicated by triglyceride levels. The number of sandpipers was positively associated with abundance of Amphipoda and Oligochaeta at the Jago and Okpilak-Hulahula deltas; an isotopic mixing model indicated that sandpipers consumed Amphipoda and Oligochaeta at Jago, mostly Chironomidae at Okpilak-Hulahula and Spionidae at Canning. Regardless of the difference in sandpiper diets at the Beaufort Sea deltas, their similar fattening rates throughout the season indicate that all of these stopover sites provide a critical food resource for hatch-year sandpipers beginning their first migration.

  18. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

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    Joanna Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals, semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70 and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32 migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40, 1995 (N = 28, and 2011–2012 (N = 80 to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1 arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2 cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3 mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4 selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper, within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  19. Sedimentary environments in the south-western Barents Sea during the last deglaciation and the Holocene: a case study outside the Ingøydjupet trough

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    Mauro Pau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A lithological and foraminiferal study of newly acquired sediment cores outside the Ingøydjupet (Ingøy Deep trough has been carried out to improve constraints on the last deglacial history in the south-western Barents Sea. Three lithofacies and three foraminiferal facies were identified. The lowermost lithological unit is a diamicton interpreted as glacial till. It contains a low-abundance, ecologically mixed foraminiferal assemblage, presumably resulting from glacial reworking. Above the diamicton, a layer of ice-rafted debris (IRD, likely associated with intensive iceberg production, marks the initial destabilization of the marine-based ice sheet. At this time, ca. 15.6–15.0 Ky B.P., opportunistic foraminiferal species Nonionellina labradorica and Stainforthia spp. reached peak abundance. During the south-western Barents Sea ice-margin retreat, presumably corresponding to the Bølling interstadial, a sequence of glaciomarine laminations was deposited conformably on the layer of IRD. Sedimentation rates were apparently high (estimated about 0.4 cm per year and the foraminiferal fauna was dominated by Elphidium spp. and Cassidulina reniforme, species common for glacier-proximal environments. A hiatus at the top of the deglacial unit is likely linked to the high bottom-current activity associated with a strengthened inflow of Atlantic water masses into the Barents Sea. The uppermost lithological unit is represented by the Holocene marine sandy mud. It contains a high-abundance, high-diversity foraminiferal fauna with common cassidulinids, Cibicides spp., Epistominella pusilla and planktic species.

  20. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  1. Seeds of Brassicaceae weeds have an inherent or inducible response to the germination stimulant karrikinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rowena L; Stevens, Jason C; Griffiths, Erin M; Adamek, Markus; Gorecki, Marta J; Powles, Stephen B; Merritt, David J

    2011-10-01

    Karrikinolide (KAR(1)) is a smoke-derived chemical that can trigger seeds to germinate. A potential application for KAR(1) is for synchronizing the germination of weed seeds, thereby enhancing the efficiency of weed control efforts. Yet not all species germinate readily with KAR(1), and it is not known whether seemingly non-responsive species can be induced to respond. Here a major agronomic weed family, the Brassicaceae, is used to test the hypothesis that a stimulatory response to KAR(1) may be present in physiologically dormant seeds but may not be expressed under all circumstances. Seeds of eight Brassicaceae weed species (Brassica tournefortii, Raphanus raphanistrum, Sisymbrium orientale, S. erysimoides, Rapistrum rugosum, Lepidium africanum, Heliophila pusilla and Carrichtera annua) were tested for their response to 1 µm KAR(1) when freshly collected and following simulated and natural dormancy alleviation, which included wet-dry cycling, dry after-ripening, cold and warm stratification and a 2 year seed burial trial. Seven of the eight Brassicaceae species tested were stimulated to germinate with KAR(1) when the seeds were fresh, and the remaining species became responsive to KAR(1) following wet-dry cycling and dry after-ripening. Light influenced the germination response of seeds to KAR(1), with the majority of species germinating better in darkness. Germination with and without KAR(1) fluctuated seasonally throughout the seed burial trial. KAR(1) responses are more complex than simply stating whether a species is responsive or non-responsive; light and temperature conditions, dormancy state and seed lot all influence the sensitivity of seeds to KAR(1), and a response to KAR(1) can be induced. Three response types for generalizing KAR(1) responses are proposed, namely inherent, inducible and undetected. Given that responses to KAR(1) were either inherent or inducible in all 15 seed lots included in this study, the Brassicaceae may be an ideal target for

  2. Biological responses of Crested and Least auklets to volcanic destruction of nesting habitat in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Gary S.; Piatt, John F.; Williams, Jeffrey C.

    2018-01-01

    Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella) and Least Auklets (A. pusilla) are crevice-nesting birds that breed in large mixed colonies at relatively few sites in the Aleutian Island archipelago, Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, and Sea of Okhotsk. Many of these colonies are located on active volcanic islands. The eruption of Kasatochi volcano, in the central Aleutians, on August 7, 2008, completely buried all crevice-nesting seabird habitat on the island. This provided an opportunity to examine the response of a large, mixed auklet colony to a major geological disturbance. Time-lapse imagery of nesting habitat indicated that both species returned to the largest pre-eruption colony site for several years, but subsequently abandoned it within 5 yr after the eruption. In 2010, a rockfall site in a cove north of the old colony site began to accumulate talus, and groups of auklets were observed using the site in 2011. Use of the new colony appeared to coincide with the abandonment of the old colony site by both species, though surface counts suggested that Least Auklets shifted to the new colony sooner than Crested Auklets. At-sea surveys of seabirds before and after the eruption indicated that both Crested and Least auklets shifted their at-sea distributions from the waters around Kasatochi Island to nearby Koniuji Island. In combination, at-sea counts and colony time-lapse imagery indicated that Crested and Least auklets using Kasatochi responded to the volcanic disturbance and complete loss of nesting habitat at the main colony on Kasatochi with dispersal either to newly created habitat on Kasatochi or to an alternate colony on a nearby island.

  3. A comparative study of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals from a protected and a disturbed area in the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Piccinali, R V; Gürtler, R E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the complex epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles requires comparative studies in widely different environments. We assessed the occurrence of T. cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals, their infectiousness to the vector, and parasite genotypes in a protected area of the Argentine Chaco, and compared them with information obtained similarly in a nearby disturbed area. A total of 278 mammals from >23 species in the protected area were diagnosed for T. cruzi infection using xenodiagnosis, kDNA-PCR and nuclear satellite DNA-PCR (SAT) from blood samples. The relative abundance and species composition differed substantially between areas. Didelphis albiventris opossums were less abundant in the protected area; had a significantly lower body mass index, and a stage structure biased toward earlier stages. The capture of armadillos was lower in the protected area. The composite prevalence of T. cruzi infection across host species was significantly lower in the protected area (11.1%) than in the disturbed area (22.1%), and heterogeneous across species groups. The prevalence of infection in D. albiventris and Thylamys pusilla opossums was significantly lower in the protected area (nil for D. albiventris), whereas infection in sigmodontine rodents was three times higher in the protected area (17.5 versus 5.7%). Parasite isolates from the two xenodiagnosis-positive mammals (1 Dasypus novemcinctus and 1 Conepatus chinga) were typed as TcIII; both specimens were highly infectious to Triatoma infestans. Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal Variation in Group Size Is Related to Seasonal Variation in Neuropeptide Receptor Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Leah C; Goodson, James L; Kingsbury, Marcy A

    2016-01-01

    In many species, seasonal variation in grouping behavior is widespread, with shifts towards territoriality in the breeding season and grouping in the winter. Compared to the hormonal and neural mechanisms of seasonal territorial aggression, the mechanisms that promote seasonal grouping have received little attention. We collected brains in spring and winter from wild-caught males of two species of emberizid sparrows that seasonally flock (the field sparrow, Spizella pusilla, and the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis) and two species that do not seasonally flock (the song sparrow, Melospiza melodia, and the eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus). We used receptor autoradiography to quantify seasonal plasticity in available binding sites for three neuropeptides known to influence social behavior. We examined binding sites for 125I-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), 125I-sauvagine (SG, a ligand for corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors) and 125I-ornithine vasotocin analog (OVTA, a ligand for the VT3 nonapeptide). For all species and ligands, brain areas that exhibited a seasonal pattern in binding density were characterized by a winter increase. Compared to nonflocking species, seasonally flocking species showed different binding patterns in multiple brain areas. Furthermore, we found that winter flocking was associated with elevated winter 125I-VIP binding density in the medial amygdala, as well as 125I-VIP and 125I-OVTA binding density in the rostral arcopallium. While the functional significance of the avian rostral arcopallium is unclear, it may incorporate parts of the pallial amygdala. Our results point to this previously undescribed area as a likely hot spot of social modulation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Change in numbers of resident and migratory shorebirds at the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats, Puerto Rico, USA (1985–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Morgan A.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Colon, Jose A.; Ramos Alvarez, Katsi R.; Diaz, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    North American migratory shorebirds have declined markedly since the 1980s, underscoring the importance of population surveys to conduct status and trend assessments. Shorebird surveys were conducted during three multi-year periods between 1985 and 2014 and used to assess changes in numbers and species composition at the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats, Puerto Rico, USA, a site of regional importance in the eastern Caribbean. Eight fewer species (total = 21) were recorded in 2013–2014 as compared to the 29 from 1985–1992; all eight species were Nearctic migrants. Small calidrids had the highest population counts; however, this suite of species and all others experienced a ≥ 70% decline. Combined counts from the salt flats and neighboring wetlands in 2013–2014 were lower than counts only from the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats in two previous multi-year survey periods, which indicated a real change in numbers not just a shift in wetland use. Invertebrate prey density was lower in 2013–2014 than in 1994. Body fat condition of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), an index of habitat quality, did not differ between 1985–1992 and 2013–2014. These findings do not exclude the possibility that other species might be affected by lower prey density, or that local declines in numbers reflect changes at hemispheric, not local, scales. The magnitude of change between local and hemispheric scales closely matched for some species. Continued monitoring at the salt flats is warranted to help gauge the status of shorebirds in Puerto Rico and discern the probable cause of declines. Monitoring other sites in the Caribbean is needed for stronger inferences about regional status and trends.

  6. Behavioral response of Corophium volutator to shorebird predation in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada.

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    Elizabeth C MacDonald

    Full Text Available Predator avoidance is an important component of predator-prey relationships and can affect prey availability for foraging animals. Each summer, the burrow-dwelling amphipod Corophium volutator is heavily preyed upon by Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla on mudflats in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada. We conducted three complementary studies to determine if adult C. volutator exhibit predator avoidance behavior in the presence of sandpipers. In a field experiment, we monitored vertical distribution of C. volutator adults in bird exclosures and adjacent control plots before sandpipers arrived and during their stopover. We also made polymer resin casts of C. volutator burrows in the field throughout the summer. Finally, we simulated shorebird pecking in a lab experiment and observed C. volutator behavior in their burrows. C. volutator adults were generally distributed deeper in the sediment later in the summer (after sandpipers arrived. In August, this response was detectably stronger in areas exposed to bird predation than in bird exclosures. During peak predator abundance, many C. volutator adults were beyond the reach of feeding sandpipers (>1.5 cm deep. However, burrow depth did not change significantly throughout the summer. Detailed behavioral observations indicated that C. volutator spent more time at the bottom of their burrow when exposed to a simulated predator compared to controls. This observed redistribution suggests that C. volutator adults move deeper into their burrows as an anti-predator response to the presence of sandpipers. This work has implications for predators that feed on burrow-dwelling invertebrates in soft-sediment ecosystems, as density may not accurately estimate prey availability.

  7. Predicting breeding shorebird distributions on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Saalfeld, David T.; Johnson, James A.; Andres, Brad A.; Bart, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska is an important region for millions of migrating and nesting shorebirds. However, this region is threatened by climate change and increased human development (e.g., oil and gas production) that have the potential to greatly impact shorebird populations and breeding habitat in the near future. Because historic data on shorebird distributions in the ACP are very coarse and incomplete, we sought to develop detailed, contemporary distribution maps so that the potential impacts of climate-mediated changes and development could be ascertained. To do this, we developed and mapped habitat suitability indices for eight species of shorebirds (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola], American Golden-Plover [Pluvialis dominica], Semipalmated Sandpiper [Calidris pusilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], Dunlin [Calidris alpina], Long-billed Dowitcher [Limnodromus scolopaceus], Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus lobatus], and Red Phalarope [Phalaropus fulicarius]) that commonly breed within the ACP of Alaska. These habitat suitability models were based on 767 plots surveyed during nine years between 1998 and 2008 (surveys were not conducted in 2003 and 2005), using single-visit rapid area searches during territory establishment and incubation (8 June, 1 July). Species specific habitat suitability indices were developed and mapped using presence-only modeling techniques (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) and landscape environmental variables. For most species, habitat suitability was greater at lower elevations (i.e., near the coast and river deltas) and lower within upland habitats. Accuracy of models was high for all species, ranging from 65 -98%. Our models predicted that the largest fraction of suitable habitat for the majority of species occurred within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, with highly suitable habitat also occurring within coastal areas of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge west to Prudhoe Bay.

  8. Causes of ring-related leg injuries in birds - evidence and recommendations from four field studies.

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    Michael Griesser

    Full Text Available One of the main techniques for recognizing individuals in avian field research is marking birds with plastic and metal leg rings. However, in some species individuals may react negatively to rings, causing leg injuries and, in extreme cases, the loss of a foot or limb. Here, we report problems that arise from ringing and illustrate solutions based on field data from Brown Thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla (2 populations, Siberian Jays (Perisoreus infaustus and Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens (Malurus coronatus. We encountered three problems caused by plastic rings: inflammations triggered by material accumulating under the ring (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens, contact inflammations as a consequence of plastic rings touching the foot or tibio-tarsal joint (Brown Thornbills, and toes or the foot getting trapped in partly unwrapped flat-band colour rings (Siberian Jays. Metal rings caused two problems: the edges of aluminium rings bent inwards if mounted on top of each other (Brown Thornbills, and too small a ring size led to inflammation (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens. We overcame these problems by changing the ringing technique (using different ring types or larger rings, or using different adhesive. Additionally, we developed and tested a novel, simple technique of gluing plastic rings onto metal rings in Brown Thornbills. A review of studies reporting ring injuries (N = 23 showed that small birds (35 g tend to get rings stuck over their feet. We give methodological advice on how these problems can be avoided, and suggest a ringing hazard index to compare the impact of ringing in terms of injury on different bird species. Finally, to facilitate improvements in ringing techniques, we encourage online deposition of information regarding ringing injuries of birds at a website hosted by the European Union for Bird Ringing (EURING.

  9. Desenvolvimento dos frutos nas espécies selvagens de amendoim (Arachis spp. Fruit development in wild species of peanut

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    Cândida H. T. Mendes Conagin

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies selvagens de amendoim apresentam frutos completamente diferentes dos frutos do amendoim cultivado (Arachis hypogaea L.. Nesta espécie os frutos têm duas a cinco sementes justapostas dentro de uma única loja; externamente são observadas constrições na casca do fruto as quais em alguns casos se acentuam não chegando, entretanto, a produzir unia separação entre as sementes. Nas espécies selvagens os frutos apresentam duas sementes apenas, completamente separadas uma da outra por uma constrição muito profunda ou mesmo por um istmo de comprimento variável. Para êsses frutos foi adotada a denominação de "frutos catenados" e o estudo de seu desenvolvimento foi feito nas espécies Arachis monticola Krapovickas et Rigoni e A. villosa Benth. var. correntina Burk. O ovário, unilocular, tem normalmente dois óvulos. A futura separação das duas sementes se origina num tecido intercalar que se forma em ovários ainda jovens e que separa em duas a cavidade inicial única. Êste tecido tem a estrutura de um "peg" e, como êle, desidrata-se durante o processo de amadurecimento do fruto, tomando-se sêco e quebradiço; por essa razão, ao colhêr os frutos, a maioria dêles se apresenta unisseminado. Em 50% dos casos os óvulos se desenvolvem igualmente, conduzindo à formação de frutos com duas sementes. Quando os dois óvulos não se desenvolvem ao mesmo tempo, é mais freqüente o colapso do óvulo apical, cujo crescimento é paralisado cm diversos estados de desenvolvimento; isto conduz à formação de frutos com apenas uma semente ou com uma semente abortada. Além dessas duas, as seguintes espécies apresentam frutos catenados: Arachis Diogoi Hoehne f. typica Hoehne, A. glabrata Benth., A. pusilla Benth., A. marginata Gardn. (segundo Burkart, A. prostrata Benth. (segundo Burkart, e mais três espécies ainda não identificadas, mas que constam da coleção da Seção de Citologia como V. 44, V. 82 e V. 85. A V. 44 deve

  10. Inference about density and temporary emigration in unmarked populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Richard B.; Royle, J. Andrew; King, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Few species are distributed uniformly in space, and populations of mobile organisms are rarely closed with respect to movement, yet many models of density rely upon these assumptions. We present a hierarchical model allowing inference about the density of unmarked populations subject to temporary emigration and imperfect detection. The model can be fit to data collected using a variety of standard survey methods such as repeated point counts in which removal sampling, double-observer sampling, or distance sampling is used during each count. Simulation studies demonstrated that parameter estimators are unbiased when temporary emigration is either "completely random" or is determined by the size and location of home ranges relative to survey points. We also applied the model to repeated removal sampling data collected on Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvancia) in the White Mountain National Forest, USA. The density estimate from our model, 1.09 birds/ha, was similar to an estimate of 1.11 birds/ha produced by an intensive spot-mapping effort. Our model is also applicable when processes other than temporary emigration affect the probability of being available for detection, such as in studies using cue counts. Functions to implement the model have been added to the R package unmarked.

  11. Retirement investment theory explains patterns in songbird nest-site choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Refsnider, Jeanine M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    When opposing evolutionary selection pressures act on a behavioural trait, the result is often stabilizing selection for an intermediate optimal phenotype, with deviations from the predicted optimum attributed to tracking a moving target, development of behavioural syndromes or shifts in riskiness over an individual's lifetime. We investigated nest-site choice by female golden-winged warblers, and the selection pressures acting on that choice by two fitness components, nest success and fledgling survival. We observed strong and consistent opposing selection pressures on nest-site choice for maximizing these two fitness components, and an abrupt, within-season switch in the fitness component birds prioritize via nest-site choice, dependent on the time remaining for additional nesting attempts. We found that females consistently deviated from the predicted optimal behaviour when choosing nest sites because they can make multiple attempts at one fitness component, nest success, but only one attempt at the subsequent component, fledgling survival. Our results demonstrate a unique natural strategy for balancing opposing selection pressures to maximize total fitness. This time-dependent switch from high to low risk tolerance in nest-site choice maximizes songbird fitness in the same way a well-timed switch in human investor risk tolerance can maximize one's nest egg at retirement. Our results also provide strong evidence for the adaptive nature of songbird nest-site choice, which we suggest has been elusive primarily due to a lack of consideration for fledgling survival.

  12. Quantitative disease resistance: to better understand parasite-mediated selection on major histocompatibility complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Helena; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2012-02-07

    We outline a descriptive framework of how candidate alleles of the immune system associate with infectious diseases in natural populations of animals. Three kinds of alleles can be separated when both prevalence of infection and infection intensity are measured--qualitative disease resistance, quantitative disease resistance and susceptibility alleles. Our descriptive framework demonstrates why alleles for quantitative resistance and susceptibility cannot be separated based on prevalence data alone, but are distinguishable on infection intensity. We then present a case study to evaluate a previous finding of a positive association between prevalence of a severe avian malaria infection (GRW2, Plasmodium ashfordi) and a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele (B4b) in great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus. Using the same dataset, we find that individuals with allele B4b have lower GRW2 infection intensities than individuals without this allele. Therefore, allele B4b provides quantitative resistance rather than increasing susceptibility to infection. This implies that birds carrying B4b can mount an immune response that suppresses the acute-phase GRW2 infection, while birds without this allele cannot and may die. We argue that it is important to determine whether MHC alleles related to infections are advantageous (quantitative and qualitative resistance) or disadvantageous (susceptibility) to obtain a more complete picture of pathogen-mediated balancing selection.

  13. Characterization of MHC-I in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) reveals low levels of genetic diversity and trans-population evolution across European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, Elske; Aguilar, Juan Rivero-de; Merino, Santiago; Magrath, Michael J L; Komdeur, Jan; Westerdahl, Helena

    2011-08-01

    The major histcompatibility complex (MHC) is a vital component of the adaptive immune system in all vertebrates. This study is the first to characterize MHC class I (MHC-I) in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), and we use MHC-I exon 3 sequence data from individuals originating from three locations across Europe: Spain, the Netherlands to Sweden. Our phylogeny of the 17 blue tit MHC-I alleles contains one allele cluster with low nucleotide diversity compared to the remaining more diverse alleles. We found a significant evidence for balancing selection in the peptide-binding region in the diverse allele group only. No separation according to geographic location was found in the phylogeny of alleles. Although the number of MHC-I loci of the blue tit is comparable to that of other passerine species, the nucleotide diversity of MHC-I appears to be much lower than that of other passerine species, including the closely related great tit (Parus major) and the severely inbred Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). We believe that this initial MHC-I characterization in blue tits provides an important step towards understanding the mechanisms shaping MHC-I diversity in natural populations.

  14. Isotope signatures in winter moulted feathers predict malaria prevalence in a breeding avian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Elizabeth; Hansson, Bengt; Lee, Raymond W; Waldenström, Jonas; Westerdahl, Helena; Akesson, Mikael; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that animal distribution and migration strategy might have co-evolved in relation to selection pressures exerted by parasites. Here, we first determined the prevalence and types of malaria blood parasites in a breeding population of great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus using PCR. Secondly, we tested for differences in individual feather stable isotope signatures (delta (13)C, delta (15)N, deltaD and delta (34)S) to investigate whether malaria infected and non-infected birds had occupied different areas in winter. We show that birds moulting in Afro-tropical habitats with significantly higher delta (13)C and delta (15)N but lower deltaD and delta(34)S values were more frequently infected with malaria parasites. Based on established patterns of isotopic distributions, our results indicate that moulting sites with higher incidence of malaria are generally drier and situated further to the north in West Africa than sites with lower incidence of malaria. Our findings are pertinent to the general hypothesis that animal distribution and particularly avian migration strategy might evolve in response to selection pressures exerted by parasites at different geographic scales. Tradeoffs between investment in energy demanding life history traits (e.g. migration and winter moult) and immune function are suggested to contribute to the particular choice of habitat during migration and at wintering sites.

  15. Observation of a ZZW female in a natural population: implications for avian sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arit, D; Bensch, S; Hansson, B; Hasselquist, D; Westerdahl, H

    2004-01-01

    Avian sex determination is chromosomal; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. There is no conclusive evidence for either of two proposed mechanisms: a dominant genetic switch or a dosage mechanism. No dominant sex-determining gene on the female-specific W chromosome has been found. Birds lack inactivation of one of the Z chromosomes in males, but seem to compensate for a double dose of Z-linked genes by other mechanisms. Recent studies showing female-specific expression of two genes may support an active role of the W chromosome. To resolve the question of avian sex determination the investigation of birds with a 2A: ZZW or 2A: ZO genotype would be decisive. Here, we report the case of an apparent 2A: ZZW great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) female breeding in a natural population, which was detected using Z-linked microsatellites. Our data strongly suggest a role of W-linked genes in avian sex determination. PMID:15252998

  16. No Association between Personality and Candidate Gene Polymorphisms in a Wild Bird Population.

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    Hannah A Edwards

    Full Text Available Consistency of between-individual differences in behaviour or personality is a phenomenon in populations that can have ecological consequences and evolutionary potential. One way that behaviour can evolve is to have a genetic basis. Identifying the molecular genetic basis of personality could therefore provide insight into how and why such variation is maintained, particularly in natural populations. Previously identified candidate genes for personality in birds include the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4, and serotonin transporter (SERT. Studies of wild bird populations have shown that exploratory and bold behaviours are associated with polymorphisms in both DRD4 and SERT. Here we tested for polymorphisms in DRD4 and SERT in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis population on Cousin Island, Seychelles, and then investigated correlations between personality and polymorphisms in these genes. We found no genetic variation in DRD4, but identified four polymorphisms in SERT that clustered into five haplotypes. There was no correlation between bold or exploratory behaviours and SERT polymorphisms/haplotypes. The null result was not due to lack of power, and indicates that there was no association between these behaviours and variation in the candidate genes tested in this population. These null findings provide important data to facilitate representative future meta-analyses on candidate personality genes.

  17. Is partial behaviour a plausible explanation for the unavailability of the ICMJE disclosure form of an author in a BMJ journal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaas van Dijk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study about the ethical behaviour in the field of scholarly publishing documents an exception on the rule for research articles in the medical journal BMJ Open that ICMJE disclosure forms of authors must be made available on request. The ICMJE, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, has developed these forms for the disclosure of conflicts of interest for authors of medical publications. The case refers to the form of the corresponding author of an article in BMJ Open on retraction notices (Moylan and Kowalczuk, 2016. The corresponding author is a member of the council of COPE, the Committee on Publication Ethics. I will argue that the unavailability of the form relates to personal conflicts of interest with the corresponding author about my efforts to retract a fatally flawed study on the breeding biology of the Basra Reed Warbler Acrocephalus griseldis. I describe my attempts to get the form and I will argue that its unavailability can be attributed to partial behaviour by BMJ, the publisher of BMJ Open. This study complements other sources reporting ethical issues at COPE.

  18. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.

  19. Genetic Differentiation in Insular Lowland Rainforests: Insights from Historical Demographic Patterns in Philippine Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Luis Antonio; Hosner, Peter A; Moyle, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies of Philippine birds support that deep genetic structure occurs across continuous lowland forests within islands, despite the lack of obvious contemporary isolation mechanisms. To examine the pattern and tempo of diversification within Philippine island forests, and test if common mechanisms are responsible for observed differentiation, we focused on three co-distributed lowland bird taxa endemic to Greater Luzon and Greater Negros-Panay: Blue-headed Fantail (Rhipidura cyaniceps), White-browed Shama (Copsychus luzoniensis), and Lemon-throated Leaf-Warbler (Phylloscopus cebuensis). Each species has two described subspecies within Greater Luzon, and a single described subspecies on Greater Negros/Panay. Each of the three focal species showed a common geographic pattern of two monophyletic groups in Greater Luzon sister to a third monophyletic group found in Greater Negros-Panay, suggesting that common or similar biogeographic processes may have produced similar distributions. However, studied species displayed variable levels of mitochondrial DNA differentiation between clades, and genetic differentiation within Luzon was not necessarily concordant with described subspecies boundaries. Population genetic parameters for the three species suggested both rapid population growth from small numbers and geographic expansion across Luzon Island. Estimates of the timing of population expansion further supported that these events occurred asynchronously throughout the Pleistocene in the focal species, demanding particular explanations for differentiation, and support that co-distribution may be secondarily congruent.

  20. Do females invest more into eggs when males sing more attractively? Postmating sexual selection strategies in a monogamous reed passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta; Majtan, Juraj; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Hoi, Herbert

    2014-04-01

    Maternal investment can play an important role for offspring fitness, especially in birds, as females have to provide their eggs with all the necessary nutrients for the development of the embryo. It is known that this type of maternal investment can be influenced by the quality of the male partner. In this study, we first verify that male song is important in the mate choice of female Eurasian reed warblers, as males mate faster when their singing is more complex. Furthermore, female egg investment varies in relation to male song characteristics. Interestingly, clutch size, egg weight, or size, which can be considered as an high-cost investment, is not influenced by male song characteristics, whereas comparably low-cost investment types like investment into diverse egg components are adjusted to male song characteristics. In line with this, our results suggest that female allocation rules depend on investment type as well as song characteristics. For example, egg white lysozyme is positively correlated with male song complexity. In contrast, a negative correlation exists between-song speed and syllable repetitiveness and egg yolk weight as well as egg yolk testosterone concentration. Thus, our results suggest that female egg investment is related to male song performance in several aspects, but female investment patterns regarding various egg compounds are not simply correlated.

  1. Available data support protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Tad C.; Smith, Aaron D.; Mahoney, Sean M.; Ironside, Kirsten E.

    2016-01-01

    Zink (2015) argued there was no evidence for genetic, morphological, or ecological differentiation between the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and other Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Using the same data, we show there is a step-cline in both the frequency of a mtDNA haplotype and in plumage variation roughly concordant with the currently recognized boundary between E. t. extimus and E. t adastus, the subspecies with which it shares the longest common boundary. The geographical pattern of plumage variation is also concordant with previous song analyses differentiating those 2 subspecies and identified birds in one low-latitude, high-elevation site in Arizona as the northern subspecies. We also demonstrate that the ecological niche modeling approach used by Zink yields the same result whether applied to the 2 flycatcher subspecies or to 2 unrelated species, E. t. extimus and Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia). As a result, any interpretation of those results as evidence for lack of ecological niche differentiation among Willow Flycatcher subspecies would also indicate no differentiation among recognized species and would therefore be an inappropriate standard for delineating subspecies. We agree that many analytical techniques now available to examine genetic, morphological, and ecological differentiation would improve our understanding of the distinctness (or lack thereof) of Willow Flycatcher subspecies, but we argue that currently available evidence supports protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act.

  2. Response to Lisovski et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David

    2018-01-01

    Lisovski et al. [1] describe the widely recognized limitations of light-level geolocator data for identifying short-distance latitudinal movements, recommend that caution be used when interpreting such data, intimated that we did not use such caution and argued that environmental shading likely explained the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) movements described in our 2015 report [2] . Lisovski et al. [1] conclude that the bird movements we reported could not be disentangled from estimation error in stationary animals caused by environmental shading. We argue that, to the contrary, these hypotheses can easily be disentangled because the premise that environmental shading caused synchronous and parallel error among geolocators is false. With their assertion that our location estimates could be biased by >3,500 km on a day with no observable local sources of shading, Lisovski et al. [1] have taken a position of incredulity toward all geolocator-based animal movement data published to date.

  3. Reproductive Performance of a Declining Forest Passerine in Relation to Environmental and Social Factors: Implications for Species Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Grendelmeier

    Full Text Available Identifying factors influencing a species' ecological niche and demography is a prerequisite for species conservation. However, our understanding of the interplay between demographic rates and biotic/abiotic factors is still poor for most species of conservation concern. We evaluated relevance of eight hypotheses relating to timing of breeding, temporal nest exposure, nest concealment, topography, tree structure, predation risk and disturbance, density dependence and weather for explaining variation in reproductive performance of the declining wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in northern Switzerland. Reproductive performance was monitored with cameras at 136 nests from 2010 to 2012 and was associated to temporal exposure, timing of breeding and concealment of nests. Daily nest survival was positively related to the number of grass and sedge tussocks, nest concealment and nest age. Clutch size and number of fledglings decreased, the later in the season a nest was initiated. Nest survival over an average nesting period of 31 days was 46.9 ± 0.07% (mean ± SE, daily nest survival rate was 0.976 ± 0.002. As for many ground-breeding birds, nest predation was the principal cause of nest failure, accounting for 79% of all nest losses. Conservation measures should aim at increasing the area of relatively homogenous forest stands featuring suitable habitats characterized by abundant and accessible grass and sedge tussocks. In managed forests, such conditions can be found in stands of middle age (i.e. pole wood with little to no shrub layer.

  4. Conservation of the yellow-shouldered blackbird, Agelaius xanthomus, an endangered West Indian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.; Post, W.; Cruz, A.

    1991-01-01

    The yellow-shouldered blackbird Agelaius xanthomus, endemic to Puerto Rico and Mona Island, is endangered, mainly because of brood parasitism by the shiny cowbird Molothrus bonariensis, which reached Puerto Rico at least 30 years ago. The yellow-shouldered blackbird populations have since declined, about 770?1200 remaining (470?900 on Mona Island) by 1982?1986 compared to a population of about 2400 in 1975. Nearly all nests of blackbirds in most of its habitats are parasitized by cowbirds. This significantly reduces nesting success, but blackbirds have evolved no defenses against brood parasitism. Removal of cowbirds from the yellow-shouldered blackbird nesting grounds, modeled after similar programmes for the brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater on Kirtland's warbler Dendroica kirtlandii nesting areas, significantly increased blackbird production. Blackbirds readily accept nest boxes, and breeding populations can be established in otherwise unusable sites and can be concentrated in mangrove habitats, were they are more easily protected by cowbird removal. Furthermore, yellow-shouldered blackbird pairs using cavities, including nest boxes, fledged more young per nest than pairs using open nests.

  5. Host selection by the shiny cowbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Factors important in Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) host selection were examined within the mangrove community in Puerto Rico. Cowbirds did not parasitize birds in proportion to their abundance. The cowbird breeding season coincided with those of its major hosts, which were 'high-quality' foster species (i.e., species that fledge .gtoreq. 55% of cowbirds hatched: Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia; Yellow-shouldered Blackbird, Agelaius xanthomus; Black-whiskered Vireo, Vireo altiloquus; Black-cowled Oriole, Icterus dominicensis; Peurto Rican Flycatcher, Myiarchus antillarum; Troupial, Icterus icterus), and did not extend into other periods even though nests of 'low-quality: species (i.e., species that fledge < 55% of cowbird chicks that hatched: Bronze Mannikin, Lonchura cucullata; Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger; Gray Kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis; Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos; Red-legged Thrush, Turdus plumbeus) were available. Shiny Cowbird food habits and egg size were similar to those of their hosts, suggesting that cowbirds choose hosts partly on the basis of this combination. Cowbirds located host nests primarily by cryptically watching activities of birds in likely habitats. Other nest locating strategies were active searching of suitable habitat and 'flushing' of hosts by the cowbird's noisy approach. Cowbirds closely monitored nest status with frequent visits that peaked on the host's first day of egg laying. Hosts using covered nests (e.g., cavities, domed nests) were as vulnerable to cowbird parasitism as those building open nests.

  6. Columbia River wildlife mitigation habitat evaluation procedures report: Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County pygmy rabbit projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, P.R.; Ratassepp, J.; Berger, M.; Judd, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites

  7. Experimental shifts in egg-nest contrasts do not alter egg rejection responses in an avian host-brood parasite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Mark E; Aidala, Zachary; Igic, Branislav; Shawkey, Matthew D; Moskát, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds exploit their hosts to provide care for unrelated young in the nest. Potential hosts can reduce the cost of parasitism by rejecting foreign eggs from the nest. Observational, comparative, and experimental studies have concluded that most hosts use the coloration and patterning of eggshells to discriminate between own and foreign eggs in the nest. However, an alternative hypothesis is that birds use the colour contrasts between eggshells and the nest lining to identify parasitic eggs (egg-nest contrast hypothesis). In support of this hypothesis, we found that the avian perceivable chromatic contrasts between dyed eggs and unmanipulated nest linings significantly and negatively covaried with the rejection rates of different dyed eggs of the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, a frequently parasitized host of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. To experimentally test whether egg-nest contrasts influence rejection, we reciprocally dyed both eggs and the nest lining of this host species with one of two colours: orange and green. Contrary to the egg-nest contrast hypothesis, host rejection patterns in response to dyed eggs were not altered by dyeing nests, relative to unmanipulated control eggs and nests. In turn, experimental egg colour was the only significant predictor of egg rejection rate. Our results demonstrate that egg-nest contrast is a collateral, not a causal factor in egg rejection, and confirm the conclusions of previous studies that hosts can rely on the parasitic egg's appearance itself to recognize the foreign egg in the nest.

  8. Joint care can outweigh costs of nonkin competition in communal breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Kat; Fairfield, Eleanor A; Spurgin, Lewis G; Kingma, Sjouke A; Dugdale, Hannah; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S

    2018-01-01

    Competition between offspring can greatly influence offspring fitness and parental investment decisions, especially in communal breeders where unrelated competitors have less incentive to concede resources. Given the potential for escalated conflict, it remains unclear what mechanisms facilitate the evolution of communal breeding among unrelated females. Resolving this question requires simultaneous consideration of offspring in noncommunal and communal nurseries, but such comparisons are missing. In the Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, we compare nestling pairs from communal nests (2 mothers) and noncommunal nests (1 mother) with singleton nestlings. Our results indicate that increased provisioning rate can act as a mechanism to mitigate the costs of offspring rivalry among nonkin. Increased provisioning in communal broods, as a consequence of having 2 female parents, mitigates any elevated costs of offspring rivalry among nonkin: per-capita provisioning and survival was equal in communal broods and singletons, but lower in noncommunal broods. Individual offspring costs were also more divergent in noncommunal broods, likely because resource limitation exacerbates differences in competitive ability between nestlings. It is typically assumed that offspring rivalry among nonkin will be more costly because offspring are not driven by kin selection to concede resources to their competitors. Our findings are correlational and require further corroboration, but may help explain the evolutionary maintenance of communal breeding by providing a mechanism by which communal breeders can avoid these costs.

  9. Keeping eggs warm: thermal and developmental advantages for parasitic cuckoos of laying unusually thick-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Huang, Qiuli; Wang, Longwu; Du, Wei-Guo; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2018-01-02

    Obligate brood parasites have evolved unusually thick-shelled eggs, which are hypothesized to possess a variety of functions such as resistance to puncture ejection by their hosts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that obligate brood parasites lay unusually thick-shelled eggs to retain more heat for the developing embryo and thus contribute to early hatching of parasite eggs. By doing so, we used an infrared thermal imaging system as a non-invasive method to quantify the temperature of eggshells of common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) and their Oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) hosts in an experiment that artificially altered the duration of incubation. Our results showed that cuckoo eggshells had higher temperature than host eggs during incubation, but also less fluctuations in temperature during incubation disturbance. Therefore, there was a thermal and hence a developmental advantage for brood parasitic cuckoos of laying thick-shelled eggs, providing another possible explanation for the unusually thick-shelled eggs of obligate brood parasites and earlier hatching of cuckoo eggs compared to those of the host.

  10. Reproductive Performance of a Declining Forest Passerine in Relation to Environmental and Social Factors: Implications for Species Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grendelmeier, Alex; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Gerber, Michael; Pasinelli, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing a species' ecological niche and demography is a prerequisite for species conservation. However, our understanding of the interplay between demographic rates and biotic/abiotic factors is still poor for most species of conservation concern. We evaluated relevance of eight hypotheses relating to timing of breeding, temporal nest exposure, nest concealment, topography, tree structure, predation risk and disturbance, density dependence and weather for explaining variation in reproductive performance of the declining wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in northern Switzerland. Reproductive performance was monitored with cameras at 136 nests from 2010 to 2012 and was associated to temporal exposure, timing of breeding and concealment of nests. Daily nest survival was positively related to the number of grass and sedge tussocks, nest concealment and nest age. Clutch size and number of fledglings decreased, the later in the season a nest was initiated. Nest survival over an average nesting period of 31 days was 46.9 ± 0.07% (mean ± SE), daily nest survival rate was 0.976 ± 0.002. As for many ground-breeding birds, nest predation was the principal cause of nest failure, accounting for 79% of all nest losses. Conservation measures should aim at increasing the area of relatively homogenous forest stands featuring suitable habitats characterized by abundant and accessible grass and sedge tussocks. In managed forests, such conditions can be found in stands of middle age (i.e. pole wood) with little to no shrub layer.

  11. Partitioning the sources of demographic variation reveals density-dependent nest predation in an island bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen R; Sillett, T Scott; Langin, Kathryn M; Morrison, Scott A; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2014-07-01

    Ecological factors often shape demography through multiple mechanisms, making it difficult to identify the sources of demographic variation. In particular, conspecific density can influence both the strength of competition and the predation rate, but density-dependent competition has received more attention, particularly among terrestrial vertebrates and in island populations. A better understanding of how both competition and predation contribute to density-dependent variation in fecundity can be gained by partitioning the effects of density on offspring number from its effects on reproductive failure, while also evaluating how biotic and abiotic factors jointly shape demography. We examined the effects of population density and precipitation on fecundity, nest survival, and adult survival in an insular population of orange-crowned warblers (Oreothlypis celata) that breeds at high densities and exhibits a suite of traits suggesting strong intraspecific competition. Breeding density had a negative influence on fecundity, but it acted by increasing the probability of reproductive failure through nest predation, rather than through competition, which was predicted to reduce the number of offspring produced by successful individuals. Our results demonstrate that density-dependent nest predation can underlie the relationship between population density and fecundity even in a high-density, insular population where intraspecific competition should be strong.

  12. Avian magnetoreception: elaborate iron mineral containing dendrites in the upper beak seem to be a common feature of birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Falkenberg

    Full Text Available The magnetic field sensors enabling birds to extract orientational information from the Earth's magnetic field have remained enigmatic. Our previously published results from homing pigeons have made us suggest that the iron containing sensory dendrites in the inner dermal lining of the upper beak are a candidate structure for such an avian magnetometer system. Here we show that similar structures occur in two species of migratory birds (garden warbler, Sylvia borin and European robin, Erithacus rubecula and a non-migratory bird, the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus. In all these bird species, histological data have revealed dendrites of similar shape and size, all containing iron minerals within distinct subcellular compartments of nervous terminals of the median branch of the Nervus ophthalmicus. We also used microscopic X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses to identify the involved iron minerals to be almost completely Fe III-oxides. Magnetite (Fe II/III may also occur in these structures, but not as a major Fe constituent. Our data suggest that this complex dendritic system in the beak is a common feature of birds, and that it may form an essential sensory basis for the evolution of at least certain types of magnetic field guided behavior.

  13. Avian magnetoreception: elaborate iron mineral containing dendrites in the upper beak seem to be a common feature of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Gerald; Fleissner, Gerta; Schuchardt, Kirsten; Kuehbacher, Markus; Thalau, Peter; Mouritsen, Henrik; Heyers, Dominik; Wellenreuther, Gerd; Fleissner, Guenther

    2010-02-16

    The magnetic field sensors enabling birds to extract orientational information from the Earth's magnetic field have remained enigmatic. Our previously published results from homing pigeons have made us suggest that the iron containing sensory dendrites in the inner dermal lining of the upper beak are a candidate structure for such an avian magnetometer system. Here we show that similar structures occur in two species of migratory birds (garden warbler, Sylvia borin and European robin, Erithacus rubecula) and a non-migratory bird, the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus). In all these bird species, histological data have revealed dendrites of similar shape and size, all containing iron minerals within distinct subcellular compartments of nervous terminals of the median branch of the Nervus ophthalmicus. We also used microscopic X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses to identify the involved iron minerals to be almost completely Fe III-oxides. Magnetite (Fe II/III) may also occur in these structures, but not as a major Fe constituent. Our data suggest that this complex dendritic system in the beak is a common feature of birds, and that it may form an essential sensory basis for the evolution of at least certain types of magnetic field guided behavior.

  14. Evaluation of the factors involved in bioaccumulation of gamma-emmitting radionuclides in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the work were to: determine the amounts and kinds of fallout gamma emitting radionuclides in an important food and sport animal, the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the southeastern U.S.A.; elucidate some of the food chain interrelationships around the year; and see if a relationship exists between bioaccumulation in deer, the soils, the deer foods available, the rumen contents, and uptake in man. Whole body counters were constructed to measure the gamma rays emitted by animals varying in size from warblers (10 grams) and cotton rats (100 grams) up through live deer and people. Over 1800 deer from throughout the Southeast were analyzed. Deer from the Flatwoods sub-type of the Lower Coastal Plain region often have 137 Cs levels exceeding those reported for Alaskan Caribou at their peak and 90 Sr is as effectively transported through the Lower Coastal Plains environment as 137 Cs. Detailed studies have been conducted on two sites (Piedmont and Lower Coastal Plain) to determine the characteristics of soil and vegetation contributing to biomagnification

  15. Consequences of sibling rivalry vary across life in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Kat; Kingma, Sjouke A; Fairfield, Eleanor A; Spurgin, Lewis G; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the costs of sibling rivalry in systems where offspring always have competitors, but conclusions about sibling rivalry in these species are restricted to interpreting the cost of changes in the relative level of competition and are often complicated by the expression of potentially costly rivalry related traits. Additionally, the majority of studies focus on early-life sibling rivalry, but the costs of competition can also affect later-life performance. We test a suite of hypothesized immediate (early-life body mass, telomere length, and survival) and delayed (adult reproductive potential and lifespan) costs of sibling rivalry for offspring of differing competitive ability in Seychelles warblers, where most offspring are raised singly and hence competitor success can be compared to a competition-free scenario. Compared to those raised alone, all competing nestlings had lower body mass and weaker competitors experienced reduced survival. However, the stronger competitors appeared to have longer adult breeding tenures and lifespan than those raised alone. We propose that comparisons with competition-free groups, as well as detailed fitness measures across entire lifetimes, are needed to understand the evolution of sibling rivalry and thus individual reproductive strategy in wild systems.

  16. Strategic variation in mobbing as a front line of defense against brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbergen, Justin A; Davies, Nicholas B

    2009-02-10

    Coevolutionary arms races, where adaptations in one party select for counter-adaptations in another and vice versa, are fundamental to interactions between organisms and their predators, pathogens, and parasites [1]. Avian brood parasites and their hosts have emerged as model systems for studying such reciprocal coevolutionary processes [2, 3]. For example, hosts have evolved changes in egg appearance and rejection of foreign eggs in response to brood parasitism from cuckoos, and cuckoos have evolved host-egg mimicry as a counter-response [4-6]. However, the host's front line of defense is protecting the nest from being parasitized in the first place [7-10], yet little is known about the effectiveness of nest defense as an antiparasite adaptation, and its coevolutionary significance remains poorly understood [10]. Here we show first that mobbing of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus by reed warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus is an effective defense against parasitism. Second, mobbing of cuckoos is a phenotypically plastic trait that is modified strategically according to local parasitism risk. This supports the view that hosts use a "defense in-depth strategy," with successive flexible lines of defense that coevolve with corresponding offensive lines of the parasite. This highlights the need for more holistic research into the coevolutionary consequences when multiple adaptations and counter-adaptations evolve in concert [11].

  17. Combining personal with social information facilitates host defences and explains why cuckoos should be secretive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals often vary defences in response to local predation or parasitism risk. But how should they assess threat levels when it pays their enemies to hide? For common cuckoo hosts, assessing parasitism risk is challenging: cuckoo eggs are mimetic and adult cuckoos are secretive and resemble hawks. Here, we show that egg rejection by reed warblers depends on combining personal and social information of local risk. We presented model cuckoos or controls at a pair’s own nest (personal information of an intruder) and/or on a neighbouring territory, to which they were attracted by broadcasts of alarm calls (social information). Rejection of an experimental egg was stimulated only when hosts were alerted by both social and personal information of cuckoos. However, pairs that rejected eggs were not more likely to mob a cuckoo. Therefore, while hosts can assess risk from the sight of a cuckoo, a cuckoo cannot gauge if her egg will be accepted from host mobbing. Our results reveal how hosts respond rapidly to local variation in parasitism, and why it pays cuckoos to be secretive, both to avoid alerting their targets and to limit the spread of social information in the local host neighbourhood. PMID:26794435

  18. The relationship between female brooding and male nestling provisioning: does climate underlie geographic variation in sex roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Sofaer, Helen R.; Sillett, T. Scott; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative studies of populations occupying different environments can provide insights into the ecological conditions affecting differences in parental strategies, including the relative contributions of males and females. Male and female parental strategies reflect the interplay between ecological conditions, the contributions of the social mate, and the needs of offspring. Climate is expected to underlie geographic variation in incubation and brooding behavior, and can thereby affect both the absolute and relative contributions of each sex to other aspects of parental care such as offspring provisioning. However, geographic variation in brooding behavior has received much less attention than variation in incubation attentiveness or provisioning rates. We compared parental behavior during the nestling period in populations of orange-crowned warblers Oreothlypis celata near the northern (64°N) and southern (33°N) boundaries of the breeding range. In Alaska, we found that males were responsible for the majority of food delivery whereas the sexes contributed equally to provisioning in California. Higher male provisioning in Alaska appeared to facilitate a higher proportion of time females spent brooding the nestlings. Surprisingly, differences in brooding between populations could not be explained by variation in ambient temperature, which was similar between populations during the nestling period. While these results represent a single population contrast, they suggest additional hypotheses for the ecological correlates and evolutionary drivers of geographic variation in brooding behavior, and the factors that shape the contributions of each sex.

  19. Keeping eggs warm: thermal and developmental advantages for parasitic cuckoos of laying unusually thick-shelled eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Huang, Qiuli; Wang, Longwu; Du, Wei-Guo; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2018-02-01

    Obligate brood parasites have evolved unusually thick-shelled eggs, which are hypothesized to possess a variety of functions such as resistance to puncture ejection by their hosts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that obligate brood parasites lay unusually thick-shelled eggs to retain more heat for the developing embryo and thus contribute to early hatching of parasite eggs. By doing so, we used an infrared thermal imaging system as a non-invasive method to quantify the temperature of eggshells of common cuckoos ( Cuculus canorus) and their Oriental reed warbler ( Acrocephalus orientalis) hosts in an experiment that artificially altered the duration of incubation. Our results showed that cuckoo eggshells had higher temperature than host eggs during incubation, but also less fluctuations in temperature during incubation disturbance. Therefore, there was a thermal and hence a developmental advantage for brood parasitic cuckoos of laying thick-shelled eggs, providing another possible explanation for the unusually thick-shelled eggs of obligate brood parasites and earlier hatching of cuckoo eggs compared to those of the host.

  20. The Plight of Migrant Birds Wintering in the Caribbean: Rainfall Effects in the Annual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we summarize results of migrant bird research in the Caribbean as part of a 75th Anniversary Symposium on research of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry (IITF. The fate of migratory birds has been a concern stimulating research over the past 40 years in response to population declines documented in long-term studies including those of the IITF and collaborators in Puerto Rico’s Guánica dry forest. Various studies indicate that in addition to forest loss or fragmentation, some migrant declines may be due to rainfall variation, the consequences of which may carry over from one stage of a migrant’s annual cycle to another. For example, the Guánica studies indicate that rainfall extremes on either the temperate breeding or tropical wintering grounds affect migrant abundance and survival differently depending on the species. In contrast, IITF’s collaborative studies of the migrant Kirtland’s Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii in the Bahamas found that late winter droughts affect its annual survival and breeding success in Michigan. We review these IITF migrant studies and relate them to other studies, which have improved our understanding of migrant ecology of relevance to conservation. Particularly important is the advent of the full annual cycle (FAC approach. The FAC will facilitate future identification and mitigation of limiting factors contributing to migrant population declines, which for some species, may be exacerbated by global climate change.

  1. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  2. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  3. The malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum in the endemic avifauna of eastern Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Letícia; Marra, Peter; Gray, Lindsey; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-12-01

    Island populations are vulnerable to introduced pathogens, as evidenced by extinction or population decline of several endemic Hawaiian birds caused by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium relictum (order Haemosporida). We analyzed blood samples from 363 birds caught near Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, for the presence of haemosporidian infections. We characterized parasite lineages by determining nucleotide variation of the parasite's mitochondrial cyt b gene. Fifty-nine individuals were infected, and we identified 7 lineages of haemosporidian parasites. Fifty individuals were infected by 6 Haemoproteus sp. lineages, including a newly characterized lineage of Haem. (Parahaemoproteus) sp. CUH01. Nine individuals carried the P. relictum lineage GRW4, including 5 endemic Cuban Grassquits (Tiaris canorus) and 1 migratory Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina). A sequence of the merozoite surface protein gene from one Cuban Grassquit infected with GRW4 matched that of the Hawaiian haplotype Pr9. Our results indicate that resident and migratory Cuban birds are infected with a malaria lineage that has severely affected populations of several endemic Hawaiian birds. We suggest GRW4 may be associated with the lack of several bird species on Cuba that are ubiquitous elsewhere in the West Indies. From the standpoint of avian conservation in the Caribbean Basin, it will be important to determine the distribution of haemosporidian parasites, especially P. relictum GRW4, in Cuba as well as the pathogenicity of this lineage in species that occur and are absent from Cuba. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. A Spatial Framework for Understanding Population Structure and Admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradburd, Gideon S; Ralph, Peter L; Coop, Graham M

    2016-01-01

    Geographic patterns of genetic variation within modern populations, produced by complex histories of migration, can be difficult to infer and visually summarize. A general consequence of geographically limited dispersal is that samples from nearby locations tend to be more closely related than samples from distant locations, and so genetic covariance often recapitulates geographic proximity. We use genome-wide polymorphism data to build "geogenetic maps," which, when applied to stationary populations, produces a map of the geographic positions of the populations, but with distances distorted to reflect historical rates of gene flow. In the underlying model, allele frequency covariance is a decreasing function of geogenetic distance, and nonlocal gene flow such as admixture can be identified as anomalously strong covariance over long distances. This admixture is explicitly co-estimated and depicted as arrows, from the source of admixture to the recipient, on the geogenetic map. We demonstrate the utility of this method on a circum-Tibetan sampling of the greenish warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides), in which we find evidence for gene flow between the adjacent, terminal populations of the ring species. We also analyze a global sampling of human populations, for which we largely recover the geography of the sampling, with support for significant histories of admixture in many samples. This new tool for understanding and visualizing patterns of population structure is implemented in a Bayesian framework in the program SpaceMix.

  5. MC1R genotype and plumage colouration in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata: population structure generates artefactual associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph I Hoffman

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R gene have been linked to coloration in many vertebrate species. However, the potentially confounding influence of population structure has rarely been controlled for. We explored the role of the MC1R in a model avian system by sequencing the coding region in 162 zebra finches comprising 79 wild type and 83 white individuals from five stocks. Allelic counts differed significantly between the two plumage morphs at multiple segregating sites, but these were mostly synonymous. To provide a control, the birds were genotyped at eight microsatellites and subjected to Bayesian cluster analysis, revealing two distinct groups. We therefore crossed wild type with white individuals and backcrossed the F1s with white birds. No significant associations were detected in the resulting offspring, suggesting that our original findings were a byproduct of genome-wide divergence. Our results are consistent with a previous study that found no association between MC1R polymorphism and plumage coloration in leaf warblers. They also contribute towards a growing body of evidence suggesting that care should be taken to quantify, and where necessary control for, population structure in association studies.

  6. Scale-dependent mechanisms of habitat selection for a migratory passerine: an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese M.; Cornell, Kerri L.

    2010-01-01

    Habitat selection theory predicts that individuals choose breeding habitats that maximize fitness returns on the basis of indirect environmental cues at multiple spatial scales. We performed a 3-year field experiment to evaluate five alternative hypotheses regarding whether individuals choose breeding territories in heterogeneous landscapes on the basis of (1) shrub cover within a site, (2) forest land-cover pattern surrounding a site, (3) conspecific song cues during prebreeding settlement periods, (4) a combination of these factors, and (5) interactions among these factors. We tested hypotheses with playbacks of conspecific song across a gradient of landscape pattern and shrub density and evaluated changes in territory occupancy patterns in a forest-nesting passerine, the Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens). Our results support the hypothesis that vegetation structure plays a primary role during presettlement periods in determining occupancy patterns in this species. Further, both occupancy rates and territory turnover were affected by an interaction between local shrub density and amount of forest in the surrounding landscape, but not by interactions between habitat cues and social cues. Although previous studies of this species in unfragmented landscapes found that social postbreeding song cues played a key role in determining territory settlement, our prebreeding playbacks were not associated with territory occupancy or turnover. Our results suggest that in heterogeneous landscapes during spring settlement, vegetation structure may be a more reliable signal of reproductive performance than the physical location of other individuals.

  7. Use of aquaculture ponds and other habitats by autumn migrating shorebirds along the lower Mississippi river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Sarah E; Krementz, David G

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  8. Influence of pycnocline topography and water-column structure on marine distributions of alcids (Aves: Alcidae) in Anadyr Strait, Northern Bering Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, J. Christopher

    1991-01-01

    Systematic ship-board surveys were used to simultaneously record seabird abundances and resolve coarse-scale (3 to 10 km) horizontal and fine-scale (1 to 10 m) vertical variability in water-column structure and bathymetry for portions of the coastal zone in Anadyr Strait near western St. Lawrence Island, northern Bering Sea, Alaska, during August and September 1987. Three plankton-feeding alcids, parakeet (Cyclorrhynchus psittacula), crested (Aethia cristatella) and least (A. pusilla) auklets, each exhibited distinct associations for different pycnocline characteristics. Least auklets were more abundant in mixed water, but they also occurred within stratified water where the pycnocline and upper-mixed layer were shallow (≤8 m) and thin (≤10 m), respectively. Low body mass (85 g), high buoyancy, and relatively poor diving ability may have restricted this auklet to areas where water-column strata nearly intersected the surface, or to areas from which strata were absent altogether due to strong vertical mixing. Parakeet and crested auklets, which are larger-bodied (ca. 260 g) planktivores with presumably greater diving ability, were more abundant in stratified water, and both species exhibited less specific affinities for water-column characteristic at intermediate and shallow levels. All three auklets avoided locations with strong pycnocline gradients (≤0.22σtm−1), a crude index of the strong, subsurface shear in water velocities characteristic of this region. Auklet distributions in Anadyr Strait were consistent with: (1) strata accessibility, as estimated from relationships between body mass and relative diving ability, (2) possible avoidance of strong subsurface water motions, and (3) habits and distributions of plankton prey. In contrast, largebodied (>450 g) alcids [i.e., common (Uria aalge) and thick-billed (U. lomvia) murres, pigeon guillemots (Cephus columba), tufted (Fratercula cirrhata), and horned (F. corniculata) puffins feeding on fish or

  9. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.

    2016-10-01

    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top

  10. Influence of human development and predators on nest survival of tundra birds, Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebezeit, J R; Kendall, S J; Brown, S; Johnson, C B; Martin, P; McDonald, T L; Payer, D C; Rea, C L; Streever, B; Wildman, A M; Zack, S

    2009-09-01

    Nest predation may influence population dynamics of birds on the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, USA. Anthropogenic development on the ACP is increasing, which may attract nest predators by providing artificial sources of food, perches, den sites, and nest sites. Enhanced populations or concentrations of human-subsidized predators may reduce nest survival for tundra-nesting birds. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nest survival decreases in proximity to human infrastructure. We monitored 1257 nests of 13 shorebird species and 619 nests of four passerine species at seven sites on the ACP from 2002 to 2005. Study sites were chosen to represent a range of distances to infrastructure from 100 m to 80 km. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to evaluate the effects of background (i.e., natural) factors and infrastructure on nest survival. We documented high spatial and temporal variability in nest survival, and site and year were both included in the best background model. We did not detect an effect of human infrastructure on nest survival for shorebirds as a group. In contrast, we found evidence that risk of predation for passerine nests increased within 5 km of infrastructure. This finding provides quantitative evidence of a relationship between infrastructure and nest survival for breeding passerines on the ACP. A posteriori finer-scale analyses (within oil field sites and individual species) suggested that Red and Red-necked Phalaropes combined (Phalaropus fulicarius, P. lobatus) had lower productivity closer to infrastructure and in areas with higher abundance of subsidized predators. However, we did not detect such a relationship between infrastructure and nest survival for Semipalmated and Pectoral Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla, C. melanotos), the two most abundant shorebirds. High variability in environmental conditions, nest survival, and predator numbers between sites and years may have contributed to these inconsistent results

  11. Phytoplankton virus production negatively affected by iron limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans A Slagter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fe-limited monocultures of the ubiquitous algae Micromonas pusilla and Phaeocystis globosa were infected with their respective viruses (MpV and PgV to ascertain the effect of Fe-limitation on phytoplankton host-virus dynamics. The effect of the viral shunt on Fe concentrations and bioavailability is starting to gain attention, since not only is Fe released through lysis, but also its solubility is increased by the simultaneous release of Fe-binding dissolved organic ligands. However, the effect of Fe-limitation on the process of viral lysis itself is poorly understood. In this study fine adjustment of a seawater-based culture medium including the use of ultra-clean trace metal conditions and protocols allowed for Fe-limited growth at nanomolar amounts as opposed to micromolar amounts typically employed in culturing. Viral lysates derived from Fe-limited and Fe-replete (for comparison hosts were cross-inoculated in hosts of both Fe treatments, to judge the quality of the resulting lysate as well as the effect of Fe introduction after initial infection. For both phytoplankton host-virus systems, the virus burst size reduced strongly under Fe stress, i.e. on average 28 ±1% of replete. Moreover, the MpV virus progeny showed highly reduced infectivity of 30±7%, whereas PgV infectivity was not affected. A small addition of Fe to Fe-limited cultures coming from the Fe-replete lysate counteracted the negative effect of Fe-limitation on phytoplankton virus production to some extent (but still half of replete, implying that the physiological history of the host at the moment of infection was an important underlying factor. These results indicate that Fe-limitation has the strong potential to reduce the loss of phytoplankton due to virus infection, thereby affecting the extent of Fe-cycling through the viral shunt. To what extent this affects the contribution of viral lysis-induced organic ligand release needs further study.

  12. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Hellsgate Project, 1999-2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew

    2000-05-01

    A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was conducted on lands acquired and/or managed (4,568 acres total) by the Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate project) to mitigate some of the losses associated with the original construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam and inundation of habitats behind the dams. Three separate properties, totaling 2,224 acres were purchased in 1998. One property composed of two separate parcels, mostly grassland lies southeast of the town of Nespelem in Okanogan County (770 acres) and was formerly called the Hinman property. The former Hinman property lies within an area the Tribes have set aside for the protection and preservation of the sharp-tailed grouse (Agency Butte unit). This special management area minus the Hinman acquisition contains 2,388 acres in a long-term lease with the Tribes. The second property lies just south of the Silver Creek turnoff (Ferry County) and is bisected by the Hellsgate Road (part of the Friedlander unit). This parcel contains 60 acres of riparian and conifer forest cover. The third property (now named the Sand Hills unit) acquired for mitigation (1,394 acres) lies within the Hellsgate Reserve in Ferry County. This new acquisition links two existing mitigation parcels (the old Sand Hills parcels and the Lundstrum Flat parcel, all former Kuehne purchases) together forming one large unit. HEP team members included individuals from the Colville Confederated Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department (CTCR), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The HEP team conducted a baseline habitat survey using the following HEP species models: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mink (Mustela vison), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), bobcat (Lynx rufus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus). HEP analysis and results are discussed within the body of the text. The cover types

  13. Age-dependent terminal declines in reproductive output in a wild bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Hammers

    Full Text Available In many iteroparous species individual fitness components, such as reproductive output, first increase with age and then decline during late-life. However, individuals differ greatly in reproductive lifespan, but reproductive declines may only occur in the period just before their death as a result of an age-independent decline in physiological condition. To fully understand reproductive senescence it is important to investigate to what extent declines in late-life reproduction can be explained by age, time until death, or both. However, the study of late-life fitness performance in natural populations is challenging as the exact birth and death dates of individuals are often not known, and most individuals succumb to extrinsic mortality before reaching old age. Here, we used an exceptional long-term longitudinal dataset of individuals from a natural, closed, and predator-free population of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis to investigate reproductive output, both in relation to age and to the time until the death of an individual (reverse-age approach. We observed an initial age-dependent increase in reproductive output that was followed by a decline in old age. However, we found no significant decline in reproductive output in the years directly preceding death. Although post-peak reproductive output declined with age, this pattern differed between terminal and non-terminal reproductive attempts, and the age-dependence of the terminal breeding attempt explained much of the variation in age-specific reproductive output. In fact, terminal declines in reproductive output were steeper in very old individuals. These results indicate that not only age-dependent, but also age-independent factors, such as physiological condition, need to be considered to understand reproductive senescence in wild-living animals.

  14. Landscape genetic analyses reveal fine-scale effects of forest fragmentation in an insular tropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimoun, Aurélie; Peterman, William; Eraud, Cyril; Faivre, Bruno; Navarro, Nicolas; Garnier, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    Within the framework of landscape genetics, resistance surface modelling is particularly relevant to explicitly test competing hypotheses about landscape effects on gene flow. To investigate how fragmentation of tropical forest affects population connectivity in a forest specialist bird species, we optimized resistance surfaces without a priori specification, using least-cost (LCP) or resistance (IBR) distances. We implemented a two-step procedure in order (i) to objectively define the landscape thematic resolution (level of detail in classification scheme to describe landscape variables) and spatial extent (area within the landscape boundaries) and then (ii) to test the relative role of several landscape features (elevation, roads, land cover) in genetic differentiation in the Plumbeous Warbler (Setophaga plumbea). We detected a small-scale reduction of gene flow mainly driven by land cover, with a negative impact of the nonforest matrix on landscape functional connectivity. However, matrix components did not equally constrain gene flow, as their conductivity increased with increasing structural similarity with forest habitat: urban areas and meadows had the highest resistance values whereas agricultural areas had intermediate resistance values. Our results revealed a higher performance of IBR compared to LCP in explaining gene flow, reflecting suboptimal movements across this human-modified landscape, challenging the common use of LCP to design habitat corridors and advocating for a broader use of circuit theory modelling. Finally, our results emphasize the need for an objective definition of landscape scales (landscape extent and thematic resolution) and highlight potential pitfalls associated with parameterization of resistance surfaces. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Testing genotyping strategies for ultra-deep sequencing of a co-amplifying gene family: MHC class I in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; Sebastian, Alvaro; Migalska, Magdalena; Westerdahl, Helena; Radwan, Jacek

    2017-07-01

    Characterization of highly duplicated genes, such as genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), where multiple loci often co-amplify, has until recently been hindered by insufficient read depths per amplicon. Here, we used ultra-deep Illumina sequencing to resolve genotypes at exon 3 of MHC class I genes in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus). We sequenced 24 individuals in two replicates and used this data, as well as a simulated data set, to test the effect of amplicon coverage (range: 500-20 000 reads per amplicon) on the repeatability of genotyping using four different genotyping approaches. A third replicate employed unique barcoding to assess the extent of tag jumping, that is swapping of individual tag identifiers, which may confound genotyping. The reliability of MHC genotyping increased with coverage and approached or exceeded 90% within-method repeatability of allele calling at coverages of >5000 reads per amplicon. We found generally high agreement between genotyping methods, especially at high coverages. High reliability of the tested genotyping approaches was further supported by our analysis of the simulated data set, although the genotyping approach relying primarily on replication of variants in independent amplicons proved sensitive to repeatable errors. According to the most repeatable genotyping method, the number of co-amplifying variants per individual ranged from 19 to 42. Tag jumping was detectable, but at such low frequencies that it did not affect the reliability of genotyping. We thus demonstrate that gene families with many co-amplifying genes can be reliably genotyped using HTS, provided that there is sufficient per amplicon coverage. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cumulative Effects of Barriers on the Movements of Forest Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bélisle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a consensus of opinion that habitat fragmentation has deleterious effects on animal populations, primarily by inhibiting dispersal among remaining patches, there have been few explicit demonstrations of the ways by which degraded habitats actually constrain individual movement. Two impediments are primarily responsible for this paucity: it is difficult to separate the effects of habitat fragmentation (configuration from habitat loss (composition, and conventional measures of fragmented habitats are assumed to be, but probably are not, isotropic. We addressed these limitations by standardizing differences in forest cover in a clearly anisotropic configuration of habitat fragmentation by conducting a homing experiment with three species of forest birds in the Bow Valley of Banff National Park, Canada. Birds were translocated (1.2-3.5  km either parallel or perpendicular to four/five parallel barriers that are assumed to impede the cross-valley travel of forest-dependent animals. Taken together, individuals exhibited longer return times when they were translocated across these barriers, but differences among species suggest a more complex interpretation. A long-distance migrant (Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata behaved as predicted, but a short-distance migrant (Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa was indifferent to barrier configuration. A resident (Red-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis exhibited longer return times when it was translocated parallel to the barriers. Our results suggest that an anisotropic arrangement of small, open areas in fragmented landscapes can have a cumulative barrier effect on the movement of forest animals, but that both modelers and managers will have to acknowledge potentially counterintuitive differences among species to predict the effect that these may have on individual movement and, ultimately, dispersal.

  17. Bird Surveys at DARHT Before and During Operations: Comparison of Species Abundance and Composition and Trace Element Uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez, D. C. Keller, C. D. Hathcock

    2007-11-30

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Mitigation Action Plan specifies the comparison of baseline conditions in biotic and abiotic media with those collected after operations have started. Operations at DARHT at Los Alamos National Laboratory started in 2000. In this study, the abundance and composition of birds collected near the DARHT facility from 2003 through 2006 were determined and compared to a preoperational period (1999). In addition, the levels of radionuclides and other inorganic chemicals in birds were compared to regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). The number and diversity of bird species generally increased over preoperational levels with the greatest number of birds (412) and species (46) occurring in 2005. The most common bird species collected regardless of time periods were the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), the Virginia's warbler (Vermivora virginiae), the western bluebird (Sialia mexicana), the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli), and the western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana). Most radionuclides, with the exception of uranium-234 and uranium-238, in (whole body) birds collected after operations began were either not detected or below RSRLs. Uranium-234 and uranium-238 concentrations in a few samples were far below screening levels and do not pose a potential unacceptable dose to the birds. In contrast, many inorganic chemicals, particularly arsenic and silver, in birds collected before and after operations began were in higher concentrations than RSRLs. Because birds (skin plus feathers) collected in the years before operations began contained higher levels of arsenic and silver than RSRLs and because there was no evidence of these metals in soil and sediment directly around the DARHT facility, the elevated levels of these metals in birds during early operations are probably not related to DARHT operations. Arsenic and silver in birds, however

  18. Candidate genes have sex-specific effects on timing of spring migration and moult speed in a long-distance migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Gaia; Podofillini, Stefano; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Cecere, Jacopo G; Spina, Fernando; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2017-10-01

    The timing of major life-history events, such as migration and moult, is set by endogenous circadian and circannual clocks, that have been well characterized at the molecular level. Conversely, the genetic sources of variation in phenology and in other behavioral traits have been sparsely addressed. It has been proposed that inter-individual variability in the timing of seasonal events may arise from allelic polymorphism at phenological candidate genes involved in the signaling cascade of the endogenous clocks. In this study of a long-distance migratory passerine bird, the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus , we investigated whether allelic variation at 5 polymorphic loci of 4 candidate genes ( Adcyap1 , Clock , Creb1 , and Npas2 ), predicted 2 major components of the annual schedule, namely timing of spring migration across the central Mediterranean sea and moult speed, the latter gauged from ptilochronological analyses of tail feathers moulted in the African winter quarters. We identified a novel Clock gene locus ( Clock region 3) showing polyQ polymorphism, which was however not significantly associated with any phenotypic trait. Npas2 allele size predicted male (but not female) spring migration date, with males bearing longer alleles migrating significantly earlier than those bearing shorter alleles. Creb1 allele size significantly predicted male (but not female) moult speed, longer alleles being associated with faster moult. All other genotype-phenotype associations were statistically non-significant. These findings provide new evidence for a role of candidate genes in modulating the phenology of different circannual activities in long-distance migratory birds, and for the occurrence of sex-specific candidate gene effects.

  19. Effects of parents and Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) on nest predation risk for a songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Quresh S; Heath, Sacha K; Rotenberry, John T

    2012-01-01

    Nest predation limits avian fitness, so ornithologists study nest predation, but they often only document patterns of predation rates without substantively investigating underlying mechanisms. Parental behavior and predator ecology are two fundamental drivers of predation rates and patterns, but the role of parents is less certain, particularly for songbirds. Previous work reproduced microhabitat-predation patterns experienced by Yellow Warblers (Setophaga petechia) in the Mono Lake basin at experimental nests without parents, suggesting that these patterns were driven by predator ecology rather than predator interactions with parents. In this study, we further explored effects of post-initiation parental behavior (nest defense and attendance) on predation risk by comparing natural versus experimental patterns related to territory density, seasonal timing of nest initiation, and nest age. Rates of parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were high in this system (49% nests parasitized), so we also examined parasitism-predation relationships. Natural nest predation rates (NPR) correlated negatively with breeding territory density and nonlinearly (U-shaped relationship) with nest-initiation timing, but experimental nests recorded no such patterns. After adjusting natural-nest data to control for these differences from experimental nests other than the presence of parents (e.g., defining nest failure similarly and excluding nestling-period data), we obtained similar results. Thus, parents were necessary to produce observed patterns. Lower natural NPR compared with experimental NPR suggested that parents reduced predation rates via nest defense, so this parental behavior or its consequences were likely correlated with density or seasonal timing. In contrast, daily predation rates decreased with nest age for both nest types, indicating this pattern did not involve parents. Parasitized nests suffered higher rates of partial predation but lower rates of

  20. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  1. Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of Sr in eggshells may be associated with lower hatching success of some passerine birds. - Concentrations of inorganic elements were determined in eggs of passerine birds including the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) from four regions in Arizona. The main aim of the study was to determine the distribution of metals in egg contents and eggshells, with emphasis on the deposition of Sr in eggshells. Seventy eggs of 11 passerine species were collected at four nesting locations during 2000. Aluminum, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn, were detected primarily in egg contents of all bird species. Arsenic, Ni, Pb, and V were detected primarily in eggshells. A proportion of most inorganic elements accumulated in the eggshell. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn in egg contents and As, Ba, Cu, and V in eggshells of yellow-breasted chats (Icteria virens) were similar among locations. However, concentrations of Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn in eggshells were significant different among locations. Except for Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, concentrations of inorganic elements were 2-35 times greater in eggshells than in eggs. Most concentrations of metals and metalloids in eggs and eggshells of all the bird species were below levels known to affect reproduction or that have other deleterious effects. However, I found somewhat elevated concentrations of Sr in eggshells (highest mean=1505 μg/g dw, n=3) of yellow-breasted chats and willow flycatchers, and in egg contents of yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Whether current observed concentrations of Sr in eggshells are affecting nesting birds in Arizona remains to be determined. Strontium and other metals could be associated with lower hatching success in some areas. This study shows that a proportion of many inorganic elements accumulates in the eggshell and that the potential effects on the proper structure and functioning of the eggshell

  2. Ecosystems effects 25 years after Chernobyl: pollinators, fruit set and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Barnier, Florian; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2012-12-01

    Animals are assumed to play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their effects on seed set, seed consumption, seed dispersal, and maintenance of plant communities. However, there are no studies investigating the consequences of animal scarcity on seed set, seed consumption and seed dispersal at large geographical scales. We exploited the unprecedented scarcity of pollinating bumblebees and butterflies in the vicinity of Chernobyl, Ukraine, linked to the effects of radiation on pollinator abundance, to test for effects of pollinator abundance on the ecosystem. There were considerably fewer pollinating insects in areas with high levels of radiation. Fruit trees and bushes (apple Malus domestica, pear Pyrus communis, rowan Sorbus aucuparia, wild rose Rosa rugosa, twistingwood Viburnum lantana, and European cranberry bush Viburnum opulus) that are all pollinated by insects produced fewer fruit in highly radioactively contaminated areas, partly linked to the local reduction in abundance of pollinators. This was the case even when controlling for the fact that fruit trees were generally smaller in more contaminated areas. Fruit-eating birds like thrushes and warblers that are known seed dispersers were less numerous in areas with lower fruit abundance, even after controlling for the effects of radiation, providing a direct link between radiation, pollinator abundance, fruit abundance and abundance of frugivores. Given that the Chernobyl disaster happened 25 years ago, one would predict reduced local recruitment of fruit trees if fruit set has been persistently depressed during that period; indeed, local recruitment was negatively related to the level of radiation and positively to the local level of fruit set. The patterns at the level of trees were replicated at the level of villages across the study site. This study provides the first large-scale study of the effects of a suppressed pollinator community on ecosystem functioning.

  3. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  4. Riparian bird density decline in response to biocontrol of Tamarix from riparian ecosystems along the Dolores River in SW Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Abigail J.; van Riper, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Biocontrol of invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the arid Southwest using the introduced tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda elongata) has been hypothesized to negatively affect some breeding bird species, but no studies to date have documented the effects of beetle-induced defoliation on riparian bird abundance. We assessed the effects of tamarisk defoliation by monitoring defoliation rates, changes in vegetation composition, and changes in density of six obligate riparian breeding bird species at two sites along the Dolores River in Colorado following the arrival of tamarisk beetles. We conducted bird point counts from 2010 to 2014 and modeled bird density as a function of native vegetation density and extent of defoliation using hierarchical distance sampling. Maximum annual defoliation decreased throughout the study period, peaking at 32–37% in 2009–2010 and dropping to 0.5–15% from 2011–2014. Stem density of both tamarisk and native plants declined throughout the study period until 2014. Density of all bird species declined throughout most of the study, with Song Sparrow disappearing from the study sites after 2011. Blue Grosbeak, Yellow-breasted Chat, and Yellow Warbler densities were negatively related to defoliation in the previous year, while Lazuli Bunting exhibited a positive relationship with defoliation. These findings corroborate earlier predictions of species expected to be sensitive to defoliation as a result of nest site selection. Tamarisk defoliation thus had short-term negative impacts on riparian bird species; active restoration may be needed to encourage the regrowth of native riparian vegetation, which in the longer-term may result in increased riparian bird density.

  5. Prioritizing tropical habitats for long-distance migratory songbirds: an assessment of habitat quality at a stopover site in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Bayly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance migratory birds are declining globally and migration has been identified as the primary source of mortality in this group. Despite this, our lack of knowledge of habitat use and quality at stopovers, i.e., sites where the energy for migration is accumulated, remains a barrier to designing appropriate conservation measures, especially in tropical regions. There is therefore an urgent need to assess stopover habitat quality and concurrently identify efficient and cost-effective methods for doing so. Given that fuel deposition rates directly influence stopover duration, departure fuel load, and subsequent speed of migration, they are expected to provide a direct measure of habitat quality and have the advantage of being measurable through body-mass changes. Here, we examined seven potential indicators of quality, including body-mass change, for two ecologically distinct Neotropical migratory landbirds on stopover in shade-coffee plantations and tropical humid premontane forest during spring migration in Colombia: (1 rate of body-mass change; (2 foraging rate; (3 recapture rate; (4 density; (5 flock size; (6 age and sex ratios; and (7 body-mass distribution. We found higher rates of mass change in premontane forest than in shade-coffee in Tennessee Warbler Oreothlypis peregrina, a difference that was mirrored in higher densities and body masses in forest. In Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus, a lack of recaptures in shade-coffee and higher densities in forest, also suggested that forest provided superior fueling conditions. For a reliable assessment of habitat quality, we therefore recommend using a suite of indicators, taking into account each species' ecology and methodological considerations. Our results also imply that birds stopping over in lower quality habitats may spend a longer time migrating and require more stopovers, potentially leading to important carryover effects on reproductive fitness. Evaluating habitat quality is

  6. Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of inorganic elements were determined in eggs of passerine birds including the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) from four regions in Arizona. The main aim of the study was to determine the distribution of metals in egg contents and eggshells, with emphasis on the deposition of Sr in eggshells. Seventy eggs of 11 passerine species were collected at four nesting locations during 2000. Aluminum, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn, were detected primarily in egg contents of all bird species. Arsenic, Ni, Pb, and V were detected primarily in eggshells. A proportion of most inorganic elements accumulated in the eggshell. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn in egg contents and As, Ba, Cu, and V in eggshells of yellow-breasted chats (Icteria virens) were similar among locations. However, concentrations of Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn in eggshells were significant different among locations. Except for Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, concentrations of inorganic elements were 2–35 times greater in eggshells than in eggs. Most concentrations of metals and metalloids in eggs and eggshells of all the bird species were below levels known to affect reproduction or that have other deleterious effects. However, I found somewhat elevated concentrations of Sr in eggshells (highest mean=1505 μg/g dw, n=3) of yellow-breasted chats and willow flycatchers, and in egg contents of yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Whether current observed concentrations of Sr in eggshells are affecting nesting birds in Arizona remains to be determined. Strontium and other metals could be associated with lower hatching success in some areas. This study shows that a proportion of many inorganic elements accumulates in the eggshell and that the potential effects on the proper structure and functioning of the eggshell should not be ignored.

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area, Technical Report 2000-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozusko, Shana

    2003-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) currently manages a 15,325 acre parcel of land known as the Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area that was purchased as mitigation for losses incurred by construction of the four lower Snake River dams. The Management Area is located in northern Wallowa County, Oregon and southern Asotin County, Washington (Figure 1). It is divided into three management parcels--the Buford parcel is located on Buford Creek and straddles the WA-OR state line, and the Tamarack and Basin parcels are contiguous to each other and located between the Joseph Creek and Cottonwood Creek drainages in Wallowa County, OR. The project was developed under the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-501), with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The acreage protected under this contract will be credited to BPA as habitat permanently dedicated to wildlife and wildlife mitigation. A modeling strategy known as Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and adopted by BPA as a habitat equivalency accounting system. Nine wildlife species models were used to evaluate distinct cover type features and provide a measure of habitat quality. Models measure a wide range of life requisite variables for each species and monitor overall trends in vegetation community health and diversity. One product of HEP is an evaluation of habitat quality expressed in Habitat Units (HUs). This HU accounting system is used to determine the amount of credit BPA receives for mitigation lands. After construction of the four lower Snake River dams, a HEP loss assessment was conducted to determine how many Habitat Units were inundated behind the dams. Twelve target species were used in that evaluation: Canada goose, mallard, river otter, downy woodpecker, song sparrow, yellow warbler, marsh wren, western meadowlark, chukar, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, and mule deer. The U.S. Army Corp of

  8. The Late Pleistocene-Holocene community development in Central and SE-Europe in direct fossil record: scope of the approach, common patterns and inter-regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, Ivan; Lozek, Vojen

    2010-05-01

    continuous sedimentary sequences from different regions of Czech Republic and Slovakia (850 community samples, 29,800 MNI) and neighbouring countries of Central Europe. Despite common general trends we demonstrated stricking local and regional specificities. Among other they include (a) continuous survival of several woodland elements (Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus, Micotus subterraneus, Microtus agrestis) throughout Weichselian (including LGM) in the Carpathians, (b) prolonged survival of the glacial elements Ochotona pusilla and Microtus gregalis in Pannonian basin and (c) Dicrostonyx gulielmi in the Carpathian foredeep, contrasting to (d) the early disappearance of them in S-Germany and Bohemia, and (e) similar difference were found also in other cenologic traits. While the glacial communities were nearly homogenous in their structure throughout whole the region, the Holocene development produced a considerable faunal provincialism, which was the most pronounced during Boreal. In contrast to central Europe, the available sequences from the SE-Europe and Asia Minor show only minute faunal changes during the Vistulian and Holocene, no essential rearrangements in community structure were observed (at least as the core species are concerned) and except for Lagurus no glacial immigrant did invade the region. At the same time a degree of local provincialism was continuously high and, in a regional scale, it continuously exceeded that of the Boreal central Europe.

  9. Are population dynamics of shorebirds affected by El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) while on their non-breeding grounds in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Patrick D.; Haase, Ben J. M.; Elner, Robert W.; Smith, Barry D.; Kenyon, Jamie K.

    2007-08-01

    Declines in avian populations are a global concern, particularly for species that migrate between Arctic-temperate and tropical locations. Long-term population studies offer opportunities to detect and document ecological effects attributable to long-term climatic cycles such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In this study, we report possible population-level effects of such climatic cycles on shorebird species that use two non-breeding season sites in Ecuador (Santa Elena peninsula area, near La Libertad). During our 9-year study period (1991/1992-1999/2000), there was a particularly strong ENSO warm phase event during 1997/1998. Population trend data for three species of shorebird, Western Sandpipers ( Calidris mauri), Semipalmated Sandpipers ( C. pusilla), and Least Sandpipers ( C. minutilla), indicated abundances generally declined during the 1990s, but there was an increase in the proportion of first-year birds and their abundance in the years following the 1997/1998 ENSO warm phase. There was some support for variation in apparent survivorship associated with the onset of the ENSO warm phase event in our population models, based on capture-mark-recapture data. Following the 1997/1998 ENSO event onset, individuals for all three species were significantly lighter during the non-breeding season ( F1,3789 = 6.6, p = 0.01). Least-squares mean mass (controlling for size, sex and day of capture) for first-year birds dropped significantly more than for adults following ENSO (first-year mass loss = 0.69 ± 0.12 g; adult mass loss = 0.34 ± 0.11 g, F1,3789 = 5.31, p = 0.021), and least-squares mean mass dropped most during the period when sandpipers prepare for northward migration by gaining mass and moulting into breeding plumage. Least Sandpipers may have declined the most in mean mass following ENSO (0.76 ± 0.19 g), whereas Semipalmated Sandpipers were 0.52 ± 0.12 g lighter, and Western Sandpipers 0.40 ± 0.13 g lighter, but overall variation among

  10. The analysis of the biomass and starch content of duckweed growing in swine wastewater%猪场污水中浮萍生物量和淀粉含量变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昭; 姚广保; 张艺琼; 赵云

    2012-01-01

    以四川常见的青萍(Lemna minor)、少根紫萍(Spirodela olygorrhiza)、稀脉浮萍(L.perpusilla)和紫萍(S.polyrrhiza)为研究对象,研究了猪场污水浓度和接种量对其生物产量和淀粉含量的影响.结果表明在5%的猪场污水中,浮萍科的4个种都有较高的生长速率.在35.4 g/m2的接种量时,青萍的淀粉含量最高可以达到干重的32.9%;在17.7 g/m2的接种量时,少根紫萍、稀脉浮萍和紫萍的最高淀粉含量分别可达到干重的44.4%、38.o%和35.5%.在单位时间内,紫萍具有更大的生物产量,每公顷每年的产量(鲜重)89.7t,但淀粉含量偏低.经综合研究比较,在四川地区气候条件下,少根紫萍能够制造更多淀粉,每公顷每年大约能生产淀粉11.4t,适宜作为能源植物推广.%The biomass and starch content of duckweed Lemna minor, Spirodela olygorrhiza , L. per-pusilla and S. polyrrhiza, collected from Chengdu in Sichuan. were investigated when they were cultured in swine wastewater. The results showed the common duckweed could grow fast in the 5 % swine waste water. At an optimal initial inoculum size of 35. 4 g/m2, the maximum starch content of Lemna minor was 32. 9% on a dry weight basis. At an optimal initial inoculum size of 17. 7g/m2. the highest starch content of S. olygorrhiza, L. perpusilla and S. polyrrhiza was 44. 4% ,38. 0% and 35. 5% on a dry weight basis, respectively. In the climate condition of Chengdu, S. polyrrhiza could produce the most biomass and S. olygorrhiza could produce the most starch. S. polyrrhiza could produce 89. 7 tons biomass(fresh weight) per hectare per year. S. olygorrhiza could produce 11. 4 tons starch per hectare per year and would be able to be a new energy plant widely used.

  11. Status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Tinian and Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Amidon, Fred; Marshall, Ann P.; Kremer, Shelly; Laut, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Collared-Dove—were significantly greater in 2008 than 1982. No differences in densities were detected between the two surveys for White Tern and Micronesian Honeyeater. Three native land birds— Micronesian Megapode (Megapodius laperouse), Guam Swiftlet (Collocalia bartschi), and Nightingale Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities for either island. Increased military operations on Tinian may result in increases in habitat clearings and the human population, which would expand human-dominated habitats, and declines in some bird populations would be likely to continue or be exacerbated with these actions. Expanded military activities on Tinian would also mean increased movement between Guam and Tinian, elevating the probability of transporting the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) to Tinian.

  12. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace P Erickson

    Full Text Available Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW] for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows], and domestic cats have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top

  13. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P; Wolfe, Melissa M; Bay, Kimberly J; Johnson, Douglas H; Gehring, Joelle L

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  14. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collisions with turbines at wind energy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Wolfe, Melissa M.; Bay, Kimberly J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Gehring, Joelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 39 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  15. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Tonto National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Eric W.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first biological inventory of plants and vertebrates at Tonto National Monument (NM). From 2001 to 2003, we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Tonto NM to record species presence. We focused most of our efforts along the Cave Springs riparian area, but surveyed other areas as well. We recorded 149 species in the riparian area, and 369 species overall in the monument, including 65 plant species and four bird species that were previously unrecorded for the monument. We recorded 78 plant species in the riparian area that previous studies had not indicated were present there. Several species of each taxonomic group were found only in the riparian area, suggesting that because of their concentration in this small area these populations are vulnerable to disturbance and may be of management concern. Four of the bird species that we recorded (Bell's vireo, yellow warbler, summer tanager, and Abert's towhee) have been identified as riparian 'obligate' species by other sources. Bird species that are obligated to riparian areas are targets of conservation concern due to widespread degradation of riparian areas in the desert southwest over the last century. The flora and fauna of the riparian area would benefit from continued limited public access. The dependence of the riparian area on the spring and surface flow suggests monitoring of this resource per se would benefit management of the riparian area's flora and fauna as well. The monument would benefit from incorporating monitoring protocols developed by the Sonoran Desert Network Inventory and Monitoring program rather than initiating a separate program for the riparian area. Park managers can encourage the Inventory and Monitoring program to address the unique monitoring challenges presented by small spatial areas such as this riparian area, and can request specific monitoring recommendations. We suggest that repeat

  16. Inferences about population dynamics from count data using multi-state models: A comparison to capture-recapture approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Zipkin, Elise; Scott, Sillett T.; Chandler, Richard; Royle, J. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife populations consist of individuals that contribute disproportionately to growth and viability. Understanding a population's spatial and temporal dynamics requires estimates of abundance and demographic rates that account for this heterogeneity. Estimating these quantities can be difficult, requiring years of intensive data collection. Often, this is accomplished through the capture and recapture of individual animals, which is generally only feasible at a limited number of locations. In contrast, N-mixture models allow for the estimation of abundance, and spatial variation in abundance, from count data alone. We extend recently developed multistate, open population N-mixture models, which can additionally estimate demographic rates based on an organism's life history characteristics. In our extension, we develop an approach to account for the case where not all individuals can be assigned to a state during sampling. Using only state-specific count data, we show how our model can be used to estimate local population abundance, as well as density-dependent recruitment rates and state-specific survival. We apply our model to a population of black-throated blue warblers (Setophaga caerulescens) that have been surveyed for 25 years on their breeding grounds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. The intensive data collection efforts allow us to compare our estimates to estimates derived from capture–recapture data. Our model performed well in estimating population abundance and density-dependent rates of annual recruitment/immigration. Estimates of local carrying capacity and per capita recruitment of yearlings were consistent with those published in other studies. However, our model moderately underestimated annual survival probability of yearling and adult females and severely underestimates survival probabilities for both of these male stages. The most accurate and precise estimates will necessarily require some amount of intensive

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Iskuulpa Wildlife Mitigation and Watershed Project, Technical Report 1998-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaempts, Eric

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to evaluate lands acquired and leased in Eskuulpa Watershed, a Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation watershed and wildlife mitigation project. The project is designed to partially credit habitat losses incurred by BPA for the construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grasslands cover types were included in the evaluation. Indicator species included downy woodpecker (Picuides puhescens), black-capped chickadee (Pams atricopillus), blue grouse (Beadragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petschia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnello neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 55,500 feet of transects, 678 m2 plots, and 243 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 123.9 and f 0,794.4 acres were evaluated for each indicator species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total habitat units credited to BPA for the Iskuulpa Watershed Project and its seven indicator species is 4,567.8 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest, which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing or implementation of restoration grazing schemes, road de-commissioning, reforestation, large woody debris additions to floodplains, control of competing and unwanted vegetation, reestablishing displaced or reduced native vegetation species

  18. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  19. Pacific Island landbird monitoring report, Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, 2015-2016: Tract groups 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth; Camp, Richard J.; Sedgwick, Daniel; Squibb, Carine; Hart, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) was surveyed for landbirds and landbird habitat from February through April 2015 and February through April 2016. This information provides the second datum in the time-series of Pacific Island Network (PACN) monitoring for long-term trends in landbird distribution, density, and abundance. Initial PACN surveys were conducted in 2010 and are repeated every five years. The entire survey area was comprised of eight tracts in forest, woodland, and shrub habitat, totaling 26,364 ha. Each tract was surveyed using point-transect distance sampling to calculate estimates of bird abundance and density. In addition to the permanent PACN survey transects, randomly generated point-transects were also surveyed, allowing for a split panel sampling design. A total of 14,061 bird detections of twenty-eight species were recorded during point counts; 8 species were native to Hawaiʻi and 20 species were non-native. ʻApapane (Himatione sanguinea) and Hawaiʻi ‘Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens virens) were the most abundant and widely distributed native species detected. ‘Ōma’o (Myadestes obscurus), ‘I‘iwi (Drepanis coccinea), and Hawaiʻi Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) occurred at fewer than 30% of the 757 stations surveyed, and were absent from some tracts. Three species of native birds detected during surveys were endangered—ʻIo (Buteo solitarius), Hawaiʻi Creeper (Loxops mana), and Hawaiʻi ʻAkepa (Loxops coccineus). Two additional endangered species were detected incidentally on transects—Nēnē (Branta sandwicensis) and ʻAkiapolaʻau (Hemignathus wilsoni). Non-native Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Japanese Bush Warbler (Horomis diphone), and Yellow-fronted Canary (Crithagra mozambica) were detected throughout most tracts and had the highest relative abundances among non-natives. The remaining species detected occurred at less than 10% of stations surveyed

  20. Pacific Island landbird monitoring annual report, Haleakalā National Park, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth W.; Camp, Richard J.; Hart, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Haleakalā National Park (HALE) was surveyed for landbirds and habitat characteristics from March 20 through July 26, 2012. This information provides data in the time-series of landbird monitoring for long-term trends in forest bird distribution, density, and abundance. The Kīpahulu District of eastern Haleakalā Volcano was surveyed using point-transect distance sampling to estimate bird abundance. We surveyed 160 stations and detected a total of 2,830 birds from 12 species. Half of the species were native and half were non-native. Numbers of detections per species ranged from 1 to 849. There were sufficient detections of seven species to allow density estimation. Āpapane (Himatione sanguinea) was the most widely distributed and abundant native species detected in the survey. ‘Alauahio (Paroreomyza montana newtoni), Maui ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens wilsoni), and I‘iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were widespread and occurred in relatively modest densities. Only eight Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and 20 ‘Ākohekohe (Palmeria dolei) were detected and were restricted to high elevation wet forest. We estimated an abundance of 495 ± 261individuals of Kiwikiu in a 2,036 ha inference area which likely includes the entire suitable habitat for this species in HALE. For ‘Ākohekohe, we estimated an abundance of 1,150 ± 389 individuals in the 1,458 ha inference area. There was a strong representation of non-native landbirds in the survey area. The Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus), Japanese Bush-warbler (Cettia diphone), and Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea) accounted for nearly half of all landbird detections. Each species was common in predominantly native forests. Vegetation and topographic characteristics were recorded on 160 landbird monitoring stations. HALE canopy and understory composition was predominantly native, especially at elevations above 1,100 m. Much of the forest canopy was comprised of `ohi`a (Metrosideros polymorpha) interspersed

  1. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Boscolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.A técnica de play-back é muito útil para a detecção de aves, mas este método geralmente não é padronizado. Sua eficiência em atestar a ocorrência de cinco espécies de aves da Mata Atlântica (Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Batará Batara cinerea, Tangará Chiroxiphia caudata, Olho-de-fogo Pyriglena leucoptera e Surucuá-de-barriga-vermelha Trogon surrucura foi analisada de acordo com o horário do dia, estação do ano e abundância das espécies na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande (São Paulo, Brasil e em treze fragmentos florestais de uma paisagem adjacente

  2. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  3. Annual survival estimation of migratory songbirds confounded by incomplete breeding site-fidelity: study designs that may help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, M. R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Many species of bird exhibit varying degrees of site–fidelity to the previous year’s territory or breeding area, a phenomenon we refer to as incomplete breeding site–fidelity. If the territory they occupy is located beyond the bounds of the study area or search area (i.e., they have emigrated from the study area, the bird will go undetected and is therefore indistinguishable from dead individuals in capture–mark–recapture studies. Differential emigration rates confound inferences regarding differences in survival between sexes and among species if apparent survival rates are used as estimates of true survival. Moreover, the bias introduced by using apparent survival rates for true survival rates can have profound effects on the predictions of population persistence through time, source/sink dynamics, and other aspects of life–history theory. We investigated four study design and analysis approaches that result in apparent survival estimates that are closer to true survival estimates. Our motivation for this research stemmed from a multi–year capture–recapture study of Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea on multiple study plots within a larger landscape of suitable breeding habitat where substantial inter–annual movements of marked individuals among neighboring study plots was documented. We wished to quantify the effects of this type of movement on annual survival estimation. The first two study designs we investigated involved marking birds in a core area and resighting them in the core as well as an area surrounding the core. For the first of these two designs, we demonstrated that as the resighting area surrounding the core gets progressively larger, and more “emigrants” are resighted, apparent survival estimates begin to approximate true survival rates (bias < 0.01. However, given observed inter–annual movements of birds, it is likely to be logistically impractical to resight birds on sufficiently large

  4. A revision of ant-mimicking spiders of the family Corinnidae (Araneae) in the Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Robert J

    2015-05-20

    The Corinnidae of the western Pacific are revised. The formerly sparassid genus Anchognatha Thorell, 1881, and the gnaphosid genus Battalus Karsch, 1878, are transferred to the Castianeirinae. The Corinninae include only the introduced Creugas gulosus Thorell, 1878 and Medmassa christae sp. nov. from the northern Torres Strait islands. Medmassa pallipes (L. Koch, 1873) and Medmassa pusilla Simon, 1896 are newly synonymised with Creugas gulosus. The Castianeirinae from the Western Pacific including Australia includes Battalus Karsch, 1878, Copa Simon, 1886, Leichhardteus Raven & Baehr, 2013, Nyssus Walckenaer, 1805, Poecilipta Simon, 1897, and eight new genera: Disnyssus gen. nov., Iridonyssus gen. nov., Kolora gen. nov., Leptopicia gen. nov., Melanesotypus gen. nov., Nucastia gen. nov., Ozcopa gen. nov. and Ticopa gen. nov. Battalus includes B. adamparsonsi sp. nov., B. baehrae sp. nov., B. bidgemia sp. nov., B. byrneae sp. nov., B. diadens sp. nov., B. helenstarkae sp. nov., B. microspinosus sp. nov., B. rugosus sp. nov., B. spinipes Karsch, 1878, B. wallum sp. nov., B. zuytdorp sp. nov. and B. semiflavus (Simon, 1896), new combination (transferred from Medmassa). Copa, an otherwise African and Sri Lankan genus, includes C. kabana sp. nov. Disnyssus gen. nov. includes D. helenmirrenae sp. nov. and D. judidenchae sp. nov. Iridonyssus gen. nov. includes I. auripilosus sp. nov., I. formicans sp. nov., I. kohouti sp. nov. and I. leucostaurus sp. nov. Kolora gen. nov. includes K. cushingae sp. nov., K. cooloola sp. nov. and K. lynneae sp. nov., and K. sauverubens (Simon, 1896) new combination (transferred from Corinnomma Karsch, 1880). Leichhardteus includes Leichhardteus yagan sp. nov., Leichhardteus evschlingeri sp. nov., Leichhardteus strzelecki sp. nov., as well as eight recently described species. Leptopicia gen. nov. includes only Methesis bimaculata (Simon, 1896) new combination (transferred from Methesis Simon, 1896). Melanesotypus guadal gen. et sp. nov. is

  5. The spider family Micropholcommatidae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea: a relimitation and revision at the generic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rix

    2010-02-01

    .; the 20 previously described species of Textricella are thus transferred into Eterosonycha or other newly described genera. The Textricellini includes 10 genera from Australasia and Chile: Eterosonycha has four species, including the type E. alpina Butler (=Textricella parva Hickman syn. n., E. complexa (Forster, E. aquilina sp. n. and E. ocellata sp. n.; Epigastrina gen. n. has three species, including the type E. fulva (Hickman, E. loongana sp. n. and E. typhlops sp. n.; Guiniella gen. n. is monotypic, with G. tropica (Forster; Raveniella gen. n. has three species, including the type R. luteola (Hickman, R. hickmani (Forster and R. peckorum sp. n.; Rayforstia gen. n. has 12 species, including the type R. vulgaris (Forster, the two new species R. lordhowensis sp. n. and R. raveni sp. n., and the nine additional species R. antipoda (Forster, R. insula (Forster, R. mcfarlanei (Forster, R. plebeia (Forster, R. propinqua (Forster, R. salmoni (Forster, R. scuta (Forster, R. signata (Forster and R. wisei (Forster; Normplatnicka gen. n. has three species, including the type N. lamingtonensis (Forster, N. chilensis sp. n. and N. barrettae sp. n.; Eperiella gen. n. has two species, including the type E. alsophila sp. n., and E. hastings sp. n.; Algidiella gen. n. is monotypic, with A. aucklandica (Forster; Taliniella gen. n. has two species, including the type T. nigra (Forster, and T. vinki sp. n.; and Tinytrella gen. n. is monotypic, with T. pusilla (Forster. The micropholcommatine tribe Patelliellini trib. n. includes only one monotypic genus, Patelliella gen. n., represented by the enigmatic species Patelliella adusta sp. n. from Lord Howe Island. The subfamily Taphiassinae subfam. n. includes two genera of distinctive, heavily punctate Micropholcommatidae from Australasia: Taphiassa Simon has six species, including the type T. impressa Simon, T. punctata (Forster, T. castanea sp. n., T. globosa sp. n., T. magna sp. n. and T. robertsi sp. n.; the genus Parapua Forster

  6. Spatial distribution of breeding Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca in respect to their natal sites

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    Sokolov, L.

    2004-06-01

    controlled 83 males and only 43 females suggests, assumed that sex ratio at fledging is close to being equal and that true survival rates during the first year of life do not differ greatly between the sexes, that many females emigrated from of our study plot. This does not mean that juvenile females do not imprint a home area during the postfledging period, as suggested by Vysotsky (2000. We think that the reason for this is not the inadequate navigational ability of the females but the fact that they were attracted by a prospecting male at some distance from their migratory destination and settle there. Such intercepting was suggested by Fedorov (1996 for Acrocephalus warblers, and it may exist in other migratory passerines. This is supported by the data on natal site fidelity from Spain which show that in Spanish pied flycatcher populations, recruitment rate did not differ between female and male juveniles (Potti & Montalvo, 1991. Females from these southern populations have a limited chance to be attracted by prospecting males in even more southern areas.

  7. Final integrated trip report: site visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Pratt, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    supported the Mariana Gallinule (Gallinula chloropus guami), the Mariana Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti), Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), White-throated Ground Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura xanthonura), Mariana Crow (Corvus kubaryi), and the Nightingale Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia), all endemic to the Mariana Islands. Other regionally endemic endangered species include the Micronesian Megapode (Megapodius laperouse), and the Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi), now reduced to a small population on Guam. Likewise, the flora of Guam is unique, with 21percent of its native vascular plants endemic to the Mariana Islands. In limestone forests of Northern Guam, a number of tall forest tree species such as joga, Elaeocarpus joga (Elaeocarpaceae); pengua or Macaranga thompsonii (Euphorbiaceae); ifit or Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae); seeded breadfruit or Artocarpus marianensis (Moraceae); and umumu or Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae) may be in decline as a result of herbivory by mammals. All show reduced regeneration and age distributions highly skewed towards older individuals. These species provided important habitat for some of Guam's endangered forest birds that remain in captivity such as the Mariana Crow, Guam Kingfisher, and Guam Rail. The recent high frequency of intense tropical storms and herbivory caused by large populations of feral pigs and Philippine sambar deer (Cervus mariannus), as well as invasive alien vines that may suppress tree regeneration, could be permanently altering the structure of regenerating forests and composition of important canopy species on secondary limestone substrates that were cleared and compacted during airfield construction from 1944 through the 1970s. Guam National Wildlife Refuge (GNWR) was established at Ritidian Point, after it was determined to be excess property by the U.S. Navy. Most of the refuge, about 9,087 hectares, is an 'overlay refuge' on lands administered by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy

  8. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani nov. Section VI. CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Section VII. PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A. chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A. subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Series PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A. Burkartii. Series RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var. glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var.Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A. cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A. decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A. correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoi nov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea, var. 2.hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3. aequatoriana nov., var. 4. vulgaris. The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit and the limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomal organization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between different collections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species within sections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections. The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed and are further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating