WorldWideScience

Sample records for war national interest

  1. Never satisfactory, according to the Finnish standards”. From optimism and interest to disappointment and disillusion: Finnish views on the nations in Eastern Central Europe between the word wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Vares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions of national prejudices, xenophobia and enemy images have been lately popular issues. The creation of the ”Other” has been evident in racial issues, like in the ideologies of imperialism or anti-Semitism. However, it is important to see the same mentality inside the European political culture itself, because the images often did and still do divide the nations into different categories. This mentality gained even more impetus after the collapse of the empires in 1918 and yet again in the discussion about ”Old Europe” and ”New Europe”. My purpose is to study how Finland saw Eastern Europe and its political systems and national peculiarities between the World Wars. Finland formed an interesting hinge between Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. On the one hand it wanted to emphasize how Western its mental heritage was; on the other, it had to fight off assumptions that it was still ”half-Russian” and behaving in a ”Balkan” manner. In the early 1920s there were also ideas of similar interests in European politics and similarities of the social structure. In the longer run, the Finns saw Eastern Europe as an area which was not ready for democracy, because it lacked the elements of national cohesion and basic people’s education. Argumentation resembles the German one, but was not necessarily decided by it – rather by own experience or Scandinavian and sometimes Hungarian information. For the Finns, Hungary formed some sort of exception of the prejudiced view because it was considered to be a kindred nation, but the experts could see little similarities even between Finland and Hungary.

  2. WHY NATIONS GO TO WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Vrey

    The narratives commence with World War I and conclude with the wars in .... The section on the war in Vietnam depicts how five consecutive American .... as his thesis that leaders should exploit all opportunities to avoid war as it is people,.

  3. 76 FR 45395 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ..., 1950, the Korean peninsula erupted in conflict, becoming the front line of an intensifying Cold War...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8695 of July 26, 2011 National Korean War... than ever. We remember our common values and shared suffering during the Korean War, and we continue...

  4. 77 FR 45477 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... the defining moments of the Cold War. Today, on the 59th anniversary of the Military Armistice Agreement signed at Panmunjom, we honor all who served in the Korean War, and we pay lasting tribute to the... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8844 of July 27, 2012 National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2012 By...

  5. War Horse National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at War Horse National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  6. FRANK A. VANDERLIP AND THE NATIONAL CITY BANK DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Roberts

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the First World War policies of the National City Bankof New York, drawing attention to the internal disputes within the bank over war financing. Some historians have suggested that during the First World War New York banks associated with the National City Bank favored fierce competition with the Allied powers for markets and overseas investment opportunities, whereas those linked to J. P Morgan and Company preferred cooperation with the Allied powers, concentrating upon handling the massive war financing the Allied war effort required. In reality the picture was more complex. The National City Bank participated substantially in Allied war loans and, with the First National Bank and Morgan’s, was one of the “Trio” of leading New York banks that handled such financing. Simultaneously, Frank A. Vanderlip, the National City president and a long-time advocate of the expansion of American foreign trade and investment, launched a major initiative to expand the National City’s overseas activities, through the establishment of foreign branches around the world and the creation of the American International Corporation, a foreign investment trust. Although Vanderlip suggested that he wished to cooperate with British financial interests in these activities, they generated conflict between the National City and the fiercely pro-Allied Morgan firm. Within the bank, they also created substantial tension between the broadly neutral Vanderlip and his staunchly pro-Allied patron, the bank’s chairman, James Stillman, who diedin 1918, and other strongly pro-Allied National City officers. Shortly afterthe war, Vanderlip proposed a massive and visionary scheme to provide American financing for European economic regeneration, causing the National City’s directors, who considered it impractical and outside their bank’s remit of maximizing profits, to dismiss him.

  7. VARIATION ANALYSIS ON NATIONAL STANDARD INTEREST RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ferreira Cardia Haddad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study’s main objective is to analyse an econometric model for forecasting purposes concerning the interest rate which is adopted as standard reference within the Brazilian economy, namely, the Actual-Selic rate, so as to verify the feasibility of performing short term predictions as to its variations. Thus the major variables that impact the Actual-Selic rate, such as price variations of agricultural and power commodities, national industrial production level, exchange rate and public sector net debt, are detailed. The modern macroeconomic approach describes the relevance of the Central Bank upon achievement of its goals so as to maintain the economic stability, amongst which lies the convergence of verified interest rates with the Selic rate target, as set forth by the Monetary Policy Committee (COPOM. Furthermore, this study poses to explain the relevance in forecasting, with a reasonable level of accuracy, the benchmark interest rate of Brazilian economy. The proposed model may be used to support decision making concerning investment strategies and as an additional tool for the monitoring of the achievement of macroeconomic policy objectives.

  8. Liberia: National Security Interests in Transformational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-25

    imposed sanctions on Liberian diamonds and banned travel for government officials. Taylor was indicted by a U.N.-backed court for war crimes , crimes ... streetlights , water available from communal taps, and street vendors providing prized items such as “cellphones, bluejeans, compact discs, cigarettes

  9. Is Baseball Essential?: World War I and the National Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosik, Kris Maldre; Sweeney, Jenny McMillen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how a series of National Archives documents related to professional baseball players and the military draft can launch a lesson on the American home front during World War I, as the 100th anniversary approaches.

  10. History Culture and Banal Nationalism in post-War Bosnia

    OpenAIRE

    Torsti, Pilvi

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses post-war history culture in Bosnia and Herzegovina using the concept of banal nationalism. Through a description of Bosnia’s post-war history culture – that part of public culture where people face the past in their daily lives, i.e. books, films, monuments, museums, buildings, pictures, photographs, plays and so forth – the article demonstrates the division of Bosnian history culture into three variants and analyzes the main characteristics of...

  11. After the Great War: Nationalism, Degenerationism and Mass Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Juan García-García

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the influence of psychological language and discourses on the contemporary view of nationalism, an issue that has only begun to be studied in recent years (García-García, 2013; Sluga, 2006). On this occasion, the author focuses on two currents or schools that contributed decisively to the new view of nationalism after the Great War: first, degenerationist medicine and psychiatry, highly accepted in the European social and political debate since the late 19th century; sec...

  12. Theoreticalaspects ofinformation war and national security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shumka

    2015-07-01

    Organization of effective ensuring information security system provides centralized control of specific functions that provide monitoring and control of all components of the national information space.

  13. Falkland Islands - War For National Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    near futuro , further embroiling major powers and regional Third World nations and United Nations in complex questions of Self-determination. , In the...modern air delivery avionics and training methods have greatly improved the lethality of #conventional’ air ordnance." (63:35) If the number of unexploded

  14. Pakistan: A Nation at War with Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    it would be in their own interest to accede to one of the two new states. From the beginning, Mohamed Ali Jinnah had campaigned in Kashmir for its...27 A. INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 27 B. PARTITION OF BRITISH INDIA...the thesis. Finally, I would like to thank Dr. Maria Rasmussen; Dr. Mohammed Hafez; Col Mark Chakwin, USA; Dr. Wade Huntley; and Dr. Anshu

  15. The Zimbabwean liberation war: contesting representations of nation and nationalism in historical fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Muwati

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the array of macro and micro historical factors that stirred historical agency in the 1970s war against colonial settlerism as depicted in selected liberation war fiction. This war eventually led to a negotiated independence in April 1980. Historical fiction in the early 1980s is characterised by an abundance of fictional images that give expression to the macrofactors, while historical fiction in the late 1980s onwards parades a plethora of images which prioritise the microhistorical factors. Against this background, the article problematises the discussion of these factors within the context of postindependence Zimbabwean politics. It argues that the contesting representations of macro- and microfactors in historical fiction on the war symbolise the protean and fluid discourse on nation and nationalism in the Zimbabwean polity. Definitions and interpretations of nation and nationalism are at the centre of Zimbabwean politics, because they are linked to the protracted liberation war against colonialism and the politics of hegemony in the state. Macrofactors express and endorse an official view of nationalism and nation. On the other hand, microfactors problematise and contest the narrow appropriation of nation and nationalism by advocating multiple perspectives on the subject in order to subvert and counter the elite hegemony.

  16. War, Nation, Memory: International Perspectives on World War II in School History Textbooks. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Keith A., Ed.; Foster, Stuart J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The Second World War stands as the most devastating and destructive global conflict in human history. More than 60 nations representing 1.7 billion people or three quarters of the world's population were consumed by its horror. Not surprisingly, therefore, World War II stands as a landmark episode in history education throughout the world and its…

  17. The Forging of National States on the Anvil of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dželal Ibraković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of Western countries and the colonization of oil-rich Muslim countries clustered within the Ottoman Empire, which was located in the controlled agony of the new geo-strategic and technological processes, produced a turbulent beginning of the 20th century. The establishment of nation states has jeopardized the survival of monarchies such as Austro-Hungary, Russia, and others. The battle for the new, above all, European order signified the World War, in political science but also in historiography, and it established the principle that the term “world” war refers to the conflicts waged in Europe. The First World War was the site scene of the disappearance of the great empires and also the definite disappearance of the juncture of state and religion, as well as suppression of religion and other monarchist structures into new paradigms such as the nation-state, democracy and secularization. On the contrary, it opened the opportunity for the development of totalitarian regimes - socialism and Nazism - created precisely in Europe. Muslim-majority countries were colonized and brought to a vassal state, and their rich natural resources were enslaved. The principle of the nation state was imposed upon them by imperial methods and brutal clashes with opponents, aiming to eliminate in the long term any significant force since the overthrow of the Ottoman Empire and the attempts to destroy Turkey completely. Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Balkans emerge as a collateral damage that lasts even in the 21st century.

  18. Interest Rates, Inflation, and the National Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltine, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    Government must act more fiscally responsible. The government must put the brakes on an economy it has allowed to run free, and citizens must be willing to support a government that will act tough in the domestic market in order to lower interest rates, reduce inflationary pressure, and increase employment. (Author/RM)

  19. Heritage Language Education and the "National Interest"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jeff Bale reviews empirical research, policy analysis, and other forms of scholarly commentary on the long-standing rationale of framing language education in service of U.S. geopolitical and economic security. This synthesis directly calls into question the commonsense view that national security and economic competitiveness are…

  20. After the Great War: Nationalism, Degenerationism and Mass Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García-García

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the influence of psychological language and discourses on the contemporary view of nationalism, an issue that has only begun to be studied in recent years (García-García, 2013; Sluga, 2006. On this occasion, the author focuses on two currents or schools that contributed decisively to the new view of nationalism after the Great War: first, degenerationist medicine and psychiatry, highly accepted in the European social and political debate since the late 19th century; second, and no less penetrating, the crowd or mass psychology of Taine, Tarde, Sighele, and, above all, Gustave Le Bon. After the Great War, as we shall see, nationalism was often represented as a form of degeneration, or a barbarous and cruel regression to a prior stage of development, embodied by the masses. This discourse and rhetoric was to condition the area of study for generations. In fact, the voices of medicine, psychiatry and mass psychology have not disappeared from the debate and continue to directly and indirectly influence the academic and popular comprehension of nationalism.

  1. Soviet Dissent and the American National Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    traditional Muslim culture of the region r emains. The Centr -al Asian nationalities continue to resist industrialization and urbanization, 4 0 the former...8217Growing Soviet Dissidence’, p. 97. 2, obert Sharlet, "Growing Soviet Dissidence " , p. 97’, 07 potential of acting as a catalyst to unify the...34Dissent in the Soviet Union", p. 3. R obert Sharlet, "Dissent and Repression in the Soviet Union’, p, 1 16. 1 16 I ’ ’. substitute has been invented

  2. Media and nationalism in Baja California during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Gruel Sández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to explain some journalistic representations of the Northern Territory of Baja California. The body of documents that pertain this article, will document different versions of the past of the peninsula, from the nature of political discourse. Bajacalifornians will appear represented by journalists, struggling to eliminate an image of an isolated, uninhabited place filled with U.S. citizens. The editorial portrayal of the Tijuana, Mexicali and Mexico City press will be analyzed in context with the regional, national and international conflicts. Public opinion was a ground where the people of Baja California negotiated the nationalism, as the rest of the world collapsed with World War ii.

  3. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  4. FRANK A. VANDERLIP AND THE NATIONAL CITY BANK DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Roberts

    2002-01-01

    This essay focuses on the First World War policies of the National City Bankof New York, drawing attention to the internal disputes within the bank over war financing. Some historians have suggested that during the First World War New York banks associated with the National City Bank favored fierce competition with the Allied powers for markets and overseas investment opportunities, whereas those linked to J. P Morgan and Company preferred cooperation with the Allied powers, concentrating upo...

  5. U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security Issues. Volume 1: Theory of War and Strategy. 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Army War College, 2007, pp. 47-75. 23. Meinhart , p. 44. 24. David Jablonsky, "National Power," in U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security...U.S AmyWar CaUawge Guide to-National Security issues Vnlumn I: Theory of War amd Strategy it 2008 Ed ied hy J. Bo n atolnes’ r U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE...20080709 281 The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the U.S. Army

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF TURKISH NATIONAL AND MILITARY CULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF KOREAN WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Sığrı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze Turkish national and military culture in the context of Korean War. The Korean War is the first international military contribution of modern Turkish Republic and Turkish Armed Forces. This was the first contact with other countries’ and cultures’ armies since the foundation of the modern republic. Following the war Turkey joined to NATO and became a certain member of western block of cold war era. Turkish troops’ efforts and involvement in the Korean War did not only contribute to independence of Korea but also contributed to the world peace. Turkish military has a cultural background, which mainly stems from sociological and managerial characteristics of Turkish national culture. In this study an analysis of Turkish military culture is made within scope of Korean War according to Hofstede’s (1980 four cultural dimensions

  7. Manhunting : a methodology for finding persons of national interest

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The asymmetrical threats that challenge U.S. national policies are not large standing armies, but rather individuals who seek to usurp and coerce U.S. national interests. The nature of today's threats call for the U.S. military to change from finding, fixing, and destroying the enemy's forces to identifying, locating and capturing rogue individuals in order to destroy networks. To counter such threats, the USG will have to quickly and efficiently identify and find these targets globally. ...

  8. National economic interests of Russia in modern geopolitical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Leonidovna Andreeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers national economic interests that form the basis of national security (food, raw materials, finance, infrastructure including transport and set the priorities for the development of economic sectors (industry, scientific and technological development, entrepreneurship, social sector and innovation development. The authors carry out brief analysis for each type of national economic interests and find out how they are reflected in the national documents on socio-economic development and in international documents on economic cooperation with Russia’s participation. These interests in the national aspect are reflected in the Concept for long-term socio-economic development, and in the strategies and state programs for development of economic sectors. As for the international economic aspect, the authors consider Russia’s contracts with individual countries on trade and/or cooperation, the Agreement on the Eurasian Economic Union, the Declaration and agreements of the BRICS countries, the Program for Trade and Economic cooperation between the SCO countries, and international standards relating to socio-economic ratings and indexes. The analysis shows that the country requires the development of a unified conceptual project that would link strategic priorities of socio-economic development of the Russian Federation with changing geoeconomic conditions. This independent project should represent a set of system strategic guidelines on different levels, enhancing the role and increasing the importance of Russia in the new architecture of the geo-economic world order, the country’s participation in the joint strategies implemented by the Russian Federation together with other interested countries and new integration groups, and also defending conceptual interests of national development

  9. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) dataset for War in the Pacific National Historical Park (wapa_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within War in the Pacific National Historical...

  10. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  11. Propagandizing in the Interest of War: A Rhetorical Study of the Committee on Public Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    The Committee on Public Information was created by President Woodrow Wilson in 1917 and charged with informing the public about the war in Europe. Under the leadership of newspaper publisher George Creel, the Committee undertook a vigorous campaign that included censorship of government press releases; the production of posters, films, and…

  12. Propagandizing in the Interest of War: A Rhetorical Study of the Committee on Public Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    The Committee on Public Information was created by President Woodrow Wilson in 1917 and charged with informing the public about the war in Europe. Under the leadership of newspaper publisher George Creel, the Committee undertook a vigorous campaign that included censorship of government press releases; the production of posters, films, and…

  13. Albanian Personal Narratives of the Kosovo War and the Struggle for a National Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Di Lellio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the “war of memories” taking place in postwar Kosovo through a close reading of diaries and memoirs written by the protagonists of the war - both fighters of the Kosovo Liberation Army and civil-ians. It argues that the two narratives emerging from this literature correspond to gendered variants of the Albanian national self-identification fixated in the early nineteenth century

  14. 78 FR 46245 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... prosperous peace. In six decades, the Republic of Korea has become one of the world's largest economies and... ago, and the men and women who preserve it today. So as we mark this milestone, let us offer a special salute to our Korean War veterans. Let us renew the sacred trust we share with all who have served. And...

  15. Media in a Crisis Situation Involving National Interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xigen, Li; Lindsay, Laura; Mogensen, Kirsten

    the networks. This study found that a variety of sources was used, and the influence of government officials was not as great as in the coverage of a crisis with less involvement of U.S. national interest. Media primarily serve as the sources of accurate information instead of guidance and consolation......A content analysis of coverage of 9/11 incident during the first eight hours examined how five television networks framed the news coverage as events unfolded. Media performed their function in a crisis basically as they were expected and coverage and issues do not vary significantly among...

  16. The National Liberation Struggle of the Balkan Peoples and the Crimean War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Belova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the stages of the national liberation struggle of the peoples of South- Eastern Europe against the Ottoman Empire. The Russian Empire supported the Christian population and helped the southern Slavs and the Greeks to get free from the Ottoman dependency. But Emperor Nicholas I opposed the revolution. The 1850s were marked by the strained political and economic relations between Russia, Turkey, Britain, France and other European States. The Bulgarian and the Greek bourgeoisie had moved from enlightment activity to the political one. Bulgarians, Serbs, Moldovans, Greeks joined the volunteers and defended national interests with the weapon in hands. During the Crimean war the Russian command created military units on the territory of the Danubian principalities. Volunteers fought on the Danube, in Moldavia and Wallachia, and the Crimea. They protected the borders, defended the bastions of Sevastopol. The subject of the research is the organization of volunteer groups, national and social composition of the groups. The role of volunteers was of an exclusive political significance. The number of volunteers in the ranks of Russian troops was insignificant. But the volunteers were guides of Russian policy in the Turkish lands. They represented the fighting core.

  17. Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction: Current Debate and Indonesia's Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulardi Nurbintoro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The drafters of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS have left behind a lacunae in terms of the regulations concerning Biodiversity in the Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ. As living organisms are found in the deep seabed in areas beyond national jurisdiction, as well as the utilization of marine genetic resources beyond national jurisdiction for commercial purposes, States are currently deliberating on the proper regime in dealing with the management and exploitation of the biodiversity. Some States argue that Part XI UNCLOS applies hence BBNJ is also part of the Common Heritage of Mankind. On the other hand, some States believe that Part VII UNCLOS applies which will allow individual States to exploit the resources in accordance with the principle of the freedom of the high seas. Since 2004, the UN General Assembly has established a Working Group to discuss the issue. Indonesia as a Party to UNCLOS which in general advocates the importance of the rule of law in the oceans has the interest that the discussion in the UN will allow developing countries, including Indonesia, to enjoy the result of the exploration and exploitation of non-mineral resources at the bottom of the ocean.

  18. National GDP, Science Interest and Science Achievement: A Person-by-Nation Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drob, Elliot M. Tucker; Cheung, Amanda K.; Briley, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing science achievement is a critical target of educational policy, with important implications for national and international economic and technological competitiveness. Previous research has identified both science interest and socioeconomic status (SES) as robust predictors of science achievement, but little research has examined their joint effects. In a dataset drawn from approximately 400,000 high school students from 57 countries, we document large interest by SES and interest by per capita gross domestic product (GDP) interactions in the prediction of science achievement. Student interest in science is a substantially stronger predictor of science achievement in higher socioeconomic contexts and in higher GDP nations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in higher opportunity contexts, motivational factors play larger roles in learning and achievement. They add to the growing body of evidence indicating that substantial cross national differences in psychological effect sizes are not simply a logical possibility, but in many cases, an empirical reality. PMID:25304883

  19. "Music for a National Defense": Making Martial Music during the Anti-Japanese War

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua H. Howard

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the popularization of “mass songs” among Chinese Communist troops during the Anti-Japanese War by highlighting the urban origins of the National Salvation Song Movement and the key role it played in bringing songs to the war front. The diffusion of a new genre of march songs pioneered by Nie Er was facilitated by compositional devices that reinforced the ideological message of the lyrics, and by the National Salvation Song Movement. By the mid-1930s, this grassroots move...

  20. MIT Lincoln Laboratory: Physics and Technology in the National Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Richard

    2001-03-01

    This year, MIT is celebrating the 50th anniversary of the founding of Lincoln Laboratory, which was formed at the request of the DoD with the initial goal of developing a national air defense system. In its 50 years, the Laboratory staff have made significant contributions in diverse areas including radar imaging, satellite communications, digital signal processing, computer science, semiconductor materials and solid state physics. The Laboratory has been true to its mission statement, which places strong emphasis on the application of advanced electronics to R&D in the national interest. Much of the technology is transitioned to U.S. industry for both government and commercial use. Annually more than 500 publications and meeting speeches are given, and cooperative developments with industry have targeted technology transitions ranging from next-generation photolithographic tools to microchip lasers. The Laboratory staff have been granted over 400 patents, and license to this intellectual property is at the core of many of the over 70 spin-off companies. MIT employs 2,300 people at Lincoln, including 1,200 professionals with degrees in physics, math, computer science, materials science and the engineering disciplines. Two-fifths of the professional staff are at the doctoral level; over two-thirds hold advanced degrees. This presentation will describe recent examples of research challenges for physicists in a multidisciplinary project-oriented environment.

  1. Generational Dimensions to Igbo Nationalism in Post-Civil War Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    war for Igbo self-determination between 1967 and 1970. It rejects a .... produce any change on one hand, and MASSOB as a grassroots based movement with a radical ... interactions, forces and interests at play in a moderate Igbo elite group and political class ... resistance and resilience (Honwana and De Boeck 2005).

  2. War and the Mythological Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Das

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an interesting ambiguity that marks any discussion on war in much of modern political theory. While it is acknowledged that war entails enormous human suffering, considerable latitude is conceded for moral judgements about the right to wage war, on the grounds that the suffering imposed upon self and others due to war, is an unfortunate necessity for the future good of a national community. The legality (as distinct from the legitimacy of modern wars is directly tied to the notion of contractual violence, such that state entities are granted the right to declare war and to conduct it within the constraints (in theory if not in practice of agreed covenants that place restrictions on what is justifiable violence in war and against whom it may be directed.

  3. "Music for a National Defense": Making Martial Music during the Anti-Japanese War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H. Howard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the popularization of “mass songs” among Chinese Communist troops during the Anti-Japanese War by highlighting the urban origins of the National Salvation Song Movement and the key role it played in bringing songs to the war front. The diffusion of a new genre of march songs pioneered by Nie Er was facilitated by compositional devices that reinforced the ideological message of the lyrics, and by the National Salvation Song Movement. By the mid-1930s, this grassroots movement, led by Liu Liangmo, converged with the tail end of the proletarian arts movement that sought to popularize mass art and create a “music for national defense.” Once the war broke out, both Nationalists and Communists provided organizational support for the song movement by sponsoring war zone service corps and mobile theatrical troupes that served as conduits for musicians to propagate their art in the hinterland. By the late 1930s, as the United Front unraveled, a majority of musicians involved in the National Salvation Song Movement moved to the Communist base areas. Their work for the New Fourth Route and Eighth Route Armies, along with Communist propaganda organizations, enabled their songs to spread throughout the ranks.

  4. Education, Nation-Building and Modernization after World War I: American Ideas for the Peace Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ment, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The First World War ended with the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German and Ottoman Empires. In planning for the peace negotiations the allied governments considered not only the European boundaries but especially the national aspirations and future development of the peoples of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Africa and…

  5. What Comes Next? An Argument for Irregular War in National Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    conduct a static line jump from a C-130 aircraft during Fuerzas Comando 2012 at the Colom- bian National Training Center on Fort Tolemaida...combat operations in dollars and in human capital require an alternative. What comes next? The answer: An energized, muscular strategy of irregular war

  6. The Use of National Guard Assets for Counterdrug Operations in the War on Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    depressants, stimulants, cannabis and hallucinogens. It also provides contact lists for the DEA demand reduction coordinators and the National Guard drug...facilitates the importation of cocaine into the United States. His book describes how corruption breeds from within the forces sent to fight the war on...The domestic cannabis suppression and eradication operation continues to be one of the most requested missions in the National Guard counterdrug

  7. Mobilization of the Army National Guard and Army Reserve: Historical Perspective and the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-07

    understanding of the uso of the National Guard for State service, for domestic disturbances wnile in a Fede*. «.1 status, and for minor wars. National...denying him his social legislation.29 John K. Mahon has written that there were three major reasons for President Johnson’s refusal to mobilize the...Aviation Company was redes igna ted a =, the 2929th ’ledical Lot ichmout (Air Ambulanca); the 107 th Signal Company (Support) v,r, redes ignatei: aa the

  8. Coalmining and the National Scheme for Disabled Ex-Servicemen after the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantin, Mike

    2016-04-02

    After the First World War, disabled British veterans returned home to an uncertain future of work. In addition to voluntary efforts, the government's response to the national employment crisis - the National Scheme for Disabled Ex-Servicemen (commonly known as the King's Roll) - was established in 1919 to encourage employers to hire a five per cent quota of disabled ex-servicemen. Historians have recently revisited the scheme, noting that in many cases the process was slow and fraught, with many disabled veterans facing the prospect of unemployment, yet few have paid attention to soldiers' pre-war working backgrounds and the specific requests of British industries. This article focuses on British coalminers returning from war. What role was there in this national situation for an industry known for its own high rate of accident and injury? Although the King's Roll made some attempt to find veterans specifically targeted jobs above and below ground according to their impairments, it proved unable to incorporate coalmining. Instead, many disabled ex-servicemen returned to the workplace and utilized their existing identities as miners to navigate the process. With the industry beginning to decline, many faced potential regression in job status, exploitation or unemployment. By shifting to an industry-specific focus, this case study explores the contested nature of work for disabled people after the First World War, and highlights the interrelation and importance of workplace identity for the returning disabled veteran.

  9. Quantifying national information interests using the activity of Wikipedia editors

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Fariba; Samoilenko, Ann; Rosvall, Martin; Lancichinetti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We live in a "global village" where electronic communication has eliminated the geographical barriers of information exchange. With global information exchange, the road is open to worldwide convergence of opinions and interests. However, it remains unknown to what extent interests actually have become global. To address how interests differ between countries, we analyze the information exchange in Wikipedia, the largest online collaborative encyclopedia. From the editing activity in Wikipedia, we extract the interest profiles of editors from different countries. Based on a statistical null model for interest profiles, we create a network of significant links between countries with similar interests. We show that countries are divided into 18 clusters with similar interest profiles in which language, geography, and historical background polarize the interests. Despite the opportunities of global communication, the results suggest that people nevertheless care about local information.

  10. A Critical Examination of Kant's Hypothesis that Citizens should have an Interest in Avoiding War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    In the paper I discuss the hypothesis that citizens of any well ordered republic will put their own rational interests before the ambitions of their rulers  suggesting that it is the hub of the entire project for a pacific federation  which lends some power of enforcement behind otherwise unsanct...... unsanctioned contractual international obligations. If so the premises need critical examination for their apparent simplicity is deceptive....

  11. How small nations fare in the global war on talent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tung, Rosalie; Worm, Verner; Aagaard Petersen, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In light of the looming shortage of skilled professionals, companies are increasingly eager to recruit highly educated and competent employees, regardless of country of origin and nationality, in order to remain globally competitive. This paper seeks to shed light on how nations compete for the s...... of this study have implications on the plight of smaller nations, such as Denmark, in attracting and retaining human talent. These findings also have implications for small-sized companies in their competition with large firms for human talent....

  12. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  13. Britain and the Ottoman Empire in the First World War: Clashing Interests of Two Belligerents

    OpenAIRE

    Ediz, İsmail

    2017-01-01

    Course of the relations between the British and the Ottoman Empire affected the future of extremely large areas including The Balkans, Anatolia and the Arab territories. Intersection of the mutual interests of the two states throughout the 19th century allowed them to continue the relations at a certain stable level. But since the last quarter of the same century the relations between the Ottoman Empire and Britain started to deteriorate. In addition to developments in European politics, with...

  14. Shaping the National Guard in a Post-War Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    to Monterey for another in- residence session. Thanks to Holly Shenefelt, who spent hours poring over my paper, and only asked for Starbucks in return...predictability for deployments, with an emphasis on AC/RC integration.81 In short, the reserve component has become a critical part of national strategy and...Joint Publication 1-02 as “The ability of U.S. military forces to fight and meet the demands of the National Military Strategy . Readiness is the

  15. Study on interest rate restrictions (IRR): Belgian national report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannerom, J.; Terryn, E.

    2010-01-01

    DG Internal Market and Services of the European Commission have commissioned us to conduct a study on interest rate restrictions in consumer credit covering unsecured and secured credit (i.e. including mortgage credit). This project aims to identify the different types of interest rate restrictions

  16. War and National Renewal: Civil Religion and Blood Sacrifice in American Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Soltysik Monnet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wars are often associated with a rhetoric of renewal or new beginnings. This essay explores this claim through the lens of civil religion and a recent book by Carolyn Marvin and David Ingle, Blood Sacrifice and the Nation, which combines Emile Durkheim with Réné Girard in proposing that modern national cohesion depends on blood sacrifice. I unpack some of the paradoxes raised by this theory of national renewal in the context of 9/11, with a special focus on the sacred status of the flag and the special attention given to uniformed serviceman in the American body politic

  17. A Nation at War: Reconciling Ends and Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-08

    feats that today Nobel Prize winners can’t do with the entire resources of a national laboratory. Let’s not even talk about what well-funded ter- rorist...best book in English on international relations in 2002. The Italian translation won the Premio Acqui Storia awarded to the most important historical

  18. Terrorism as war by other means: national security and state support for terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Ekmekci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional approach in the discipline of International Relations is to treat terrorist organizations as "non-state" actors of international relations. However, this approach is problematic due to the fact that most terrorist organizations are backed or exploited by some states. In this article, I take issue with the non-stateness of terrorist organizations and seek to answer the question of why so many states, at times, support terrorist organizations. I argue that in the face of rising threats to national security in an age of devastating wars, modern nation states tend to provide support to foreign terrorist organizations that work against their present and imminent enemies. I elaborate on my argument studying three cases of state support for terrorism: Iranian support for Hamas, Syrian support for the PKK, and American support for the MEK. The analyses suggest that, for many states, terror is nothing but war by other means.

  19. How small nations fare in the global war on talent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tung, Rosalie; Worm, Verner; Aagaard Petersen, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In light of the looming shortage of skilled professionals, companies are increasingly eager to recruit highly educated and competent employees, regardless of country of origin and nationality, in order to remain globally competitive. This paper seeks to shed light on how nations compete for the s...... of this study have implications on the plight of smaller nations, such as Denmark, in attracting and retaining human talent. These findings also have implications for small-sized companies in their competition with large firms for human talent....... for the same talent pool by presenting the findings of two related studies on whether (a) Chinese students who are studying in Denmark choose to return to work in China; and (b) Danish students in Denmark are willing to work for Chinese companies in Denmark and/or China. Despite its population of 1.3 billion......, China has a critical shortage of managerial talent. The vast majority of Chinese students in Denmark do not plan to remain in Denmark upon completion of their education, while many Danish students are receptive to working for Chinese companies, albeit more so in Denmark than in China. The findings...

  20. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jager, Sheila M

    2007-01-01

    ... of memory, identity, and nationalism. The potential for violent military clashes in the Taiwan Strait and the Korean peninsula largely involve disputes over history and territory, linked as they are to the unresolved legacies of the Cold War...

  1. United States National Security Interests and the Republic of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    The perceptions that have been colored by history are sharpened by differences and dispari- ties separating the two nations. Octavio Paz , a...Stoessel, Jr., "Foreign Policy Priorities in Asia," Current Policy, No. 274, (April 24, 1981), p. 1. 14 Octavio Paz , Mexico and the U.S.: Positions and... Paz expressed it, "our countries are neighbors condemned to live alongside each other." The relationship began even before the two nations existed

  2. The national public's values and interests related to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: A computer content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Roger. Kaye

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the national public's values and interests related to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Computer content analysis was used to analyze more than 23,000 media stories about the refuge from 1995 through 2007. Ten main categories of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge values and interests emerged from the analysis, reflecting a diversity of values,...

  3. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 1990 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  4. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 1994 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  5. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 1992 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  6. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 1993 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  7. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 1995 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  8. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 1997 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  9. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 1996 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  10. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 1998 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  11. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 1989 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  12. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 1991 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  13. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management District: 1986 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and WarHorse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  14. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 1999 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  15. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management District: 1987 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and WarHorse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  16. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 2000 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  17. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 1988 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and WarHorse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  18. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges and the CMR Wetland Management Districts: 2001 annual narrative reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR; Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason, and War Horse National Wildlife Refuges; the CMR Wetland Management...

  19. A Core National Security Interest: Framing Atrocities Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Levinger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes President Barack Obama’s communication strategies in his speeches and presidential statements concerning threats of mass atrocities in Libya, Syria, and Iraq from 2011 through 2015. It examines how he has used three rhetorical “frames” to explain events in these countries and to advocate specific U.S. policy responses: the “legalistic” (or “liberal internationalist”, the “moralistic,” and the “security” frame. Obama utilized primarily the legalistic frame to justify U.S. military intervention in Libya in 2011, and he relied mainly on the security frame (focusing on terrorist threats against U.S. nationals to justify the deployment of U.S. military forces against ISIL in Iraq and Syria in 2014−2015. Obama’s rhetorical framing of the violence perpetrated by the Syrian regime of Bashar al-Assad since 2011 has been less consistent. Hardly ever in these speeches did Obama suggest that mass atrocities per se constituted a threat to U.S. national security—despite the declaration in Obama’s 2011 Presidential Study Directive on Mass Atrocities that “preventing mass atrocities and genocide is a core national security interest” of the United States. Utilizing an approach to linguistic analysis developed by Roman Jakobson, the paper shows how Obama has employed rhetorical devices that emphasize the boundaries between the “in-group” of the American national community and the “out-groups” in other countries who are threatened by mass atrocities. Because members of an in-group are typically depicted as warranting greater concern than members of out-groups, Obama’s assignment of victimized communities to out-group status has effectively justified inaction by the U.S. government in the face of genocidal violence.

  20. Prerequisite for Strategic Planning: A Concept of the National Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    impunity." [441 The recently increased criticism by theorists such as Marcuse and Meyer highlight the inadequacy of attempting to restrict a cognitive...important to the welfare of the nation than are concrete 68 fifteen centuries of thought gave wpy Lo the Newtonian universe of reason and scientific...New Approaches in History, Theory, and Policy, New York, 1979, 43- 68 . 4. For a description of thie application of logical analysis to social science

  1. A Core National Security Interest: Framing Atrocities Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Levinger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes President Barack Obama’s communication strategies in his speeches and presidential statements concerning threats of mass atrocities in Libya, Syria, and Iraq from 2011 through 2015. It examines how he has used three rhetorical “frames” to explain events in these countries and to advocate specific U.S. policy responses: the “legalistic” (or “liberal internationalist”, the “moralistic,” and the “security” frame. Obama utilized primarily the legalistic frame to justify U.S. military intervention in Libya in 2011, and he relied mainly on the security frame (focusing on terrorist threats against U.S. nationals to justify the deployment of U.S. military forces against ISIL in Iraq and Syria in 2014−2015. Obama’s rhetorical framing of the violence perpetrated by the Syrian regime of Bashar al-Assad since 2011 has been less consistent. Hardly ever in these speeches did Obama suggest that mass atrocities per se constituted a threat to U.S. national security—despite the declaration in Obama’s 2011 Presidential Study Directive on Mass Atrocities that “preventing mass atrocities and genocide is a core national security interest” of the United States. Utilizing an approach to linguistic analysis developed by Roman Jakobson, the paper shows how Obama has employed rhetorical devices that emphasize the boundaries between the “in-group” of the American national community and the “out-groups” in other countries who are threatened by mass atrocities. Because members of an in-group are typically depicted as warranting greater concern than members of out-groups, Obama’s assignment of victimized communities to out-group status has effectively justified inaction by the U.S. government in the face of genocidal violence.

  2. Medical aid provided by American, Canadian and British Nationals to the Spanish Republic during the Civil War, 1936-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M F

    1983-01-01

    During international or civil wars, private citizens of noncombatant nations often provide medical aid to one of the contending factions, particularly when they support a participant not favored by their own government. This paper details and analyzes the prominent campaign in the United States, Canada and Great Britain to provide medical aid to the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War (1936 to 1939). The substantial medical aid that was provided clearly alleviated some suffering, but one of the major objectives of the campaign was to arouse public opinion sufficiently to end the boycott of military aid to Republicans; this objective was never achieved. Whether it be in Republican Spain, Vietnam or El Salvador, even a successful medical aid campaign to people in a military conflict may save some lives but may not affect substantially the course of the conflict. Those who are primarily interested in influencing political or military developments, hoping to advance the cause of a particular contending faction, may find tactics other than medical aid campaigns more useful in accomplishing their goals.

  3. Privatization in Ukraine: national interests, priorities and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protskiv, Olha Petrivna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of nature, priority, spheres of threats originto the national security of Ukraine on the basis of home normative-legal basis concerningprivatization and fundamental scientific research.The evaluation of the sources of threats to the national security of Ukraine arising, spheresof their origin, the scale and possible effects due to the privatization of the strategic enterprises ofthe national economy is made.The reasons for lack of the investment policy strategy and effective regulatory procedure offoreign capital access to the Ukrainian strategic plants privatization have been analysed.Both some benefits of the foreign capital investing for the country economy increase andproblems dealing with this process especially concerning significant transnational capital are paidspecial attention to. Some aspects of investment policy development and regulation procedures ofparticipation of strategic plants of foreign investors in the privatization process are substantiated.A number of important measures for the strategic plants privatization policy regulation involvingnational capital security and support procedures are proposed.

  4. Pastoral care in the healing of moral injury: A case of the Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Moyo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is in the field of Practical theology with specific reference to pastoral care. The article is motivated by the growing number of conversions of members of the Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans Association (ex-combatants/war veterans, through miracle and spiritual healing Ministries under the leadership of Prophets. This article exposes the challenge of injured morals as a result of traumatic war experiences of ex-combatants during the war of liberation from colonialism in Zimbabwe. The violent acts in the political arena in Zimbabwe are linked to the military behaviour of the ex-combatants. This article also makes a critical analysis of the therapeutic narratives from ex-combatants, to conclude that violence in Zimbabwe is highly related to the injured morals of the ex-combatants. The war veterans are finding healing of moral injury from the miracles and exorcisms performed by Prophets.

  5. STRATEGIC COMBINED JOINT SPECIAL OPERATIONS AND THE BALANCE BETWEEN NATIONAL AND COMMON INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin NEGULESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s purpose is to explore how the relation between national interest and common interest of different countries determine them to build a transnational military alliance in order to achieve common strategic aims by launching strategic combined joint special operations. Those common strategic aims are composed, in variable percentages, of the partners’ national goals. The use of special operations for achieving national objectives is made after all political possibilities are ruled out and when using conventional forces is neither necessary nor recommended. The balance between the coalition’s common interest and member states’ national interest influences the strength of the partnership. There are three types of relations between the common interest of the coalition and the national interest of a state: direct, complementary, and opportunistic relationships

  6. Between national tradition and bilateral dialogue: Teaching the First World War in France and Germany to build lasting peace

    OpenAIRE

    Maguelone Nouvel-Kirschleger; Steffn Sammler

    2016-01-01

    The communication examines the representations of war and peace making processes in French and German textbooks since 1945. It analyses continuity and change in the choice of themes and their textual and iconographic representations at the example of the First World War. It tries to determine the weight of transnational bi- and European co-operation in the “teaching about war” with the objective of peace education in comparing them with persisting national traditions of politics of remembranc...

  7. Passing the Test: The National Interest in Good Schools for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Michael A., Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses major issues that relate to the role of the federal government in American elementary and secondary education. After "Introduction: The National Interest in a Quality Education for All Children" (Donald M. Stewart), Part 1, "The National Interest in Elementary and Secondary Education," includes "Education and…

  8. Bushido’s Role in the Growth of Pre-World War II Japanese Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Patterson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Though some attention has been given to the role that Bushido (the ethical system of the samurai may have played in the development of nationalism in post-Meiji Japan, the martial arts themselves have largely been absolved of any complicity. I argue in this article that the martial arts did in fact play a role in the rise of Japanese nationalism and therefore share some of the blame for the events that took place leading up to and during the Second World War. The article demonstrates how the martial arts were used to popularize the precepts of Bushido and how these precepts in turn lead to the growth of expansionist nationalism. It also shows how the martial arts were used in the educational system and the military to inculcate the Bushido notions of honor and loyalty in the general public.

  9. "Help Us, Serve England": First World War Military Nursing and National Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Historians generally argue that the First World War was a defining experience from which Canadians emerged with a strong sense of national identity distinct from their British roots. There is little historical research on women's wartime experiences and even less on military nurses. This article explores the working relationships of Nursing Sister Emeline Robinson with British nurses, VAD volunteers, orderlies, and medical officers during her one and a half years with the Queen Alexandra Imperial Military Nursing Service Reserve through her diary, which spans her enlistment, resignation, and re-enlistment with the Canadian Army Medical Corps.

  10. National park visitor segments and their interest in rural tourism services and intention to revisit

    OpenAIRE

    SIEVÄNEN TUIJA; NEUVONEN MARJO; POUTA EIJA

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to understand national park visitors’ interests to use tourism services provided in the vicinity of Linnansaari, Seitseminen and Repovesi national parks in Southern Finland. Separate visitor groups were identified based on their use of tourism services and their intention to revisit the area. Data were generated from a questionnaire survey of 736 visitors to the national parks. The analyses revealed five dimensions of interest in tourism services from which five visitor groups ...

  11. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  12. Balancing the national interest: U.S. national security export controls and global economic competition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Academy of Sciences Staff; National Academy of Engineering Staff; Institute of Medicine Staff

    1987-01-01

    ... of National Security Controls on International Technology Transfer Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1987 i Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version fo...

  13. Ambassadors for the Kingdom of God or for America? Christian Nationalism, the Christian Right, and the Contra War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Frances Turek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay uses the concept of Christian nationalism to explore the religious dynamics of the Contra war and U.S.–Nicaraguan relations during Ronald Reagan’s presidency. Religious organizations and individuals played crucial roles on both sides in the war in Nicaragua and in the debates in the United States over support for the Contras. Evangelistic work strengthened transnational ties between Christians, but also raised the stakes of the war; supporters of the Sandinistas and Contras alike alleged a victory by their adversary imperiled the future of Christianity in Nicaragua. Christian nationalism thus manifested itself and intertwined in both the United States and Nicaragua. Examining how evangelicals and Catholics in the United States and Nicaragua, as well as the Reagan administration, the Contras, and the Sandinistas, used Christian nationalism to build support for their policy objectives sheds light on both the malleability and the power of identifying faith with the state. Having assessed Christian nationalism as a tool and a locus of conflict in the Contra war, the essay then steps back and considers the larger methodological implications of using Christian nationalism as a category of analysis in U.S. foreign relations history.

  14. The securitization of health in the context of the war on terror. National security and global health: the conflict of imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ryoa

    2017-03-01

    In this article, I want to show that the securitization of health issues in the name of national interests led to the militarization of health care in the context of the war against terrorism. However, the connection between health and security also gave way to the emergence of the notion of human security, thus, converging with the human right to health approach and the cosmopolitan discourse on global health. These two perspectives on the relation between health and security lead to conflicting imperatives in the current state of counter-terrorism operations. I argue that when the securitization of health concerns in the name of national security conflicts with the provision of health care in the name of universal human rights, the higher moral end must trump the prudential one. Moreover, it is a duty to promote the human right to health when liberal democracies in foreign policies directly violate this moral ideal in the name of national security.

  15. World War II Aerial Bombings of Germany: Fear as Subject of National Socialist Governmental Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Möbius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights how the National Socialist regime in Germany created the so-called «Selbstschutz» («self protection» in civil air defense as an «apparatus of society» (Michel Foucault to educate the German population with regard to the new possibility of aerial bombing. Mechanisms, functions of emotional control and their relationship to concrete practices of the people involved are shown alongside a local example. Regarding the spread and development of fears, this article maintains that practices of «Selbstschutz» had to bridge the temporal gap between future expectations and actual experiences in crucial ways. Before the war, «Selbstschutz» followed its own logic of expectation of danger and risk, as exemplified in aerial-defense simulation exercises, which clashed with the reality of bombs falling on German cities later on.

  16. Transnational Nationalism and Idealistic Science: The Alcohol Question between the Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Johan

    2016-08-01

    This article studies the interwar international conferences on the alcohol problem. How did they view the alcohol problem and its causes; what were the consequences for the individual and the society as a whole; and which solutions merited discussion? The first post-war conferences enjoyed an optimistic and internationalistic atmosphere, added to by American prohibition, which had given the temperance movement plenty to be hopeful about. But when the 1920s turned to the 1930s, the conferences were transformed into arenas for national solutions and into outright propaganda pieces. The responses to the alcohol problem debated in the interwar conferences built on a combination of scientifically masked ideological conviction and ideologically inspired passion for science. The apparently neutral ethics of such thinking was manifested in various radical measures to combat alcohol abuse.

  17. Empire, War and Nation: Heritage Management Perspectives from Canada and Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tunbridge

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers recent insights on contested heritage from Canada and Malta. These contrasting geographical extremes span a range of heritage dissonances but share a common historical identity as successor states to the British Empire, entailing familiar postcolonial heritage equivocations. Dissonances between colonial and indigenous heritage meanings are discussed. The principal focus of the paper is the Empire at war, as an issue of heritage management in Ottawa, the capital of Canada, and in Malta; comparative insights are generated with resonance for other imperial successor states such as Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. In Ottawa the National Capital Commission is engaged in a delicate management of heritage evolution from the imperial past to the multicultural present, involving adjustment and diversification of heritage meanings in which the indigenous peoples and Canada's wartime/military history figure prominently. Malta's time-depth generates an embarrassment of heritage resources, necessitating choices as it moves from 'blue' seacoast to 'grey' heritage tourism; while earlier eras are favoured, the British imperial and military heritage is inescapable, especially the heroic shared defence of 1940-3, generating management issues over recency, postcoloniality, the naval legacy and the problem of marketing to the former enemy populations. Questions of whose heritage, using which resources of what period, for whose benefit and how managed, elicit a different range of answers in the two cases: British colonial heritage is too diverse to be value-generalised, and there is no single, immutable colonial template for postcolonial identity. However, the particular legacy of the Empire at war is notably formative in the evolution of succeeding national identities.

  18. Small Countries’ EU Council Presidency and the Realisation of their National Interests: The Case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetličič Marjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the article is to establish how a small country, Slovenia, promoted its national interests when it held the Presidency of the Council of the EU, how this experience fits into the theory of small states and what lessons can be drawn for other small states. Based on a questionnaire administered to key Slovenian actors in the presidency, the analysis confirmed some of the theoretical expectations and revealed certain disparities. Our analysis confirms theoretical predictions that a member state can push through its national interests more easily during its presidency because it possesses certain powers that enable it to set the agenda, which is the most effective way of realising national interests. Especially true in the case of small state presidencies, advocating national interests can also be facilitated by a smaller range of priorities and a greater level of coincidence with the interests of other key actors. We revealed that, besides the country’s size, other factors also limited its ability to fulfil its national interests. In addition to a weak ability for coalition building and lobbying, the two main factors of constraint were the lack of soft knowledge among Slovenian officials and weak coordination among policy agents.

  19. Images of the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    1989-01-01

    The conventional U.S. picture traces the Cold War to Soviet violation of wartime agreements, while the U.S.S.R. defends its actions as responses to American violations and foreign adventurism. An understanding of how ideology is shaped by national self-interest will help students see beyond propaganda and myth in interpreting past and current…

  20. Gulf War Illness Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    neurofibromato- sis; autism ; and other areas with military health interests including psychological health, traumatic brain injury, and Gulf War Illness (GWI...the national news headlines, it has not dimmed our hope that treatments and cures for GWI are waiting to be discovered and brought to bear against

  1. Einstein on politics his private thoughts and public stands on nationalism, zionism, war, peace, and the bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, David E; Schulmann, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The most famous scientist of the twentieth century, Albert Einstein was also one of the century's most outspoken political activists. Deeply engaged with the events of his tumultuous times, from the two world wars and the Holocaust, to the atomic bomb and the Cold War, to the effort to establish a Jewish homeland, Einstein was a remarkably prolific political writer, someone who took courageous and often unpopular stands against nationalism, militarism, anti-Semitism, racism, and McCarthyism. In Einstein on Politics, leading Einstein scholars David Rowe and Robert Schulmann gather Einstein's m

  2. Between national tradition and bilateral dialogue: Teaching the First World War in France and Germany to build lasting peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maguelone Nouvel-Kirschleger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The communication examines the representations of war and peace making processes in French and German textbooks since 1945. It analyses continuity and change in the choice of themes and their textual and iconographic representations at the example of the First World War. It tries to determine the weight of transnational bi- and European co-operation in the “teaching about war” with the objective of peace education in comparing them with persisting national traditions of politics of remembrance, historiography and history didactics.

  3. [Accepted Manuscript] Building the nation's body: The contested role of abortion and family planning in post-war South Sudan.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, J.J.; Storeng, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of public health policies and interventions targeting unwanted pregnancy (family planning and abortion) in contemporary South Sudan as part of wider 'nation-building' after war, understood as a process of collective identity formation which projects a meaningful future by redefining existing institutions and customs as national characteristics. The paper shows how the expansion of post-conflict family planning and abortion policy and services are par...

  4. A historical-archaeological investigation of an Anglo-Boer War British outpost in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton C. Van Vollenhoven

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902 a voluntary British military unit called Steinaecker's Horse, operated in the Lowveld and Swaziland. The commander of the unit, colonel Ludwig von Steinaecker, was an important historical figure in this area. The unit established a number of outposts in an area today known as the Kruger National Park. One of these outposts was archaeologically investigated in order to recover any remains that may be associated with this unit and to form some idea of their lifestyle. Although no historical information on this particular outpost was found, the archaeological excavations revealed some interesting evidence. The disturbance of the site and the number of visible cultural material, indicated that it was used in recent times. The large refuse middens show that a reasonably large number of people occupied the site. Most of the artifacts found can be linked to the diet and articles of everyday use of the inhabitants. The conclusion is that the site was probably occupied by both a garrison of the Steinaecker's Horse military unit and some troops of the Native Police unit. Based on the distribution of different types of artifacts on the site a social differ- entiation between the members of these two units is assumed.

  5. FROM THE MUSE TO THE NATION: MEMORIES OF WAR IN THE NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Tenfen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, which has as its basis some of the texts written by the French philosopher Jean-Luc Nancy, I try to discuss some aspects of the formation of the subjects’, or even the citizens’, collective consciousness concerning the nation. For this purpose, I analyze part of the shaping of the Brazilian consciousness (in constant opposition to the American consciousness taking into account a frequent entity in the Western world: the muse(s.

  6. From Labour to National Ideals: Ending the War in Asia Minor—Controlling Communism in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Kritikos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will try to shed light on a very particular angle of Greek political geography after the end of the Asia Minor War. As a result of this conflict almost 1.3 million refugees fled to Greece and changed dramatically its political space. The traditional view among the scholars of the period promotes an “exceptionalism” of the Greek-Orthodox refugees who fled to Greece after 1922. It is argued that the Asia Minor workers did not largely espouse an a priori notion of class, since they had a bourgeoisie economic and social background. However, in the 1930s there was a sharp increase in the support of the Left. Accordingly, the Communist Party pulled 5.76% of the vote, which was the highest in the inter-war period. Although the percentage of the communist vote was not so high all over Greece, Communism had a real electorate appeal for urban refugees. This study will challenge the exceptionalist perspective and will investigate why the same people who voted for Liberals in the 1920s voted for Communists in the 1930s. It will also examine how the Greek political system managed to incorporate the left-wing vote by transforming the division of society from labour and political demands to national ones in the period under examination. The focus will be also on the interplay between Communism and refugees, which is undervalued by most research on the topic, even though the communist threat was used as a reason or pretext for the abolition of parliamentary democracy and the establishment of Ioannis Metaxas’ dictatorship in 1936.

  7. Building the nation's body: The contested role of abortion and family planning in post-war South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Storeng, Katerini T

    2016-11-01

    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of public health policies and interventions targeting unwanted pregnancy (family planning and abortion) in contemporary South Sudan as part of wider 'nation-building' after war, understood as a process of collective identity formation which projects a meaningful future by redefining existing institutions and customs as national characteristics. The paper shows how the expansion of post-conflict family planning and abortion policy and services are particularly poignant sites for the enactment of reproductive identity negotiation, policing and conflict. In addition to customary norms, these processes are shaped by two powerful institutions - ethnic movements and global humanitarian actors - who tend to take opposing stances on reproductive health. Drawing on document review, observations of the media and policy environment and interviews conducted with 54 key informants between 2013 and 2015, the paper shows that during the civil war, the Sudan People's Liberation Army and Movement mobilised customary pro-natalist ideals for military gain by entreating women to amplify reproduction to replace those lost to war and rejecting family planning and abortion. International donors and the Ministry of Health have re-conceptualised such services as among other modern developments denied by war. The tensions between these competing discourses have given rise to a range of societal responses, including disagreements that erupt in legal battles, heated debate and even violence towards women and health workers. In United Nations camps established recently as parts of South Sudan have returned to war, social groups exert a form of reproductive surveillance, policing reproductive health practices and contributing to intra-communal violence when clandestine use of contraception or abortion is discovered. In a context where modern contraceptives and abortion services are largely unfamiliar, conflict around South Sudan's nation

  8. The United States cover-up of Japanese wartime medical atrocities: complicity committed in the national interest and two proposals for contemporary action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2006-01-01

    To monopolize the scientific data gained by Japanese physicians and researchers from vivisections and other barbarous experiments performed on living humans in biological warfare programs such as Unit 731, immediately after the war the United States (US) government secretly granted those involved immunity from war crimes prosecution, withdrew vital information from the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, and publicly denounced otherwise irrefutable evidence from other sources such as the Russian Khabarovsk trial. Acting in "the national interest" and for the security of the US, authorities in the US tramped justice and morality, and engaged in what the English common law tradition clearly defines as "complicity after the fact." To repair this historical injustice, the US government should issue an official apology and offer appropriate compensation for having covered up Japanese medical war crimes for six decades. To help prevent similar acts of aiding principal offender(s) in the future, international declarations or codes of human rights and medical ethics should include a clause banning any kind of complicity in any unethical medicine-whether before or after the fact-by any state or group for whatever reasons.

  9. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  10. The battle for meaning: A cross-national film reception analysis of The Battle Cry of Peace in Switzerland and the Netherlands during World War I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwaan, K.; gerber, adrian

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a cross-national analysis of the historical reception of the American war film The Battle Cry of Peace (J. Stuart Blackton and Wilfred North/Vitagraph, 1915) in the neutral countries of the Netherlands and Switzerland during World War I. Treating propaganda as a mode de lecture,

  11. The battle for meaning: A cross-national film reception analysis of The Battle Cry of Peace in Switzerland and the Netherlands during World War I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwaan, K.; gerber, adrian

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a cross-national analysis of the historical reception of the American war film The Battle Cry of Peace (J. Stuart Blackton and Wilfred North/Vitagraph, 1915) in the neutral countries of the Netherlands and Switzerland during World War I. Treating propaganda as a mode de lecture,

  12. 75 FR 38068 - Public Meeting With Interested Stakeholders for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 403, 501 and 503 Public Meeting With Interested Stakeholders for National... than Wednesday, July 7, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This meeting will be open to all stakeholders... targeted to protect the environment. For this meeting, EPA plans to seek comment from...

  13. 76 FR 21099 - Determinations Concerning Illnesses Discussed In National Academy of Sciences Reports on Gulf War...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... detail, included a control or reference group, had the statistical power to detect effects, and included... appeared to have greater prevalence in Veterans who had been deployed to the Gulf War in comparison with... the Gulf War are causally related. VA regulations at 38 CFR 4.125(a) require that mental disorders...

  14. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Security, Vol. 27, No. 4, Spring 2003. 6. While realism as a whole has been associated with zero- sum thinking and severe pessimism about international... Realism : Strategic Culture and Grand Strategy 45 in Chinese History, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1995; David Kang, “Getting Asia Wrong: The...Gerow, “Fantasies of War and Nation in Recent Japanese Cinema ,” Japan Focus, accessed at www.japanfocus.org/ products/details/1707J, p. 5. In his

  15. Gross domestic product, science interest, and science achievement: a person × nation interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Cheung, Amanda K; Briley, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Maximizing science achievement is a critical target of educational policy and has important implications for national and international economic and technological competitiveness. Previous research has identified both science interest and socioeconomic status (SES) as robust predictors of science achievement, but little research has examined their joint effects. In a data set drawn from approximately 400,000 high school students from 57 countries, we documented large Science Interest × SES and Science Interest × Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) interactions in the prediction of science achievement. Student interest in science is a substantially stronger predictor of science achievement in higher socioeconomic contexts and in higher-GDP nations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that in higher-opportunity contexts, motivational factors play larger roles in learning and achievement. They add to the growing body of evidence indicating that substantial cross-national differences in psychological effect sizes are not simply a logical possibility but, in many cases, an empirical reality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Nation Building and War Narratives for Children: War and Militarism in Hebrew 1940s and 1950s Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Yael

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines militarisation in child culture in Israel's transition from a pre-state society engaged in the nation-building process to statehood. The paper studies children's culture and the literary corpus for children created in the 1940s and 1950s in Jewish Palestine, before and after Israel's establishment. It investigates the main…

  17. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes.

  18. One Nation...Indivisible? Ethnic Interest Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    group’s efforts is the decision-maker possessing the power to influence events. Jürgen Habermas described the differences in public and quasi-public...Huntington, "The Erosion of American National Interests," Foreign Affairs, 76, no. 5 (September/October 1997): 40. 4 Jürgen Habermas , "On the...Concept of Public Opinion," in The Habermas Reader, ed. William Outhwaite (Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1996), 37. 26 Chapter 6 Conclusion Will a

  19. A national survey of policies on disclosure of conflicts of interest in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, S. V.; Anderson, C. B.; Jakovljevic, J.; Khan, T.; McCullough, L. B.; Wray, N. P.; Brody, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicts of interest pose a threat to the integrity of scientific research. The current regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the National Science Foundation require that medical schools and other research institutions report the existence of conflicts of interest to the funding agency but allow the institutions to manage conflicts internally. The regulations do not specify how to do so. METHODS: We surveyed all medical schools (127) and other research institutions (170) that received more than $5 million in total grants annually from the National Institutes of Health or the National Science Foundation; 48 journals in basic science and clinical medicine; and 17 federal agencies in order to analyze their policies on conflicts of interest. RESULTS: Of the 297 institutions, 250 (84 percent) responded by March 2000, as did 47 of the 48 journals and 16 of the 17 federal agencies. Fifteen of the 250 institutions (6 percent)--5 medical schools and 10 other research institutions--reported that they had no policy on conflicts of interest. Among the institutions that had policies, there was marked variation in the definition and management of conflicts. Ninety-one percent had policies that adhered to the federal threshold for disclosure ($10,000 in annual income or equity in a relevant company or 5 percent ownership), and 9 percent had policies that exceeded the federal guidelines. Only 8 percent had policies requiring disclosure to funding agencies, only 7 percent had such policies regarding journals, and only 1 percent had policies requiring the disclosure of information to the relevant institutional review boards or to research subjects. Twenty journals (43 percent) reported that they had policies requiring disclosure of conflicts of interest. Only four federal agencies had policies that explicitly addressed conflicts of interest in extramural research, and all but one of the agencies relied primarily on institutional discretion. CONCLUSIONS

  20. Overview of National Interest, Continuities and Flaws in Nigeria Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderemi Opeyemi Ade-Ibijola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since becoming a sovereign nation in 1960, the nation called Nigeria had engaged herself with the world on a weak foreign policy that had saw the nation part away with a huge chuck of her human and economic resources without having something tangible to show for her huge diplomatic generosity. This has become worrisome to scholars, and stakeholders within the nation-space. To some, Nigeria only operates a father xmas style of foreign policy which had someway contributed to the economic misery of the nation. In light of the above, the article set-out to investigate certain issues in Nigeria foreign policy statement. To this end, the paper focuses on issues such as national interest which drives the nation’s foreign policy coupled with the continuities as well as the flaws associated with Nigeria policy of external relations since attainment of independence. The paper argues that Nigeria should embark on a reform of her foreign policy as a matter of urgency as what obtains presently can best be described as diplomatic prodigality. This is the summation of what Nigeria had ever done in the realm of foreign relations.

  1. Trend Analysis of Worldwide FDI Flows in the Context of Promoting Sustainable Development and National Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgeta Ailincă

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available About FDI there are numerous studies, some of them have mostly theoretical character and others mostly practical. This article aims at capturing and analyzing the most important trends in the short, medium and long term on FDI flows worldwide, thus this study has a rather practical approach. Also, the paper aims to discern how FDI flows may influence the sustainable development and the national interest. The analysis starts from studying the past in the most significant developments of the world economy in terms of inflows of investment attraction, drawing marginally some advantages or disadvantages of joining a political entity with regional vocation (e.g. European Union or a currency area (e.g. E.M.U.. It should also be noted that, beyond the analysis of past trends, the direction towards which worldwide foreign direct investment (FDI should be considered in relationship with the ability to infer certain areas which in future can attract FDI for a sustainable and balanced national economy development, serving to the national interest. Thus, the article aims, through a broad set of indicators, to seize these structural or cyclical advantages of world economies and, to the extent that can be applied to the Romanian economy, to contribute to the restructuring of objectives of macroeconomic policies in order to mobilize the country's potential to attract FDI.

  2. Conflicts of interest among committee members in the National Academies’ genetically engineered crop study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) publishes numerous reports each year that are received with high esteem by the scientific community and public policy makers. The NASEM has internal standards for selecting committee members that author its reports, mostly from academia, and vetting conflicts of interest. This study examines whether there were any financial conflicts of interest (COIs) among the twenty invited committee members who wrote the 2016 report on genetically engineered (GE) crops. Our results showed that six panel members had one or more reportable financial COIs, none of which were disclosed in the report. We also report on institutional COIs held by the NASEM related to the report. The difference between our findings and the NASEM reporting standards are discussed. PMID:28245228

  3. Conflict of Interest Policies and Disclosure Requirements among European Society of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is not systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This paper provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire, are discussed.

  4. Commemoration, Race, and World War II: History and Civil Rights at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Ater

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available History and civil rights are intertwined at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. Moton Field was a training flight facility for African American pilot candidates in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, operating from 1941–45. Through the extant buildings and interpretive exhibits, the National Park Service commemorates the Tuskegee Airmen’s contributions to World War II, recognizing the first African American military aviators and their struggle for civil rights during the 1940s. This essay examines the way in which race, personal narratives, historical objects, and sensorial experience (sight, sound, touch, and smell are used at the historic site to suggest the significance of the Tuskegee Airmen. Despite the segregation and racism that they experienced in the U.S. military, the African American pilots and the men and women who worked alongside them believed staunchly in the idea of service to the nation as a means of participating in democracy and gaining full citizenship.

  5. An Analysis of Australia’s National Strategy in the War Against Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    Aldo Borgu , Program Director Australian Strategic Policy Institute, “Structuring the ADF for Australia’s New Strategic Environment.” an address to the...War.” Speech. Kings Park Function Centre, Perth, 24 September 2003. Transcript provided by his personal staff. Borgu , Aldo. “STRUCTURING THE ADF FOR

  6. 77 FR 22183 - National Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... periods of prayer and uncertainty. When he chronicled the experiences of our GIs during World War II... thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-9019 Filed 4-11-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P...

  7. Reviving America’s National Will for the Global War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-12

    constant reminders of the common sacrifice being made. Victory gardens were reminders that war had not ended. Troop trains, recruiting stations, USO ...is necessary to get the right message to the American people and often. Facts and data that are easy to digest in a ten -minute window and former

  8. Initial Thoughts on the Impact of the Iraq War on U.S. National Security Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    planning for postconflict ...have been made to rectify the shortfall for the future. The State Department may be better equipped for planning , but it still lacks the real...authority to conduct effective post-conflict planning across the whole of government. • The greatest impact of the war on U.S. civilian agencies

  9. An Ethical Foreign Policy? Globalism as a Threat to the US National Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Daghrir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An ethical foreign policy can have no objectives other than those that are of service to its own people. An unethical foreign policy, however, may pursue objectives that enhance the nation as a power, seeking dominance for its own sake, for the honor, glory and wealth of the state or a minority within the state, or spreading its ideology out of missionary fervor. The mainstream wisdom in the United States is that the US foreign policy agendas are virtuous and ethical, since they are oriented mainly towards the protection and enhancement of the American ‘National Interest’. Nevertheless, the orthodox perception among many foreign observers is that the American foreign policy is by no means ethical, since it is oriented exclusively towards the promotion of the Americans’ interests at the expense of the rest of the world. My thesis is that the US foreign policy is unethical and anti-democratic mainly because it is causing a lot of harm to the American taxpayers’ interests. I esteem that the American people are the real permanent victims of their country’s globalist stance. This article is based on an argumentative criticism of the mainstream American perception of U.S. foreign policy as well as a criticism of the foreign observers’ perception of American foreign policy. In a nutshell, this article tries to highlight the unethical nature of the American foreign policy with a focus on the complex justifications for such an undemocratic globalist agenda.

  10. Special Report on "Allegations of Conflict of Interest Regarding Licensing of PROTECT by Argonne National Laboratory"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-08-01

    In February 2009, the Office of Inspector General received a letter from Congressman Mark Steven Kirk of Illinois, which included constituent allegations that an exclusive technology licensing agreement by Argonne National Laboratory was tainted by inadequate competition, conflicts of interest, and other improprieties. The technology in question was for the Program for Response Options and Technology Enhancements for Chemical/Biological Terrorism, commonly referred to as PROTECT. Because of the importance of the Department of Energy's technology transfer program, especially as implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act matures, we reviewed selected aspects of the licensing process for PROTECT to determine whether the allegations had merit. In summary, under the facts developed during our review, it was understandable that interested parties concluded that there was a conflict of interest in this matter and that Argonne may have provided the successful licensee with an unfair advantage. In part, this was consistent with aspects of the complaint from Congressman Kirk's constituent.

  11. Nordic visions of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten HEIBERG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a rich body of Scandinavian literature written by surviving volunteers of the International Brigades which concerns the Spanish Civil War. However, when it comes to scientific studies the situation is an altogether different one. Only a small number of academic studies can be found available, often limited in scope and of modest quality. The Civil War seems to be of marginal interest to the Nordic research community, which is generally more interested in national history than in European and world history. There are, however, some exceptions to this, as this article will demonstrate. The most interesting conclusion - from an international historiographical point of view - to be drawn from a number of new studies is that the Spanish Civil War produced political and military repercussions in Scandinavia during the German occupation of Denmark and Norway from 1940-1945.

  12. NATIONAL INTERESTS AND THE ROLE OF THE RUSSIAN CIVILIZATION OF MODERN CIVILIZATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vladimirovna Popova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of Russia’s national security is the security in the spiritual realm. It is destructive tendencies in the spiritual sphere lead to such dangerous phenomena as terrorism, extremism, crime in all its manifestations and sectarianism. Destructive stereotypes introduced from the outside into the public consciousness, are one of the main threats to Russia’s national security. The answer to these processes Dol wives become, from our point of view, the approach and strategy of integration, based on the dialectics of cultural samoopyleniya, which is the only al-ternatively logic of domination and conflict. The activation of the process of integration of migration in modern Russia it is necessary to create a strategically important subject of international relations, without which it is impossible multipolar world.At the same time, the effectiveness of the provision of spiritual security and the boards of the national interests of modern Russia depends not only on the degree-penalty protection inner space of the country, but also from the realization of the spiritual expansion in the global space. This means active participation in the spiritual evolution of the world to prevent the influence of destructive forces, based on the system of antivalues and the cult of violence.In modern Russia, it may have to determine the direction common to modern civilization development. For this purpose there are all prerequisites. Russia today are able to exert an influence on the global geopolitical processes, using their cultural, historical, spiritual, natural, political, and other resources.

  13. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  14. American Influence on Post-World War I Recovery of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    creation of the League of Nations had the potential to entangle the United States in another war in Europe.29 The president had opposed the reparations...printing money , as opposed to increasing the taxation of the people.39 The interest and reimbursement of war bonds competed with the costs of day

  15. Joint Universities as a Tool for Promoting the National Interests of Russia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Medyanik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the opening of joint educational institutions is one of the leading educational trends. It allows states to improve the quality of national human resources and the national education system. Thus, it is particularly important for transition economies in the context of an innovative model of development. Russia and China turned to this practice in 2010 after the launch of the SCO University, established by the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Today joint educational institutions function not only multilaterally but also bilaterally. This article examines the Shenzhen MSU-BIT University, a joint Russian-Chinese university, as a tool to promote the national interests of the two countries. The author presents the basic history of Russian-Chinese cooperation in education in the second half of the 20th century. She argues that the Cultural Revolution and period the subsequent of difficult relations between the two countries had a negative impact on educational ties. Russia lost 17 years in China’s educational market, which was filled by other countries, primarily the United States. At the beginning of the 20th century, Russian-Chinese humanitarian cooperation was positive. The author relates the increase in the volume of Russian-Chinese educational exchange to the success of several events, including the large-scale projects of the Year of Russia in China and the Year of China in Russia, the Year of Chinese Language in Russia and Russian Language in China, the opening of the Russian Cultural Centre and the Chinese Cultural Centre, Russian centres and cabinets of the “Russian World” in China, and Confucius Institutes and classes in Russia. After analyzing the current situation, the author describes the new forms of cooperation, which include the opening of joint institutions. She assesses the interests and prospects of Russian and Chinese participation in the creation of the Shenzhen MSU-BIT University through the prism of national

  16. Re-building the Nation-State: The American Civil War in a transnational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorentino, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Cet article analyse la façon dont a été perçue et interprétée la Guerre de Sécession en Europe. Il souligne la dimension internationale de ce conflit et insiste sur l’idée selon laquelle la Guerre de Sécession a alimenté les différents affrontements qui ont éclaté sur le continent européen au cours du XIXe siècle. This article analyzes the reading of the American Civil War in Europe, how this conflict was perceived. It shows the international dimension of this war and insists on the idea t...

  17. Family-centered care to promote successful community reintegration after war: it takes a nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shirley M

    2013-12-01

    The papers in this section focus on public health responses and implementation considerations in addressing the challenges military families confront when parents go to war. While many military families show resilience, the challenges resulting from a decade of war with multiple deployments are detailed, as are innovative military and civilian programs designed to help service members and their families reintegrate successfully into the community. As more and more service members leave active duty, the burden of meeting military families' psychological needs will transition from the Department of Defense (DoD) and into the Veterans Administration (VA) and civilian arenas. While many strategies to support successful readjustment are offered, in this time of dwindling mental health resources and competing needs, it is unclear what priority the broader society places on meeting the needs of returning service members and their families. A growing emphasis on family-centered care in the Veterans Administration may help meet this gap.

  18. Rhetoric of civil conflict management: United Nations Security Council debates over the Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Medzihorsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a spatial model of civil conflict management rhetoric to explore how the emerging norm of responsibility to protect shapes major power rhetorical responses to civil war. Using framing theory, we argue that responsibility to protect functions like a prescriptive norm, such that representing a conflict as one of (1 human rights violations (problem definition, implies rhetorical support for (2 coercive outside intervention (solution identification. These dimensions reflect the problem-solution form of a prescriptive norm. Using dictionary scaling with a dynamic model, we analyze the positions of UN Security Council members in debates over the Syrian Civil War separately for each dimension. We find that the permanent members who emphasized human rights violations also used intervention rhetoric (UK, France, and the US, and those who did not used non-intervention rhetoric (Russia and China. We conclude that, while not a fully consolidated norm, responsibility to protect appears to have structured major power rhetorical responses to the Syrian Civil War.

  19. United States Responses to Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation after World War II: National Security and Wartime Exigency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E.; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In 1945-46, representatives of the United States government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the U.S., influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the U.S. played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes. PMID:24534743

  20. 论斯大林的国家利益观%On Stalin’s View of National Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦正为

    2016-01-01

    斯大林的国家利益观带有“双重性”的特征,具体表现在:政治经济文化等利益相互渗透但又强调政治利益;个人利益与公共利益彼此交织但又突出公共利益;阶级利益与民族利益紧密结合但又偏重阶级利益;国家利益与世界利益有机统一但又倾向国家利益;近期利益与长期利益协调会同但又凸显近期利益。研究斯大林的国家利益观,不但具有学理价值,而且具有现实意义。%Stalin’s view of national interest has the “dual nature” characteristics, and its specific manifestations are: political, economic and cultural interests are interpenetration but political interest is stressed;personal and public interests are intertwined but public interest is highlighted; class interest is close with the national interest but class interest are emphasized; national and world interests are organically unity but national interest is tended;near future and long-term interests are coordination but near future interest is highlighted. Study Stalin’s view of national interest only has theoretical value but also has practical significance.

  1. National / regional / transnational: the Catalan Diaspora and the humanitarian assistance from the Spanish Civil War at the end of World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvina Jensen

    2014-01-01

    ... on both sides for help to the desplazed persons (first moved into the peninsula during the Civil War, then moved to France after the "withdrawal" and finally evacuated from France to Latin America...

  2. Prospects for Sino-Russian Relations and China's National Interests in the Next Decade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yujun; Hong Juanjun

    2008-01-01

    The next 5-10 years will be a pivotal period in which China will implement its "11th Five-Year Plan" and accelerate its construction of "a moderately prosperous society." It will also be an important period for Russia's resurgence. Sino-Russian relations are therefore facing new challenges and will be steadily developing. Under these new circumstances, clearly defining China's national interests in Sino-Russian relations will be an important prerequisite of ensuring the healthy and stable development of bilateral relations and of safeguarding China's peace and security. For the foreseeable future, China's national interests in Sino-Russian relations will be the further consolidation of mutual trust between the two countries and increasing Sino-Russian security cooperation so as to maintain peace and security in China's northern border areas. As the two countries are both in a phase of social transformation, they can nevertheless learn from each other throughout this process. China will continue promoting diversity of cultures and the multi-polarization of world. China should also exploit Sino-Russian economic cooperation and try to frame a joint strategy with Russia in order to achieve common development and prosperity. Consequently, the two countries will be able to march forward side by side along the path of economic reforms and structural adjustment." In the 21st Century, China and Russia not only need to maintain a good neighbor relationship and guarantee their joint security, but also build a closer cooperation in their common development.Studies, China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations.

  3. Remembering Bodies: Gender, Race, and Nationality in the French-Algerian War

    OpenAIRE

    Quinan, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation interrogates images and narratives of the body during the French-Algerian War, an eight-year conflict that began in 1954 and ended with Algerian independence in 1962. Moving between Algeria and France in my analyses and considering documents from the period in question and from later years that reflect back on it, I analyze literary works, films, memoirs, and a legal case in order to consider how physical violence and trauma produce a variety of forms of psychological and c...

  4. THE AMERICAN WAY OF WAR: AFGHANISTAN AND IRAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa Parraguez Kobek; Mariana Gonzalez Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11 placed the United States in a position to exercise its political objectives of securing national interests through military means. The War on Terror waged in Afghanistan and Iraq shifted the development of U.S. foreign policy, allowing for American leadership to exercise its right to sovereignty and power. The doctrine required a victory in each of the scenarios, and the inability to secure these aims resulted in civil war and insurgency in both countries. Import...

  5. Climate Science Centers: Growing Federal and Academic Expertise in the Nation's Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryker, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior's (Interior) natural and cultural resource managers face increasingly complex challenges exacerbated by climate change. In 2009, under Secretarial Order 3289, Interior created eight regional Climate Science Centers managed by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center and in partnership with universities. Secretarial Order 3289 provides a framework to coordinate climate change science and adaptation efforts across Interior and to integrate science and resource management expertise from Federal, State, Tribal, private, non-profit, and academic partners. In addition to broad research expertise, these Federal/university partnerships provide opportunities to develop a next generation of climate science professionals. These include opportunities to increase the climate science knowledge base of students and practicing professionals; build students' skills in working across the boundary between research and implementation; facilitate networking among researchers, students, and professionals for the application of research to on-the-ground issues; and support the science pipeline in climate-related fields through structured, intensive professional development. In 2013, Climate Science Centers supported approximately 10 undergraduates, 60 graduate students, and 26 postdoctoral researchers. Additional students trained by Climate Science Center-affiliated faculty also contribute valuable time and expertise, and are effectively part of the Climate Science Center network. The Climate Science Centers' education and training efforts have also reached a number of high school students interested in STEM careers, and professionals in natural and cultural resource management. The Climate Science Centers are coordinating to build on each other's successful education and training efforts. Early successes include several intensive education experiences, such as the Alaska Climate Science Center's Girls on

  6. Splitting the mind within the individual, nation and economy: reflections on the struggle for integration in post-war Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plänkers, Tomas

    2015-02-01

    With respect to theorisations of psychical splitting, this paper explores the psychical mechanisms that underlie different forms of social splitting. The paper first outlines Freud's and Kleins different theorisations of the psychical mechanisms of splitting, where the good is split from the bad, the inside split from the outside, and the painful disavowed. I then consider the psychical mechanisms of splitting that underlie ideological supports of certain social systems, specifically that of National Socialist Germany, East Germany during the Cold War period, and neoliberal capitalism. Here, I consider ideological splits between good and evil, the relation between external and internal splits, the relation between geographical, social and internal splitting, as well as splitting as disavowal of the other. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  7. Rosie the Riveter / World War II Home Front National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. "The Beauty of America": Nationalism, Education, and the War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Haj, Thea Renda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Thea Renda Abu El-Haj draws on qualitative research conducted with Palestinian American high school students to explore school as a key site for nation building. By focusing on their teachers' talk and practice, she examines how U.S. nationalism and national identities are produced through everyday racialized and gendered…

  9. "The Beauty of America": Nationalism, Education, and the War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Haj, Thea Renda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Thea Renda Abu El-Haj draws on qualitative research conducted with Palestinian American high school students to explore school as a key site for nation building. By focusing on their teachers' talk and practice, she examines how U.S. nationalism and national identities are produced through everyday racialized and gendered…

  10. Suicide and War: The Mediating Effects of Negative Mood, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Social Support among Army National Guard Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James

    2012-01-01

    The mediating effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, negative mood, and social support on the relationship of war experiences to suicidality were examined. The research literature suggested a sequence among study scales representing these constructs, which was then tested on survey data obtained from a sample of National Guard…

  11. "War on Terror" Is a Curative: Recontextualization and Political Myth-Making in Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's 2002-2004 State of the Nation Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navera, Gene Segarra

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the State of the Nation addresses (SONA) delivered by Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-2010) from 2002-2004, during which time she actively invoked the need to engage in the U.S. government-led "global war on terror." It specifically investigates how these presidential speeches recontextualized the…

  12. 'Poisoned History': A Comparative Study of Nationalism, Propaganda and the Treatment of War and Peace in the Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the evidence of nationalism, propaganda, and the treatment of war and peace in the school curriculum and textbooks within four countries during the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century: (1) Britain; (2) France; (3) Germany; and (4) the United States. (CMK)

  13. "War on Terror" Is a Curative: Recontextualization and Political Myth-Making in Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's 2002-2004 State of the Nation Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navera, Gene Segarra

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the State of the Nation addresses (SONA) delivered by Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-2010) from 2002-2004, during which time she actively invoked the need to engage in the U.S. government-led "global war on terror." It specifically investigates how these presidential speeches recontextualized the…

  14. Principles of Subsidiarity and Proportionality at European Union Level, as Expression of National Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina COCOŞATU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A property right is the exclusive authority to determine how a resource is used, whether that resource is owned by government or by individuals. In the context of land, it is the authority of the land owner to determine its use or otherwise. On the other hand, compulsory acquisition is the process by which government obtain land from private owners for development purposes in the best interest of the community. These diametrically opposed concepts of property rights and compulsory acquisition is reconciled with the payment of compensation for the extinguishment of private property rights. Implications: In Nigeria, these two concepts have a history of mutual conflicts, resulting in congruous resolutions most of the time, until the introduction of the Land Use Act 1978. With the coming of the Act, the pendulum has tilted in favors of compulsory acquisition to the detriment of private property rights; as compensation fails to assuage the loss occasioned by expropriation. Value: The paper explored the dichotomy between private property rights and compulsory acquisition in Nigeria in the last 50 years and submitted that the process under the Land Use Act changed the equilibrium that existed between these two concepts and produced a skewed and unfavorable result to the detriment of private property rights and National economy. It finally proposed a new equitable arrangement to the quagmire.

  15. 二战后美国海外利益维护机制及其启示%The Maintenance Mechanism of American Overseas Interests after World War II and Its Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔小明

    2016-01-01

    American has safeguarded its overseas interests after world war II by its domestic legislation and mechanism construction, which was mainly represented by relying on laws and mechanism, diversified diplomatic practice,the platform of international mechanism,the support of its military force and multi-mechanism supplemented by non-governmental forces. American practice and experience to maintain its overseas interests have important reference meaning to our country,China should confirm the emphasis and goals of overseas interests to protect,perfect the legislation and construction of government agencies,to enhance the full use of international mechanism,strengthen the overseas safeguard function of military force, cultivate and exert the auxiliary effect of non-governmental forces,attach importance to the construction of national image and improve the relationship between the government and citizens.%美国战后依靠国内立法和机制建设维护其海外利益,主要表现为以法律和机制为依托、以多元外交为实践方式、以国际机制为平台、以军事力量为后盾、以非政府力量为辅的多元机制。美国维护海外利益的实践和经验具有重要的借鉴意义:我国应明确海外利益维护的重点和目标,完善国内立法和政府机构建设,充分运用国际机制,增强海外军事力量的保障作用,培植和发挥民间力量的辅助作用,重视国家形象建设,改善政府与公民的关系。

  16. National works of soldiers and officers of the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945 in documents of Russian Academy of Sciences Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yu. Kiselyov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on work of Institute of ethnography of Academy of Sciences of the USSR on collecting in 1944–1945 of works of national works of the soldiers and officers of Red Army created by them in the period of the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945 gg. is provided in article or in the first post-war years. The texts of poems, chastushkas and the story of soldiers and officers postponed in archival fund of institute in Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences are provided. Letters of soldiers and officers of Red Army can fill up source study base on stories of the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945 and domestic culture, they can be used both in research, and in the educational purposes.

  17. Alternative Strategies to William Bennett's Plan for a National War on Drugs: A Comprehensive Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Michael

    As this country's first appointed "drug czar," William Bennett developed a set of proposals for a national campaign against drug abuse. These included: expanding the national prison capacity by 85 percent; providing additional fiscal support for states and local areas that adopt anti-drug laws; and increasing the availablility of…

  18. Alternative Strategies to William Bennett's Plan for a National War on Drugs: A Comprehensive Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Michael

    As this country's first appointed "drug czar," William Bennett developed a set of proposals for a national campaign against drug abuse. These included: expanding the national prison capacity by 85 percent; providing additional fiscal support for states and local areas that adopt anti-drug laws; and increasing the availablility of…

  19. 3 CFR 8399 - Proclamation 8399 of July 24, 2009. National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and missing in action. These dedicated servicemen and women, under the banner of the United Nations... extraordinary sacrifices that they and their families made in the cause of peace. NOW, THEREFORE, I,...

  20. War In The Pacific National Historical Park Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  1. Slow Poisoning? Interests, Emotions, and the Strength of the English NHS: Comment on "Who Killed the English National Health Service?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L

    2015-10-01

    Martin Powell makes the point that the death of the National Health Service (NHS) is constantly asserted without criteria. This article suggests that the NHS is many things, which makes criteria unstable. The alignment of interests in the structure of the NHS enables both overheated rhetoric and political strength, and that pluralization of provision might actually undermine that alignment over time.

  2. Selected Publications on Teenagers and Alcohol. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information Grouped Interest Guide No. 8-5. Cumulative Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This Grouped Interest Guide is published by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Its purpose is to provide the reader with a regularly published set of bibliographic references for recent, topical literature in designated areas. Topics included in this guide are Youth, Children of Alcoholic Parents, and Social Forces. A wide…

  3. 76 FR 19309 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest To Participate in National Environmental Policy Act Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Environmental Policy Act Pilot Project AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... part 340 to participate in a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Pilot Project. The NEPA Pilot... plant pest risk of the article. In accordance with The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969...

  4. War and Peace among the Words: Rhetoric, Style, and Propaganda in Response to National Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    National reports on higher education are seen as a form of democratic propaganda whose aim is participation. Their progress is described through content analysis of media responses. "Aesthetic judgment" is seen as the key to participation in reform by college faculty and administrators. (Author/MLW)

  5. Politics in the context of the “Opera question” in the national theatre before the first world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Part of the history of the National Theatre in Belgrade in the decade before the First World War relates to processes of discontinuity in the professionalization and modernization of the musical section in this institution and its repertoire. It had to do with abrupt changes reflected in three short-lived phases: improvements in musical ensemble and opera performances (1906-1909, the annulment of these efforts and results with a return to the old repertoire, and then again a new beginning once more with a fresh attempt to establish the Opera (1913-14. These dynamics were affected by the social and political context. It was dependent on frequent changes of the Theatre’s management staff whose main representatives had mutually conflicting views on important questions concerning the functioning of their institution. Relations between them were strongly marked by contested political motives. Theatre managers were appointed by ministers of education who could also be relieved of their posts, and members of the management staff were always active in political parties. These facts acted as a decisive factor in their communication which was similar to the behaviour and customs of public political life where an opponent is seen as an enemy, not as a partner in solving common problems. Critical and polemical discourses on important aspects of organization and programme strategy of the Theatre were burdened by political rivalry which also found its place in discussions on the cultivation of music. Questions relating to music were considered in a declarative way, so that music was instrumentalized as a means of political empowerment. The facts about music in the National Theatre raise many issues related to aspects of modernization, national identification, transfers of „high“ and popular musical cultures as well as to other problems of social, historical and cultural contexts that were intertwined in the operation of the Theatre. The context of

  6. The National Guard in the Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection, 1898-1899

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    quoted in Headquarters Department of 22 At Montana Governor Robert B. Smith’s direction, the Montana National Guard began reporting to Helena ...07/ed-1/seq-1/ (accessed 3 March 2012). Kansas Congressional Representative Charles Curtis also telegraphed President McKinley asking for...recognition of Colonel Funston’s “gallant services in the Philippines” by promoting him to brigadier general. “ Curtis Wants Funston Promoted,” The Wichita

  7. THE SOUTH AFRICAN 'WAR RESISTANCE' MOVEMENT 1974–1994

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    . Africa. ... by exiled self-styled 'war resisters' who set up a number of support ... African war resistance movement, especially the Committee on South African War ..... had come into exile for other reasons but had an interest in working against.

  8. L’identité nationale canadienne  au travers des affiches de propagande des Première et Seconde Guerres mondiales Canadian National Identity through the Prism of First and Second World War Propaganda Posters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Quellien

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available War posters often call upon a series of symbols and personifications of the nation in order to spark the citizen’s sense of patriotic duty. In the case of Canada, the propaganda posters produced during the two world wars allow us to study the creation process for this common register of symbols. On one level, the posters illustrate the movement from the status of dominion within the Empire to that of independent nation. This change in status obliged the country to invent a series of national symbols, and to discard the First World War strategy of appealing to isolated groups of citizens according to their ethnic or cultural origins. The Second World War posters reveal the federal government’s plan to create a new pan-Canadian nationalism, a process that would continue into the 1960s.

  9. 76 FR 15945 - National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) Workshop for Laboratories Interested...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... hold a public workshop on Tuesday, April 26, 2011 at the Marriott Hotel, Gaithersburg Marriott... Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), laboratories interested in seeking NVLAP accreditation to...: The workshop will be held on Tuesday, April 26, 2011 from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Contact Beth Thomas...

  10. A brief foreword to « Wars and New Beginnings in American History: An American National Rhetoric from the Early Republic to the Obama Presidency »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenel Virden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available War has been a defining moment in the history of nations and no more so than in the United States.  It gives the editors of EJAS great pleasure to present this excellent volume of essays focussed on the issue of American national rhetoric and American wars.  This volume is comprised of essays that were presented at a workshop on “Wars and New Beginnings in American History”, which took place in Dublin in 2010 at the biennial conference of the European Association for American Studies, or are ...

  11. 7 CFR 1212.22 - Qualified national organization representing importer interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified national organization representing importer... AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information...

  12. National advanced drilling and excavation technologies program: Summary of third meeting of interested Federal agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-12-07

    The purpose of the meeting was: (1) to discuss a proposal by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) outlining a National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies Program, (2) to brief participants on events since the last meeting, and (3) to hear about drilling research activities funded by the Department of Energy. The meeting agenda is included as Attachment B.

  13. National / regional / transnational: the Catalan Diaspora and the humanitarian assistance from the Spanish Civil War at the end of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Jensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the relationship between Catalan diasporic community in the Southern Cone and solidary regional practices, emphasizing projects and initiatives that were articulated on both sides for help to the desplazed persons (first moved into the peninsula during the Civil War, then moved to France after the "withdrawal" and finally evacuated from France to Latin America. Also, try to think from a set of individual and group trajectories of exile which had as destinations to Chile and Argentina, to what extent these countries functioned as a porous space transits, of fluid relationships, information exchange and joint projects for both individuals and groups receiving assistance to local e internacional institutions that generated it. And all this under the activation of complex family networks, partisan political, professional and ideological border and transnational

  14. Interest and preferences for using advanced physical activity tracking devices: results of a national cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Guertler, Diana; Jennings, Cally; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pedometers are an effective self-monitoring tool to increase users' physical activity. However, a range of advanced trackers that measure physical activity 24 hours per day have emerged (eg, Fitbit). The current study aims to determine people's current use, interest and preferences for advanced trackers. Design and participants A cross-sectional national telephone survey was conducted in Australia with 1349 respondents. Outcome measures Regression analyses were used to determine wh...

  15. The Effect of U.S. National Interests on Arms Transfer Decision Making in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    meaning in the concept is to familiarize himself with all its dimen- sions. Also, -t is worthwhile to work with existing or proposed definitions. Two...purposes for which arms might be used, one must be familiar with the possible threats and challenges to national security in Latin America. Among them...produces domestically. For military aircraft, the Empresa Brasileira Aerea (EMBRAER) imports, on he average, sixty percent of its components. Pratt and

  16. Human rights and the national interest: migrants, healthcare and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Phillip

    2007-05-01

    The UK government has recently taken steps to exclude certain groups of migrants from free treatment under the National Health Service, most controversially from treatment for HIV. Whether this discrimination can have any coherent ethical basis is questioned in this paper. The exclusion of migrants of any status from any welfare system cannot be ethically justified because the distinction between citizens and migrants cannot be an ethical one.

  17. Climate politics in the Lower Mekong Basin. National interests and transboundary cooperation on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadsgaard Lange, R.; Moerck Jensen, K.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is expected to intensify water security concerns in international river basins. UNFCCC and DAC-donors have been important generators of political attention to the climate agenda among governments in the Mekong Basin in relation to regional cooperation, national policy-making and capacity building. However, the formal commitment to climate action is not necessarily reflected in the everyday business of development. In this paper we use a political economy approach to understand when and how climate change becomes a political priority for the governments of Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, and for transboundary cooperation. Uneven distribution of climate hazards and vulnerabilities create different national risk perceptions and commitment to climate action. Donor funding and national development strategies are also strong drivers of climate action and inaction. Climate change is sometimes used as a scapegoat for domestic policy failures and as a tool to acquire donor funding. We recommend prioritizing climate action in the context of immediate development challenges and 'no regrets' interventions that are likely to enhance adaptive capacity and governments' commitment. (Author)

  18. A War Within a War: Mizo rebels and the Bangladesh liberation struggle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, W.

    2015-01-01

    In 1971 a war led to the creation of Bangladesh. Instantly three narratives sprang up: the war as a national triumph, the war as betrayal and shame, and the war as a glorious campaign. Today more layered interpretations are superseding these ‘first-generation narratives’. Taking the case of

  19. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will conduct a teleconference meeting on August 3, 2012. Members of the...

  20. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the head...

  1. A perspective on the history of health and human rights: from the Cold War to the Gold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Through the end of the Cold War, public health policies were predominantly shaped and implemented by governments and these same governments committed themselves to meet their obligations for health under international and national laws. The post-Cold War era has witnessed the entry of new actors in public health and the sharing of power and influences with non-state actors, in particular the private sector and interest groups. This article examines the emergence of human rights and the rise of health on the international development agenda as the Cold War was ending. It highlights the convergence of health and human rights in academic and public discourse since the end of the Cold War in a context of political and economic shifts linked to the ongoing economic globalization. It describes opportunities and challenges for greater synergy between health and rights and proposes a role for health practitioners.

  2. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    government.""’ 3 On the other hand, a change in political theory -also prompted by the war-provided the intellectual justification for a stronger national...individual Americans to behave as virtuous, self- sacrificing citizens led in two directions. The Radicals, who rested their political theories on the...values. From that perspective, the war suggested that Europeans had gone berserk, denying their civilization and its values. In a Freudian sense, they were

  3. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  4. The Statesman and Commander: Civil-Military Dialogue in the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    United States Government is not subject to copyright, however further publication or sale of copyrighted images is not permissible ii ...best for the national interest given his understanding of the war and victory. Similar to World War II , he sought final victory in what he believed...shift its policy towards creating a communist buffer state through the reunification of Korea.19 Simultaneously, Korean society began to grow apart

  5. An Explorative Note on Tourism Development along Former War Front Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Jansen-Verbeke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current research about the pro-active role of tourism in valorizing war memories and landscapes still is in an explorative stage; learning from case studies, all marked by their political context, in time and space, and mainly describing local and/or regional key issues. Obviously, creating landscapes of memories for contemporary uses and visitors’ experiences implies a trans-disciplinary understanding of the process of changing values (heritage landscapes and of the intrinsic dynamics of tourism development. Shifting values and creativity in linking histories of war sites and their narratives with places and people today, leads to branding ‘sites of memories’ in the mindset of residents and visitors.We briefly scan four very different examples of border areas with a war history, that became landmarks on the tourist’ maps today.  The challenge for tourism development in former war related sites is to identify the dynamics - in time and space - to assess the political and economic forces and to identify shifts in the process of remembrance and valorization of war heritage sites, in terms of interests in war memories, narratives and experiences. These are now strategically integrated in national, regional and local tourism development planning.Historical military front zones, political borders in past wars, presently marked as tourism destinations, are on the research agenda of ‘War and Tourism’.  The observations below on four different former  war border zones with their specific landmarks and memoryscapes, are inspiring for current tourism development. Four different war border zones were briefly  explored “The Great Wall in China” “The Roman Limes”, The “Wire of Death”  in the  First World War  and the ”Iron Curtain” in the Cold War. These observations can inspire future research on tourismification of war heritage.

  6. THE PARADOX OF MIGRATION AND THE INTERESTS OF THE ATOMISTIC NATION-STATES: THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phazha Jimmy Ngandwe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The "paradox of migration and the interests of the atomistic nation-states" interrogates the phenomenon of migration in general and in the Southern African Development Community in particular. The point of departure of the paper is the African Union and the Southern African Development Community’s legal framework on migration, as read with the national legal instruments of the different member states. Its focal point is the raison d’être of this phenomenon of migration and the corresponding approaches and attitudes of the nation-states within which migration takes place inter se. This includes the psycho-social impact of migration. Internationally as well as regionally, States are concerned with issues of sovereignty, the preservation of the welfare of the citizenry, ensuring social cohesion social, cultural and economic development including job creation, and fighting against transnational organised crime, including terrorism. The theme of the paper is that whereas migration should form the bedrock of regionalism and globalisation, the negative attitudes of the nation-states to migration are more often than not at variance with the objectives of regionalism and globalisation. The central question of the research is how states can discharge their duties and obligations vis-à-vis their nationals without perpetuating the bottlenecks to and the stigma that attaches to migration and thereby upsetting the international as well as regional integration objectives of the free movement of people. This is the issue that the paper is intended to explore. The main areas of concern are that the negative attitudes of the nation-states are manifested in the hostile treatment of migrants at all ports of entry, including illegal or ungazetted points of entry, within the nation-states in general, and in their labour markets in particular. This research therefore explores the paradoxical nature of the duties and responsibilities of states within the

  7. The link between industry and social interests in health in Brazil's National Health Innovation System: the experience of the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cid Manso de Mello Vianna

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article has two parts. The first discusses the relationship between industry and health interests based on three different but non-mutually exclusive "logics": (a independent; (b divergent; and (c convergent. The second part describes the experience at the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO with a technology management model. The accumulated expertise in orthopedics at INTO can favor Brazil's domestic medical equipment industry without jeopardizing the country's social health needs. This means directing the production of feasible technologies adapted to the national reality, with a focus on safety and quality, without burdening the public coffers and by overcoming the country's dependency on imported products. The proposal is to promote socioeconomic development through a virtuous circle by attracting reserves and fomenting national competitiveness in domestic and foreign markets while improving social conditions and access to health.

  8. Sharing the British National Health Service around the world: a self-interested perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkidou, Kalipso; Vega, Jeanette

    2013-10-25

    As the UK reiterates its commitment to protecting and growing its development aid budget amidst an adverse economic environment for the UK and Europe, we discuss the potential to use the country's National Health Service (NHS) model as a vehicle for promoting the country's economic as well as global health diplomacy and development priorities, through a coordinated cross-government plan of action. With the country's Prime Minister serving as a co-chair of the UN post-2015 development agenda panel,a this is a unique opportunity for the UK to put forward its health system architecture as a highly applicable and well-tested model for providing access to efficient and cost-effective care, with minimal financial hardship. Arguably, such a model tailored to the needs of specific countries could consequently lead to commercial opportunities for UK plc. in areas such as consulting, training, education and healthcare products. Finally, this approach would be consistent with the current thinking on the evolving role of UK aid, especially in the case of emerging powers such as India, where the focus has shifted from aid to investment in technical assistance and cooperation as a means of boosting bilateral business and trade.

  9. In the national interest: the PCSD puts population growth back on the agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, B

    1995-01-01

    In 1972, President Nixon launched the Rockefeller Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. The US population has grown by more than 50 million people since 1972. In 1995, a report by the President's Council on Sustainable Development (PCSD) states that failure on the part of the US to stabilize its population will jeopardize any effort to achieve sustainable development. As a follow-up to the Earth Summit, President Clinton established the PCSD in 1993 to identify ways to encourage sustainable development in the US. The Council has 25 members representing government, business, and public interest organizations and has 8 critical issues task forces, including Energy, Transportation, Sustainable Community, Education and Outreach, Natural Resources, Eco Efficiency and Sustainable Agriculture. Timothy Wirth, Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs, spearheaded efforts to create a task force on the twin issues of population and consumption. The Population and Consumption Task Force, which began its official discussions in the spring of 1994, aimed to solicit public comment on critical population-related issues. These meetings sought both general public and expert participation on subjects such as teen pregnancy, resource use, and economic indicators. Among these recommendations are improving access to family planning services for all Americans; focusing on special efforts to reduce teen pregnancy and childbearing; improving external factors such as poverty and a lack of economic opportunities for girls and women; and reducing immigration to the US. A combination of actions are needed, including a tax shift from labor and earnings to natural resource use; development of environmentally sound technologies; and public understanding of the importance of sustainable life style and consumption choices. Individual and community action is crucial since the current Congress is unlikely to adopt policies to promote sustainable development without significant

  10. 抗战精神是中华民族复兴的精神动力%National Spirit of Anti-Japanese War is A Strong Motivation of Chinese National Rejuvenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文兵; 郭华

    2015-01-01

    The national spirit of Anti-Japanese War historically develops from the national spirit of the Chinese people saving their country from foreign subjugation and aggression and the time spirit of the Chinese promoting social reforms.As the national spirit formed,developed and embodied by the Chinese people during the Anti-Japanese War, the spirit of Anti-Japanese War shows the unprecedented awakening and sublimation of the Chinese national spirit.It is the great spiritual monument illustrating the Chinese nation's great transition from tradition to modernity,from being in a free state to being in a conscious state,from depression to rejuvenation.Having become an important part of the profound historical memory and the spirit of the Chinese nation,the spirit of Anti-Japanese War are the important spiritual ties to unite the Chinese nation and an important source of the national identity.As the precious spiritual wealth and cultural symbol of the Chinese nation,the national spirit of Anti-Japanese War not only enhanced the Chinese people to carry out a prolonged resistance against Japanese aggressors and have finally won the war,but also recast the national spirit of the Chinese nation and has now become a powerful motivation for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.%抗战精神是近代以来中国人民救亡图存、反对外来侵略的民族精神和推动中国社会变革的时代精神不断发展的历史结果,是中国人民在抗战过程中形成、发展和集中体现出来的民族精神,是中华民族精神的空前觉醒和高度升华,是中华民族从传统走向现代、从自在走向自觉、从沉沦走向复兴的伟大转折和精神丰碑。抗战精神已成为中华民族最深刻的历史记忆和中华民族之魂的重要组成部分,是中华民族大团结的重要精神纽带和民族认同的重要源泉,是中华民族弥足珍贵的精神财富和文化象征。抗战精神不仅是中国人民坚持长期抗

  11. Rezension: World Wide War: Angriff aus dem Internet/Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It von Richard A. Clarke und Robert K. Knake/by Richard A. Clarke and Robert K. Knake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Je breiter der Infrastruktur-Anschluss eines Landes an das World Wide Web, desto größer die Angriffsfläche im Fall eines Netzkriegs. Die Messung der virtuellen Kampfkraft erfolgt auf Basis von drei Faktoren: Offensivkraft, Defensivfähigkeit und die Abhängigkeit vom Internet. Die USA verfügen als "Supermacht" zwar über die größte virtuelle Offensivkraft, gleichzeitig steht die Nation Cyberangriffen sehr verwundbar gegenüber. Dagegen sind in Nordkorea kaum Systeme vom Internet abhängig. Obwohl die offensiven Netzkriegskapazitäten Nordkoreas verhältnismäßig gering sind, präsentiert sich die virtuelle Kampfkraft des nordkoreanischen Regimes in Bestform. Die Verwundbarkeit ziviler Systeme, insbesondere der Energieversorgung, muss in direkter Korrelation mit deren Anknüpfung an das Internet betrachtet werden. The more broadly connected a country’s infrastructure and energy distribution, the greater its vulnerability in the event of a cyber war. Measuring this virtual fighting power is based on three factors: offensive and defensive strength, as well as dependency on the Internet. As a superpower, the USA has the greatest virtual offensive strength available. At the same time, the nation is most susceptible to cyber attacks and therefore most vulnerable. By contrast, North Korea’s offensive cyber fighting power is relatively small, but its overall cyber war capabilities are cutting-edge. The vulnerability of civil systems, especially power supply, must be viewed in direct correlation to their connection to the Internet.

  12. Condom Nation: The U.S. Government's Sex Education Campaign from World War I to the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Alexandra M.

    2009-01-01

    This history of the U.S. Public Health Service's efforts to educate Americans about sex makes clear why federally funded sex education has been haphazard, ad hoc, and often ineffectual. Since launching its first sex ed program during World War I, the Public Health Service has dominated federal sex education efforts. Alexandra M. Lord draws on…

  13. War Movies Decoded: Understanding the Logic of War Movie Making from Hollywood to Bollywood and Its Use to Spread Propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Introduction War is Cinema and Cinema is War - Paul Virilo World War II: Film and History Why is a war film made? The need to communicate and...using a narrative of non-existent WMD. Therefore, the myth of information transparency in a globalized interconnected world is disputable. While...due to the very nature of the topic is disproportionately interested in the genre of war movies. Gary Freitas in his book War Movies states

  14. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the C

  15. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  16. Physicists in times of war

    CERN Document Server

    Schrör, B

    2006-01-01

    Though the majority of physicists would probably not support preemptive wars, nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction would not exist without their contributions. Einstein's anti-militaristic position has been well-documented and the present essay recalls the role of some contemporary and past physicists on this issue. The idea that the rationality of scientific thought is a reliable antidote against supporting wars in order to achieve political or ideological aims was neither correct in the past nor is it presently valid. In the physics community there always existed a minority of supporters of wars of domination or regime change. The ``preemptive'' war for the US hegemony in the middle east has given the problem of ``physicists in times of war'' new actuality. One of the most perplexing appologists of the agressive war of Nazi-Germany against ``the Bolshevist peril'' has been Pascual Jordan whose interesting scientific and controversial political biography is the main isue of this essay.

  17. Contesting the 'national interest' and maintaining 'our lifestyle': a discursive analysis of political rhetoric around climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Tim; Augoustinos, Martha; Crabb, Shona

    2010-09-01

    The release of the fourth United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report in February 2007 prompted a flood of responses from political leaders around the globe. Perhaps nowhere was this more apparent than in Australia, where its release coincided with the first sitting week of the Australian Parliament, in an election year. The current study involves a discursive analysis of climate change rhetoric produced by politicians from the major Australian political parties in the period following the release of the IPCC leading up to the national election. Data include both transcripts of parliamentary debate and statements directly broadcast in the media. The analysis focuses on the various ways in which the issue of climate change was invoked and rhetorically managed by each of the two parties in the lead up to the election. In particular, it focuses on the ways in which appeals to the 'national interest' and 'lifestyle maintenance', both regular features of political rhetoric, were mobilized by both parties to discursively manage their positions on the climate change issue. Implications of the ways in which such appeals were constructed are discussed in relation to the discursive limits of the ways in which the issue of climate change is constructed in public debate.

  18. Churches, chaplains and the Great War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314571507

    2015-01-01

    When in 1914 the European nations mobilised for war, the churches followed suit. Notwithstanding pre-war church peace conferences and close international cooperation, most churches and churchmen immediately and whole-heartedly supported their nation’s participation in war and provided the religious

  19. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... the possibilities of re-appropriating digital software, game engines, and other tools available in digital media. The machinima film scenes demonstrate how war-related stories resemiotize, such as how meaning-making transforms from a story in a war game context to a film context. Thereby, machinima exemplifies how...

  20. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E; Hunter, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25,000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. A total of 10,246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It holds significant potential to help answer previously unaddressed questions in public health

  1. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P.; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E.; Hunter, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Objective: Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. Design: A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25 000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. Setting and Participants: A total of 10 246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Main Outcome Measures: Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Results: Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. Conclusions: PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It

  2. Social goal-objective formation, democracy and national interest a theory of political economy under fuzzy rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the development of a theory of social goal-objective formation and its relationship to national interest and social vision under a democratic decision-choice system with imperfect information structure. It provides a framework for the application of fuzzy logic and its mathematics to the analysis in resolving conflicts in individual preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence. The book demonstrates how to use fuzzy logic and its mathematics in the study of economics, social sciences and other complex systems. It also presents the use of collaborative tools of opposites, duality, polarity, continuum in fuzzy paradigm with its logic, laws of thought and mathematics in developing a new approach to the theory of political economy in order to enhance the constructs of social decision-choice theory.

  3. Managing conflicts of interest in the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE clinical guidelines programme: qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Graham

    Full Text Available There is international concern that conflicts of interest (COI may bias clinical guideline development and render it untrustworthy. Guideline COI policies exist with the aim of reducing this bias but it is not known how such policies are interpreted and used by guideline producing organisations. This study sought to determine how conflicts of interest (COIs are disclosed and managed by a national clinical guideline developer (NICE: the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews with 14 key informants: 8 senior staff of NICE's guideline development centres and 6 chairs of guideline development groups (GDGs. We conducted a thematic analysis.Participants regard the NICE COI policy as comprehensive leading to transparent and independent guidance. The application of the NICE COI policy is, however, not straightforward and clarity could be improved. Disclosure of COI relies on self reporting and guideline developers have to take "on trust" the information they receive, certain types of COI (non-financial are difficult to categorise and manage and disclosed COI can impact on the ability to recruit clinical experts to GDGs. Participants considered it both disruptive and stressful to exclude members from GDG meetings when required by the COI policy. Nonetheless the impact of this disruption can be minimised with good group chairing skills.We consider that the successful implementation of a COI policy in clinical guideline development requires clear policies and procedures, appropriate training of GDG chairs and an evaluation of how the policy is used in practice.

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory interests and capabilities for research on the ecological effects of global climatic and atmospheric change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amthor, J.S.; Houpis, J.L.; Kercher, J.R.; Ledebuhr, A.; Miller, N.L.; Penner, J.E.; Robison, W.L.; Taylor, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has interests and capabilities in all three types of research that must be conducted in order to understand and predict effects of global atmospheric and climatic (i.e., environmental) changes on ecological systems and their functions (ecosystem function is perhaps most conveniently defined as mass and energy exchange and storage). These three types of research are: (1) manipulative experiments with plants and ecosystems; (2) monitoring of present ecosystem, landscape, and global exchanges and pools of energy, elements, and compounds that play important roles in ecosystem function or the physical climate system, and (3) mechanistic (i.e., hierarchic and explanatory) modeling of plant and ecosystem responses to global environmental change. Specific experimental programs, monitoring plans, and modeling activities related to evaluation of ecological effects of global environmental change that are of interest to, and that can be carried out by LLNL scientists are outlined. Several projects have the distinction of integrating modeling with empirical studies resulting in an Integrated Product (a model or set of models) that DOE or any federal policy maker could use to assess ecological effects. The authors note that any scheme for evaluating ecological effects of atmospheric and climatic change should take into account exceptional or sensitive species, in particular, rare, threatened, or endangered species.

  5. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille...

  6. Interest rates on corporate loans in Croatia as an indicator of imbalance between the financial and the real sector of national economy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Interest rates on corporate bank loans in Croatia are rarely discussed in terms of interdependence of the functioning between the financial and the real sectors of national economy.The aim of this paper is to expand knowledge of the level of interest rates on corporate loans in Croatia and their determinants, as well as of the relationship between interest rates and the pace of economic activity.For this purpose, interest rates and interest rate spreads in Croatia are compared to rates and sp...

  7. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  8. War and Peace among the Words: Rhetoric, Style and Propaganda in Response to National Reports on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Clifford

    Responses to national reports during October 1984 through May 1985 concerning the state of American higher education are analyzed. Quantitative content analysis and qualitative rehetorical criticism are used to examine responses to national reports. Three national reports are of concern: "Involvement in Learning,""A Nation at…

  9. VICTOR BERGER’S DANGEROUS IDEAS: Censoring The Mail To Preserve National Security During World War I

    OpenAIRE

    Philip M. Glende

    2008-01-01

    During World War I, the postmaster general conducted a vigorous campaign to stop the distribution of radical periodicals. Victor L. Berger, the socialist publisher of the Milwaukee Leader in Wisconsin, was among the first targets. Without any court review, Berger was found in violation of the Espionage Act and the Leader’s second-class mailing privilege was revoked. As a result, mailing costs increased by a factor of seven, and circulation dropped by more than a third. Berger’s personal paper...

  10. Is sexual abuse a part of war? A 4-year retrospective study on cases of sexual abuse at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary W. Kuria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of sexual abuse are long lasting. Sexual abuse when associated with violence is likely to impact negatively on the life of the victim. Anecdotal reports indicate that there was an increase in the number of cases of sexual violence following the 2007 post election conflict and violence in Kenya. Although such increases in sexual abuse are common during war or conflict periods the above reports have not been confirmed through research evidence. The purpose of the current study is to establish the trend in numbers of reported cases of sexual abuse at Kenyatta National Hospital over a 4-year period (2006-2009. Data on sexually abused persons for the year 2006-2009 was retrieved from the hospitals record. A researcher designed questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from the completed Post Rape Care (PRC form. The PRC-Ministry of Health no. 363 (MOH363 form is mandatorily completed by the physician attending the sexually abused patient. There was an increase in the number of cases of sexual abuse reported in 2007 election year in Kenya, with a statistically significant increase in the sexually abused male cases. Sexual crime is more prevalent when there is war or conflict.

  11. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  12. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  13. Winning the War: A Historical Analysis of the FFA during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Connors, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States' participation in World War II affected millions of men, women, and children, both at home and around the world. The war effort also affected the Future Farmers of America (FFA). FFA members, agriculture teachers, and national FFA officers all volunteered to serve their country during the war. Local FFA chapters and individual…

  14. 1980 annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge, Halfbreed National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Mason National Wildlife Refuge, War Horse National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge (including the satellite refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar...

  15. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  16. Anti-Japanese War Is the Historic Starting Point of the Chinese National Rejuvenation%抗日战争胜利是中华民族复兴的历史起点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海林; 刘永安

    2015-01-01

    The victory of the War of Resistance Against Japan, wiped out the ignominious history of the Chinese nation since the Opium War, enhanced the national cohesion and self-confidence, laid a solid foundation for the national independence and the people’s liberation, which is the historical starting point of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.Victory of the war, found the correct road to the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, converged the great spirit of the national rejuvenation , brought together the majestic strength of the national rejuvenation.%抗日战争的胜利,雪洗了鸦片战争以来中华民族屈辱的历史,增强了民族凝聚力和自信心,为国家独立和人民解放打下了坚实的基础,是中华民族伟大复兴的历史起点。抗日战争的胜利,找到了民族复兴的正确道路,凝成了民族复兴的伟大精神,汇聚了民族复兴的磅礴力量。

  17. VICTOR BERGER’S DANGEROUS IDEAS: Censoring The Mail To Preserve National Security During World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Glende

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During World War I, the postmaster general conducted a vigorous campaign to stop the distribution of radical periodicals. Victor L. Berger, the socialist publisher of the Milwaukee Leader in Wisconsin, was among the first targets. Without any court review, Berger was found in violation of the Espionage Act and the Leader’s second-class mailing privilege was revoked. As a result, mailing costs increased by a factor of seven, and circulation dropped by more than a third. Berger’s personal papers from this episode in administrative censorship only recently have become available to researchers. They reveal a principled and defiant publisher who argued he could be a critic and a patriot, and a local press contemptuous of Berger and fearful of the federal government, local censors, advertisers, and readers.

  18. 战史奇观、民族壮举、惊天伟业--纪念中国人民抗日战争胜利70周年∗%The Wonder in War History, the Magnificent Feat of the Nation, the Great Cause in the World:Commemoration of the 70th Anniversary of the Chinese People’ s War of Resistance Against Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进

    2015-01-01

    抗日战争是世界反侵略战争史上历时最长的一场战争,是以弱胜强的典型战例,是一场真正的人民战争,因此它是“战争史上的奇观”;又因为它是中国人民近代以来反对外敌入侵第一次取得完全胜利的民族解放战争,是中华民族凝聚力的集中表现,是中华民族由衰败走向复兴的重要转折点,因此它又是“中华民族的壮举”;还因为它打乱了德意日法西斯的全球战略计划,改变了世界反法西斯战争的格局,它以独具特色的游击战理论和卓有成效的斗争实践,丰富了世界反法西斯战争的理论宝库,为世界反法西斯战争的胜利做出了杰出的贡献,它还是“惊天动地的伟业”。%The Chinese people’ s war of resistance against Japan is the wonder in war history for it is the longest war in world anti⁃ag⁃gression war history and is an typical case of the weak overcoming the strong. As it is the first national liberation war against foreign en⁃emy’ s aggression which achieves complete victory in Chinese modern history, showing Chinese people’ s coagulative power, and it is the important turning⁃point of the nation’ s rejuvenation from decay, it is magnificent feat of the nation as well. Because the Chinese people’ s war of resistance against Japan oversets the global strategy of Germany, Italian and Japanese fascism, changing situation of world anti⁃fascist war, it is the great cause in the world for characteristic guerrilla warfare theory, enriching theories on world anti⁃fas⁃cist war and significant contribution to the victory of world anti⁃fascist war.

  19. 78 FR 4427 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... paid in cash, the debenture interest rate for purposes of calculating a claim shall be the monthly... Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces changes in the interest rates to be paid on...

  20. 77 FR 4359 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... paid in cash, the debenture interest rate for purposes of calculating a claim shall be the monthly... Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces changes in the interest rates to be paid on...

  1. 76 FR 4127 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... paid in cash, the debenture interest rate for purposes of calculating a claim shall be the monthly... Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces changes in the interest rates to be paid on...

  2. The link between industry and social interests in health in Brazil's National Health Innovation System: the experience of the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Cid Manso de Mello; Fermam, Marcelo Kropf Santos; Rodrigues, Marcus Paulo da Silva; Mosegui, Gabriela Bittencourt Gonzalez

    2016-11-03

    This article has two parts. The first discusses the relationship between industry and health interests based on three different but non-mutually exclusive "logics": (a) independent; (b) divergent; and (c) convergent. The second part describes the experience at the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO) with a technology management model. The accumulated expertise in orthopedics at INTO can favor Brazil's domestic medical equipment industry without jeopardizing the country's social health needs. This means directing the production of feasible technologies adapted to the national reality, with a focus on safety and quality, without burdening the public coffers and by overcoming the country's dependency on imported products. The proposal is to promote socioeconomic development through a virtuous circle by attracting reserves and fomenting national competitiveness in domestic and foreign markets while improving social conditions and access to health. Resumo: Este artigo está dividido em duas partes. Na primeira, discute-se como se relacionam os interesses produtivos e a saúde a partir de três "lógicas" ou perspectivas diferentes que não são mutuamente excludentes: (a) independente; (b) divergente e (c) convergente. Na segunda, descreve-se a experiência do Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia (INTO) na montagem de um modelo de gestão de tecnologia. O conhecimento internalizado em ortopedia do INTO pode favorecer a indústria nacional de equipamentos médicos sem abandonar as necessidades sociais brasileiras de saúde. Isto é, direcionar a produção de tecnologias viáveis e adaptadas à realidade nacional, com foco em segurança e qualidade, sem onerar os cofres públicos e abandonando a dependência de produtos importados. A proposta é a de promover um desenvolvimento socioeconômico que construa um ciclo virtuoso, por atrair divisas e fomentar a competitividade nacional em mercados internos e externos, melhorando as

  3. 抗战时期国家与中华民族认同之构建及影响--以西南少数民族为例%Construction and Influence of the Chinese Nation and National Identity during the Anti-Japanese War---Taking the Southwestern Minority Nationalities as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何一民; 黄沛骊

    2016-01-01

    八年抗战,中国人民不仅战胜了日本帝国主义,而且普遍增强了对国家和“中华民族”这个现代民族身份的认同,一种休戚与共的民族意识在中华民族危机最深重的时刻形成。西南少数民族在战前普遍缺乏国家与中华民族认同意识,这既有历史的原因,也有来自国内、外的现实原因。抗战爆发后,西南地区成为中国抗战的大后方和民族复兴基地,动员各民族共同参与抗日救亡运动,对于中国能否取得抗战的最后胜利至关重要。因此国民政府和知识界相继采取了若干措施来努力构建民族与国家认同,由此促进了西南少数民族爱国主义精神的觉醒,其所表现出的强烈的中华民族意识,成为抗战救国的重要精神力量。%Through the 8-year Anti-Japanese War, Chinese people not only overcame Japanese imperialism, but also generally strengthened the country-wise identification and the “Chinese Nation"rationale, a modern national identification. It was a “Chinese Nation" ideology of sharing weal and woe, and having a stake in each other that was formed at the most vital moment of our national crisis. Before the Resistant War, the minority ethnics in Southwest China lacked the awareness of Chinese Nation and country-wise identification, as a result of some historic reasons as well as internal and external causes. From the explosion of the war on, southwestern areas became the backyard of the War and the base of national resurgence. Therefore, mobilizing all ethnics to join the movement of fighting against Japan and saving the nation from extinction became the key to winning the final battle of the war. The Kuomintang government and the intelligentsia subsequently took lots of measures to strenuously construct the country-wise and nation-wise identification, which awaked the awareness of nationalism and patriotism in the minority ethnics in Southwest of China, demonstrated a strong

  4. Post-cold war United Nations peacekeeping operations: a review of the case for a hybrid level 2+ medical treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War, UN peacekeeping operations (UN PKOs) have become larger, more mobile, multi-faceted and conducted over vast areas of remote, rugged, and harsh geography. They have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. Yet progressively there have been expectations of financial restraint and austerity. Additionally, UN PKOs have become more "robust," that is, engaged in preemptive, assertive operations. A statistically positive and significant relationship exists between missions' size, complexity, remoteness, and aggressive tenor and a higher probability of trauma or death, especially as a result of hostile actions or disease. Therefore, in the interest of "force protection" and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is health care and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support must conform to the general intent and structure of current UN PKOs to become more streamlined, portable, mobile, compartmentalized, and specialized, but also more varied and complex to address the medical aspects of these missions cost-efficiently. This article contends that establishing a hybrid level 2-a level 2 with level 3 modules and components (i.e., level 2+)-is a viable course of action when considering trends in the medical aspects of Post-Cold War UN PKOs. A level 2 medical treatment facility has the potential to provide needed forward mobile medical treatment, especially trauma care, for extended, complex, large-scale, and comprehensive UN PKOs. This is particularly the case for missions that include humanitarian outreach, preventive medicine, and psychiatry. The level 2 treatment facility is flexible enough to expand into a hybrid level 2+ with augmentation of modules based on changes in mission requirements and variation in medical aspects.

  5. Shell Shock and the Kloppe: war neuroses amongst British and Belgian troops during and after the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Fiona; Van Everbroeck, Christine

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War combatants of all armies were prey to nervous disorders or psychological breakdown. These war neuroses were a response to the highly-industrialised nature of the warfare as well as to the fatigue engendered over four years of intense conflict. Yet while fear and mental breakdown were universal, national responses varied. A comparison of British and Belgian shell shock indicates that men suffered in very similar ways but that symptoms met with rather different responses: in Britain treatment and diagnostic regimes stressed the importance of class difference and shell shock was often linked to cowardice. These issues were not of overriding importance in the Belgian army. In the longer term shell shock became, and remained, a topic of political and social concern in Britain whereas in Belgium men suffering from kloppe (extreme fear) tended to be forgotten and the topic has not excited much popular interest or scholarly attention. Yet despite these differences one overarching theme remains clear, namely that despite the extensive experience of war neuroses during and after the First World War, there still remains a fierce stigma about the mental wounds of war.

  6. Performing Nation, Performing Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    , or nation building, on the one side and the stark historical realism of the stolen generations + the backdrop of the second world war bombing of Darwin by the Japanese collectively creates a number of interwoven narratives in the tapestry that forms Australian cultural history.......Baz Luhrmann's Australia is simultaneously a film made for an Australian and an international audience. One of the interesting question this raises is how Luhrmann performs the nation for the national and the international audience. The film's juxtaposition of the national epic of pioneering...

  7. The Relationship between the Russian National Character and the Victory of the War of National Defense in 1812%俄罗斯民族性格与1812年卫国战争的胜利

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永旺

    2012-01-01

    The national character, the national spirit and the collective unconsciousness of a nation get mixed up together. The development of Russian people's character has close relations with the introduction of Orthodox. The idea of "Third Rome" is not only the expression of the Russian philosophy thinking, but also plays an important role as a weapon, by which Alexander Ⅰ appealed to all Russians to take part in fight against Antichrist's Great army. No doubt that the national character can affect its daily life, however the war in 1812 can be the best arena on which the national character shows its real value and power. The War of national defense in 1812 stimulated the intellectual world imagining the future of Russia and it simultaneously added new contents to the Russian nation character and spirit.%民族性格、民族精神与民族的集体无意识紧密相关。就俄罗斯人而言,其性格的形成与东正教的引入有密不可分的联系,而"第三罗马"思想不仅是俄罗斯哲学思维的表达方式,也是俄罗斯国家在遭受外敌入侵时亚历山大一世借以鼓噪民众反抗敌基督的武器。民族性格固然可以作用于日常生活,但战争无疑是其亮相的最佳舞台之一。1812年的卫国战争的进程和结果不但激发了俄罗斯知识分子对国家未来发展的想象,同时也为俄罗斯民族性格和俄罗斯民族精神的内涵增添了新的内容。

  8. Narrative report FY 1978 for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason & War Horse Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge (including the satellite refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar...

  9. Narrative report FY 1977 for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason & War Horse Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range (including the satellite refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year....

  10. 抗战时期新疆汉族文化促进会的文化艺术活动%Artistic Activities of Xinjiang Han Nationality Culture Promotion Association during Anti-Japanese War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左红卫

    2012-01-01

    抗战时期,在全民族抗战语境和全国抗战文化的推动下,新疆各民族抗战热情高涨,有力地支援了前线抗战,并形成了独具特色的新疆抗战文化。其发展源于新疆各民族固有的、悠久的爱国情怀和优秀的文化传统。抗战时期,新疆分别成立了维吾尔、哈萨克、汉等9个民族文化促进会。汉族文化促进会与其他各民族文化促进会一起,利用本民族文化优势,开展音乐、歌咏、舞蹈、戏剧等文艺活动,进行抗战宣传,推动了新疆抗战文化的发展。%During Anti-Japanese War, under push of the enviornment of national anti-Japanese and national anti-Japanese culture, Xinjiang people helped the front to fight against Japanese and formed unique anti-Japanese culture. Its development originated from cultural tradition in Xinjiang. During anti-Japanese War, there were 9 culture promotion associations in Xinjiang such as Uygur, Kazak, and Han nationality. Han nationality Culture Promotion with other national culture promotion associations took advantage of the national cultures, such as music, singing, dance, drama and other cultural activities to develop Anti- Japanese War propagands and promoted Xinjiang Anti-Japanese War Culture development.

  11. 77 FR 42754 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... adjusted to a constant maturity of 10 years. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Yong Sun, Department of... issued pursuant to section 221(g)(4) of the Act) will bear interest at the rate in effect on the date the... interest rate will be the rate borne by debentures issued with respect to any insured loan or...

  12. 76 FR 47225 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... adjusted to a constant maturity of 10 years. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Yong Sun, Department of... issued pursuant to section 221(g)(4) of the Act) will bear interest at the rate in effect on the date the... interest rate will be the rate borne by debentures issued with respect to any insured loan or...

  13. China’s Emerging National Security Interests and Their Impact on the People’s Liberation Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    strengthen national defence, resist aggres- sion, defend the motherland, safeguard the people’s peaceful labour , participate in national reconstruc...2 Our use of the term “transitional” to refer to an effort to manage the politics of China’s transition to great power status is inspired by the...stability • Resisting threats to national unity and territorial integrity (including encouraging reunification with Taiwan and managing reunification

  14. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    F286. RG 109, NA. Thanks to Dr. Boyd Switzer, Professor of Nutrition at UNC Medical School, who assisted me here. Lee’s men consumed about 35 to 40...cigarettes, soap bars, and chocolate in. 200 Interviewer Talk to me a little bit, just as a final question, about the impact of the coming Cold War

  15. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  16. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  17. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  18. Sõjakaadrite sobitamine isamaa ekraanidele. Sõda taasiseseisvumisjärgses eesti mängufilmis / Reframing War for the Nation-state’s Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Laaniste

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel vaatleb kriitiliselt 21. sajandi eesti mängufilmides peegelduvaid katseid rakendada militaartemaatika heroilise rahvusnarratiivi kujundamise ja edasikandmise teenistusse. Vaatluse keskmes on suund, mis koosneb seni kolmest mängufilmist ning ühest telesarjast ja telemängufilmist: „Nimed marmortahvlil“ (2002, „Detsembrikuumus“ (2008, „1944“ (2015 ja „Tuulepealne maa“ (2008, 2013. Teosed moodustavad temaatikalt ja lähenemiselt küllaltki homogeense terviku ning ka retseptsioon on kaldunud neid käsitlema sama riiklikult toetatud propagandadiskursuse osadena. Artikkel tõstab problemaatilisena esile, et filmide tootmises on osalenud ajaloolase taustaga poliitikud. SU M M A R Y This article traces and critiques attempts to reclaim militarism for patriotic purposes, as evidenced in early 21st century Estonian war-centred fiction films and TV series. Military themes were scarce in Estonia’s cinematic output during the 1990s, not so much due to their lingering association with Soviet propaganda, but rather because of economic hardship, which severely limited film budgets. However, as the ideological focus of the re-established nation-state came to rely heavily on nostalgia towards the interwar independence era, with its glorification of the victorious War of Independence, the emergence of „our own“ war films, intended to establish and perpetuate a heroic national narrative complete with military glory, seems to have been inevitable. The works primarily discussed here include the domestic box office hits Names in Marble (dir. Elmo Nüganen, 2002, December Heat (Asko Kase, 2008 and 1944 (Elmo Nüganen, 2015 as well as the popular TV series Windswept Land (Ain Prosa, 2008, 2013. While these productions are similar in many other ways, they are united by their straightforward patriotic pathos. There is a clear genre preference for epic historical dramas presented in a populist key, complete with spectacular

  19. 5 CFR 5501.110 - Prohibited financial interests applicable to senior employees of the National Institutes of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Senior employee means the Director and the Deputy Director of... financial interest in connection with the development and commercialization of invention rights obtained...

  20. Narrative report: Calendar year 1976: Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range and Hailstone, Halfbreed, Lake Mason & War Horse National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range (including the satellite refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year....

  1. Analysis of Samuel Huntington's American National Interests after the Cold War%冷战后亨廷顿美国国家利益观评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾国华

    2009-01-01

    冷战后,美国国家安全环境发生了重大变化,美国开始寻求新的国家利益.亨廷顿认为.在确定国家利益的过程中,美国一度将商业利益和种族利益置于国家利益之上,美国国家利益被侵蚀了.他呼吁美国要寻求真正的国家利益,美国要克制、内敛,尽可能限制对世界事务的卷入,以便将来更好地服务于美国国家利益,亨廷顿提出了带有保守倾向的政治理念和战略思想.

  2. 我国外语教育政策与国家文化利益譹訛%China’s Foreign Language Educational Policies and National Cultural Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹迪

    2012-01-01

      全球化时代,以保护国家文化安全、促进民族文化认同、推动民族文化传播为特征的国家文化利益日益凸显。外语教育政策作为国家指导外语教育所采取的行为和举措,已逐渐成为国家提升文化软实力,谋求文化利益的手段之一。外语教育政策必须以科学的语言战略观为指引,以正确的政策目标为取向,以政策系统顺畅运行为保障才能真正维护国家文化利益%  In the era of globalization,national cultural interests,characterized by the protection of the national cultural security,the promotion of national cultural identity,and promotion of the dissemination of national culture are highlighted.As a guiding document,foreign language educational policy is often taken advantage of or exploited by a nation to promote soft power,thereby gaining national cultural interests.Foreign language educational policy must be guided by scientific language planning concept,the orientation of the right policy objectives and the smooth operation of the policy system in order to truly safeguard the national cultural interests.

  3. The Committee of Overseas Chinese Affairs of the Nanjing National Government during Anti-Japanese War%略论抗战时期的南京国民政府侨务委员会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀满红; 赵金文

    2014-01-01

    After the outbreak of Anti-Japanese War, the National Government carried out a series of policies of O-verseas Chinese, which have focused on calling for Overseas Chinese to join actively and to support the war of re-sistance against Japan. As the main organization of undertaking the affairs concerning Overseas Chinese in the Na-tional Government, the Committee of Overseas Chinese Affairs strengthened the settings of the Overseas Chinese af-fairs institutions continuously, promoted the Anti-Japanese War propaganda and the guidance to Overseas Chinese, assisted the education of Overseas Chinese and the research developing, protected and assisted Overseas Chinese positively. And also, they offered Overseas Chinese giant supports in the material and the spiritual. All of these not only promoted the development of Anti-Japanese War and saving the nation, but also greatly enhanced the sense of identity of Overseas Chinese to the nation.%抗日战争爆发后,南京国民政府实施了以动员海外华侨积极参与和支援祖国抗战为中心的华侨政策。作为承担国民政府侨务工作的主要机构,侨务委员会不断加强侨务机构的设置,推动对华侨抗战的宣传与指导,辅助华侨教育与研究的发展,积极保护和救助华侨,给予海外华侨巨大的物质和精神支持,不仅促进了抗日救国事业的发展,同时极大地增强了海外华侨对祖国的认同感。

  4. Building a citizen-agency partnership among diverse interests: the Colville National Forest and Northeast Washington Forestry Coalition Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Gordon; Angela Mallon; Carolin Maier; Linda Kruger; Bruce Shindler

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about forest health and the threat of wildfire across the Western United States increasingly provide the impetus for communities to find land management solutions that serve multiple interests. Funding and procedural changes over the past decade have positioned federal agencies to put greater emphasis on multistakeholder partnerships and public outreach...

  5. Dubious Causes of No Interest to Students? The Development of National Union of Students in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In February 1992, the National Union of Students of the United Kingdom celebrated its 70th anniversary, however there were those within government that were determined that NUS would not see another decade. This article examines the ideological roots of this hostility to student organisations and examines NUS' response to it and the consequent…

  6. Education, Meritocracy and the Global War for Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phillip; Tannock, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Talk of the rise of a global war for talent and emergence of a new global meritocracy has spread from the literature on human resource management to shape nation-state discourse on managed migration and immigration reform. This article examines the implications that the global war for talent have for education policy. Given that this talent war is…

  7. Peace Education: How We Come to Love and Hate War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2011-01-01

    There is a huge volume of work on war and its causes, most of which treats its political and economic roots. In Loving and Hating War: An Approach to Peace Education, Nel Noddings explores the psychological factors that support war: nationalism, hatred, delight in spectacles, masculinity, religious extremism, and the search for existential…

  8. Peace Education: How We Come to Love and Hate War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2011-01-01

    There is a huge volume of work on war and its causes, most of which treats its political and economic roots. In Loving and Hating War: An Approach to Peace Education, Nel Noddings explores the psychological factors that support war: nationalism, hatred, delight in spectacles, masculinity, religious extremism, and the search for existential…

  9. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  10. MODELS OF NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN POST-WAR GERMANY, FRANCE, THE UK, THE US AND CANADA WITH GROWING IMMIGRATION INFLUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Zaika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents immigration models of Germany, France, Great Britain, the US and Canada. North-American states differ from the ‘classic-nationalist’ European states in that they have considered immigration an important factor in their development from the very beginning of their political existence. Although political culture in these countries (the US and Canada was formed under certain influence, the idea of an ‘ethno-cultural core’ is foreign to them. One of the biggest problems of immigrant integration in Western countries is that immigrants insist on having cultural rights within the public sphere of the receiving country and expect to see them respected. The difference in political culture between immigrant countries of North America and ‘nation states’ of Europe determine the two ways cultural rights are institutionalized in those countries and consequently the exact type of integration problems the countries face. 

  11. The Old Army in War and Peace: West Pointers and the Civil War Era, 1814-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    genre of Civil War tactical history, see Mark Grimsley, "Review Essay: The Continuing Battle of Gettysburg," Civil War History 49, no. 2 (2003): 185...both nations over military affairs tended to be marked by a romantic conception of war: charges on horse and foot, cold steel flashing right-and

  12. Off the Chart: The Crimean War in British Public Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Berridge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean War revealed in this issue of '19' is of such rich and varied historical interest as to make a mystery of its relative obscurity with the general public in the UK. My own article adopts a novelist’s perspective to chart some aspects of this popular decline, exploring the treatment of the Siege of Sebastopol through the media of painting, literature, and cinema, and considering whether those aspects of the war that have made the greatest impression on the public mind are also those that make it least commercially attractive. It also examines the more official legacy, from the treatment of war dead to the changing face of sculpted memorials, and by comparing British commemoration with that of Russians in Crimea, discusses the possible role played in national memory by both shame and pride. In a final brief analysis of the 1968 film 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', I consider the extent to which modern rejection of Victorian values has created historical distortion, and whether a more truthful presentation might better serve the cause of preserving an important war in the British public consciousness.

  13. Messaging, Missions, and Mindsets: The Unintended Consequences of National Messaging and Policy when Translated into Operations and Soldier Actions in the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-23

    and the military. During the war, the Roosevelt and Truman administrations maintained tight controls over information. These censorship efforts...Office of War Information’s (OWI) briefings, films , posters, etc.) and unofficial means such as Hollywood films , entertainment radio broadcasts...American film industry self-imposed a ban on films commenting on European politics.22 Still, many in the film industry remained openly political

  14. 76 FR 32986 - National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    .... (b) S. 253 and H.R. 938, bills to establish a World War I National Memorial Commission and reestablish the District of Columbia World War Memorial as the National World War I Memorial. (c) S. 883,...

  15. The Capitalist World-System and U.S. Cold War Policies in the Core and the Periphery: A Comparative Analysis of Post-World War II American Nation-building in Germany and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hugh Jo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the emerging cold war, why did the United States stress industrial expansion in Western Europe but focus on primary production alongside policing operations in the non-western world? Examining US postwar occupation in Germany and Korea from a world-systems perspective, this article argues that a given country’s standing in the capitalist economy generally shapes American foreign policy toward that particular country in the early cold war years. A paladin of system-wide prosperity and peace, the United States sought to restore the international division of labor after World War II. Reactions varied across the system, however, because of distinct socio-economic developments. The presence of capital-intensive export-dependent industry afforded western Germany flexible labor-management relations. Politics was overall stable there, and America dispensed with heavy-handed intervention. In southern Korea, labor-exploitive tenancy farming rendered interclass compromise virtually impossible. As intransigent peasants threatened the market economy, the United States used force to keep the ally in the system.

  16. The Politics of Star Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  17. Combined Operations in the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-24

    Research Cfice, 1952. Ministry of National Defense , Republic of Korea . The History of United Nations Forces in the Korean War. Volume VI, Seou 1: 1977. ,-,h...committed to repelling the North Korean and Chinese armies from the Republic of Korea (ROK). The Korean War was not anticipated and neither was the extent...Coaal: tior War Early on 25 June Iz)50 the North Korean People- Army =_NKPA launched an overwhelming invasion into the Repu’Tli,: cf Korea . Pres-.i,ent

  18. Examine How Botswana Defense Force in Concurrence with Other Instruments of National Power, Promote Botwana’s National Interests in a Multifarious International Security Environment Regionally

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    development and employment of military power will be fundamentally flawed. In a concise agreement with this viewpoint, Arthur F. Lykke, Jr. succinctly...our national security may be in danger.”117 The elements as 116 Drew and Snow, 20. 117 Arthur F...policymakers care about developing the NSS? Daniel J. Kaufman, David S. Clark , and Kevin P. Sheehan, in Dilday’s work, argue that it is important for

  19. Does infectious disease cause global variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Kenneth; Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Geographic and cross-national variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war is a subject of great interest. Previous theory on this variation has focused on the influence on human behaviour of climate, resource competition, national wealth, and cultural characteristics. We present the parasite-stress model of intrastate conflict, which unites previous work on the correlates of intrastate conflict by linking frequency of the outbreak of such conflict, including civil war, to the intensity of infectious disease across countries of the world. High intensity of infectious disease leads to the emergence of xenophobic and ethnocentric cultural norms. These cultures suffer greater poverty and deprivation due to the morbidity and mortality caused by disease, and as a result of decreased investment in public health and welfare. Resource competition among xenophobic and ethnocentric groups within a nation leads to increased frequency of civil war. We present support for the parasite-stress model with regression analyses. We find support for a direct effect of infectious disease on intrastate armed conflict, and support for an indirect effect of infectious disease on the incidence of civil war via its negative effect on national wealth. We consider the entanglements of feedback of conflict into further reduced wealth and increased incidence of disease, and discuss implications for international warfare and global patterns of wealth and imperialism.

  20. The Great War, ethics of Vidovdan, memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijaković Bogoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After a characterization of contemporaneity (dominance of the financial sector and high technology, politicization of economy, ideological use of culture and thought control and a brief analysis of expansionism (political, economic, cultural on the eve of the Great War, the author gives a more detailed description of the spiritual situation in the wake of the Great War: in philosophy, literature, and art, as well as the national political programmatic texts and war propaganda publications of German intellectuals of the time. The continuity of the Austro-Hungarian colonial policy towards the Balkans and Serbia culminated in instigation of a preventive war against Serbia by the elites in Berlin and Vienna, which is important for the question of responsibility for the war, with concrete war aims which reflected in the causes of the war. These war elites wanted to declare the assassination in Sarajevo as the cause of war, which in fact was a political assassination and tyrannicide. The liberation movement of democratic youth Mlada Bosna (Young Bosnia needs to be viewed both in the European context and inspired by the Serbian tradition of Kosovo cult and the ethics of Vidovdan (St Vitus Day speaking about the sacrifice as sublimation of history and about honorable suffering as element of identity. Historical memory suggests that historical responsibility is transgenerational. The epic proportions of Serbian suffering in the Great War have additionally incited the idea of the Temple of St Vitus Day (Vidovdanski Hram conceived by Ivan Meštrović. The bases of this idea were shaken by Miloš Crnjanski in his Lyrics of Ithaca where he succeeded to bring back to Vidovdan (St Vitus Day its inexhaustible national power of validity. Because of enormous Serbian military and civilian casualties in recent history, the establishing of a Victims of War Memorial today would have identity, existential, ethical and ontological significance for the Serbian people

  1. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes ...

  2. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  3. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  4. Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    and Health: Volume 8 - Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2010. 3. Steele L. Prevalence and patterns...Cognitive functioning in treatment-seeking Gulf War veterans: pyridostigmine bromide use and PTSD . J Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment

  5. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  6. Blessings for All? Community-Based Ecotourism in Bali Between Global, National, and Local Interests – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Byczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major island destination in South-East Asia, Bali has won a global reputation as one of the last paradises on earth. As one of the largest industries in the world, global tourism is utilised by the governments of many developing countries as an agent for development and national integration. However, local communities level the criticism that mass tourism has not only brought economic growth but also caused ecological and social costs. In reaction to the excessive developments of the past decades, local Balinese have started to actively implement community-based tourism. The ecotourism village-network Jaringan Ekowisata Desa seeks a more sustainable approach to tourism through stronger ownership and the minimisation of negative ecological impacts. The case study presented is based on fieldwork which took place in 2010. It aims to find answers to the questions of whether and to what extent community-based ecotourism initiatives may constitute a sustainable alternative to the negative effects associated with mass tourism. --- Bali gilt innerhalb der Tourismusindustrie als Inbegriff von Exotik und als eines der letzen Paradiese auf Erden. Seit jeher werden die vielfältigen Auswirkungen des Tourismus auf der Insel kontrovers diskutiert. Während vornehmlich Eliten an der in nationalem Interesse forcierten Tourismusentwicklung der südostasiatischen Top-Destination profitieren, kritisiert die einheimische Bevölkerung unzureichende Mitspracherechte und die Vernachlässigung von Nachhaltigkeitskriterien. In Reakti- on wurden seitens der Balinesen Projekte des gemeindebasierten Tourismus ins Leben gerufen. Das Ökotourismus-Dorf-Netzwerk Jaringan Ekowisata Desa ist eine solche Initiative, die sich der lokalen Eigentümerschaft und der Minimierung negativer ökologischer Folgen verschreibt. Anhand der hier präsentierten Fallstudie zu dem zivilgesellschaftlichen Projekt soll beantwortet werden, inwiefern gemeindebasierter Ökotourismus eine

  7. Peering Through the Surface of a Water War Between China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    cause military conflict between these two states, an extensive analysis of factors affecting relations between India and China, as well as domestic...Brahmaputra headwaters is widely reported in India news media . For a good review of the arguments both for and against China’s commitment to diverting...34The Dalai Lama’s War," National Interest , no. 115 (September 2011): 47; Sikri, "The Tibet Factor in India -China Relations ,” 59. 39 Sikri, "The Tibet

  8. The "Convitti Scuola della Rinascita" (The Boarding Schools of Rebirth): An Innovative Pedagogy for Democracy in Post-War Italy (1945-1955)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneri, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    In 1945, Italian society was in crisis. Twenty years of fascism and the aerial bombing and military offensives of the Second World War had left the civilian population suffering and the nation in need of reinvention. In this difficult context, certain anti-fascist intellectuals devised the interesting pedagogical experiment of the 11 Convitti…

  9. Lessons from Sarajevo and the First World War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tea Sindbæk

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the developments of public memory of the First World War as it is written in to the national narratives of Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia on the way to the centennial of the war’s outbreak. The First World War constitutes both a shared and a divided memory in Serbia, Croatia...... and Bosnia. Though the war was a catastrophe everywhere, to Serbia it also became a triumph on allied side, whereas in Bosnia and Croatia it was mainly a state collapse. Yet, the First World War also provided the immediate conditions for the creation of the first Yugoslav state, and consequently the history...... of the war was narrated within a Yugoslav context, echoing the triumphant Serbian narrative. With the fall of socialist Yugoslavia, the memory of the First World War developed quite differently in the three states. Different lessons are being drawn from war history, often with the aim of situating the nation...

  10. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  11. American growth and Napoleonic Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the French Revolution, in 1793 a series of wars among France and other major powers of Europe began and they lasted until 1815. There is disagreement among economic historians about the effects of these wars on the trend of US economic growth. This paper aims to answer the following question. Did America as a neutral nation take advantage of economic possibilities caused by Europe at war through trade? To put it differently, this paper questions whether there was an export-led growth due to the war. To answer this question, we re-examined the export-led growth hypothesis for the period 1790-1860 using the ARDL methodology. Based on this methodology, a cointegrated relationship is found among the variables of real GDP, labor, exports and exchange rates. The results suggest that the economic growth of the US was not export-driven. In addition, parallel to the results of unit root tests with structural breaks, the coefficient of the dummy variable was statistically significant in the long run, implying that the war did have a significant effect on the economic growth trend of the US.

  12. The Touristification of War Landscapes in the Province of Trento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Tizzoni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the impact of the so-called touristification of the war landscapes in the Province of Trento (Italy, focusing on the role played by local communities.Due to the increasing interest by tourists in visiting former battlefields and places that display cultural heritage referring to conflicts and wars, contemporary social sciences consider war tourism as a complex blend between social memory and tourism exploitation of territorial resources.After a brief summary on the academic debate about the link between Great War heritage and tourism, the essay assesses the main features of war landscapes in Trentino (Italy and provides some suggestions for further research.

  13. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  14. The Impact of War on Children: A Review of Progress Since the 1996 United Nations Report on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machel, Graca

    The outgrowth of a 1996 report on the impact of armed conflict on the well-being of children, and preparation for the 2000 International Conference on War-affected Children, this book examines progress made and obstacles encountered since 1996 in relieving the trauma of armed conflict. The stories recount family displacement, the rise of HIV/AIDS…

  15. The Chronicle Of The First World War And Its Impact On The Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjada Progonati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of the two Balkan Wars (1912-1913 remained incomplete until the First World War started. The aim of this study is to give some informations about The First World War and the role that Balkan region played to this war when the national consciousness of Balkan peoples began to crystallize. After the two Balkan Wars, all the Balkan states continued their efforts to gather their co-nationals into their national states. It’s concluded that the Balkan Wars leaded to the internationalization of this crisis spreading it to an ample area while many other crises at the same region were resolved without a general war in Europe. It appears that the First World War that began in 1914 in the Balkan region was a continuation of the wars that started in 1912-1913 period in the same are.

  16. Coastal Circulation and Sediment Dynamics in War-in-the-Pacific National Historical Park, Guam; measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity, June 2007-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    , and their impact on reef health and ecology are essential for effective reef management. Two of the main anthropogenic activities along west-central Guam's coastline that may impact the region's coral reef ecosystems include pollution and coastal land use/development, as discussed in the review by Porter and others (2005). The pollution threats include point-sources, such as municipal wastewater (Northern District, Hagatna, Naval Station Guam, and Agat-Santa Rita Waster Water Treatment Plants), cooling water (Tanguisson Steam and Cabras Power Plants), and numerous storm water, ballast water, and tank bottom draw outfalls; nonpoint sources include septic systems, urban runoff, illegal dumping, and groundwater discharges. Poor land-use practices include development without the use of runoff management measures, increased areal extent of impervious surfaces and decreased extent of vegetative barriers, and recreational off-road vehicle use. Furthermore, feral ungulates and illegal wildfires remove protective vegetative cover and generally result in increased soil erosion. While anthropogenic point-sources have been reduced in many areas due to better management practices, nonpoint sources have either stayed constant or increased. Between 1975 and 1999, it is estimated that Guam lost more than a quarter of its tree cover, and more than 750 wildfires each year have resulted in a greater proportion of badlands and other erosion-prone land surfaces with high erosion rates (Forestry and Soil Resources Division, 1999). Approximately 1.8 square kilometers (km2) of Asan Bay, west-central Guam, lies within the National Park Service's (NPS) War-in-the-Pacific National Historical Park's (WAPA) Asan Unit; the bay is the sink for material coming out of the Asan watershed. Anthropogenic modifications of the watersheds adjacent to Asan Bay, which include intentionally-set wildfires, construction, and agriculture (Minton, 2005), are believed to have increased over the past 25

  17. Debenture Interest Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...

  18. National Interests and Common Ground in the US Immigration Debate: How to Legalize the US Immigration System and Permanently Reduce Its Undocumented Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional wisdom holds that the only point of consensus in the fractious US immigration debate is that the system is broken. Yet, the US public has consistently expressed a desire for a legal and orderly immigration system that serves compelling national interests. This paper describes how to create such a system. It focuses on the cornerstone of immigration reform,[1] the legal immigration system,[2] and addresses the widespread belief that broad reform will incentivize illegal migration and ultimately lead to another large undocumented population. The paper begins with an analysis of presidential signing statements on seminal immigration legislation over nearly a century. These statements reveal broad consensus on the interests and values that the United States seeks to advance through its immigration and refugee policies. They constitute additional common ground in the immigration debate. To serve these interests, immigration and refugee considerations must be “mainstreamed” into other policy processes. In addition, its policies will be more successful if they are seen to benefit or, at least, not to discriminate against migrant-sending states.   Not surprisingly, the US immigration system does not reflect the vast, mostly unanticipated changes in the nation and the world since Congress last meaningfully reformed this system (27 years ago and last overhauled the law (52 years ago. The paper does not detail the well-documented ways that US immigration laws fall short of serving the nation’s economic, family, humanitarian, and rule of law objectives. Nor does it propose specific changes in categories and levels of admission. Rather, it describes how a legal immigration system might be broadly structured to deliver on its promises. In particular, it makes the case that Congress should create a flexible system that serves compelling national interests, allows for real time adjustments in admission based on evidence and independent

  19. Teuton vs Slav: The Great War Sinks Chicago's German "Kultur."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holli, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the fervent political and cultural nationalism of German Americans in Chicago during World War I. Discusses how this nationalism, combined with ethnic conflict between Germans and Slavs, helped to sway public opinion against Chicago's German community. (GC)

  20. On the Grain Keeping Management of the National Government during the War of Resistance against Japan%抗战时期国民政府的粮食仓储管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷

    2015-01-01

    Facing the serious problem of grain,the National Government practiced “land tax paid in kind”in order to bring grain problem into wartime controlled economy during the War of Resistance against Ja⁃pan. During the “land tax paid in kind” process,the National Government adopted a series of measures to solve the problem of grain storage,including warehouse construction,grain transport,storage and manage⁃ment of grain. These measures achieved a good effect,laid the foundation for the security of food supply and distribution and played a positive role in supporting the Anti-Japanese War.%抗战时期,面对严重的粮食问题,国民政府实行田赋征实,将粮食问题纳入战时统制经济轨道。在田赋征实过程中,国民政府采取一系列措施解决粮食的仓储问题,包括仓库建造、粮食运输、粮食入仓以及入仓后的管理等,取得了较好成效,为保障粮食的分配和供应奠定了基础,对支持抗战起了一定作用。

  1. Feeding the Devil Dogs of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-03

    Corps bad habits in terms of seemingly unlimited budgets with which to rapidly source materials, and to contract freely for logistics support and...navies in the 1800s. Advances in food dehydration during the American Civil War, and the increasing availability of refrigeration , also...nations. However, the economic impact of war is significant, and if buying locally will reduce the domestic cost as well as contribute to

  2. [German nurses during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  3. Operational Art Requirements in the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Rhee, enough for defense but not enough to precipitate South Korean offensive actions to unify Korea .27 Adding to the tension in the region, the...percent of the Korean Peninsula. The United States decided to intervene in the defense of the South and proceeded to press the United Nations (U.N...the Korean War, these works primarily fall into three broad areas of scholarship: the American strategy concerning Korea and the Cold War

  4. Establishing a 1991 Veterans Research Network to Improve Characterization of Gulf War Illness and Provide a National Resource for Veterans and Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302... definition for Gulf War illness (GWI) and little current information related to its characteristics. Nor has there been a comprehensive assessment of...data will be used to optimize a GWI case definition , based on current symptoms, and to provide insights concerning rates of other medical conditions

  5. Spectrum war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    The digital dividend discussion represents an obvious conflict of interest between on the one hand the traditional broadcasters and market players from other mobile communication sectors and on the other hand between the stake holders within the mobile communication sector. The first one being a ...

  6. 正义的战争与战争的正义——关于战争伦理的反思%Just war and justice of war: Reflections on ethics of war

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左高山

    2007-01-01

    War can be defined as organized political violence among two or more nations.In accordance with the purpose,processes and results of war,the ethics of war generally comprises three aspects:right ethics,action ethics and duty ethics.The most important issue in ethics of war is"justice"."Justice"and "injustice"as a conceptual pair do not prescribe the objective character of war but rather convey a subjective attitude and ethical position that have the potential to compel a populace to either support or oppose a war.

  7. War, nation and constitution: the influence of the Peninsular War on Europe Guerra, nación y constitución: la proyección europea de la Guerra de Independencia española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo BUTRÓN PRIDA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the early nineteenth century Europeans looked toward Spain to learn, and reproduce, on the one hand, guerrilla warfare, namely, the fighting strategy that finally put the imperial troops on the defensive; and, on the other hand, political approaches articulated in Cadiz as an alternative to both the established order and the new order proposed by Joseph I. The influence of the Spanish model exceeded the context of the Napoleonic wars and served as inspiration to those who, from positions that could be described as nationalist, faced in the following decades an external threat.Los europeos de principios del siglo XIX miraron con interés hacia España con el fin de conocer y reproducir, en primer lugar, la guerra de guerrillas, esto es, la estrategia de lucha que ponía por fin en dificultades a las tropas imperiales; y, en segundo lugar, los planteamientos políticos articulados en Cádiz como alternativa tanto al orden conocido, como al nuevo orden propuesto por José I. La influencia del modelo español superaría además el contexto de las guerras napoleónicas, y serviría de inspiración a quienes, desde posiciones que podríamos calificar ya de nacionalistas, se enfrentaron en las décadas siguientes a una situación de amenaza exterior.

  8. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  9. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Iraq War has done the United States more harm than good the removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War,which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century.

  10. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN WENLIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War, which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century. Although there remain quite a few uncertainties, an honest review shows the war is a failure for the United States.

  11. 维护国家海洋权益建设海洋强国%Safeguard the National Marine Rights and Interests of Building a Powerful Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚杰

    2014-01-01

    In today's world, countries around the ocean rights and interests fight both with open and secret means, China ocean consciousness awakening later, some of the legitimate rights and interests have been neighbors invaded. With the deepening of the opening-up policy, the further deepening of globalization, marine economy has become an important part of China's national economy, China is further dependent on marine resources and will continue the trend of development. The establishment of a powerful maritime force, vigorously develop the marine economy, safeguarding marine rights and interests, become an important theme of peace and development in the context of the times.%当今世界,各国围绕着海洋权益明争暗斗,中国海洋意识觉醒较晚,一些合法权益已被周边邻国侵占。随着对外开放政策的进一步深化、全球化的进一步深入,海洋经济已经成为中国国民经济的重要组成部分,中国进一步依赖海洋及其资源的趋势仍将继续发展。建立一支强大的海上力量,大力发展海洋经济,维护海洋权益,成为和平与发展时代背景下的重要主题。

  12. 1948 AND THE COLD WAR IN MALAYA: SAMPLINGS OF MALAY REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Haji Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary report of an on-going research on the reactions of the Malays in Malaya to the coming of the Cold War to the region, with particular reference to the importance of the year 1948. For the majority of the Malays, the Cold War was most popularly associated with the Emergency, which British authorities had declared in the effort to quell the armed uprising mounted by the MCP. The vast majority of Malays in Malaya were not interested in the on-going Cold War between the Western bloc led by the United States on the side the Eastern bloc led by the Soviet Union on the other. The preoccupations of the Malays during the immediate post-Pacific War period was nationalism and the concomitant effort to gain independence for Malaya from Britain. In particular, they had been rather anxious that the Malays, who were the native of the land, were not robbed of the custodianship over Malaya and political privileges of the Malays in independent Malaya. Consumed with these issues, the Malays had little interests in external affairs. It was perhaps the lack of Malay support that foredoomed the fate of communism in Malaya.

  13. WAR GRAVES REGISTERS., MONUMENTS., HEADSTONES AND CROSSES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE WAR OF 1880-1881

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Chadwick

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of warfare, military matters and battles has a great romantic appeal and in recent years has attracted a great deal of public interest. Evidence of this is seen in the growth of military museums or the military sections of museums, the large number of books on military matters which are published and the plethora of magazines, periodicals and newspapers dealing with almost every aspect of warfare and the history of war. Some of the most popular radio and TV programmes deal with war or military matters. Many societies confine themselves exclusively to military history, war models, war games, etc. Amongst the most popular excursions are those to battlefields. Many of the most popular novels of our time deal with war and the aftermath of war, while many teachers are using this growing interest to introduce their pupils to history.

  14. 'Not our war, not our country': contents and contexts of Scottish political rhetoric and popular understandings during the invasion of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcheroth, Guy; Reicher, Steve

    2014-03-01

    Recent research has questioned the traditional assumption that populations inevitably rally round their national leaders in times of war and suggested instead that whether this occurs depends upon political communication and mass media coverage. In this study, we provide systematic analysis of the debate in Scotland over the invasion of Iraq in 2003. We examine how the conflict was construed as either for or against the national interest, and how the way this is done is linked to different dimensions of context. First, we provide a mixed-methods analysis of debates in the Scottish Parliament. We show that anti-war speakers from Scottish separatist parties map opposition to the war onto a series of collectively consistent and temporarily flexible categorical oppositions, starting with a familiar antinomy between Scottish people and British rulers (before the invasion), and then shifting to broader oppositions between subjugated people and imperial powers (after the invasion). By contrast, speakers from other parties appear less consistent and less flexible in the nature of their arguments. Second, we examine the opinions of a population sample on the war, how these opinions relate to understandings of Scottish identity and how the media context is pivotal in the translation of anti-war opinions into votes for separatist/anti-war political parties.

  15. Exploring the association between posttraumatic growth and PTSD: a national study of Jews and Arabs following the 2006 Israeli-Hezbollah war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J; Palmieri, Patrick A; Galea, Sandro

    2010-03-01

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG)-deriving benefits following potentially traumatic events-has become a topic of increasing interest. We examined factors that were related to self-reported PTG, and the relationship between PTG and symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTS) following the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah. Drawing from a national random sample of Israel, data from 806 terrorism-exposed Israeli adults were analyzed. PTG was associated with being female, lower education, greater recent terrorism exposure, greater loss of psychosocial resources, greater social support, and greater self-efficacy. PTG was a consistent predictor of PTS across hierarchical linear regression models that tested whether demographic, stress, or personal resources moderated the relationship between PTG and PTS. PTG did not relate to PTS differently for people who differed by age, sex, ethnicity, education, religiosity, degree of terrorism exposure, self-efficacy, nonterrorism stressful life events, and loss of psychosocial and economic resources. PTG was not related to well-being for any of these subgroups.

  16. [The outcomes and the lessons of medical provision of the military forces during the great patriotic war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopov, M Sh; Taranukha, V K

    2010-01-01

    The progressive type of the system of of the military forces during the Great Patriotic War was ensured by the following features: the availability and maintenance of the principles of integrated field military medical doctrine, the theoretical validity of the propositions of the mentioned doctrine and the implementation of advanced achievements of medicine in developing the principles of organization of medical care and methods of treatment of wounded and ill patients; the dynamic development of content and organization of curative evacuative measures and their permanent development during the War; the systematic and close interrelationships of civil and military health care which ensured the ultimately possible implementation of national health care resources and scientific technical and industrial potentials of medical and closely-related industries in the interests of development of necessary material technical foundation of curative evacuative system during all stages of war.

  17. NATO’s Relevance to United States Enduring National Interests Time to Remove the Training Wheels but Continue to Hold the Handle Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Professor and international relations expert Stephen Walt wrote: Forcing NATO’s European members to take the lead in the recent Libyan war was a good... International Institutions and Global Governance Program, New York: Council on Foreign Relations , (February 2010)4. http://www.cfr.org...the Baltics, and the Scandinavian region, pose a risk to the viability of the North Atlantic alliance. 27 International relations experts have

  18. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various culture wars – hippies...... political or military but also social and psychological, economic and technological, cultural and imaginative. Using as its exemplar Pynchon’s treatment of world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow, this essay explores one key modulation in the nature of warfare: from the armed conflicts characteristic...... of an imperial order to the struggles for security – not just physical but also ideological and discursive, conceptual and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order. Through the personal identities and historical trajectories of a number of the novel’s representative figures...

  19. American physicians and dual loyalty obligations in the "war on terror"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Jerome Amir

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-September 11, 2001, the U.S. government has labeled thousands of Afghan war detainees "unlawful combatants". This label effectively deprives these detainees of the protection they would receive as "prisoners of war" under international humanitarian law. Reports have emerged that indicate that thousands of detainees being held in secret military facilities outside the United States are being subjected to questionable "stress and duress" interrogation tactics by U.S. authorities. If true, American military physicians could be inadvertently becoming complicit in detainee abuse. Moreover, the American government's openly negative views towards such detainees could result in military physicians not wanting to provide reasonable care to detainees, despite it being their ethical duty to do so. Discussion This paper assesses the physician's obligations to treat war detainees in the light of relevant instruments of international humanitarian law and medical ethics. It briefly outlines how detainee abuse flourished in apartheid South Africa when state physicians became morally detached from the interests of their detainee patients. I caution U.S physicians not to let the same mindset befall them. I urge the U.S. medical community to advocate for detainee rights in the U.S, regardless of the political culture the detainee emerged from. I offer recommendations to U.S physicians facing dual loyalty conflicts of interest in the "war on terror". Summary If U.S. physicians are faced with a conflict of interest between following national policies or international principles of humanitarian law and medical ethics, they should opt to adhere to the latter when treating war detainees. It is important for the U.S. medical community to speak out against possible detainee abuse by the U.S. government.

  20. Influence of World Wars on the Development of International Law on War Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Regulations on laws and customs of land warfare of 1907 that existed during World War I did not protect war prisoners. The tragic experience forced us to return tothe problem of protection of the rights of the victims of war. The Geneva Convention on the war prisoners of 1929 was the first document of international law in which the status of war prisoners was determined in detail. The Soviet Union did not join the states which had signed the Convention, and during the World War II it was guided by its national legislation confirmed by the Soviet Government on July 1, 1941. On the whole, the items of the Regulations on War Prisoners adopted in 1941 corresponded to the Geneva Convention. But non-recognition of the international convention provided the heads of fascist Germany with the reason for inhuman treatment of the Soviet captives. Serious consequences of war compelled the world community to pay the closest attention to the issues of military captivity again. On August 12, 1949 in Geneva the Soviet Union joined the new Convention on prisoners.

  1. [Give attention to war in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo; Groenewegen, Henk J; Meijman, Frans J

    2009-01-01

    Medical consequences of war are prominent in the media. The United Nations and the World Medical Association have called for medical curricula to permanently include consideration of human rights, in particular human rights in war time. Information on the medical consequences of war and weapon systems is valuable knowledge. Courses on this subject are popular amongst medical students, a considerable number of whom are willing to spend a period working for organisations as the Red Cross, Doctors without Borders or the Military Health Service. In spite of this, none of the Dutch medical faculties has given the subject a permanent place in its curriculum. Gathering knowledge on the medical consequences of war depends completely on the efforts of individuals.

  2. Using Ken Burns's "The Civil War" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    When it aired in 1989, Ken Burns's epic documentary about America's Civil War garnered the largest audience in PBS history. Viewers who had little interest or knowledge of the Civil War were attracted to the powerful images and sounds as well as the narration by David McCullough and commentary by Shelby Foote--the combination of which served to…

  3. 论抗战前国民政府的禁烟与外交%Anti-Opium and the Diplomacy of the National Government before the Anti-Japanese War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霆

    2014-01-01

    近代中国,烟毒泛滥,中国政府在国际场合备受责难和讥讽。抗战爆发前,国民政府的禁烟政策渐趋严厉,但租界及治外法权仍是制约禁烟的重要因素。国民政府试图利用禁烟收回民族利权,此举措虽未获成功,但国家形象却大为好转,国际地位亦明显提高,并成功地使日本在国际舆论中处于被动地位。%In modern China,opium rampancy was extremely serious,so Chinese government was blamed and satirized in the international occasions.Before the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War,the National Government anti-opium policies have became more and more se-vere,but the leased territory and extraterritoriality still are important factors to restrict the effect of anti-opium.The National Government tried to make use of anti-opium to recover na-tional rights.Although the policy was not very successful,the national image has been greatly improved and international status also obviously increased,and successfully makes Japan into a passive position in the international community.

  4. Chinese Communist Intervention in the Korean War: Miscalculation or Provocation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    Committee. The History of the United Nations Forces in the Korean War. Vol1. 2. Seoul, Korea : Republic of- Korea -Ministry of National Defense , 1973...Douglas MacArthur’s United Nations Coinnd (UNC) reversed the tide In the Korean War. An Impending disaster# the loss of the Republic of Korea # turned into a...80K) - South Korea . Th’e UNC objectives were to capture the Notth Korean capital of Pyongyang# couplete the destruction of the NXPA, and secure a

  5. Commemorating a ‘Foreign’ War in a Neutral Country The Political Insignificance of World War 1 Memory in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Ribbens

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent creation of a First World War museum exhibit at Huis Doorn reflects the increased Dutch attention paid to this war, accompanying the international Centenary efforts, although the neutral Netherlands had not been actively involved in the military events of wwi. This initiative, on a small estate where the former German emperor Wilhelm II lived after the defeat of Germany in 1918, was not a natural outcome of the dynamics of Dutch historical culture. This article raises the question of how wwi became increasingly emphasised in the early twenty- first century, and to what extent this reflects a profound change in the national historical culture, which previously displayed no strong connections to wwi. While familiarity with wwi has grown among the Dutch media and the wider public, governmental interest remained limited (very different from the case of wwii, making it rather difficult to actually speak of politics of memory. 

  6. Commemorating a ‘Foreign’ War in a Neutral Country The Political Insignificance of World War 1 Memory in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ribbens

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent creation of a First World War museum exhibit at Huis Doorn reflects the increased Dutch attention paid to this war, accompanying the international Centenary efforts, although the neutral Netherlands had not been actively involved in the military events of wwi. This initiative, on a small estate where the former German emperor Wilhelm II lived after the defeat of Germany in 1918, was not a natural outcome of the dynamics of Dutch historical culture. This article raises the question of how wwi became increasingly emphasised in the early twenty- first century, and to what extent this reflects a profound change in the national historical culture, which previously displayed no strong connections to wwi. While familiarity with wwi has grown among the Dutch media and the wider public, governmental interest remained limited (very different from the case of wwii, making it rather difficult to actually speak of politics of memory.

  7. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  8. Artistic Creativity and Extreme Events: The Heterogeneous Impact of War on Composers’ Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2014-01-01

    1800. The study investigates how their productivity changes during various types of war and over their lifetime. Composers’ productivity decreases during war, however not so much for those turning 30 or those in late 50s or above. Interestingly, the effect is not negative for all types of war: higher...

  9. THE U.S. NATIONAL INTEREST REDEFINITION AND THE FUTURE OF ITS LEADERSHIP IN CRITICAL REGIONS. STRONG AND SUSTAINABLE AMERICAN LEADERSHIP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo ARBIOL OÑATE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the 20th century, the United States provided a strong centripetal leadership that brought the country to form an economy that remains the bedrock of the global financial system. America’s military superiority remains unrivaled. While far from perfect, the U.S. has the oldest democratic constitutional regime, as well as strong institutions and rule of law to accompany it, as Americans continue to enjoy an unmatched quality of life. In general the U.S. enjoys still a privileged position in the world today. For the last one hundred years, American foreign policy has rested on a commitment to use its power. Nevertheless, many criticize that over the last two decades, the U.S. has scaled down its presence, ambitions and promises in the world. Is the U.S. abnegating its leadership? Are U.S. national interests changing and refocusing towards home affairs? Or will the 21st century, due to fragile alternative powers (EU, China, Russia, … be again an American century?

  10. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts. Th...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems....

  11. the role of the pigeon in the first world war

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    dedicated naval war pigeon service supported by the national fiscus,25 a formal .... society”, as well as in the formation and resilience of identity.61. Towards .... the besieged residents.”91 .... 7 Winter, C. “Tourism, social memory and the Great War”. ... a short time: New perspectives on the Anglo-Boer War, Pretoria: Nexus.

  12. Cold War America, 1946 to 1990. Almanacs of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ross

    This book offers an in-depth look at U.S. culture during a 45-year period when the threat of nuclear war loomed over millions worldwide, and post-World War II ideological tensions took form as an ever-deepening chasm separating two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The book finds that the national and global societies that…

  13. Department of Defense Law of War Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Department of State, United Nations Security Council Resolutions and the Application of International Humanitarian Law, Human Rights and Refugee Law, Sept...State, United Nations Security Council Resolutions and the Application of International Humanitarian Law, Human Rights and Refugee Law, Sept. 9, 2005...obeying it is the right thing to do. But we also know that the law of war poses no obstacle to fighting well and prevailing. Nations have developed

  14. “The theatre with the most meagre audience”: War trophies from ex-German New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Winter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How the First World War is envisaged and commemorated in Australia has been the subject of many studies, which focus on the European war. Seemingly forgotten is the occupation of New Guinea, which has received recent interest as Australia’s first war action. This article analyses the first transient war memorials, namely the exhibiting of war trophies in local shop windows. The Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Forces brought home and sent home a mixture of German war trophies and New Guinean artifacts, blending war trophies and curios into shows of victory.

  15. Investigating Metacom's War: Analyzing Rowlandson's Primary Document in Upper-Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Metacom's War, also known as King Phillip's War, sets a pattern of national expansion through displacement of native people that echoes throughout American history. Helping students further understand this war through the examination of Mary Rowlandson's primary document provides educators and students with an opportunity to delve deeper into the…

  16. 8 CFR 252.5 - Special procedures for deserters from Spanish or Greek ships of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Spanish or Greek ships of war. 252.5 Section 252.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Greek ships of war. (a) General. Under E.O. 11267 of January 19, 1966 (31 FR 807) and 28 CFR 0.109, and... a ship of war of that government, while in any port of the United States, and on proof by...

  17. Prelude to Civil War: Exploring Sectional Differences in Antebellum America through Student-Created Cartograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Peter William; Moran, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In high school American history classrooms all over the country, the Civil War is a staple in the curriculum. Of course, that is to be expected given the pivotal place that the Civil War occupies in the nation's history. Indeed, it is not unusual for high school teachers to devote weeks of instruction to exploring the causes leading up to the war,…

  18. The Great War and Dutch Contract Law : Resistance, Responsiveness and Neutrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the Great War, the Netherlands tried frantically to remain a neutral nation between the warring Central Powers and the Entente Forces. Notwithstanding its neutrality, the war left distinct marks on Dutch society and economy. This article argues that it also left marks, both temporary and

  19. The Great War and Dutch Contract Law : Resistance, Responsiveness and Neutrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the Great War, the Netherlands tried frantically to remain a neutral nation between the warring Central Powers and the Entente Forces. Notwithstanding its neutrality, the war left distinct marks on Dutch society and economy. This article argues that it also left marks, both temporary and

  20. Edmund Burke, the Atlantic American war and the ‘poor Jews at St. Eustatius’. Empire and the law of nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Abbattista

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is devoted to a relatively minor episode in Edmund Burke’s parliamentary career and political speculation involving the rights of war and international law in the final years of the American War of Independence. The starting point for Burke’s consideration of these questions was the affair of St. Eustatius, that is to say Britain’s conquest in 1781 of the Dutch West-Indian island early in the “fourth Anglo-Dutch War” of 1780-1784. The harsh treatment of the Dutch colony’s cosmopolitan community by the commanding officers of the British Navy and Army provoked a series of reactions in Britain and the colonies. The essay starts by outlining the identity of St. Eustatius with its economic, demographic and social features, its peculiar role in the eighteenth-century West Indies and its emblematic meaning in the historical literature of the Enlightenment as a symbol of the virtues of commerce and of economic liberty. It goes on to analyse the facts of the military conquest in 1781 and the ensuing occupation realized by Admiral George Rodney and Major-General John Vaughan, particularly as this affected the “poor Jews at St. Eustatius” (as Burke himself qualified them in his second speech on 4 December 1781, with the subsequent reactions of the Dutch and especially the British Atlantic world. We then examine Edmund Burke’s reasons for taking up this affair, including the political and ideological motives and the sources of arguments he used in the two parliamentary speeches he made on the topic during 1781, relating this to Burke’s ideas on international relations and imperial government during the 1770s and 1780s. We end by pointing to cultural links between Burke’s positions and a wider political, commercial and civic culture emerging in the British Atlantic world which reflected some of the most typical European Enlightenment values and ideological commitments.

  1. The centenary commemorations of the Great War in Belgium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wouters

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the start of the centenary commemoration of the First World War (wwi in 2014 drew closer, Belgium saw the rise of a bigger ‘commemorative competition’. The different governments launched their own commemorative programmes, parallel to (and sometimes against each other. In the slipstream of this, a huge commercial and business competition erupted in a struggle for funding and visitors. There was also an unprecedented funding of new academic wwi-research. This contribution first makes some remarks on this research, and then looks briefly at the commemorative and memorial policies. On the one hand, current wwi policies confirm (and reinforce the differences in similar policies related to the Second World War. The narratives, as well as the moral or didactic categories, are clearly distinct. On the other hand however, there are some similarities to be found in the policy frameworks created after 1995. Some characteristics of such policy mechanisms are a more pro-active role (national authorities adopt in the construction of memories, a strong interconnectedness between public and private interests and an underlying driving meta-narrative of a national duty to remember connected to the target of an emotional and active investment of each individual citizen.

  2. The centenary commemorations of the Great War in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Wouters

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the start of the centenary commemoration of the First World War (wwi in 2014 drew closer, Belgium saw the rise of a bigger ‘commemorative competition’. The different governments launched their own commemorative programmes, parallel to (and sometimes against each other. In the slipstream of this, a huge commercial and business competition erupted in a struggle for funding and visitors. There was also an unprecedented funding of new academic wwi-research. This contribution first makes some remarks on this research, and then looks briefly at the commemorative and memorial policies. On the one hand, current wwi policies confirm (and reinforce the differences in similar policies related to the Second World War. The narratives, as well as the moral or didactic categories, are clearly distinct. On the other hand however, there are some similarities to be found in the policy frameworks created after 1995. Some characteristics of such policy mechanisms are a more pro-active role (national authorities adopt in the construction of memories, a strong interconnectedness between public and private interests and an underlying driving meta-narrative of a national duty to remember connected to the target of an emotional and active investment of each individual citizen. 

  3. Assessment of Strategic Factors of War Tourism in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysam Musai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, war tourism tours in the world are regarded as opportunity for glorification of the defendant combatants in each country and protect ting their beliefs while there are regarded as class for training and promoting peace and showing destructive consequences of war and are the best method for showing difference of this war from many wars and difference of attitude. Broad area of the war involved regions, effect of attendance in these regions on national identity of the visitors and spiritual strong heritage of Islamic Revolution periods are the specifications which distinguish these regions from other travel destinations in Iran. This research studies position of this tourism with use of SWOT method and calculates strategic status of war tourism by presenting tourism strategic position.

  4. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    -international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil......This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  5. Macroeconomic Dynamics in Russia During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheremisinov Georgiy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The trajectory and quality of economic development of a country depend on the scale of the public entrepreneurship. The key parameters of macroeconomic dynamics are represented by the ratio between consumption and accumulation (saving in the national income, the regulation of centralized withdrawal of economic resources and the nature of their investment or expenditure. Theoretical analysis. The First World War had been changing the course of economic processes in Russia since 1914 till 1918. The funds were raised for ensuring the defense industry and supplying the troops. The incomes of population and enterprises were decreasing. The capital goods and trade ties undergone destruction processes. The besieged state turned to reducing reproduction of the gross national product. The military situation and extraordinary redistribution of resources had strengthened the economic status of the country. The funds spent on the maintenance and equipment of the army depended on the methods of resource allocation. Along with the war losses, the methods of economic regulation also contributed to the degradation of Russian economy. The devastation was caused by the armed struggle of state power for their interests and purposeful economic policy of successive governments. Conclusion. During the First World War the Russian economy had become extreme. Public withdrawal of economic resources and the impact on the economy was growing up until its overall governmentalization and transformation of the market economy into the subsistence one. The reformation processes supported each other mutually, strengthened the effect of general trends and had irreversible cumulative character. The mobilization model of the Russian economy was formed.

  6. Final integrated trip report: site visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Pratt, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Limestone forests are the most diverse natural plant communities of Guam. Like other natural vegetation types, these forests have a long history of anthropogenic disturbances, being altered and shaped by humans for more than 4,000 years. Although this occupation represents a relatively long human influence in comparison to other Pacific islands, animals associated with humans, such as commensal rodents, arrived in these islands beginning only 1,000 years ago, and larger mammals, such as pigs (Sus scrofa), may not have arrived until European contact. Limestone forests, which also occur on several other Mariana Islands, developed in the presence of frequent tropical storms and are therefore well adapted to this type of natural disturbance regime. However, recent human activities including large scale clearing and conversion combined with the presence of high levels of alien herbivores and seed predators, and the loss of ecological services provided by the former native avifauna may be causing the decline of Guam's forests. Limestone forests on northern Guam, much like those of other Mariana Islands, were heavily cleared for the construction of military installations during World War II. The accidental introduction of the Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis; BTS) around this same period subsequently accelerated the disappearance of Guam's native avifauna and other endemic terrestrial vertebrates, and with them, seed dispersal, pollination, and the predatory regulation of herbivorous insects. Guam and the Mariana Islands contained a high proportion (32 pecent) of endemic bird species, with 4 forms endemic to Guam alone: the now extinct Guam Flycatcher (Myiagra freycineti), and Guam Bridled White-eye (Zosterops conspicillatpicillata), one of three island endemic subspecies from the Marianas; Guam rail (Rallus owstonii); and Guam Kingfisher (Todiramphus cinnamominus cinnamominus), an island endemic subspecies of the regionally endemic Micronesian Kingfisher. Guam once

  7. The Establishment and Problems of Faculty Committee Autonomy in Japanese National Universities after the World War Ⅱ%战后日本国立大学教授会自治的确立及其问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金红莲

    2012-01-01

    战后日本国立大学确立了以教授会自治为中心的"从下至上"的内部治理结构,教授会的权力涉足到国立大学内部管理与运作的整个领域。而2004年日本国立大学法人化改革的主要目的之一就是削弱教授会的权力,扩大以校长为中心的行政权力。那么,战后日本国立大学教授会自治是如何形成的,存在哪些问题,为何要进行改革呢?回顾历史,分析其利弊,总结其经验教训,有助于我们更好地认识日本国立大学法人化改革的内部原因,也有助于反思我国大学学术权力与行政权力的关系。%The from bottom to top internal governance structure centering on faculty committee autonomy has been established in Japanese national universities since the World War Ⅱ. The faculty's power covered the overall internal management and operation of Japanese national universities. However, the reform of personalization taken place in 2004 aimed at decreasing the faculty committee power and enhancing the administration power centered on the university president. Hence, how did the faculty committee autonomy in national university form, what were the problems, why should it be reformed? Reviewing, analyzing and summing up the history can help us to understand deeply the reasons why national university carried out the incorporation reform, and to reflect the relationship between academic power and administration power in our national university.

  8. 抗战时期周南女学生对国民身份的认同与践行%National Identity and Practice of Students from Zhounan Girls’School During the Anti-Japanese War Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万琼华; 朱丽

    2014-01-01

    Women’s nationality is an good opportunity for female intellectuals to construct their own subjective identities, although it is advocated by elite males in order to construct nation states. During the Anti-Japanese War, women students from the Zhounan Girls’School identified deeply with the political slogan “To love and save the nation is the duty of every female citizen”,“be responsible equally, be a national equally”. Further, this was practiced through diligent study, establishing private schools, organizing fund-raising for various activities, and taking part in agricultural production in order to obtain a national identity equal to the male, objectively promoting the development of modern women’s movement.%尽管“女国民”观为精英男性所倡导,终极目标是建构民族国家,却为知识女性包括女学生建构自身主体身份提供了契机。全面抗战时期,周南女学生在政府宣导、学校引导及新一轮妇女解放浪潮等多重因素影响下,不仅认同“爱国救国,匹妇有责”、“同担责任,同为国民”等政治话语,且以刻苦向学、办理民校、募捐劝储、农业生产等方式予以践行,以获得与男性平等的国民身份,客观上推动了近代妇女运动的发展。

  9. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  10. War and Comics (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Comics played a very important role in the total mobilization in Italy. Firstly in the cities and then in the trenches, they were a new propaganda tool and explanation of the war for children and soldiers with low literacy. At the same time, the war changed the history of comics and the magazine market for children and youth

  11. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  12. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  13. The Kawousan War reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimba, I.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    The Kawousan War (1916-1920) was one of the longest periods of resistance known in Niger and through it the local people - Tuareg, Hausa and others - fought to free their society from French colonial domination. Unlike other interpretations, this chapter looks at the structural causes of the war rel

  14. Study on "The Catholic Magazine" of preparation publi c opinion of National Salvation Movement against Japanese War%谈《圣教杂志》的抗日救国宣传

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士伟

    2011-01-01

    The Catholic Magazine was not only the official organ of the Catholic Church, also Catholic communication platform among Christians at home and abroad. It directly affected the development of the Chinese Catholic Chitrch. Although the Catholic Magazine was the mouthpiece of the Catholic Church, but concerned about the nation's destiny and social events was the pursuit of its whole life. Especially during the Sino - Japanese War, to pen for sword, it refuted fallacy of Japanese invasion China, revealed its ambitions and tricks, lashed out Japanese atrocities, proposed patriotic religious theory, called on Christians heroic against Japan, Predicted that China must win, and Japan must defeated, guided Christians at home and abroad serving for national salvation movement against Japanese war, and play a public propaganda role successfully.%《圣教杂志》是近代中国天主教的喉舌,也是国内外的天主教人士相互进行沟通和交流的平台,直接影响了中国天主教的发展。《圣教杂志》虽是天主教会的机关报,但关心国家命运和社会问题却是贯穿该刊始终的主线。尤其在抗战时期,《圣教杂志》以笔为剑,驳斥日本侵华谬论,揭露其野心和伎俩,痛斥日军暴行,提出爱国的教理依据,号召教民英勇抗日,宣传中国抗战必胜、日本必败,引导国内外天主教教友为抗战救国服务,充分发挥了舆论功能。

  15. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver......Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  16. Civil War. NBER Working Paper No. 14801

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattman, Christopher; Miguel, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory…

  17. Literature and Art Strvi ing for National Lib eration During the War of Reis stance Against Japan%为民族解放而战的抗日文艺战线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向峰

    2015-01-01

    抗日战争时期无数的文艺家都投入了民族救亡的伟大历史潮流之中,创作了各种门类的艺术品,有力地打击了日本侵略者,鼓舞了人民,他们的名字与作品如长天不落的星辰,闪烁在华夏的天宇,不少作品至今仍然流传在人民中间,是中国新文化中的珍宝。为了表彰这些人为民族解放所做出的贡献,在中华民族崛起的今天,我们高声呼唤他们的名字,首先是为了铭记历史,同时也是为了发扬现代文化的威力,展示抗日战争时期文艺家作为革命文艺战线成员的历史作用,推动以人民为中心的创作导向的进一步落实,促进人民的社会主义文艺进一步的发展与繁荣。%Durin g the War of Resistance Agani st Japna ,countless epx erts of literature and art threw themselves into the great historical trend of saving the Chinese nation from extinction,creating different kinds of works of art which gave the enemies an effective blow and encouraged the people.Their names and art products flicker like shining stars in the sky.Lots of the works are still known to people,and they are the treasures in the cul-ture of China.To honor what they have contributed to the national liberation,we loudly call out their names at the time when the Chinese nation has risen from the horizon,firstly for er membering the part of history,and in addition for developing the power of the modern culture,showing the historical functions of the experts of liter-ature and art as revolutionary fighters in the war,making further efforts for the practice of creation orientation centered on the people,and promoting further developments and prosperitei s of the socialist literature and art for the people.

  18. KURDISH PROBLEM IN THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST WORD WAR AND IN THE EARLY POSTWAR YEARS IN THE CONTEXT OF RUSSIAN NATIONAL SECURITY AND POSITIONS OF ENGLAND AND GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. VARTANYAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the liberation aspirations of the Kurdish people, which strengthened during the First World War. The Kurdish nation has been divided between two countries - Iran and Ottoman Turkey (in the Ottoman Empire, it lived in the territory of Turkey, Iraq and Syria. It is emphasized, that the hopes of the Kurdish people of the Ottoman Empire after its collapse to create an independent state were quite real. However, the Great Powers decided to play the "Kurdish card" to strengthen their positions in the Middle East. The article analyzes the Russian position in the Kurdish issue and Kurds hope for help from Russia. It is dealt with the desire of England to make use of national and religious minorities, which were living in the eastern provinces of Turkey, to increase its position in the country. It is given the cooperation of the Young Turk government and Germany. It is shown the purposes of Germany and Turkey, which were in the prewar and war years activated the anti-Russian propaganda among the Kurds and provoked them into the border conflicts with Russia. Conclusion is drawn, that in 1918-1919 were the most suitable for the creation of the Kurdish nation-state, if the Kurdish leaders persevered and were able to persuade Britain and France to this decision. However, the implementation of the provisions of the Treaty of Sevres has assumed the Ottoman state, which does not really exist anymore, and the Ankara government abandoned section of the Turkish lands. In these circumstances, England, France and less extent other countries that have signed the Treaty of Sevres, changed their stance towards the Kurds and their promises. The hopes to establish an independent Kurdish state collapsed.

  19. The Crimean War on Book Pages…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Chennyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains overview of the most interesting books of Russian book market on the history of the Crimean (Eastern War, published in 2010-2016. The author studies the re-editions of classical works and sources on the history of the Crimean War (E.V. Tarle, L.N. Tolstoy, Kh.Ya. Gyubbenet, books by foreign authors published in Russian (W.H. Russell, J. Sweetman, P. Mercer, A. Trubetskoy and books by modern Russian researchers (P.M. Lyashuk, E. Kaydalova, L.V. Melnikova, Yu.A. Naumova, S.A. Pinchuk and S.V. Chennyk.

  20. Coastal circulation and water-column properties in the War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam: measurements and modeling of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity, April-August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Cheriton, Olivia M.; Lescinski, Jamie M.R.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) initiated an investigation in the National Park Service’s (NPS) War in the Pacific National Historical Park (WAPA) to provide baseline scientific information on coastal circulation and water-column properties along west-central Guam, focusing on WAPA’s Agat Unit, as it relates to the transport and settlement of coral larvae, fish, and other marine organisms. The oceanographic data and numerical circulation modeling results from this study demonstrate that circulation in Agat Bay was strongly driven by winds and waves at longer (>1 day) timescales and by the tides at shorter (Turbidity was relatively low in Agat Bay and was similar to levels measured elsewhere along west-central Guam. The numerical circulation modeling results provide insight into the potential paths of buoyant material released from a series of locations along west-central Guam under summer non-trade wind forcing conditions that characterize coral spawning events. This information may be useful in evaluating the potential zones of influence/impact resulting from transport by surface currents of material released from these select locations.

  1. Hui Musl ims’ National Identity and Cultural Consciousnesses duringAnti-Japanese War%抗日战争时期回族的国家意识与文化自觉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓霞

    2015-01-01

    国家意识提升与民族文化自觉是近现代以来回族发展的新气象,在抗日战争时期,回族更是以奋勇抗战、爱国爱教的实际行动体现出回族在近代民族国家条件下对民族与国家利益相一致关系的深刻认识。回族的民族文化自觉也将回族引向现代民族发展之路。%Chinese Hui Muslims had promoted national identity and ethnic cultural consciousness since modern China , which as a new phenomenon, had been embodied during the anti-Japanese war that Hui Muslims implemented their ideology of Love Nation and Love Islam into effect.Hui Muslims’ ethnic cultural consciousness helped themselves find a route to modern development .

  2. Changes in Power and the Maintaining of National Interests%权力转变与国家利益维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇华飞

    2008-01-01

    "权力"(power)与"国家利益"(national interests)是国际关系学界长期争论的问题.追求权力与国家利益目标是维系国家生存与未来发展的重要途径,国家利益由权力来界定,国家权力的大小,决定国家所能追求的国家利益的多少.权力的增强意味着国家能力的上升,国家的能力上升则代表着国家利益的增加.全球化时代国际政治中的权力要素正在发生深刻变化,哈佛大学政治学教授约瑟夫·奈(Joseph S. Nye Jr.)提出美国在构建世界秩序时应重视硬权力(strong power)、软权力(soft power)的相互作用.[1] 软权力指:文化影响力、榜样影响力、制度和价值观念影响力等,在国际政治中的作用显著上升.国际关系中如何运用软权力.正成为权力转变中如何维护国家利益的重要议题.今天有学者甚至关注起"粘性权力"(sticky power)的功能,[2]强调其具有硬权力和软权力的共有特性.在你中有我、我中有你的经济相互依存时代,发挥"粘性权力"的作用,是全球化时代维护国家利益的重要考量.

  3. Revivalist Nationalism since World War II: From “Wake up, America!” to “Make America Great Again”

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1980, evangelicals emerged as a key political constituency in American politics, helping to form the Religious Right and work for the election of Ronald Reagan and other conservative Republicans. This article argues that they embraced a distinctive type of revivalist nationalism, centered around the mass revival. Case studies of Billy Graham, Bill Bright, Jerry Falwell, and Ronald Reagan offer a narrative of postwar revivalist nationalism and demonstrate that evangelicals ren...

  4. THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND UKRAINE: HISTORY AND MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVSEEVA G. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Despite the attempts of historians to objectively present the events of the prehistory and history of the war, the opening of new archives and the desire to get rid of ideological stereotypes, are driving the need to once again explore the role of Ukraine in world war II to prevent its recurrence. On the other hand, the deep understanding of the history of the previous generations will provide an opportunity to properly understand the events of today. The analysis of the research. During the years of independence in the national historiography it was a new understanding of the conceptual foundations of the study of war. Over the past decade it was written a large number of scientific studies in which the main direction of new concepts there was an increased attention to the person, separate social groups and society as a whole in situations of conflict and crises. The article aims to analyze the role and place of Ukraine in the events of the Second world war; identify "Ukrainian dimension" of war and its implications for the modern generation, especially the youth. Conclusion. The effects of war for decades identified the complex and contradictory political, economic and social processes in Ukrainian society, affected the moral and psychological qualities of post-war generations. The memory of war – spiritual-historical heritage of our nation, which lays the foundations for self-sufficiency and identity and integrates it seamlessly into a civilizational flow. The modern level of researches of the events of world war II pays special attention to humanitarian problems of the war. For the youth of Ukraine it is important to join the European perception of the war as tragedy, to understand the responsibility for the memory of the past, because it's a chance for the future.

  5. The Department of Physics of National Northwest Union University in the period of Resistance war against Japan%抗战时期的国立西北联大物理学系概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白秀英; 姚远

    2012-01-01

    Research the Department of Physics of National Northwest Union University in the period of Resistance war against Japan, in order to provides clues and historical evidence of Chinese wartime Science and history of education. Methods The literature research method. Results During the Resistance War Against Japan, National Xi'an Temporary University's Department of Physics was renamed as the Department of Physics, National Northwest Union University after moving to Hanzhong, nine professors and 10 teachers opened more than 30 specialized compulsory and elective courses as well as cutting-edge physics courses such as Modern (generation) physics, Geophysics, Atomic physics. Quantum mechanics. Professors wrote more than 10 kinds of handouts such as Theoretical mechanics, Thermal, Optical, Atomic physics, held two the Eleventh and the Twelfth, held the study of the atomic bomb, commemorated the great scientists Newton and other scientific presentations, trained 85 graduates of physics in nine years. Conclusion The primary, preparatory, undergraduate physics education system has been set up in Department of Physics, Northwest Union University, which has also formed systematic construction of teachers, professional faculties of Physics, Associations,etc. Cutting-edge physics in Europe and America was introduced in Northwest of China, laid solid foundation for the post-war higher and elementary physics education in Northwest China.%目的 研究抗战时期的西北联大物理系,为科学教育史研究提供线索和历史佐证.方法 文献考证研究法.结果 抗战时期的西安临大物理系,南迁汉中后更名为国立西北联合大学物理系,9位教授10多名教师先后开设了30多门专业必修和选修课程以及近世(代)物理、地球物理、物性学、量子力学等物理学前沿课程,编写了理论力学、热学、光学、物性学等10多种讲义,召开了中国物理学会第十一、十二届年会西北区分会,开展了原子

  6. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  7. Myths of the Great War

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We review some "myths" of the Great War of 1914 to 1918: that the war broke out inadvertently, that the western front saw needless slaughter, that the Allies used the food weapon to strangle Germany, and that the peace treaty that ended the war caused the rise of Hitler and the still greater war that followed.\\ud

  8. Somatic hypotheses of war syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Vries, M. de; Bergen, L.F.J.M. van; Galama, J.M.D.; Keyser, A.J.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of the American Civil War, unexplained symptoms in military personnel arising after a war or peace mission have frequently been described. The pattern of symptoms is highly similar for all of the various war syndromes although the conditions of each war or peace mission are widely diff

  9. Yugoslav dissidents and the cold war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Mira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the cold war, Eastern Europe dissidents played a high-profile role as an instrument of anti-communist ideological subversion. In contrast, Yugoslav dissidents were relegated to a marginal status due to the extraordinary position of Yugoslavia between two opposing blocs. The expected explosive impact on the Soviet satellites of Yugoslavia's defection from the Soviet orbit in 1948, also turned Tito into an internationally famous dissident. After Tito turned his back on the Soviet Union, Yugoslav dissidents were practically of no interest to Western policy makers. They did not wish to antagonize Tito, because he was much more useful than a handful of dissidents who potentially could interfere with his role in the cold war game. The paper focuses on the functions of dissidents in the cold war rather than their self-image, their noble and sincere motives notwithstanding.

  10. United Airlines Secures First-Ever Nonstop Service between Washington, D.C.,and Beijing DOT cites national interest,capacity in awarding new U.S-China route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) on Jan. 10 awarded the new nonstop U.S.-China route to United Airlines, reinforcing that the route will provide the greatest public benefit and promote the national interest by connecting two of the world's most important capitals.

  11. Revivalist Nationalism since World War II: From “Wake up, America!” to “Make America Great Again”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hummel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Between 1945 and 1980, evangelicals emerged as a key political constituency in American politics, helping to form the Religious Right and work for the election of Ronald Reagan and other conservative Republicans. This article argues that they embraced a distinctive type of revivalist nationalism, centered around the mass revival. Case studies of Billy Graham, Bill Bright, Jerry Falwell, and Ronald Reagan offer a narrative of postwar revivalist nationalism and demonstrate that evangelicals renegotiated the relationship between personal salvation and national renewal during this period, facilitating their mass entry into partisan politics. Billy Graham presented in his early crusades an unsophisticated assumption that mass conversion would lead to national renewal. Later revivalists such as Bill Bright, founder of Campus Crusade for Christ, sought to reorient revivalism toward directed political organization, leading in the 1970s to decreasing emphasis on personal conversion and increasing focus on the political process. By the 1980 presidential election, the Religious Right had completely abandoned the priority of personal conversion and sought instead to revive the “principles” of a Christian America. Ronald Reagan embodied this principle-oriented revival, and helped crystalize a revivalist nationalism that remains embedded in contemporary evangelical politics.

  12. Final integrated trip report: site visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Pratt, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Limestone forests are the most diverse natural plant communities of Guam. Like other natural vegetation types, these forests have a long history of anthropogenic disturbances, being altered and shaped by humans for more than 4,000 years. Although this occupation represents a relatively long human influence in comparison to other Pacific islands, animals associated with humans, such as commensal rodents, arrived in these islands beginning only 1,000 years ago, and larger mammals, such as pigs (Sus scrofa), may not have arrived until European contact. Limestone forests, which also occur on several other Mariana Islands, developed in the presence of frequent tropical storms and are therefore well adapted to this type of natural disturbance regime. However, recent human activities including large scale clearing and conversion combined with the presence of high levels of alien herbivores and seed predators, and the loss of ecological services provided by the former native avifauna may be causing the decline of Guam's forests. Limestone forests on northern Guam, much like those of other Mariana Islands, were heavily cleared for the construction of military installations during World War II. The accidental introduction of the Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis; BTS) around this same period subsequently accelerated the disappearance of Guam's native avifauna and other endemic terrestrial vertebrates, and with them, seed dispersal, pollination, and the predatory regulation of herbivorous insects. Guam and the Mariana Islands contained a high proportion (32 pecent) of endemic bird species, with 4 forms endemic to Guam alone: the now extinct Guam Flycatcher (Myiagra freycineti), and Guam Bridled White-eye (Zosterops conspicillatpicillata), one of three island endemic subspecies from the Marianas; Guam rail (Rallus owstonii); and Guam Kingfisher (Todiramphus cinnamominus cinnamominus), an island endemic subspecies of the regionally endemic Micronesian Kingfisher. Guam once

  13. Conflicts in Africa and Major Powers: Proxy Wars, Zones of Influence or Provocative Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Rowlings Tafotie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the different nature of conflicts that have occurred in Africa since the end of Cold War. A special attention is given to the role of external factors in the process of conflict evolution and the escalation of violence on the African continent. In effect, this paper demonstrates through a critical examination of the meaning of proxy war as, zone of influence or provocation of instability as a strategy and an analysis of its employment by the United States and China, France etc. in Africa. The new potential confrontation between the United States and China as in Sudan, France in its former coloniesis not only based on a clash of world views about the structure and nature of international relations and security but largely over the control of strategically vital energy resources based in Africa. The authors conclude that this ultimately creates permanent tensions or bitter conflicts between the actors and African populations as a factor that have negative impact on the peace and stability of continent. According to the context of superpower conflict strategies, this paper critically examines, zone of influence, provoking of instability or proxy war as a viable national strategy of nuclear armed great powers in advancing and/or defending their global national interests in a bipolar/multipolar international system.

  14. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  15. War No Longer Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    understanding that industrial ability decides a war…”58 Russell Wrigley , in his famous book “The American Way of War,” argues that America...2003, 82, no.4, 41. 60 Colin S Gray, “The American Way of War: Critique and Implications,” Rethinking the Principles of War,” Anthony D. McIvor...12, 2012). 91 Anthony H. Cordesman, “The New US Defense Strategy and the Priorities and Changes in FY2013 Budget,” Center for Strategic and

  16. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  17. Krieg und Literatur War and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi N. Theis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt heißt der Band 19 der Schriften-Reihe des Erich-Maria-Remarque-Archivs, in dem es um Ingeborg Bachmann und die deutschsprachige Literatur 1945-1980 geht. Der Band enthält die Beiträge zu einem Symposion, das am 14.-15. Januar 2005 an der Universität Nottingham stattgefunden hat. Im Mittelpunkt stand die Frage, welche Strategien im Umgang mit Nationalsozialismus, Holocaust, zweitem Weltkrieg, Kaltem Krieg oder Vietnamkrieg und auch dem deutschen Kolonialismus bei Bachmann und anderen deutschsprachigen Autoren zu finden sind. Anlass zur Tagung war die in Wien und Salzburg konzipierte Ausstellung Schreiben gegen den Krieg: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973. In insgesamt dreizehn Beiträgen wird im vorliegenden Band die literarische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Gewalt und Krieg beleuchtet.Volume 19 of the series published by the Erich-Maria-Remarque Archive is entitled “Writing against War and Violence” (“Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt” and approaches Ingeborg Bachmann and German language literature from 1945 to 1980. The volume contains contributions based on a symposium that took place at the University of Nottingham on January 14-15, 2005. Central to the symposium was the question as to which strategies Bachmann and other German language authors utilized in their approach to National Socialism, the Holocaust, the Second World War, the Cold War, or the Vietnam War, as well as German colonialism. The impetus for the conference was the exhibition Writing Against the War: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973 conceived in Vienna and Salzburg. In the volume at hand, thirteen contributions in total illuminate literary confrontations with the themes of war and violence.

  18. 60 years of representation of the interests of coal in Europe; 60 Jahre Interessenvertretung der Kohle in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diercks, Thorsten [Vereinigung Rohstoffe und Bergbau e.V. (VRB), Berlin (Germany); Bogalla, Bernd [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany); Janssens, Leopold

    2011-06-15

    The European coal producers can look back on a long period of cooperation. Numerous discussions which not only dealt with the reconstruction of the European economy, but also with the coal shortage prevailing at the time in Western Europe, already took place at the League of Nations in Geneva after the First World War. The contribution describes stages in the establishment of representation of the interests of the coal mining industry in Europe in the last 60 years and gives an insight into future developments. It is based on the EURACOAL publication ''60 years of voicing coal interests in Europe''. (orig.)

  19. Between Mutuality and Diversity: The Project in Intergroup Education and the Discourse of National Unity in Post World War II America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author posits a dual argument. First, he contends that the post-WWII discourse of national unity pushed intolerance to the forefront of the domestic agenda linking its elimination with social cohesion while simultaneously advancing assimilationist and meritocratic beliefs about "the" American experience. Here, he…

  20. Images of war in the Srpska zora illustrated magazine (1876­1881)

    OpenAIRE

    Ženarju, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes images of war in the Srpska zora magazine, which was launched by a group of Serbs in Vienna. As the magazine for entertainment and lessons, it was being published from 1876 till 1881. Most of illustrations in the Srpska zora magazine (portraits, landscapes and images of war) were used for propaganda of Serbian national idea and imaging of national identity. The paper analyzes images of current war actions, very popular throughout Europe at that time - uprisings in Bosnia a...

  1. Nationalist Technologies of Cultural Memory and the Korean War: Militarism and Neo-Liberalism in "The Price of Freedom" and the War Memorial of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y. Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the technologies of nationalism that shape how the Korean War is depicted in two museum and memorial sites: The Price of Freedom: Americans at War, a permanent exhibit at the National Museum of American History in Washington, DC, and the War Memorial of Korea in Seoul. It shows how the use of traditional historical artifacts in The Price of Freedom and cinematic and digital technologies in the War Memorial generate structures of cultural memory that celebrate both a nationalist militarism and the ethos of neoliberalism.

  2. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  3. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the military contribution to terminate wars on the African strategic landscape is dependent upon a military leadership that is able to interface political ...... leadership. A further obstacle resides in the costs of adjusting military forces.

  4. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  5. How Wars Begin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Stevenson family was having dinner. The family atewithout talking for several minutes, then Tom said, "Daddy,do you know how wars begin? " Mr. Stevenson thought for a moment, then he said, "Yes,I think so.

  6. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  7. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    customs. War, they have also asserted, draws two related political dangers in its train. An ambitious President (or one of his successful generals ) might... general questions about war’s intluence upon the economy. political institutions, and society’s constituent groups. This book takes a preliminary step... millennial task. As a consequence. political theorists and statesmen re- placed clergymen as the leaders of American thought, and politics supplanted

  8. Preventing a Currency War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ On the global economic recovery's already unpredictable road, the latest threat comes from the possibility of a currency war. Although worries about the war have recently been alleviated,as G20 financial officials vowed to "refrain from competitive devaluation of currencies" at their meeting in Gyeongju, South Korea, on October 21-23, more than just words and promises are necessary to avert a currency showdown.

  9. THE TRANSFORMATION OF WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Mnyandu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available "A ghost is stalking the corridors of general staffs and defence departments all over the 'developed' world - the fear of military impotence, even irrelevance. ...As new forms of armed conflict multiply and spread, they will cause the lines between public and private, government and people, military and civilian to become as blurred as they were before 1648. ...One very important way in which men can attain joy, freedom, happiness is (through war." (Van Creveld, 1991: 1,226,227 These are the words that open and conclude this book whose stated objective is to provide a non-Clausewitzian perspective to 'modern' warfare (p ix. In the first two chapters, Van Creveld perceptively addresses the bankruptcy of nuclear weapons and strategy, the declining utility of conventional armed forces and the resurgence of low intensity conflict as well as the resounding political outcomes accrued through such conflicts. Acknowledging Karl von Clausewitz as an outstanding military theoretician, Van Creveld not only delineates the historical context in which Clausewitz's writings were most relevant, but goes on to evoke the works of Colmar von der Goltz (Das Volk in Waffen, 1883 and Erich Ludendorf (Der Totale Krieg, 1936 in order to clearly distinguish the concept of a trinitarian war in comparison to those of a total war and nontrinitarian war (p 35, 42, 45, 49. "Involving the surgical separation of the state, society and the military, the trinitarian war is compatible with the Clausewitzian prescription and primary notion of war as a continuation of politics" (p 63. While total war appears to be an extreme and perverted form of trinitarian war - it plays a vital role in as far as it nearly obliterated society, facilitated the rise of totalitarian governments and even precipitated the Second World War. This openened the flood gates for the resurgence of nontrinitarian conflict in which individuals and individual societies (not established armies acting on behalf

  10. 党性与乡土之间--抗战中后期减租减息运动中的山东农村基层党员%Between the Party Spirit and Provincialism---Shandong Rural Grass-root CPC Members in the Reduction of Rent and Interest Movement during the Middle and Late Period of the Anti-Japanese War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨发源

    2016-01-01

    抗战中后期,面对中共在抗日根据地开展的减租减息运动,农村不同阶级和个体根据时局变化和自身处境采取了相应的应对举措。具有中共党员与乡村社区居民双重身份的农村基层党员,既要履行党员义务和服从组织决议,又需考量身家利益并处理与亲友街坊间的关系。在运动中,他们一般扮演着三种角色:政党意志的执行者、乡村社区利益的维护者和身家利益的追逐者(捍卫者)。其中部分党员具有明确的角色定位和清晰的行为导向,部分党员则是各种角色兼而有之,部分党员所扮演的角色甚至变动不居。重塑农村社会秩序的减租减息运动引发了基层党员应具有的党性原则和农民固有的乡土原则之间的张力,纠结于党性和乡土之间的基层党员以不同的行为抉择来应对党组织在农村开展的减租减息运动。%Facing the Reduction of Rent and Interest Movement carried out by the Communist Party of China in the anti-Japanese base areas, different classes and individuals took corresponding measures according to changes of the political situation during the middle and late period of the Anti-Japanese War. The rural grass-roots Party members with dual identities of CPC membership and rural community residents should both fulfill the obligations of Party members and organizations and consider the relationship between self interest, relatives and neighbors. During the Movement, they usually played 3 roles, executors of the Party, maintainers of rural community interest and chasers or protectors of self-interest. Among them, some had defined clear role and behavior orientation, some had various roles and others were always changing. The Reduction of Rent and Interest Movement, which remodeled the rural social order, led to the tension between the Party spirit and farmer‘s intrinsic rural principles of the grass-root Party members, a tension between Party

  11. The effects of war on children in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertyn, R; Bickler, S W; van As, A B; Millar, A J W; Rode, H

    2003-06-01

    There is no doubt that the effects of war extend to the most vulnerable members of society, including children. Although armed conflicts occur throughout the world, the African continent seems to be a particular background for civil and international wars. The aim of this study was to identify causes of conflict in Africa and to evaluate the effect of war on children and their health in order to make practical recommendations to health care workers dealing with children in the setting of war. All articles written in the past 5 years concerning "war" and "children" were identified by means of a literature search and internet review. Contrary to common belief, the causes of conflict are complicated and multi-factorial. The effects of war on childhood are disastrous and include severe negative effects on general paediatric health status. Short-term recommendations for health care workers working with children in war include supply of emergency medical infrastructures, basic health care, rehabilitation and education. Long-term recommendations include orchestrating the relief and support efforts from both national governments and international non-profit organisations and speeding up of economic recovery. The causes of conflict in Africa are complex and unlikely to be resolved soon. The effects of war on children are horrendous in many ways, but can be limited by providing timely and appropriate health care.

  12. WAR TERMINATION IN SOMALIA AND KENYA DEFENSE FORCES’ (KDF ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S. ODHIAMBO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available War causes and conduct have fascinated war planners, war executors and scholars for a long time because little attention has been given to how wars are ended. This oversight is apparent not only in historical accounts of warfare but, more importantly, in contemporary analyses and doctrinal formulations of deterrence and overall defense policies. Just as historians have focused on how wars begin and are fought, military analysts and planners have concentrated on influencing the initiation and conduct of warfare rather than on analyzing the process and requirements for terminating warfare on acceptable terms and at acceptable costs. Conflict termination is the formal end of fighting, not the end of conflict. Despite the volumes of research and literature on the subject, belligerents mismanage war termination. The major objective of wartime strategy is defeating enemy arms as quickly as possible with the least cost in friendly casualties. As long as hostilities endure, diplomacy is subordinated to military requirements. War termination planning, as it is currently accomplished, takes the form of civil affair planning on the details of how the vanquished will be managed following the capitulation of the enemy and cessation of hostilities. We argue that Kenya Defence Forces (KDF prudently terminated its war with the terrorists group Al-Shabaab that merged with Al-Qaeda when they agreed to be integrated into the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM which is backed up by the United Nations.

  13. The Cause of Nowadays and the End of History? School History and the Centenary of the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The review of the National Curriculum and the centenary of the First World War have emphasised an orthodox patriotic and nostalgic historical ideal. The British coalition Conservative-Liberal government has aligned itself with the centenary commemorations of the First World War, while the war as social and political history may be in danger of…

  14. The Cause of Nowadays and the End of History? School History and the Centenary of the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The review of the National Curriculum and the centenary of the First World War have emphasised an orthodox patriotic and nostalgic historical ideal. The British coalition Conservative-Liberal government has aligned itself with the centenary commemorations of the First World War, while the war as social and political history may be in danger of…

  15. Syrian Civil War: Solving the Prisoner’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    from moving to their second most utilitarian position and war continues. Therefore, we must satisfy the veto players in order to achieve a negotiated...strategic interests. To get to a mutual hurting military stalemate both sides need to have a negotiated settlement as their second utilitarian value...Both sides must switch the negotiated settlement value from the third best option to the second option. Through the course of the war, the utilitarian

  16. Reading the Literature of War: A Global Perspective on Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    When the author came to the Hockaday School many years ago, a course on the literature of war was already in place. He must admit he did a bit of a double-take on seeing this in the course catalog. Hockaday is, after all, an all-girls school. Would teenage girls be so interested in war? He sees now what a prejudicial thought that was, assuming…

  17. National Waste Terminal Storage Program: management and technical program plan, FY 1976--FY 1978. [Information is obsolete and of historical interest only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-21

    The discussion on the management plan covers the program, responsibilities, general program schedule and logic, Office of Waste Isolation organization and facilities, management approach, administrative plan, and public affairs plan. The technical program plan includes geological studies, technical support studies, engineering studies, waste facility projects, environmental studies, system studies, data management, and international activities. The information contained in this report is obsolete and of historical interest only. (LK)

  18. 战争·革命·抒情传统--孙犁早期创作与抗战“民族形式”文学思潮%War, Revolution, Lyrical Tradition---on Sun Li's Early Works under the “National Form” Literary Trends of the Anti -Japanese War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕海

    2013-01-01

    Lyrical tradition , May-fourth enlightenment thoughts , the revolution culture , those three combined , constitutes the unique lyrical style of war romanticism of Sun Li's early works . Judging from the subject -matter and the expression method , Sun's early creation is really a timely and satisfactory response to the requirements the liberated areas asked the new literature to meet . But on closer examination , it is not difficult for us to find his inheritance of Chinese literature's lyrical tradition , his conscious pursuit of the “nationalization” , which does not conform to the “national form” established and advocated by the theorists in Yanan . And this is the real reason why Sun both fits into and alienates himself from mainstream culture of the revolution .%抒情传统、五四启蒙思想和革命文化结合在一起,构成了孙犁早期创作独特的战争浪漫主义抒情笔调。不论从题材、语言还是表现方法,孙犁早期小说都契合了解放区文学对于新文艺的需要,但实际上其对于中国文学“抒情传统”的继承,对“民族化”的自觉追求与延安理论界所倡导和建构的“民族形式”文学思潮要求并不一致,这也是孙犁与革命主流文化既契合又疏离的真正原因。

  19. Currency Wars: Myth and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Bartashuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the term "currency war", its meaning and the present situation in the world economy. It also contains research and analysis of HSBC's operations in different countries in the devaluation race grouping them according to the participation in currency wars. Along with the benefits of the devaluation of its own currency the actual disadvantages that may reveal afterwards have been identified. This article highlights the different versions of events put forward by the experts in the global economy and analysts. The authors mention the possible problems of ordinary citizens in case of their country's aggressive policy to reduce their national currency. The behavior of the Russian ruble was also discussed in detail according to which the recommendations were given to depositors of banks about their future action in the circumstances. Devaluation race in any case cannot be completed safely but it is possible to avoid excessive losses if the countries achieve international agreement by establishing a new currency regime.

  20. Los Alamos National Security, LLC Request for Interest (RFI) for Investment Mentors to participate in the Laboratory’s Entrepreneurial Postdoctoral Pilot.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clow, Shandra Deann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is committed to understanding how the role of venture funding, new investment mechanisms, and fostering the development of a culture of entrepreneurship may enhance the Laboratory and bring strength and creativity to its people. LANL, in partnership with the University of California (UC), has created the Entrepreneurial Postdoctoral Fellowship Pilot (Pilot) to provide an immersion-based learning opportunity to post-doctoral researchers to develop and practice skills in entrepreneurship and comercialization.

  1. NATOs Relevance to United States Enduring National Interests Time to Remove the Training Wheels but Continue to Hold the Handle Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    engaged in Europe. Recent actions by Vladimir Putin in Syria and Ukraine have alerted the alliance that Russia still retains the ability to threaten...Europe and confronting Russia diplomatically, there is an increased chance of successfully staring down Vladimir Putin . As Secretary of Defense Ashton...muscle,” and ftwther indicated that even though other elements of national power might be working to deter Russia currently, at some time Putin is going

  2. Orthoptera (Insecta: Tettigonioidea, Pyrgomorphoidea, Acridoidea) of Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Bale Mountains National Park and other areas of conservation interest in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Rob P W H; Massa, Bruno

    2016-11-09

    An annotated checklist of 51 Orthoptera taxa (Tettigonioidea, Pyrgomorphoidea and Acridoidea) of Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Bale Mountains National Park and some additional sites in Ethiopia is presented. Ten species are newly recorded for the country. Four species are new to science: Peropyrrhicia attilioi n. sp., P. keffensis n. sp., P. semiensis n. sp. and Coryphosima danieli n. sp. The status of Peropyrrhicia cooperi Uvarov, 1934 and P. scotti Uvarov, 1934 is revised: both are considered valid species.

  3. Civil War, Revolutionary Heritage, and the Chinese Garden

    OpenAIRE

    Tobie Meyer-Fong

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese garden now symbolizes timeless national, cultural, and aesthetic values. But as real property in the past, gardens inevitably were subject to the vicissitudes of their times. This article focuses on gardens and the Taiping Civil War (1851–1864). During the war, many gardens were reduced to tile shards and ash. Surviving gardens functioned as objects of longing and nostalgia, sites of refuge (physical and emotional), or a means to display status under the new regime. In the postwar...

  4. L’identité nationale canadienne au travers des affiches de propagande des Première et Seconde Guerres mondiales Canadian National Identity through the Prism of First and Second World War Propaganda Posters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jean Quellien; Andrew Ives

    2009-01-01

    ... the citizen’s sense of patriotic duty. In the case of Canada, the propaganda posters produced during the two world wars allow us to study the creation process for this common register of symbols...

  5. ICPD: in whose interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1994-06-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is set for September 1994. Arms control and control of military interests are as crucial as population control. The expenditure on the military and arms should go to social measures and true socioeconomic development. Women are leading the movement against war and towards peace. Women make up 70% of current refugees of ethnic conflicts. The conquest of free trade with little or no restriction and globalization trends forces developing countries to accept nonessential luxury items which tend to be irrational, hazardous consumer articles and technologies from industrialized countries. The privileged elite in developing countries and the industrialized countries overconsume, while the basic needs of the poor majority are not being met. The rich view the poor as a global threat and a threat for environmental degradation. They believe that free trade will solve all problems, yet it only marginalizes the poor and the vulnerable. The pattern of overconsumption is the threat. The poor are characterized as demons responsible for the population explosion. Women are angry that population control policies are attempts to control women's fertility. Specifically, most contraceptive technologies and most family planning programs target women. Male responsibility is ignored. Religious fundamentalists tell women not to become pregnant, not to use contraception, and not to seek abortion, yet they allow male sex behavior, e.g., sexual violence. This attitude leaves women vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS. Developing countries should be concerned about chapter III on Population, Environment, and Development in the ICPD text. Most countries, including India, have formed a consensus on this chapter. The Vatican and some Latin American countries have objections, however. The meeting in Cairo will likely continue to promote the view that the fertility of women in developing

  6. Science and technology in the global Cold War

    CERN Document Server

    Krige, John

    2014-01-01

    The Cold War period saw a dramatic expansion of state-funded science and technology research. Government and military patronage shaped Cold War technoscientific practices, imposing methods that were project oriented, team based, and subject to national-security restrictions. These changes affected not just the arms race and the space race but also research in agriculture, biomedicine, computer science, ecology, meteorology, and other fields. This volume examines science and technology in the context of the Cold War, considering whether the new institutions and institutional arrangements that emerged globally constrained technoscientific inquiry or offered greater opportunities for it. The contributors find that whatever the particular science, and whatever the political system in which that science was operating, the knowledge that was produced bore some relation to the goals of the nation-state. These goals varied from nation to nation; weapons research was emphasized in the United States and the Soviet Unio...

  7. The War against Women in Psychoanalytic Culture: Introduction to the Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lament, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The phrase "the war against women" refers to the overt an a stealth global prejudice against women that aims to subjugate them. Freud was not immune to this prejudice, as can be seen in those late-nineteenth-century Victorian views about sexuality that helped to shape his conceptualizations of gender. Despite the fact that many of these antediluvian views have been overturned, some continue to live on in the contemporary psychoanalytic scene. This introduction provides an overview of the contributions in this section, which explore how the war quietly or openly insinuates its way into our psychoanalytic culture. The offerings will undoubtedly appeal to the readership, whether one's interest concerning the war leans toward considering a contemporary recontextualization of foundational tenets within the psychoanalytic setting, which directly affect women; how it appears within the domain of the consulting room; third-wave feminism's reach into theory and practice; or forms of institutional and organizational prejudice on the local and national levels, including the field of child analysis.

  8. The books that inspired Sumantra Bose: “Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth touched a chord with both my national and personal background”

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Sumantra

    2012-01-01

    Sumantra Bose is Professor of International and Comparative Politics at the LSE with a specialty in ethnic and national conflicts. Here he discusses the book that inspired his early interest in politics and also about the contemporary works of fiction and non-fiction he most admires for capturing humanity amidst war.

  9. The Technological Culture of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on…

  10. Iowa and World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…

  11. The Great War: Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  12. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  13. The Great War: Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  14. The Great War. [Teaching Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Broadcasting Service, Washington, DC.

    This package of teaching materials is intended to accompany an eight-part film series entitled "The Great War" (i.e., World War I), produced for public television. The package consists of a "teacher's guide,""video segment index,""student resource" materials, and approximately 40 large photographs. The video series is not a war story of battles,…

  15. The Technological Culture of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on…

  16. A Trial Analysis on the Solution of Japan's Post-war Reparations to Southeast Asian Nations in the Middle and Late 1950s%试析20世纪50年代中后期日本与东南亚各国战后赔偿问题的解决

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛贵成

    2004-01-01

    After the war, the negotiation of Japan's war reparations to the Southeast Asian nations was procrastinated or even suspended for a long time. Then in the middle and late 1950s, the problem was solved through negotiation. Superficially,the main factor that owes to the solution to that issue is that Japan recovered and developed in its economy and had the economic power to compensate those countries. Yet there are several reasons behind it to promote that solution. One reason is that Japan urgently needed to occupy Southeast Asian market to further develop its own economy. The second reason is that the United States, aiming at containing socialist influence during the Cold War, secretly made great efforts to support Japan and the third one is the Southeast Asian nations faced many specific and practical problems, so they had to make some concessions. Therefore,under such historical conditions, the nature for the so called reparations has changed and the reparation has become a tool for Japan to expand its force in that region.

  17. 'War neurosis' during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Olga

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the incidence and treatment of war neurosis in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. First, the scientific papers published on war neurosis during and after the war are examined. Then the work of Gregorio Bermann (1894-1972), a member of the International Brigades who organized the frontline Neuropsychiatric Service at the Hospital de Chamartín de La Rosa (Madrid), is analysed. Las neurosis en la guerra, published in 1941, which recounts Bermann's personal experience in the care of war neurosis in Spain, is also discussed.

  18. The Central School Area : A cradle of Vietnamese higher education during the French-Vietnamese War of the 1950s

    OpenAIRE

    大塚, 豊

    2012-01-01

    During the anti-French war for independence that followed World War II, Vietnam avoided the hostilities by establishing the so-called "Central School Area" (Khu Hoc Xa Trung Uong) in the neighboring Chinese Guangxi Province, where it carried out staff training for the war of independence and nation-building during the postwar period. These Vietnamese schools established in China were generally called "Yucai Schools". Meanwhile China, in spite of the national crisis posed by the Korean War, wh...

  19. [Psychiatry and the Great War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fras, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    During the World War I, the high rate of psychiatric casualties was differently tackled according to the nations: the Central Powers carried an authoritarian approach with prevailing physical treatment methods whereas the Allies' attitude reflected their democratic background. Particularly French psychiatry demonstrated a real willingness and ability to respond to the clinical realities. The conceptual problem of what DSM IV now classified as acute stress disorder was resolved so successfully that this disorder deserves the eponym "Viovenel's Syndrome". American Military Psychiatry followed the French methods of precise diagnosis and expeditious treatment close to the front and amplified them by creating effective treatment methods : brief psychotherapy methods and group psychotherapy within a therapeutic environment. Franco-American psychiatry thereby created the foundation for modern community psychiatry.

  20. Compensating for cold war cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, Mark J

    2002-07-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, thousands of workers involved in nuclear weapons production are still living with the adverse health effects of working with radioactive materials, beryllium, and silica. After a series of court battles, the U.S. government passed the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Act in October 2000 to financially assist workers whose health has been compromised by these occupational exposures. Now work is underway to set out guidelines for determining which workers will be compensated. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has been assigned the task of developing a model that can scientifically make these determinations, a heavy task considering the controversies that lie in estimating low-level radiation risks and the inadequate worker exposure records kept at many of the plants.

  1. Interest in couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing in a national U.S. sample of gay and bisexual men: the role of demographic and HIV risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Breslow, Aaron S; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Main partnerships represent one context in which HIV transmission may occur that has been insufficiently addressed to date for gay and bisexual men, but few studies have focused on the acceptability of couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) for male couples in the U.S. Our aim in this study was to explore the acceptability of CVCT among a national U.S. sample of 1,532 gay and bisexual men surveyed online using a sexual networking site. We examined the role of demographic (i.e., geographic region, age, relationship status, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity) and HIV risk (i.e., substance use, number of sexual partners, unprotected anal intercourse, sexual role identity, and sexual compulsivity) factors that may be associated with CVCT among the full sample and among partnered men separately. We found that single men expressed higher interest in CVCT than partnered men and that greater age was more strongly associated with lower interest in CVCT for partnered men than for single men. The intersection of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity was also significantly associated with CVCT interest, with a higher proportion of Black bisexual men being interested than White bisexual men. These findings suggest that the uptake of CVCT may be less impacted by HIV risk factors than by demographic factors and that young gay and bisexual men of color-for whom rates of HIV continue to rise-may be the group with the highest levels of interest in CVCT.

  2. New York City Schools March Off to War: The Nature and Extent of Participation of the City Schools in the Great War, April 1917 to April 1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Stephan F.

    In April 1917, the United States went to war, and the public schools across the nation initiated programs that encouraged patriotism, supported war policies, and promoted the assimilation of immigrants. In New York City in 1917-18, the Board of Education: (1) called for the unqualified allegiance of school principals and teachers to the U.S.…

  3. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...... sig over hele verden. Nationalisme er blevet global....

  4. Preach Americanism! The Education of Immigrants during the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Stephan F.

    For the United States, fighting World War I involved not only preparing young citizens to fight the enemy abroad, but rooting out alien enemies at home. The national consensus, believed vital to success, presupposed a common set of values, shared behaviors, and a high degree of identification with the nation. The more homogeneous the population,…

  5. Nurses across borders: displaced Russian and Soviet nurses after World War I and World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history.

  6. Motivational Factors of Travel to War Places in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysam Musai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iran and Iraq war is not only the longest conventional war in 20th century, but also it is one of the most destructive wars of the world after World War II. During this long and unequal battle, brave defendants of the homeland with their unique braveries threw the violating enemy from Iran soil and created eternal epics. These eternal epics occurred with martyrdom and sacrifice of thousand children of this land and thousand soldiers were martyred in pure soil of the battle fronts. For this reason, appreciating and zealous people of Iran in years after holy defense founded tradition of visiting war zones and foothold of the soldiers and defenders of the land and this proper tradition was formed as caravans called Rahian Noor and hundred persons came to see war zones individually and collectively. What is important is that different factors caused to motivate the persons to travel to these zones and recognition of these factors can increase travel to these zones. This research has been done with use of semi-structured interview method. On the basis of results of this research, sacredness of the war places in Iran, values of Iranian culture, interest in seeing the left monuments and identity dependency caused to travel to battle fields in Iran.

  7. Farewell to „eternal peace“? New wars and their moral and legal challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborowski Holger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay first discusses modern wars and the idea of „eternal peace“ as developed in modernity. It shows how in the 20th century the reality of war (as well as the concept of peace was already transformed due to the development of new technologies such as the nuclear bomb. Now, peace was replaced by a „cold war“. The essay then goes on to introduce the concept of post-national wars (as opposed to modern national wars. It argues that this concept fails fully to describe contemporary warfare. What is needed is a deeper analysis that considers most recent technological developments such as the world wide web or drone technology and the way these technologies paradigmatically change the concept and reality of war (and of peace, too. The essay concludes by arguing that the moral and legal challenges of this kind of war deserve more attention than they are getting in the current discussion.

  8. The Ongoing Korean War at the Sinch’ŏn Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghoon Han

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the Sinch’ŏn Massacre and its memorialization at the Sinch’ŏn Museum of American War Atrocities in North Korea by placing the massacre within the context of North Korea’s political history. The museum illustrates Pyongyang’s perspective on the Korean War as a “war of liberation” and the museum’s role in the political education of the North Korean people, not simply as victims of American war atrocities but as “martyrs” and model citizens. Within the geopolitics of confrontation between North Korea and the United States since the Korean War, the Sinch’ŏn Museum has served to foster anti-American nationalism in North Korea. While the museum has served this specific purpose within the North Korean context, it should be compared with other examples of war memorialization that serve the function of identity formation for a sense of national unity.

  9. 32 CFR 701.34 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public interest. 701.34 Section 701.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.34 Public interest. The interest...

  10. Electric power pricing and the National interest. Testimony of Douglas C. Bauer before the Public Service Commission of New York. Case No. 26806

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, D.C.

    1975-08-11

    The key to a national goal of energy independence is balanced and efficient growth of the electric utility industry. Energy objectives of the Federal Energy Administration (FEA) for 1985 are: (1) higher efficiency of generator fuels to increase capacity factor from 49% to 62% and load factor from 57% to 69%; (2) accelerated development of coal and nuclear generation from the present 50% to 69% of kWh output; (3) oil used in electric power generation reduced by 1 million barrels; (4) end use fuel switching from oil and natural gas to coal and nuclear energy to increase electric consumption efficiency 10%; and (5) reformed rate structures to peak load/time of day pricing. Aggressive load management and other conservation programs should improve utility financial situations and still allow a 5% sales growth while saving $48 billion in plant expansion capital. FEA will be involved in demonstration projects during the transition period. (DCK)

  11. Politics and Defense Capabilities: Local Interests versus Strategic Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    mission assigned to US Northern Command (USNORTHCOM). Contrary to what Representative Jordan swears , and according to the experts respon- sible for the...submarine, making it a byproduct of the Cold War. It was much quieter and could obtain higher speeds than the Los Angeles-class submarine it was to re...was in an accelerating downward spiral, and the Cold War was winding down. The dramatic and unexpected Soviet collapse demanded a national re

  12. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts. ...

  13. Castles at War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...

  14. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  15. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  16. The War Against Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  17. Cities of War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAOTIANBI; LUOYUANJUN

    2005-01-01

    Shanghai of the 1930s had particular appeal for Japan, being a large international metropolis in its immediate vicinity. After World War I, Japan concentrated all its China trade, shipping and manufacturing in Shanghai, and by 1930, 30,000 of the 50,000 foreigners living in Shanghai were Japanese.

  18. Cold War Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  19. Airpower in Modern War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    uncommitted elements of enemy armed forces, key agricultural areas, and other such target systems.7 By the late Cold War, AirLand Battle had come to dominate...perhaps even inexpensive drones because fighter or bomber aircraft are just too complex and expensive to operate. With these imprecise terror

  20. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  1. The War Against Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  2. 抗战初期国立北平图书馆的经费问题%The Funding Challenge for the National Library of Peking during the Early Period of Anti-Japanese War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋慧

    2016-01-01

    The National Library of Peking encountered tremendous challenges on funding,due to the different judg-ments on the political situation made by the vice chief librarian Yuan Tongli and the American director of the China Foundation for the Promotion of Education and Culture ( CFPEC) which co-hosted the library from 1929 with the Ministry of Education,when it was transferring to the southwest of China during the early period of Anti-Japanese War. At the same time,the central department in Peking also suffered the funding crisis for downsizing. Yuan Tongli tried his best to work out a solution to solve the crisis through various channels. The crisis went through after all and the Kunming Branch of National Library of Peking was built soon afterwards which represented the headquarter of the Library to continue to work.%抗战初期,国立北平图书馆面临严重的经费方面的挑战。“七七事变”后,平馆部分人员与业务向西南迁移。因平馆主持人袁同礼与中基会美方董事对时局有不同的判断,二者在是否南迁的问题上产生歧见,导致南迁人员面临经费停顿的挑战。与此同时,平馆本部也因业务缩减而面临经费紧缩的问题。经费是此次冲突中亟需解决的关键问题。袁同礼为之多方设法,最终化解了此次危机。经此波折,平馆的财务中心、行政中心顺利转移到昆明办事处,战乱中平馆的事业基础得以保存。

  3. 战争,创伤与人类之爱--一个民族的命运之作%The War,Trauma and Human Love:a Work of Fate of a Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓华

    2015-01-01

    长篇小说《远东来信》讲述了一个发生于国际化背景中的故事:出于所有民族共有的善良天性,二战时期的中国人曾于苦难深重之时救助过众多的雷奥。由于复杂的因缘际会,这段历史未被充分敞开和估价。小说作者为此进行了若干艺术探索,以展示中国人精神的升华:从苦难深重的二战时期到当代,无数的潘进堂和谢东泓超越了民族本位的立场,升华为具有普遍人类意识的人。这是一部立旨深远的寓言———它叙述了战争时代的跨民族救援,展示了一种厚重的人类之爱,但又设置了无法轻易破译的寓言密码。通过解读该书的深层寓意,我们发现了一个民族的“命运之作”。%The Letter f rom the Far East happened in the context of international background during World War II when Chinese people rescued numerous Jews totally out of their well‐intentioned nature . However ,this history is not sufficiently propagated and valuated .Thus ,the author of the novel carried out a number of artistic explorations to demonstrate the Chinese people's moral sublimation beyond the egotis‐tic nationalism to the universal human consciousness from the characters of Pan Jintang and Xie Donghong . Regarded as a profound fable ,it not only described the cross‐ethnic rescue full of human love ,but also crea‐ted many fable words that cannot easily be deciphered .Therefore ,the novel might be considered as a work of fate of a nation through the deeper interpretations of its connotation .

  4. Analysis of the 35th Division’s Application of Operational Art During World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Analysis of the 35th Division’s Application of Operational Art During World War I A Monograph by MAJ Cameron C...Candidate: MAJ Cameron C. Lenahan Monograph Title: Analysis of the 35th Division’s Application of Operational Art During World War I Approved by...35th Division’s Application of Operational Art During World War I, by MAJ Cameron C. Lenahan, US Army, 42 pages. How did Army National Guard Divisions

  5. LESSONS FROM THE BOER WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. De Jong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Jay Stone and Erwin A. Schmidl, The Boer War and Military reforms, Volume 28 of the series "War and Society of East Central Europe", University Press of America, Lanham: New York - London, 1988, 345 pp. Numerous studies exist of the lessons to be learnt from the Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902 by students of 20th Century Warfare. These studies date back from the days of that war up to the present. In many cases these studies are titled "Lessons from the Boer War". In the book under review Jay Stone examines the War's impact on Britain and Erwin Schmidl its effect in Austria-Hungary. I shall confine this review to Stone's findings. According to him Britain entered the war full of self-confidence in the hope of terminating the conflict within a few weeks, but was totally unprepared. The reason was that the last war she waged against a European power was as long ago as 1855-56. That was the Crimean War against Russia. Thereafter she had fought only local, colonial wars against badly drilled, little disciplined and primitively armed non-European armies. Some of these used to attack in large hordes and were shot or ridden down en masse. This had happened recently at Omdurman in 1898 where Kitchener defeated the Sudanese. The British ultimately were victorious in all the colonial wars.

  6. When a Diplomat goes into politics because of war. The case of João Chagas (1910-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alves de Fraga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the case of a Portuguese diplomat, João Chagas, who, during the First Republic, and by resorting to the conditions available to him as representative of his country, surpassed the mere negotiating role attributed to diplomacy to conduct national politics, succeeding in changing the international statute of Portugal in the Great War. The article describes the internal and external situation of Portugal in political, geopolitical and geostrategic terms, the conflict between Portuguese and British interests, the activity of Portuguese diplomats in London, Berlin and Paris, and, finally, the work of João Chagas.

  7. Message framing in the context of the national menu-labelling policy: a comparison of public health and private industry interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Colgrove, James; Lee, Grace; Truong, Michelle; Wingood, Gina M

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a content analysis of public comments to understand the key framing approaches used by private industry v. public health sector, with the goal of informing future public health messaging, framing and advocacy in the context of policy making. Comments to the proposed menu-labelling policy were extracted from Regulations.gov and analysed. A framing matrix was used to organize and code key devices and themes. Documents were analysed using content analysis with Dedoose software. Recent national nutrition-labelling regulations in the USA provide a timely opportunity to understand message framing in relation to obesity prevention and policy. We examined a total of ninety-seven documents submitted on behalf of organizations (private industry, n 64; public health, n 33). Public health focused on positive health consequences of the policy, used a social justice frame and supported its arguments with academic data. Industry was more critical of the policy; it used a market justice frame that emphasized minimal regulation, depicted its members as small, family-run businesses, and illustrated points with humanizing examples. Public health framing should counter and consider engaging directly with non-health-related arguments made by industry. Public health should include more powerful framing devices to convey their messages, including metaphors and humanizing examples.

  8. The Rhetoric of War - Former Yugoslavia Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Kisicek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Disintegration of Yugoslavia resulted with war involving Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia. Although war ended in 1995 there are still unsolved issues concerning the cause, responsibility and quilt for more than 2 million refuges (both in Croatia and Bosnia and more than 200 000 dead. This paper aims to determine characteristics of rhetoric in political discourse preceding the war. Speeches analyzed were delivered in the period of 1989 until 1992. We analyzed 20 speeches of dominant political figures from Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia (Franjo Tuđman, Slobodan Milošević, Radovan Karadžić, Vojislav Šešelj and Alija Izetbegović aiming to find argumentation strategies in their speeches (especially usage of topoi considering national questions, system of value, and other rhetorical characteristics and dimensions of persuasion which could show certain similarities and differences between the leaders of three nations. Analysis of argumentation was based on several argumentation handbooks (Weston 1992, Rieke and Sillars 2001, Walton 2004, Tindale 2007. We believed that political leaders will have different argumentation strategies and different system of value since they represented different nations (with different historical background and cultural heritage and different religions. Results of analysis show however that there are many similarities in argumentation strategies and frequent usage of fallacies (argumetum ad populum, red herring, argumentum ad baculum, hasty generalizations etc. between analyzed speakers. The main goal of this paper and contribution to the rhetoric of citizenship is determining means of persuasion using analytical tools from rhetoric in order to describe what might be called The Rhetoric of War.

  9. On the U.S. Post-Cold War Non-proliferation Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Zikui

    2014-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the importance of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction(WMD) has been enhanced constantly in the U.S. national security strategy and on the agenda of the U.S. foreign policy, and non-proliferation gradually has becomes one of its most important policy objectives. As the sole superpower, the U.S. non-proliferation policy has not only influenced and changed the international non-proliferation regime dramatically, but also greatly affected the non-proliferation effect of the international community. To prevent WMD proliferation, the United States has to abandon the practice of selective non-proliferation, group politics, prejudice on different ideologies and social systems, and maintenance of the U.S. hegemony. While pursuing its and allies interests, it must also attach great importance to other countries interests.

  10. Stephen Graham Ed., Cities, War, and Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.V. Savitch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities, War, and Terrorism, edited by Stephen Graham is a compendium of essays on the intersection of urbanity and violent conflict.  In an era where urban areas have become prime targets for political and religious violence this volume is both relevant and timely. It is also heavily ideological and unforgivably one sided. The volume is premised on the existence of a conspiracy by “neo imperial” nations (led by the United States to destroy and subjugate under-developed nations.  The “evidenc...

  11. The South African Border War (1966 - 1989) a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The South African Border War – or the Bush War - was a quite remarkable conflict that took place in the border region between South-West-Africa (Namibia), Angola and the Republic of South Africa between 1966 and 1989 which makes it one of the longest conflicts on the African continent. The conflict...... is not well known because the events took place during the Cold War where the involved actors de facto acted as proxies in the overall ideological struggle between East and West. The conflict covered most of the South African region. The seed to the conflict originated from the colonial past, where most...... African countries were colonized and governed by European nations and white minorities. Following the end of World War II, African states gradually gained independence from their former colonial rulers often through a violent liberation struggle aimed against the colonial authorities but also against...

  12. The First World War and Dutch Scientific Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friso Hoeneveld

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The centennial has revived attention for the First World War. Because of the Netherlands’ neutral position, the influence of the horrendous war in this nation has long been qualified as marginal. In the last two decades, this perspective has gradually changed and several studies were published on developments in the Netherlands in 1914–1918. In these studies the Great War has either been understood as a watershed moment in Dutch history or, adversely, as a continuation of previous times. In this special issue, we present five case-studies of the influence of the First World War on various scientific cultures in the Netherlands. These studies indicate that this interaction transcends the dichotomous image of either continuity or discontinuity.

  13. Migrant workers: victims of war in Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Persian Gulf War forced millions of migrant workers in the region to return home, causing hardship not only on the workers but also on their home countries. Prior to the war, the region's oil wealth had attracted migrants from around the world. By 1990, some 3 million resided in Iraq and Kuwait alone. Many more worked in other Gulf countries. But only 2 months after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, over 2 million workers had fled the region or had been returned home. Yemenis and Egyptians alone accounted for 750,000 and 1/2 million workers, respectively. There were also an estimated 600,000 Asians. Although many of the migrants were unskilled laborers, many also were skilled laborers and professionals. Jordanians and Palestinians made up much of the Kuwaiti civil service. As the war unfolded, it became clear that the migrant workers lacked any of the legal rights and protection granted to other citizens. Many workers were not allowed to return home because of their importance to the economy. Others, like some 35,000 Sri Lankan housemaids in Kuwait, were stranded in the war zone, lacking the money and means to return home. In most cases, the workers also suffered from frozen bank accounts, unpaid wages and benefits, and property loss. Their return home also created problems for their countries. Jordan's population increased by 10% in 1990 due to the returning population. Yemen's unemployment increased from 10% to 25%. As a result of the Gulf war experience, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families, which must now be ratified by 20 nations before implementation begins.

  14. Star Wars in a nuclear world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuckerman, L.

    1987-01-01

    Lord Zuckerman is a world authority on the rivalries and politics of the nuclear age. Few scientists distinguished in their own right have had as much experience as he has of both the national and international corridors of power. During World War Two he was Strategic Planning Adviser to Air Marshal Tedder and General Eisenhower. From 1960 to 1971 he was Chief Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Defence and to the British Government as a whole. He is an unrelenting critic of the Star Wars programme introduced by President Reagan in 1983. He writes, ''Had anyone other than the American President ever invited scientists to try to render 'nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete' the suggestion would probably have attracted no more attention than had they been asked to square the circle or solve the problem of perpetual motion. But it happened to be the President, and he spelled out his vision of a future over which the nuclear bomb no longer casts a shadow in such homely terms that it all sounded real. How could the message fail to appeal.'' Lord Zuckerman is critical not only of Star Wars but also of the futility of the nuclear arms race. ''The arms-race has absorbed enormous resources. The nuclear arsenals of East and West have continued to grow. But, paradoxically, national security seems to have lessened everywhere.

  15. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  16. Engineering Science Education and the Indian Institutes of Technology: Reframing the Context of the "Cold War and Science" (1950-1970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a revival of research interest in the Cold War, and on science during the Cold War, from a revised social theoretic perspective. Part of this reframing is evident in explorations of the relationship underpinning the Cold War discourse and modernisation theory. Drawing on this new turn, this article switches the…

  17. Degeneration and the origins of Mexico's war on drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, the concept of “degeneration” helped to turn “drugs” into a problem of national importance in Mexico. By invoking this concept, Mexico's sanitary authorities secured provisions in the Constitution of 1917 which specifically authorized a newly constituted Department of Public Sanitation to lead a nation-wide campaign against drug abuse. That Department then inaugurated Mexico's modern war on drugs when, in 1920, it declared a law governing the import and distribution of the opiates, cocaine, and marijuana nationwide. This essay examines the idea of degeneration and how it came to play this crucial role in the foundation of Mexico's modern war on drugs.

  18. Health Effects of Sexual Violence against Woman as a War Weapon: Case of Bosnia War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Gogen;

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Health effects and human rights dimensions of sexual violence against women, a public health and human rights problem, evaluated by the case of Bosnia War. METHODS: Bosnia War, United Nations resolutions, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY cases, activities of NGOs, approaches of WHO, Dayton Peace Agreement, current health programs were evaluated with the health effects and human rights dimensions of sexual violence against women. RESULTS: Sexual violence against women and systematic rapes were used as an “ethnic cleaning” tool and war weapon during Bosnia War, estimated 20.000-60.000 women and girls were raped systematically, captivated in rape camps, exposed to sexual violence. Medical care following the sexual violence against women and rape should include; Determination and teatment of injuries, forensic notice and documentation, preventive and curative services for Sexually Transmitted Diseases including HIV/AIDS, emergency contraceptive services, safe medical abortus, follow up of pregnancies, psychosocial support and services and training of health care professionals. Mental Health Reform became a priority health topic for Bosnia Herzegovina aftermath of the Bosnia War. Taking measures to prevent social stigmatism of the victims, economic support and implementation of rehabilitation programs, punishment of the perpetrators to repair social and community bonds are important. ICTY investigates and punishes the crimes of rapes and sexual violence against women. CONCLUSION: UN defines the violence against women and rapes during wars as “crime against humanity”. Besides improving the status of women, comprehensive approaches with the cooperation of medical, legal and social organisations are needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 119-126

  19. Yugoslav Historiography and the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjeran PAVLAKOVI?

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a national historiographic tradition relatively unknown in Spain. It differs from the mainstream tradition in former Soviet bloc countries. The author first discusses the number of Yugoslav volunteers in Spain (among whom Tito was never present and explains to Spanish readers the meaning of the Spanish Civil War with regard to the construction of a new Yugoslav identity, in the wake of Tito’s victory after the second world war and the break with Stalin. Veterans of the Spanish conflict held high positions in Tito’s Yugoslavia and contributed to maintaining the memory and meaning of their commitment. The article ends with a reference to the grotesque exploitation of several myths by both left and right-wing forces in those States resulting from the disintegration of former Yugoslavia.

  20. The Cold War is Over. What Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, S. S.

    1995-04-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  1. The Cold War is over. What now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, S.S.

    1995-05-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  2. "Miniature Cold War?"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fu: Relations between America and Russia are one of the most important bilateral ties that could affect the trend of world situation.What's the matter with U. S. -Russia ties? What's wrong with their bilateral relations? People tend to ask these days. Some observers on both sides suggest that post 9/11 honeymoon has turned sour when joint effort against challenges from nontraditional security issues failed to remove original bilateral contradictions over traditional security concerns.Japanese Jiji News Agency saw "a miniature Cold War" evolving and the British Guardian even bluntly pronounced "a new Cold War" on January 3, asserting that disintegration of the former Soviet Union did not terminate bilateral contention, which has only been performed on an international stage more complicated than ever before, with covert scheming against each other replacing overt, direct confrontation. How about starting our discussion with those comments?

  3. [Medical interests in gymnastics and athletics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, H

    2001-01-01

    Since time immemorial authors have noticed the usefulness of physical activity. In the 18th century C von Linné was a spokesman for bodily exercise, and in the beginning of the 19th century P. H . Ling shaped the Swedish gymnastics and founded the Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet in 1813. He aimed at harmonious bodies according to the models of the classic antiquity. Many physicians, I. and F. Holmgren saw the value of the gymnastics. Completing the Ling gymnastics, there was a growing interest in physical performance, i.e., athletics. Above all, the contributions of the officer V. Balck, culminating at the olympic games in Stockholm 1912, made athletics a national movement. Since 1913 it receives an annual economic support from the state. Some physicians feared from overexertion in athletics but they appreciated physical performance. However, they demanded that you should be wholly full-grown prior to great exortions. An important part of the Ling program was remedial gymnastics which was more and more estimated after P. Haglund had asserted its value. T. Sjöstrand's studies became a good basis for evaluating the effect of physical training in both healthy and sick persons. It was not until the 1950s that the first studies, later confirmed, gave holds for the view that physical training was good for public health. But the average life span does not seem to be influenced by physical activities. Now and then training had earlier been used as therapy for disparate sorts of diseases but most rationally for disturbed functions of the locomotor system. Training became an important part of medical rehabilitation only after the second world war. Gymnastics and athletics at school have always had a solid support by physicians. The subject has nowadays so few hours that it cannot result in safe training habits for the future.

  4. Providing for the Casualties of War: The American Experience Through World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Freud sug- gested that this may be an inherent trait, that “conflicts of interest between man and man are resolved, in principle, by the recourse to...violence” (Einstein and Freud , 1931– 1932). Although people have not been able to overcome their essential proclivity to make war on one another over... Freud and the advent of psychoanalysis captured the popular imagination,33 but the vast majority of the 2,295 members of the American Psychiatric

  5. For soldier and state: dual loyalty and World War One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.

  6. Mexican-American War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    which were exchanged at Lima on the 31st of October, 1846. The Attorney -General of the United States early in August last completed the... Bolivia , Guatemala, and Ecuador. The manifest importance of cultivating the most friendly relations with all the independent States upon this continent...shall be considered as annulling or suspending the solemn covenant contained in this article. On the contrary, the state of war is precisely that for

  7. Edit wars in Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Sumi, Róbert; Rung, András; Kornai, András; Kertész, János

    2011-01-01

    We present a new, efficient method for automatically detecting severe conflicts `edit wars' in Wikipedia and evaluate this method on six different language WPs. We discuss how the number of edits, reverts, the length of discussions, the burstiness of edits and reverts deviate in such pages from those following the general workflow, and argue that earlier work has significantly over-estimated the contentiousness of the Wikipedia editing process.

  8. Military Adaptation in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    the Germans believed they had won the war. General Alfred Jodl, the OKW’s (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, the Armed Forces High Command) chief of staff...was soon in the hands of Britain’s political and military leaders: “OPERATION ADLER [EAGLE]. Within a short period you will wipe out the British air...in Airpower and Warfare, Proceedings of the Eighth Military History Symposium, ed. by Colonel Alfred F. Hurley and Major Robert C. Ehrhart

  9. Suicide among War Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Vsevolod Rozanov; Vladimir Carli

    2012-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to ex...

  10. [From memories about war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, B A

    2010-04-01

    The article presents publication of memories of a military physician Spivak B.A., finished the First Kiev medical institute in 1941. The author held rank: from August 1941--chief of sanitary service of a separated battalion, April 1942-June 1945--chief of operation-bandaging unit of 246 SMSB SD. After war served in military treatment institutes on ranks of surgical profile, finished the military service in the rank of chief of surgical unit of Kovel garrison hospital in 1964.

  11. Firepower in Limited War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    utmost nerve and skill for pilots to weave their planes between mountain peaks as they tried to fly under the weather. 86 The French had hoped to lessen...the open k The Second mndochina War 73 meadow that came to be known as LZ Albany. Artillerymen only a short distance away listened to the frenzied ...principally tanks. Firing cannon and rockets as close as 10 to 20 meters from friendlies takes great skill and nerve , and to be used effectively and

  12. Book review: The books that inspired Sumantra Bose:\\ud “Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth touched a\\ud chord with both my national and personal\\ud background”

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Sumantra

    2012-01-01

    Sumantra Bose is Professor of International and Comparative Politics at the LSE\\ud with a specialty in ethnic and national conflicts. Here he discusses the book that\\ud inspired his early interest in politics and also about the contemporary works of fiction\\ud and non-fiction he most admires for capturing humanity amidst war.

  13. Preserving the Memories of World War II: An Intergenerational Interview Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percoco, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the National World War II Memorial was established in 2007 to serve, in part, as an organization devoted to educating young people and visitors to the memorial in an effort to ensure that the lessons, legacy, and sacrifices of World War II not be forgotten. After 32 years of teaching history at West Springfield High School in…

  14. Managing Dissent in the Catholic Church: A Reinterpretation of the Pastoral Letter on War and Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Reexamines the American National Conference of Catholic Bishops' 1983 Pastoral Letter on War and Peace. Finds that the pastoral letter functioned rhetorically not to foster but to manage dissent, diffusing a radical Catholic challenge to American defense policy and reclaiming the bishops' authority to define Church teachings on war and peace. (SR)

  15. Memory, Conflict and New Media: Web Wars in Post-Socialist States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Rutten; J. Fedor; V. Zvereva

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the online memory wars in post-Soviet states - where political conflicts take the shape of heated debates about the recent past, and especially World War II and Soviet socialism. To this day, former socialist states face the challenge of constructing national identities, producing

  16. Civil-Military Relations in the French Fourth Republic during the First Indochina War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    the war. The PCF hardened their anti-war rhetoric. The SFIO maintained their somewhat confusing position by remaining committed to a negotiated...New York, NY: Frederick A. Praeger, 1969. Dommen, Arthur J. The Indochinese Experience of the French and Americans: Nationalism and Communism in

  17. European Wars, Civil Conflicts, and National Projects. The Neapolitan Restorations (1799-1866 Revisited | Guerras europeas, conflictos civiles, proyectos nacionales. Una interpretación de las restauraciones napolitanas (1799-1866

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Examining counter-revolution through its greater achievements, that is, the four winning restorations, and also their disastrous fall, that is, the defeated restoration, may contribute to enrich traditional perspectives on the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies’ resistance and the crisis. European conflicts, civil wars, state constructions and modern national identity shaping are phenomena which intertwine the complicated history of the Neapolitan Kingdom. It is from the perspective of the dynastic (1799 and 1815 and absolutist restorations (1821, that we may insert in a general interpretative scheme the controversy between internal conflict and international crisis, their relationship with the shaping of ideas and nationalist affiliation and, finally, their comparison with the counter-revolution in the Bourbon world. The paradigm represented by this conflict allows for a contrast with the wider French and Spanish-American Bourbon world. We may thus consider both the success of Neapolitan legitimism and its collapse in 1860, as well as the reasons for its recent recovery in the Italian collective awareness. | La elección de examinar la contrarrevolución a través de sus mayores éxitos, las cuatro restauraciones victoriosas, y su derrota, la restauración fallida, puede enriquecer las perspectivas tradicionales sobre la resistencia y la crisis del Reino de las dos Sicilias. Los conflictos europeos, las guerras civiles, las construcciones estatales y la creación de identidades nacionales modernas son fenómenos que se entrecruzan con la complicada historia del reino napolitano. A través de la perspectiva de las restauraciones, bien dinásticas (1799 y 1815, o bien absolutistas (1821 y 1849, podemos insertar en un esquema interpretativo general la dialéctica entre conflicto interno y crisis internacionales, la interrelación con la formación de las ideas y adscripciones nacionalistas y la comparación con la contrarrevolución en el mundo borb

  18. Gender and war during the late Ottoman and early republican periods:

    OpenAIRE

    Kutluata, Zeynep

    2006-01-01

    The complex relation between gender and war assumes various shapes depending on time and context. Focusing on this relation highlights not only women’s positioning against the army but also opens paths to see the wider structures and discourses on nationalism, militarism, citizenship, and gender. In this thesis, Black Fatma(s) of 1806, of the Crimean War, of the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-1878 and of the War of Independence are examined to analyze the construction of discourse of women warri...

  19. The International Space of the Danish Testing Community in the Post-war Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    International forums and organizations, as well as non-governmental organizations, have played a considerable role in societal developments since the end of World War II. Many changes in post-war Danish public schools like standardized educational testing were formed in dialogue with or initiated...... in such forums or organizations. This contribution explores the importance of these connections by focussing on the period from 1945 to around 1990, i.e., from the end of World War II when Danish education was characterized by a high degree of national unity as a contrast to the strife of the inter-war years...

  20. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...... the link between the Vietnam War, the Afghanistan War, the Iraq War, and the background for the financial crisis that began in 2008....

  1. 8 CFR 329.5 - Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring to naturalize...

  2. The justice of preventive war

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Henry Alan

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In response to the 9/11 attacks and continuing threats of mass-casualty terrorism, the United States has adopted a new security strategy that emphasizes anticipatory actions including preventive war. Prevention, undertaken in the absence of an act of aggression or an imminent threat, is prohibited by modern conceptions of just war and international law. Many critics of the strategy fear that any legitimization of preventive war would e...

  3. Images of the Second World War in Austrian Literature after 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Müller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines selected examples of post-1945 Austrian literature, asking what pictures of the Second World War they imparted and what role they played when, certainly from 1948 on, a certain image of history began to take shape in Austria against the background of the Cold War. This image involved a fade-out in particular of the racist nature of the war, and it had a collectively exonerating and distorting impact. Attention is paid to the stories and novels of former participants in the war and National Socialists, such as, for example, Erich Landgrebe, Erich Kern, Hans Gustl Kernmayr, Kurt Ziesel. A contrast is seen in the anti-war novel, Letzte Ausfahrt (Last Exit (1952 by the former soldier Herbert Zand, who turns against the dominant image of history, as well as in Ingeborg Bachmann's use of war memories as a topic. The texts are read as a reservoir of selective memory: on the one hand they are critical, individual counter-memories and on the other hand, they make a positive contribution to the formation of the aforesaid collective image. One may say that a war of perception was fought around the Second World War; it was undoubtedly won in the immediate post-war years by those literary works that legitimized or at least trivialized the war. The critical voices of Herbert Zand, Gerhard Fritsch, and Ingeborg Bachmann were unfortunately the quieter ones and were not particularly successful in their time.

  4. War and first onset of suicidality: the role of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E G; Salamoun, M M; Mneimneh, Z N; Fayyad, J A; Karam, A N; Hajjar, R; Dimassi, H; Nock, M K; Kessler, R C

    2012-10-01

    Suicide rates increase following periods of war; however, the mechanism through which this occurs is not known. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the associations of war exposure, mental disorders, and subsequent suicidal behavior. A national sample of Lebanese adults was administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to collect data on lifetime prevalence and age of onset of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt, and mental disorders, in addition to information about exposure to stressors associated with the 1975-1989 Lebanon war. The onset of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt was associated with female gender, younger age, post-war period, major depression, impulse-control disorders, and social phobia. The effect of post-war period on each type of suicide outcome was largely explained by the post-war onset of mental disorders. Finally, the conjunction of having a prior impulse-control disorder and either being a civilian in a terror region or witnessing war-related stressors was associated with especially high risk of suicide attempt. The association of war with increased risk of suicidality appears to be partially explained by the emergence of mental disorders in the context of war. Exposure to war may exacerbate disinhibition among those who have prior impulse-control disorders, thus magnifying the association of mental disorders with suicidality.

  5. More a plowshare than a sword: the legacy of US Cold War agricultural diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. In particular, it chronicles the historic shift in US foreign policy away from "give-away" food aid and surplus sales and toward the championing of global agricultural redevelopment under such programs as the Marshall Plan and PL 480, the Food for Peace program. As more a plowshare than a sword, the American Cold War push for worldwide agricultural modernization led many countries to experience new levels of food self-efficiency and export capabilities. Along with production parity, however, has come escalating levels of trade competition and national protectionism, which challenges again the achievement of world agricultural stability and prosperity.

  6. Vascular Surgery in World War II: The Shift to Repairing Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M

    2016-03-01

    Vascular surgery in World War II has long been defined by DeBakey and Simeone's classic 1946 article describing arterial repair as exceedingly rare. They argued ligation was and should be the standard surgical response to arterial trauma in war. We returned to and analyzed the original records of World War II military medical units housed in the National Archives and other repositories in addition to consulting published accounts to determine the American practice of vascular surgery in World War II. This research demonstrates a clear shift from ligation to arterial repair occurring among American military surgeons in the last 6 months of the war in the European Theater of Operations. These conclusions not only highlight the role of war as a catalyst for surgical change but also point to the dangers of inaccurate history in stymieing such advances.

  7. Unified Land Operations in World War I and the Anglo-Irish War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    with the First World War when Irish leadership decided to conduct a violent uprising with the intent of creating a separate Republic.8 Literature ...through the arts and literature with the intent to fan the flame of nationalism for those who remained in Ireland. This movement served as the active...the Great Separation in the Liberal Party in 1886: The Dimensions of Parliamentary Liberalism," Victorian Studies (1983): 161. 55 Smith, "Bluff

  8. In Search of the Good War: Just War and Realpolitik in Our Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    mines and cluster munitions. ● International efforts under the auspices of the United Nations to promote stability and keep the peace, including...possible. Shoring up the global economy has become the primary focus of major economic powers. War is an expensive, destructive luxury few can afford...act in this fashion again for many years to come. Terrorist organizations, particularly Al Qaeda, have been significantly weakened and driven into

  9. World War, Then and Now: World War III in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    is, how it is being waged, what effect it is having on long-term national defense strategy and force structure planning, and the GWOT requirements for...they rule by violence and intimidation. And, third, they chose to mask their intentions with lies based on anything that their followers will...strong leader, and an emphasis on elimina- tion of diversity and of civil and human rights and the rule of law. Fascism views political violence , war

  10. America's post-war immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterson, R F

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on immigration policy in the US after World War II and assesses the present situation. US immigration and refugee policy has undergone significant change since World War II. The McCarran-Walter Act of 1952, which instituted a system of proportional quotas based on national origins, was discarded in 1965 following years of criticism that it discriminated against nonwhites. Third World immigrants, especially from Asia and the Americas, have benefited from the immigration laws. However, the problems resulting from unrestricted and undifferentiated immigration are now becoming apparent, even to liberal critics of previous national origins policies. During the 1970s, there was a 61% increase in the number of Mexican nationals in the US and Mexicans currently comprise over 20% of the population in 40 Congressional districts in 8 states. 83.3% of legal immigrants, and all illegal immigrants, are of non-European descent--a fact that may retard their assimilation and intensify ethnic tensions. There is a danger that the concept of national borders may become superfluous. The theoreticval liberalism of the 1950s and 1960s is, in the 1970s, being confronted with the reality of large numbers of immigrants unable and unwilling to be absorbed into a previously European-dominated country. It is concluded that the enforced application of the concept of equality in matters of immigration has not been the panacea that its liberal proponents envisioned.

  11. Into the open – or hidden away? – The construction of war children as a social category in post-war Norway and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Simonsen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available After World War II two groups of children fathered by foreign soldiers were assigned special political functions in the building of a future peaceful Europe. In Norway, the children of German soldiers and Norwegian women and in West Germany, the children of African-American soldiers and German women were constructed as specific categories to be handled in certain ways by state authorities. The Norwegian government, after heated debates, decided that the children were allowed to stay and to be silently and discreetly assimilated into society. In West Germany however, the children begotten to African-Americans came to serve as objects in a national public campaign for international recognition as a democratic state. The two cases demonstrate how social politics for children may serve political purposes, rather than being in the interest of the child.

  12. La dislocazione della war guilt: il tribunale dell'autocondanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Gennaro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article has been the analysis of a few novels written right after the Second World War and during the following decade; novels that bring the stain of the short-circuit between what is legally judged and what the indomitable conscience imputes to itself. In these works, rather than objective guilt – as Freud and many others intended it – we can find subjective guilt. This guilt is almost ancestral, inalienable to the human being, and, in those historical contingencies, increased by much more. In fact, the war and postwar literature had to reckon with a new historical situation: the collective psychosis of the Bomb fear, but also, more deeply, of the war guilt, felt both individually and collectively. Survivor guilt and postwar guilt are variants of the same feeling that became universal under the push of what had been existential in the previous century.In particular, attention has been paid to an English novel of the ’40, Malcolm Lowry’s Under the Volcano (1947, and to a German one, Der Tod in Rom (Death in Rome, 1954 by Wolfgang Koeppen, a novel written in one of the nations that had probably been the most touched by the postwar guilt.One of the most interesting aspects emerging in this research is the paradox that this short-circuit creates in the texts: those who feels ‘guilty’ are frequently without any retraceable fault, and, on the contrary, those who are guilty before the eyes of the collective tribunal do not bring any sense of guilt. Through a ‘middle-distance reading’ of the works, it has been tried to demonstrate how international law, in certain moments more than in others, does not have any authority on the dramatic power of the narrative judgement. Here literature is to deconstruct the judiciary power, in disproving it, criticising it, and deriding it explicitly or implicitly, playing with the roles of judge and criminal – who is, in most cases, self-condemned.

  13. Assault Helicopter Contingency Operations: The Fine Line Between Peace and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-25

    Between Peace and War: Comprehending Low Intensity Conflict, National Security Program Discussion Paper Series 88-02 (Harvard, MA: National Security...Intensity Conflict, National Security Program Discussion Paper Series 88-02 Harvard, MA: National Seurity Fellows 1986-87. Holt, Jimmie F. "Low

  14. Commemorating the future in post-war Chernivtsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunchak, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the Second World War and the post-war period, the city of Chernivtsi was transformed from a multiethnic and borderland urban microcosm into a culturally uniform Soviet socialist city. As the Soviets finally took power in this onetime capital of a Hapsburg province in 1944, they not only sponsored further large-scale population transfers but also "repopulated" its history, creating a new urban myth of cultural uniformity. This article examines the connection between war commemoration in Chernivtsi in the era of post-war, state-sponsored anti-Semitism and the formation of collective memory and identities of the city's post-war population. The images of homogeneously Ukrainian Chernivtsi and Bukovina were created through the art of monumental propaganda, promoting public remembrance of certain events and personalities while making sure that others were doomed to oblivion. Selective commemoration of the wartime events was an important tool of drawing the borders of Ukrainian national identity, making it exclusivist and ethnic-based. Through an investigation of the origins of the post-war collective memory in the region, this article addresses the problem of perceived discontinuity between all things Soviet and post-Soviet in Ukraine. It demonstrates that it is, on the contrary, the continuity between Soviet and post-Soviet eras that defines today's dominant culture and state ideology in Ukraine and particularly in its borderlands.

  15. AS ONE OF THE SOURCES OF TURKISH LITERATURE AFTER TANZĐMAT PERIOD WARS 1: CRIMEAN WAR (1853- 1856 /

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ömer ÇAKIR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean War began in 1853 between the OttomanEmpire and Russia. Casus beli was the fact that theOttoman Empire did not accept the demands of Russia interms of holy places and protection of Christians. After awhile Russians destroyed Ottoman fleet largely with asudden raid in Sinop. When Constantinople becamedefenseless, England and French that did not this city tobe invaded by Russia due to their own interests alliedwith the Ottoman Empire in this war. The war betweenthe allied powers and Russia continued till 1856, in theend, Russian were defeated. The foreign soldiers comingto Constantinople during the war affected social andcultural life of the city. Therefore, for the first time aEuropean person type came out. Besides, Crimean Warfound reflection in the literature of that age and became atheme for the novels to be written in later days. Becauseof all this, one of the events source of Turkish Literatureafter Tanzimat Period is Crimean War. In our article, thereflections of the war were analyzed.

  16. The Martial "Virtue" of Rhetoric in Machiavelli's "Art of War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that Machiavelli's inherent interest in pragmatic, "virtuous" applications of humanistic arts mandated both rhetorical form and matter in his composition of the "Art of War." Proposes that the work reveals Machiavelli's debt to the classically humane ideal of the warrior-orator. (JMF)

  17. ISRAELI DETERRENCE AND THE 2ND LEBANON WAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    stabilization of the border. Deterrence is all about changing the enemy’s calculus , increasing costs while preventing benefits from considerable...Israel. Hezbollah involvement in the fighting in Syria and Syrian interests Syria did not recognize the French division after World War II . Old Syrian

  18. The Martial "Virtue" of Rhetoric in Machiavelli's "Art of War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that Machiavelli's inherent interest in pragmatic, "virtuous" applications of humanistic arts mandated both rhetorical form and matter in his composition of the "Art of War." Proposes that the work reveals Machiavelli's debt to the classically humane ideal of the warrior-orator. (JMF)

  19. From old wars to new wars and global terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, N; Restrepo, J; Bohorquez, J; Suárez, N; Restrepo, E; Zarama, R

    2005-01-01

    Even before 9/11 there were claims that the nature of war had changed fundamentally. The 9/11 attacks created an urgent need to understand contemporary wars and their relationship to older conventional and terrorist wars, both of which exhibit remarkable regularities. The frequency-intensity distribution of fatalities in "old wars", 1816-1980, is a power-law with exponent 1.80. Global terrorist attacks, 1968-present, also follow a power-law with exponent 1.71 for G7 countries and 2.5 for non-G7 countries. Here we analyze two ongoing, high-profile wars on opposite sides of the globe - Colombia and Iraq. Our analysis uses our own unique dataset for killings and injuries in Colombia, plus publicly available data for civilians killed in Iraq. We show strong evidence for power-law behavior within each war. Despite substantial differences in contexts and data coverage, the power-law coefficients for both wars are tending toward 2.5, which is a value characteristic of non-G7 terrorism as opposed to old wars. We prop...

  20. Building Bridges: Deference and National Interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Dansk, norsk og svensk tv-udsendelser om Sovjetblokken og sovjetisk politik. Der var i udsendelser fra alle tre stationer hensyntagen til sovjetiske interesser og synspunkter, men i højere grad i svenske udsendelser end i danske og norske.......Dansk, norsk og svensk tv-udsendelser om Sovjetblokken og sovjetisk politik. Der var i udsendelser fra alle tre stationer hensyntagen til sovjetiske interesser og synspunkter, men i højere grad i svenske udsendelser end i danske og norske....

  1. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  2. Japan’s National Interests in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Japan’s maximized industrial capacity with China’s potential input to the supply chain and as a consumer market was suddenly the most important dynamic of...competitive prices in the mainland, the increased availability of mainland goods at cheaper prices will generally be beneficial to Taiwanese consumers . In...unapologetic Japan that can say no to China, and to the U.S. as well. This is generally an ethnocentric camp that extolls the unique cultural characteristics

  3. THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN NATIONAL INTEREST AND IDEALISM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raymond

    influenced Sweden's weapons exports, the study on which this article reports, aimed ... conducted between September 2012 and May 2016 as well secondary literature ...... 31 Swedish Member of Parliament, personal interview, March 2015.

  4. Strategic Communication in Pursuit of National Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    address this catastrophic disaster. Even among residents on Okinawa, where an anti-U.S. forces sentiment is usually strong, there were signs that... empathy for U.S. Marines was emerging.64 In addition, partially due to the U.S. contribution during the disaster, the government of Japan approved a...items out of masses of debris matched to the U.S. mission to assist Japan and to alleviate pain and suffering. As exemplified by this Marine Corps

  5. 接受留学与日本“国益”--近代日本的中国留学生接受政策%Reception of Returned Students and"National Interest"of Japan---the Policy of Chinese Students in Modern Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志民

    2016-01-01

    甲午战后,日本政府逐渐建立了一套针对中国留日公费生、自费生、推荐生、特约生的接受体系,以相对宽松的接受政策吸纳中国留学生,企图以此改善中国人的对日感情,辅助对华外交,扩大在华权益。国民政府成立后,不断提高留日门槛,多次交涉修改这一接受体系,但日本政府固守清末接受中国留学生的“特别入学规程”。即使中日战争期间日本政府对各伪政权的留日学生“分而受之”,如在伪满洲国建立留学认可制度和学席制度,在伪蒙疆政权倾向于招收蒙古族学生和青年喇嘛等,对原有接受政策有所变通,但培养留日学生“日中亲善”感情和服务于日本侵华扩张政策的目的始终未变。这种违背留学教育客观规律的接受政策,自然随着日本战败投降而烟消云散。%After the Sino-Japanese War,the Japanese Government gradually established a set of special receiving system for the public Chinese students in Japan,self-financed students,and recommended students.The Japanese Government a-dopted the policy of relatively liberal to absorb Chinese students,attempted to improve the Chinese people's feelings of the Japanese,to assist China's diplomacy and expand its interests in China.The National Government continued to improve the threshold of studying in Japan and repeated representations to modify the system,but the Japanese Government stuck to Chinese students'special entry procedures of late Qing Dynasty.Even during the Sino-Japanese War,the Japanese Gov-ernment adopted different receiving policies to the Japanese puppet regimes,for example,the establishment of the system of studying and academic accreditation system in the Puppet Manchuria.In Puppet Mengkukuo,the Japanese Government tended to recruit Mongolian students and youth Lama,etc.It was flexible to the original acceptance policy,but the funda-mental purpose remains unchanged,the Japanese

  6. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...... the different genres address different parts of our cognition and emotion....

  7. The Interest Rate Is Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, G. Robert

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the developmental stages of students' reading interests and maintains that the teacher has to discuss the student's life and values "through the intermediary of literature" in order to encourage him to continue to read; paper presented at annual convention of National Council of Teachers of English (59th, Washington, D.C., November 28,…

  8. Politics, Identity, Territory. The "Strength" and "Value" of Nation-State, the Weakness of Regional Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Nevola, Gaspare

    2011-01-01

    The post Cold War age reveals itself as being characterized mostly by the flourishing of “identity politics”. Identitary issues affect the public dimension of collective life and they often develop into economic, legal, political terms. There are many types of collective identity. We would clarify some of them in order to focus the analytical tools that are necessary to face the phenomena we are interested with: national and regional identities. Crucial in our argument are the concept of “pol...

  9. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  10. Mexican and Central-American Contributions to the Study of the Civil War: Two Historical Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de HOYOS PUENTE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the historiography about the Spanish Civil War from Mexico and Central America. The result is quite different from the point of view of the interest raised by the Spanish conflict. This is can be explained by the different levels of involvement of the Mexican and Central American authorities in the war. However, the importance of the Republican exile in Mexico and its relative insignificance in Central America is also a contributing factor. The present day interest in the civil war is still based on that involvement and not of the evolution of the conflict.

  11. [Physicians as Experts of the Integration of war invalids of WWI and WWII].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christine

    2015-12-01

    After the First World War the large number of war invalids posed a medical as well as a socio-political problem. This needed to be addressed, at least to some extent, through healthcare providers (Versorgungsbehörden) and reintegration into the labour market. Due to the demilitarization of Germany, this task was taken on by the civil administration, which was dissolved during the time of National Socialism. In 1950, the Federal Republic of Germany enacted the Federal War Victims Relief Act (Bundesversorgungsgesetz), which created a privileged group of civil and military war invalids, whereas other disabled people and victims of national socialist persecution were initially excluded. This article examines the continuities and discontinuities of the institutions following the First World War. A particular focus lies on the groups of doctors which structured this field. How did doctors become experts and what was their expertise?

  12. Soviet Style in War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    dominant position over the Donas... cutting off all the enemy’s escape routes out of the Donbas ." For the "victorious repoM that had been coming in...avoid battle in the Donbas and reach the western bank of the Dnepr as soon as possible. .... Vatutin, in command of the Southwestern Front... believed...Izdat Donbas , 1971. Erickson, 3., The Road to Stalingrad. Stalin’s War with Germany. Vol. 1, New York- Harper and Row, 1975. Eresthausen, A. V

  13. LEGO STAR WARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    去年有一款游戏以惊人的销量。让人们印象深刻,它就是《乐高星球大战》,经过一番传言过后,LucasArts终于发表了《乐高星球大战》的续作《乐高星球大战2:首部曲》(Lego Star Wars Ⅱ:The Original Trilog),而且登陆的平台还包括了任天堂的DS和GBA主机。

  14. Revisiting and Renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Anri Sala’s film 1395 Days Without Red (2011) provides a kind of reenactment of an accidental day during the 1992-95 siege of Sarajevo. Shot in today’s Sarajevo, the film revisits and embodies some of the widely circulated images of the siege, such as inhabitants sprinting across so-called Sniper...... Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...

  15. Exception in Cold War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the Cold War, India mainly focused its Southeast Asia Strategy on preserving the regional peace and stability, fearing that changes in Southeast Asia would impact India. Generally speaking, India would like to see a relatively strong, stable and independent Southeast Asia, which would guarantee the stability of its east wing. However, fettered by its limited power, its non-alignment policy and its special relation with Soviet Union, India's policy toward Southeast Asia remained relatively passive and its relation with Southeast Asia was, to some extent, trapped in a historical "intermission."

  16. German War Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    director be freed from some rules, though not in assessing the effects of fire .51 He was not ready to make a complete break with the rigid style of...small game was conducted to test the effect of the fire of units, down to the smallest it was possible to evaluate. The forces were limited to four to...Darstellung von Gefechtsbildern mit Berück- sichtigung der Wirkung der jetzt gebräuch- lichen Waffen [Introduction to the Use of War Game Apparatus

  17. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  18. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  19. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  20. Western Interventions in Current Wars: Political Justification and Civil Society´s Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noelia Bueno Gómez

    2017-01-01

    .... This article examines this apparent contradiction: it describes briefly the international context of contemporary conflicts and it refers to the just-war tradition in order to analyze both the position of the Charter of the United Nations...