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Sample records for warbler dendroica pinus

  1. Status of the cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) in Northern Alabama, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Carpenter; Eric C. Soehren; Adrian A. Lesak; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2005-01-01

    The cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) is a Neotropic-Nearctic migratory passerine that breeds in eastern North America and winters in northwestern South America (Dunn and Garrett 1997, Hamel 2000a, 2000b). The northern two-thirds of Alabama historically represented the southernmost extension of the Cerulean Warbler's breeding range, where...

  2. How we can learn more about the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea)

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    Hamel, P.B.; Dawson, D.K.; Keyser, P.D.

    2004-01-01

    A sense of urgency attends the study of species of concern, like the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea). Sharpened by Robbins et al. (1992) and Hamel (1992), such concern prompted the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to commission a status assessment of the Cerulean Warbler (Hamel 2000a). Shortly after the status review was published, a petition (Ruley 2000) was delivered to the USFWS urging that the species be listed as “threatened” under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The account of the Cerulean Warbler in the Birds of North America series also appeared that year (Hamel 2000b). Substantial attention is currently focused on the species, and the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group (CWTG) was formed in 2002 (see Appendix).This overview consists of two parts. The first, prepared primarily by P.B.H., attempts to summarize current knowledge and suggest productive avenues to pursue in our efforts to understand the biology and conserve populations of Cerulean Warblers. The second, written by D.K.D. and P.D.K., is a summary of the structure and priorities of the CWTG, an organization that can spur and facilitate research and conservation action directed at this species and serve as a model for conservation of other forest birds (Appendix). Further information on Cerulean Warblers and activities of the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group can be found on the CWTG website (see Acknowledgments).

  3. Microsatellite DNA markers for delineating population structure and kinship among the endangered Kirtland’s warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii)

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    TIM L. KING; MICHAEL S. EACKLES; ANNE P. HENDERSON; CAROL I. BOCETTI; DAVE CURRIE; JR WUNDERLE

    2005-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of 23 microsatellite DNA markers for the endangered Kirtland’s warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), a Nearctic/Neotropical migrant passerine. This suite of markers revealed moderate to high levels of allelic diversity (averaging 7.7 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 72%). Genotypic frequencies at 22 of 23 (95%)...

  4. Establishing quantitative habitat targets for a "Critically Endangered" neotropical migrant (golden-cheeked warbler Dendroica chrysoparia) during the non-breeding season

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    David I. King; Carlin C. Chandler; John H. Rappole; Richard B. Chandler; David W. Mehlman

    2012-01-01

    The Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia is a federally endangered Neotropical migrant that inhabits montane pine-oak forests in Mexico and northern Central America during the non-breeding season. Although it is known that Golden-cheeked Warblers are closely associated with ‘encino’ oaks (...

  5. Long-distance Dispersal Patterns of Male Cerulean Warblers (Dendroica cerulea Measured by Stable-hydrogen Isotopes

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    M. Katherine. Girvan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fundamental role played by long-distance dispersal in population dynamics, the mechanisms promoting or inhibiting dispersal by migratory songbirds are poorly understood. We used stable-hydrogen isotopes (δD to evaluate several hypotheses related to long-distance dispersal in the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea, a migratory songbird at the center of considerable conservation attention. Feather samples were collected from 103 males throughout the breeding range. We assumed feathers were molted in late summer on the breeding grounds and thus δD values provided an estimate of breeding or hatching location for the previous year. We used a likelihood-based assignment test to estimate the origin of birds the previous year and derived expected δD values for the entire Cerulean Warbler breeding range from precipitation-based maps. Using Bayes' Rule, we also incorporated a prior probability of breeding origin based on estimated rates of site fidelity and survival between breeding seasons. We found that long-distance breeding dispersal by adult male Cerulean Warblers was a fairly common occurrence with 20 of 71 (28.2% individuals originating from a region other than the one they were sampled in. Surprisingly, long-distance natal dispersal was uncommon; only three of 32 (9.4% second-year birds were estimated to have hatched in a region outside their capture region. Young males may be using a form of post-fledging prospecting or conspecific attraction when selecting their first breeding habitats. Populations on the breeding range periphery, such as Ontario and Tennessee, tended to receive fewer long-distance dispersers than did other regions but produced more dispersing individuals than did core regions, suggesting that these areas could act as important sources for other regions. The tendency of a region to produce dispersing individuals was not significantly related to its relative abundance, implying that population abundance is not a

  6. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA

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    John R. Probst; Deahn Donner; Carol I. Bocetti; Steve Sjogren

    2003-01-01

    The threatened Kirtland`s warbler Dendroica kirtlandii breeds in stands of young jack pine Pinus banksiana growing on well-drained soils in Michigan, USA. We summarize information documenting the range expansion of Kirtland`s warbler due to increased habitat management in the core breeding range in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan...

  7. Breeding habitat use by sympatric and allopatric populations of Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, J.M.; Stanley, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    We studied Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) habitat use in allopatric and sympatric populations in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming in order to better understand the different habitat needs and interactions of these two species. Foraging Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers used very similar habitat, both selecting larger, more open shrubs. In spite of similar foraging habitat, comparisons of habitat use by the two species at the sympatric sites yielded no evidence of foraging habitat partitioning or exclusion. There was evidence of nesting habitat partitioning. Wilson's Warblers nested on the ground, with some evidence that they used smaller, more densely stemmed shrubs under which to nest. Yellow Warblers are shrub nesters and selected larger, more open shrubs in which to nest. Results provide no evidence that Yellow Warblers can be blamed for population declines in Wilson's Warblers.

  8. El Grupo Cerúleo: Collaboration to assess nonbreeding range of Cerulean Warbler in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel Colorado; Paul Hamel; Amanda Rodewals; Wayne Thogmartin

    2008-01-01

    Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea. Parulidae) has been listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature because of recent population declines. An international, proactive approach to Cerulean Warbler conservation, the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group, was founded in 2001. One of its subcommittees, El Grupo...

  9. Incidence of nest material kleptoparasitism invlovling cerulean warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly C. Jones; Kirk L. Roth; Kamal Islam; Paul B. Hamel; Carl G. III Smith

    2007-01-01

    document 21 observations of interspecific stealing of nesting material involving Cerulean Warblers (Dendroica cerulea), Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus/i>), Blue-gray Gnatcatchers (Polioptila caerulea/i>), Northern Parulas (Parula americana/i>), Black-throated Green Warblers (D. virens), American Redstarts (

  10. Adaptive forest management to improve habitats for cerulean warbler

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    Paul B. Hamel

    2006-01-01

    Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea, Aves: Parulidae) is a Neotropical migratory bird with a declining population. These birds are a focal species of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Thus, the birds properly may be considered to be a conservation...

  11. Ongoing movement of the hermit warbler X Townsend's warbler hybrid zone.

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    Meade Krosby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Movements of hybrid zones - areas of overlap and interbreeding between species - are difficult to document empirically. This is true because moving hybrid zones are expected to be rare, and because movement may proceed too slowly to be measured directly. Townsend's warblers (Dendroica townsendi hybridize with hermit warblers (D. occidentalis where their ranges overlap in Washington and Oregon. Previous morphological, behavioral, and genetic studies of this hybrid zone suggest that it has been steadily moving into the geographical range of hermit warblers, with the more aggressive Townsend's warblers replacing hermit warblers along ∼2000 km of the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska. Ongoing movement of the zone, however, has yet to be empirically demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared recently sampled hybrid zone specimens to those collected 10-20 years earlier, to test directly the long-standing hypothesis of hybrid zone movement between these species. Newly sampled specimens were more Townsend's-like than historical specimens, consistent with ongoing movement of the zone into the geographical range of hermit warblers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While movement of a hybrid zone may be explained by several possible mechanisms, in this case a wealth of existing evidence suggests that movement is being driven by the competitive displacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers. That no ecological differences have been found between these species, and that replacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers is proceeding downward in latitude and elevation - opposite the directions of range shifts predicted by recent climate change - further support that this movement is not being driven by alternative environmental factors. If the mechanism of competitive displacement is correct, whether this process will ultimately lead to the extinction of hermit warblers will depend on the continued maintenance of the

  12. Factors affecting golden-cheeked warbler nest survival in urban and rural landscapes

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    Jenifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson; Rebecca G. Peak

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses concerning temporal, landscape, and habitat effects on nest survival of golden-cheeked warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) in an urban and a rural landscape during the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006 in central Texas, USA. We found support for temporal effects of year and cubic effect of date and included them in candidate...

  13. Male Kirtland's Warblers' patch-level response to landscape structure during periods of varying population size and habitat amounts

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    Deahn M. Donner; Christine A. Ribic; John R. Probst

    2009-01-01

    Forest planners must evaluate how spatiotemporal changes in habitat amount and configuration across the landscape as a result of timber management will affect species' persistence. However, there are few long-term programs available for evaluation. We investigated the response of male Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) to 26 years of...

  14. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, I.J.; Perez-Eman, J. L.; Sullivan, J.P.; Banks, R.C.; Fiorentino, I.; Cordoba-Cordoba, S.; Echeverry-Galvis, M.; Barker, F.K.; Burns, K.J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, Scott M.; Bermingham, E.

    2010-01-01

    The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Kirtland's Warbler (Setophaga kirtlankii)

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    John R. Probst; Deahn M. Donner

    2011-01-01

    Spring travelers from around the world are attracted to the young jack pine forests of Michigan for a chance to hear the loud distinct song of the endangered Kirtland's Warbler. This blue-gray-backed warbler with a yellow underside can be heard singing from its perch in the tops of standing snags or jack pine trees, or seen hopping from tree to tree or to the...

  16. Primer reporte del híbrido intergenérico Vermivora chrysoptera x Vermivora pinus (“Brewsters Warbler”) en Nicaragua

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    W.J. Arendt; M.A. Tórrez

    2008-01-01

    This article is in Spanish. During an inventory to assess avian biodiversity among the critical watersheds that flow into the Pacific from Nicaragua, we captured a hybrid Vermivora chrysoptera (“Golden-winged Warbler”) with V. pinus (“Blue-winged Warbler”) known as Brewster’s Warbler (V. leucobronchialis). The capture ocurred on November 30, 2007 in dry forest (...

  17. Nesting ecology of Townsend's warblers in relation to habitat characteristics in a mature boreal forest

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    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, Colleen M.; Roby, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the nesting ecology of Townsend's Warblers (Dendroica townsendi) from 1993-1995 in an unfragmented boreal forest along the lower slopes of the Chugach Mountains in southcentral Alaska. We examined habitat characteristics of nest sites in relation to factors influencing reproductive success. Almost all territory-holding males (98%, n = 40) were successful in acquiring mates. Nest success was 54% (n = 24 nests), with nest survivorship greater during incubation (87%) than during the nestling period (62%). Most nesting failure (80%) was attributable to predation, which occurred primarily during the nestling period. Fifty-five percent of nests containing nestling were infested with the larvae of bird blow-flies (Protocalliphora braueri and P. spenceri), obligatory blood-feeding parasites. The combined effects of Protocalliphora infestation and inclement weather apparently resulted in nestling mortality in 4 of the 24 nests. Nests that escaped predation were placed in white spruce with larger diameter than those lost to predation: nests that escaped blow-fly parasitism were located higher in nest trees and in areas with lower densities of woody shrubs than those that were infested. The availability of potential nest sites with these key features may be important in determining reproductive success in Townsend's Warblers.

  18. Song and Male Quality in Prairie Warblers

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    Bruce E. Byers; Michael E. Akresh; David I. King; W. Koenig

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the songs of male prairie warblers could potentially reveal to female listeners information about the quality of singers, we compared various aspects of prairie warbler song structure and performance to attributes that might reflect a male singer's potential to enhance the fitness of his mate. We found that all the tested male attributes—arrival...

  19. A hierarchical spatial model of avian abundance with application to Cerulean Warblers

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    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sauer, John R.; Knutson, Melinda G.

    2004-01-01

    Surveys collecting count data are the primary means by which abundance is indexed for birds. These counts are confounded, however, by nuisance effects including observer effects and spatial correlation between counts. Current methods poorly accommodate both observer and spatial effects because modeling these spatially autocorrelated counts within a hierarchical framework is not practical using standard statistical approaches. We propose a Bayesian approach to this problem and provide as an example of its implementation a spatial model of predicted abundance for the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) in the Prairie-Hardwood Transition of the upper midwestern United States. We used an overdispersed Poisson regression with fixed and random effects, fitted by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We used 21 years of North American Breeding Bird Survey counts as the response in a loglinear function of explanatory variables describing habitat, spatial relatedness, year effects, and observer effects. The model included a conditional autoregressive term representing potential correlation between adjacent route counts. Categories of explanatory habitat variables in the model included land cover composition and configuration, climate, terrain heterogeneity, and human influence. The inherent hierarchy in the model was from counts occurring, in part, as a function of observers within survey routes within years. We found that the percentage of forested wetlands, an index of wetness potential, and an interaction between mean annual precipitation and deciduous forest patch size best described Cerulean Warbler abundance. Based on a map of relative abundance derived from the posterior parameter estimates, we estimated that only 15% of the species' population occurred on federal land, necessitating active engagement of public landowners and state agencies in the conservation of the breeding habitat for this species. Models of this type can be applied to any data in which the response

  20. Population and habitat viability assessments for Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos: Usefulness to Partners in Flight Conservation Planning

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    Beardmore, C.J.; Hatfield, J.S.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos are Neotropical migratory birds that are federally listed as endangered. Recovery plans for both species advise the use of viability modeling as a tool for setting specific recovery and management targets. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment workshops were conducted to develop population targets and conservation recommendations for these species. Results of the workshops were based on modeling demographic and environmental factors, as well as discussions of management issues, management options, and public outreach strategies. The approach is intended to be iterative, and to be tracked by research and monitoring efforts. This paper discusses the consensus-building workshop process and how the approach could be useful to Partners in Flight. Population and Habitat Viability Assessments (PHVA) were used to develop population targets and conservation recommendations for Golden-cheeked Warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) and Black-capped Vireos (Vireo atricapillus). This paper explains what PHVAs are, discusses how they are conducted, describes the general results that are produced, and suggests how Partners in Flight (PIF) might use a similar process for bird conservation planning. Detailed results of the assessments are not discussed here; however they can be found elsewhere (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996a, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996b). PHVAs were considered for Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos because they are controversial, endangered species, and the species? recovery plans list PHVAs as tools to develop recovery recommendations. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) realized that the data needed to perform PHVAs for these species is limited, but that various conservation efforts, such as the Balcones Canyonlands Conservation Plan and other endeavors, were proceeding without benefit of the biological summarization and guidance that a PHVA could provide.

  1. Myiasis by Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae in Panama Miasis ocasionada por Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae en Panamá

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    Jorge M. Herrera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the parasitism of an unidentified species of Philornis, extracted from a juvenile Dendroica castanea that was collected from Pipeline Road of the Soberania National Park of Panama. This finding is unusual since Philornis spp. parasitizes nested chicks. On the other hand, this is the first time that this parasite is reported in D. castanea.Registramos el parasitismo de una especie no identificada de Philornis extraída de un juvenil de Dendroica castanea, capturada en el Sendero del Oleoducto del Parque Nacional Soberanía. Este hallazgo es inusual ya que Philornis spp. parasita principalmente polluelos en nidos. Del mismo modo, el presente constituye el primer registro del parásito en D. castanea.

  2. Islands in a desert : breeding ecology of the African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus in Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, CM; Komdeur, J; Buys, J; Reemer, M; Richardson, DS; Richardson, David S.

    The continental African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus, like its relative the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, breeds in isolated patches. We studied the mating system of the African Reed Warbler to see whether this species, like the Seychelles Warbler, shows co-operative

  3. Density-dependent mass gain by Wilson's Warblers during stopover

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    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    The need restore energetic reserves at stopover sites constrains avian migration ecology. To describe that constraint, we examined relationships among mass gained by Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) during stopover, abundance of Wilson's Warblers (i.e. capture rate), and arthropod abundance during autumn migration. We found that amount...

  4. Understanding Survival And Abundance Of Overwintering Warblers: Does Rainfall Matter?

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    Katie M. Dugger; John G Faaborg; Wayne J. Arendt; Keith A. Hobson

    2004-01-01

    We investigated relationships between warbler abundance and survival rates measured on a Puerto Rican wintering site and rainfall patterns measured on the wintering site and in regions where these warblers breed, as estimated using stable-isotope analysis (δD) of feathers collected from wintering birds. We banded birds using constant-effort mist netting...

  5. Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?

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    Laura L. Patton

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3 for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%. All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1 for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp., clematis vine (Clematis spp., and blackberry (Rubus spp. were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add

  6. Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area Comprehensive Conservation Plan

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    Department of the Interior — The Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) for Kirtland’s Warbler Wildlife Management Area (WMA) was signed on September 10, 2009, completing a planning process that...

  7. Improving aquatic warbler population assessments by accounting for imperfect detection.

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    Steffen Oppel

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs designed to assess changes in population size over time need to account for imperfect detection and provide estimates of precision around annual abundance estimates. Especially for species dependent on conservation management, robust monitoring is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of management. Many bird species of temperate grasslands depend on specific conservation management to maintain suitable breeding habitat. One such species is the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola, which breeds in open fen mires in Central Europe. Aquatic Warbler populations have so far been assessed using a complete survey that aims to enumerate all singing males over a large area. Because this approach provides no estimate of precision and does not account for observation error, detecting moderate population changes is challenging. From 2011 to 2013 we trialled a new line transect sampling monitoring design in the Biebrza valley, Poland, to estimate abundance of singing male Aquatic Warblers. We surveyed Aquatic Warblers repeatedly along 50 randomly placed 1-km transects, and used binomial mixture models to estimate abundances per transect. The repeated line transect sampling required 150 observer days, and thus less effort than the traditional 'full count' approach (175 observer days. Aquatic Warbler abundance was highest at intermediate water levels, and detection probability varied between years and was influenced by vegetation height. A power analysis indicated that our line transect sampling design had a power of 68% to detect a 20% population change over 10 years, whereas raw count data had a 9% power to detect the same trend. Thus, by accounting for imperfect detection we increased the power to detect population changes. We recommend to adopt the repeated line transect sampling approach for monitoring Aquatic Warblers in Poland and in other important breeding areas to monitor changes in population size and the effects of

  8. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Expansion of Sortie-Operations at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    regulations, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act makes it unlawful to (or attempt to) pursue, hunt, take, capture, or kill any migratory bird, nest, or egg...of bald or golden eagles in the United States. The Act defines “take” as “pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill , capture, trap, collect... mockingbird (Mimus polyglottus), eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), and summer tanager (Piranga rubra). There are

  9. Influence of age on reproductive performance in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    I studied age-related breeding performance of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) on Cousin Island, Seychelles, during 14 years. The annual number of young that fledged is significantly related to territory quality and number of helpers in the breeding group.

  10. Spatial behaviour and food choice of the Garden Warbler Sylvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, we investigated the 50% and 95% kernel density home-range size and overlap as well as food choice of 10 radio-tracked Garden Warblers at Amurum, central Nigeria and Obudu, south-eastern Nigeria. Home-range overlap was estimated using the kernelUD function within the package adehabitat in R. The ...

  11. Densities of Palearctic warblers and Afrotropical species within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Densities of Palearctic warblers and Afrotropical species within the same guild in Sahelian West Africa. Jared M Wilson, Will Cresswell. Abstract. Declines in populations of Palearctic migrants wintering in the Sahel of Africa have been linked to the impacts of climate change and habitat degradation in the region. Despite this ...

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of African sunbird-like warblers: Moho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic relationships of African sunbird-like warblers: Moho ( Hypergerus atriceps ), Green Hylia ( Hylia prasina ) and Tit-hylia ( Pholidornis rushiae ) ... different points in avian evolution reduces the phylogenetic signal in molecular sequence data, making difficult the reconstruction of relationships among taxa resulting ...

  13. Influence of summer biogeography on wood warbler stopover abundance

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    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Rob Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Frank R. Moore; Wang Yong

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of summer biogeography of migrant wood warblers (Parulidae) on their stopover abundance. To characterize abundance patterns, we used mist-net capture data from spring and fall migration in the Middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico, spring migration on the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, and fall migration on the Gulf Coast of Alabama. To describe the...

  14. Natal dispersal patterns are not associated with inbreeding avoidance in the Seychelles Warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, C.; Komdeur, J.; Richardson, D. S.

    In this study, we test whether patterns of territory inheritance, social mate choice and female-biased natal dispersal act as inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler. Our results show that Seychelles warblers do not reduce the likelihood of inbreeding by

  15. Predation risk affects trade-off between nest guarding and foraging in Seychelles warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Kats, RKH

    1999-01-01

    The fitness costs of egg loss for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) on Cousin Island are considerable because warblers have a single-egg clutch and no time to lay a successful replacement clutch. On the islands of Cousin and Cousine, with equal densities of Seychelles fodies (Foudia

  16. El Grupo Cerúleo: Cooperation for Non-breeding Season Conservation of the Cerulean Warbler

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    David Mehlman; Paul. Hamel

    2010-01-01

    Without collaboration, conservation is impossible for long-distance migrants such as the Cerulean Warbler, a declining forest breeding bird in North America that overwinters in the Andes Mountains of South America. The Cerulean Warbler, one of the fastest declining woodland birds of eastern North America, is considered Vulnerable by BirdLife international, in the...

  17. Elevational gradient in clutch size of Red-faced Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Kristen G.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of life history evolution has benefited from debates regarding the underlying causes, and geographic ubiquity, of spatial patterns in avian clutch sizes. Past studies have revealed that birds lay smaller clutch sizes at higher elevation. However, in most previous studies, investigators have failed to adequately control for elevational differences in breeding phenology. To better understand the elevational gradient in avian clutch size, we need to know how clutch size changes across the entire elevational breeding range of a species (i.e., the shape of the relationship between elevation and clutch size), and whether the elevational gradient in clutch size is merely an artifact of elevational gradients in breeding phenology or breeding season length. We examined the relationship between breeding elevation and clutch size of Red-faced Warblers (Cardellina rubrifrons) along a 1000-m elevational gradient in Arizona. Our objectives were to determine how clutch size changed with elevation, and if the relationship between clutch size and elevation merely reflected elevational changes in breeding season length or phenology. The proportion of 5-egg clutches decreased and the proportion of 3- and 4-egg clutches increased non-linearly with increasing elevation, even after controlling for the elevational gradient in nest initiation date. Thus, average clutch size declined across the elevational breeding range of Red-faced Warblers, but this decline was not due to elevational variation in breeding phenology. Timing of breeding changed, but the duration of the breeding season did not change appreciably across the elevational gradient. Hence, elevational differences in breeding season length or breeding phenology cannot explain why Red-faced Warblers (and perhaps other birds) breeding at higher elevations have smaller clutches.

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphone..._NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=26 ...

  19. Pre-nesting and nesting behavior of the Swainson's warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, B.

    1969-01-01

    The Swainson?s Warbler is one of the least known of southern birds. Although fairly common in some parts of its summer range, observations of its breeding biology have been made by very few persons. The present study was conducted mostly at Macon, Georgia; Pendleton Ferry, Arkansas; and Dismal Swamp, Virginia....In central Georgia and east-central Arkansas, Swainson?s Warblers usually arrive on their territories during the first two weeks in April. Territories in several localities ranged in size from 0.3 to 4.8 acres. A color-marked Arkansas male occupied the same territory for at least four months. Hostile encounters between territorial male Swainson?s Warblers usually take place along the boundary of adjacent territories. Paired males were more aggressive than unpaired males. Toward the end of an encounter one of the two males would usually perform a display in which the wing and tail feathers were spread and the tail vibrated. Following boundary encounters males drifted back onto their territories and usually sang unbroken courses of songs for several minutes.....During pre-nesting at Macon, a mated pair spent the day mostly on the ground within 20 feet of each other, often foragin g 3 to 4 feet apart. What may have been a form of courtship display, in which the male flew from a perch down to the female and either pecked her rump or pounced on her, occurred about three times each hour throughout the day. During this period the male sang less than at other times during the breeding season.....First nests are usually built by the first week in May. Although other investigators reported finding nests of this species outside of the defended territory, all nests that I have found were within the territory. The large, bulky nest of this species usually is placed 2-6 feet above the ground. It is built by the female from materials gathered close to the nest site; and takes two or three days to complete.....Three and occasionally four white eggs are laid. The female

  20. Parentage assignment and extra-group paternity in a cooperative breeder : the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, DS; Jury, FL; Blaakmeer, K; Komdeur, J; Burke, T

    We describe the development and initial application of a semiautomated parentage testing system in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). This system used fluorescently labelled primers for 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in two multiplex loading groups to genotype efficiently over

  1. The song of the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, an island endemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catchpole, C.K.; Komdeur, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis is a resident, cooperative breeder in a saturated, island environment, whose song structure diners significantly from European marshland Acrocephalus species. The song is transmitted within a more restricted frequency range, that which propagates most

  2. Sex-specific associative learning cues and inclusive fitness benefits in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, DS; Burke, T; Komdeur, J

    In cooperative, breeding vertebrates, indirect fitness benefits would be maximized by subordinates that accurately assess their relatedness to group offspring and preferentially help more closely related kin. In the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we found a positive relationship

  3. Estimating breeding season abundance of golden-cheeked warblers in Texas, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Mathewson, Heather A.; Groce, Julie E.; Mcfarland, Tiffany M.; Morrison, Michael L.; Newnam, J. Cal; Snelgrove, R. Todd; Collier, Bret A.; Wilkins, R. Neal

    2012-01-01

    relied on localized population studies on public lands and qualitative-based methods. Our goal was to estimate breeding population size of male warblers using a predictive model based on metrics for patches of woodland habitat throughout the species

  4. Regional habitat needs of a nationally listed species, Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis, in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Ball

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that affect the distribution and abundance of species is critical to developing effective management plans for conservation. Our goal was to quantify the distribution and abundance of Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis, a threatened old-forest associate in Alberta, Canada. The Canada Warbler has declined across its range, including in Alberta where habitat loss and alteration from urban expansion, forestry, and energy development are changing the forest landscape. We used 110,427 point count survey visits from 32,287 unique survey stations to model local-level (150-m radius circular buffers and stand-level (564-m radius circular buffers habitat associations of the Canada Warbler. We found that habitat supporting higher densities of Canada Warblers was locally concentrated yet broadly distributed across Alberta's boreal forest region. Canada Warblers were most commonly associated with older deciduous forest at the local scale, particularly near small, incised streams, and greater amounts of deciduous forest at the stand scale. Predicted density was lower in other forest types and younger age classes measured at the local scale. There was little evidence that local-scale fragmentation (i.e., edges created by linear features influenced Canada Warbler abundance. However, current forestry practices in the province likely will reduce the availability of Canada Warbler habitat over time by cutting old deciduous forest stands. Our results suggest that conservation efforts aimed at Canada Warbler focus on retaining large stands of old deciduous forest, specifically stands adjacent to streams, by increasing the width of deciduous retention buffers along streams during harvest and increasing the size and number of old forest residual patches in harvested stands.

  5. Does fragmentation of wetlands affect gene flow in sympatric Acrocephalus warblers with different migration strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Ceresa, Francesco; Belda, E.J.; Kvist, Laura; Rguibi-Idrissi, Hamid; Monrós González, Juan Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are naturally patchy habitats, but patchiness has been accentuated by the extensive wetlands loss due to human activities. In such a fragmented habitat, dispersal ability is especially important to maintain gene flow between populations. Here we studied population structure, genetic diversity and demographic history of Iberian and North African populations of two wetland passerines, the Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus and the moustached warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon....

  6. Can we explain vagrancy in Europe with the autumn migration phenology of Siberian warbler species in East Russia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozó László

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the autumn migration phenology of nine Siberian breeding songbirds: Thick-billed Warbler (Iduna aedon, Black-browed Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus bistrigiceps, Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler (Locustella certhiola, Lanceolated Warbler (L. lanceolata, Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus, Arctic Warbler (Ph. borealis, Dusky Warbler (Ph. fuscatus, Radde’s Warbler (Ph. schwarzi, Two-barred Warbler (Ph. plumbeitarsus and compared the migration dynamic characteristics with their European occurrence time. The study was carried out within the Amur Bird Project in the Russian Far East along the river Amur at Muraviovka Park between 2011 and 2014. The birds were caught with mistnets and ringed with individually numbered rings. For the characterization of the migration, we used timing, the intervals and the peaks of the migration, the percentage of the recaptures and the average time between the first and the last captures. The timing of migration in the studied species differed in the timing, the intervals (30-67 days and the migration peaks (14 August - 17 September.

  7. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 1. A review of the russet bush-warbler Bradypterus seebohmi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1895)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Round, P.D.; Rozendaal, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    The bush-warbler Bradypterus mandelli (Brooks, 1875) was described from Sikkim, and numerous specimens from India were identified with it, but it was synonymised with the brown bush-warbler Bradypterus luteoventris (Hodgson, 1845) in 1881. In 1952, east Asian populations were grouped under the name

  8. Avian response to timber harvesting applied experimentally to manage Cerulean Warbler breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Buehler, David A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Wigley, T. Bently; Boves, Than J.; George, Gregory A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Beachy, Tiffany A.; Evans, Andrea; McDermott, Molly E.; Newell, Felicity L.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Timber harvesting has been proposed as a management tool to enhance breeding habitat for the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), a declining Neotropical–Nearctic migratory songbird that nests in the canopy of mature eastern deciduous forests. To evaluate how this single-species management focus might fit within an ecologically based management approach for multiple forest birds, we performed a manipulative experiment using four treatments (three intensities of timber harvests and an unharvested control) at each of seven study areas within the core Cerulean Warbler breeding range. We collected pre-harvest (one year) and post-harvest (four years) data on the territory density of Cerulean Warblers and six additional focal species, avian community relative abundance, and several key habitat variables. We evaluated the avian and habitat responses across the 3–32 m2 ha−1 residual basal area (RBA) range of the treatments. Cerulean Warbler territory density peaked with medium RBA (∼16 m2 ha−1). In contrast, territory densities of the other focal species were negatively related to RBA (e.g., Hooded Warbler [Setophaga citrina]), were positively related to RBA (e.g., Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapilla]), or were not sensitive to this measure (Scarlet Tanager [Piranga olivacea]). Some species (e.g., Hooded Warbler) increased with time post-treatment and were likely tied to a developing understory, whereas declines (e.g., Ovenbird) were immediate. Relative abundance responses of additional species were consistent with the territory density responses of the focal species. Across the RBA gradient, greatest separation in the avian community was between early successional forest species (e.g., Yellow-breasted Chat [Icteria virens]) and closed-canopy mature forest species (e.g., Ovenbird), with the Cerulean Warbler and other species located intermediate to these two extremes. Overall, our results suggest that harvests within 10–20 m2 ha−1 RBA yield the largest

  9. Modelling the winter distribution of a rare and endangered migrant, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Bruno A; Schäffer, Norbert; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2007-01-01

    . Such model predictions may be useful guidelines to focus further field research on the Aquatic Warbler. Given the excellent model predictions in this study, this novel technique may prove useful to model the distribution of other rare and endangered species, thus providing a means to guide future survey......The Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola is one of the most threatened Western Palearctic passerine species, classified as globally Vulnerable. With its breeding grounds relatively secure, a clear need remains for the monitoring and protection of the migration and wintering grounds of this rare...... and endangered migrant. Recent research has shown that the Aquatic Warbler migrates through northwest Africa in autumn and spring. The wintering grounds are apparently limited to wetlands of sub-Saharan West Africa, with records from only about 20 localities in Mauritania, Mali, Senegal and Ghana. Given the lack...

  10. Biometry and phenology of two sibling Phylloscopus warblers on their circum-Mediterranean migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven; Bensusan, Keith J; Perez, Charles E; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is known as an ecological barrier for numerous migratory birds flying from European breeding grounds to African wintering sites. Birds generally avoid migration over open sea and fly over land. In the Mediterranean Basin, few land bridges or bottlenecks for migratory birds exist. The narrowest are at the western and eastern extremes: the Strait of Gibraltar and Israel. Comparative studies between these locations are extremely rare to date. Therefore, in order to elucidate the differences between the two flyways, we compared data collected simultaneously for two sister leaf warbler species, the Bonelli's Warbler complex, Phylloscopus bonelli and Phylloscopus orientalis, at ringing stations in the western Mediterranean Basin Gibraltar, and the eastern Eilat, Israel. Data on biometrics and passage dates of individuals trapped at Gibraltar and Eilat were used, and it was found that mean arrival date of Western Bonelli's Warblers at Gibraltar was 15 days later than Eastern Bonelli's Warblers at Eilat. Furthermore, Western Bonelli's Warblers had shorter wings than Eastern Bonelli's Warblers. On the other hand, birds in Eilat were in poorer body condition than individuals in Gibraltar. The comparison between geographically distant stop-over sites contributes to furthering our understanding of the development of migration strategies across ecological barriers in sibling species. Our study showed that populations that breed in southwestern Europe migrate through Gibraltar and winter in West Africa are able to accomplish migration in comparatively good body condition. This is in contrast to those that winter in East Africa, migrate through Israel and have to endure the combined challenge of crossing the Sahel, Sahara and Sinai deserts before reaching their breeding grounds across southeast Europe and southwest Asia. Hence, the discrepancies described between the western and the eastern flyway suggest that individuals in the west, in general, migrate

  11. A probabilistic risk assessment for the Kirtland's warbler potentially exposed to chlorpyrifos and malathion during the breeding season and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dwayne Rj; Priest, Colleen D; Olson, Adric D; Teed, R Scott

    2018-03-01

    Two organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos and malathion, are currently undergoing reregistration in the United States and were recently used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as case studies to develop a national procedure for evaluating risks to endangered species. One of the endangered bird species considered by the USEPA was the Kirtland's warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii). The Kirtland's warbler is an endangered migratory species that nests exclusively in young jack pine stands in Michigan and Wisconsin, and winters in the Bahamas. We developed probabilistic models to assess the risks of chlorpyrifos and malathion to Kirtland's warblers during the breeding season and the spring and fall migrations. The breeding area model simulates acute and chronic exposure and risk to each of 10 000 birds over a 60-d period following initial pesticide application. The model is highly species specific with regard to the foraging behavior of Kirtland's warblers during the breeding season. We simulated the maximum application rate and number of applications allowed on the labels for representative use patterns that could be found within 3 km of the breeding areas of Kirtland's warbler. The migration model simulates 10 000 birds during the course of their 12- to 23-d migration between their breeding area and the Bahamas. The model takes advantage of more than a century of observations of when, where, and for how long Kirtland's warblers forage in different habitats during the course of their migration. The data indicate that warblers only infrequently stop over in habitats that could be treated with chlorpyrifos and malathion. The breeding area and migration models resulted in predictions of very low acute and chronic risk for both pesticides to Kirtland's warblers. These results were expected, given that field observations indicate that the Kirtland's warbler has dramatically increased in abundance in recent decades. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018

  12. Predicting patch occupancy in fragmented landscapes at the rangewide scale for an endangered species: an example of an American warbler

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2011-08-25

    AIM: Our objective was to identify the distribution of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) in fragmented oak-juniper woodlands by applying a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model to better assist decision-makers in identifying suitable habitat across the species breeding range on which conservation or mitigation activities can be focused and thus prioritize management and conservation planning. LOCATION: Texas, USA. METHODS: We used repeated double-observer detection/non-detection surveys of randomly selected (n = 287) patches of potential habitat to evaluate warbler patch-scale presence across the species breeding range. We used a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model with remotely sensed habitat metrics (patch size and landscape composition) to predict patch-scale occupancy of golden-cheeked warblers in the fragmented oak-juniper woodlands of central Texas, USA. RESULTS: Our spatially explicit model indicated that golden-cheeked warbler patch occupancy declined from south to north within the breeding range concomitant with reductions in the availability of large habitat patches. We found that 59% of woodland patches, primarily in the northern and central portions of the warbler\\'s range, were predicted to have occupancy probabilities ≤0.10 with only 3% of patches predicted to have occupancy probabilities >0.90. Our model exhibited high prediction accuracy (area under curve = 0.91) when validated using independently collected warbler occurrence data. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a distinct spatial occurrence gradient for golden-cheeked warblers as well as a relationship between two measurable landscape characteristics. Because habitat-occupancy relationships were key drivers of our model, our results can be used to identify potential areas where conservation actions supporting habitat mitigation can occur and identify areas where conservation of future potential habitat is possible. Additionally, our results can be

  13. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Becoming-Speckled Warbler: Re/Creating Australian Natural History Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    The speckled warbler and other woodland birds of south-eastern Australia have declined dramatically since European settlement; many species are at risk of becoming locally and/or nationally extinct. Coincidently, Australian environmental education research of the last decade has largely been silent on the development of pedagogy that reflects the…

  15. Reproductive success and habitat characteristics of Golden-winged Warblers in high-elevation pasturelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Aldinger, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is one of the most rapidly declining vertebrate species in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the subject of extensive range-wide research and conservation action. However, little is known about this species' breeding ecology in high-elevation pasturelands, a breeding habitat with conservation potential considering the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service's Working Lands for Wildlife program targeting private lands in the Appalachian Mountains. We located 100 nests of Golden-winged Warblers in pastures in and around the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia during 2008–2012. Daily nest survival rate (mean ± SE  =  0.962 ± 0.006), clutch size (4.5 ± 0.1), and number of young fledged per nest attempt (2.0 ± 0.2) and successful nest (4.0 ± 0.1) fell within the range of values reported in other parts of the species' range and were not significantly affected by year or the presence/absence of cattle grazing. Classification tree analysis revealed that nests were in denser vegetation (≥52%) and closer to forest edges (Golden-winged Warblers. High-elevation pasturelands may provide a refuge for remaining populations of Golden-winged Warblers in this region.

  16. Long-term fitness benefits of egg sex modification by the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    Sex-ratio theory states that if the fitness costs to the parents of producing one offspring's sex relative to the other are higher, parents should discount these costs by producing fewer individuals of the more costly sex. In the co-operatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

  17. Why Seychelles Warblers fail to recolonize nearby islands : unwilling or unable to fly there?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Piersma, T; Kraaijeveld, K; Kraaijeveld-Smit, F; Richardson, DS; Richardson, David S.

    The Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis is a rare island endemic which, from 1920 to 1988, occurred only on Cousin Island (29 ha) in the Seychelles. Despite the saturated nature of this population and the possibility of obtaining higher reproductive success on new nearby islands,

  18. Inter-island transfers and population dynamics of Seychelles Warblers Acrocephalus sechellensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    1997-01-01

    In the 1950s the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis was a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300–360

  19. Conserving the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis by translocation : a transfer from Cousin Island to Aride Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Bullock, Ian D.; Rands, Michael R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Seychelles Warbler was once a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300-360 birds. Given the vulnerability of one

  20. Direct benefits and the evolution of female-biased cooperative breeding in Seychelles warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, David S.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Dunn, P.

    2002-01-01

    Inclusive fitness benefits have been suggested to be a major selective force behind the evolution of cooperative breeding. We investigated the fitness benefits selecting for cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler, Acroccphalus sechellensis. A microsatellite-based genotyping method was used

  1. The African migration and wintering grounds of the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, Norbert; Walther, Bruno A.; Gutteridge, Kim

    2006-01-01

    the edges of backwaters, flood basins, lagoons, lakes, ponds, rivers and wadis. Recent research suggests that at least some Aquatic Warblers may actually winter further south than the present data suggest, in countries such as The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana...

  2. Mate guarding in the Seychelles warbler is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Males may increase their fitness through extra-pair copulations (copulations outside the pair bond) that result in extra-pair fertilizations, but also risk lost paternity when they leave their own mate unguarded. The fitness costs of cuckoldry for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) are

  3. Research on golden-winged warblers: recent progress and current needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry M. Streby; Ronald W. Rohrbaugh; David A. Buehler; David E. Andersen; Rachel Vallender; David I. King; Tom. Will

    2016-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in knowledge about Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) in the past decade. Recent employment of molecular analysis, stable-isotope analysis, telemetry-based monitoring of survival and behavior, and spatially explicit modeling techniques have added to, and revised, an already broad base of published...

  4. Basal metabolic rate, food intake, and body mass in cold- and warm-acclimated Garden Warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Oltrogge, M.; Trost, L.

    2004-01-01

    We address the question of whether physiological flexibility in relation to climate is a general feature of the metabolic properties of birds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-raised Garden Warblers (Sylvia borin), long-distance migrants, which normally do not experience great temperature

  5. Seasonal timing of reproduction in a tropical bird, the Seychelles warbler : A field experiment using translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    Reproduction of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), a single-island endemic species living close to the equator, is characterized by a pronounced annual rhythm. The bird usually raises only one or two clutches of one egg each per year. Observational data suggest that seasonal changes

  6. Egg mimicry in cuckoos parasitizing four sympatric species of Acrocephalus warblers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edvardsen, E.; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.; Oien, I. J.; Honza, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 4 (2001), s. 829-837 ISSN 0010-5422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : brood parasitism * egg mimicry * Acrocephalus warblers Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.104, year: 2001 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1370116

  7. Is shared male assistance with antiparasitic nest defence costly in the polygynous great reed warbler?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2013), s. 615-621 ISSN 0003-3472 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : great reed warbler * aggressive behaviour * brood parasitism * common cuckoo * mating status Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.068, year: 2013

  8. Conservation planning and accomplishments for protection of Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea) nonbreeding habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Skolnik; David Wiedenfeld; Randy Dettmers; Constantino Aucca; Lina Daza; Heidy Valle; Francisco Sornoza; Javier Robayo; David Diaz; Jane Fitzgerald; Daniel Lebbin; Paul B. Hamel

    2012-01-01

    Vital to the work of the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group has been the collaboration among members to evaluate population status and coordinate planning for future activities, principally in conservation implementation. Two plans have been produced, one a general strategy for the conservation and management of the species over its entire range, and a more restricted...

  9. Arthropod prey of Wilson's Warblers in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, J.C.; Dugger, K.M.; Starkey, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  10. Reed Warbler Hosts Fine-Tune their Defenses to Track Three Decades of Cuckoo Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between avian hosts and brood parasites can provide a model for how animals adapt to a changing world. Reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) hosts employ costly defenses to combat parasitism by common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus). During the past three decades cuckoos have declined markedly across England, reducing parasitism at our study site (Wicken Fen) from 24% of reed warbler nests in 1985 to 1% in 2012. Here we show with experiments that host mobbing and egg rejection defenses have tracked this decline in local parasitism risk: the proportion of reed warbler pairs mobbing adult cuckoos (assessed by responses to cuckoo mounts and models) has declined from 90% to 38%, and the proportion rejecting nonmimetic cuckoo eggs (assessed by responses to model eggs) has declined from 61% to 11%. This is despite no change in response to other nest enemies or mimetic model eggs. Individual variation in both defenses is predicted by parasitism risk during the host’s egg-laying period. Furthermore, the response of our study population to temporal variation in parasitism risk can also explain spatial variation in egg rejection behavior in other populations across Europe. We suggest that spatial and temporal variation in parasitism risk has led to the evolution of plasticity in reed warbler defenses. PMID:24299407

  11. Arthropods of native and exotic vegetation and their association with willow flycatchers and Wilson's warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch; Sandra Brantley; Richard Fagerlund; Michael D. Means; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    1999-01-01

    We compared abundance of migrating Willow Flycatchers and Wilson's Warblers to the abundance of arthropods in exotic and native vegetation at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. We trapped arthropods using glue-boards in 1996 and 1997 in the same cottonwood, saltcedar, and willow habitats where we mist-netted birds during spring and fall migration. There...

  12. Insights into Wilson's Warbler migration from analyses of hydrogen stable-isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Viorel Atudorei; Zachary D. Sharp; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    Our ability to link the breeding locations of individual passerines to migration stopover sites and wintering locations is limited. Stable isotopes of hydrogen contained in bird feathers have recently shown potential in this regard. We measured hydrogen stable-isotope ratios (deltaD) of feathers from breeding, migrating, and wintering Wilson's Warblers. Analyses...

  13. Estimating breeding season abundance of golden-cheeked warblers in Texas, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Mathewson, Heather A.

    2012-02-15

    Population abundance estimates using predictive models are important for describing habitat use and responses to population-level impacts, evaluating conservation status of a species, and for establishing monitoring programs. The golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is a neotropical migratory bird that was listed as federally endangered in 1990 because of threats related to loss and fragmentation of its woodland habitat. Since listing, abundance estimates for the species have mainly relied on localized population studies on public lands and qualitative-based methods. Our goal was to estimate breeding population size of male warblers using a predictive model based on metrics for patches of woodland habitat throughout the species\\' breeding range. We first conducted occupancy surveys to determine range-wide distribution. We then conducted standard point-count surveys on a subset of the initial sampling locations to estimate density of males. Mean observed patch-specific density was 0.23 males/ha (95% CI = 0.197-0.252, n = 301). We modeled the relationship between patch-specific density of males and woodland patch characteristics (size and landscape composition) and predicted patch occupancy. The probability of patch occupancy, derived from a model that used patch size and landscape composition as predictor variables while addressing effects of spatial relatedness, best predicted patch-specific density. We predicted patch-specific densities as a function of occupancy probability and estimated abundance of male warblers across 63,616 woodland patches accounting for 1.678 million ha of potential warbler habitat. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, our approach yielded a range-wide male warbler population estimate of 263,339 (95% CI: 223,927-302,620). Our results provide the first abundance estimate using habitat and count data from a sampling design focused on range-wide inference. Managers can use the resulting model as a tool to support conservation planning

  14. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Natasha I; Morrow, James M; Chang, Belinda S W; Price, Trevor D

    2015-02-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors-historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20 Ma. During this process, the SWS2 gene accumulated six substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Stand and within-stand factors influencing Golden-winged Warbler use of regenerating stands in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja H. Bakermans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera is currently being considered for protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The creation of breeding habitat in the Appalachian Mountains is considered a conservation priority for this songbird, which is dependent on extensively forested landscapes with adequate availability of young forest. We modeled abundance of Golden-winged Warbler males in regenerating harvested forest stands that were 0-17 years postharvest at both mid-Appalachian and northeast Pennsylvania regional scales using stand and within-stand characteristics of 222 regenerating stands, 2010-2011. Variables that were most influential at the mid-Appalachian scale were different than those in the northeast region. Across the mid-Appalachian ecoregion, the proportion of young forest cover, i.e., shrub/scrub cover, within 1 km of regenerating stands best explained abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Golden-winged Warbler response was best explained by a concave quadratic relationship in which abundance was highest with 5-15% land in young forest cover. We also found evidence that the amount of herbaceous cover, i.e., the amount of grasses and forbs, within a regenerating stand positively influenced abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. In northeastern Pennsylvania, where young forest cover is found in high proportions, the distance to the nearest regenerating stand best explained variation in abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Abundance of Golden-winged Warblers was 1500 m away. When modeling within-stand features in the northeast region, many of the models were closely ranked, indicating that multiple variables likely explained Golden-winged Warbler response to within-stand conditions. Based on our findings, we have proposed several management guidelines for land managers interested in creating breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers using commercial timber operations. For example, we recommend when managing for

  16. Senescence in the wild: Insights from a long-term study on Seychelles warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Martijn; Kingma, Sjouke A; Bebbington, Kat; van de Crommenacker, Janske; Spurgin, Lewis G; Richardson, David S; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L; Komdeur, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Senescence--the progressive age-dependent decline in performance--occurs in most organisms. There is considerable variation in the onset and rate of senescence between and within species. Yet the causes of this variation are still poorly understood, despite being central to understanding the evolution of senescence. Long-term longitudinal studies on wild animals are extremely well-suited to studying the impact of environmental and individual characteristics (and the interaction between the two) on senescence, and can help us to understand the mechanisms that shape the evolution of senescence. In this review, we summarize and discuss the insights gained from our comprehensive long-term individual-based study of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). This species provides an excellent model system in which to investigate the evolution of senescence in the wild. We found that Seychelles warblers show senescent declines in survival and reproduction, and discuss how individual characteristics (body condition, body size) and environmental effects (low- versus high-quality environments) may affect the onset and rate of senescence. Further, we highlight the evidence for trade-offs between early-life investment and senescence. We describe how key cellular and physiological processes (oxidative stress and telomere shortening) underpinning senescence are affected by individual and environmental characteristics in the Seychelles warbler (e.g. food availability, reproductive investment, disease) and we discuss how such physiological variation may mediate the relationship between environmental characteristics and senescence. Based on our work using Seychelles warblers as a model system, we show how insights from long-term studies of wild animals may help unravel the causes of the remarkable variation in senescence observed in natural systems, and highlight areas for promising future research.

  17. Case study: Prioritization strategies for reforestation of minelands to benefit Cerulean Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Molly E.; Shumar, Matthew B.; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2013-01-01

    The central Appalachian landscape is being heavily altered by surface coal mining. The practice of Mountaintop Removal/Valley Fill (MTRVF) mining has transformed large areas of mature forest to non-forest and created much forest edge, affecting habitat quality for mature forest wildlife. The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative is working to restore mined areas to native hardwood forest conditions, and strategies are needed to prioritize restoration efforts for wildlife. We present mineland reforestation guidelines for the imperiled Cerulean Warbler, considered a useful umbrella species, in its breeding range. In 2009, we surveyed forest predicted to have Cerulean Warblers near mined areas in the MTRVF region of West Virginia and Kentucky. We visited 36 transect routes and completed songbird surveys on 151 points along these routes. Cerulean Warblers were present at points with fewer large-scale canopy disturbances and more mature oak-hickory forest. We tested the accuracy of a predictive map for this species and demonstrated that it can be useful to guide reforestation efforts. We then developed a map of hot spot locations that can be used to determine potential habitat suitability. Restoration efforts would have greatest benefit for Cerulean Warblers and other mature forest birds if concentrated near a relative-abundance hot spot, on north- and east-facing ridgetops surrounded by mature deciduous forest, and prioritized to reduce edges and connect isolated forest patches. Our multi-scale approach for prioritizing restoration efforts using an umbrella species may be applied to restore habitat impacted by a variety of landscape disturbances.

  18. Habitat selection of two Acrocephalus warblers breeding in reed beds near Malacky (Western Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokešová, Jarmila; Kocian, Ľ.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2004), s. 637-644 ISSN 0006-3088 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/7197/20; VEGA(SK) 1/0017/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : reed warblers * breeding * habitat selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.207, year: 2004 http://biologia.savba.sk/59_5_04/Prokesova_J.pdf

  19. Reproductive success and habitat characteristics of Golden-winged Warblers in high-elevation pasturelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Aldinger, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is one of the most rapidly declining vertebrate species in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the subject of extensive range-wide research and conservation action. However, little is known about this species' breeding ecology in high-elevation pasturelands, a breeding habitat with conservation potential considering the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service's Working Lands for Wildlife program targeting private lands in the Appalachian Mountains. We located 100 nests of Golden-winged Warblers in pastures in and around the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia during 2008–2012. Daily nest survival rate (mean ± SE  =  0.962 ± 0.006), clutch size (4.5 ± 0.1), and number of young fledged per nest attempt (2.0 ± 0.2) and successful nest (4.0 ± 0.1) fell within the range of values reported in other parts of the species' range and were not significantly affected by year or the presence/absence of cattle grazing. Classification tree analysis revealed that nests were in denser vegetation (≥52%) and closer to forest edges (the male's territory. Successful nests had significantly more woody cover (≥9%) within 1 m than failed nests. Our results suggest that cattle grazing at 1.2–2.4 ha of forage/animal unit with periodic mowing can create and maintain these characteristics without interfering with the nesting of Golden-winged Warblers. High-elevation pasturelands may provide a refuge for remaining populations of Golden-winged Warblers in this region.

  20. Population decline of the Elfin-woods Warbler Setophaga angelae in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Arendt; S.S. Qian; K. Mineard

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the population density of the globally threatened Elfin-woods Warbler Setophaga angelae within two forest types at different elevations in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in north-eastern Puerto Rico. Population densities ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 individuals/ha in elfin woodland and 0.06–0.26 individuals/ha in palo colorado forest in 2006, with average...

  1. Museum DNA reveals the demographic history of the endangered Seychelles warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, Lewis G; Wright, David J; van der Velde, Marco; Collar, Nigel J; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2014-11-01

    The importance of evolutionary conservation - how understanding evolutionary forces can help guide conservation decisions - is widely recognized. However, the historical demography of many endangered species is unknown, despite the fact that this can have important implications for contemporary ecological processes and for extinction risk. Here, we reconstruct the population history of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) - an ecological model species. By the 1960s, this species was on the brink of extinction, but its previous history is unknown. We used DNA samples from contemporary and museum specimens spanning 140 years to reconstruct bottleneck history. We found a 25% reduction in genetic diversity between museum and contemporary populations, and strong genetic structure. Simulations indicate that the Seychelles warbler was bottlenecked from a large population, with an ancestral N e of several thousands falling to Seychelles warbler, and our results will inform conservation practices. Reconstructing the population history of this species also allows us to better understand patterns of genetic diversity, inbreeding and promiscuity in the contemporary populations. Our approaches can be applied across species to test ecological hypotheses and inform conservation.

  2. Mate guarding in the Seychelles warbler is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komdeur, J

    2001-10-22

    Males may increase their fitness through extra-pair copulations (copulations outside the pair bond) that result in extra-pair fertilizations, but also risk lost paternity when they leave their own mate unguarded. The fitness costs of cuckoldry for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) are considerable because warblers have a single-egg clutch and, given the short breeding season, no time for a successful replacement clutch. Neighbouring males are the primary threat to a male's genetic paternity. Males minimize their loss of paternity by guarding their mates to prevent them from having extra-pair copulations during their fertile period. Here, I provide experimental evidence that mate-guarding behaviour is energetically costly and that the expression of this trade-off is adjusted to paternity risk (local male density). Free-living males that were induced to reduce mate guarding spent significantly more time foraging and gained significantly better body condition than control males. The larger the reduction in mate guarding, the more pronounced was the increase in foraging and body condition (accounting for food availability). An experimental increase in paternity risk resulted in an increase in mate-guarding intensity and a decrease in foraging and body condition, and vice versa. This is examined using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. This study on the Seychelles warbler offers experimental evidence that mate guarding is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk.

  3. Comparative nest-site habitat of painted redstarts and red-faced warblers in the Madrean Sky Islands of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; William M. Block; Jamie S. Sanderlin; Jose M. Iniguez

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of avian species requires understanding their nesting habitat requirements. We compared 3 aspects of habitat at nest sites (topographic characteristics of nest sites, nest placement within nest sites, and canopy stratification within nest sites) of 2 related species of ground-nesting warblers (Red-faced Warblers, Cardellina rubrifrons, n = 17...

  4. Phylogeography of a habitat specialist with high dispersal capability: the Savi's Warbler Locustella luscinioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio M Neto

    Full Text Available In order to describe the influence of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic structure and demography of a highly mobile, but specialized, passerine, the Savi's Warbler (Locustella luscinioides, mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and microsatellites were analysed in c.330 individuals of 17 breeding and two wintering populations. Phylogenetic, population genetics and coalescent methods were used to describe the genetic structure, determine the timing of the major splits and model the demography of populations. Savi's Warblers split from its sister species c.8 million years ago and have two major haplotype groups that diverged in the early/middle Pleistocene. One of these clades originated in the Balkans and is currently widespread, showing strong evidence for population expansion; whereas the other is restricted to Iberia and remained stable. Microsatellites agreed with a genetic break around the Pyrenees, but showed considerable introgression and a weaker genetic structure. Both genetic markers showed an isolation-by-distance pattern associated with the population expansion of the eastern clade. Breeding populations seem to be segregated at the wintering sites, but results on migratory connectivity are preliminary. Savi's Warbler is the only known migratory bird species in which Iberian birds did not expand beyond the Pyrenees after the last glaciation. Despite the long period of independent evolution of western and eastern populations, complete introgression occurred when these groups met in Iberia. Mitochondrial sequences indicated the existence of refugia-within-refugia in the Iberian Peninsula during the last glacial period, which is surprising given the high dispersal capacity of this species. Plumage differences of eastern subspecies seemed to have evolved recently through natural selection, in agreement with the glacial expansion hypothesis. This study supports the great importance of the Iberian Peninsula and its role for the conservation

  5. Factors driving territory size and breeding success in a threatened migratory songbird, the Canada Warbler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Tyler Flockhart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful conservation of migratory birds demands we understand how habitat factors on the breeding grounds influences breeding success. Multiple factors are known to directly influence breeding success in territorial songbirds. For example, greater food availability and fewer predators can have direct effects on breeding success. However, many of these same habitat factors can also result in higher conspecific density that may ultimately reduce breeding success through density dependence. In this case, there is a negative indirect effect of habitat on breeding success through its effects on conspecific density and territory size. Therefore, a key uncertainty facing land managers is whether important habitat attributes directly influence breeding success or indirectly influence breeding success through territory size. We used radio-telemetry, point-counts, vegetation sampling, predator observations, and insect sampling over two years to provide data on habitat selection of a steeply declining songbird species, the Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis. These data were then applied in a hierarchical path modeling framework and an AIC model selection approach to determine the habitat attributes that best predict breeding success. Canada Warblers had smaller territories in areas with high shrub cover, in the presence of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, at shoreline sites relative to forest-interior sites and as conspecific density increased. Breeding success was lower for birds with smaller territories, which suggests competition for limited food resources, but there was no direct evidence that food availability influenced territory size or breeding success. The negative relationship between shrub cover and territory size in our study may arise because these specific habitat conditions are spatially heterogeneous, whereby individuals pack into patches of preferred breeding habitat scattered throughout the landscape, resulting in reduced

  6. Patterns of gene flow and selection across multiple species of Acrocephalus warblers: footprints of parallel selection on the Z chromosome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reifová, R.; Majerová, V.; Reif, J.; Ahola, M.; Lindholm, A.; Procházka, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 130 (2016), s. 130 ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Adaptive radiation * Speciation * Gene flow * Parallel adaptive evolution * Z chromosome * Acrocephalus warblers Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2016

  7. Conserving the seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis by translocation from Cousin Island to the islands of Aride and Cousine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis was once a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300-360 birds.

  8. Seasonal productivity and nest survival of Golden-cheeked Warblers vary with forest type and edge density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca G. Peak; Frank R., III Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the demography and habitat requirements of the endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is needed for its recovery, including measures of productivity instead of reproductive indices. We report on breeding phenology and demography, calculate model-based estimates of nest survival and seasonal productivity and evaluate...

  9. A proxy of social mate choice in prairie warblers is correlated with consistent, rapid, low-pitched singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Byers; Michael E. Akresh; David I. King

    2015-01-01

    In songbirds, female mate choice may be influenced by how well a male performs his songs. Performing songs well may be especially difficult if it requires maximizingmultiple aspects of performance simultaneously.We therefore hypothesized that, in a population of prairie warblers, the males most attractive to females would be those with superior performance in more than...

  10. Experimental evidence that kin discrimination in the Seychelles warbler is based on association and not on genetic relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Richardson, DS; Burke, T; Richardson, David S.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperative breeding systems driven by kin selection, effective kin-recognition cues are important. Recognition could be achieved by the direct assessment of the genetic relatedness of individuals or by learning through association. In the Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis, female

  11. Does conspicuous colouration of Magpies Pica pica influence aggressive behaviour in nesting Great Reed Warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Požgayová, Milica

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2017), s. 108-111 ISSN 0006-3657 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Magpies Pica pica * Great Reed Warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 0.925, year: 2016

  12. [Book review] The Kirtland's Warbler: The Story of a Bird's Fight against extinction and the People Who Saved It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahn M. Donner

    2013-01-01

    The population recovery of Kirtland's Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii) is one of the most fascinating success stories of an endangered species in the past 60 years. As the author states, the story transcends the bird and its environment. By including the human dimension of recovery efforts, this book keeps the reader involved throughout what ends...

  13. Diet of Wilson's warblers and distribution of arthropod prey in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Dugger, Kate; Starkey, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  14. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging...

  15. Social pairing of Seychelles warblers under reduced constraints: MHC, neutral heterozygosity, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David J; Brouwer, Lyanne; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and significance of precopulatory mate choice remains keenly debated. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, and variation at the MHC influences individual survival. Although MHC-dependent mate choice has been documented in certain species, many other studies find no such pattern. This may be, at least in part, because in natural systems constraints may reduce the choices available to individuals and prevent full expression of underlying preferences. We used translocations to previously unoccupied islands to experimentally reduce constraints on female social mate choice in the Seychelles warbler ( Acrocephalus sechellensis ), a species in which patterns of MHC-dependent extrapair paternity (EPP), but not social mate choice, have been observed. We find no evidence of MHC-dependent social mate choice in the new populations. Instead, we find that older males and males with more microsatellite heterozygosity are more likely to have successfully paired. Our data cannot resolve whether these patterns in pairing were due to male-male competition or female choice. However, our research does suggest that female Seychelles warblers do not choose social mates using MHC class I to increase fitness. It may also indicate that the MHC-dependent EPP observed in the source population is probably due to mechanisms other than female precopulatory mate choice based on MHC cues.

  16. Radio-transmitters do not affect seasonal productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Gesmundo, Callie; Johnson, Michael K.; Fish, Alexander C.; Lehman, Justin A.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the potential effects of handling and marking techniques on study animals is important for correct interpretation of research results and to effect progress in data-collection methods. Few investigators have compared the reproductive output of radio-tagged and non-radio-tagged songbirds, and no one to date has examined the possible effect of radio-tagging adult songbirds on the survival of their fledglings. In 2011 and 2012, we compared several parameters of reproductive output of two groups of female Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) breeding in Minnesota, including 45 females with radio-transmitters and 73 females we did not capture, handle, or mark. We found no difference between groups in clutch sizes, hatching success, brood sizes, length of incubation and nestling stages, fledging success, number of fledglings, or survival of fledglings to independence. Thus, radio-tags had no measurable impact on the productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers. Our results build upon previous studies where investigators have reported no effects of radio-tagging on the breeding parameters of songbirds by also demonstrating no effect of radio-tagging through the post-fledging period and, therefore, the entire breeding season.

  17. Mercury contamination, a potential threat to the globally endangered aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Aneta Dorota; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Jiguet, Frédéric; Polkowska, Żaneta; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is considered a global concern for humans and wildlife, and although the number of studies dealing with that issue continues to increase, some taxonomic groups such as small passerine birds are largely understudied. In this paper, concentration of mercury in the aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) feathers, a globally threatened passerine species, was examined. The concentration differences between two ages and sexes were investigated. The comparison of feathers taken on autumn migrants of two age categories act as a comparison of the species' exposure within the two different areas (European breeding or African wintering grounds). The average Hg concentration for all sampled individuals [2.32 μg/g dw (range 0.38-12.76)] is relatively high, compared with values found in other passerine species. An age difference was found, with first-year individuals displaying higher mercury concentrations than adults. This indicates that birds are exposed to mercury pollution during the breeding season, i.e., in the continental floodplains of eastern Europe. The average Hg concentration in feathers grown on the breeding grounds was 3.88 ± 2.59 μg/g dw, closer to the critical value of 5 μg/g dw, which is considered to impair the health of individuals. The findings suggest that mercury pollution may constitute a threat so far neglected for the endangered aquatic warbler.

  18. Coping with shifting nest predation refuges by European reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Halupka

    Full Text Available Predation, the most important source of nest mortality in altricial birds, has been a subject of numerous studies during past decades. However, the temporal dynamics between changing predation pressures and parental responses remain poorly understood. We analysed characteristics of 524 nests of European reed warblers monitored during six consecutive breeding seasons in the same area, and found some support for the shifting nest predation refuge hypothesis. Nest site characteristics were correlated with nest fate, but a nest with the same nest-site attributes could be relatively safe in one season and vulnerable to predation in another. Thus nest predation refuges were ephemeral and there was no between-season consistency in nest predation patterns. Reed warblers that lost their first nests in a given season did not disperse farther for the subsequent reproductive attempt, compared to successful individuals, but they introduced more changes to their second nest sites. In subsequent nests, predation risk remained constant for birds that changed nest-site characteristics, but increased for those that did not. At the between-season temporal scale, individual birds did not perform better with age in terms of reducing nest predation risk. We conclude that the experience acquired in previous years may not be useful, given that nest predation refuges are not stable.

  19. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  20. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  1. Simulating range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Duarte,; Hatfield, Jeffrey; Todd M. Swannack,; Michael R. J. Forstner,; M. Clay Green,; Floyd W. Weckerly,

    2015-01-01

    Population viability analyses provide a quantitative approach that seeks to predict the possible future status of a species of interest under different scenarios and, therefore, can be important components of large-scale species’ conservation programs. We created a model and simulated range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler, the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia). Habitat-transition probabilities were estimated across the warbler's breeding range by combining National Land Cover Database imagery with multistate modeling. Using these estimates, along with recently published demographic estimates, we examined if the species can remain viable into the future given the current conditions. Lastly, we evaluated if protecting a greater amount of habitat would increase the number of warblers that can be supported in the future by systematically increasing the amount of protected habitat and comparing the estimated terminal carrying capacity at the end of 50 years of simulated habitat change. The estimated habitat-transition probabilities supported the hypothesis that habitat transitions are unidirectional, whereby habitat is more likely to diminish than regenerate. The model results indicated population viability could be achieved under current conditions, depending on dispersal. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with the population projections due to parametric uncertainty. Model results suggested that increasing the amount of protected lands would have a substantial impact on terminal carrying capacities at the end of a 50-year simulation. Notably, this study identifies the need for collecting the data required to estimate demographic parameters in relation to changes in habitat metrics and population density in multiple regions, and highlights the importance of establishing a common definition of what constitutes protected habitat, what management goals are suitable within those protected

  2. Hatchling sex ratio and female mating status in the great reed warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Aves, Passeriformes): further evidence for offspring sex ratio manipulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Prokop, P.; Kašová, M.; Sobeková, Karolina; Kocian, Ľ.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2012), s. 212-217 ISSN 1125-0003 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Great reed warbler * sex ratio * social polygyny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.890, year: 2012

  3. Regeneration of Pinus cubensis Griseb. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raima Cantillo Ardebol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of plants from the genus Pinus has been done in several species. However, micropropagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb has not been reported. This species has a great economical importance. Then, the aim of the current research was to achieve in vitro propagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb. to increase the number of individuals in their natural habitat. The concentration of sodium hypochlorite and immersion time were determined for seeds disinfection and embryos establishment. The effect of the presence or absence of the seed coat was also studied. Two growth regulators and three concentrations of each one were tested to achieve the emission of axillary buds in the multiplication phase. Five subcultures every 21 days were done. Rooting and acclimatization were carried out simultaneously. Shoots were individualized and immersed in a rooting solution. Zygotic embryos of P. cubensis wer e dev el o ped in vitro. The highest percentages of disinfection and germination were obtained by introducing the seeds in a solution of sodium hypochlorite at 20% for 15 minutes, planting them after that without the seed coat. The number and length of axillary buds increased by using 22.5 µM of 6-benzylaminopurine and 5.4 µM naphthaleneacetic acid in the multiplication phase. The in vitro propagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb. from zygotic embryos was achieved for the first time. A protocol was also established, reaching 50% of survival in the acclimatization phase. Key words: acclimatization, axillary buds, forestry, multiplication, pinus

  4. Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris Essential Oils Chemotypes and Monoterpene Hydrocarbon Enantiomers, before and after Inoculation with the Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana M; Mendes, Marta D; Lima, Ana S; Barbosa, Pedro M; Ascensão, Lia; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Mota, Manuel M; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time-course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2-year-old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated. External symptoms of infection were observed only in P. pinaster and P. sylvestris 21 and 15 days after inoculation, respectively. The EO composition analysis of uninoculated and unwounded plants revealed the occurrence of chemotypes for P. pinaster, P. halepensis and P. sylvestris, whereas P. pinea showed a homogenous EO composition. When whole plants were evaluated for EO and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomeric chemical composition, no relevant qualitative and quantitative differences were found. Instead, EO analysis of inoculated and uninoculated wounded areas revealed an increase of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic compounds, especially in P. pinea and P. halepensis, comparatively to healthy whole plants EOs. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  5. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  6. Evaluation of the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and gene conservation activities were combined with climatic data to evaluate the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster. Combinations of climatic variables explained much of the

  7. Sex-specific associative learning cues and inclusive fitness benefits in the Seychelles warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D S; Burke, T; Komdeurs, J

    2003-09-01

    In cooperative breeding vertebrates, indirect fitness benefits would be maximized by subordinates that accurately assess their relatedness to group offspring and preferentially help more closely related kin. In the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we found a positive relationship between subordinate-nestling kinship (determined using microsatellite marker genotypes) and provisioning rates, but only for female subordinates. Female subordinates that helped were significantly more related to the nestlings than were nonhelpers, and the decision to help appears to be based on associative learning cues. High levels of female infidelity means that subordinates cannot trust their legitimacy through the male line, consequently they appear to use the continued presence of the primary female, but not the primary male, as a reliable cue to determine when to feed nestlings. By using effective discrimination, female subordinates are able to maximize the indirect benefits gained within a cooperative breeding system otherwise driven primarily by direct breeding benefits.

  8. Differential timing and latitudinal variation in sex ratio of Aquatic Warblers during the autumn migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Chrostek, Małgorzata E.; Jiguet, Frédéric; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Neto, Júlio M.

    2017-12-01

    Differential migration has been extensively reported in spring, but less so in autumn, particularly in relation to sex in monomorphic bird species. Here, we analysed the autumn passage of a monomorphic, globally threatened passerine, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola throughout Western Europe, with regard to age and sex. We showed that, overall, adults migrated earlier than first-year birds, and males migrated earlier than females during the autumn migration. This may be caused by an overall social dominance of adults over immatures, and differentiated migration strategy of males and females. In addition, we found male-skewed sex proportions, with a tendency to an equalised ratio in more southern stopover sites. This may indicate a male bias in the global population or different migration strategies of the sexes. Differential migration may cause the age and sex classes to be exposed differently to various threats affecting demographic structure of the species.

  9. Molecular characterization of putative Hepatozoon sp. from the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; Kloch, Agnieszka; Migalska, Magdalena; Bielański, Wojciech

    2013-05-01

    We characterized partial sequences of 18S rDNA from sedge warblers infected with a parasite described previously as Hepatozoon kabeeni. Prevalence was 47% in sampled birds.We detected 3 parasite haplotypes in 62 sequenced samples from infected animals. In phylogenetic analyses, 2 of the putative Hepatozoon haplotypes closely resembled Lankesterella minima and L. valsainensis. The third haplotype grouped in a wider clade composed of Caryospora and Eimeria. None of the haplotypes showed resemblance to sequences of Hepatozoon from reptiles and mammals. Molecular detection results were consistent with those from microscopy of stained blood smears, confirming that the primers indeed amplified the parasite sequences. Here we provide evidence that the avian Hepatozoon-like parasites are most likely Lankesterella, supporting the suggestion that the systematic position of avian Hepatozoon-like species needs to be revised.

  10. Contrasting results from GWAS and QTL mapping on wing length in great reed warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Bengt; Sigeman, Hanna; Stervander, Martin; Tarka, Maja; Ponnikas, Suvi; Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2018-04-15

    A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic basis of adaptive traits. In migratory birds, wing morphology is such a trait. Our previous work on the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) shows that wing length is highly heritable and under sexually antagonistic selection. Moreover, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis detected a pronounced QTL for wing length on chromosome 2, suggesting that wing morphology is partly controlled by genes with large effects. Here, we re-evaluate the genetic basis of wing length in great reed warblers using a genomewide association study (GWAS) approach based on restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) data. We use GWAS models that account for relatedness between individuals and include covariates (sex, age and tarsus length). The resulting association landscape was flat with no peaks on chromosome 2 or elsewhere, which is in line with expectations for polygenic traits. Analysis of the distribution of p-values did not reveal biases, and the inflation factor was low. Effect sizes were however not uniformly distributed on some chromosomes, and the Z chromosome had weaker associations than autosomes. The level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the population decayed to background levels within c. 1 kbp. There could be several reasons to why our QTL study and GWAS gave contrasting results including differences in how associations are modelled (cosegregation in pedigree vs. LD associations), how covariates are accounted for in the models, type of marker used (multi- vs. biallelic), difference in power or a combination of these. Our study highlights that the genetic architecture even of highly heritable traits is difficult to characterize in wild populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper

    2014-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  12. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  13. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  14. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Medina, Juan Pablo; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patricia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) is reported from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. has subspherical oöcysts, measuring on average 26.6 × 25.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall, c.1.3 μm thick. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, measuring on average 19.0 × 12.0 µm, with a knob-like Stieda body, a trapezoidal sub-Stieda body and sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  15. Isospora celata n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Bruno Pereira; Medina, Juan Pablo; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-11-01

    A new coccidian species (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) collected in the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico at 3,000 metres above sea level. Isospora celata n. sp. has subspheroidal oöcysts, measuring 28.4 × 26.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.2 μm thick. Micropyle and polar granule are absent, but oöcyst residuum is present as a compact mass. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 18.2 × 12.8 µm. Stieda body knob-like and sub-Stieda body irregular and barely discernible. Sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the third description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  16. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  17. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  18. Cadmium and copper change root growth and morphology of Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arduini, I.; Onnis, A. (Dipart. di Agronomia e Gestione dell' Agro-Ecosistema, Univ. degli Studi Pisa, Pisa (Italy)); Boldbold, D.L. (Forstbotanishces Institut, Univ. Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Heavy metal loads in forest soils have been increasing over time due to atmospheric inputs. Accumulation in the upper soil layers could affect establishment of seedlings and forest regeneration. Mediterranean species show a high initial root development, allowing seedlings to reach the moisture of deeper soil layers. In the present work seedlings of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), were grown in culture solution supplied with 0.0, 0.1, 1 or 5 [mu]M CdSO[sub 4] or with 1 [mu]M CdSO[sub 4] and 1 [mu]M CuSO[sub 4] combined. In both species tap-root elongation was drastically reduced in the 5 [mu]M Cd[sup 2+] and in the (Cd[sup 2+] - Cu[sup 2+]) treatments. A supply of 0.1 or 1 [mu]M Cd[sup 2+] however, enhanced root elongation in Pinus pinea without significantly influencing root elongation in Pinus pinaster. In both species the root density (weight per unit length) and the width of the cortex increased in response to Cd[sup 2+] exposure. In Pinus pinaster the mitotic index decreased at the higher Cd[sup 2+] concentrations and when Cd[sup 2+] and Cu[sup 2+] were combined. The data suggest that cell elongation is more sensitive to Cd[sup 2+] than cell division. The number and length of the lateral roots were also affected by Cd[sup 2+] treatment to a higher degree in Pinus pinaster than in Pinus pinea, reflecting the different Cd-tolerance of the two species. (au)

  19. [Comparison of chemical components of essential oils in needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm from Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changmao; Duan, Wengui; Cen, Bo; Tan, Jianhui

    2006-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm grown in Guangxi. Various factors such as pine needle dosage and extraction time which may influence the oil yield were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pine needle dosage 700 g, extraction time 5 h. The essential oil yields from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm were 0.45% and 0.19%, respectively. Moreover, the chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty four components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus massoniana Lamb were separated and twenty of them (98.59%) were identified while seventy three components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus elliottottii Engelm were separated and twenty nine of them (94.23%) were identified. Generally, the compositions of the essential oils from needles of the two varieties were similar but the contents of some compounds differed greatly. Especially, the content of alpha-pinene in the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb needles was 2.6 times as that from Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles, but the content of beta-pinene was less than the latter. Mono- and sesquiterpenes were the main composition of the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles.

  20. Comparative mapping in Pinus: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).Tree Genet Genomes 7:457-468

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Andrew J. Eckert; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Annette Delfino-Mix; Dean A Davis; Deems C. Burton; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    The majority of genomic research in conifers has been conducted in the Pinus subgenus Pinus mostly due to the high economic importance of the species within this taxon. Genetic maps have been constructed for several of these pines and comparative mapping analyses have consistently revealed notable synteny. In contrast,...

  1. Modeling natural regeneration biomass of Pinus stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cubas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable biomass data are very important in the evaluation of ecosystems, and help in understanding the contribution of forests in climate change. Variables that describe the size of the tree, like diameter and height are directly associated with biomass, which allows the use of regression models to estimate this element. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate by regression models, the biomass of different compartments of natural regeneration of trees of a Pinus taeda L. stand. The data were obtained through direct destructive method, using 100 randomly selected trees in the understory of a stand of Pinus taeda. We analyzed three arithmetical models, three logarithmic and two models developed by Stepwise process. Logarithmic equations developed by Stepwise procedure showed the best estimates of total and stems biomass. However, for needles and twigs compartments the best adjust was observed with Husch model and for root biomass Berkhout model proved to be the most suitable.

  2. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  3. Contenido de carotenos en el follaje de Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Quert Álvarez

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis del material vegetal de las especies Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet, con el objetivo de determinar su contenido de caroteno tomando como base las condiciones y tiempo de exposición del follaje de las especies objeto de estudio al sol y a la sombra, y teniendo en cuenta la extracción del aceite esencias como factores influyentes en la variación de las concentraciones de caroteno. Para determinar el contenido de caroteno se tomaron muestras del follaje entre 1 y 20 d, expuesto a las condiciones de trabajo en intervalos de 1, 3, 6, 10 y 20 d, tanto antes como después de extraer el aceite esencial. Los resultados obtenidos para ambas especies demostraron que el follaje expuesto a la sombra contiene un mayor porcentaje de caroteno que el expuesto al sol, como era de esperar; el tiempo de exposición influye significativamente en este contenido, así como la extracción del aceite esencial que aumenta el contenido de caroteno; los valores máximos fueron de 130,7 y 157,2 mg/kg de follaje y los mínimos de 55,3 y 57,2 mg/kg de follaje para Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet respectivamente.An analysis of the vegetable material from the species Pinus cariabaea Morelet and Pinus tropicalis Morelet was carried out and their content of carotene was determined taking as the basis the conditions and time of exposure of the foliage of the species studied to the sun and shade, and also taking into account the extraction of the essential oil as factors influencing on the variation of carotene concentrations. For the determination of the carotene content, samples of the foliage between 1 and 20 exposed to working conditions at intervals of 1, 3, 6, 10 and 20 d were taken, both before and after the extraction of the essential oil. Results obteined from both species showed that the foliage exposed to shade contains a higher percentage of carotene than the one exposed to the sun, as it was expected to

  4. Age-specific haemosporidian infection dynamics and survival in Seychelles warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Martijn; Komdeur, Jan; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Hutchings, Kimberly; Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Gilroy, Danielle L.; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites may severely impact the fitness and life-history of their hosts. After infection, surviving individuals may suppress the growth of the parasite, or completely clear the infection and develop immunity. Consequently, parasite prevalence is predicted to decline with age. Among elderly individuals, immunosenescence may lead to a late-life increase in infection prevalence. We used a 21-year longitudinal dataset from one population of individually-marked Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) to investigate age-dependent prevalence of the GRW1 strain of the intracellular protozoan blood parasite Haemoproteus nucleocondensus and whether infections with this parasite affect age-dependent survival. We analyzed 2454 samples from 1431 individuals and found that H. nucleocondensus infections could rarely be detected in nestlings. Prevalence increased strongly among fledglings and peaked among older first year birds. Prevalence was high among younger adults and declined steeply until ca 4 years of age, after which it was stable. Contrary to expectations, H. nucleocondensus prevalence did not increase among elderly individuals and we found no evidence that annual survival was lower in individuals suffering from an infection. Our results suggest that individuals clear or suppress infections and acquire immunity against future infections, and provide no evidence for immunosenescence nor an impact of chronic infections on survival. PMID:27431430

  5. The impact of conservation-driven translocations on blood parasite prevalence in the Seychelles warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Hutchings, Kimberly; Gilroy, Danielle L.; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduced populations often lose the parasites they carried in their native range, but little is known about which processes may cause parasite loss during host movement. Conservation-driven translocations could provide an opportunity to identify the mechanisms involved. Using 3,888 blood samples collected over 22 years, we investigated parasite prevalence in populations of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) after individuals were translocated from Cousin Island to four new islands (Aride, Cousine, Denis and Frégate). Only a single parasite (Haemoproteus nucleocondensus) was detected on Cousin (prevalence = 52%). This parasite persisted on Cousine (prevalence = 41%), but no infection was found in individuals hatched on Aride, Denis or Frégate. It is not known whether the parasite ever arrived on Aride, but it has not been detected there despite 20 years of post-translocation sampling. We confirmed that individuals translocated to Denis and Frégate were infected, with initial prevalence similar to Cousin. Over time, prevalence decreased on Denis and Frégate until the parasite was not found on Denis two years after translocation, and was approaching zero prevalence on Frégate. The loss (Denis) or decline (Frégate) of H. nucleocondensus, despite successful establishment of infected hosts, must be due to factors affecting parasite transmission on these islands. PMID:27405249

  6. Primary peak and chronic malaria infection levels are correlated in experimentally infected great reed warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad; Westerdahl, Helena; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Ilieva, Mihaela; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2012-09-01

    Malaria parasites often manage to maintain an infection for several months or years in their vertebrate hosts. In humans, rodents and birds, most of the fitness costs associated with malaria infections are in the short initial primary (high parasitaemia) phase of the infection, whereas the chronic phase (low parasitaemia) is more benign to the host. In wild birds, malaria parasites have mainly been studied during the chronic phase of the infection. This is because the initial primary phase of infection is short in duration and infected birds with severe disease symptoms tend to hide in sheltered places and are thus rarely caught and sampled. We therefore wanted to investigate the relationship between the parasitaemia during the primary and chronic phases of the infection using an experimental infection approach. We found a significant positive correlation between parasitaemia in the primary peak and the subsequent chronic phase of infection when we experimentally infected great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) with Plasmodium ashfordi. The reason for this association remains to be understood, but might arise from individual variation in exoerythrocytic parasite reservoirs in hosts, parasite antigenic diversity and/or host genetics. Our results suggest that the chronic phase parasitaemia can be used to qualitatively infer the parasitaemia of the preceding and more severe primary phase, which is a very important finding for studies of avian malaria in wild populations.

  7. Needle Terpenes as Chemotaxonomic Markers in Pinus: Subsections Pinus and Pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Zorica S; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Nikolić, Biljana M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2017-05-01

    Chemical compositions of needle essential oils of 27 taxa from the section Pinus, including 20 and 7 taxa of the subsections Pinus and Pinaster, respectively, were compared in order to determine chemotaxonomic significance of terpenes at infrageneric level. According to analysis of variance, six out of 31 studied terpene characters were characterized by a high level of significance, indicating statistically significant difference between the examined subsections. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis has shown separation of eight groups, where representatives of subsect. Pinaster were distributed within the first seven groups on the dendrogram together with P. nigra subsp. laricio and P. merkusii from the subsect. Pinus. On the other hand, the eighth group included the majority of the members of subsect. Pinus. Our findings, based on terpene characters, complement those obtained from morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters studied over the past two decades. In addition, results presented in this article confirmed that terpenes are good markers at infrageneric level. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Growth and dynamic modulus of elasticity of Pinus patula × Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field establishment of South Africa's most important commercial pine species, Pinus patula, is severely hampered by the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum. Importantly, hybrids between P. patula and other pine species tolerant to the pitch canker fungus, such as P. tecunumanii and P. oocarpa, have been identified ...

  9. The flexural properties of young Pinus elliottii × Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the bending strength and stiffness properties of young Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis timber from the Southern Cape, South Africa, and to evaluate the predictability of these properties from acoustic measurements on standing trees, logs and their sawn boards.

  10. Rust resistance in seedling families of Pinus albicaulis and Pinus strobiformis and implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; J. Hamlin; J. Hill; D. Conklin

    2011-01-01

    Infection and mortality levels from Cronartium ribicola, the fungus causing white pine blister rust, are very high in parts of the geographic range of Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) and P. strobiformis (Southwestern white pine). Genetic resistance to this non-native fungus will be one of the key factors in maintaining or restoring populations of these species in...

  11. Emulating natural disturbances for declining late-successional species: A case study of the consequences for Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Newell, Felicity L.; George, Gregory A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Evans, Andrea; Beachy, Tiffany A.; McDermott, Molly E.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew; Wigley, T. Bently

    2013-01-01

    Forest cover in the eastern United States has increased over the past century and while some late-successional species have benefited from this process as expected, others have experienced population declines. These declines may be in part related to contemporary reductions in small-scale forest interior disturbances such as fire, windthrow, and treefalls. To mitigate the negative impacts of disturbance alteration and suppression on some late-successional species, strategies that emulate natural disturbance regimes are often advocated, but large-scale evaluations of these practices are rare. Here, we assessed the consequences of experimental disturbance (using partial timber harvest) on a severely declining late-successional species, the cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea), across the core of its breeding range in the Appalachian Mountains. We measured numerical (density), physiological (body condition), and demographic (age structure and reproduction) responses to three levels of disturbance and explored the potential impacts of disturbance on source-sink dynamics. Breeding densities of warblers increased one to four years after all canopy disturbances (vs. controls) and males occupying territories on treatment plots were in better condition than those on control plots. However, these beneficial effects of disturbance did not correspond to improvements in reproduction; nest success was lower on all treatment plots than on control plots in the southern region and marginally lower on light disturbance plots in the northern region. Our data suggest that only habitats in the southern region acted as sources, and interior disturbances in this region have the potential to create ecological traps at a local scale, but sources when viewed at broader scales. Thus, cerulean warblers would likely benefit from management that strikes a landscape-level balance between emulating natural disturbances in order to attract individuals into areas where current structure is

  12. The Effects of Supplementary Food on the Breeding Performance of Eurasian Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus; Implications for Climate Change Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Vafidis

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate variation can drive population changes requires information linking climate, local conditions, trophic resources, behaviour and demography. Climate change alters the seasonal pattern of emergence and abundance of invertebrate populations, which may have important consequences for the breeding performance and population change of insectivorous birds. In this study, we examine the role of food availability in driving behavioural changes in an insectivorous migratory songbird; the Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. We use a feeding experiment to examine the effect of increased food supply on different components of breeding behaviour and first-brood productivity, over three breeding seasons (2012-2014. Reed warblers respond to food-supplementation by advancing their laying date by up to 5.6 days. Incubation periods are shorter in supplemented groups during the warmest mean spring temperatures. Nestling growth rates are increased in nests provisioned by supplemented parents. In addition, nest predation is reduced, possibly because supplemented adults spend more time at the nest and faster nestling growth reduces the period of vulnerability of eggs and nestlings to predators (and brood parasites. The net effect of these changes is to advance the fledging completion date and to increase the overall productivity of the first brood for supplemented birds. European populations of reed warblers are currently increasing; our results suggest that advancing spring phenology, leading to increased food availability early in the breeding season, could account for this change by facilitating higher productivity. Furthermore, the earlier brood completion potentially allows multiple breeding attempts. This study identifies the likely trophic and behavioural mechanisms by which climate-driven changes in invertebrate phenology and abundance may lead to changes in breeding phenology, nest survival and net

  13. Warm springs, early lay dates, and double brooding in a North American migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K Townsend

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have correlated the advancement of lay date in birds with warming climate trends, yet the fitness effects associated with this phenological response have been examined in only a small number of species. Most of these species--primarily insectivorous cavity nesters in Europe--exhibit fitness declines associated with increasing asynchrony with prey. Here, we use 25 years of demographic data, collected from 1986 to 2010, to examine the effects of spring temperature on breeding initiation date, double brooding, and annual fecundity in a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens. Data were collected from birds breeding at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA, where long-term trends toward warmer springs have been recorded. We found that black-throated blue warblers initiated breeding earlier in warmer springs, that early breeders were more likely to attempt a second brood than those starting later in the season, and that double brooding and lay date were linked to higher annual fecundity. Accordingly, we found selection favored earlier breeding in most years. However, in contrast to studies of several other long-distance migratory species in Europe, this selection pressure was not stronger in warmer springs, indicating that these warblers were able to adjust mean lay date appropriately to substantial inter-annual variation in spring temperature. Our results suggest that this North American migratory songbird might not experience the same fecundity declines as songbirds that are unable to adjust their timing of breeding in pace with spring temperatures.

  14. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  15. Germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata Mast. provenances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulan Xu; Nianhui Cai; Bin He; Ruili Zhang; Wei Zhao; Jianfeng Mao; Anan Duan; Yue Li; Keith Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We studied seed germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata to explore the range of variability within the species and to inform afforestation practices. Phenotypes were evaluated at a forest tree nursery under conditions that support Pinus yunnanensis, one of the presumed parental species of P. densata...

  16. Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their relation to measures of seedling morphology. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... A pot trial was implemented to determine the effect of soil water stress following transplanting on shoot water potential and stomatal conductance of Pinus patula ...

  17. Effect on nursery and field performance of Pinus patula seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium circinatum is an important fungal pathogen of Pinus species. In South Africa, it is the most significant pathogen of Pinus patula seedlings in forestry nurseries where it presents a substantial constraint to productivity and can continue to cause mortality in-field for up to two years after establishment. This study ...

  18. Morphological evaluation of the Pinus kesiya complex (Pinaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Businský, R.; Frantík, Tomáš; Vít, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 300, č. 2 (2014), s. 273-285 ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : morphological var iation * Pinus densata ssp. tibetica * Pinus kesiya complex Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2014

  19. An evaluation of wood properties of Pinus caribeae (Morelet) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of within tree variation on wood density, ring width and anisotropic shrinkage of Pinus caribeae (Morelet) among tree partitions in Oluwa pine plantation. Five 15-year old Pinus caribeae (Morelet) in three partitions were randomly selected from the plantation and felled for the study. Wood ...

  20. Autumn phenology and morphometrics in the Garden Warbler Sylvia borin at the Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye B.; Hedenström, Anders; Ottosson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    not significantly vary over the years. Median passage dates were 24 August, 30 August and 2 September for adults, juveniles and birds of unknown age, respectively. Median passage did not change significantly over the years. Among adults, larger individuals passed the observatory earlier than smaller individuals......Trapping and ringing near ecological barriers can provide useful information about the migration strategies of bird species. In this paper we analyzed ringing data of the Garden Warbler, collected within the period of 1950-2008 at the Ottenby Bird Observatory, south-eastern Sweden, and describe...

  1. Influencia de la poda en el desarrollo de masas de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias

    OpenAIRE

    Hevia Cabal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis evaluó la influencia de diferentes intensidades de poda sobre el crecimiento, desarrollo y persistencia de masas regulares jóvenes de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias, dentro de una selvicultura sostenible enfocada a la producción de madera de calidad.

  2. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  3. Sex and age differences in site fidelity, food resource tracking, and body condition of wintering Kirtland's Warblers (Setophaga Kirtlandii) in the Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.; Patricia K. Lebow; Jennifer D. White; Dave Currie; David N. Ewert

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of nonbreeding migrant birds in relation to variation in food availability has been hypothesized to result from the interaction of dominance hierarchies and variable movement responses, which together may have sex- and age-specific consequences. We predicted that site fidelity, movements, and abundance of Kirtland’s Warblers (Setophaga kirtlandii...

  4. Egg discrimination in the Australian reed warbler (Acrocephalus australis) : rejection response toward model and conspecific eggs depending on timing and mode of artificial parasitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welbergen, J; Komdeur, J; Kats, R; Berg, M

    2001-01-01

    In a coevolutionary arms race between an interspecific brood parasite and its host species, bath are expected to evolve adaptations and counteradaptations. We studied egg discrimination in the Australian warbler (Acrocephalus australis). This species is currently not significantly parasitized by the

  5. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Wierucka

    Full Text Available Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus, mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941-0.996 than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727-0.937. Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August, while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898-0.958, when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00-1.000, when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality.

  6. Breeding biology of the Three-striped warbler in Venezuela: A contrast between tropical and temperate parulids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, W.A.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    We document reproductive life history traits of the Three-striped Warbler (Basileuterus tristriatus) from 146 nests in Venezuela and compare our results to data from the literature for other tropical and temperate parulid species. Mean (?? SE) clutch size was 1.96 ?? 0.03 eggs (n = 96) and fresh egg mass was 2.09 ?? 0.02 g. The incubation period was 15.8 ?? 0.2 days (n = 23) and the nestling period was 10.5 ?? 0.3 days (n = 12). Males did not incubate and rarely provided food for females during incubation. Females had 57 ?? 2% (n = 49) nest attentiveness (% of time on the nest incubating), which caused egg temperature to commonly become cold relative to development. Both adults fed nestlings and feeding rates increased with nestling age. The growth rate constant for nestlings based on mass was K 0.490, which is slower than for north temperate warblers. Predation was the primary source of nest failure and only 22% of nests were successful based on a Mayfield daily predation rate of 0.048 ?? 0.006. Our literature review indicates parulids differ strongly in life histories between temperate and tropical/subtropical sites with species in the tropics having, on average, smaller clutches, longer incubation periods, lower nest attentiveness, longer off-bouts, and longer nestling periods. ?? 2009 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  7. POTENSI ALELOPAT DAUN PINUS (Pinus spp. SEBAGAI BIOHERBISIDA PRA TUMBUH PADA GULMA KROKOT (Portulaca oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfy Ditya Cahyanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effectof pine leaf as allelophaty on purslane germination. Theexperiment were conducted at screen house Departmentof Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, BrawijayaUniversity. The research is experimental design by nonfactorial Completely Randomized Blok Design, with threereplications, consisted of eleven levels. Purslane seeds sprout with control treatment, signifi cantly different from seedssprout ability in treatment solution leaves Pinus merkusii 2000ppm, and solution leaves of P. longaeva 2000 ppm. The resultshowed that 2000 ppm of P. merkusii extraction signifi cantlysuppressed 46% of purslane germination whereas 2000 ppmPinus longeava extraction signifi cantly suppressed of 41%campared to without any treatments (control.

  8. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-04-21 to 1966-05-28 (NODC Accession 6600712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  9. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  10. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Raut, Josna; Deo, Akash; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2013-01-01

    Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark) of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil) while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components) was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E)-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5%) and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3%) as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1%) and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%). The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively). Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL) along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL). The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL). The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  11. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%). PMID:25657795

  12. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  13. Analisis Komponen Kimia Dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Atsiri Daun Pinus (Pinus Merkusii Jungh.Et Devries) Dari Kabupaten Samosir

    OpenAIRE

    Siringo-Ringo, Mawar

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of pinus leaves (Pinus merkusii Jungh.et deVries) have been isolated by hydrodestilation method using Stahl. Pinus leaves have destilated for five hours roduced essential oil 0.1531% (w/w). The results of the analyse use GC-MS showed 23 peaks and can be identified 20 compounds and have five major compounds are Limonene (22.72%), α-Pinene (17.53%), β-Caryophyllene (16.76%), β-Ocimene (14.68%), and Germacren-d (11.24%). Antibacterial activity of the test have been done using ag...

  14. Subordinate females in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler obtain direct benefits by joining unrelated groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, Frank; Kingma, Sjouke A; Hammers, Martijn; Dugdale, Hannah L; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S; Komdeur, Jan

    2018-05-11

    1.In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersing to breed independently. However, in many species individuals disperse to a subordinate position in a non-natal group ("subordinate between-group" dispersal), despite losing the kin-selected and nepotistic benefits of remaining in the natal group. It is unclear which social, genetic and ecological factors drive between-group dispersal. 2.We aim to elucidate the adaptive significance of subordinate between-group dispersal by examining which factors promote such dispersal, whether subordinates gain improved ecological and social conditions by joining a non-natal group, and whether between-group dispersal results in increased lifetime reproductive success and survival. 3.Using a long-term dataset on the cooperatively-breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we investigated 4.how a suite of proximate factors (food availability, group composition, age and sex of focal individuals, population density) promote subordinate between-group dispersal by comparing such dispersers with subordinates that dispersed to a dominant position or became floaters. We then analysed whether subordinates that moved to a dominant or non-natal subordinate position, or became floaters, gained improved conditions relative to the natal territory, and compared fitness components between the three dispersal strategies. 5.We show that individuals that joined another group as non-natal subordinates were mainly female and that, similar to floating, between-group dispersal was associated with social and demographic factors that constrained dispersal to an independent breeding position. Between-group dispersal was not driven by improved ecological or social conditions in the new territory and did not result in higher survival. Instead, between-group dispersing females often became co

  15. Seasonal Patterns in Hydrogen Isotopes of Claws from Breeding Wood-Warblers (Parulidae: Utility for Estimating Migratory Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Fraser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in many species of migratory birds has focused attention on the extent of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering populations. Stable-hydrogen isotope (δD analysis of feathers is a useful technique for measuring connectivity, but is constrained by features of molt location and timing. Claws are metabolically inert, keratinous tissues that grow continuously and can be sampled at any point in the annual cycle, thus providing potentially useful clues about an individual's previous movements. However, variation in the rate at which claws incorporate local δD values is not well described. We measured δD values in claws of two species of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant wood-warblers (Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler breeding in eastern Ontario, Canada to investigate the rate of δD change through the breeding season and the utility of claw δD values for estimating migratory origins. δD values of claw tips from 66 different individuals, each sampled once during the breeding season, showed an average change of -0.3‰ to -0.4‰ per day in the direction of the expected local Ontario value. There were no significant sex or species differences in the rate of change. These results suggest δD values of claw tips in Parulids may reflect those of the non-breeding area for 3-7 weeks after arrival on the breeding grounds, and are useful estimators of non-breeding migratory origin. Our results also suggest that these species may leave the breeding ground before claw tips fully incorporate a local δD signature, as claws sampled at the end of the breeding season did not match locally grown feather and claw δD values. This is the first study to examine the seasonal rate of the change in δD values of claws in long-distance, insectivorous, migratory birds.

  16. Effect of Brood Age on Nestling Diet and Prey Composition in a Hedgerow Specialist Bird, the Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Orłowski

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of food provided to nestling birds influence their growth and development and offers key insight into the ecological requirements of birds. One bird species whose feeding ecology is poorly understood is the Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria, which utilizes semi-natural shrubby vegetation in agroecosystems. Because Barred Warbler nestlings vary greatly in body mass we hypothesised that diet and prey properties (size, diversity, taxonomic composition, and chitin content and resulting body hardness and digestibility would differ as the nestlings aged. We quantified the diet based on faecal analysis, sampling faecal sacs from the nestlings pooled into three age classes: 2-3 days old, 4-6 d old, and 7-9 d old. Nestlings were provided a wide diversity of food and a strong relationship existed between food characteristics and nestling age. The youngest nestlings (2-3 d old had the lowest values of each dietary characteristic (diversity, number and total biomass of prey, and individual prey weight, that were significantly lower than the oldest nestlings (7-9 d old. Nestlings aged 4-6 d exhibited intermediate dietary characteristics. Differences in dietary composition of the six major food types showed marked differences between the individual broods and age categories. Percentages of the number and biomass of soft-bodied prey were highest in the diet of 2-3 d and 4-6 d old nestlings, and decreased with increasing age, whereas the opposite trend was observed in the percentage of intermediately and heavily chitinised prey. Parent Barred Warblers probably preferentially select soft-bodied prey for the youngest nestlings, and satisfy the greater energy demands of the older ones by providing them with a greater variety of prey containing more chitin, as well as plant food. The provisioning of less-readily digestible prey to older nestlings suggests that as the quality of food decreases the quantity increases, implying that the

  17. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  18. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-12-01

    The Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  19. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife

  20. 90SR uptake by Pinus ponderosa and Pinus radiata seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Emmingham, W.H.; Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    Strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. Prior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90 Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. In this study, we inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inoculated and noninoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove 90 Sr from an organic growth medium. Ectomycorrhizal P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings are able to remove 3-5 times more 90 Sr from contaminated soil than seedlings without ectomycorrhizae. (Author)

  1. Spatio-temporal variation in territory quality and oxidative status: a natural experiment in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Crommenacker, Janske; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2011-05-01

    1. Fluctuations in the quality of the habitat in which an animal lives can have major consequences for its behaviour and physiological state. In poor-quality habitat with low food availability, metabolically intensive foraging activity is likely to result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species, while scarcity of food can lead to a weakening of exogenously derived antioxidant defences. The consequent oxidant/antioxidant imbalance may lead to elevated oxidative stress. 2. Although the link between food availability and oxidative stress has been studied in the laboratory, very little is known about this relationship in the wild. Here, we investigate the association between territory quality (measured through food availability) and oxidative stress in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). 3. Seychelles warblers are insectivorous birds that inhabit a fixed feeding territory year round. Individuals experience profound and rapid local fluctuations in territory quality within these territories, owing to changing patterns of vegetation defoliation resulting from seasonal changes in prevailing wind direction and wind-borne salt spray. 4. As expected, oxidant generation (measured as reactive oxygen metabolites; ROMs) was higher when territory quality was low, but there was no correlation between territory quality and antioxidant capacity (OXY). The negative correlation between territory quality and ROMs was significant between individuals and approached significance within individuals, indicating that the pattern resulted from individual responses to environmental variation. 5. ROMs and OXY levels within individuals were positively correlated, but the relationship between territory quality and ROMs persisted after including OXY as a covariate, implying that oxidative stress occurs in low territory quality conditions. 6. Our results indicate that the oxidative stress balance of an individual is sensitive to relatively short-term changes in territory

  2. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1953 the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey, sp. nov.) in the White Mountains of California. This research resulted in the establishment of a continuous tree-ring sequence of 8253 yr. The millennia-old pines have emerged as a unique source of chronological data and the precisely dated wood is essential to certain paleoenvironmental and geophysical investigations. Over 1000 dendrochronologically dated decade samples of bristlecone pine supplied to three C-14 laboratories have been used to calibrate the radiocarbon time scale for the past seven millennia, a development of far reaching consequences in the fields of archaeology and geology. In addition, recent advances in other methods of analyzing past climatic variability - techniques involving stable isotope ratios, amino acid racemization, remanent magnetism and trace element abundances - have greatly increased the demand for wood of known age and, hence, for chronology development. Spanning the past 7500 yr, 1138 prepared decade samples, with a total weight of nearly 16 kg are available for study. (author)

  3. Extreme MHC class I diversity in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus); selection patterns and allelic divergence suggest that different genes have different functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; O'Connor, Emily; Sebastian, Alvaro; Migalska, Magdalena; Radwan, Jacek; Zając, Tadeusz; Bielański, Wojciech; Solarz, Wojciech; Ćmiel, Adam; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-07-05

    Recent work suggests that gene duplications may play an important role in the evolution of immunity genes. Passerine birds, and in particular Sylvioidea warblers, have highly duplicated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, which are key in immunity, compared to other vertebrates. However, reasons for this high MHC gene copy number are yet unclear. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) allows MHC genotyping even in individuals with extremely duplicated genes. This HTS data can reveal evidence of selection, which may help to unravel the putative functions of different gene copies, i.e. neofunctionalization. We performed exhaustive genotyping of MHC class I in a Sylvioidea warbler, the sedge warbler, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, using the Illumina MiSeq technique on individuals from a wild study population. The MHC diversity in 863 genotyped individuals by far exceeds that of any other bird species described to date. A single individual could carry up to 65 different alleles, a large proportion of which are expressed (transcribed). The MHC alleles were of three different lengths differing in evidence of selection, diversity and divergence within our study population. Alleles without any deletions and alleles containing a 6 bp deletion showed characteristics of classical MHC genes, with evidence of multiple sites subject to positive selection and high sequence divergence. In contrast, alleles containing a 3 bp deletion had no sites subject to positive selection and had low divergence. Our results suggest that sedge warbler MHC alleles that either have no deletion, or contain a 6 bp deletion, encode classical antigen presenting MHC molecules. In contrast, MHC alleles containing a 3 bp deletion may encode molecules with a different function. This study demonstrates that highly duplicated MHC genes can be characterised with HTS and that selection patterns can be useful for revealing neofunctionalization. Importantly, our results highlight the need to consider the

  4. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  5. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa; Pala, Mauro; Bonaccurso, Bruna; Stella, Anna; Redaelli, Anna; Paola, Gaudenzio; Valerio, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated

  6. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)]. E-mail: chimamb@istge.it; Pala, Mauro [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Bonaccurso, Bruna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Stella, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Redaelli, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Paola, Gaudenzio [Botany Department, Genoa University, C.so Dogali 1 canc., 16136 Genova (Italy); Valerio, Federico [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated.

  7. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  8. PRODUÇÃO DE CHAPAS DE MADEIRA COMPENSADA DE CINCO ESPÉCIES DE PINUS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de 5 espécies de pinus tropicais para produção de painéis compensados. As espécies estudadas foram: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii e Pinus taeda, sendo esta última espécie como testemunha. Foram produzidos compensados de 5 lâminas com resinas uréia-formaldeído e fenol-formaldeído. Os resultados de inchamento e recuperação em espessura foram estatisticamente iguais entre as espécies estudadas, com exceção para inchamento em espessura das chapas coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído. As chapas de Pinus maximinoi e Pinus oocarpa, apresentaram melhores resultados de módulos de elasticidade. Para o módulo de ruptura, as chapas de Pinus maxininoi, Pinus oocarpa e Pinus taeda, coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído, apresentaram valores estatisticamente superiores em relação às demais espécies. Quanto a resistência da linha de cola, as chapas de Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda e Pinus chiapensis, foram as que apresentaram melhor desempenho. Com base nos resultados gerais da pesquisa, pode-se destacar a potencialidade da madeira de Pinus maximinoi e Pinus oocarpa para produção de chapas de madeira compensada.

  9. Hydraulic architecture and tracheid allometry in mature Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benecke, C A; Martin, T A; Peter, G F

    2010-03-01

    Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine, LL) and Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii (slash pine, SL) frequently co-occur in lower coastal plain flatwoods of the USA, with LL typically inhabiting slightly higher and better-drained microsites than SL. The hydraulic architecture and tracheid dimensions of roots, trunk and branches of mature LL and SL trees were compared to understand their role in species microsite occupation. Root xylem had higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and was less resistant to cavitation compared with branches and trunk sapwood. Root k(s) of LL was significantly higher than SL, whereas branch and trunk k(s) did not differ between species. No differences in vulnerability to cavitation were observed in any of the organs between species. Across all organs, there was a significant but weak trade-off between water conduction efficiency and safety. Tracheid hydraulic diameter (D(h)) was strongly correlated with k(s) across all organs, explaining >73% of the variation in k(s). In contrast, tracheid length (L(t)) explained only 2.4% of the variability. Nevertheless, for trunk xylem, k(s) was 39.5% higher at 20 m compared with 1.8 m; this increase in k(s) was uncorrelated with D(h) and cell-wall thickness but was strongly correlated with the difference in L(t). Tracheid allometry markedly changed between sapwood of roots, trunks and branches, possibly reflecting different mechanical constraints. Even though vulnerability to cavitation was not different for sapwood of roots, branches or the trunks of LL and SL, higher sapwood to leaf area ratio and higher maximum sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity in roots of LL are functional traits that may provide LL with a competitive advantage on drier soil microsites.

  10. Produção de chapas de madeira compensada de cinco espécies de pinus tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming at evaluating the feasibility of the use of 5 species of tropical pine to plywood manufacture. The following species were studied: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii and Pinus taeda, being the last used as the referential species. Plywood were manufactured with 5 plies, bonded with ureaformaldheyde and fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of thickness sweeling and recovering were the same for all species studied, with exception to thickness sweeling for the boards glued with fenolformaldheyde resin. The boards made from Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa, showed the higher values in modulus of elasticity. The boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa and Pinus taeda, glued with fenol-formaldheyde resin, resulted in higher values of the modulus of rupture, in comparison to other species. For the glue line strength, the boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda and Pinus chiapensis, showed the better results. Based on the general results of this research it, could be said that the Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa present the high potentiality to plywood manufacture.

  11. PRODUÇÃO DE CHAPAS DE MADEIRA COMPENSADA DE CINCO ESPÉCIES DE PINUS TROPICAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuo Iwakiri; Danielle Previdi Olandoski; Gabriela Leonhardt; Martha Andreia Brand

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de 5 espécies de pinus tropicais para produção de painéis compensados. As espécies estudadas foram: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii e Pinus taeda, sendo esta última espécie como testemunha. Foram produzidos compensados de 5 lâminas com resinas uréia-formaldeído e fenol-formaldeído. Os resultados de inchamento e recuperação em espessura foram estatisticamente iguais entre as ...

  12. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models.

  13. A new C-methylated flavonoid glycoside from Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M J; Choi, J H; Chung, H Y; Jung, J H; Choi, J S

    2001-12-01

    A new C-methyl flavonol glycoside, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the needles of Pinus densiflora, together with kaempferol 3-O-beta-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside.

  14. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Carlo; Heidi J. Renninger; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots...

  15. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Online resources. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L. populations based on molecular data and inferences about the future use of this germplasm. J. Cipriano A. Carvalho C. Fernandes M. J. Gaspar J. Pires J. Bento L. Roxo J. Louzada J. Lima- ...

  16. Growth process and diameter structure of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... and sunny slope Pinus tabulaeformis forest were investigated in hilly loess-gully ... tabulaeformis, the main species of tree for forestation, ... Biomass in different artificial P. tabulaformis stands ..... The change of plant diversity during natural ... elements and stand biomass in forest communities in Hilly Loess.

  17. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, where collection of needle tissues is extremely difficult has been standardized. The extracted DNA was comparable to that obtained from the needle tissue in terms of yield and purity. The yield of extracted DNA ranged ...

  18. Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) of inland Marin County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    The locations and characteristics of five, small, previously undescribed stands of bishop pine (Pinus muricata) in central Marin Co., California, are reported. Three stands lie on dry sites in the Kent Lake Drainage north of Mt. Tamalpais: San Geronimo Ridge, a spur ridge above Little Carson Cr., and Oat Hill. These stands are anomalous in occurring...

  19. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Presented here are results of rooting studies using hedges established from juvenile seedlings of "blue" and "green" foliaged bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) from Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. Rootability, averaged over all clones and all setting dates, was 88%. The average time for 50% of the...

  20. A holistic approach to genetic conservation of Pinus strobiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Waring; R. Sniezko; B.A. Goodrich; C. Wehenkel; J.J. Jacobs

    2017-01-01

    Pinus strobiformis (southwestern white pine) is threatened by both a rapidly changing climate and the tree disease white pine blister rust, caused by an introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola. We began a proactive program in ~2009 to sustain P. strobiformis that includes genetic conservation, research, and management strategies. Research...

  1. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  2. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  3. evaluation of the leave and bud decoctions pinus halepensis mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 déc. 2014 ... L'espèce Pinus halepensis Mill (ou pin d'Alep), appartenant à la famille des Pinaceae, a ... au moyen d'un moulin électrique à usage domestique (model Moulinex D5001) au niveau du ..... central ltaly Flavour Frag. J., 2003 ...

  4. Pinus ponderosa : A checkered past obscured four species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Willyard; David S. Gernandt; Kevin Potter; Valerie Hipkins; Paula E. Marquardt; Mary Frances Mahalovich; Stephen K. Langer; Frank W. Telewski; Blake Cooper; Connor Douglas; Kristen Finch; Hassani H. Karemera; Julia Lefler; Payton Lea; Austin Wofford

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae ) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at...

  5. Growth models for Pinus patula in Angola | Delgado-Matas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study developed growth models for Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham. for the Central Highlands of Angola for simulating the development of stand characteristics. The model set included dominant height, individual-tree diameter increment, individual-tree height and self-thinning models. The study was based ...

  6. Some physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula grown in Iringa and Njombe regions of Tanzania. Sample trees aged 5 to 15 years were collected from farmers' woodlots. The trees were categorized into 5 age classes: 5 - 7, 8 - 10, 11 - 12, 13 - 14 and 15 years. Four trees from ...

  7. Impact of the eocene on the evolution of Pinus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1993-01-01

    Pinus evolved in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Mesozoic. By the late Cretaceous pines had spread east and west throughout Laurasia, attaining high diversity in eastern Asia, the eastern United States, and western Europe, but having little representation at high northern latitudes. Changing climates in the early Tertiary...

  8. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  9. Percentile-based Weibull diameter distribution model for Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a site index equation and stem volume model developed for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines, a yield prediction system was created to predict the volume per ha (VPH) for each diameter class and, subsequently, the total volume of a stand. To evaluate the yield prediction system, the predicted mean VPH for each ...

  10. The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David J; Spurgin, Lewis G; Collar, Nigel J; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2014-05-01

    Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short- and long-term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity, and how this affects genetic structure among the conserved populations overall, have received little investigation. We compared the impact of translocating different numbers of founders on both microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I diversity over a 23-year period in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). We found low and stable microsatellite and MHC diversity in the source population and evidence for only a limited loss of either type of diversity in the four new populations. However, we found evidence of significant, but low to moderate, genetic differentiation between populations, with those populations established with fewer founders clustering separately. Stochastic genetic capture (as opposed to subsequent drift) was the main determinant of translocated population diversity. Furthermore, a strong correlation between microsatellite and MHC differentiation suggested that neutral processes outweighed selection in shaping MHC diversity in the new populations. These data provide important insights into how to optimize the use of translocation as a conservation tool. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. On geographic barriers and Pleistocene glaciations: Tracing the diversification of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata) along the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    We studied the phylogeography and plumage variation of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata), from Venezuela to Bolivia, with focus on populations from Ecuador and northern Peru. We analyzed sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, geographic distributions, as well as photographs of specimens deposited at museum collections. Phylogenetic analyses identified three major lineages formed by populations from: Venezuela and Colombia (M. c. regulus), Ecuador and northern Peru (M. elata, M. castaneiceps, M. orientalis, M. c. chapmani), and central Peru and Bolivia (M. c. coronata). We found further population structure within M. c. regulus and M. c. coronata, and population structure and complexity of plumage variation within the Ecuador-northern Peru lineage. Time-calibrated trees estimated that most intraspecific variation originated during the Pleistocene; however, this pattern may not be attributed to an increase in diversification rate during that period. We discuss these results in the context of the importance of geographic-ecological barriers in promoting lineage diversification along the Andes and put forward a preliminary taxonomic proposal for major lineages identified in this study. PMID:29522515

  12. On geographic barriers and Pleistocene glaciations: Tracing the diversification of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata) along the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Torres, David A; Cuervo, Andrés M; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    We studied the phylogeography and plumage variation of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata), from Venezuela to Bolivia, with focus on populations from Ecuador and northern Peru. We analyzed sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, geographic distributions, as well as photographs of specimens deposited at museum collections. Phylogenetic analyses identified three major lineages formed by populations from: Venezuela and Colombia (M. c. regulus), Ecuador and northern Peru (M. elata, M. castaneiceps, M. orientalis, M. c. chapmani), and central Peru and Bolivia (M. c. coronata). We found further population structure within M. c. regulus and M. c. coronata, and population structure and complexity of plumage variation within the Ecuador-northern Peru lineage. Time-calibrated trees estimated that most intraspecific variation originated during the Pleistocene; however, this pattern may not be attributed to an increase in diversification rate during that period. We discuss these results in the context of the importance of geographic-ecological barriers in promoting lineage diversification along the Andes and put forward a preliminary taxonomic proposal for major lineages identified in this study.

  13. Growth and photosynthetic responses of two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in a polluted industrial region in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.S.; Kayama, M.; Jin, H.O.; Lee, C.H.; Izuta, T.; Koike, T.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pollutants on two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in an industrial region in Korea, using a physiological approach. The concentrations of fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl) in the atmosphere, in precipitation and soil water at the damaged site were all significantly higher than at a control site. Moreover, the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in pine needles were significantly higher, and essential elements and chlorophyll in needles were significantly lower at the damaged site than at the control site. The photosynthetic capacities, shoot length and survival statistics of needles of the two pines were all significantly reduced at the damaged site compared to the control site, especially P. rigida. Based on our comparison of photosynthetic responses and the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in needles of the two pine species, P. koraiensis is more resistant to excess Mn in its needles than P. rigida. - Pinus koraiensis seems to be more pollution tolerant than Pinus rigida

  14. Carbon stable isotope-climate association in tree rings of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogino, Stella M; Bravo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios, recorded as "1"3C/"1"2C variations in tree rings of woody species, are the result of physiological changes related to environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to analyze the association among carbon thirteen variability (δ"1"3C), climate variables and tree-ring growth of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in central Spain. Pulverized woody material from the period 1975-1999 from four trees for each pine species was analyzed. To detect common patterns in δ"1"3C within each species and between δ"1"3C and growth indices, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. δ"1"3C of trees and the residual tree-ring chronologies were used at the PCA. Multilevel mixed linear models were applied between intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and climate variables. Our results show an inverse significant correlation between δ"1"3C and tree-ring growth of both species. Winter and spring air moisture was negatively correlated with iWUE of Pinus pinaster. July maximum temperature was positively correlated with iWUE of Pinus sylvestris. As δ"1"3C is significantly related to climate and growth and it may be recommended as a valuable tool for tree growth dynamic analysis to withstand increasingly stressful climate conditions

  15. Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, R.J.; Pratt, T.K.; Marshall, A.P.; Amidon, F.; Williams, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The avifauna of the Mariana Islands, an archipelago in the western Pacific, faces the threats of rapid economic development and the spread of non-native species, particularly a devastating predator, Brown Tree Snake Boiga irregularis. In this paper, we examine the status and trends of the land bird fauna of Saipan Island based on three island-wide surveys conducted in 1982, 1997, and 2007. During this period, the human population on Saipan increased more than four-fold and much of the island has been developed. The surveys employed standard point-transect methods based on Distance Sampling. Remarkably, we found nearly all species of land birds - 11 native species and three introduced species - to be common or abundant. The exception was the Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperouse, a historically rare species that was not observed on the 2007 survey, although it does persist on Saipan and other Mariana islands. A comparison of species densities among the three surveys showed that seven species, mainly fruit and seed-eaters, had increased and three species of insectivorous birds had decreased - Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia, and Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei. Of these three, Nightingale Reed-warbler is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and as an Endangered Species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Reed-warbler densities on Saipan decreased by more than half between 1982 and 2007. Although point transect sampling worked well for this species, density estimates and trends assessment could be improved by reallocating sampling stations among habitats and by more frequent sampling. ?? BirdLife International 2009.

  16. Terpene chemodiversity of relict conifers Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce, endemic to Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D; Bojović, Srdjan

    2011-12-01

    Terpenes are often used as ecological and chemotaxonomic markers of plant species, as well as for estimation of geographic variability. Essential oils of relic and Balkan endemic/subendemic conifers, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and P. peuce, in central part of Balkan Peninsula (Serbia and Montenegro), on the level of terpene classes and common terpene compounds were investigated. In finding terpene combinations, which could show the best diversity between species and their natural populations, several statistical methods were applied. Apart from the content of different terpene classes (P. omorika has the most abundant O-containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes; P. heldreichii and P. peuce have the largest abundance of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, resp.), the species are clearly separated according to terpene profile with 22 common compounds. But, divergences in their populations were established only in combination of several compounds (specific for each species), and they were found to be the results of geomorphologic, climatic, and genetic factors. We found similarities between investigated species and some taxa from literature with respect to terpene composition, possibly due to hybridization and phylogenetic relations. Obtained results are also important regarding to chemotaxonomy, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution of these taxa. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and extent of linkage disequilibrium in two genotype-phenotype discovery populations of Pinua taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared W. Westbrook; Vikram E. Chhatre; Le-Shin Wu; Srikar Chamala; Leandro Gomide Neves; Patricio Munoz; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; David B. Neale; Matias Kirst; Keithanne Mockaitis; C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; John M. Davis; Craig S. Echt

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via...

  18. KAJIAN KONSERVASI Pinus merkusii strain Tapanuli DI SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendi Suhendi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Di Indonesia, Pinus yang tumbuh secara alami hanyalah Pinus merkusii di Sumatera yang terdiri dari strain Tapanuli, strain Kerinci dan strain Aceh. Berdasarkan persebarannya, strain Tapanuli tidak banyak dijumpai karena tercampur dengan jenis-jenis kayu daun lebar. Secara alami, strain Tapanuli ditemukan di Cagar Alam Dolok Sipirok dan Cagar Alam Dolok Saut. Dalam bentuk hutan tanaman, strain Tapanuli dibuat oleh masyarakat atau rakyat dengan anakan alam dan diambil secara cabutan di Tegakan Benih Dolok Tusam, dan sekarang sudah habis ditebang karena digantikan oleh tanaman kopi. Di wilayah kerja Dinas Kehutanan Propinsi Sumatera Utara hampir tidak pernah didapatkan informasi tentang keberadaan strain Tapanuli. Konservasi in situ dalam bentuk Cagar Alam perlu dilengkapi dengan konservasi ex situ. Sebagai langkah awal konservasi, terlebih dahulu perlu dikaji permudaan alamnya. Di samping itu, analisis kebijakan berkaitan dengan pentingnya eksplorasi dengan metode sensus pada semua kawasan konservasi di Sumatera perlu dipertimbangkan, dan pertemuan formal antar pengambil kebijakan di Departemen Kehutanan perlu direkomendasikan

  19. Sexual stability in the nearly dioecious Pinus johannis (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Whipple, Amy V; Gehring, Catherine A; Domínguez, C A

    2013-03-01

    Even though dioecy is a dominant sexual system among gymnosperms, little is known about its evolutionary history. Pinus johannis may represent a model system because unisexual and monoecious individuals compose its populations. The presence of unisexual individuals in other Pinus species is a consequence of sexual lability. Here we determined whether P. johannis represents the first example of a dioecious or nearly dioecious reproductive system in conifers by evaluating its sexual stability. • To assess the stability of sexual expression, we quantified the proportion of male vs. female reproductive structures produced by trees over multiple years and tested for the presence of sexual dimorphism. Sexual lability hypotheses were also examined by looking at the relationship between environmental factors and sexual expression and by comparing the reproductive behavior of P. johannis with its closest labile relative, P. edulis. • Pinus johannis is nearly dioecious: ~99% of individuals are unisexual or express a low proportion of the opposite gender with few changes in sexual expression through time. We found sexual dimorphism consistent with sexual stability. Sexual expression did not vary with tree size/age, abiotic environment, or herbivore removal, providing evidence against sexual lability. Individuals of P. johannis tended to produce only male or female strobili, whereas those of P. edulis were mainly monoecious with a gradient in the female to male strobili ratio. • This study represents the first report of a nearly stable dioecious Pinus species. The variety of sexual morphs coexisting in the same population makes P. johannis a model for studying the evolution of dioecy in gymnosperms.

  20. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashish

    2013-02-22

    Feb 22, 2013 ... A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, .... DNA as a template. PCR was performed on a thermal cycler. (Biorad, Mycycler) incorporating 10 ng genomic DNA to a 25 µl reaction mix containing 1X Taq buffer, 3 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM each of dNTPs ...

  1. MICROBIOTA OF PINUS POLLEN AS ADJUVANT FACTOR OF ALLERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Tetiana Shevtsova; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Petrová; Ján Brindza; Kateryna Garkava

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria, their endotoxin and mold found on pollen can be a reason of respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. This question concerns an anemophilous pollen more acute. In this work quantitative by dilution plating method and qualitative microbial analysis by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper of pollen and other plants organs of Pinus sylvestris L., P. nigra Arnold, P. mugo Turra, P. armandii Franch., P. wallichiana A.B. Jacks from Nitra, Slovakia are performed which shows quantitative and species...

  2. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  3. Age-specific survival of male Golden-cheeked Warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA. However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  4. Age-specific survival of male golden-cheeked warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA). However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ) probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  5. Palaeoclimatic events, dispersal and migratory losses along the Afro-European axis as drivers of biogeographic distribution in Sylvia warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Gary; Light, Jessica E

    2011-06-14

    The Old World warbler genus Sylvia has been used extensively as a model system in a variety of ecological, genetic, and morphological studies. The genus is comprised of about 25 species, and 70% of these species have distributions at or near the Mediterranean Sea. This distribution pattern suggests a possible role for the Messinian Salinity Crisis (from 5.96-5.33 Ma) as a driving force in lineage diversification. Other species distributions suggest that Late Miocene to Pliocene Afro-tropical forest dynamics have also been important in the evolution of Sylvia lineages. Using a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis and other methods, we seek to develop a biogeographic hypothesis for Sylvia and to explicitly assess the roles of these climate-driven events. We present the first strongly supported molecular phylogeny for Sylvia. With one exception, species fall into one of three strongly supported clades: one small clade of species distributed mainly in Africa and Europe, one large clade of species distributed mainly in Africa and Asia, and another large clade with primarily a circum-Mediterranean distribution. Asia is reconstructed as the ancestral area for Sylvia. Long-distance migration is reconstructed as the ancestral character state for the genus, and sedentary behavior subsequently evolved seven times. Molecular clock calibration suggests that Sylvia arose in the early Miocene and diverged into three main clades by 12.6 Ma. Divergence estimates indicate that the Messinian Salinity Crisis had a minor impact on Sylvia. Instead, over-water dispersals, repeated loss of long-distance migration, and palaeo-climatic events in Africa played primary roles in Sylvia divergence and distribution.

  6. Assessing the cost of helping: the roles of body condition and oxidative balance in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janske van de Crommenacker

    Full Text Available In cooperatively breeding species, helping close relatives may provide important fitness benefits. However, helping can be energetically expensive and may result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can lead to higher oxidative stress susceptibility. Given the potential costs of helping, it may be that only individuals with a sufficiently good body condition and/or stable oxidative balance can afford to help. Knowledge about relationships between social status and oxidative balance in cooperatively breeding systems is still limited. Studying these relationships is important for understanding the costs of helping and physiological pressures of reproduction. Here we evaluate the relationship between helping behaviour, body condition and oxidative balance in a wild population of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis. In this species, some subordinate individuals help dominant birds with the rearing of young, while others refrain from any assistance. We assessed body condition and oxidative parameters of birds of different social status caught during different breeding stages. We found that, prior to breeding, female subordinates that did not subsequently help (non-helpers had significantly lower body condition and higher ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites than helpers and dominants. During the later stages of breeding, body condition was low in dominants and helpers, but high in non-helpers. Differences in oxidative balance between individuals of different social status were found only during nest care: Dominant males occupied with guarding behaviours tended to have relatively high oxidative stress susceptibility. Furthermore, dominant and helper females showed elevated antioxidant capacity (measured as OXY in the weeks just prior to egg-laying, possibly representing a change in their reproductive physiology. The results imply that an individuals

  7. Biological invasion of Pinus ponderosa and Pinus contorta: case study of a forest plantation in Northwestern Patagonia; Invasion biologica de Pinus ponderosa y Pinus contorta: estudio de caso de una plantacion en la Patagonia noroccidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezzotti, A.; Sbrancia, R.; Mortoro, A.; Monte, C.

    2009-07-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, Pinus species from plantations can bring about processes of biological invasion that cause significant and permanent changes on the structure and functioning of surrounding natural ecosystems. The invasive character of Pinus ponderosa (P) and Pinus contorta (C) was examined for a 20-year old plantation located in the Alicura Forest Station (40 degree centigrade 40' S and 71 degree centigrade 00' W), through the analysis of abundance, age and spatial structures, and dispersal of natural regeneration. Seedlings and saplings were located largely within the plantation boundaries, and exhibited a density of 6.9 ind / ha (41 % for P and 59 % for C), a clustered spatial pattern with clumps dispersed not randomly, and a mean dispersal rate of 9.5 m / yr for P. ponderosa and 5.4 m / yr for P. contorta. Both species were invading the adjacent area, according to technical criteria based on ecological responses. However, regeneration niche is strongly hindering tree establishment and dispersal, probably due to high plant cover, presence of vertic soils, and absence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. These results can contribute to predict the capability of P. contorta and P. ponderosa to become invasive, in order to maximize the positive balance of forestry based on these species in northwestern Patagonia. (Author) 50 refs.

  8. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  9. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  10. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the Philippine Sea and South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1964-02-24 to 1964-03-11 (NODC Accession 6400683)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  11. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the Eastern China Sea and other locations in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-09-19 to 1966-09-27 (NODC Accession 6600396)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the Eastern China Sea...

  12. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  13. Influence of gap-scale disturbance on developmental and successional pathways in Quercus-Pinus stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Weber; J.L. Hart; C. Schweitzer; D.C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Quercus-Pinus forests of the eastern USA cover millions of hectares and span a variety of ecoregions. Understanding the influence of natural disturbance on developmental and successional pathways is important for managers that wish to sustain Pinus spp. in these mixtures. Quantifying developmental and successional patterns in this...

  14. Development of site index curves for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of site index curves for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines. RIC Lumbres, YJ Lee, YO Seo, FG Calora JR. Abstract. This study was conducted to develop a height–age growth model and site index curves for site quality evaluation of old secondary-growth stands of Pinus kesiya in the northern Philippines.

  15. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  16. How a simple and stereotyped acoustic signal transmits individual information: the song of the White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, a common bird of the BrazilianAtlantic forest, emits only one distinct song type in the context of territorial defense. Individual or neighbor-stranger recognition may be more difficult when birds share similar songs. In fact, the analysis of songs of different individuals reveals slight differences in the temporal and the frequency domains. Effectively, a careful examination of the signals of different individuals (21 by 5 complementary methods of analysis reveals first, that one or two gaps in frequency occur between two successive notes at different moments of the song, and second, that their temporal and frequency positions are stereotyped for each individual. Playback experiments confirm these findings. By propagation experiments, we show that this individual information can be only transmitted at short range (O Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, um pássaro comum da Mata Atlântica, emite um único e distintivo tipo de canto para defesa territorial. O reconhecimento individual ou entre vizinho e estranho pode ser mais difícil quando as aves compartilham cantos semelhantes. De fato, a análise dos cantos de diferentes indivíduos revelou ligeiras diferenças nos domínios temporal e das freqüências. Efetivamente, um exame cuidadoso dos sinais de 21 indivíduos diferentes por 5 métodos complementares de análise revelou que, primeiro, um ou dois espaços na série tonal ocorrem entre duas notas sucessivas em determinados momentos do canto e, segundo, ocupam posições em tempo e freqüência estereotipadas para cada indivíduo. Experiências de "play-back" confirmam esses dados. Através de experiências de propagação, mostramos que esta informação individual pode ser transmitida somente a curta distância ( < 100 m na mata. Considerando o tamanho e a repartição dos territórios, este processo de comunicação mostra-se eficiente e bem adaptado.

  17. CONTINUIDADE ESPACIAL DE CARACTERÍSTICAS DENDROMÉTRICAS DE PINUS (Pinus pinaster Aiton E DE ATRIBUTOS DO SOLO / SPATIAL CONTINUITY OF DENDROMETRICS CHARACTERISTICS OF PINUS (Pinus pinaster Aiton AND SOIL ATTRIBUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLÉCIO M. SIQUEIRA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação e a continuidade espacial de características dendrométricas de pinus (Pinus pinaster Aiton e de atributos do solo. As amostragens foram realizadas em uma área de 0,25 ha cultivada com Pinus pinaster em Muras (Província de Lugo, Galícia, Espanha. Os atributos amostrados foram: o diâmetro da base das árvores (DB; o diâmetro a 0,30 m acima da base (D30; o diâmetro a altura do peito (a 1,3 m de altura, DAP, altura das árvores (ALT, profundidade do perfil do solo (PROF e a condutividade elétrica aparente do solo a 0,3 m de profundidade (CEa-H e a 1,5 m de profundidade (CEa-V. O uso da geoestatística permitiu caracterizar a variabilidade espacial de todos os atributos em estudo, com exceção da profundidade da rocha que apresentou efeito pepita puro. Os dados apresentaram moderada razão de dependência espacial entre amostras. Os mapas de variabilidade espacial não demonstram uma relação entre os mapas dos atributos de solo e planta estudados.Palavras-Chave: geoestatística; silvicultura de precisão; condutividade elétrica aparente do solo.

  18. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  19. Pinus pinaster Knot: A Source of Polyphenols against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaston, Julien; Richard, Tristan; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Palos Pinto, Antonio; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-10-11

    Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster byproducts was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided into four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene), and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract, as well as the main compounds, was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola. The ethanolic extract showed a strong antimildew activity. In addition, pinosylvins and pinocembrin demonstrated significant inhibition of zoospore mobility and mildew development. These findings strongly suggest that pine knot is a potential biomass that could be used as a natural antifungal product.

  20. Spatially explicit models of full-season productivity and implications for landscape management of Golden-winged Warblers in the western Great Lakes Region: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Andersen, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between landscape structure and composition and full-season productivity (FSP) is poorly understood for most birds. For species of high conservation concern, insight into how productivity is related to landscape structure and composition can be used to develop more effective conservation strategies that increase recruitment. We monitored nest productivity and fledgling survival of Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera), a species of high conservation concern, in managed forest landscapes at two sites in northern Minnesota, and one site in southeastern Manitoba, Canada from 2010 to 2012. We used logistic exposure models to identify the influence of landscape structure and composition on nest productivity and fledgling survival. We used the models to predict spatially explicit, FSP across our study sites to identify areas of low relative productivity that could be targeted for management. We then used our models of spatially explicit, FSP to simulate the impact of potential management actions on our study sites with the goal of increasing total population productivity. Unlike previous studies that suggested wetland cover types provide higher quality breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers, our models predicted 14% greater productivity in upland cover types. Simulated succession of a 9-ha grassland patch to a shrubby upland suitable for nesting increased the total number of fledglings produced by that patch and adjacent upland shrublands by 30%, despite decreasing individual productivity by 13%. Further simulated succession of the same patch described above into deciduous forest reduced the total number of fledglings produced to independence on a landscape by 18% because of a decrease in the area available for nesting. Simulated reduction in the cumulative length of shrubby edge within a 50-m radius of any location in our landscapes from 0.6 to 0.3 km increased FSP by 5%. Our models demonstrated that the effects of any single management

  1. Genetic diversity and gene exchange in Pinus oocarpa, a Mesoamerican pine with resistance to the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.S. Dvorak; K.M. Potter

    2009-01-01

    Eleven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic structure and levels of diversity in 51 natural populations of Pinus oocarpa across its geographic range of 3000 km in Mesoamerica. The study also included 17 populations of Pinus patula and Pinus tecunumanii chosen for their resistance or susceptibility to the pitch canker fungus based...

  2. 75 FR 67765 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... collect leaf tissue and seeds from the following endangered plants: South Texas ambrosia (Ambrosia... transportation, at the Miller Park Zoo. Permit TE-24625A Applicant: Wendy Leonard, San Antonio, Texas. Applicant...-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) and black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) within Texas. Permit TE...

  3. Composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest respond to spatial climatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have indicated that climate changes can affect Pinus koraiensis mixed forest, the responses of composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forests to climatic changes are unknown and the key climatic factors controlling the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest are uncertain. Field survey was conducted in the natural Pinus koraiensis mixed forests along a latitudinal gradient and an elevational gradient in Northeast China. In order to build the mathematical models for simulating the relationships of compositional and structural attributes of the Pinus koraiensis mixed forest with climatic and non-climatic factors, stepwise linear regression analyses were performed, incorporating 14 dependent variables and the linear and quadratic components of 9 factors. All the selected new models were computed under the +2°C and +10% precipitation and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenarios. The Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month were observed to be key climatic factors controlling the stand densities and total basal areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Increased summer temperatures and precipitations strongly enhanced the stand densities and total basal areas of broadleaf trees but had little effect on Pinus koraiensis under the +2°C and +10% precipitation scenario and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenario. These results show that the Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month are key climatic factors which shape the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Although the Pinus koraiensis would persist, the current forests dominated by Pinus koraiensis in the region would all shift and become broadleaf-dominated forests due to the dramatic increase of broadleaf trees under the future global warming and increased precipitation.

  4. Root architecture and wind-firmness of mature Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjon, Frédéric; Fourcaud, Thierry; Bert, Didier

    2005-11-01

    This study aims to link three-dimensional coarse root architecture to tree stability in mature timber trees with an average of 1-m rooting depth. Undamaged and uprooted trees were sampled in a stand damaged by a storm. Root architecture was measured by three-dimensional (3-D) digitizing. The distribution of root volume by root type and in wind-oriented sectors was analysed. Mature Pinus pinaster root systems were organized in a rigid 'cage' composed of a taproot, the zone of rapid taper of horizontal surface roots and numerous sinkers and deep roots, imprisoning a large mass of soil and guyed by long horizontal surface roots. Key compartments for stability exhibited strong selective leeward or windward reinforcement. Uprooted trees showed a lower cage volume, a larger proportion of oblique and intermediate depth horizontal roots and less wind-oriented root reinforcement. Pinus pinaster stability on moderately deep soils is optimized through a typical rooting pattern and a considerable structural adaptation to the prevailing wind and soil profile.

  5. Modelagem do crescimento e de biomassa individual de Pinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Schikowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo testar modelos matemáticos para estimativas de biomassa de diferentes compartimentos de Pinus spp., a partir de variáveis de fácil mensuração. Os dados utilizados são provenientes de plantios localizados no centro sul do estado do Paraná. Foram utilizados dados de peso seco total e parcial de 35 árvores de Pinus spp., obtidos por meio do método destrutivo direto. De cada árvore amostrada foram medidos também o CAP (circunferência à altura do peito e a altura total. Os modelos para estimativa de biomassa de folhagem não apresentaram bom desempenho, verificado pelos indicadores de ajuste. Entretanto, para os compartimentos: galhos, raízes, casca, fuste e para biomassa total, os ajustes apresentaram elevados valores de R² e baixos valores de Syx%. O modelo de crescimento de Richards obteve melhor desempenho que os demais testados para a estimativa da biomassa total.

  6. The complete plastid genome of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhu, Juan; Yang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. chloroplast genome (cp DNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117 861 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), which were separated by large and small single copy regions (LSC and SSC) of 65 373 and 51 538 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contained 111 genes, including 71 protein-coding genes (71 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (4 rRNA species) and 36 tRNA genes (32 tRNA species). In these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 1 (ycf3) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of Bunge's pine cpDNA is 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 61.9%, 60.2% and 62.5%, respectively. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the maximum parsimony analysis suggested that all the sampled Pinus species clustered a monophyletic clade and have a high bootstrap support, and the cpDNA of P. bungeana is closely related to that of congeneric P. gerardiana.

  7. Toll-like receptor variation in the bottlenecked population of the Seychelles warbler: computer simulations see the 'ghost of selection past' and quantify the 'drift debt'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, D L; Phillips, K P; Richardson, D S; van Oosterhout, C

    2017-07-01

    Balancing selection can maintain immunogenetic variation within host populations, but detecting its signal in a postbottlenecked population is challenging due to the potentially overriding effects of drift. Toll-like receptor genes (TLRs) play a fundamental role in vertebrate immune defence and are predicted to be under balancing selection. We previously characterized variation at TLR loci in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), an endemic passerine that has undergone a historical bottleneck. Five of seven TLR loci were polymorphic, which is in sharp contrast to the low genomewide variation observed. However, standard population genetic statistical methods failed to detect a contemporary signature of selection at any TLR locus. We examined whether the observed TLR polymorphism could be explained by neutral evolution, simulating the population's demography in the software DIYABC. This showed that the posterior distributions of mutation rates had to be unrealistically high to explain the observed genetic variation. We then conducted simulations with an agent-based model using typical values for the mutation rate, which indicated that weak balancing selection has acted on the three TLR genes. The model was able to detect evidence of past selection elevating TLR polymorphism in the prebottleneck populations, but was unable to discern any effects of balancing selection in the contemporary population. Our results show drift is the overriding evolutionary force that has shaped TLR variation in the contemporary Seychelles warbler population, and the observed TLR polymorphisms might be merely the 'ghost of selection past'. Forecast models predict immunogenetic variation in this species will continue to be eroded in the absence of contemporary balancing selection. Such 'drift debt' occurs when a gene pool has not yet reached its new equilibrium level of polymorphism, and this loss could be an important threat to many recently bottlenecked populations. © 2017

  8. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Cenet, Menderes; Karaaslan, Merve Göksin

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils of the resins of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea were evaluated for their biological potential. Essential oils were characterized using GC-MS and GC/FID. in vitro antimicrobial, phytotoxic, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities were carried out using the direct contact and the fumigant assays, respectively. The chemical profile of the essential oils of the resins of P. pinea and P. brutia included mainly α-pinene (21.39% and 25.40%), β-pinene (9.68% and 9.69%), and caryophyllene (9.12% and 4.81%). The essential oils of P. pinea and P. brutia exerted notable antimicrobial activities on Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, insecticidal activities on Ephestia kuehniella eggs, phytotoxic activities on Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum, and Portulaca oleracea, as well as antioxidant potential. Indications of the biological activities of the essential oils suggest their use in the formulation of ecofriendly and biocompatible pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular response to water stress in two contrasting Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Barbero, María Del Carmen; Cervera, María Teresa; Collada, Carmen; Soto, Alvaro

    2013-06-01

    Adaptation to water stress has determined the evolution and diversification of vascular plants. Water stress is forecasted to increase drastically in the next decades in certain regions, such as in the Mediterranean basin. Consequently, a proper knowledge of the response and adaptations to drought stress is essential for the correct management of plant genetic resources. However, most of the advances in the understanding of the molecular response to water stress have been attained in angiosperms, and are not always applicable to gymnosperms. In this work we analyse the transcriptional response of two emblematic Mediterranean pines, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea, which show noticeable differences in their performance under water stress. Using microarray analysis, up to 113 genes have been detected as significantly induced by drought in both species. Reliability of expression patterns has been confirmed by RT-PCR. While induced genes with similar profiles in both species can be considered as general candidate genes for the study of drought response in conifers, genes with diverging expression patterns can underpin the differences displayed by these species under water stress. Most promising candidate genes for drought stress response include genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, such as glycosyltransferases or galactosidases, sugar transporters, dehydrins and transcription factors. Additionally, differences in the molecular response to drought and polyethylene-glycol-induced water stress are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Levels and sources of PAHs in selected sites from Portugal: biomonitoring with Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Amigo, José Manuel; Alves, Arminda

    2010-04-01

    Pine needle samples from two pine species (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) were collected at 29 sites scattered throughout Portugal, in order to biomonitor the levels and trends of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The values obtained for the sum of all PAHs ranged from 76 to 1944 ng/g [dry weight (dw)]. Despite the apparent matrix similarities between both pine species, P. pinaster needles revealed higher mean entrapment levels than P. pinea (748 and 399 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively). The urban and industrial sites have the highest average of PAH incidence [for P. pinea, 465 and 433 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively, and for P. pinaster, 1147 and 915 ng/g (dw)], followed by the rural sites [233 ng/g and 711 ng/g (dw) per site, for P. pinea and P. pinaster, respectively]. The remote sites, both from P. pinaster needles, show the least contamination, with 77 ng/g (dw) per site. A predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs was observed in most samples, with phenanthrene having 30.1% of the total. Naphthalene prevailed in remote sites. Rainfall had no influence on the PAHs levels, but there was a relationship between higher wind speeds and lower concentrations. PAH molecular ratios revealed the influence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources.

  11. Impact of solar activity on growth of pine trees (Pinus cembra: 1610 - 1970; Pinus pinaster: 1910 -1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surový, P.; Dorotovič, I.; Karlovský, V.; Rodrigues, J. C.; Rybanský, M.; Fleischer, P.

    2010-12-01

    In this work we have focused on the analysis of the data on the annual growth of cembra pine (Pinus cembra) grown in the Kôprová dolina Valley in the High Tatra Mountains. The database covers the period of 1406 - 1970, however, the sunspot data (minima and maxima) at the NGDC web site are only available since 1610. Moreover, reliable sunspot data are only available since 1749. The results of this analysis agree with the observation made in our previous work, i.e. there is a negative impact of high SA on the pine tree growth. However, it should be noted that statistical significance of the results is low. We also applied wavelet analysis to the data on the tree growth evolution, with the results indicating growth variations' period of about 20 years (duration of approximately two solar cycles or one magnetic cycle, respectively). A negative impact of the SA was also observed in growth of a 90 year-old maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster) grown in northern Portugal. The width of the annual rings was smaller in the years of maximum SA; furthermore, it was found that it is the latewood growth that it is affected while the earlywood growth is not, and consequently the latewood additions also show a significative negative correlation with SA.

  12. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Pinus laricio Needles and Their Responses to Prescribed Burnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Ferrat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Management strategies include prescribed (controlled burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. The effects of prescribed burning on Pinus laricio have been little studied. The first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The second aim was to understand: i the short term (one to three months and medium term (three years effects of prescribed burning, and ii the effects of periodic prescribed burning on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The first result of this study is the presence of total and simple phenolic compounds in the needles of Pinus laricio. 3-Vanillyl propanol is the major compound. After a prescribed burning, the synthesis of total phenolic compounds increases in Pinus laricio for a period of three months. Total phenolic compounds could be used as bioindicators for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenolic compounds do not seem to be good indicators of the impact of prescribed burning because prescribed burnings are low in intensity.

  13. Characterization of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio needles and their responses to prescribed burnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannac, Magali; Pasqualini, Vanina; Greff, Stéphane; Fernandez, Catherine; Ferrat, Lila

    2007-07-30

    Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Management strategies include prescribed (controlled) burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. The effects of prescribed burning on Pinus laricio have been little studied. The first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The second aim was to understand: i) the short term (one to three months) and medium term (three years) effects of prescribed burning, and ii) the effects of periodic prescribed burning on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The first result of this study is the presence of total and simple phenolic compounds in the needles of Pinus laricio. 3-Vanillyl propanol is the major compound. After a prescribed burning, the synthesis of total phenolic compounds increases in Pinus laricio for a period of three months. Total phenolic compounds could be used as bioindicators for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenolic compounds do not seem to be good indicators of the impact of prescribed burning because prescribed burnings are low in intensity.

  14. Productivity and adaptation of Pinus in the north litoral of Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Ferraz, E.S. de; Rezende, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The productivity and climatic adaptation of two species of Pinus in the north litoral of Bahia State has been studied through the variability of wood density in a comercial plantation. The gamma-ray attenuation method of the 100 mCi 241-Am source, 59,6 KeV, was used for density variability analysis. The results show that Pinus caribaea hondurensis is better adapted to the region than Pinus caribaea caribaea, with a superior mean productivity of 26% at 8 years. (Author) [pt

  15. Quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber from tapped forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber extracted from tapped forests and processed in a sawmill in São José do Norte (RS. Four butt logs and four upper logs for each of the three existing diameter grades were selected and sawed. The wood pieces were analyzed after sawing and after kiln drying. The presence of knots, which occurred due to the absence of forest management and influenced the qualitative classification of the wood pieces, was observed mainly in the samples from upper logs. The process of resin tapping contributed to a higher incidence of resin pockets in the samples from butt logs, also influencing the qualitative classification of the samples. The appearance of drying defects did not modify the classification of the wood samples from butt and upper logs.

  16. Protein synthesis in the embryo of Pinus thunbergii seed, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Naoaki; Sasaki, Satohiko.

    1977-01-01

    14 C-Amino acid incorporating activity in the absence of exogenous mRNA was found in a cell-free system from embryos of light-germinated Pinus thunbergii seeds, but not in that from dark-imbibed seed embryos. Template activity in the cell-free system from the light-germinated seed embryos was observed in the ribosome fraction, especially the polyribosome fraction, but not in the 100,000 x g supernatant fraction (s100). These facts suggest that the nature of the block in protein synthesis during the imbibition of seeds in the dark is due to the lack or inactivity of mRNA. The s100 from light-germinated seed embryos was found to be less active in amino acid incorporation than that from dark-imbibed seed embryos. (auth.)

  17. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  18. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  19. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Iravani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods.

  20. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  1. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Galès

    Full Text Available We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  2. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  3. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  4. First discovery of fossil winged seeds of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahasin Ali Khan

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... review the historical phytogeography and highlight the phytogeographic implication of this genus. Keywords. ... In the present paper, winged seeds of Pinus are described ..... the Himalayas and the onset and development of.

  5. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. Navarro-Cerrillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería. Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm, basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1 and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2 in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1, age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99 between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68. Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. Keywords: Hybrid process model; forest management models; growth prediction; Pinus spp, Parameterization; forest decline.

  6. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito.

  7. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Ian A; St John, Mark G; Yeates, Gregor W; Morse, Chris W; Bonner, Karen I; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  8. COMPARAÇÃO GRÁFICA ENTRE CURVAS DE ÍNDICE DE SÍTIO PARA Pinus elliottii E Pinus taeda DESENVOLVIDAS NO SUL DO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Paulo Renato Schneider; Peter Spathelf

    2002-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000) para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Macha...

  9. Extraction of cellulose nanofibers from Pinus oocarpa residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrich, Anny; Martins, Maria Alice, E-mail: anny@daad-alumni.de [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moraes, Jheyce Cristina; Pasquoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Pinus oocarpa, which wood is moderately hard and tough, is planted in Brazil for reforestation and employed for timber production used in constructions. The wood residues, such as shavings, bark and sawdust represent 30% to 50% of the total volume of wood production, of which the sawdust is 10%{sup 1}. Cellulose nanofibers is nanomaterials having a diameter between 5 nm and 20 nm and a length of up to hundreds of nm. To obtain nanofibers from cellulose sources, such as sisal and sugarcane bagasse, is used chemical processes, in which the lignocellulosic material initially undergoes pre-treatments to promote partial separation of the cellulose, such as mercerisation and bleaching thus disposing lignin and hemicellulose components. Sequentially, by controlled acid hydrolysis, amorphous regions of the cellulose are removed, and crystalline cellulose is isolated in the form of cellulose nanofibers. In this work, nanofibers from sawdust of Pinnus oocarpa, containing 44.8 wt% of cellulose 20.6 wt% hemicellulose and 30.0 wt% insoluble lignin were isolated by mercerisation (NaOH 5%, 80°C, 120 min), followed by bleaching (NaOH + acetic acid + NaClO{sub 2}, 80 deg C, 240min) and acid hydrolysis (60 wt% sulfuric acid, 45 °C, 40min). Nanofibers obtained were characterized by DRX and SEM-FEG. Results showed that, for used conditions, fiber acid hydrolysis was not complete, therefore a biphasic suspension was formed. Crystallinity index achieved was not much higher than that from pinus fiber itself, increasing from 62% to 65% and signs of cellulose type II were observed. SEM images showed elongated fibers, which have diameter of 15 ± 5 nm and length of hundreds of nm, what means that they have a large L/D aspect ratio. Nanofiber extraction yield was very low (1.3 wt% of initial residue). All steps of the process are being reviewed aiming at better results. 1) Morais, S. A. L.; Nascimento E. A. e D. C. Melo, 2005, R. Árvore, 29, 3, 461-470. (author)

  10. Genetic diversity and the mating system of a rare Mexican Piñon, Pinus pinceana, and a comparison with Pinus maximartinezii (Pinaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Miguel A. Capó-Arteaga; Paul D. Hodgskiss; Hassan Sbay; Celestino Flores-López; M. Thompson Conkle; Basilio Bermejo-Velázquez

    2001-01-01

    Weeping piñon (Pinus pinceana) has a restricted and fragmented range, trees are widely scattered within populations, and reproduction is limited. Nevertheless, genetic diversity was high; based on 27 isozyme loci in 18 enzyme systems, unbiased expected heterozygosity averaged 0.174. Differentiation also was high (FST = 0.152),...

  11. Changes in whole-tree water relations during ontogeny of Pinus flexilis and Pinus ponderosa in a high-elevation meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dylan G; Kolb, Thomas E; DeWald, Laura E

    2002-07-01

    We measured sap flux in Pinus ponderosa Laws. and Pinus flexilis James trees in a high-elevation meadow in northern Arizona that has been invaded by conifers over the last 150 years. Sap flux and environmental data were collected from July 1 to September 1, 2000, and used to estimate leaf specific transpiration rate (El), canopy conductance (Gc) and whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kh). Leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA/SA) increased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, but decreased with increasing tree size in P. ponderosa. Both Gc and Kh decreased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, and showed no clear trends with tree size in P. ponderosa. For both species, Gc was lower in the summer dry season than in the summer rainy season, but El did not change between wet and dry summer seasons. Midday water potential (Psi(mid)) did not change across seasons for either species, whereas predawn water potential (Psi(pre)) tracked variation in soil water content across seasons. Pinus flexilis showed greater stomatal response to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and maintained higher Psi(mid) than P. ponderosa. Both species showed greater sensitivity to VPD at high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; > 2500 micromol m-2 s-1) than at low PAR (Pinus species, and was influenced by changes in LA/SA. Whole-tree water use and El were similar between wet and dry summer seasons, possibly because of tight stomatal control over water loss. 2002 Heron Publishing--Victoria, Canada

  12. Composition and chemical variability of Corsican Pinus halepensis cone oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2014-09-01

    The composition of the essential oil isolated from cones of Pinus halepensis grown in Corsica has been investigated by a combination of chromatographic (CC, GC) and spectroscopic (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 48 compounds that accounted for 95.5% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene (47.5%) was the major component followed by myrcene (11.0%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (8.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.9%). Various diterpenes have been identified by 13C NMR in the fractions of CC. Fifteen oil samples isolated from cones harvested in three forests have been analyzed and two groups of similar importance have been differentiated within the 15 compositions. Oil samples of the first group contained α-pinene (mean 45.0 g/100 g, SD = 5.5) as the major component. The composition of samples of the second group was dominated by myrcene (mean 30.3 g/100g, SD = 9.0) and α-pinene (mean 24.6 g/100 g, SD = 3.1).

  13. Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Johanna; Hippeli, Susanne; Vollmann, Renate; Elstner, Erich F

    2003-12-17

    The essential oil from Pinus mugo (PMEO) was tested on its antioxidative capacity. For this purpose, several biochemical test systems were chosen (e.g., the Fenton System, the xanthine oxidase assay, or the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)). The results show that there is moderate or weak antioxidative activity when tested in aqueous environments, like in the Fenton system, xanthine oxidase induced superoxide radical formation, or in the HOCl driven fragmentation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In contrast, when tested in more lipophilic environments (e.g., the ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood) the PMEO exhibits good antioxidative activity. PMEO does also show good antioxidative capacity in another lipophilic test system (i.e., the copper induced oxidation of LDL). Some components of PMEO (i.e., Delta(3)-carene, camphene, alpha-pinene, (+)-limonene and terpinolene) were also tested. As the PMEO, they showed weak or no antioxidant activity in aqueous environments, but some of them were effective antioxidants regarding ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood or copper-induced LDL-oxidation. Terpinolene, a minor component of PMEO, exhibited remarkable protection against LDL-oxidation.

  14. Biocontrol of Fusarium circinatum Infection of Young Pinus radiata Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iturritxa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, is a major disease of Pinus radiata currently controlled to some extent in nurseries by good hygiene and application of synthetic fungicides. The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative strategies to control fungal infections in nurseries and young pine plantations. The antagonistic effects of biocontrol bacteria and essential oils against F. circinatum in vitro and in young P. radiata trees were assessed. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia billingiae, and Bacillus simplex reduced the growth of the fungus in vitro by 17%–29%, and decreased the density of the mycelial mat. In young P. radiata trees, the length of F. circinatum lesions was reduced by 22%–25% by the same bacterial strains. Direct application of cinnamon and/or clove essential oils to wounds in stems of two-year-old P. radiata trees also limited the damage caused by F. circinatum. Lesion length was reduced by 51% following treatment with cinnamon oil (10% v/v, and by 45% following treatment with clove oil (15% v/v or a combination of both oils. However, the oils were toxic to younger trees. The biocontrol bacteria and essential oils show promise as prophylactic treatments to reduce the devastating effects of F. circinatum on P. radiata.

  15. A single ectomycorrhizal fungal species can enable a Pinus invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñnez, Martin A

    2015-05-01

    Like all obligately ectomycorrhizal plants, pines require ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts to complete their life cycle. Pines introduced into regions far from their native range are typically incompatible with local ectomycorrhizal fungi, and, when they invade, coinvade with fungi from their native range. While the identities and distributions of coinvasive fungal symbionts of pine invasions are poorly known, communities that have been studied are notably depauperate. However, it is not yet clear whether any number of fungal coinvaders is able to support a Pinaceae invasion, or whether very depauperate communities are unable to invade. Here, we ask whether there is evidence for a minimum species richness of fungal symbionts necessary to support a pine/ectomycorrhizal fungus coinvasion. We sampled a Pinus contorta invasion front near Coyhaique, Chile, using molecular barcoding to identify ectomycorrhizal fungi. We report that the site has a total richness of four species, and that many invasive trees appear to be supported by only a single ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus luteus. We conclude that a single ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus can suffice to enable a pine invasion.

  16. Hydraulic adjustments underlying drought resistance of Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tamir; Cohen, Shabtai; Yakir, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality has increased over the last decades in forests around the globe. Our objective was to investigate under controlled conditions the hydraulic adjustments underlying the observed ability of Pinus halepensis to survive seasonal drought under semi-arid conditions. One hundred 18-month saplings were exposed in the greenhouse to 10 different drought treatments, simulating combinations of intensities (fraction of water supply relative to control) and durations (period with no water supply) for 30 weeks. Stomata closed at a leaf water potential (Ψ(l)) of -2.8 MPa, suggesting isohydric stomatal regulation. In trees under extreme drought treatments, stomatal closure reduced CO(2) uptake to -1 µmol m(-2) s(-1), indicating the development of carbon starvation. A narrow hydraulic safety margin of 0.3 MPa (from stomatal closure to 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) was observed, indicating a strategy of maximization of CO2 uptake in trees otherwise adapted to water stress. A differential effect of drought intensity and duration was observed, and was explained by a strong dependence of the water stress effect on the ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration T/ET and the larger partitioning to transpiration associated with larger irrigation doses. Under intense or prolonged drought, the root system became the main target for biomass accumulation, taking up to 100% of the added biomass, while the stem tissue biomass decreased, associated with up to 60% reduction in xylem volume.

  17. The Transcriptomic Responses of Pinus massoniana to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Du

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Masson pine (Pinus massoniana is a major fast-growing timber species planted in southern China, a region of seasonal drought. Using a drought-tolerance genotype of Masson pine, we conducted large-scale transcriptome sequencing using Illumina technology. This work aimed to evaluate the transcriptomic responses of Masson pine to different levels of drought stress. First, 3397, 1695 and 1550 unigenes with differential expression were identified by comparing plants subjected to light, moderate or severe drought with control plants. Second, several gene ontology (GO categories (oxidation-reduction and metabolism and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways (plant hormone signal transduction and metabolic pathways were enriched, indicating that the expression levels of some genes in these enriched GO terms and pathways were altered under drought stress. Third, several transcription factors (TFs associated with circadian rhythms (HY5 and LHY, signal transduction (ERF, and defense responses (WRKY were identified, and these TFs may play key roles in adapting to drought stress. Drought also caused significant changes in the expression of certain functional genes linked to osmotic adjustment (P5CS, abscisic acid (ABA responses (NCED, PYL, PP2C and SnRK, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging (GPX, GST and GSR. These transcriptomic results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of drought stress adaptation in Masson pine.

  18. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  19. Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with declined Pinus pinaster stands in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Álvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We studied the presence of fungi and distribution patterns in relation to the health status of declining Pinus pinaster trees. Area of study: Trees in two declining stands in Central Spain were allotted to three declining classes. Material and Methods: Trees in two declining stands in Central Spain were allotted to three declining classes (healthy, declining and recently dead and 3 trees of each class were felled in each stand. Wood slides (phloem and xylem were taken at six positions along the trees and samples collected from fungal identification. Main results: A total of 21 fungal taxa were isolated and identified; eleven of these species belonged to the Ophiostomatoid group. Ophiostoma minus was the most frequently isolated fungus and was identified in 22% of the samples, mainly associated to dead and diseased trees. Research highlights: Together these results suggest a putative association of O. minor with the decline in this area, and thus we suggest paying more attention to this fungus as a potential agent of decline in P. pinaster stands.

  20. Flow cytometric and morphological analyses of Pinus pinaster somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Loureiro, João; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Santos, Conceição; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-09-25

    An approach combining morphological profiling and flow cytometric analysis was used to assess genetic stability during the several steps of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus pinaster. Embryogenic cell lines of P. pinaster were established from immature zygotic embryos excised from seeds obtained from open-pollinated trees. During the maturation stage, phenotype of somatic embryos was characterized as being either normal or abnormal. Based upon the prevalent morphological traits, different types of abnormal embryos underwent further classification and quantification. Nuclear DNA content of maritime pine using the zygotic embryos was estimated to be 57.04 pg/2C, using propidium iodide flow cytometry. According to the same methodology, no significant differences (P< or =0.01) in DNA ploidy were detected among the most frequently observed abnormal phenotypes, embryogenic cell lines, zygotic and normal somatic embryos, and somatic embryogenesis-derived plantlets. Although the differences in DNA ploidy level do not exclude the occurrence of a low level of aneuploidy, the results obtained point to the absence of major changes in ploidy level during the somatic embryogenesis process of this economically important species. Therefore, our primary goal of true-to-typeness was assured at this level.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of Pinus massoniana Lamb. microstrobili during sexual reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The normal megastrobilli and microstrobilli before and after the sexual reversal in Pinus massoniana Lamb. were studied and classified using a transcriptomic approach. In the analysis, a total of 190,023 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 595 bp. The annotated unigenes were divided into 56 functional groups and 130 metabolic pathways involved in the physiological and biochemical processes related to ribosome biogenesis, carbon metabolism, and amino acid biosynthesis. Analysis revealed 4,758 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the mega- and microstrobili from the polycone twig. The DEGs between the mega- and microstrobili from the normal twig were 5,550. In the polycone twig, 1,188 DEGs were identified between the microstrobili and the sexually reversed megastrobili. Concerning plant hormone signal transduction pathways, the DEGs from both the normal and polycone twigs displayed distinct male or female associated expression patterns. There were 36 common hormone-related DEGs from the two types of twigs of P. massoniana. Interestingly, expression of these DEGs was up-regulated in the bisexual strobili, which underwent the sexual reversal. A portion of MADS-box genes in the bisexual strobili were up-regulated relative to expression in microstrobili.

  2. Pinus Roxburghii essential oil anticancer activity and chemical composition evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Arfaa; Manzoor, Qaisar; Iqbal, Munawar; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Sajid, Anam

    2018-01-01

    The present study was conducted to appraise the anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii essential oil along with chemical composition evaluation. MTT assay revealed cytotoxicity induction in colon, leukemia, multiple myeloma, pancreatic, head and neck and lung cancer cells exposed to essential oil. Cancer cell death was also observed through live/dead cell viability assay and FACS analysis. Apoptosis induced by essential oil was confirmed by cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 that suppressed the colony-forming ability of tumor cells and 50 % inhibition occurred at a dose of 25 μg/mL. Moreover, essential oil inhibited the activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and inhibited expression of NF-κB regulated gene products linked to cell survival (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, c-Myc, c-IAP2), proliferation (Cyclin D1) and metastasis (MMP-9). P. roxburghii essential oil has considerable anticancer activity and could be used as anticancer agent, which needs further investigation to identify and purify the bioactive compounds followed by in vivo studies.

  3. [Cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. banksian and P. tabulaeformis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuehua; Zhou, Yongxue; Fan, Junfeng; Liu, Yingzhou; Pang, Kejia

    2006-08-01

    By the method of artificial freezing, this paper made a comparative study on the cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. banksiana and P. tabulaeformis, with their inherent mechanisms approached. The results showed that the cold hardiness of these three species was in the sequence of P. banksiana > P. tabulaeformis > P. ponderosa. P. banksiana had high bound water/free water ratio (7.0) and ABA content (164.3 microg x g(-1) FW) but low K+ (2450 microg x g(-1) DW) and soluble sugar (12.0%) , P. tabulaeformis had higher contents of ABA (95.8 microg x g(-1) FW), K+ (4538 microg x g(-1) DW) and soluble sugar (18.68%) but low bound water/free water ratio (2.58), while P. ponderosa had high soluble sugar content (18.05%) but low bound water/free water ratio (2.18) and K+ (2275 microg x g(-1) DW) and ABA (63.3 microg x g(-1) FW) contents. These differences might be the reasons resulting in the different cold hardiness of these three species. Low chlorophyll content and high carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio might also contribute to the cold hardiness of P. banksiana. Therefore, though the test species are all of cold hardiness, their inherent mechanisms may be different.

  4. Aboveground Tree Biomass for Pinus ponderosa in Northeastern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for spatial or temporal variability. Individual-tree aboveground biomass allometric equations are presented from an analysis of 79 felled trees from four separate management units at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: one unthinned and three separate thinned units. A simultaneous set of allometric equations for foliage, branch and bole biomass were developed as well as branch-level equations for wood and foliage. Foliage biomass relationships varied substantially between units while branch and bole biomass estimates were more stable across a range of stand conditions. Trees of a given breast height diameter and crown ratio in thinned stands had more foliage biomass, but slightly less branch biomass than those in an unthinned stand. The observed variability in biomass relationships within Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest suggests that users should consider how well the data used to develop a selected model relate to the conditions in any given application.

  5. Response of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings to Stylet-Bearing Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglierchio, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Of 12 stylet-bearing nematodes used for inoculations, Pratylenchus penetrans, P. brachyurus, P. vulnus, Ditylenchus destructor, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla reproduced on Pinus ponderosa, while Xiphinema index, Aphelenchus avenae, Paratylenehus neoamblycephalus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Macroposthonia xenoplax did not. P. vulnus, P. brachyurus, P. penetrans, A. avenae, D. destructor, T. semipenetrans, and P. neoamblycephalus significantly suppressed both the shoot and root wet weights of ponderosa pine seedlings obtained from stands in five different locations. X. index significantly suppressed root wet weights, M. xenoplax siguificantly suppressed shoot wet weight, and M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla suppressed neither at the inoculation levels used. Injurious nematodes tended to suppress root growth more than shoot growth. Seedlings from two locations produced greater shoot growth wet weight than did seedlings from the other three locations. The more injurious nematodes tended to cause an increase in the water content of shoots. Frequency analyses of seedling population shoot-root ratios indicated that ponderosa pine seedlings could be selected for better shoot-root ratios as well as for resistance to several pathogenic nematodes. PMID:19300659

  6. MICROBIOTA OF PINUS POLLEN AS ADJUVANT FACTOR OF ALLERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shevtsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, their endotoxin and mold found on pollen can be a reason of respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. This question concerns an anemophilous pollen more acute. In this work quantitative by dilution plating method and qualitative microbial analysis by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper of pollen and other plants organs of Pinus sylvestris L., P. nigra Arnold, P. mugo Turra, P. armandii Franch., P. wallichiana A.B. Jacks from Nitra, Slovakia are performed which shows quantitative and species differences in mesophilic aerobic (0.00-6.27 log cfu/g and anaerobic bacteria (0.00-3.70 log cfu/g, enterococci (0.00 log cfu/g, coliform bacteria (0.00-5.29 log cfu/g, lactobacilli (0.00-4.20 log cfu/g, microscopic fungi and yeasts (2.60-5.29 log cfu/g content. Representatives of Pseudomonas (14, Bacillus (2, Acinetobacter (1, Arthrobacter (1, Pantoea (1, Klebsiella (1, Penicillium (6, Aspergillus (4, Cladosporium (1, Debaryomyces (1 genera were revealed on pine trees. The allergenic potential of the identified association of microorganisms on pollen has been evaluated based on published data. The results may be useful for aerobiologists, allergists and microbiologists, at least at the local level.

  7. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacology of Pinus roxburghii Sargent: a plant review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Pawan; Kaushik, Dhirender; Khokra, Sukhbir Lal

    2013-11-01

    Traditional medicine is a blend of information gathered over generations from various communities and cultures. Pinus roxburghii Sargent (Pinaceae) commonly known as "chir pine" is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. The all parts of the plant are believed to possess medicinal qualities in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. In these traditional systems of medicine, the plant is used to heal many diseases, including afflictions of the eyes, ears, throat, blood, and skin. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds such as α-pinene, abietic acid, quercetin and xanthone. Resin acids and flavanoid form a major portion of these bioactive compounds. This review presents examples of traditional medicinal uses for P. roxburghii, and subsequently explores the current understanding of the chemical, pharmacological, and biochemical properties of the extracts and the main active constituents found in each tissue of the plant. Clinical trial information is also included where available. Careful evaluation of these data may be helpful for scientists and researchers to discover and evaluate the specific chemical entities responsible for the traditional medicinal uses of P. roxburghii.

  8. Effects of asymmetric nuclear introgression, introgressive mitochondrial sweep, and purifying selection on phylogenetic reconstruction and divergence estimates in the Pacific clade of Locustella warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovetski, Sergei V; Semenov, Georgy; Red'kin, Yaroslav A; Sotnikov, Vladimir N; Fadeev, Igor V; Koblik, Evgeniy A

    2015-01-01

    When isolated but reproductively compatible populations expand geographically and meet, simulations predict asymmetric introgression of neutral loci from a local to invading taxon. Genetic introgression may affect phylogenetic reconstruction by obscuring topology and divergence estimates. We combined phylogenetic analysis of sequences from one mtDNA and 12 nuDNA loci with analysis of gene flow among 5 species of Pacific Locustella warblers to test for presence of genetic introgression and its effects on tree topology and divergence estimates. Our data showed that nuDNA introgression was substantial and asymmetrical among all members of superspecies groups whereas mtDNA showed no introgression except a single species pair where the invader's mtDNA was swept by mtDNA of the local species. This introgressive sweep of mtDNA had the opposite direction of the nuDNA introgression and resulted in the paraphyly of the local species' mtDNA haplotypes with respect to those of the invader. Тhe multilocus nuDNA species tree resolved all inter- and intraspecific relationships despite substantial introgression. However, the node ages on the species tree may be underestimated as suggested by the differences in node age estimates based on non-introgressing mtDNA and introgressing nuDNA. In turn, the introgressive sweep and strong purifying selection appear to elongate internal branches in the mtDNA gene tree.

  9. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-10-01

    So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment.

  10. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  11. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras'kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V.

    2004-01-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute γ-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on time and techno

  12. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on

  13. Pinus ponderosa: A checkered past obscured four species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willyard, Ann; Gernandt, David S; Potter, Kevin; Hipkins, Valerie; Marquardt, Paula; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Langer, Stephen K; Telewski, Frank W; Cooper, Blake; Douglas, Connor; Finch, Kristen; Karemera, Hassani H; Lefler, Julia; Lea, Payton; Wofford, Austin

    2017-01-01

    Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at least four subdivisions of P. ponderosa. These patterns have not been examined in the context of other Ponderosae species. We hypothesized that putative intraspecific subdivisions might each represent a separate taxon. We genotyped six highly variable plastid simple sequence repeats in 1903 individuals from 88 populations of P. ponderosa and related Ponderosae (P. arizonica, P. engelmannii, and P. jeffreyi). We used multilocus haplotype networks and discriminant analysis of principal components to test clustering of individuals into genetically and geographically meaningful taxonomic units. There are at least four distinct plastid clusters within P. ponderosa that roughly correspond to the geographic distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes. Some geographic regions have intermixed plastid lineages, and some mitochondrial and plastid boundaries do not coincide. Based on relative distances to other species of Ponderosae, these clusters diagnose four distinct taxa. Newly revealed geographic boundaries of four distinct taxa (P. benthamiana, P. brachyptera, P. scopulorum, and a narrowed concept of P. ponderosa) do not correspond completely with taxonomies. Further research is needed to understand their morphological and nuclear genetic makeup, but we suggest that resurrecting originally published species names would more appropriately reflect the taxonomy of this checkered classification than their current treatment as varieties of P. ponderosa. © 2017 Willyard et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  14. Antraquinona e surfactante para otimizaçao do processo Kraft com Pinus Spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Mocelin, Ezequiel Zatoni

    2013-01-01

    A madeira de Pinus é atualmente a matéria-prima mais utilizada na obtenção de fibras longas para papel, juntamente com o processo Kraft pela sua versatilidade e por produzir fibras com boa resistência. As atuais perspectivas florestais apontam para uma escassez da madeira de Pinus para os diversos fins, seja para madeira processada, seja para celulose e papel. O processo Kraft tem como desvantagem o baixo rendimento em celulose, devido à solubilização não somente da lignina como também parte ...

  15. Dendroclimatic analysis of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro (Michoacán, Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Marlès Magre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first study on dendroclimatology of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the state of Michoacán (Mexico, specifically in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro, both municipalities within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR. The sampling in Áporo, northwest of the MBBR, was held in Los Ejidos del Rincón del Soto and Arroyo Seco, in Sierra Chincúa (May 2011. In Zitácuaro, southwest of the reserve, a sampling was performed in the Ejido de San Juan de Zitácuaro, in the area of Ocotal and Palma, and Meso Sedano (June 2011. There were a total of 38 Pinus pseudostrobus and 12 Pinus devoniana sampled in both areas of the study and distributed in 28 trees in the municipality of Áporo and 22 in Zitácuaro. Two samples per tree were taken at 1.3 m height, resulting in a total of 100 tree cores. The dendrochronological series in Áporo for the species Pinus pseudostrobus were extended to 62 years (1949-2010 and for Pinus devoniana 86 years (1925-2010; and the series in Zitácuaro for Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana were extended to 47 years (1964-2010 and 44 years (1967-2010, respectively. The ring chronologies were validated using the program COFECHA, which calculates the cross correlations between individual series of the tree-growth, five series were eliminated due to very low or negative correlations. The climate data from Zitácuaro were obtained from two weather stations located in the same municipality. And, in the case of Áporo, the data was obtained from stations located in Senguio. The growth rates related to the climate were obtained by removing the growth trend of each tree due to the age, size and other factors such as the competition, using the program ARSTAN. The following statistics were used to evaluate the quality of the residual chronologies and to determine the potential dendrochronology of species for the different populations: the average correlation between series (Rbar

  16. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, R.M.; Beira, J.; Suarez, J.; Xenakis, G.; Sánchez-Salguero, R.; Hernández-Clemente, R.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería). Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm), basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1) and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2) in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1), age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB) included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99) between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68). Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. (Author)

  17. Crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em solos arenizados degradados no oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Paulo Renato; Elesbão, Luiz Ernesto Grilo; Schneider, Paulo Sérgio Pigato; Longhi, Régis Villanova

    2013-01-01

    A introdução de espécies florestais de rápido crescimento em áreas com solos arenizados e degradados pode ser uma alternativa tanto para a prevenção como para a minimização desse problema. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em relação aos solos arenizados e degradados por ação antrópica, no oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Para isso, foram selecionadas árvores dominantes em povoamentos com 29 anos de idade, em á...

  18. Crescimento em diâmetro do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em áreas arenizadas e degradadas no Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Paulo Renato; Elesbão, Luiz Ernesto Grilo; Schneider, Paulo Sérgio Pigato; Longhi, Régis Villanova

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em áreas arenizadas e degradadas por ação antrópica, na região da fronteira oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Em povoamentos, foram selecionadas árvores médias, que foram abatidas e seccionadas pelo método de Smalian, a fim de obter discos de madeira para a análise dendrocronológica, para a obtenção do diâmetro por idade. O crescimento em diâmetro, quando comparado entre espécies...

  19. Composition of Bacterial Assemblages in Different Components of Reed Warbler Nests and a Possible Role of Egg Incubation in Pathogen Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanja B Brandl

    Full Text Available Bacteria play a central role in animal health. Yet, little is known about the acquisition of bacteria and the extent to which bacteria are acquired from different environmental sources. For example, bird nests host diverse bacteria associated with the eggs, nestlings and nesting material, but previous research has typically focussed on only a limited number of nest components at a time. It therefore remains unknown to what extent bacteria are transmitted between these components. Using both molecular and culture techniques, we characterised nest-associated bacterial assemblages throughout the entire nesting cycle of reed warblers by sampling bacteria on eggs before and during incubation, within nestling faeces, and on the nesting material of post-breeding nests. We found that bacterial assemblages clustered by nest component. Yet some overlap existed between nest components, suggesting that bacterial transmission across components is likely to occur. Eggs and nestlings from the same nest harboured more similar bacteria than expected by chance, suggesting an influence of environment or genetics on bacterial assemblages. Bacterial loads were not lower on incubated eggs. Instead, incubation was associated with a change in the structure of assemblages, including a decrease in potentially-harmful Gram-negative bacteria. In addition we show for the first time, that incubation is associated with the complete extinction of harmful haemolytic bacteria. Overall, our study appears to be the first to demonstrate differences in bacterial assemblages between bird nest components. In addition, we highlight the complexity of nest bacterial assemblages and provide new insights into the benefits of incubation.

  20. Multiple plumage traits convey information about age and within-age-class qualities of a canopy-dwelling songbird, the Cerulean Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Wigley, T. Ben

    2014-01-01

    Colorful plumage traits in birds may convey multiple, redundant, or unreliable messages about an individual. Plumage may reliably convey information about disparate qualities such as age, condition, and parental ability because discrete tracts of feathers may cause individuals to incur different intrinsic or extrinsic costs. Few studies have examined the information content of plumage in a species that inhabits forest canopies, a habitat with unique light environments and selective pressures. We investigated the information content of four plumage patches (blue-green crown and rump, tail white, and black breast band) in a canopy-dwelling species, the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), in relation to age, condition, provisioning, and reproduction. We found that older males displayed wider breast bands, greater tail white, and crown and rump feathers with greater blue-green (435–534 nm) chroma and hue than males in their first potential breeding season. In turn, older birds were in better condition (short and long term) and were reproductively superior to younger birds. We propose that these age-related plumage differences (i.e. delayed plumage maturation) were not a consequence of a life history strategy but instead resulted from constraints during early feather molts. Within age classes, we found evidence to support the multiple messages hypothesis. Birds with greater tail white molted tails in faster, those with more exaggerated rump plumage (lower hue, greater blue-green chroma) provisioned more, and those with lower rump blue-green chroma were in better condition. Despite evidence of reliable signaling in this species, we found no strong relationships between plumage and reproductive performance, potentially because factors other than individual differences more strongly influenced fecundity.

  1. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  2. Genetic conservation and management of the Californian endemic, Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana Parry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Hamilton; Jessica W. Wright; F. Thomas. Ledig

    2017-01-01

    Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana) is one of the rarest pine species in the world. Restricted to one mainland and one island population in California, Torrey pine is a species of conservation concern under threat due to low population sizes, lack of genetic variation, and environmental stochasticity. Previous research points to a lack of within population variation that is...

  3. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Betsy A. Goodrich; Valerie Hipkins; Christopher Richards; Julie Kray

    2012-01-01

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations, and is threatened by rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and population structure will help guide gene conservation strategies for this species. Sixteen sites...

  4. Alkanes and terpenes in wood and leaves of Pinus jeffreyi and P. sabiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Adams; Jessica W. Wright

    2012-01-01

    The wood oils of Pinus jeffreyi and P. sabiniana contain considerable amounts of heptane (76.6%, 92%), on a monoterpene basis. However, when entire wood extractables is considered, the amounts drop considerably (3.4%, 36.8%) with the major portion of the wood oils being diterpene acids. The leaf oil of P. jeffreyi...

  5. Pinus ponderosa: a taxonomic review with five subspecies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    2013-01-01

    Various forms of Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson are found from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 states and, perhaps, into Mexico. The status of many names previously associated with this species, but excluded here, has been clarified. Accumulated evidence based on variation in morphology and xylem monoterpenes,...

  6. The variation of microfibril angle in South African grown Pinus patula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been shown for some species that the microfibril angle (MFA) of the S2 layer of tracheids is strongly related to the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of wood, even more so than wood density, especially in wood formed during juvenile growth. The objectives of this study were to describe the variation in MFA in young Pinus ...

  7. DNA analysis for section identification of individual Pinus pollen grains from Belukha glacier, Altai Mountains, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Fumio; Uetake, Jun; Motoyama, Hideaki; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kaneko, Ryo; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujita, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Pollen taxon in sediment samples can be identified by analyzing pollen morphology. Identification of related species based on pollen morphology is difficult and is limited primarily to genus or family. Because pollen grains of various ages are preserved at below 0 °C in glaciers and thus are more likely to remain intact or to suffer little DNA fragmentation, genetic information from such pollen grains should enable identification of plant taxa below the genus level. However, no published studies have attempted detailed identification using DNA sequences obtained from pollen found in glaciers. As a preliminary step, this study attempted to analyze the DNA of Pinus pollen grains extracted from surface snow collected from the Belukha glacier in the Altai Mountains of Russia in the summer of 2003. A 150-bp rpoB fragment from the chloroplast genome in each Pinus pollen grain was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and DNA products were sequenced to identify them at the section level. A total of 105 pollen grains were used for the test, and sequences were obtained from eight grains. From the sequences obtained, the pollen grains were identified as belonging to the section Quinquefoliae. Trees of the extant species Pinus sibirica in the section Quinquefoliae are currently found surrounding the glacier. The consistency of results for this section suggests that the pollen in the glacier originated from the same Pinus trees as those found in the immediate surroundings. (letter)

  8. Mortalidade em florestas de Pinus palustris causada por tempestade de raios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Jorge Paladino Corrêa de Lima; Jose Américo de Mello Filho

    2002-01-01

    The importance of lightning as an ignition source for the fire driven Pinus palustris ecosystem is widely recognized. Lightning also impacts this system on a smaller scale by causing individual tree mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the level of mortality due to lightning activity at the Department of Energy's Savannah...

  9. The wood quality of Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen grown in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wood quality of Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen grown in the Mpumalanga forest region: scientific paper. ... When present, the amounts of included resin, pieces of bark and other debris at the occluded pruning cuts, were small and of little practical significance. The wood machined without any difficulty in the wet and ...

  10. Composition of the essential oils of Pinus nigra Arnold from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Turkey, Composition of the essential oils of Pin

    2010-01-01

    Essential oil composition of the needles of Pinus nigra Arnold collected from different localities in Turkey was investigated by GC and GC/MS. The main components in the oils were a-pinene, b-pinene, b-caryophyllene, and germacrene D.

  11. Composition of the essential oils of Pinus nigra Arnold from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Turkey, Composition of the essential oils of Pin; SEZİK, Ekrem; ÜSTÜN, Osman; DEMİRCİ, Betül; BAŞER, K. Hüsnü Can

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil composition of the needles of Pinus nigra Arnold collected from different localities in Turkey was investigated by GC and GC/MS. The main components in the oils were a-pinene, b-pinene, b-caryophyllene, and germacrene D.

  12. Chloroplast microsatellites reveal population genetic diversity in red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; L.L. DeVerno; M. Anzidei; G.G. Vendramin

    1998-01-01

    Variation in paternally inherited chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) DNA was used to study population genetic structure in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), a species characterized by morphological uniformity, no allozyme variation, and limited RAPD variation. Using nine cpSSR loci, a total of 23 chloroplast haplotypes and 25 cpSSR alleles were were...

  13. Climate-related genetic variation in a threatened tree species, Pinus albicaulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Ruth G. Shaw

    2017-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: With ongoing climate change, understanding of intraspecific adaptive variation is critical for conservation and restoration of plant species. Such information is especially scarce for threatened and endangered tree species, such as Pinus albicaulis Engelm. Therefore, our principal aims were to assess adaptive variation and characterize its...

  14. Inheritance of the bark reaction resistance mechanism in Pinus monticola infected by Cronartium ribicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray J. Hoff

    1986-01-01

    Necrotic reactions in branch or main stems of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) caused by infection by the blister rust fungus (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch. ex Rabenh.) are a major mechanism of resistance. Overall, 26 percent of the seedlings eliminated the fungus via this defense system. Heritability based upon crossing family groups averaged 33 percent...

  15. Inheritance of allozyme variants in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D.Don)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1985-01-01

    Isozyme phenotypes are described for 45 structural loci and I modifier locus in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don,) and segregation data are presented for a subset of 31 polymorphic loci from 19 enzyme systems. All polymorphic loci had alleles that segregated within single-focus Mendelian expectations, although one pair of alleles at each of three...

  16. Influence of ammonia and ozone on growth and drought sensitivity of Pinus sylvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueck, Th.A.; Zuin, A.; Elderson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Four-year-old Pinus sylvestris trees were exposed to ammonia (16, 55, 110 ppb for 24 h d-1)and ozone (0, 45 and 68 ppb, 9 h d-1) in a factorial design in open-top chambers for 15 months. Treatment effects on tree growth and architecture were assessed during two growing seasons; effects on

  17. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  18. Soil enzyme activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriere) plantations in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn)...

  19. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  20. Patterns of resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; K. S. Burns

    2012-01-01

    The core distribution of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., extends from central Colorado into northern New Mexico, with a disjunct population on the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona. Populations are primarily at high elevations and often define the alpine treeline; however, the species can also be found in open mixed conifer stands with...

  1. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  2. Biomass production in an age series of Pinus patula plantation in Tamil Nadu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S C; Srivastava, V K

    1984-09-01

    Distribution of organic matter in different tree components of 3, 5, 9, 11 and 13 years old plantations of Pinus patula has been discussed. The total biomass ranged from 7 tonnes (3 years) to 194 tonnes (9 years) per ha with 82 to 87% being contributed by the above ground parts and 13 to 18% by root.

  3. Nuclear genetic variation across the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa): Phylogeographic, taxonomic and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Mary F. Mahalovich; Robert E. Means

    2015-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is among the most broadly distributed conifer species of western North America, where it possesses considerable ecological, esthetic, and commercial value. It exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation, suggesting that it may be in the process of differentiating into distinct regional...

  4. Forest floor depth mediates understory vigor in xeric Pinus palustris ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Kevin Hiers; Joseph J. O' Brien; Rodney E. Will; Robert J. Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands and savannas are among the most frequently burned ecosystems in the world with fire return intervals of 1–10 years. This fire regime has maintained high levels of biodiversity in terms of both species richness and endemism. Land use changes have reduced the area of this ecosystem by .95%, and inadequate fire...

  5. Polyamine levels during the development of zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Dale R. Smith; Cathie Reeves; Kevin D. Steele; Subhash C. Minocha

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the cellular content of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were compared at different stages of development in zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata D. Don. During embryo development, both the zygotic and the somatic embryos showed a steady increase in spermidine content, with either a small decrease or no...

  6. Using flotation in ethanol to separate filled and empty seeds of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the separation of filled and empty seeds of Crimean pine [Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe] by flotation in ethanol and the effect of this treatment on seed germination were investigated. Flotation tests in 96% ethanol by the density method and then germination tests were made on the seeds ...

  7. Interrelationships among light, photosynthesis and nitrogen in the crown of mature Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; W. K. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Scaling leaf-level measurements to estimate carbon gain of entire leaf crowns or canopies requires an understanding of the distribution of photosynthetic capacity and corresponding light microenvironments within a crown. We have compared changes in the photosynthetic light response and nitrogen (N) content (per unit leaf area) of Pinus contorta Dougl. ssp. latifolia...

  8. Effects of air pollution on morphological and anatomical characteristics of Pinus Eldarica Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidreza Safdari; Moinuddin Ahmed; Margaret S. Devall; Vilma Bayramzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution, including automobile exhaust pollution, can affect anatomical and morphological characteristics of wood. In order to evaluate this subject, the Pinus eldarica trees of Chitgar Park in Tehran, which extends from a crowded highway in the south (polluted site) to the semi polluted midsection and to Alborz Mountain in the north (unpolluted...

  9. Fusarium spp. and Pinus strobus seedlings: root disease pathogens and taxa associated with seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Ocamb; J. Juzwik; F. B. Martin

    2002-01-01

    Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L .) seeds were sown in soil infested wlth Fusarium proliferatum, root necrosis developed on seedling roots, and F. proliferatum as reisolated from symptomatic roots; thus, demonstrating that F. proliferatum is pathogenic to eastern white pine seedling. Soils...

  10. Simulatd Nitrogen Cycling Response to Elevated CO2 in Pinus taeda and Mixed Dediduous Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Interactions between elevated CO2 and N cycling were explored with a nutrient cycling model (NuCM, Johnson et al. 1993, 1995) for a Pinus tuedu L. site at Duke University North Carolina, and a mixed deciduous site at Walker Branch, Tennessee. The simulations tested whether N limitation would prevent growth increases in response to elevated CO...

  11. A Comparison of Fire Intensity levels for stand replacement of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Patrick H. Brose

    1999-01-01

    Stand-replacement prescribed fire has been recommended to regenerate stands of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains because the species has serotinous cones and is shade intolerant. A 350 ha prescribed fire in northeast Georgia provided an opportunity to observe overstory mortality and regeneration of table...

  12. Effects of temperature on Pinus patula seedlings growing in pots in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The re-establishment of Pinus patula seedlings into sites with high harvesting residue (slash) loads can negatively affect the survival of these plants. Field trials have examined the role that insect pests and fungal diseases play in causing this phenomenon. Research has also indicated that temperatures at ground level tend ...

  13. Results from four Pinus patula water planting trials in the summer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planting with water is used by some forestry companies in South Africa to reduce post-planting water stress. Four trials were implemented to test the response in survival of Pinus patula to water applied at planting. Two trials each were situated in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands and Mpumalanga escarpment. The first trial at ...

  14. Growth and physiological responses to varied environments among populations of Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Bert M. Cregg

    2005-01-01

    We investigated population responses in physiology, morphology, and growth of mature Pinus ponderosa trees to an environmental gradient across Nebraska, USA. Ten populations from western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming were grown in three 26-year-old provenance tests from the warmest and wettest site in the east (Plattsmouth) to the intermediate site in...

  15. Adaptation des semis de Pin pignon ( Pinus pinea L.) au stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptation des semis de Pin pignon ( Pinus pinea L.) au stress combiné hydrique et thermique par des marqueurs biochimiques. ... Objectif: L'objectif de ce travail consiste à analyser les effets d'un stress hydrique et ... from 32 Countries:.

  16. Comparative genetic responses to climate in the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: reforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Dennis G. Joyce; Laura P. Leites; J. Bradley St Clair; Javier Lopez-Upton

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on the climatic niche of the sub-specific varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii and on the adaptedness of their populations are considered from the viewpoint of reforestation. In using climate projections from an ensemble of 17 general circulation models targeting the decade surrounding 2060, our analyses suggest that a...

  17. EFFECTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON GROWTH AND BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN PINUS PONDEROSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future productivity of forests will be affected by combinations of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3. Because productivity of forests will, in part, be determined by growth of young trees, we evaluated shoot growth and biomass responses of Pinus ponderosa seedlings exposed to ...

  18. CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF OLD PINUS PONDEROSA TREES TO STAND DENSITY REDUCTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stand density reductions have been proposed as a method by which old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of North America can be converted back to pre-1900 conditions, thereby reducing the danger of catastrophic forest fires and insect attacks while increasing product...

  19. Reproduction ecology of Pinus halepensis : a monoecious, wind-pollinated and partially serotinous Mediterranean pine tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goubitz, Shirrinka

    2001-01-01

    Fire is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of Mediterranean plant species. The fire frequency has increased in the 20st century. Pines are the most important tree species in the area. Pinus halepensis is the only natural pine in parts of the east Mediterranean basin, such as Israel and

  20. The genetics of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata mill.) with implications for restoration and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Barbara S. Crane; C. Dana Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is an important commercial timber resource and forest ecosystem component in the southeastern USA. The species occurs in mainly drier sites as an early- to mid-successional species, is fireadapted, and it plays an important role in the fire ecology of the region. However, shortleaf pine genetics are not well-studied, especially in...

  1. Water availability and genetic effects on wood properties of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Gonzalez-Benecke; T. A. Martin; Alexander Clark; G. F. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of water availability on basal area growth and wood properties of 11-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from contrasting Florida (FL) (a mix of half-sib families) and South Carolina coastal plain (SC) (a single, half-sib family) genetic material. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased average wholecore specific...

  2. Effects of intermediate-severity disturbance on composition and structure in mixed Pinus-hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Trammell; Justin Hart; Callie Schweitzer; Daniel C. Dey; Michael Steinberg

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, forest managers intend to create or maintain mixed Pinus-hardwood stands. This stand assemblage may be driven by a variety of objectives but is often motivated by the desire to enhance native forest diversity and promote resilience to perturbations. Documenting the effects of natural disturbances on species composition and stand...

  3. Assessing the gene content of the megagenome: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; Randi A. Famula; Annette Deflino-Mix; Kristian A. Stevens; Carol A. Loopstra; Charles H. Landley; David B. Neale; Jill L. Wegryzn

    2016-01-01

    Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas) is within the subgenus Strobus with an estimated genome size of 31 Gbp. Transcriptomic resources are of particular interest in conifers due to the challenges presented in their megagenomes for gene identification. In this study, we present the first comprehensive survey of the P. lambertiana...

  4. Cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica ) affects above- and belowground processes in commercial loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda ) stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam N. Trautwig; Lori G. Eckhardt; Nancy J. Loewenstein; Jason D. Hoeksema; Emily A. Carter; Ryan L. Nadel

    2017-01-01

    Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), an invasive grass species native to Asia, has been shown to reduce tree vigor in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations, which comprise more than 50% of growing stock in commercial forests of the United States. I. cylindrica produces exudates with possible allelopathic effects that may influence abundance of P. taeda symbionts, such...

  5. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  6. Prospects for the biological control of invasive Pinus species (Pinaceae) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hoffmann, JH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra) not attacked by the specialized pine cone weevil, Pissodes validirostris? A case of host selection vs. host suitability. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 99: 157?163. DWAF. 2004. Key issue paper for a policy...

  7. Classification of Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. oocarpa, P. caribaea var. hondurensis, and Related Taxonomic Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Squillace; Jesse P. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Stem xylem terpenes of 75 pine populations were studied to determine relationships among taxonomic entities. Typical Pinus patula populations occurring in areas north and west of Oaxaca, Mexico, had very high proportions of 3-phellandrene and low proportions of other constituents. Terpene compositions of populations of variety longipeduncalatain...

  8. Nursery response of container Pinus palustris seedlings to nitrogen supply and subsequent effects on outplanting performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Paul Jackson; R. Kasten Dumroese; James P. Barnett

    2012-01-01

    Container longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings often survive and grow better after outplanting than bareroot seedlings. Because of this, most longleaf pine are now produced in containers. Little is known about nursery fertilization effects on the quality of container longleaf pine seedlings and how that influences outplanting performance. We compared various...

  9. Biomass and nutrients of Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China: simulations for different management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huixia Yang; Silong Wang; Jianwei Zhang; Bing Fan; Weidong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We measured the dynamics of both biomass and nutrient pools on 7-, 17-, 31- and 51-year-old Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China. Using a chronosequence approach, we found that biomass of each component increased with aging while its proportion decreased except stem-wood. Nutrient pools varied with biomass pools except for foliage. For all harvest intensities...

  10. Volume de madeira de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento. Wood volume of Pinus taeda L. at different growing spacings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus taeda L. é uma das espécies do gênero Pinus mais plantadas na região Sul do Brasil por apresentar excelente crescimento e ótima adaptação às condições climáticas e de solo. Essa espécie é utilizada em larga escala, principalmente para a produção de celulose, construção civil, laminação, produção de móveis, particulados e serraria. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção volumétrica de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento (entre 1 m2 e 16 m2 por planta propiciados por nove diferentes espaçamentos entre árvores de um ensaio em cinco blocos ao acaso. O trabalho baseou-se nas medidas de altura e DAP em 25 árvores internas da parcela, aos sete anos após plantio das mudas oriundas de pomar de sementes clonal. Valores estimados de volume por hectare foram inversamente proporcionais ao aumento do espaço vital, alcançando entre 74,2 e 274,8 m3 /ha. Os incrementos médios em volume atingiram entre 10,60 e 39,25 m3 /ha/ano. Concluiu-se que, se o objetivo é a produção volumétrica mesmo com diâmetros pequenos, deve-se optar por espaços vitais menores. Quando se deseja maiores diâmetros, a opção é por espaços maiores. No presente caso, o melhor compromisso entre produção volumétrica e diâmetros grandes pode estar nos espaços vitais intermediários, entre 5 e 8 m2 para cada árvore. Pinus taeda L. is one of the most Pinus species planted in southern Brazil, because it presents excellent growth and optimum adaptation to climatic and soil condition. The species is used in large scale, mainly for cellulose production, construction, laminating, production of furniture, particulates and sawmill. It was aimed to evaluate the Pinus taeda L. volumetric production at different growth vital spaces (ranging 1 m² and 16 m² per plant provided by nine different spacings between plants, the trial was installed in a randomized blocks with five replications. The study was based on height and DBH measurements

  11. Cytoprotective effects of essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouaziz, Mouhamed; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2017-12-01

    Essential oils from Pinus species have been reported to have various therapeutic properties. This study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition and cytoprotective effects of the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced damage in cells in vitro. The cytoprotection of the oil against toxicity of aspirin on the small intestine epithelial cells IEC-6 was tested. The obtained results have shown that 35 different compounds were identified. Aspirin induced a decrease in cell viability, and exhibited significant damage to their morphology and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. However, the co-treatment of aspirin with the essential oil of Pinus induced a significant increase in cell viability and a decrease in SOD and CAT activities. Overall, these finding suggest that the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. has potent cytoprotective effect against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

  12. Association of Pinus banksiana Lamb. and Populus tremuloides Michx. seedling fine roots with Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette R. Potvin; Dana L. Richter; Martin F. Jurgensen; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina, Hydanaceae), commonly regarded as a wood decay fungus, was consistently isolated from bareroot nursery Pinus banksiana Lamb. seedlings. S. brinkmannii was found in ectomycorrhizae formed by Thelephora terrestris Ehrh., ...

  13. First report of shoot blight and dieback caused by Diplodia pinea on Pinus pinaster and P. radiata trees in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Linaldeddu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by Diplodia pinea on Pinus pinaster and P. radiata forests are reported for the fi rst time in Tunisia. The affected plants show shoot blight, canker and branch dieback. On decaying and dead branches pycnidia of D. pinea are observed. The fungus was repeatedly isolated from the bark of symptomatic branches. The results of pathogenicity tests confirm the virulence of D. pinea and the susceptibility of both Pinus species to infection.

  14. Usage of the pruned log index for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Aplicação do Índice de Tora Podada para Pinus taeda e Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Jeton Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The assessment of the quality of clearwood produced in pruned plantations of pine is necessary, especially to set price and know the utilization potential. The pruned log index (PLI, index used in Chile and New Zealand to characterize the quality of the logs, is a function of measurable variables of each log as diameter with defects, diameter 1.3 m from the largest end and the ratio between the cylinder volume common to the entire length of the log and the scaling volume through the method Smalian. This study aims at evaluating the ITP usage for slash pine (Pinus elliottii logs at the age 24 years and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda at 19, harvested
    in the regions of Ibaiti, Paraná, and Itapeva, São Paulo. The PLI values did not exceed 2.3, which  indicates that there is little clearwood on the logs. This has been proven through the veneering results, in which the potentially clear volume in relation to the log volume ranged between 52% and 55%, but 10.3% at the maximum, was turned into clearwood veneer. The slicing procedure in the lathe proved to be suitable, since it allowed the diameter of the knotty core to be measured as soon as the knot came out. The PLI showed itself as applicable for the Brazilian conditions.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.62.119

  1. Heterosis at Allozyme Loci under Inbreeding and Crossbreeding in PINUS ATTENUATA

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Steven H.

    1986-01-01

    The dependence of heterosis at isozyme loci on inbreeding and crossbreeding was studied in 10-yr-old trees of knobcone pine (Pinus attenuata Lemm.). Heterozygosity was determined at 24 polymorphic isozyme loci and related to the rate of vegetative growth and cone production. The inbreds, created by selfpollination, had 46% of the heterozygosity of their mothers; the crossbreds, created by interpopulation crossing, had 155% of the heterozygosity of their mothers. Within the crossbreds, hetero...

  2. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of 1926 and 1717 mm were derived for the 6- and the 15-year-old stands, respectively. Transpiration made up 72% and 70% of annual ET, and modeled rainfall interception by the trees and litter layer was 2...

  3. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Novak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshk?t e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame...

  4. USE OF RESIDUES OF FORESTRY EXPLORATION OF Pinus taeda FOR PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the quality of particleboards manufactured with forest exploitation waste from Pinus taeda. The material in the form of branches, tree tops, stumps and roots, was obtained from a forest plantation located in the Municipality of Mafra -SC. All the material was processed into wood chips for biomass and transported to the place of studies. The Pinus industrial particles were used as control and mixed with the waste in different proportions. The experimental plan consisted of the panels manufacture with 100% of each type of material and mixture of these com proportions of 75/25%, 50/50% and 25/75% with Pinus industrial particles, in addition to the mixture in equal parts, of the three types of materials. Experimental panels were manufactured with nominal density of 0.75 g/cm3, using the urea-formaldehyde resin, in the proportion of 8% of solids -dry weight basis of the particles. The panels were pressed with specific pressure of 4.0 MPa, temperature of 160ºC and pressing time of 8 minutes. The results of the internal bond tests met the requirements of the standard EN 312, is indicative that there has been a proper bonding of these particles originating forest exploitation wastes. General evaluations of the physical and mechanical properties results of the experimental panels indicate the possibility of use of particles obtained from branches, tree tops, stumps and roots, mixed com the industrial Pinus particles, in proportion of, up to, 50%, for particleboard manufacture.

  5. Biological characterization of young and aged embryogenic cultures of Pinus pinaster (Ait.)

    OpenAIRE

    Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Noceda, Carlos; Pelletier, Gervais; Label, Philippe; Rodriguez, Roberto; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2009-01-01

    Pinus pinaster (Ait.) somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been developed during the last decade, and its application in tree improvement programs is underway. Nevertheless, a few more or less important problems still exist, which have an impact on the efficiency of specific SE stages. One phenomenon, which had been observed in embryogenic tissue (embryonal mass, EM) initiated from immature seed, has been the loss of the ability to produce mature somatic embryos after the tissue had been cultured f...

  6. Dehydrins in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and their expression related to drought stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Conde, Tania; Yakovlev, Igor; Majada, J.P. (Juan); Johnsen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) is an important commercial species throughout its Atlantic distribution. With the anticipated increase in desiccation of its habitat as a result of climate change, the selection of genotypes with increased survival and growth capability under these conditions for breeding programs is of great interest for this species. We aimed to study the response to a realistic drought stress under controlled conditions, looked for a method to measure dehydration resistance, ...

  7. Drought Tolerance in Pinus halepensis Seed Sources As Identified by Distinctive Physiological and Molecular Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Taïbi, Khaled; Campo, Antonio D. del; Vilagrosa Carmona, Alberto; Bellés, José M.; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Pla, Davinia; Calvete, Juan J.; López-Nicolás, José M.; Mulet, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Drought is one of the main constraints determining forest species growth, survival and productivity, and therefore one of the main limitations for reforestation or afforestation. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different Pinus halepensis (common name Aleppo pine) seed sources, previously characterized in field trials as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits capable of pre...

  8. Drought resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings conferred by plastic root architecture rather than ectomycorrhizal colonisation

    OpenAIRE

    Moser , Barbara; Kipfer , Tabea; Richter , Sarah; Egli , Simon; Wohlgemuth , Thomas

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Abstract ContextIncreased summer drought is considered as a threat to the regeneration of Pinus sylvestris in the Central Alps. To a certain degree, seedlings are able to mitigate negative effects of drought by altering root/shoot ratios. But, seedlings may also enhance access to water and nutrients by cooperation with ectomycorrhizal fungi. AimsWe tested the importance of both mechanisms for drought resistance of P. sylvestris seedlings during early establishment and ...

  9. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments 1

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less sh...

  10. Genetic diversity of Pinus halepensis Mill. populations detected by RAPD loci

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez , Aránzazu; Alía , Ricardo; Bueno , María

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Genetic diversity of Pinus halepensis Mill. was analysed in nine populations (six Spanish populations and one each from Tunisia, France and Greece). Twenty four RAPD loci were amplified with 60 megagametophyte DNA samples from each population. Populations' contribution to Nei gene diversity and to allelic richness were calculated. Results showed higher within population genetic variation but also a $G_{{\\rm ST}} = 13.6\\%$ higher than those detected in previous studies ...

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils from roots of Pinus growing in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia FEKIH; Hocine ALLALI; Abdeslem Nacer AREZKI AIT; Salima MERGHACHE; Djamila MAGHNIA; Jean COSTA

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils of three roots of genus Pinus (P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster) growing in Algeria for the first time. The essential oils used in the present study were isolated by hydrodistillation using a Cleavenger-type apparatus according the European Pharmacopoeia, and identified by GC and GC-MS. 14, 12, 11 constituents were identified, representing an average of 98.8 %, 9...

  12. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Nouara Ait Mimoune; Djouher Ait Mimoune; Aziza Yataghene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9%) and β-seli...

  13. Application of gamma radiation to the nodes detection in Pinus Radiata (D.Don) wood pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.R.; Dinator, Maria I; Karsulovic C, Jose T.; Leon G, Adolfo

    1996-01-01

    Attenuation of 59.5 KeV photons provided by an Am-241 source, has been used to detect knots in lumber pieces from Pinus Radiata (D.Don). It is shown that the linear attenuation coefficient is a sensitive parameter to detect singularities in the structure of this material. The scanning of the piece provides profiles which define the position and extension of the singularity. (author)

  14. Produção de compensados de Pinus taeda L. E Pinus oocarpa Schiede com diferentes formulações de adesivo uréia formaldeído Plywood manufacturing from Pinus elliottii L. and Pinus oocarpa Schiede with different formulations of the urea-formaldheyde resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados de Pinus taeda e de Pinus oocarpa, com 20 e 24 anos de idade, respectivamente, utilizando três diferentes formulações de adesivo uréia-formaldeído. Foram produzidos 18 painéis, com três repetições por tratamento. As formulações com maior proporção relativa de resina não influenciaram de forma conclusiva as propriedades físico-mecânicas dos painéis.Os painéis de P. oocarpa apresentaram valores médios de resistência da linha de cola, módulos de elasticidade e de ruptura superiores àqueles dos painéis de P. taeda. Os resultados das propriedades físico-mecânicas dos painéis indicaram grande potencial de utilização de lâminas de P. oocarpa para produção de compensados.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of both Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa plywood, 20 and 24-years-old, respectively, using three different formulations of urea formaldheyde resin. A total of 18 boards were produced, using three repetitions per treatment. The formulations containing a high relative proportion of the resin did not show a conclusive influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the boards. The boards made from P. oocarpa showed higher average values of the glue line strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in comparison to boards of P. taeda. The results showed that the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of the board, indicate that the veneers of P. oocarpa have a high potentiality for plywood production.

  15. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  16. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Ruben Manso

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  17. Site index models for calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos Island, Greece

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    Kyriaki Kitikidou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A site index model for Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos island (North Aegean sea, Greece is presented. The model was fitted and validated from 150 stem analyses, obtained from 75 fixed-area plots from five experimental sites. Four height growth equations of difference form were tested and the BAILEY and CLUTTER (1974 function was considered appropriate due to its good performance with both fitting and validation data. The results show errors lower than 5% and little bias.

  18. Reproductive Success and Inbreeding Differ in Fragmented Populations of Pinus rzedowskii and Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii, Two Endemic Mexican Pines under Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paty Castilleja Sánchez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed production, quality, germination and seedling establishment are indicators of reproductive success in conifers. Monitoring of these parameters is essential to determine the viability of populations for the purposes of conservation. We analyze cone and seed traits as indicators of reproductive success in the endangered Rzedowski´s pine (Pinus rzedowskii (Madrigal et Caballero and near-threatened veitchii pine (Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii (Shaw in west-central Michoacán, Mexico. These traits were systematically quantified and their variation assessed using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs. We found that the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine seems to be critical, presenting low seed efficiency (17.10%, germination (5.0% and seedling establishment (27.7%, with high levels of inbreeding (0.79. In contrast, veitchii pine presents moderate seed efficiency (54.9%, high germination (71.5% and seedling establishment (84%–97% and low inbreeding (0.33. Reproductive indicators differed significantly among zones and populations for each species, where fragment sizes mainly affected seed production and efficiency. This result indicates that fragmentation has played a more important role in the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine than in veitchii pine, perhaps by limiting pollen flow among zones and populations and producing higher levels of inbreeding and lower seed efficiency in the former species. We propose a conservation strategy for these important pine species in order to increase their long-term genetic viability.

  19. Crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em solos arenizados degradados no oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de espécies florestais de rápido crescimento em áreas com solos arenizados e degradados pode ser uma alternativa tanto para a prevenção como para a minimização desse problema. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em relação aos solos arenizados e degradados por ação antrópica, no oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Para isso, foram selecionadas árvores dominantes em povoamentos com 29 anos de idade, em áreas com dois níveis de degradação, as quais foram abatidas e seccionadas pelo método de Smalian para a obtenção de discos de madeira para a análise dendrocronológica e determinação da altura dominante por idade, no período de 1982 a 2010. Os crescimentos em altura dominante dessas espécies, quando comparados entre si e por nível de degradação do solo, apresentaram tendências diferentes de desenvolvimento no tempo, indicando a presença de polimorfismo das curvas.

  20. Crescimento em diâmetro do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em áreas arenizadas e degradadas no Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em áreas arenizadas e degradadas por ação antrópica, na região da fronteira oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Em povoamentos, foram selecionadas árvores médias, que foram abatidas e seccionadas pelo método de Smalian, a fim de obter discos de madeira para a análise dendrocronológica, para a obtenção do diâmetro por idade. O crescimento em diâmetro, quando comparado entre espécies, apresentou tendências diferentes de níveis de desenvolvimento no tempo. O uso de variáveis dummy no modelo de crescimento permitiu definir uma equação única para estimar o diâmetro em função da idade para ambas as espécies, considerando os níveis de degradação do solo médio e baixo, como variáveis necessárias para estimar o crescimento destas espécies nestes tipos de solos arenizados e degradados.

  1. COMPARAÇÃO GRÁFICA ENTRE CURVAS DE ÍNDICE DE SÍTIO PARA Pinus elliottii E Pinus taeda DESENVOLVIDAS NO SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000 para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Machado (1988, para os estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina; Brasil (1989a, para a região de Passo Fundo RS, Marcolin (1990, para o Segundo Planalto Paranaense e Selle (1993, para a região de Cambará do Sul. No entanto, o comportamento em relação às curvas de índice de sítio feitas por Brasil (1989b, para a região de São Francisco de Paula mostraram-se semelhantes, havendo somente uma diferença de nível entre estas.

  2. Mycorrhization of containerised Pinus nigra seedlings with Suillus granulatus under open field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarevic, J.; Keca, N.; Martinovie, A.

    2012-07-01

    Seedling mycorrhization acts as an efficient tool for improving the quality of seedlings. In this study, the effectiveness of Suillus granulatus, originating from Pinus heldreichii forests (Montenegro), to produce containerized ectomycorrhizal seedlings of autochthonous Pinus nigra in open field conditions was investigated. Spore (106, 107, 108) and vegetative (1:16, 1:8, 1:4) inoculation on ectomycorrhizal formation and seedling growth were tested. Spore and vegetative inoculums of autochthonous Pisolithus arhizus were used in the same trial as additional control treatments. The utilization of vegetative and spore inoculums of autochthonous S. granulatus has proven to be an effective method of obtaining containerized ectomycorrhizal P. nigra seedlings under open field conditions after 11 months. S. granulatus spore inoculations resulted in well developed ectomycorrhiza, decreasing the growth of the P. nigra seedlings in the first growing season. Mycelial inoculations resulted in slightly developed S. granulatus ectomycorrhiza, which increased the growth of the seedlings. Therefore, it would be feasible to use spore inocula of S. granulatus, with 10{sup 6} spores per plant, to produce ectomycorrhizal P. nigra plants on a large scale. Controlled mycorrhizal inoculation of seedlings is not a common practice in Montenegrin and Serbian nurseries; as such, the obtained results will contribute to the enhancement of nursery production of Pinus nigra and other conifers. This also could be assumed as a starting point for many further efforts and investigations with autochthonous fungal and plant material in this region. (Author) 47 refs.

  3. Soil water balance in different densities of Pinus taeda in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Moretti Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify and compare water balance components over the course of a year for different Pinus taeda planting densities in an oxisol in southern Brazil. This experiment was conducted on 6-year-old trees in a clay oxisol at the Monte Alegre Farm, a property of the Klabin Company. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates and five treatments with different amounts of soil coverage: T100 (100% coverage - standard planting coverage; (T75, 75; T50, 50; and T25, 25%, and; T0 (without cover - clearcutting. The soil water storage and actual evapotranspiration under non-standard conditions were determined in a weekly estimated soil water balance (SWB with measured components. By the end of the year, the treatments had not reached field capacity or wilting point storage. The average value of total downward drainage was 100.2 mm, and the highest values occurred in the T75 and T100 treatments. The lowest population density (T25 had the highest actual evapotranspiration (ETr, due to the growth of the remaining Pinus taeda trees. The highest evapotranspiration occurred in September, due to the resumption of Pinus taeda growth.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of needle essential oil of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae from Macedonian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of needle essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation from wild Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae, growing on three different locations in R. Macedonia were investigated in period 2008/2009. Carried out GC/FID/MS analysis, one hundred and three constituents were identified belonging to the six different classes of components: monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and other non-terpene components, representing 88.61/94.04% of the entire oil. The most abundant constituents were α-pinene (12.89/27.34%, β-pinene (6.16/13.13%, limonene + β-phellandrene (2.09/6.64% and bornyl acetate (2.92/11.67% as well as trans-(E-caryophyllene (4.63/7.13% and germacrene D (8.75/20.14%. Antimicrobial screening of Pinus peuce needle essential oil was made by hole-plate diffusion and broth dilution method against 13 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The most sensitive bacteria against tested Pinus peuce essential oils were Streptococcus pneumonia encompassing Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the oils ranged from 7.5- 62.5 µl/ml.

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of the Anti-stain Efficacy of Crude Wood Vinegar for Pinus densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Salim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, Pinus densiflora is one of the most important indigenous tree species in terms of making high-value wood products. Therefore, Korean sawmills exercise extreme caution to prevent fungal discoloration such as that caused by sapstains and molds on the timber. In this study, the effectiveness of using natural crude wood vinegar to inhibit sapstains and molds, especially on Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine was examined. Pinus densiflora wood samples were dipped in absolute and diluted wood vinegar at different concentrations (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1; deionized water to wood vinegar dilution ratio for 3 minutes and immediately air-dried. In addition, volatile wood vinegar was also used in this study to imitate the condition of wood vinegar when exposed to open air. The degree of discoloration was examined and evaluated every 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks according to the ASTM D4445-91 Standard Method for laboratory test. Crude wood vinegar inhibited sapstains more efficiently than it inhibited molds. Wood vinegar at a 1:1 concentration was found to be the most optimum treatment for inhibiting sapstains for at least 8 weeks.

  6. Effects Of Drought Stress on Germination in Fourteen Provenances of Pinus Brutia Ten. Seeds in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Şevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pinus brutia Ten., Red pine, known to be tough drought resistant pine specie, could effectively be used for afforestation of disturbed areas. It is of great interest for the afforestation in arid zones. Appropriate seed sources for the specific areas guarantees reforestation success. Away from its native areas Pinus brutia Ten. is planted for its ornamental value and timber production purposes. Selection of drought resistant provenances can very well increase the survival success. In this study, the effects of water potential on germination were studied in fourteen provenances of Pinus brutia Ten. from Turkey. Water potentials between 0 and -8 bars were obtained using polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000 solutions. Seeds were kept for 35 day at 20 ± 0.5°C. A decrease in water potential produced a marked reduction in germination percentage and germination value. As a result, significant variations between the provenances were found. It was determined that, under a -8 bar water stress, Isparta-Bucak and Mersin-Silifke, respectively corresponding to 58% and 57% of the control group, were the least water stress affected provenances.

  7. Fusarium oxysporum and F. verticillioides associated with damping-off in Pinus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Occurrence of Fusarium spp. is one of the problems, most limiting to growth of seedlings, in nurseries. This pathogen can be transmitted via seeds and causes damages to the seedlings during pre- and post-emergence stages. The present study aimed to identify Fusarium spp. at the species level based on morphological and molecular characteristics and to verify the pathogenicity of these isolates in seeds lots of Pinus elliottii and P. taeda. For this, we used two Fusarium isolates and five lots of Pinus spp. seeds. Morphological characterization was performed based on a key, specific to Fusarium spp. identification, whereas, molecular identification was carried out by amplification and sequencing of the regions from internal transcribed spacer (ITS and the elongation factor 1-α (tef1. The pathogenicity test was conducted through the contact of the seeds with fungal culture for 48 h, followed by sowing them in sand. The variables evaluated were emergency speed index, percentage of emergency, non-emergency seeds, symptomatic seedlings, and seedling damping-off. One isolate, F1UFSM, was identified as F. verticillioides and another isolate, F2UFSM, was identified as F. oxysporum. Both the isolates were pathogenic to the seeds of Pinus spp., causing a reduction in the percentage of emergence and seedling damping-off.

  8. Effects of Fusarium circinatum on Disease Development and Gas Exchange in the Seedlings of Pinus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Soo Woo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Four-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii, Pinus densiflora and Pinus rigida were inoculated with Fusarium circinatum isolate (FT-7, the pitch canker fungus, from P. thunbergii, to evaluate the effects of the pathogen on disease development and gas exchange rate. Needle dehydration was evident on 2 of 10 seedlings of P. thunbergii and P. rigida at 18 and 21 days after inoculation, respectively, while no symptoms were observed in P. densiflora seedlings throughout the experiment. Gas exchange stopped completely in 4 of 5 measured seedlings of P. thunbergii and 2 of 5 measured seedlings of P. rigida at 25 days after inoculation, and in the remaining 3 seedlings of P. rigida at 39 days after inoculation. Disease development in P. thunbergii seedlings was faster than that in P. rigida seedlings. By the time, the experiment was ended at 78 days after inoculation, 9 of 10 seedlings of P. rigida and 8 of 10 seedlings of P. thunbergii seedlings treated with FT-7 was almost dead, but all seedlings of P. densiflora were still healthy. We suggest that P. densiflora is resistant to F. circinatum in the current study, and gas exchange rate of the species after inoculation does not differ significantly compared to that of untreated control.

  9. Chloroplast evolution in the Pinus montezumae complex: a coalescent approach to hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, J A; Schaal, B A

    2000-08-01

    This study addresses the evolutionary history of the chloroplast genomes of two closely related pine species, Pinus hartwegii Lindl. and P. montezumae Lamb (subsect. Ponderosae) using coalescent theory and some of the statistical tools that have been developed from it during the past two decades. Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae are closely related species in the P. montezumae complex (subsect. Ponderosae) of Mexico and Central America. Pinus hartwegii is a high elevation species, whereas P. montezumae occurs at lower elevations. The two species occur on many of the same mountains throughout Mexico. A total of 350 individuals of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae were collected from Nevado de Colima (Jalisco), Cerro Potosí (Nuevo León), Iztaccihuatl/Popocatepetl (México), and Nevado de Toluca (México). The chloroplast genome of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae was mapped using eight restriction enzymes. Fifty-one different haplotypes were characterized; 38 of 160 restriction sites were polymorphic. Clades of most parsimoniously related chloroplast haplotypes are geographically localized and do not overlap in distribution, and the geographically localized clades of haplotypes include both P. hartwegii and P. montezumae. Some haplotypes in the clades occur in only one of the two species, whereas other haplotypes occur in both species. These data strongly suggest ancient and/or ongoing hybridization between P. hartwegii and P. montezumae and a shared chloroplast genome history within geographic regions of Mexico.

  10. Experimental study of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini on Hyperlipidemia and lipid in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of Pinus densiflora on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, we divided the rats into groups(Normal group, Control group and Sample group and perfomed the experimental research. Hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats were induced by high fat diets for 8weeks. The sample group was administerd the extract of Pinus densiflora for 14 days and control group was administerd equal dose of oral. And then we measured the amount of serum triglyceride, Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Free Fatty Acid, phospholipid, Insuline, Laptin, Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell, Cardiac Risk Factor(CRF. The results were as followers : 1. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Total cholesterol, Trigylceride, LDL-cholesterol, and Phospholipid levels in serum and CRF significantly. 2. Sample Group showed increasing effects on HDL-cholesterol level in serum significantly. 3. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Insuline in serum significantly. 4. Sample Group showed increasing effects on Laptin in serum significantly. 5. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell significantly. According to the above results, Pinus densiflora showed significant decreasing effects on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, it is considered that it is appropriate to apply for hyperlipidemia, obesity.

  11. Clinal differentiation and putative hybridization in a contact zone of Pinus ponderosa and P. arizonica (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, B K; Telewski, F W; Plovanich-Jones, A E; Grimes, J E

    2001-06-01

    The widely distributed Pinus subsection Ponderosae is a species complex that has a transition zone among taxa in the southwestern United States. In southern Arizona and New Mexico at least two recognized taxa, Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum and Pinus arizonica or P. ponderosa var. arizonica, are known to coexist in close proximity. In this study, we report the existence of populations where the taxa are sympatric. One of the key characteristics distinguishing taxa is the number of needles per fascicle; P. ponderosa typically has three, P. arizonica has five. We examined the spatial distribution of needle-number types in a belt transect that covers a transition zone from nearly pure three-needle types at the top of Mount Lemmon to five-needle types downslope, in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona. The spatial distribution is inconsistent with there being both free interbreeding among types and selective neutrality of types. Trees with intermediate types, having combinations of three, four, and five needles and/or mean numbers of needles between 3.0 and 5.0, are spatially concentrated in the middle of the transition zone. The spatial distribution supports the occurrence of hybridization and introgression, and this is consistent with reported crossabilities of the types. The results suggest that selection is acting, either on needle number per se or on other traits of the ecotype with which it may be in linkage disequilibrium, to maintain the observed steep clinal differentiation.

  12. Spatial pattern of allozyme variation in a contact zone of Pinus Ponderosa and P. arizonica (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Bryan K; Chung, Myong Gi; Telewski, Frank W

    2003-01-01

    The spatial distribution of genotypes for nine polymorphic allozyme loci was examined in a contact zone between Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum and another tree regarded as either a separate species, Pinus arizonica, or variety, Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica, in southern Arizona. Previous work had identified a steep elevational cline for a key taxonomic trait, number of leaf-needles per fascicle, on the south slope of Mt. Lemmon. The present results indicate that the taxa are not fully interbreeding in this contact zone, because allozyme genotypes are considerably more spatially structured than expected for the dispersal characteristics of pines. The amount of spatial differentiation is also much less than that observed for needle number. It appears that this is due to the lack of differentiation for allozyme gene frequencies for the two types of trees, which is further evidenced by analysis of samples from two other populations away from the contact zone. It is likely that if the two taxa were isolated in the past, it was not for long enough nor complete enough to allow mutation-drift to create substantial differentiation between them. Another possible explanation is that introgression after recontact is so advanced that any differences have been erased throughout the Santa Catalina mountain range.

  13. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE Pinus elliottii YIELD IN THE SOUTHEASTERN MOUNTAIN RANGE, RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pagel Floriano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for Pinus elliottii Engelm. at Serra do Sudeste, Rio Grande do Sul, with the following objectives: to check production costs and possible revenues; to perform the economic and financial analysis of Pinus elliottii's wood production under regional conditions; and to determine the rotation of maximum Net Present Value (NPV. The costs for planting the stands were estimated at $2,292.09/ha and the annual maintenance ranged from R$ 134.84 to R$ 363.98 per hectare. Departing from the Site Index 28, with NPV of R$ 1,147.17/ha, Pinus' wood production becomes interesting. At the IS 26, with 6.86% Internal Rate of Return (IRR, it would be possible to pay the 6.75% Propflora's interest. Analysis of different rotations for IS 28 showed maximum VPL with rotation of 26 years, thinning in cycle of 4 years, starting up the cuts to 10 years. The economic analysis was performed with considerable caution, using productivity moderated levels, costs within patterns that can be considered between middle and high and moderated prices for today's wood market. Even with the restrictions imposed on the analysis, results are promising; especially in view of the regional market prices' increase tendency and the probability of wood veneer industries comes to absorb the larger log's size production in a closed future.

  14. Strenght of the glue line of edge glued panels of Pinus taeda made with different adhesives

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    Merielen de Carvalho Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the strength of the glue line of edge glued panels of Pinus taeda made with different industrial adhesives. Three types of adhesives (poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc, emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI and polyurethane (PU glued in two side gluing orientation (radial and tangential and analyzed after the conditioning tests (dry and wet were analyzed. The 360 specimens were prepared for determining the shear strength of edge glued panels of Pinus taeda, and these were tested in a universal testing machine called EMIC. The shear strength of the glue line at dry condition was lower in the tangential side for the three types of adhesives analyzed. The PU adhesive showed the highest values of shear strength in the applied conditions, differing from PVAc and EPI adhesive when tested on dry condition and did not differ from the others adhesives when tested on wet condition. The highest percentage of wood failure was observed after the shear strength test at dry condition to EPI adhesive glued in the radial side. And in the wet condition, the EPI adhesive and PU adhesive glued in tangential side showed higher mean values of wood failure. Thus, it was possible to conclude that the strength of the glue line of Pinus taeda wood was influenced by the type of adhesive and side gluing orientation, and showed differently behavior according to the condition of use (wet or dry.

  15. De Novo Sequencing and Assembly Analysis of Transcriptome in Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl.

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    Qifei Cai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To enrich the molecular data of Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. and study the regulating factors of different morphology controled by apical dominance. In this study, de novo assembly of transcriptome annotation was performed for two varieties of Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. that are obviously different in morphology. More than 147 million reads were produced, which were assembled into 88,092 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, 11,692 unigenes showed significant similarity to proteins from Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. From this collection of unigenes, a large number of molecular markers were identified, including 2829 simple sequence repeats (SSRs. A total of 158 unigenes expressed differently between two varieties, including 98 up-regulated and 60 down-regulated unigenes. Furthermore, among the differently expressed genes (DEGs, five genes which may impact the plant morphology were further validated by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. The five genes related to cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX, two-component response regulator ARR-A family (ARR-A, plant hormone signal transduction (AHP, and MADS-box transcription factors have a close relationship with apical dominance. This new dataset will be a useful resource for future genetic and genomic studies in Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl.

  16. SHEAR STRENGTH IN THE GLUE LINE OF Eucalyptus sp. AND Pinus sp.WOOD

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    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate the adhesive efficiency on the union of glued joints in a particular temperature and humidity conditions for a specified time the adhesive must be submitted to specific load tests, such as shear in the glue line. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shear strength in the glue line of Eucalyptus sp and Pinus sp.woods. Five adhesives (castor oil, sodium silicate, modified silicate, , PVA and resorcinol-formaldehyde, three weights (150 g/m2, 200 g/m2, and 250 g/m2 and two species (Eucalyptus sp. and Pinus sp. of wood were used. Twelve specimens were obtained from each repetition per treatment, corresponding to 108 specimens that were conditioned at a temperature of 23 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 50 ± 2%. The interaction between the weight and type of adhesive was significant for the shear strength in the glue line of eucalyptus wood. However, no interaction between the weight and the adhesive was found for pinus, only the isolated from the adhesive effect. Chemical bonds originated in the polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives and castor bi-component conferred upon these adhesives the greatest resistance in the glue line. Castor and resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives showed the highest shear strength values in the line of glue and wood failure. Castor adhesive presented satisfactory performance for bonding of eucalyptus and pine woods.

  17. Distribution of chemical compartments of soil organic matter and c stocks of a cambisol from south Brazil as affected by Pinus afforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Cesar Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and stocks of soil organic matter (SOM compartments after Pinus monoculture introduction in a native pasture area of a Cambisol, Santa Catarina, Brazil, were investigated. Pinus introduction increased soil acidity, content of exchangeable Al+3 and diminished soil nutrients. Nevertheless, soil C stock increased in all humic fractions of the 0-5 cm layer after Pinus afforestation. In the subsurface, the vegetation change only promoted SOM redistribution from the NaOH-extractable humic substances to a less hydrophobic humin fraction. Under Pinus, soil organo-mineral interactions were relevant up to a 15 cm depth, while in pasture environment, this mechanism occurred mainly in the surface layer.

  18. Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage is caused on the introduced Pinus species and on those cultivated in artificial plantations, shelterbelts and in urban environments. In Yugoslavia S. sapinea is widely distributed both in the continental and in the Mediterranean parts. It was identified from ten pine species and six hosts from other coniferous genera. By the study in our country, the new hosts of this fungus were detected - Pinus jeffrey, P. peuce and P. heldreichii. The most endangered species in our country is Austrian pine, both in urban environments, and in plantations The symptoms of the disease are bud wilt, curling, stunting and necrosis of current year shoots and needles, dieback of top shoots, parts of crown or tree tops, branch and stem bark canker, root collar rot on the young plants in nurseries and their dying. This fungus also prevents seed germination of Pinus species and causes blue sap stain of the freshly cut wood, although sap stain was also observed on standing trees. More rarely it causes root rot and crown wilt of Pinus species. The main symptoms of infection, both of young plants and older trees, are the dieback of current year shoots S. sapinea can penetrate through buds, bark of young shoots and needles. The critical time of infection is the period from mid April to mid May. Then infection mainly penetrates through the bark of young shoots, which results in their dying. Infection through the needles occurs mainly at the time of their sudden growth or during summer

  19. Intra- and interpopulation relationships and taxonomic status of Pinus nigra Arnold in Croatia according to morphology and anatomy of needles

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    Zlatko Liber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational relationships and taxonomic status of six natural black pine populations (Pinus nigra Arnold from Croatia were analyzed. Special attention in this research was paid to the establishment of taxonomic status and distribution of stenoendemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. dalmatica (Vis. Franco. Three morphological and twenty-one anatomical traits of needles were used as well as analysis by the methods of multivariate statistics. Most of the researched individuals showed strong population affiliation, whereas a clinal transition of morphological and anatomical traits of needles was determined among the populations. The opinion of the existence of three subspecies of black pine on the territory of Republic of Croatia (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. nigra, Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. dalmatica (Vis. Franco and Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. illyrica (Vid. Fukarek was confirmed. For each of the three subspecies new ranges were represented. Four Croatian populations were included in the stenoendemic subspecies of the Dalmatian black pine (Brač, Hvar, Grobnik and Pelješac, and a new distribution, broken in two, was suggested. Since the Dalmatian black pine has been reduced to several populations only, and there are some signs of continuous diminishing of its range, this research points out the need of making an action plan to preserve all natural populations of this subspecies.

  20. Eficiência dos herbicidas oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen e Imazapyr sobre a cultura de pinus Efficiency of the oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and imazapyr herbicides on Pinus cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson da Silva

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade de alguns herbicidas para mudas de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis e suas eficiências no controle de plantas daninhas. As mudas com 20 cm de altura, produzidas em tubetes, foram transplantadas num espaçamento de 2,0 m x 2,0 m, em parcelas de quatro fileiras com 10,0 m de comprimento. Os tratamentos utilizados foram oxadiazil (600; 800 e 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 e 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazapyr (250 g ha-1 e testemunhas (capinada e sem capina, dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os herbicidas foram aplicados sete dias após o transplante, usando-se pulverizador costal, pressurizado com CO2, calibrado para 200 L ha- 1 de calda. As principais plantas daninhas com maior infestação foram: Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea grandifolia e com menor infestação: Galinsoga parviflora e Bidens pilosa. O oxadiazil apresentou excelente controle de B. plantaginea, I. grandifolia e G. parviflora, não sendo eficiente para controle de B. pilosa, embora proporcionasse controle superior ao observado pelo oxadiazon. O oxadiazon foi eficiente até 45 dias após o tratamento para B. plantaginea, G. parviflora e até 90 dias para I. grandifolia. Tanto o oxyfluorfen quanto o imazapyr apresentaram excelente controle das plantas daninhas. De todos os herbicidas avaliados, apenas o imazapyr não deve ser recomendado para aplicação sobre o dossel de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis, em face da toxicidade provocada.The selectivity of some herbicides were evaluated on Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis seedlings as well as these herbicide efficiencies in the weed control. When the tubule-produced seedlings were 20 cm height they were transplanted at 2,0 m x 2,0 m spacings in fourrows plots with 10,0 m length. The treatments with oxadiazil (600; 800 and 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 and 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazpyr (250 g ha-1 and controls (weeded and without weeding were disposed

  1. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  2. Response of needle dark respiration of Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations for four growing seasons' exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU YuMei; HAN ShiJie; ZHANG HaiSen; XIN LiHua; ZHENG JunQiang

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on needle dark respiration of two coniferous species-Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis on the Changbai Mountain was investigated using open-top chambers. P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis were exposed to 700,500μmol·mol-1 CO2 and ambient CO2(approx.350 μmol·mol-1)for four growing seasons. Needle dark respiration was measurd during the second, third and fourth growing seasons' exposure to elevated CO2.The results showed that needle dark respiration rate increased for P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis grown at elevated CO2 concentrations during the second growing season, could be attributed to the change of carbohydrate and/or nitrogen content of needles. Needle dark respiration of P. Koraiensis was stimulated and that of P. Sylvestriformis was inhibited by elevated CO2 concentrations during the third growing season. Different response of the two tree species to elevated CO2 mainly resulted from the difference in the growth rate. Elevated CO2 concentrations inhibited needle dark respiration of both P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis during the fourth growing season. There was consistent trend between the short-term effect and the long-term effect of elevated CO2 on needle dark respiration in P. Sylvestriformis during the third growing season by changing measurement CO2 concentrations. However, the short-term effect was different from the long-term effect for P. Koraiensis. Response of dark respiration of P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations was related to the treatment time of CO2 and the stage of growth and development of plant. The change of dark respiration for the two tree species was determined by the direct effect of CO2 and long-term acclimation. The prediction of the long-term response of needle dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration based on the short-term response is in dispute.

  3. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-05-16

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  4. Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles and bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià; Alves, Arminda

    2009-01-15

    Two different extraction strategies (microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic extraction (USE)) were tested in the extraction of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from pine trees. Extraction of needles and bark from two pine species common in the Iberian Peninsula (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) was optimized using two amounts of sample (1g and 5 g) and two PAHs spiking levels (20 ng/g and 100 ng/g). In all cases, the clean-up procedure following extraction consisted in solid-phase extraction (SPE) with alumina cartridges. Quantification was done by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS), using five deuterated PAH surrogate standards as internal standards. Limits of detection were globally below 0.2 ng/g. The method was robust for the matrices studied regardless of the extraction procedures. Recovery values between 70 and 130% were reached in most cases, except for high molecular weight PAHs (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene). A field study with naturally contaminated samples from eight sites (four in Portugal and four in Catalonia, Spain) showed that needles are more suitable biomonitors for PAHs, yielding concentrations from 2 to 17 times higher than those found in bark. The levels varied according to the sampling site, with the sum of the individual PAH concentrations between 213 and 1773 ng/g (dry weight). Phenanthrene was the most abundant PAH, followed by fluoranthene, naphthalene and pyrene.

  5. Isoenzymatic variability in progeny of Pinus mugo Turra x Pinus sylvestris L. hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem, in experimental culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the genetic structure of 12-year old seedlings. They were grown in an experimental culture representing the progeny of natural hybrids of Pinus mugo Turra and Pinus sylvestris L. from the peatbog Bór na Czerwonem. The studies were carried out on seedlings, employing electrophoresis of enzymatic proteins from winter buds. Parallel isoenzymatic analyses were also conducted for trees of P. mugo Turra from Tatra Mountains and for P. sylvestris L. trees from Białowieża in order to determine similarities of the hybrids to the 'pure' species, thought to represent parental forms, and for natural hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem. The obtained electrophoretic patterns made the determination of genetic structure of the population possible, namely of the observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, Wright's fixation index and coefficients of similarity according to Nei and Hedrick. Genetic distances between the populations were also estimated. The variability of 11 enzymatic loci demonstrated the highest level of variability in the population of hybrids. Coefficients of genetic differentiation (GST and of gene flow, (Nm suggested a close relationship of the hybrids to P. mugo which may indicate an introgressive type of the hybrid swarm, from which the studied trees originated. The analysis of genetic similarity coefficients, according to Nei and Hedrick, demonstrated also an extensive similarity of the two hybrid groups to P. mugo. However, upon analysis of individual enzymatic loci, some of them highly resembled P. mugo while others were similar to P. sylvestris. The closest genetic similarity was demonstrated for the group of hybrids from the peatbog and the respective of hybrides group from culture. The variable gene expression as well as asymmetric inheritance of isoenzymes provided additional evidence of the introgressive character of the studied trees from the hybrid population.

  6. 13C discriminations of Pinus sylvestris vs. Pinus ponderosa at a dry site in Brandenburg (eastern Germany): 100-year growth comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ralf; Insinna, Patrick A; Götz, Bernhard; Junge, Sebastian; Boettger, Tatjana

    2007-06-01

    The carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C, per thousand) and discrimination (Delta, per thousand) of old grown North American Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex P. et C. Laws. and European Pinus sylvestris L. were determined using trees grown under almost identical growing conditions in a mixed stand in Bralitz, Northeast Germany. Single-tree delta(13)C analyses of tree-ring cellulose of both species were carried out at a yearly resolution for the period 1901-2001 and the results compared with growth (basal area increment). Annual mean delta(13)C values for P. ponderosa ranged from-21.6 per thousand to-25.2 per thousand and for P. sylvestris from-21.4 per thousand to-24.4 per thousand. Accordingly, (13)C discrimination (Delta) showed higher values for P. ponderosa throughout the investigation period. Five characteristic periods of Delta were identified for both the tree species, reflecting positive and negative influences of environmental factors. Good growing conditions such as after-thinning events had a positive effect on Delta, reflecting higher values, while poor conditions like aridity and air pollution had a negative influence, reflecting lower values. The dynamics of Delta were likewise reflected in the growth (basal area increment, BAI). Higher (13)C discrimination values of P. ponderosa led to higher BAIs of P. ponderosa in comparison with P. sylvestris. Correlation function analyses confirmed that P. sylvestris was more dependent on precipitation than P. ponderosa, which showed a closer relationship with temperature. The results confirm that under predominantly dry growing conditions, P. ponderosa showed better growth performance than P. sylvestris, indicating better common intrinsic water-use efficiency and, therefore, higher rates of net photosynthesis at a given transpiration. In view of the prospect of climate change, the results are very significant for assessing both trees' physiological properties and, hence, their potential for coping with future growing

  7. Tree-ring analysis of crown competition and climatic sensitivity in Pinus strobus and P. sylvestris stands in the Elbe River Sandstone Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mácová, Marcela

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2001), s. 103-113 ISSN 1125-7865 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : dendroclimatology * Pinus strobus * Pinus sylvestris Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  8. Managing succession in conifer plantations: converting young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations to native forest types by thinning and underplantiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Ken A. Elliott; Daniel C. Dey; Eric Boysen; Steven G. Newmaster

    2001-01-01

    The effects of thinning on growth and survival of white pine (Pinus strobus L.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and understory plant diversity were examined in a young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation. Five years after thinning, seedling diameter,...

  9. Chemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Investigations of Pinus cembra L. Bark and Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Miron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical constituents and biological activity of Pinus cembra L. (Pinaceae, native to the Central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are not well known. The aim of the present work was to examine the phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of hydromethanolic extracts of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles. Bark extract had higher concentrations of total phenolics (299.3 vs. 78.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract, flavonoids (125.3 vs. 19.84 mg catechin equivalents/g extract and proanthocyanidins (74.3 vs. 12.7 mg cyanidin equivalents/g extract than needle extract and was more active as a free radical scavenger, reducing agent and antimicrobial agent. The EC50 values in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS and reducing power assays were 71.1, 6.3 and 26 mg/mL for bark extract and 186.1, 24 and 104 mg/mL for needle extract, respectively. In addition, needle extract showed ferrous ions chelating effects (EC50 = 1,755 μg/mL. The antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were assessed by the agar diffusion method. Both extracts (4 mg/well were active against all the microorganisms tested; bark extract showed higher inhibition on all strains. These results indicate that Pinus cembra L. bark and needles are good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  10. Drought Tolerance in Pinus halepensis Seed Sources As Identified by Distinctive Physiological and Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïbi, Khaled; Del Campo, Antonio D; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Bellés, José M; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Pla, Davinia; Calvete, Juan J; López-Nicolás, José M; Mulet, José M

    2017-01-01

    Drought is one of the main constraints determining forest species growth, survival and productivity, and therefore one of the main limitations for reforestation or afforestation. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different Pinus halepensis (common name Aleppo pine) seed sources, previously characterized in field trials as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits capable of predicting the ability of formerly uncharacterized seedlings to cope with drought stress. Gas-exchange, water potential, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, free amino acids, glutathione and proteomic analyses were carried out on control and drought-stressed seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Gas-exchange determinations were also assessed in field-planted seedlings in order to validate the greenhouse experimental conditions. Drought-tolerant seed sources presented higher values of photosynthetic rates, water use efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and soluble carbohydrates concentrations. We observed the same pattern of variation of photosynthesis rate and maximal efficiency of PSII in field. Interestingly drought-tolerant seed sources exhibited increased levels of glutathione, methionine and cysteine. The proteomic profile of drought tolerant seedlings identified two heat shock proteins and an enzyme related to methionine biosynthesis that were not present in drought sensitive seedlings, pointing to the synthesis of sulfur amino acids as a limiting factor for drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis . Our results established physiological and molecular traits useful as distinctive markers to predict drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis provenances that could be reliably used in reforestation programs in drought prone areas.

  11. Drought Tolerance in Pinus halepensis Seed Sources As Identified by Distinctive Physiological and Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Taïbi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the main constraints determining forest species growth, survival and productivity, and therefore one of the main limitations for reforestation or afforestation. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different Pinus halepensis (common name Aleppo pine seed sources, previously characterized in field trials as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits capable of predicting the ability of formerly uncharacterized seedlings to cope with drought stress. Gas-exchange, water potential, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, free amino acids, glutathione and proteomic analyses were carried out on control and drought-stressed seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Gas-exchange determinations were also assessed in field-planted seedlings in order to validate the greenhouse experimental conditions. Drought-tolerant seed sources presented higher values of photosynthetic rates, water use efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and soluble carbohydrates concentrations. We observed the same pattern of variation of photosynthesis rate and maximal efficiency of PSII in field. Interestingly drought-tolerant seed sources exhibited increased levels of glutathione, methionine and cysteine. The proteomic profile of drought tolerant seedlings identified two heat shock proteins and an enzyme related to methionine biosynthesis that were not present in drought sensitive seedlings, pointing to the synthesis of sulfur amino acids as a limiting factor for drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis. Our results established physiological and molecular traits useful as distinctive markers to predict drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis provenances that could be reliably used in reforestation programs in drought prone areas.

  12. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  13. Comparação gráfica entre curvas de índice de sítio para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda desenvolvidas no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; César Augusto Finger Guimarães; Paulo Renato Schneider; Peter Spathelf

    2002-01-01

    This research had as main objective to study the dominant height growth of Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda through site index curves comparisons in some regions of Rio Grande do Sul State and other states of the country. These comparisons showed that the site index curves made by Tonini (2000), for the southeastern mountain and coast land in Rio Grande do Sul State did not show the same pattern of those by Scolforo e Machado (1988), for Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil (1989a) fo...

  14. Comparação gráfica entre curvas de índice de sítio para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda desenvolvidas no sul do Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Paulo Renato Schneider; Peter Spathelf

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000) para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Macha...

  15. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  16. Pinus roxburghii plant needles as a three-season biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring along roadside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, Muhammad; Wasim, Mohammad; Khalid, Nasir; Waheed, Shahida [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.

    2015-07-01

    The present study deals with the determination of 36 elements in Pinus roxburghii plant needles to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. The elemental quantification was made by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The needles of Pinus roxburghii were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad. The method validation was performed by analyzing two certified reference materials i.e., Citrus leaves - NIST-SRM-1572 and IAEA-Soil-7. Pollution level was assessed by using three indicators: enrichment factor, pollution load index and average toxic element concentration. The results indicated that the needles of Pinus roxburghii plant had potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of high traffic areas.

  17. 13C/12C ratio variations in Pinus longaeva (bristlecone pine) cellulose during the last millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinsted, M.J.; Wilson, A.T.; Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Delta 13 C values are presented for cellulose samples prepared from two dendrochronologically dated Pinus longaeva (bristlecone pine) trees which grew during the last 1000 years. Delta 13 C variations for these forest border trees are similar to upper tree line ring-width variations for the same species and English high summer temperature variations for the same time period. However, the delta 13 C variations appear to be unrelated to lower forest border ring-width variations and cellulose deltaD variations for the same specimens. (Auth.)

  18. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil of Six Pinus Taxa Native to China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Qing; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Zhouqi

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana) were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%–20.55%), bornyl acetale (3.32%–12.71%), β-caryophellene (18.26%–26.31%), α-...

  19. Diferenciación adaptativa entre poblaciones de Pinus canariensis Chr. Sm. ex DC

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Rodriguez, Rosana

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN En el presente trabajo se han caracterizado la variabilidad genética y la plasticidad fenotípica de caracteres adaptativos en los distintos estados de desarrollo de Pinus canariensis. En dos ensayos de sequía llevados a cabo bajo condiciones controladas, las plántulas de pino canario mostraron adaptaciones morfológicas y fisiológicas adecuadas para la captación de agua y optimización de la fotosíntesis en ambientes áridos. Entre estas respuestas, ...

  20. Soil Enzyme Activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) Plantations in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn) following harvesting at two depths in the mineral soil (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm). Invertase and urease increased significantly with time sin...

  1. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  2. Change of the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation by a tree cover of Pinus pinaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Suarez, J. A.; Diaz-Fierros, F.; Soto, B.

    2009-01-01

    Throughfall and stem flow volume generation was measured over 1 year period in a Pinus pinaster stand 9 years old. Throughfall was measured using 8 collectors in a fixed position connected to a tipping bucket rainfall gauge in a representative 10 x 10 m plot of the forest and stem flow was measured in three trees using a rubber ring around the trunk connected to a tipping bucket rainfall gauge. The two tipping bucket rainfall gauges was connected to a data logger programmed to record data every 5 minutes. (Author) 4 refs.

  3. Storage products and tissue interaction in the ovule of Pinus silvestris (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Engels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organel-sequence in ovular cells of Pinus silvestris was investigated by light- and electronmicroscopy during the post-pollination and pre-fertilization period. Changes in starch and lipid storage suppose starch to be a pool for lipid synthesis and a reserve for ovule development. The base nucellus plays an important role in the distribution of metabolites all over the ovular tissues. Lipid, starch and callose are of interest for the cells to protect them against low temperatures by means of isolation, antifreeze and plug formation respectively.

  4. Madera de compresión en Pinus radiata III: propiedades de pulpas kraft

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-vaz,J.E; Ananias,R. A; Valenzuela,L; Torres,M; Rodriguez,S

    2012-01-01

    Estudios anteriores en estos mismos árboles de Pinus radiata con fustes levemente inclinados, demostraron que la madera de compresión leve que ellos exhibían presentaba: traqueidas más cortas, mayor densidad, mayor proporción de lignina, mayor proporción de extraíbles en etanol tolueno y menor proporción de alfa celulosa que la madera opuesta y que la madera de árboles sin madera de compresión. En el presente estudio se analiza las propiedades pulpables de la madera de compresión y la de sus ...

  5. Interannual variations in needle and sapwood traits of Pinus edulis branches under an experimental drought

    OpenAIRE

    Guérin, Marceau; Martin‐Benito, Dario; von Arx, Georg; Andreu‐Hayles, Laia; Griffin, Kevin L.; Hamdan, Rayann; McDowell, Nate G.; Muscarella, Robert; Pockman, William; Gentine, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the southwestern USA, recent large‐scale die‐offs of conifers raise the question of their resilience and mortality under droughts. To date, little is known about the interannual structural response to droughts. We hypothesized that piñon pines (Pinus edulis) respond to drought by reducing the drop of leaf water potential in branches from year to year through needle morphological adjustments. We tested our hypothesis using a 7‐year experiment in central New Mexico with three wateri...

  6. Densidad de la madera de Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws) en tres localidades de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    JOVANOVSKI, A; JARAMILLO, M; LOGUERCIO, G; ANTEQUERA, S

    2002-01-01

    Se estudió el ancho de anillo, la densidad básica de la madera y su variación y la relación entre ancho de anillo y densidad en Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex. Laws) creciendo en tres localidades de la Patagonia andina argentina. El ancho de anillo obtenido se corresponde con una conífera de rápido crecimiento, mientras que la densidad media es levemente menor que la de la especie creciendo en los sitios de origen en Estados Unidos. Ring-width growth, wood specific gravity and its variation, a...

  7. Essential oils composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae growing on Pelister Mtn., Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from needles, from branches without needles and from branches with needles of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae from Pelister Mtn. (R. Macedonia was analyzed by GC/FID/MS. One hundred and seven components (40 monoterpenes, 37 sesquiterpenes, 9 diterpenes and 21 other components - aliphatic and cyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, and acids; phenols and other oxygenated benzene derivates were identified. The most abundant constituents were terpene hydrocarbons, encompassing the monoterpenes: α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene + β-phellandrene and bornyl acetate and the sesquiterpenes: trans (E-caryophyllene and germacrene D.

  8. Sapwood area ofPinus contorta stands as a function of mean size and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James N; Dean, Thomas J

    1986-09-01

    An indirect test of the relationship between leaf area and the combination of mean size and density is made in stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.). Total sapwood cross-sectional area of these stands is a function of the product of density and mean diameter raised to an exponent of about 1.6. Results from other studies, representing four species, suggest that this relationship between sapwood area and the combination of mean size and density may be general. The implications of the relationship are discussed in the context of evapotranspiration, competition and self-thinning.

  9. Effect of gamma rays doses on pollen germination, polysiphony and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula Schiede et Deppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katiyar, S.R.; Chauhan, Y.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present study aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula. Pollen germination and pollen tube elongation are stimulated by low doses of radiation. Although higher doses of radiation inhibit the germination of pollen, pollen tube elongation remains unaffected. Thus in Pinus patula pollen tube elongation is less radiosensitive than pollen germination. Compared to control pollen, irradiated pollen produced more number of long pollen tubes. Therefore pollen tube size can be improved using low doses of radiation. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tables

  10. A Comparative Study on Turpentine Oils of Oleoresins of Pinus sylvestris L. from Three Districts of Denizli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Tümen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oleoresin samples collected from Pinus sylvestris L. trees from Acıpayam, Çal and Çamlıbel, three different locations in Denizli-Turkey. The constituents of the turpentine oil, obtained by hydrodistillation of oleoresin of Pinus sylvestris L., were identified by GC-MS. Fifty four constituents were detected from the turpentine oil, which constituted about between 96.2% and 98.2% of the total amount. Major constituents of the oil were a-pinene, b-pinene, camphene, longifolene, D3-carene, limonene and b-caryophyllene

  11. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  12. Variation of weigh and viability of seeds of Pinus tropicalis from different populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bonilla Vichot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinus tropicalis Morelet is endemic in the province of Pinar del Rio and Isla de la Juventud. In this paper the variation is evaluated in weight and viability of seeds from 4 seed areas of the province of Pinar del Rio, Cuba, which were harvested in July and stored for five months at room temperature until They were made to the corresponding analysis. Samples of each of the sources weretaken to determine the weight of 1000 seeds, as established methodology ISTA (1993. Viability was also determined from the tetrazolium Test. It was observed that the individual weight of the seeds of Pinus tropicalis has 0,0051g values to 0,050g, while the average weight of 1000 seeds shows variation by origin, showing the greatest weight to the seeds from the seed mass Ceja del Negro (orchard seedling genetically enhanced trees, which directly influences the quality of seeds. The viability was also superior in the origin of Ceja del Negro.

  13. Simulation of Tsunami Resistance of a Pinus Thunbergii tree in Coastal Forest in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanko, K.; Suzuki, S.; Noguchi, H.; Hagino, H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests reduce fluid force of tsunami, whereas extreme tsunami sometimes breaks down the forest trees. It is difficult to estimate the interactive relationship between the fluid and the trees because fluid deform tree architecture and deformed tree changes flow field. Dynamic tree deformation and fluid behavior should be clarified by fluid-structure interaction analysis. For the initial step, we have developed dynamic simulation of tree sway and breakage caused by tsunami based on a vibrating system with multiple degrees of freedom. The target specie of the simulation was Japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii), which is major specie in the coastal forest to secure livelihood area from the damage by blown sand and salt in Japanese coastal area. For the simulation, a tree was segmented into 0.2 m long circular truncated cones. Turning moment induced by tsunami and self-weight was calculated at each segment bottom. Tree deformation was computed on multi-degree-of-freedom vibration equation. Tree sway was simulated by iterative calculation of the tree deformation with time step 0.05 second with temporally varied flow velocity of tsunami. From the calculation of bending stress and turning moment at tree base, we estimated resistance of a Pinus thunbergii tree from tsunami against tree breakage.

  14. Effect of Pinus radiata derived biochars on soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Honghua; Lin Kunde; Wang Hailong; Gan, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Biochars are anthropogenic carbonaceous sorbent and their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants need to be characterized. Here we evaluated the effect of Pinus radiata derived biochars on soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene. Two biochars separately produced at 350 o C and 700 o C and three soils were tested. Biochar amendment generally enhanced the soil sorption of phenanthrene. The biochar produced at 700 o C generally showed a greater ability at enhancing a soil's sorption ability than that prepared at 350 o C. The single-step desorption measurement showed an apparent hysteresis in biochar-amended soils. After 28 d equilibration, the sorptive capacity of biochar-amended soil (with an organic carbon content of 0.16%) significantly decreased. This study clearly suggested that biochar application enhanced soil sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds, but the magnitude of enhancement depended on the preparation of biochars, the indigenous soil organic carbon levels, and the contact time between soil and biochar. - Pinus radiata derived biochars influence soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene.

  15. Liming and fertilisation in Pinus taeda plantations with severe nutrient deficiency in savanna soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils with high acidity and low exchangeable bases may be responsible for low yields of Pinus taeda in a forest plantation at Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and fertilisation, applied over litter, on two selected areas with Pinus taeda plantations. Soil, litter and pine needles were evaluated for K, Ca and Mg concentrations and soil acidity parameters. Seven treatments were applied: (i complete (N, P, K, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and lime; (ii without N, P, and K; (iii without Zn, Cu, B, and Mo; (iv without K; (v without Zn; (vi without lime; and (vii control (without nutrients and lime. Soil samples were collected at five soil depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm simultaneously with litter samples. Needles were also collected from the first and second pine flushes. Liming induced soil pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increases, and the opposite was observed for Al3+ and Al saturation. Fertilisation increased soil exchangeable K+ concentrations and needle and litter K concentrations. The low Ca and Mg concentrations found in the plant needles might be attributable to their low mobility.

  16. Xylose-rich polysaccharides from the primary walls of embryogenic cell line of Pinus caribaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, A; Domon, J M; David, H; Joseleau, J P

    1997-08-01

    Embryogenic cell lines of Pinus caribaea were isolated from somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos. Previous studies showed that the proteins and glycoproteins were characteristic of the embryogenic state. In the present work we were seeking typical feature in the polysaccharide from the cell walls of embryogenic calli at nine days of culture. Sequential extraction with water, ammonium oxalate, dimethyl sulfoxide, sodium borohydride and 4.3 M potassium hydroxide revealed that the extracted polysaccharides contained high proportions of arabinose and significant amounts of xylose. Fractionation of the hydrosoluble polymers on DEAE cellulose afforded a xylose-rich fraction (80% xylose, 24% glucose and lower properties of fucose and mannose). Methylation analysis and 13C-NMR spectra showed that the glycan backbone consisted of beta 1 --> 4 linked xylosyl residues Similar study of the fractions extracted respectively with DMSO and 4.3 M KOH showed the presence of polydisperse glycoxylans but excluded the presence of xyloglucan in significant amount. This could be a characteristic feature of embryogenic cells walls of Pinus caribaea or could be typical of cells grown as calluses. In the various fractions obtained from DEAE cellulose chromatography of the alkaline extract the infrequent occurrence of fucoxylans beside an arabinogalactan showed again the unusual nature of the cell wall polymers of this embryogenic lines, which seems to differ greatly from those found in the primary wall of cells from suspension cultures.

  17. Ecophysiological responses of Pinus leucodermis at high elevation in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri MR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pinus leucodermis Antoine (= Pinus heldreichii var. leucodermis is a species of the Balkan flora which in Italy grows in a small area between the Regions of Basilicata and Calabria, in the Pollino National Park. A relict of the oro-Mediterranean Tertiary forests, it is found from the lower vegetation belt, where it is mixed with evergreen sclerophyllous vegetation, up to the alpine vegetation belt beyond the closed formations of Fagus sylvatica, where it makes up stands with very old, isolated and big trees growing in open spaces between rocks. The ecophysiological and dendrochronolgy features of the P. leucodermis stands growing on the west slope of Serra di Crispo (Monte Pollino, between 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l., have been studied during recent years and some of the results are presented in this work. Ecophysiological measurements in situ show that reduced atmospheric vapour pressure deficit conditions, due to humid currents from the western Tyrrhenian Sea, allow the trees to escape from summer drought. When day summer weather conditions are optimal P. leucodermis exhibits a remarkable photosynthetic activity and adaptation to high irradiance. The tree ring width chronology documents a marked reduction of radial growth from 1950 to 1985, followed by a strong recovery, still continuing. In the same period differences between the annual minimum and maximum temperatures tend to increase. Anthropic and grazing pressure is reduced markedly after the institution of the National Park of Pollino.

  18. A review of Sphaeropsis sapinea occurrence on Pinus species in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Georgieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr. Dyko & Sutton causes shoot blight and canker disease throughout the world on conifers predisposed by stress. The disease is most important to Pinus species that are affected from the seedling stage in nurseries to mature trees in ornamental planting, forest plantations and natural stands. In Bulgaria, the first findings of the disease were noted in 1989 on Pinus nigra plantations in the North-eastern part of the country. Over the past few years, new emergency and severe damages have developed rapidly as a consequence of the prolonged drought periods during the last growing seasons. The high existence of S. sapinea outbreaks contributed considerably to the physiological weakness of pine trees that become more susceptible to attack by aggressive xylophages and other fungal pathogens. Disease occurrence and its pathogenicity are economically important affecting a number of pine trees from all ages. In Bulgaria, S. sapinea has been obtained on six pine species P. nigra, P. strobus, P. radiata, P. ponderosa, P. pinaster and P. halepensis. The aim of this review is to present the available knowledge on distribution, host specificity, biology, ecology, management of the disease, and to discuss its current prevalence and pathogenicity effect on pine species in Bulgaria.

  19. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime.

  20. Photosynthesis, chloroplast pigments, and antioxidants in Pinus canariensis under free-air ozone fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Then, Ch.; Herbinger, K.; Luis, V.C.; Heerdt, C.; Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.

    2009-01-01

    High O 3 levels, driving uptake and challenging defense, prevail on the Canary Islands, being associated with the hot and dry summers of the Mediterranean-type climate. Pinus canariensis is an endemic conifer species that forms forests across these islands. We investigated the effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biochemical parameters of P. canariensis seedlings exposed to free-air O 3 fumigation at Kranzberg Forest, Germany, where ambient O 3 levels were similar to those at forest sites in the Canary Islands. The twice-ambient O 3 regime (2xO 3 ) neither caused visible injury-like chlorotic or necrotic spots in the needles nor significantly affected violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin levels and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle. In parallel, stomatal conductance for water vapour, net photosynthesis, intercellular CO 2 concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, as well as antioxidant levels were hardly affected. It is concluded that presently prevailing O 3 levels do not impose severe stress on P. canariensis seedlings. - Twice-ambient ozone does not significantly affect the physiological behavior of Pinus canariensis seedlings

  1. The effects of high energy radiation on the pulping properties of Pinus radiation and Eucalyptus regnans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, K.G.; Garland, C.P.; Higgins, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been made of the effects of high energy radiation on the pulping behaviour of Eucalyptus regnans and Pinus radiata. Pre-irradiation of wood chips with small doses of 60 Co gamma radiation (up to about 0.2 Mrad) caused little degradation of the cellulose, and had only minor effects on the kraft pulping properties of both wood species. Pulp yield, Kappa number and strength properties of the pulps showed little change. There was also little effect on the bisulphite cooking of Pinus radiata. As the dose was increased to 1 Mrad, degradation of cellulose (as indicated by degree of polymerisation measurements) became significant, and Kraft pulp yields from both woods showed small reductions. The Kappa number and physical properties of these pulps were little affected at this dose level. A gamma radiation dose of 10 Mrad produced marked depolymerisation of the cellulose, and big reductions in kraft and neutral sulphite semi-chemical pulp yields. The kraft pulps showed a much higher lignin content. Some low dose (0.15 Mrad) irradiations on thin chips were carried out with a 1 MeV electron accelerator. In contrast to comparable gamma irradiations, this treatment produced discernible changes in kraft pulping behaviour. The pulp yield, under the same cooking conditions, appears to be slightly higher, but the Lignin content of the pulp was increased. (Author)

  2. PpRT1: the first complete gypsy-like retrotransposon isolated in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheta, Margarida; Cordeiro, Jorge; Oliveira, M; Miguel, Célia

    2007-02-01

    We have isolated and characterized a complete retrotransposon sequence, named PpRT1, from the genome of Pinus pinaster. PpRT1 is 5,966 bp long and is closely related to IFG7 gypsy retrotransposon from Pinus radiata. The long terminal repeats (LTRs) have 333 bp each and show a 5.4% sequence divergence between them. In addition to the characteristic polypurine tract (PPT) and the primer binding site (PBS), PpRT1 carries internal regions with homology to retroviral genes gag and pol. The pol region contains sequence motifs related to the enzymes protease, reverse transcriptase, RNAseH and integrase in the same typical order known for Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons. PpRT1 was extended from an EST database sequence indicating that its transcription is occurring in pine tissues. Southern blot analyses indicate however, that PpRT1 is present in a unique or a low number of copies in the P. pinaster genome. The differences in nucleotide sequence found between PpRT1 and IFG7 may explain the strikingly different copy number in the two pine species genome. Based on the homologies observed when comparing LTR region among different gypsy elements we propose that the highly conserved LTR regions may be useful to amplify other retrotransposon sequences of the same or close retrotransposon family.

  3. Characterization of a type-A response regulator differentially expressed during adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, José M; Cortizo, Millán; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2012-12-15

    The molecular cloning and characterization of PipsRR1, a type-A response regulator in Pinus pinaster, is reported here. Type-A response regulators mediate downstream responses to cytokinin and act as negative feedback regulators of the signal transduction pathway. Some type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis have been related to de novo meristem formation. However, little information exists in Pinus spp. The PipsRR1 gene contains 5 exons, as do all type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis, and the deduced protein contains a receiver domain with the conserved DDK residues and a short C terminal extension. Expression analysis showed that the PipsRR1 gene is differentially expressed during the first phases of adventitious caulogenesis induced by benzyladenine in P. pinaster cotyledons, suggesting that PipsRR1 plays a role in caulogenesis in conifers. Additionally, a binary vector carrying the PipsRR1 promoter driving GFP:GUS expression was constructed to analyze the promoter activity in P. pinaster somatic embryos. The results of genetic transformation showed GUS activity during somatic embryo mass proliferation and embryo maturation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Landsat satellite imagery to detect small-size forest stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae; Uso de imagenes satelite Landsat para la deteccion de rodales de Pinus nigra Arn. y Pinus sylvestris L. afectados por escolitidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, E.; Bonet, J. A.; Eizaguirre, M.

    2009-07-01

    Medium resolution images from multispectral sensors like Landsat TM have been extensively used for decades in order to identify decline and defoliation generated by insects and other forest pests. The present work analyses the usefulness of these kinds of images to detect small-size stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae attacks. The study area was located in the Solsones region (Eastern Pyrenees), selecting 34 training zones (17 damaged small-size stands and 17 healthy small-size stands). The exploratory analysis of the images was conducted with the ERDAS IMAGINE 8.x. program.The results of the study showed significant differences between the affected and non-affected stands in 5 of the 7 spectral bands analysed. TM5 and TM7 bands were identified as those having the highest power to detect damaged stands. The digital levels obtained and the spaces of characteristics created, both showed trends to group small-size affected stands versus healthy, achieving improvements in the methodological procedure employed. (Author) 31 refs.

  5. Biogeochemical assessment of environmental risk by the example of Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Dmitry Sergeevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using annual rings of Pinus sylvestris L. to assess chemical pollution in the Republic of Karelia is discussed. With the help of principal component factor analysis the relationship between the contents of chemical elements and dendrological parameters – the width of annual rings and wood density - was revealed. The main factors contributing to the pollution of the northern part of the Republic of Karelia by the emission from iron-ore enterprise JSC «Karelsky Okatysh» are frequent ecologically significant wind directions, the distance from the source and the total mass of the emission. The value of radial growth (the average width of annual rings for five-years of Pinus sylvestris L. is connected negatively with the content of Cu, Cd, Ni and Fe. As an element of nutrition, Mn is positively correlated with the density of wood wherein it is an antagonist of Fe and partially of Cr in northern areas . Several peaks of Pb content coincide with the most intense tests of atomic weapons. Sharp maximums of Pb can also be due to a cross-border pollution and emission from regional sources.

  6. Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paricá- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda were disposed in the face layer to reinforce the structural strength of LVL panels. The LVL quality was evaluated using glue line shear strength and static bending test (MOE and MOR, edge and flat. Grading of paricá veneers based on MOEd did not affected significantly the results of the glue line shear strength and MOE and MOR edge. For the MOE and MOR flat, the use of veneers of MOEd grade 1 contributed significantly to increasing the average values of these properties. In the same way, using the Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of LVL resulted in higher average values of MOE and MOR, edge and flat.

  7. [Spectral features analysis of Pinus massoniana with pest of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and levels detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang-Hua; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-Yong; Gong, Cong-Hong; Xie, Wan-Jun; Tang, Meng-Ya; Lai, Ri-Wen; Li, Zeng-Lu

    2013-02-01

    Taking 51 field measured hyperspectral data with different pest levels in Yanping, Fujian Province as objects, the spectral reflectance and first derivative features of 4 levels of healthy, mild, moderate and severe insect pest were analyzed. On the basis of 7 detecting parameters construction, the pest level detecting models were built. The results showed that (1) the spectral reflectance of Pinus massoniana with pests were significantly lower than that of healthy state, and the higher the pest level, the lower the reflectance; (2) with the increase in pest level, the spectral reflectance curves' "green peak" and "red valley" of Pinus massoniana gradually disappeared, and the red edge was leveleds (3) the pest led to spectral "green peak" red shift, red edge position blue shift, but the changes in "red valley" and near-infrared position were complicated; (4) CARI, RES, REA and REDVI were highly relevant to pest levels, and the correlations between REP, RERVI, RENDVI and pest level were weak; (5) the multiple linear regression model with the variables of the 7 detection parameters could effectively detect the pest levels of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, with both the estimation rate and accuracy above 0.85.

  8. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Gülcü

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p>0.05 for the characters, while there were significant differences (p≤0.05 among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA. Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p<0.05 correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  9. Primer registro de Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea asociado con Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae en Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A. GOMEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes es un gorgojo de rostro corto, distribuido en la Argentina y Chile, que habita en ambientes áridos asociado con vegetación xerofítica y alcanza el rango más austral entre los miembros de la tribu Naupactini. Un relevamiento de insectos y de patógenos como plagas potenciales, realizado durante el 2005 en plantaciones de Pinus spp. en la Patagonia andina argentina, resultó en el hallazgo de adultos de N. ruizi que se alimentaban de acículas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. Este hallazgo es sorprendente dado que las especies de Naupactini, consumen casi exclusivamente angiospermas. Interpretamos que el cambio de huésped, habría ocurrido como consecuencia de una colonización reciente favorecida por la amplia distribución geográfica del gorgojo y su capacidad para sobrevivir en hábitats marginales, donde probablemente las plantas nativas son escasas y el nuevo huésped presenta una gran abundancia local.

  10. Short Communication. Physiological effects of Rhizopogon Roseolus on Pinus halepensis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Alfonso Domínguez Núñez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The inoculation of forest seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi can improve the morphological and physiological qualities of plants, especially those used for regeneration of arid areas. Rhizopogon roseolus is an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM commonly used for reforestation. In this study, the specific objectives were to know some morphophysiological effects of Rhizopogon Roseolus on Pinus halepensis seedlings under standard nursery conditionsArea of study: ETSI Montes and EUIT Forestal, Madrid.Material and Methods: In nursery, under well watered conditions and peat growing substrates, Aleppo pine seedlings were inoculated with R. roseolus. Five months after the inoculations, we examined the growth, water parameters (osmotic potential at full turgor [Ψπfull], osmotic potential at zero turgor [Ψπ0], and the tissue modulus of elasticity near full turgor [Emax], mycorrhizal colonization, and concentration and content of macronutrients in the seedlings. Subsequently, a trial was conducted to assess the root growth potential.Main results: The mycorrhization decreased the height and diameter of mycorrhizal seedlings but increased the root weight and root branching. R. roseolus did not cause any significant effect on the regeneration of new roots or on any of the tested hydric parameters, but it did improve N uptake of the seedlings.Research highlights: The mycorrhizal inoculation increased the N uptake. The mycorrhizal inoculation caused opposite effects on some growth parametersKeywords: Osmotic adjustment; elastic adjustment; mineral nutrition; root growth potential; nursery; Rhizopogon roseolus;  Pinus halepensis. 

  11. Phisyological quality of Pinus elliotti Engelm. seeds subjected to differents storage methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Geraldo Fonseca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing demand for forest products, it is necessary to increase knowledge about the tree species of economic importance, especially in relation to seed storage. One method to study forest species is the storage of seeds. Cryopreservation is the cheapest and the most efficient method of seed preservation. The objective of this study was to test the behavior of Pinus elliottii Engelm. seeds storaged on liquid nitrogen; laboratory environment and refrigerator. The experiment was conducted in the seed Laboratory of the Federal University of the Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valley. The seeds were donated by Rigesa Ltda on June 2007. Three types of storage were tested: 1 liquid nitrogen temperature of -196 º C, 2 laboratory environment, 3 refrigerator. All treatments were evaluated at 0, 40, 80 and 120 days of storage. The vigor, germination and germination rate tests were mounted on gerbox with blotters and moistened with distilled water and kept in BOD incubator chamber at 25 º C. Seeds length, green mass and dry mass were also evaluated. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% significance level. It was found that there was loss of quality of the Pinus elliottii seeds in all treatments. Cryopreservation of P. elliotii seeds can be used as an alternative of storage in genebanks.

  12. Fauna do solo em áreas com Eucalyptus spp. E Pinus elliottii, Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Jacques Soares

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work started in the spring in 1996 and finished in the winter in 1997 and it had as its objective to study the populational survey of soil fauna in the Pinus elliotti and Eucalyptus spp. in areas situaded in “Campus” at Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. An extractor was utilized to collect the soil from 10 sample points, in the 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 cm of soil depth, in each season of the year. With this study it was possible to identify some representants of Phylum Annelida and Arthropoda who belong to fauna-soil-vegetable context. The individual total, its percentile and number of individual for square meter were obtained. It was observed the predominance of Phylum Arthropoda and, in special, of Insecta class in the Eucalyptus spp. area; and the Phylum Annelida in the Pinus elliottii area. The depth variable originated mathematical models to explain the populational distribution for each studied areas. The seasons of year variable did not show a significative difference. It was not possible to establish a populational distribution model.

  13. Selection of seed lots of Pinus taeda L. for tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pascoal Golle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the fungi genera associated with three Pinus taeda L. seed lots and to assess the sanitary and physiological quality of these lots for use as selection criteria for tissue culture and evaluate the in vitro establishment of explants from seminal origin in different nutritive media. It was possible to discriminate the lots on the sanitary and physiological quality, as well as to establish in vitro plants of Pinus taeda from cotyledonary nodes obtained from aseptic seed germination of a selected lot by the sanitary and physiological quality higher. The nutritive media MS, ½ MS and WPM were equally suitable for this purpose. For the sanitary analysis the fungal genera Fusarium, Penicillium and Trichoderma were those of the highest sensitivity. For the physiological evaluation were important the variables: abnormal seedlings, strong normal seedlings; length, fresh and dry weight of strong normal seedlings. The analyzes were favorable to choose lots of seeds for in vitro culture and all culture media were adequate for the establishment of this species in tissue culture.

  14. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from cones of Pinus koraiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Yang, Hye-Young; Lee, Hong-Sub; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2008-03-01

    The essential oil from the cones of Pinus koraiensis was prepared after removing the seeds, and its chemical composition analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation of the P. koraiensis cones yielded 1.07% (v/w) of essential oil, which was almost three times the amount of essential oil extracted from the needles of the same plant. Moreover, the antimicrobial activities of the oil against the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi were evaluated using the agar disc diffusion method and broth microdilution method. Eighty-seven components, comprising about 96.8% of the total oil, were identified. The most abundant oil components were limonene (27.90%), alpha-pinene (23.89%), beta-pinene (12.02%), 3-carene (4.95%), beta-myrcene (4.53%), isolongifolene (3.35%), (-)-bornyl acetate (2.02%), caryophyllene (1.71%), and camphene (1.54%). The essential oil was confirmed to have significant antimicrobial activities, especially against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida glabrata YFCC 062 and Cryptococcus neoformans B 42419. Therefore, the present results indicate that the essential oil from the cones of Pinus koraiensis can be used in various ways as a nontoxic and environmentally friendly disinfectant.

  15. High seed dispersal ability of Pinus canariensis in stands of contrasting density inferred from genotypic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai López de Heredia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Models that combine parentage analysis from molecular data with spatial information of seeds and seedlings provide a framework to describe and identify the factors involved in seed dispersal and recruitment of forest species. In the present study we used a spatially explicit method (the gene shadow model in order to assess primary and effective dispersal in Pinus canariensis. Area of study: Pinus canariensis is endemic to the Canary Islands (Spain. Sampling sites were a high density forest in southern slopes of Tenerife and a low density stand in South Gran Canaria. Materials and methods: We fitted models based on parentage analysis from seeds and seedlings collected in two sites with contrasting stand density, and then compared the resulting dispersal distributions. Main results: The results showed that: 1 P. canariensis has a remarkable dispersal ability compared to other pine species; 2 there is no discordance between primary and effective dispersals, suggesting limited secondary dispersal by animals and lack of Janzen-Connell effect; and 3 low stand densities enhance the extent of seed dispersal, which was higher in the low density stand. Research highlights: The efficient dispersal mechanism of P. canariensis by wind inferred by the gene shadow model is congruent with indirect measures of gene flow, and has utility in reconstructing past demographic events and in predicting future distribution ranges for the species.

  16. ORIGEM DOS COMPOSTOS HIDROFÓBICOS E SEUS EFEITOS EM FLORESTAS DE Pinus E Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Saldanha Vogelmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobicity can be understood as the soil water repellency or difficulty to soil wetting. This is associated with the coating of soil particles by hydrophobic organic substances and currently there are numerous reports of water repellency in forest areas of Eucalyptus and Pinus. Thus, this study aims at reviewing and listing the aspects related to the origin of hydrophobic compounds and the effects of the water dynamics in the forest environment, as well as implications in growth and development of trees in Eucalyptus and Pinus forests. It is recognized that the local vegetation and some bacteria and fungi, depending on their chemical composition, may release hydrophobic organic substances. Another risk factor is the occurrence of burnings which induce changes in organic compounds and promote soil drying. Furthermore, the particle size distribution and the soil pH may be indirectly associated with the occurrence of soil water repellency The occurrence of hydrophobicity requires special attention regarding the soil use and management, because this repellency affects the water movement on the surface and inside the soil profile. Changes in sorptivity, reduction in water infiltration, increase in runoff and occurrence of preferential flow are the main hydrological effects of this phenomenon. Due to their lower infiltration rates there is increased the surface flow and reducing the amount of water available, increasing the erosion and, consequently affecting the growth and development of plants.

  17. Orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda wood Forças de corte ortogonal na madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gonçalves

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The distinct characteristics of juvenile and mature woods, which are observed particularly in softwoods, have an influence on processing due to their different mechanical resistance properties in relation to cutting operations. In the past, when most of the wood used industrially came from adult trees of natural forests, little importance was given to a distinction between different zones of the tree stem. At present, however, as the supply of mature trees with large diameters from native forests is constantly decreasing, the use of short-cycle trees has become a common practice, through the adoption of species that grow relatively fast, such as pines and eucalyptus. In both softwoods and hardwoods, juvenile wood cells are generally smaller and thinner than in mature wood, and this reflects on their density and mechanical resistance, which should have an effect on the cutting forces developed during processing. The main object of this research was to evaluate orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda woods. Cutting force magnitude differences were observed for those two regions of the trunk, with parallel cutting forces being 33.4% higher, on average, at the mature wood region for 90-0 cutting, and 12% higher for 90-90 cutting. This result is consistent with the distinct anatomical structures of the material, since the forces developed during machining depend directly upon its properties.As características distintas dos lenhos juvenil e adulto, existentes principalmente na formação das coníferas, influenciam na usinagem devido às diferentes propriedades de resistência mecânica ao corte. No passado, quando a maior parte da madeira utilizada industrialmente era proveniente de árvores adultas de florestas naturais, pouca importância era dada à diferenciação de zonas no tronco. Atualmente, no entanto, com o decréscimo constante do suprimento de árvores adultas de grandes diâmetros, provenientes de florestas nativas

  18. Response of needle dark respiration of Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentra-tions for four growing seasons’ exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on needle dark respiration of two coniferous spe- cies—Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis on the Changbai Mountain was investigated using open-top chambers. P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis were exposed to 700, 500 μmol·mol-1 CO2 and ambient CO2 (approx. 350 μmol·mol-1) for four growing seasons. Needle dark respiration was meas- ured during the second, third and fourth growing seasons’ exposure to elevated CO2. The results showed that needle dark respiration rate increased for P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis grown at elevated CO2 concentrations during the second growing season, could be attributed to the change of carbohydrate and/or nitrogen content of needles. Needle dark respiration of P. koraiensis was stimu- lated and that of P. sylvestriformis was inhibited by elevated CO2 concentrations during the third growing season. Different response of the two tree species to elevated CO2 mainly resulted from the difference in the growth rate. Elevated CO2 concentrations inhibited needle dark respiration of both P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis during the fourth growing season. There was consistent trend be- tween the short-term effect and the long-term effect of elevated CO2 on needle dark respiration in P. sylvestriformis during the third growing season by changing measurement CO2 concentrations. How- ever, the short-term effect was different from the long-term effect for P. koraiensis. Response of dark respiration of P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations was related to the treatment time of CO2 and the stage of growth and development of plant. The change of dark respiration for the two tree species was determined by the direct effect of CO2 and long-term acclimation. The prediction of the long-term response of needle dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration based on the short-term response is in dispute.

  19. Fire Frequency Effects on Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris P. Miller) Vegetation in South Carolina and Northeast Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff S. Glitzenstein; Donna R. Streng; Dale D. Wade

    2003-01-01

    Southeastern United States habitats dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus pulutris P. Miller) have declined precipitously in area and extent. Conservation of diverse ground-layer vegetation in these endangered habitats depends on prescribed fire. While the need for prescribed fire is now generally accepted, there is disagreement concerning the most...

  20. Perspective of use of Pinus sylvestris L. as biological indicator of areas with low level radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragan, G.I.; Dragan, N.V.; Levon, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates data about distinct of Pinus sylvestris as biological indicator. Especially important is discovered distinctiveness of reactions of Pinus sylvestris to low level radioactive pollution. To identify radioactive pollution in habitats using biological indicators it is recommended the following complex of markers of functions of vegetative and reproductive systems of Pinus sylvestris: specific changes in architectonic of tree crowns; increase in number of annual cycles of growth to two or three and duration of active vegetation drastic change in morphogenesis of vegetative shoots in secondary (summer) shoots; formation of intermediate structures (combined buds and shoots) with mosaic development of some metamers with regular or affected structure; stimulation of buds (general increase of points of growth and appearance of additional ways of their formation); specific changes in gistogenesis of needles; hollow tar channels filled with sclerenhyma or parenchyma ect.; interruption of morphogenesis of male reproductive shoots; increase in the number of abnormal pollen grains to 70%; abnormal branching of pollen channels. All affects in vegetative system of Pinus sylvestris take place at the age of up to 12-14 (20) years. (authors)

  1. Object-based semi-automatic approach for forest structure characterization using lidar data in heterogeneous Pinus sylvestris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Pascual; A. Garcia-Abril; L.G. Garcia-Montero; S. Martin-Fernandez; W.B. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage approach for characterizing the structure of Pinus sylvestris L. stands in forests of central Spain. The first stage was to delimit forest stands using eCognition and a digital canopy height model (DCHM) derived from lidar data. The polygons were then clustered into forest structure types based on the DCHM data...

  2. Needle terpenoid composition of Pinus halepensis (Mill.) Trees infested by the scale insect Marchalina hellenica (Genn.) in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassios Gallis; Carlos Arrabal; Aristotle C. Papageorgiou; Maria C. Garcia-Vallejo

    2012-01-01

    Needle terpenoid composition was determined by using GLC-MS in Pinus halepensis (Mill.) trees that were infested and not infested by the scale insect Marchalina hellenica. The study area was within the Forest National Park of the Cape Sounion, southern Attica region, Greece. A total of 43 compounds, 32 of which were identified...

  3. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero; Domingo Moreno; Vicente J. Monleon; Fernando Arredondo-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to...

  4. Association genetics of growth and adaptive traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using whole-exome-discovered polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengmeng Lu; Konstantin V. Krutovsky; C. Dana Nelson; Jason B. West; Nathalie A. Reilly; Carol A. Loopstra

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, forest genetics research began over 100 years ago and loblolly pine breeding programs were established in the 1950s. However, the genetics underlying complex traits of loblolly pine remains to be discovered. To address this, adaptive and growth traits were measured and analyzed in a clonally tested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) population. Over 2.8 million...

  5. Strong effects of a plantation with Pinus patula on Andean Subparamo vegetation: a case study from Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesenbeeck, van B.K.; Mourik, van T.A.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a pine plantation on a native subparamo system in the Andes of Colombia (3 100 In above sea level) was studied. The vegetation of an 8 year-old plantation with Pinus patula was compared to that of the surrounding native subparamo. 59 plots made in the subparamo vegetation contained 121

  6. Modeling the effects of fire and climate change on carbon and nitrogen storage in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. A. H. Smithwick; M. G. Ryan; D. M. Kashian; W. H. Romme; D. B. Tinker; M. G. Turner

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between disturbance and climate change and resultant effects on ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes are poorly understood. Here, we model (using CENTURY version 4.5) how climate change may affect C and N fluxes among mature and regenerating lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex S.Wats.)...

  7. Do climate and outbreak frequency affect levels of foliar phytochemistry in different lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden) is a widely distributed tree in North American forests and is found in a variety of environments, each with different levels of disease activity. We quantified the levels of defense-associated metabolites (including soluble phenolics, lignin, and ter...

  8. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  9. Stratification and seasonal stability of diverse bacterial communities in a Pinus merkusii (pine) forest soil in central Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krave, A.S.; Lin, B.; Braster, M.; Laverman, A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roling, W.F.M.; van Verseveld, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    In Java, Indonesia, many nutrient-poor soils are intensively reforested with Pinus merkusii (pine). Information on nutrient cycles and microorganisms involved in these cycles will benefit the management of these important forests. Here, seasonal effects on the stratification of bacterial community

  10. Enhanced drought-tolerance in the homoploid hybrid species Pinus densata: implication for its habitat divergence from two progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Zhao, Changming; Milne, Richard; Ji, Mingfei; Chen, Litong; Liu, Jianquan

    2010-01-01

    The homoploid hybrid species Pinus densata is restricted to alpine habitats that exceed the altitude range of its two parental species, Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Alpine habitats usually generate cold-induced water stress in plants. To understand the ecological differentiation between these three species, we examined their physiological responses to drought stress. Potted seedlings of three species were subjected to low, mild, moderate and severe water stress in an automatic-controlled glasshouse. Fifteen indicators of fitness were measured for each species in each treatment, and most of these decreased as drought increased. Pinus densata exhibited higher fitness than both parental species in terms of total dry mass production (TDM) and long-term water use efficiency (WUE(L)) across all treatments; several other ecophysiological traits were also extreme but not across every treatment, and not always in the highest stress treatment. These results indicate that extreme characters that have become well fixed in P. densata, confer a faster seedling growth rate and more efficient water use, which in turn should confer increased drought tolerance. These traits of P. densata likely promoted its ecological separation from its parental species and facilitated its successful colonization and establishment in high-altitude habitats.

  11. Internal and external control of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of mature eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; R.O. Teskey

    1992-01-01

    Leaf gas exchange and water relations were monitored in the upper canopy of two 25 m tall eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) trees over two consecutive growing seasons (1986 and 1987). Examination of the seasonal and diurnal patterns of net photosynthesis and leaf conductance showed that both internal and external (environmental) factors were...

  12. Effect of seedling stock on the early stand development and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakuntala Sharma; Joshua P. Adams; Jamie L. Schuler; Robert L. Ficklin; Don C. Bragg

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of spacing and genotype on the growth and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings from three distinct genotypes planted in Drew County, Arkansas (USA). Genotype had a significant effect on survival and height. Clone CF Var 1 showed greater height and survival compared to other seedlings....

  13. Gene conservation of Pinus aristata: a collection with ecological context for management today and resources for tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.W. Schoettle

    2017-01-01

    Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow geographic and elevational distribution and is threatened by rapid climate change, the introduced pathogen Cronartium ribicola that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), and bark beetles. The core distribution of P. aristata is near and at treeline in central and southern Colorado and...

  14. Competition for nitrogen between Pinus sylvestris and ectomycorrhizal fungi generates potential for negative feedback under elevated CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberton, O.; Kuyper, T.W.; Gorissen, A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated fungal species-specific responses of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings on growth and nutrient acquisition together with mycelial development under ambient and elevated CO2. Each seedling was associated with one of the following ECM species: Hebeloma

  15. Can we expect to protect threatened species in protected areas? A case study of the genus Pinus in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre Gutiérrez, J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of 56 Pinus species in Mexico was modelled with MAXENT. The pine species were classified as threatened according to IUCN criteria. Our aim was to ascertain whether or not threatened pine species were adequately represented in protected areas. Almost 70% of the species had less than

  16. Improved recruitment and early growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings after fire and soil scarification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2004-01-01

    The success of seedling recruitment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is strongly dependent on soil surface properties, such as humus depth and moisture content. In an undisturbed forest floor, seedlings are seldom able to become established due to the high incidence of desiccation in the organic

  17. Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to sustain biodiversity in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem : balancing complexity and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Robert J. Mitchell; J. Kevin Hiers

    2002-01-01

    Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to maintain biodiversity is a popular concept, yet its application remains elusive. We discuss difficulties inherent to this idea, and suggest approaches to facilitate implementation, using longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) as an example. Natural disturbance regimes are spatially and temporally variable. Variability...

  18. Influence of residual basal area on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) first year germination and establishment under selection silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat Kara; Edward F. Loewenstein

    2015-01-01

    Even-aged silvicultural methods have been successfully used to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests for wood production; however, successful use of uneven-aged methods to manage this ecosystem is less well documented. In this study, the effects of varying levels of residual basal area (RBA) (9.2, 13.8, and 18.4 m2...

  19. Effect of average growing season temperature on seedling germination, survival and growth in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. David; E. Humenberger

    2017-01-01

    Because jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is serotinous, it retains multiple years of cones until environmental conditions are favorable for releasing seed. These cones, which contain seed cohorts that developed under a variety of growing seasons, can be accurately aged using bud scale scars on twigs and branches. By calculating the average daily...

  20. Pinus Culminicola Andresen y Beaman y sus asociaciones en la ladera sur del cerro La Viga, Coahuila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Sánchez Silva

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinus culminicola was described in 1961 with samples from the Cerro Potosí, State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The species was reported in the Sierras La Marta in 1962, and San Antonio de las Alazanas in 1975, State of Coahuila, indicating that there were not pure associations. In 1979 the species was colected in the Sierra La Viga, Coahuila, at 3 300 m, without data on environmental conditions in which it grows. The distribution of  P. culminicola is restricted to the south slope of the Cerro La Viga. The associations identified and described in this paper are: (1 Scrub of Quercus rugosa – Quercus durifolia – Cercocarpus montanus with elements of P. culminicola; (2 Pinus montezumae–Pseudotsuga macrolepisy with elements of P. culminicola, Quercus spp. and Arbutus xalapensis (3 P. culminicola– Quercus rugosa (both of them as shrubs; (4 P. montezumac–P. macrolepis–Pinus ayacahuite–P. culminicola; (5 pure scrub of P. culminicola; (6 P. culminicola– Dasylirion tezanum (sometimes with Arctostaphylos pungens and Quercus spp., shrublike; (7 Pinus hartwegii–P. culminicola; (8 P. hartwegii with elements of P. macrolepis and P. culminicola; and (9 induced prairie. There are differences in dominance of the species in accordance to the particular characteristics of each place, with presence of herbaceous from high altitudes. The altitude at which these associations occur, varies from 2 900 m to 3 700 m, although isolated elements of P. culminicola–were found at 2 700 m.

  1. Verbenone-releasing flakes protect individual Pinus contorta trees from attack by Dendroctonus ponderosae and Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Gary O. Fiddler; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood

    2006-01-01

    In a study site in interior northern California, twenty individual lodgepole pines Pinus contorta were sprayed with a suspension of DISRUPT Micro-Flake ® Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(3.1)hept-3-en-2-one) Bark Beetle Anti-Aggregant flakes (Hercon Environmental, Emigsville, Pennsylvania) in water, with sticker and...

  2. Spatial structure and associations in Pinus canariensis population at the treeline, Pico del Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrůtek, Miroslav; Doležal, J.; Hara, T.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2002), s. 201-210 ISSN 1523-0430 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Pinus canariensis * Canary Islands Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2002

  3. Spatial structure and associations in Pinus canariensis population at the treeline, Pico del Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrůtek, Miroslav; Doležal, J.; Hara, T.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2002), s. 201-210 ISSN 1523-0430 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/00/1445; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Pinus canariensis * Canary Islands Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2002

  4. Chlorophyll content in pine (Pinus silvestris L. needles exposed to flue dust from lead and zinc works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a and b, sulphur, zinc and lead contents were determined in annual and biennial needles of Scotch pine (Pinus silevstris L. exposed to flue dust-polluted air. Intoxication indexes were calculated on the basis of the obtained results.

  5. Comparative genetic responses to climate for the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: realized climate niches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish; Javier Lopez-Upton; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; J. Bradley St Clair; Laura P. Leites; Dennis G. Joyce

    2014-01-01

    The Random Forests classification algorithm was used to predict the occurrence of the realized climate niche for two sub-specific varieties of Pinus ponderosa and three varieties of Pseudotsuga menziesii from presence-absence data in forest inventory ground plots. Analyses were based on ca. 271,000 observations for P. ponderosa and ca. 426,000 observations for P....

  6. Comparative genetic responses to climate in the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: clines in growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Laura P. Leites; J. Bradley St Clair; Barry C. Jaquish; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Javier Lopez-Upton; Dennis G. Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Height growth data were assembled from 10 Pinus ponderosa and 17 Pseudotsuga menziesii provenance tests. Data from the disparate studies were scaled according to climate similarities of the provenances to provide single datasets for 781 P. ponderosa and 1193 P. menziesii populations. Mixed effects models were used for two sub-specific varieties of each species to...

  7. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION ON FINE ROOT DYNAMICS AND FUNGAL GROWTH IN SEEDLING PINUS PONDEROSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of elevated CO-2 and N fertilization on fine root growth of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. C. Laws., grown in native soil in open-top field-exposure chambers at Placerville, CA, were monitored for a 2-year period using minirhizotrons. The experimental design was a...

  8. Family-site interaction in Pinus radiata: implications for progeny testing strategy and regionalised breeding in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Johnson; R.D. Brudon

    1990-01-01

    A progeny test of 170 open-pollinated families from second-generation plus trees of Pinus radiata was established on four sites in New Zealand in 1981. Two test sites were on volcanic purnice soils in the Central North Island region and two were on phosphate-retentive clay soils in the Northland region.Assessments of volume growth, stem straightness, mal-...

  9. Sensitization to Casuarina equisetifolia and Pinus spp Pollen in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Aída Velasco-Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pollinosis studies at Mexico City have found a considerable amount of Casuarina equisetifolia and Pinus spp pollen, its sensitization frequency is unknown. In Mexico, some allergens are not considered related to asthma or allergic rhinitis, even though reports in other coun- tries have been demonstrated their relevance as aeroallergens. Objective: To estimate the frequency of sensitization to Casuarina eq- uisetifolia and Pinus spp pollen. Patients and method: A transversal, descriptive trial was done at Hos- pital General de Mexico. Previous informed consent 142 patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma, 3 to 55 years old, were included to the study. A complete clinical evaluation, laboratory tests and skin prick tests were performed. Results: We included 142 patients, 44 children (64% males and 98 adults (73% females. We found that 8 (18.18% children and 35 (35.7% adults had a positive skin prick test to Casuarina equisetifolia. None of the patients included in the study had a positive skin prick test to Pinus spp. Conclusions: Sensitization to Casuarina equisetifolia is as important as other pollens found in Mexico City. These results suggest that it should be included when skin prick tests are performed. Pinus spp pollen is considered an aeroallergen in European countries but we did not cor- roborate sensitization in our population.

  10. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  11. Chemical profiling and biological activity analysis of cone, bark and needle of Pinus roxburghii collected from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Thapa

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that among that needle, cone and bark of Pinus roxburghii as a huge source of biological active metabolites. Furthermore, bark extract revealed the presence of diverse chemical constituent. [J Complement Med Res 2018; 7(1.000: 66-75

  12. Response of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.) to Mechanical Release, Competition, and Drought in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; Katherine J. Elliott; Wayne T. Swank

    1997-01-01

    Conversion of low-quality, natural mixed pine hardwood ecosystems, containing a mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) dominated understory, to more productive eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.)/mixed-hardwood systems is a common prescription on relatively xeric southern Appalachian forest sites. We examined the effects of...

  13. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to predict microfibril angle of 14-year-old Pinus patula

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zbonak, A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to test the feasibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as a tool for predicting the microfibril angle (MFA) of solid wood samples of Pinus patula. Thirty 14 year-old trees were selected from three compartments...

  14. Earthworms, arthropods and plant litter decomposition in aspen (Populus tremuloides) and lodgepole pine(Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Timothy R. Seastedt; Zugeily Donato

    2003-01-01

    We compared the abundance and community composition of earthworms, soil macroarthropods, and litter microarthropods to test faunal effects on plant litter decomposition rates in two forests in the subalpine in Colorado, USA. Litterbags containing recently senesced litter of Populus tremuloides (aspen) and Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) were placed in aspen and pine...

  15. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  16. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Bruder, Edson Marcelo; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from 241 Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m 3 . Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m 3 . These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in productivity

  17. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Resins and Essential Oil From Pine (Pinus merkusii, Pinuso ocarpa, Pinus insularis and Agathis (Agathis loranthifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardho Tillah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common human pathogen that colonizes in a third of healthy people around the world are Staphylococcus aureus, and one of the materials allegedly able to overcome the pathogen is resin. Resin has been used in folk medicine for thousands of years to treat diseases. The antimicrobial activity of natural resins can be associated with a variety of organic compounds contained in them such as diterpenoids and triterpenoids. This research aimed to explore the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Pinus merkusii, P. oocarpa, P. insularis, Agathis loranthifolia resins and essential oil. Resin was separated by distillation process to get essential oil and the residue was extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and methanol (MeOH. Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH (1,1diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging method. The antibacterial activity of resins and essential oil of the samples determined using the disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results showed that the yield of resin extract was ranging from 8.44 % to 95.56%. All extracts and essential oil could not inhibit E coli growth but inhibit the S. aureus growth. This experiment concluded that resin n-hexane extract from P.oocarpa was the most potent as antibacterial activity against S. aureus. All of the samples used had less potential antioxidant activity compared to positive control ascorbic acid. Result of this study show that pine resin from Indonesia has potential as an antibacterial agent. 

  18. UTILIZAÇÃO DE ADESIVO PVA EM COMPENSADOS DE Pinus sp. E Eucalyptus sp. / UTILIZATION OF PVA ADHESIVES IN Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. PLYWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. De Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre novos adesivos ou resinas para colagem de madeira e derivados estão sendo realizados com a intenção de diminuir o impacto ambiental sem alterar suas propriedades. Por este motivo, novas formulações de adesivos PVA (Acetato de Polivinila vêm sendo desenvolvidas. Este trabalho testou a utilização deste adesivo na produção de compensado de Eucalyptus sp. e Pinus sp., com tempo e temperatura de prensagem, respectivamente, de 10 minutos e90°C. Foram realizados os ensaios físicos de densidade, teor de umidade e absorção, e os ensaios mecânicos de flexão estática e de resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, todos de acordo com as normas ABNT. Obtiveram-se bons resultados com relação à resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, a qual foi superior para os adesivos PVA, se comparados com compensados produzidos com ureia-formaldeído e o fenol-formaldeído, enquanto que os resultados de MOE e MOR apresentaram-se inferiores em ambos os casos. 

  19. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  20. Morphological and ecological variation of Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina in Pinus sylvestris, Pinus contorta and Picea abies sapling stands in northern Finland and the Kola Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaitera, Juha; Seitamaeki, Leena; Jalkanen, Risto [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Rovaniemi (Finland). Rovaniemi Research Station

    2000-07-01

    The morphological and ecological variation of two types of Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina causing scleroderris canker on conifers was investigated in Pinus spp. and Picea sp. sapling stands in northern Finland and the Kola Peninsula. Small-tree type (STT or B type) of G. abietina was detected alone in 13 Scots pine, three lodgepole pine and two Norway spruce sapling stands out of 26 stands investigated, both STT and large-tree type (LTT or A type) were observed in six Scots pine stands, and LTT was detected alone in two Scots pine stands. For the first time, G. abietina was found to injure Norway spruce saplings in a respective plantation in northern Fennoscandia. STT isolates produced statistically significantly more conidia in vitro than LTT isolates. Morphological variation in conidia septation revealed that STT produced conidia with more than five septa more frequently than did LTT. There was a greater range in variation in septation in STT than in LTT, with overlapping between the types. Isolates of both types were equally associated with cankers, coloured wood, pycnidia or apothecia in the infected saplings.

  1. Ocorrência de Migdolus fryanus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae em plantios de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Occurrence of Migdolus fryanus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in Pinus caribaea hondurensis plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Wilcken

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de Migdolus fryanus Westwood (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae foram encontradas danificando raízes de mudas de P. caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénéel Barr. & Golf. no Estado de São Paulo. Isso aumenta a importância dessa espécie, cujos danos, em espécies florestais, têm aumentado, principalmente, em plantios de eucalipto. Esse é o primeiro registro de M. fryanus em plantios de Pinus, e o referido inseto pode ser considerado uma nova praga dessa espécie florestal. Detalhes das características morfológicas e biológicas, danos e possíveis métodos de controle de M. fryanus são discutidos.Larvae of Migdolus fryanus Westwood (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae were found damaging roots of young plants of P. caribaea hondurensis (Sénéel Barr. & Golf. in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This fact increases the importance of this species because the damages have been increasing in forest species specially in eucalyptus plantations. This is the first record of M. fryanus in pine plantations and this insect can be considered a pest of pine plants. Details on the morphology and biological characteristics, damage and possible control methods to M. fryanus are discussed.

  2. MÉTODOS DE DETECÇÃO, TRANSMISSÃO E PATOGENICIDADE DE Fusarium spp. EM SEMENTES DE Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Wendhausen Ramos da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The root rots (RR, caused by the Fusarium spp., causes loss of seedling in the nursery that show, initially, discoloration of the needles to a yellowish-green tone followed by apical curvature, wilt and the consequent death of the seedling. The objectives of this work were to: a define the most appropriate and efficient method to detect Fusarium spp. in Pinus taeda seeds; b verify if there is transmission of Fusarium spp. from seeds to Pinus taeda seedlings; c develop a descriptive scale to evaluate the severity of the RR in Pinus taeda seedlings; d evaluate the pathogenicity, aggressiveness and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC of isolated Fusarium subglutinans . For detection three treatments were applied to six lots of Pinus taeda seeds, bein four repetitions of 25 seeds: blotter test, paper card and selective medium. The transmission was evaluated in seeds from six lots of Pinus taeda during 60 days counting the percentage of emerged plantlet (EP, non-germinated seeds (NGS and from NGS seeds with Fusarium spp. A descriptive scale of grades was developed to evaluate the severity of RR in Pinus taeda seedlings. The severity and the incidence of the illness were evaluated at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the inoculation from Pinus taeda seedlings of six months of age. The pathogenicity, severity and incidence of twelve isolated Fusarium subglutinans obtained in the detection test. To test for pathogenicity and aggressiveness 13 treatments with 15 replications were applied. The most sensitive detection method to detect Fusarium spp. on Pinus taeda seeds was the selective medium; transmission was not observed of Fusarium spp. from seeds to the seedlings; the descriptive scale allowed evaluating the progression of RR symptoms; nine isolated of Fusarium spp. were found to be pathogenic to Pinus taeda seedlings, reproducing typical symptoms of RR, being isolated L3R2, the most aggressive and that exhibited higher AUDPC.

  3. Pinus ayacahuite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... Mexican forests are threatened by an alarming ... on the extraction methods and tissues used (Bousquet et al., 1990). .... Pines for tropical areas. Unasylva ... and restoration on pine forest genetic resources in México. Silvae.

  4. Pinus roxburghii

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of albedo dynamics in chir pine system with dynamics of leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture, and changes in understory ... Singh 1992), as pines are known to use water effi- ciently by ...... rational loss affecting LE flux (Arneth et al. 2006;.

  5. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.parraga@upct.es [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria Paseo Alfonso XIII, Cartagena 48. 30203 (Spain); Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio [Water and Soil Conservation Department, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura CEBAS-CSIC Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, Espinardo-Murcia ES-30100 (Spain); González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M. [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria Paseo Alfonso XIII, Cartagena 48. 30203 (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 18}O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain

  6. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ 13 C, δ 15 N, δ 18 O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ 13 C and δ 18 O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain. - Highlights: • Significant

  7. [Effects of elevated ozone on Pinus armandii growth: a simulation study with open-top chamber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Chen; He, Xing-Yuan; Ruan, Ya-Nan; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Peng, Jun-Jie; Li, Teng

    2013-10-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC) and the techniques of dendrochronology, this paper studied the growth of Pinus armandii under elevated ozone, and explored the evolution dynamics and adaptation mechanisms of typical forest ecosystems to ozone enrichment. Elevated ozone inhibited the stem growth of P. armandii significantly, with the annual growth of the stem length and diameter reduced by 35.0% and 12.9%, respectively. The annual growth of tree-ring width and the annual ring cells number decreased by 11.5% and 54.1%, respectively, but no significant change was observed in the diameter of tracheid. At regional scale, the fluctuation of ozone concentration showed significant correlation with the variation of local vegetation growth (NDVI).

  8. Environmental pollution changes in membrane lipids, antioxidants and vitality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł M. Pukacki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on pollen grains of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. collected from trees at 1.5, 3, 4 km and control, 20 km from the Luboń factory producing mineral fertilisers. The percentage of germination of pollen formed close to the pollution source was ca 20% lower compared to the control pollen. Lowered vitality of the pollen was effected in changes of the structure of cytoplasmic membranes. Pollen from the polluted area contained ca 15% less total phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine and phosphatytidylinositol and had a lower content of soluble proteins and less of low molecular antioxidants, such as thiols and ascorbic acid. Composition of total fatty acid in phospholipids fractions showed a significant reduction in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Pollen originating from the polluted area and stored at -30°C showed considerably stronger degradation of cytoplasmic membranes than control.

  9. Comparison of rainfall interception models in isolated individuals of Pinus pinea and Cistus ladanifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pérez-Arellano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of several simulation models of interception process commonly used in numerous studies, such as the classic versions of Rutter and Gash, also the version of Valente adapted by sparse forests. The aim is to analyze the applicability of different models in isolated especimens of two species of Mediterranean climate, Pinus pinea and Cistus ladanifer. The data collection was carried out in the watershed of “El Cabril” (Córdoba, from October 2010 to June 2015. The differences obtained between measurements and the results of the different models are less than 6%. Original version of Rutter model and original version of Gash model present a greater adjustment for pine and for cistus respectively.

  10. Comparative analysis of essential oil components of two Pinus species from Taibai Mountain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Zhezhi

    2010-08-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to compare between the essential oil components from needles of Pinus armandii Franch versus P. tabulaeformis Carr., growing on the same site at Taibai Mountain, China. Under optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 65 and 66 constituents each were identified in P. armandii and P. tabulaeformis, which accounted for 87.9% and 87.1%, respectively, of their oils. Based on their terpene compositions, we concluded that these species belong to a high-caryophyllene chemotype, with sesquiterpenes comprising 54.4% to 54.8% of the total contents. We also determined minor qualitative and major quantitative variations in some compounds. Compared with that from P. tabulaeformis, P. armandii oil had more gamma-muurolene (7.5%), terpinolene (5.8%), and longifolene (5.7%). In contrast, alpha-pinene (8.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.4%) were the dominant compounds in P. tabulaeformis.

  11. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil of six pinus taxa native to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Zhouqi

    2015-05-21

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana) were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%-20.55%), bornyl acetale (3.32%-12.71%), β-caryophellene (18.26%-26.31%), α-guaiene (1.23%-8.19%), and germacrene D (1.26%-9.93%). Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential by three assays (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS) and tested for their total phenolic content. The results showed that all essential oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant activities and these strongly suggest that these pine needles may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food and medical purposes.

  12. Thermogravimetric and Pyrolysis-Capillary Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Pinus Halepensis Mill. Wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafsi, S.; Benbouzid, M.; Zimny, T.

    2005-01-01

    The analytical methods TG and Py-capillary-GC-MS were used to study the thermal degradation of Pinus Halepensis Mill. wood. The TG analysis in air and in nitrogen showed that the percentage content of char and ash were, 23.1% and 7.7% respectively. TG and DTG analysis proved that the evolution of organic degradation products occurs mainly between 215C and 380C and has its maximum evolution rate at 360C in nitrogen and 347C in air. Py-capillary-GC-MS analysis of the pyrolysis at 400C identified the presence of valuable chemicals such aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, aldehydes, esters and saturated and unsaturated long chain fatty acids. (author)

  13. Diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes (nifH) from ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-12-01

    The diversity of bacterial nitrogenase genes (nifH) and their mRNA transcription in ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) were examined. DNA and RNA were extracted from surface-sterilized and non-sterilized Corsican pine roots colonized by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Suillus variegatus and Tomentellopsis submollis. DNA-derived nifH polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were obtained from all samples, but only a few reverse transcription PCRs for nifH mRNA were successful, suggesting that nitrogenase genes were not always transcribed. Several different nifH sequences were detected and the bacteria actively transcribing nifH were different from those whose genes were detected through DNA-based PCR. Putative nitrogenase amino acid sequences revealed that more than half of the nifH products were derived from methylotrophic bacteria, such as Methylocella spp. The next most frequent sequence types were similar to those from Burkholderia.

  14. Phase-change related epigenetic and physiological changes in Pinus radiata D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Mario F; Cañal, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2002-08-01

    DNA methylation and polyamine levels were analysed before and after Pinus radiata D. Don. phase change in order to identify possible molecular and physiological phase markers. Juvenile individuals (without reproductive ability) were characterised by a degree of DNA methylation of 30-35% and a ratio of free polyamines to perchloric acid-soluble polyamine conjugates greater than 1, while mature trees (with reproductive ability) had 60% 5-methylcytosine and a ratio of free polyamines to perchloric acid-soluble polyamine conjugates of less than 1. Results obtained with trees that attained reproductive capacity during the experimental period confirmed that changes in the degree of DNA methylation and polyamine concentrations found among juvenile and mature states come about immediately after the phase change. We suggest that both indicators may be associated with the loss of morphogenic ability during ageing, particularly after phase change, through a number of molecular interactions, which are subsequently discussed.

  15. Genomic DNA methylation-demethylation during aging and reinvigoration of Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Mario F; Rodríguez, Roberto; Cañal, Maria Jesús

    2002-08-01

    In animals, DNA methylation is related to gene silencing during ontogenic development. Little is known about DNA methylation in plants, although occasional changes in the DNA methylation state of specific gene promoters have been reported in angiosperms during some developmental processes. We found large differences in the extent of DNA methylation between meristematic areas of juvenile and mature Pinus radiata D. Don. trees, whereas differences in the extent of DNA methylation between differentiated tissues of juvenile and mature trees were small. In meristematic areas, there was a gradual decrease in extent of DNA methylation as the degree of reinvigoration increased. The observed changes in extent of DNA methylation during aging and reinvigoration indicate that reinvigoration could be a consequence of epigenetic modifications opposite in direction to those that occur during aging.

  16. Soil Type Affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae Seedling Growth in Simulated Drought Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Lindsey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite, a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies.

  17. Effects of water stress on germination of Pinus nigra Arnold. seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topacoglu, O.; Sevik, H.; Akkuzu, E.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change, global warming and the deterioration of related environmental conditions cause an important problem for forest tree species. For this reason, it is necessary to determine the response of trees to these conditions. The Objective of this study was to investigate the effects of water stress on seed germination of fifteen Pinus nigra Arnold. provenances in Turkey. For this purpose, the water stresses between 0 and -8.0 bars were obtained using polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG) solutions. Seeds were kept for 35 days at 20 ± 0.5 degree C. In this study, significant variations between the provenances were found. Ankara Uluhan ( percent 95, 08) and Isparta Tota ( percent 85, 41) provenances at -8.0 bars having the highest cumulative germination percentages were the most resistant provenances against the water stress. This study has shown that the water stress reduced the germination speed, germination percentage and germination value. (author)

  18. Quantification and characterization of Si in Pinus Insignis Dougl by TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Henry; Bennun, Leonardo [Universidad de Concepcion, Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Marco, Lue M. [Universidad Centro Lisandro Alvarado, Decanato de Agronomia, Depto. de Quimica, Barquisimeto (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-12-09

    A simple quantification of silicon is described, in woods such as Pinus Insigne Dougl obtained from the 8th region of Bio-Bio, 37 15'' South-73 19'' West, Chile. The samples were prepared through fractional calcination, and the ashes were directly analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique. The analysis of 16 samples that were calcined is presented. The samples were weighed on plastic reflectors in a microbalance with sensitivity of 0.1 μg. Later, the samples were irradiated in a TXRF PICOFOX spectrometer, for 350 and 700 s. To each sample, cobalt was added as an internal standard. Concentrations of silicon over the 1 % in each sample and the self-absorption effect on the quantification were observed, in masses higher than 100 μg. (orig.)

  19. Relationship between fiber porosity and cellulose digestibility in steam-exploded Pinus radiata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.K.Y.; Deverell, K.F.; Mackie, K.L.; Clark, T.A.; Donaldson, L.A.

    1988-04-05

    The use of lignocellulosic materials in bioconversion processes may be improved if the critical factors limiting conversion are better understood. Steam explosion after sulfur dioxide impregnation of wood chips is an effective method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose in the softwood Pinus radiata. Digestibility of pretreated fiber was progressively increased by altering the conditions of steam explosion. With increasing digestibility, there was an observed increase in fiber porosity as measured by the solute exclusion technique. Accessible pore volume and accessible surface area to a 5-nm dextran probe positively correlated with both 2- and 24-h digestion yields from pretreated fiber. The increase in accessibility was probably the result of hemicellulose extraction and lignin redistribution. A subsequent loss in accessibility, brought about by structural collapse or further lignin redistribution, resulted in a corresponding loss in digestibility. It appears that steam explosion increases cellulose digestibility in P. radiata by increasing fiber porosity.

  20. Relationship between lignin structure and delignification degree in Pinus pinaster kraft pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Robert, D; Duarte, A P

    2008-05-01

    This study examines the structure of residual and dissolved lignins from Pinus pinaster pulps obtained at different degrees of delignification by laboratory conventional kraft pulping. The cooking H factor was varied from 85 to 8049. The residual and dissolved lignin samples were characterised by elemental analysis, residual carbohydrate content, permanganate oxidation and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The reflectance factor of the pulps was also determined in order to tentatively correlate the delignification degree and residual lignin structure with the pulp colour. The obtained results confirmed that the delignification degree increases the condensation of the lignin structure, which might have an influence upon the observed increased pulp colour. The lack of selectivity of kraft pulping process in the case of more delignified pulps was also shown.