WorldWideScience

Sample records for war legacy waste

  1. A Waste of a Desert: Nevada and the Cold War Chemical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the lead from Don DeLillo’s epic novel Underworld (1997 – with its overarching theme of “waste” functioning as its unifying metaphor and its picture of the American deserts turned into hazardous waste dumps or missile depots – this essay provides a close reading of the empty spaces of the Nevada desert, spaces that bear the mark left by the nuclear exploitation and the hazardous waste which have plagued Nevada since the Fifties. By linking the history of Nevada to the Cold War, and to the chemical legacy of those years, with its notions of “containment” and “weather control”, Scarpino argues that they be read as interwoven threads of the same discourse.

  2. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  3. Architectural Framework for Addressing Legacy Waste from the Cold War - 13611

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Gregory A.; Glazner, Christopher G.; Steckley, Sam [The MITRE Corporation, 7515 Colshire Drive, McLean, VA 22102 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present an architectural framework for the use of a hybrid simulation model of enterprise-wide operations used to develop system-level insight into the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) environmental cleanup of legacy nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site. We use this framework for quickly exploring policy and architectural options, analyzing plans, addressing management challenges and developing mitigation strategies for DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM). The socio-technical complexity of EM's mission compels the use of a qualitative approach to complement a more a quantitative discrete event modeling effort. We use this model-based analysis to pinpoint pressure and leverage points and develop a shared conceptual understanding of the problem space and platform for communication among stakeholders across the enterprise in a timely manner. This approach affords the opportunity to discuss problems using a unified conceptual perspective and is also general enough that it applies to a broad range of capital investment/production operations problems. (authors)

  4. Architectural Framework for Addressing Legacy Waste from the Cold War - 13611

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Gregory A.; Glazner, Christopher G.; Steckley, Sam

    2013-01-01

    We present an architectural framework for the use of a hybrid simulation model of enterprise-wide operations used to develop system-level insight into the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) environmental cleanup of legacy nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site. We use this framework for quickly exploring policy and architectural options, analyzing plans, addressing management challenges and developing mitigation strategies for DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM). The socio-technical complexity of EM's mission compels the use of a qualitative approach to complement a more a quantitative discrete event modeling effort. We use this model-based analysis to pinpoint pressure and leverage points and develop a shared conceptual understanding of the problem space and platform for communication among stakeholders across the enterprise in a timely manner. This approach affords the opportunity to discuss problems using a unified conceptual perspective and is also general enough that it applies to a broad range of capital investment/production operations problems. (authors)

  5. A radiological legacy. Radioactive residues of the Cold War period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    A dominating feature of the historical period known as the Cold War was the large-scale production and testing, of nuclear weapons. These military activities brought with them an unprecedented generation of radioactive substances. A fraction of these 'Cold War residues' ended up in the atmosphere and were dispersed throughout the world. Some remained in relatively isolated states in underground geological environments at the production or test site. Others have contaminated areas at times accessible to humans. Augmenting this picture are other scenes of a Cold War legacy. Large amounts of radioactive waste and byproducts are in storage from the production of weapons material. At some point, they are expected to be converted to peaceful applications or sent for final disposal. Over the past decade, the IAEA has been asked to play a greater role in helping countries address this Cold War legacy. A number of scientific assessments of radiological situations created by the Cold War have been carried out by experts convened by the IAEA - at nuclear test sites, nuclear production facilities, and waste dumping sites. This edition of the IAEA Bulletin highlights these cooperative activities in the context of international developments and concerns

  6. Legacy of Cold War still plagues Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, L. [Socio-Ecological Union`s Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    Seventy years of communist rule and a half-century of nuclear-arms development have left Russia the world`s most polluted country, reports Lydia Popova, director of the Center for Nuclear Ecology and Energy Policy in Moscow. {open_quotes}Russia`s communist government invested enormous sums of money in the military but paid scant attention to environmental protection,{close_quotes} Popova writes. Most of Russia`s radioactive pollution has resulted from poor reprocessing technology, inadequate waste management, nuclear testing, and accidents in the nuclear-power sector. Though the end of the Cold War has been accompanied by disarmament programs, Popova insists that these initiatives will create an additional burden on the environment of the former Soviet Union in the form of nuclear waste products.

  7. Introduction: Untold Legacies of the First World War in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Alison S; Meyer, Jessica

    2015-05-01

    The current centenary of the First World War provides an unrivalled opportunity to uncover some of the social legacies of the war. The four articles which make up this special issue each examine a different facet of the war's impact on British society to explore an as yet untold story. The subjects investigated include logistics, the history of science, the social history of medicine and resistance to war. This article introduces the four which follow, locating them in the wider historiographic debates around the interface between warfare and societies engaged in war.

  8. Requalification of Legacy Radioactive Waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandt, Gabriele; Hoffmann, Paulina; Spicher, Gottfried; Filss, Martin; Schauer, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: • Large stocks of legacy radioactive waste exist, which do not comply with the requirements of the Konrad repository. • Requalification campaigns with thousands of waste packages have successfully been carried out. • Quality assurance plans contain all necessary steps of specific (requalification) campaigns and optimize the procedures for each campaign in advance. • When sophisticated measurement equipment was needed an iterative procedure was adopted. Repeated evaluations of the nondestructive res. destructive measurements limited the measures to the necessary limit.

  9. The legacy of the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellini, M.

    1998-01-01

    More than fifty-two years have elapsed since the atomic bomb-was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Over this period, the United States and the Soviet Union have engaged in a constant nuclear arms-race, in an effort to build a growing number of warheads and launching systems of increasingly higher destructive power, reflecting the logic of the balance of terror and the threat of mutually assured destruction. The years of the Cold War have, in fact, been dominated by the incredibly rapid growth of nuclear arsenals. The end of the Cold War, which was marked by the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, coincided with the beginning of the process of nuclear disarmament and a diversion of funds from the industrial military complex. Nevertheless, 45 years of development and sophistication in nuclear armaments can't be immediately wiped off, for many reasons, the most evident of which being that the nuclear materials that forms the heart of atomic weapons, more precisely known as weapon-grade materials, can't be simply eliminated, as will be explained later in this text. Their dismantlement requires special technical means, which are not yet available to all nuclear powers. There are also other reasons why nuclear disarmament is such a complex and uneven process

  10. Great War legacies in Serbian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojković-Đurić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Great War, Ivo Andrić published a number of poems, essays and short stories describing the hard-won victorious outcome as transient to the dire reality of the inordinate loss of human lives and suffering. Yet, personal experiences, although perceived as ephemeral, helped to define the historical discourse capturing man’s resolve to persist in his chosen mission. Over time, Serbian literature and fine arts sustained an unfinished dialogue of the past and the present, merging the individual voices with the collective voices to construct the national narrative. The young writer Miloš Crnjanski observed the sights of destruction and despair that seemed to pale in new literary works pertaining to the war. His novel A Diary about Čarnojević was closely related to his own perilous wartime journey as a conscript in the Austrian army. The vastness of Pannonian plains and Galician woods must have invoked a comparison of sorts with another historic chapter recorded in the collective consciousness of his nation: the Great Migration of Serbs led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević (Crnojević in 1690. The very title of the novel contained a powerful reference to the migration, and its illustrious historic leader which has not been discussed or explored before.

  11. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S. A.; Nitschke, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other e nd states); risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities; comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs; ranking of programs or activities by risk; ranking of wastes/materials by risk; evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress; and integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time

  12. 327 legacy waste processing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The B and W Hanford Company's (BWHC) 327 Facility [Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL)] houses 10 hot cells in which a variety of postirradiation examinations have been performed since its construction in the mid 1950s. Over the years, the waste that was generated in these cells has been collected in one gallon buckets. These buckets are essentially one gallon cylindrical cans made of thin wall stainless steel with welded bottoms and slip fit lids. They contain assorted compactable waste (i.e., Wipe-Alls, Q-tips, towels, etc.) as well as non-compactable waste (i.e., small tools, pieces of metal tubing, etc.). There is a FY-98 BWHC Performance Agreement (PA) milestone in place to package 200 of these buckets in drums and ship them from the 327 facility to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) by September 30, 1998

  13. Understanding the Global Cold War Legacy: Narrating through Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Klein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War brought the shrinking and dismantling of vast nuclear weapons complexes. As a result, some landscape architects will find themselves reclaiming a new, very specific type of Cold War landscape: those degraded by nuclear arms testing, production and waste storage. Nuclear landscapes pose multiple and complex challenges. Before designing nuclear reclamations, one must ask: what are the issues? If designers misunderstand the nuclear landscape 'problem', it will be 'solved' in the wrong way. My position is based on the assumption that society desires these landscapes to be reclaimed safely and in ways that allow them to educate the public. Landscape architects can find ways to reclaim nuclear landscapes safely while leaving narratives for generations to come. Perhaps it is too early to describe how nuclear reclamations will look. It is not too early to discuss what designs for nuclear reclamations should accomplish. This paper raises questions critical to the design of nuclear reclamations, both globally and locally. Near precedents - past reclamations that narrate other types of degraded landscapes - are discussed, and it is noted how we can learn from them when considering nuclear landscape reclamation. This paper does not articulate a specific design theory or solution to Cold War nuclear landscapes, but rather, it seeks to pose critical questions that designers should ask. These questions will be broad because we consider nuclear landscapes globally. The questions will require in-depth investigation of local issues as each unique nuclear landscape is considered.

  14. Legacy Radioactive Waste Management Program in the Netherlands: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ménard, Gaël

    2016-01-01

    Petten site legacy waste: • sorted on waste streams, from the less to the more heterogeneous; • footprint reduction by sorting according to activity; • first two waste streams: limited number of material; • characterized using gamma measurements and computational nuclide vectors. •Waste acceptance criteria: modus vivendi with the storage facility and third parties (based on characterization results); • More heterogeneous waste: more complex by definition → optimization, development and adaptation of the characterization

  15. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  16. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department's first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department's legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle

  17. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  18. Psychological Trauma and the Legacies of the First World War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This transnational, interdisciplinary study of traumatic neurosis moves beyond the existing histories of medical theory, welfare, and symptomatology. The essays explore the personal traumas of soldiers and civilians in the wake of the First World War; they also discuss how memory and representati......This transnational, interdisciplinary study of traumatic neurosis moves beyond the existing histories of medical theory, welfare, and symptomatology. The essays explore the personal traumas of soldiers and civilians in the wake of the First World War; they also discuss how memory...... and representations of trauma are transmitted between patients, doctors and families across generations. The book argues that so far the traumatic effects of the war have been substantially underestimated. Trauma was shaped by gender, politics, and personality. To uncover the varied forms of trauma ignored by medical...

  19. The Legacy of Johnson’s War on Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Mazzuca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1960s was a decade dedicated to experimentation within the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Americans witnessed many significant changes and advancements in those ten short years, including the first man on the moon, a war in Vietnam, and successes in the automobile industry. Probably the most important of these changes was the War on Poverty, introduced by John Fitzgerald Kennedy and continued by Lyndon Baines Johnson and subsequent administrations. This paper examines the creation of a new class of reliance on government handouts, as well as a misallocation of resources.Poverty was a well-known tragedy in third world countries. It was hard to believe that the United States, a leading nation of the world, was hit just as badly as those other countries. In fact, many Americans denied the problem for fear of the reaction from the rest of the world. In reality, though, many American families were struggling every day to provide food, shelter, and education for their children. Once this devastating misfortune was acknowledged, Kennedy dedicated his 1960 campaign to the New Frontier, which would encourage Americans to regain faith in their country by implementing programs to eradicate poverty. To succeed, Kennedy knew that the key to recovery centered on education. Improved education would provide the youth with better job opportunities, which would increase productivity, and therefore decrease poverty. Unfortunately, Kennedy was unable to follow through with his plans. After he was assassinated, Johnson took office ready to expand on Kennedy’s drafted plan. He wanted to look at poverty in a more positive way, as an opportunity to effectively change society. Continuing with Kennedy’s ideas, Johnson felt this change would best be accomplished through publics works programs. In his State of the Union Address, Johnson declared a “war on poverty” in which he would provide Americans with the tools needed to escape the world of poverty and

  20. The new military medical ethics: legacies of the Gulf Wars and the War on Terror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Steven H

    2013-03-01

    United States military medical ethics evolved during its involvement in two recent wars, Gulf War I (1990-1991) and the War on Terror (2001-). Norms of conduct for military clinicians with regard to the treatment of prisoners of war and the administration of non-therapeutic bioactive agents to soldiers were set aside because of the sense of being in a 'new kind of war'. Concurrently, the use of radioactive metal in weaponry and the ability to measure the health consequences of trade embargos on vulnerable civilians occasioned new concerns about the health effects of war on soldiers, their offspring, and civilians living on battlefields. Civilian medical societies and medical ethicists fitfully engaged the evolving nature of the medical ethics issues and policy changes during these wars. Medical codes of professionalism have not been substantively updated and procedures for accountability for new kinds of abuses of medical ethics are not established. Looking to the future, medicine and medical ethics have not articulated a vision for an ongoing military-civilian dialogue to ensure that standards of medical ethics do not evolve simply in accord with military exigency. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L.A

    2001-07-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  2. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  3. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L A

    2001-07-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  4. Worlds without War: Reflections on Elise Boulding's Life, Work and Legacy as a Peace Educator, Feminist and Futurist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Francis P.; Milojevic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Our joint article focuses on Elise Boulding's creative work and legacy as a feminist peace theorist, peace educator and futures educator. Boulding throughout her life was deeply concerned not only with critiquing the institution of war but of working for better, more peaceable worlds. She was very much a "practical futurist". Various important…

  5. Stabilizing southeastern Europe, financial legacies and European lessons from the first world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe John R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays brief attention, although more than the recent flood of 1914 centenary books, to economic causes of the First World War before turning to it fateful economic consequences for Southeastern Europe. The Austrian lack of economic leverage over Serbia is cited as a reason for its resort to the military option. At the war’s end, the option of the victorious powers to provide significant economic relief to the region where the conflict had begun was not taken. After tracking the brief, limited assistance provided, the paper reviews to the massive economic problems confronting four of the five of independent states, neglecting Albania as a special case, that could now be called Southeastern Europe. First Greece and then Bulgaria faced forced inflow of refugees. Romania and the Yugoslav Kingdom faced the economic integration of large new, formerly Austro-Hungarian lands. All of them were left not only with war deaths and destruction but also with large war debts, or in Bulgaria’s case, reparations. The paper concentrates on the primary Western response to these four economies, an effort led by the Bank of England to replace immediate postwar inflation with the deflation needed to reestablish currencies with prewar convertibility to gold, now with Pound Sterling added to a gold reserve standard. Independent central banks, the major positive legacy of this initiative, were to lead the way. But the financial stability that all four economies did eventually achieve in the 1920s served only to reduce their war debts. Otherwise, maintaining the fixed and overvalued exchange rates restricted domestic credit, encouraged protective tariffs, and did not attract the foreign capital, especially new state loans, that this emphasis on a single, European financial framework had promised. A concluding section considers the lessons learned from a postwar period that promoted economic disintegration by the 1930s. Looking at the period since the end of

  6. On the home front: The cold war legacy of the Hanford nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenehjem Gerber, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford plutonium factory in Washington State is among the oldest and largest relics of the Cold War and is also among the dirtiest. In this book, the author states that the release of radiaoactive and toxic waste without public knowledge poses fundamental questions about American democracy. No conclusive answers to the problems at Hanford are presented, although the important questions are addressed. The reviewer feels the book may be of use as a reference catalog, within its context as a piece essentially concerned with public relations

  7. Environmental Optimization Using the WAste Reduction Algorithm (WAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally chemical process designs were optimized using purely economic measures such as rate of return. EPA scientists developed the WAste Reduction algorithm (WAR) so that environmental impacts of designs could easily be evaluated. The goal of WAR is to reduce environme...

  8. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  9. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  10. The legacy of war: an epidemiological study of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Tran Kim; Le, Viet; Husum, Hans

    2012-07-01

    The study examines the epidemiology of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province since the end of the Vietnam War. The province is located just south of the demarcation line and was the province most affected during the war. In 2009, a cross sectional household study was conducted in all nine districts of the province. During the study period of 1975-2009, 7,030 persons in the study area were exposed to unexploded ordnances (UXO) or land mine accidents, or 1.1% of the provincial population. There were 2,620 fatalities and 4,410 accident survivors. The study documents that the main problem is cluster weapons and other unexploded ordnances; only 4.3% of casualties were caused by land mines. The legacy of the war affects poor people the most; the accident rate was highest among villagers living in mountainous areas, ethnic minorities, and low-income families. The most common activities leading to the accidents were farming (38.6%), collecting scrap metal (11.2%), and herding of cattle (8.3%). The study documents that the people of the Quang Tri Province until this day have suffered heavily due to the legacy of war. Mine risk education programs should account for the epidemiological findings when future accident prevention programs are designed to target high-risk areas and activities.

  11. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  12. MANAGING HANFORD'S LEGACY NO-PATH-FORWARD WASTES TO DISPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. This vision will protect the Columbia River, reduce the Site footprint, and reduce Site mortgage costs. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W and FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 m 3 of waste was defined as 'no-path-forward waste.' The majority of these wastes are suspect transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes which are currently stored in the low-level Burial Grounds (LLBG), or stored above ground in the Central Waste Complex (CWC). A portion of the waste will be generated during ongoing and future site cleanup activities. The DOE-RL and CHPRC have collaborated to identify and deliver safe, cost-effective disposition paths for 90% (∼8,000 m 3 ) of these problematic wastes. These paths include accelerated disposition through expanded use of offsite treatment capabilities. Disposal paths were selected that minimize the need to develop new technologies, minimize the need for new, on-site capabilities, and accelerate shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  13. Young New Zealanders and the Great War: Exploring the Impact and Legacy of the First World War, 1914-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeanine

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on school histories, published adult recollections, oral interviews and children's letters, this article explores how the lives of young New Zealanders were affected by contemporary attitudes and activities during World War I in a country far removed from the actual theatre of war. Particular emphasis is given to school-related…

  14. To Defend and Deter: The Legacy of the United States Cold War Missile Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lonnquest, John

    1996-01-01

    Defense (DoD) Legacy Resource Management Program was established under the Defense Appropriations Act of 1991 to 'determine how to better integrate the conservation of irreplaceable biological, cultural...

  15. Searching the Skies: the Legacy of the United States Cold War Defense Radar Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winkler, David

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) Legacy Resource Management Program was established under the Defense Appropriations Act of 1991 to determine how to better integrate the conservation of irreplaceable biological, cultural...

  16. Strategies for the cost effective treatment of Oak Ridge legacy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Wilson, D.F.

    1998-03-01

    Research and development treatment strategies for treatment or elimination of several Oak Ridge plant liquid, solid, and legacy wastes are detailed in this report. Treatment strategies for volumetrically contaminated nickel; enriched uranium-contaminated alkali metal fluorides; uranium-contaminated aluminum compressor blades; large, mercury-contaminated lithium isotope separations equipment; lithium process chlorine gas streams; high-concentration aluminum nitrate wastes, and high-volume, low-level nitrate wastes are discussed. Research needed to support engineering development of treatment processes is detailed

  17. Low-Level Legacy Waste Processing Experience at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, P.J.; Rowell, L.E.; Kurasch, D.H.; Moore, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents detailed results and lessons learned from the very challenging and highly successful 2005 low level radioactive waste sorting, packaging, and shipping campaign that removed over 95% of the available inventory of 350,000 ft 3 of legacy low level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project near West Valley, New York. First some programmatic perspective and site history is provided to provide pertinent context for DOE's waste disposal mandates at the site. This is followed by a detailed description of the waste types, the storage locations, the containers, and the varied sorting and packaging facilities used to accomplish the campaign. The overall sorting and packaging protocols for this inventory of wastes are defined. This is followed by detailed sorting data and results concluding with lessons learned. (authors)

  18. Radioactive waste: the poisoned legacy of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousselet, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear industry produces a huge amount of radioactive waste from one end to the other of the nuclear cycle: i.e. from mining uranium to uranium enrichment through reactor operating, waste reprocessing and dismantling nuclear power plants. Nuclear power is now being 'sold' to political leaders and citizens as an effective way to deal with climate change and ensure security of energy supplies. Nonetheless, nuclear energy is not a viable solution and is thus a major obstacle to the development of clean energy for the future. In addition to safety and security issues, the nuclear industry is, above all, faced with the huge problem of how to deal with the waste it produces and for which it has no solution. This ought to put a brake on the nuclear industry, but instead, against all expectations, its development continues to gather pace. (author)

  19. On the Cultural Legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US Educational Exchange (1949-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990. During those years, preparation for educational exchanges, personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges. However, even though the relationship had developed very fast, it was by no means smooth sailing. These exchanges…

  20. Legacies of the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevles, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The Manhattan Project of World War II mobilized thousands of people, including many of the nation's leading physicists, and extensive material resources to design, develop, and manufacture the world's first nuclear weapons. It also established sprawling new facilities for the production of fissionable fuels - notably at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington. It left a set of powerful legacies in the context of the Cold War - endowing scientists with conscience-taxing responsibilities in the nuclear arms race; promoting enormous patronage of academic research by defense and defense-related federal agencies, notably the Office of Naval Research and the Atomic Energy Commission; and turning its wartime facilities into major national laboratories that advanced the fields of high-energy and nuclear physics and stimulated local industrial economies but that in some cases, notably at Hanford, severely polluted the surrounding environment with radioactive waste and disrupted the livelihoods of native peoples. ``Legacies of the Manhattan Project''

  1. Project Strategy For The Remediation And Disposition Of Legacy Transuranic Waste At The Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the Savannah River Site Accelerated Transuranic (TRU) Waste Project that was initiated in April of 2009 to accelerate the disposition of remaining legacy transuranic waste at the site. An overview of the project execution strategy that was implemented is discussed along with the lessons learned, challenges and improvements to date associated with waste characterization, facility modifications, startup planning, and remediation activities. The legacy waste was generated from approximately 1970 through 1990 and originated both on site as well as at multiple US Department of Energy sites. Approximately two thirds of the waste was previously dispositioned from 2006 to 2008, with the remaining one third being the more hazardous waste due to its activity (curie content) and the plutonium isotope Pu-238 quantities in the waste. The project strategy is a phased approach beginning with the lower activity waste in existing facilities while upgrades are made to support remediation of the higher activity waste. Five waste remediation process lines will be used to support the full remediation efforts which involve receipt of the legacy waste container, removal of prohibited items, venting of containers, and resizing of contents to fit into current approved waste shipping containers. Modifications have been minimized to the extent possible to meet the accelerated goals and involve limited upgrades to address life safety requirements, radiological containment needs, and handling equipment for the larger waste containers. Upgrades are also in progress for implementation of the TRUPACT III for the shipment of Standard Large Boxes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, the US TRU waste repository. The use of this larger shipping container is necessary for approximately 20% of the waste by volume due to limited size reduction capability. To date, approximately 25% of the waste has been dispositioned, and several improvements have been made to the overall processing

  2. German Spent Nuclear Fuel Legacy: Characteristics and High-Level Waste Management Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schwenk-Ferrero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany is phasing-out the utilization of nuclear energy until 2022. Currently, nine light water reactors of originally nineteen are still connected to the grid. All power plants generate high-level nuclear waste like spent uranium or mixed uranium-plutonium dioxide fuel which has to be properly managed. Moreover, vitrified high-level waste containing minor actinides, fission products, and traces of plutonium reprocessing loses produced by reprocessing facilities has to be disposed of. In the paper, the assessments of German spent fuel legacy (heavy metal content and the nuclide composition of this inventory have been done. The methodology used applies advanced nuclear fuel cycle simulation techniques in order to reproduce the operation of the German nuclear power plants from 1969 till 2022. NFCSim code developed by LANL was adopted for this purpose. It was estimated that ~10,300 tonnes of unreprocessed nuclear spent fuel will be generated until the shut-down of the ultimate German reactor. This inventory will contain ~131 tonnes of plutonium, ~21 tonnes of minor actinides, and 440 tonnes of fission products. Apart from this, ca.215 tonnes of vitrified HLW will be present. As fission products and transuranium elements remain radioactive from 104 to 106 years, the characteristics of spent fuel legacy over this period are estimated, and their impacts on decay storage and final repository are discussed.

  3. Magnox Swarf Storage Silo Liquor Effluent Management -Sellafield Site, Cumbria, UK - Legacy radioactive waste storage - 59271

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Clere, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Sellafield Magnox Swarf Storage Silo (MSSS) was constructed to provide an underwater storage facility for irradiated magnox cladding metal Swarf, as well as miscellaneous beta-gamma waste from several sources. Liquid effluent arisings from hazard reduction activities at this facility represent the toughest effluent treatment challenge within the company's Legacy Ponds and Silos portfolio. The key requirement for hazard reduction has generated many substantial challenges as the facility is readied for decommissioning. This has demanded the production of carefully thought out strategies for managing, and overcoming, the key difficulties to be encountered as hazard reduction progresses. The complexity associated with preparing for waste retrievals from the Magnox Swarf Storage Silo, has also generated the demand for a mix of creativity and perseverance to meet the challenges and make progress. Challenging the status quo and willingness to accept change is not easy and the road to overall hazard reduction for the high hazard MSSS facility will demand the skills and investment of individuals, teams, and entire facility work-forces. The first steps on this road have been taken with the successful introduction of liquor management operations, however much more is yet to be achieved. Clear communication, investing in stakeholder management, perseverance in the face of difficulty and a structured yet flexible programme delivery approach, will ensure the continued success of tackling the complex challenges of treating liquid effluent from a legacy fuel storage silo at the Sellafield Site. (authors)

  4. The legacy and future of radioactive waste management at the Millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; Lee, C.

    2000-01-01

    Wastes containing radioactive materials have been produced ever since ore recovery and processing began; however, such materials did not become of public concern until the large-scale activities involving uranium and thorium ores and nuclear fission during and after World War II. Efforts to provide disposal sites for radioactive wastes, especially those associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear energy, have been largely unsuccessful for the past 40 years or so and are nearing crisis proportions as the new millenium begins - its eventual resolution is believed to require greater reliance on stewardship and a larger governmental presence. (author)

  5. More a plowshare than a sword: the legacy of US Cold War agricultural diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. In particular, it chronicles the historic shift in US foreign policy away from "give-away" food aid and surplus sales and toward the championing of global agricultural redevelopment under such programs as the Marshall Plan and PL 480, the Food for Peace program. As more a plowshare than a sword, the American Cold War push for worldwide agricultural modernization led many countries to experience new levels of food self-efficiency and export capabilities. Along with production parity, however, has come escalating levels of trade competition and national protectionism, which challenges again the achievement of world agricultural stability and prosperity.

  6. Ultrasonic techniques for the in situ characterisation of 'legacy' Waste sludges and dispersions - 59111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Timothy; Biggs, Simon; Young, James; Fairweather, Michael; Peakall, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Research being undertaken at the University of Leeds, as part of the DIAMOND university consortium, is exploring the effectiveness of various ultrasonic technologies as in situ probes to characterize and monitor nuclear waste slurries, such as the 'Legacy' Magnesium hydroxide sludges found in Sellafield, U.K. Through use of a commercial Acoustic Backscatter Sensor (ABS) with 1 - 5 MHz transducers, various properties of free-settling oxide simulant sludges were determined. Work was focused upon characterizing essentially 'static' sludges (to give prospective use as tools for the wastes in current deposits); although, the sensors also have potential as dispersion monitors during any future processing and storage of the Legacy wastes, as well as many other storage, clarifier or thickener systems across a wide range of industrial processing operations. ABS data of mixed glass powder dispersions was analysed and compared to scattering theory, to understand the correlations between acoustic attenuation and particulate concentration. The ABS was also calibrated to measure changes in average particulate concentration within a settling suspension over time, and showed the depth-wise segregation of the dispersion through the settling column at different particular time intervals. It was found that observed hindered settling also led to an increase in particulate concentration over the sludge zone and significant segregation occurred at moderate time intervals, due to the broad size distribution of the aggregates measured. It is hoped in future that these sensors may be able to be fitted to robotic handlers that have been installed onsite (and previously used for sampling), allowing fully automatic in situ sludge analysis. (authors)

  7. UP2 400 High Activity Oxide Legacy Waste Retrieval Project Scope and Progress-13048

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabeuf, Jean-Michel; Varet, Thierry [AREVA Site Value Development Business Unit, La Hague Site (France)

    2013-07-01

    The High Activity Oxide facility (HAO) reprocessed sheared and dissolved 4500 metric tons of light water reactor fuel the fuel of the emerging light water reactor spent fuel between 1976 and 1998. Over the period, approximately 2200 tons of process waste, composed primarily of sheared hulls, was produced and stored in a vast silo in the first place, and in canisters stored in pools in subsequent years. Upon shutdown of the facility, AREVA D and D Division in La Hague launched a thorough investigation and characterization of the silos and pools content, which then served as input data for the definition of a legacy waste retrieval and reconditioning program. Basic design was conducted between 2005 and 2007, and was followed by an optimization phase which lead to the definition of a final scenario and budget, 12% under the initial estimates. The scenario planned for the construction of a retrieval and reconditioning cell to be built on top of the storage silo. The retrieved waste would then be rinsed and sorted, so that hulls could subsequently be sent to La Hague high activity compacting facility, while resins and sludge would be cemented within the retrieval cell. Detailed design was conducted successfully from 2008 until 2011, while a thorough research and development program was conducted in order to qualify each stage of the retrieval and reconditioning process, and assist in the elaboration of the final waste package specification. This R and D program was defined and conducted as a response and mitigation of the major project risks identified during the basic design process. Procurement and site preparatory works were then launched in 2011. By the end of 2012, R and D is nearly completed, the retrieval and reconditioning process have been secured, the final waste package specification is being completed, the first equipment for the retrieval cell is being delivered on site, while preparation works are allowing to free up space above and around the silo, to

  8. Management of legacy spent nuclear fuel wastes at the Chalk River Laboratories: operating experience and progress towards waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.S.; Bainbridge, I.B.; Greenfield, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    AECL has been managing and storing a diversity of spent nuclear fuel, arising from operations at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site over more than 50 years. A subset of about 22 tonnes of research reactor fuels, primarily metallic uranium, have been identified as a high priority for remediation, based on monitoring and inspection that has determined that these fuels and their storage containers are corroding. This paper describes the Fuel Packaging and Storage (FPS) project, which AECL has launched to retrieve these fuels from current storage, and to emplace them in a new above-ground dry storage system, as a prerequisite step to decommissioning some of the early-design waste storage structures at CRL. The retrieved fuels will be packaged in a new storage container, and subjected to a cold vacuum drying process that will remove moisture, and thereby reduce the extent of future corrosion and degradation. The FPS project will enable improved interim storage to be implemented for legacy fuels at CRL, until a decision is made on the ultimate disposition of legacy fuels in Canada. (author)

  9. Review: Waste-Pretreatment Technologies for Remediation of Legacy Defense Nuclear Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, William R.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Johnson, Michael E.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Thompson, Major C.; Suggs, Patricia C.; Machara, N.

    2011-01-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for retrieving, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive waste that has been generated during the production of nuclear weapons in the United States. The vast bulk of this waste material is stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina and the Hanford Site in Washington State. The general strategy for treating the radioactive tank waste consists of first separating the waste into high-level and low-activity fractions. This initial partitioning of the waste is referred to as pretreatment. Following pretreatment, the high-level fraction will be immobilized in a glass form suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The low-activity waste will be immobilized in a waste form suitable for disposal at the respective site. This paper provides a review of recent developments in the application of pretreatment technologies to the processing of the Hanford and Savannah River radioactive tank wastes. Included in the review are discussions of 1) solid/liquid separations methods, 2) cesium separation technologies, and 3) other separations critical to the success of the DOE tank waste remediation effort. Also included is a brief discussion of the different requirements and circumstances at the two DOE sites that have in some cases led to different choices in pretreatment technologies.

  10. The Cold War legacy of regulatory risk analysis: The Atomic Energy Commission and radiation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Joseph B.

    From its inception in 1946 the Atomic Energy Commission pioneered the use of risk analysis as a mode of regulatory rationality and political rhetoric, yet historical treatments of risk analysis nearly always overlook the important role it played in the administration of atomic energy during the early Cold War. How this absence from history has been achieved and why it characterizes most historical accounts are the subjects of Chapter II. From there, this study goes on to develop the thesis that the advent of the atomic bomb was a world-shattering event that forced the Truman administration to choose between two novel alternatives: (1) movement towards global governance based initially on cooperative control of atomic energy or (2) unsparing pursuit of nuclear superiority. I refer to these as nuclear internationalism and nuclear nationalism, respectively. Each defined a social risk hierarchy. With the triumph of nuclear nationalism, nuclear annihilation was designated the greatest risk and a strong nuclear defense the primary means of prevention. The AEC's mission in the 1950s consisted of the rapid development of a nuclear arsenal, continual improvements in weapons technologies, and the promotion of nuclear power. The agency developed a risk-based regulatory framework through its dominant position within the National Committee on Radiation Protection. It embraced a technocratic model of risk analysis whose articulation and application it controlled, largely in secret. It used this to undergird a public rhetoric of reassurance and risk minimization. In practice, safety officials adjusted exposure levels within often wide parameters and with considerable fluidity in order to prevent safety concerns from interfering with operations. Secrecy, the political climate of the time, and a lack of accountability enabled the agency to meld technical assessments with social value judgments in a manner reflective of nuclear nationalism's risk hierarchy. In the late fifties

  11. Measurement of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in groundwater at a legacy radioactive waste site and its possible role in contaminant mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowling, Brett; Kinsela, Andrew S; Comarmond, M Josick; Hughes, Catherine E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Johansen, Mathew P; Payne, Timothy E

    2017-11-01

    At many legacy radioactive waste sites, organic compounds have been co-disposed, which may be a factor in mobilisation of radionuclides at these sites. Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a component of waste streams from the nuclear fuel cycle, where it has been used in separating actinides during processing of nuclear fuels. Analyses of ground waters from the Little Forest Legacy Site (LFLS) in eastern Australia were undertaken using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results indicate the presence of TBP several decades after waste disposal, with TBP only being detected in the immediate vicinity of the main disposal area. TBP is generally considered to degrade in the environment relatively rapidly. Therefore, it is likely that its presence is due to relatively recent releases of TBP, possibly stemming from leakage due to container degradation. The ongoing presence and solubility of TBP has the potential to provide a mechanism for nuclide mobilisation, with implications for long term management of LFLS and similar legacy waste sites. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Ben C.; Heacker, Fred K.; Shannon, Christopher [Wastren Advantage, Inc., Transuranic Waste Processing Center, 100 WIPP Road, Lenoir City, Tennessee 37771 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct

  13. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Ben C.; Heacker, Fred K.; Shannon, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct and install

  14. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Disposition of the Standing Legacy Wastes in the 105-B, -D, -H, -KE, and -KW Reactor Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities that support disposition of legacy waste in the Hanford Site's 105-B, 105-D, 105-H,105-KE, 105-KW Reactor buildings. For the purpose of this SAP, legacy waste is identified as any item present in a facility that is not permanently attached to the facility and is easily removed without the aid of equipment larger than a standard forklift

  15. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Disposition of the Standing Legacy Wastes in the 105-B, -D, -H, -KE, and -KW Reactor Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities that support disposition of legacy waste in the Hanford Site's 105-B, 105-D, 105-H, 105-KE, 105-KW Reactor buildings. For the purpose of this SAP, legacy waste is identified as any item present in a facility that is not permanently attached to the facility and is easily removed without the aid of equipment larger than a standard forklift

  16. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  17. Next Generation Waste Tracking: Linking Legacy Systems with Modern Networking Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.; Resseguie, David R.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Hill, David E.

    2010-01-01

    of existing legacy hazardous, radioactive and related informational databases and systems using emerging Web 2.0 technologies. These capabilities were used to interoperate ORNL s waste generating, packaging, transportation and disposal with other DOE ORO waste management contractors. Importantly, the DOE EM objectives were accomplished in a cost effective manner without altering existing information systems. A path forward is to demonstrate and share these technologies with DOE EM, contractors and stakeholders. This approach will not alter existing DOE assets, i.e. Automated Traffic Management Systems (ATMS), Transportation Tracking and Communications System (TRANSCOM), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) demonstrated package tracking system, etc.

  18. Fabrication of a Sludge-Conditioning System for processing legacy wastes from the Gunite and Associated Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, J.D.; Lewis, B.E.; Farmer, J.R.; Johnson, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Sludge Conditioning System (SCS) for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) is designed to receive, monitor, characterize and process legacy waste materials from the South Tank Farm tanks in preparation for final transfer of the wastes to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), which are located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SCS includes (1) a Primary Conditioning System (PCS) Enclosure for sampling and particle size classification, (2) a Solids Monitoring Test Loop (SMTL) for slurry characterization, (3) a Waste Transfer Pump to retrieve and transfer waste materials from GAAT consolidation tank W-9 to the MVSTs, (4) a PulsAir Mixing System to provide mixing of consolidated sludges for ease of retrieval, and (5) the interconnecting piping and valving. This report presents the design, fabrication, cost, and fabrication schedule information for the SCS

  19. Response of Microbial Community Function to Fluctuating Geochemical Conditions within a Legacy Radioactive Waste Trench Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Campos, Xabier; Kinsela, Andrew S; Bligh, Mark W; Harrison, Jennifer J; Payne, Timothy E; Waite, T David

    2017-09-01

    During the 1960s, small quantities of radioactive materials were codisposed with chemical waste at the Little Forest Legacy Site (Sydney, Australia) in 3-meter-deep, unlined trenches. Chemical and microbial analyses, including functional and taxonomic information derived from shotgun metagenomics, were collected across a 6-week period immediately after a prolonged rainfall event to assess the impact of changing water levels upon the microbial ecology and contaminant mobility. Collectively, results demonstrated that oxygen-laden rainwater rapidly altered the redox balance in the trench water, strongly impacting microbial functioning as well as the radiochemistry. Two contaminants of concern, plutonium and americium, were shown to transition from solid-iron-associated species immediately after the initial rainwater pulse to progressively more soluble moieties as reducing conditions were enhanced. Functional metagenomics revealed the potentially important role that the taxonomically diverse microbial community played in this transition. In particular, aerobes dominated in the first day, followed by an increase of facultative anaerobes/denitrifiers at day 4. Toward the mid-end of the sampling period, the functional and taxonomic profiles depicted an anaerobic community distinguished by a higher representation of dissimilatory sulfate reduction and methanogenesis pathways. Our results have important implications to similar near-surface environmental systems in which redox cycling occurs. IMPORTANCE The role of chemical and microbiological factors in mediating the biogeochemistry of groundwaters from trenches used to dispose of radioactive materials during the 1960s is examined in this study. Specifically, chemical and microbial analyses, including functional and taxonomic information derived from shotgun metagenomics, were collected across a 6-week period immediately after a prolonged rainfall event to assess how changing water levels influence microbial ecology and

  20. Challenges in development of matrices for vitrification of old legacy waste and high-level radioactive waste generated from reprocessing of AHWR and FBR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Majority of radioactivity in entire nuclear fuel cycle is concentrated in HLW. A three step strategy for management of HLW has been adopted in India. This involves immobilization of waste oxides in stable and inert solid matrices, interim retrievable storage of the conditioned waste product under continuous cooling and disposal in deep geological formations. Glass has been accepted as most suitable matrix world-wide for immobilization of HLW, because of its attractive features like ability to accommodate wide range of waste constituents, modest processing temperatures, adequate chemical, thermal and radiation stability. Borosilicate glass matrix developed by BARC in collaboration with CGCRI has been adopted in India for immobilization of HLW. In view of compositional variation of HLW from site to site, tailor make changes in the glass formulations are often necessary to incorporate all the waste constituents and having the product of desirable characteristics. The vitrified waste products made with different glass formulations and simulated waste need to be characterized for chemical durability, thermal stability, homogeneity etc. before finalizing a suitable glass formulation. The present extended abstract summarises the studies carried out for development of glass formulations for vitrification of legacy waste and futuristic waste likely to be generated from AHWR and FBR having wide variations in their compositions. The presently stored HLW at Trombay is characterized by significant concentrations of uranium, sodium and sulphate in addition to fission products, corrosion products and small amount of other actinides

  1. DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE PROCESSES WITH SIMULATION: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The WAR Algorithm, a methodology for determining the potential environmental impact (PEI) of a chemical process, is presented with modifications that account for the PEI of the energy consumed within that process. From this theory, four PEI indexes are used to evaluate the envir...

  2. Life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems for alternative legacy scenarios of the London Olympic Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, Olga, E-mail: o.parkes@ucl.ac.uk; Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk; Bogle, I. David L.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Application of LCA in planning integrated waste management systems. • Environmental valuation of 3 legacy scenarios for the Olympic Park. • Hot-spot analysis highlights the importance of energy and materials recovery. • Most environmental savings are achieved through materials recycling. • Sensitivity analysis shows importance of waste composition and recycling rates. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) of 10 integrated waste management systems (IWMSs) for 3 potential post-event site design scenarios of the London Olympic Park. The aim of the LCA study is to evaluate direct and indirect emissions resulting from various treatment options of municipal solid waste (MSW) annually generated on site together with avoided emissions resulting from energy, materials and nutrients recovery. IWMSs are modelled using GaBi v6.0 Product Sustainability software and results are presented based on the CML (v.Nov-10) characterisation method. The results show that IWMSs with advanced thermal treatment (ATT) and incineration with energy recovery have the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP) than IWMSs where landfill is the primary waste treatment process. This is due to higher direct emissions and lower avoided emissions from the landfill process compared to the emissions from the thermal treatment processes. LCA results demonstrate that significant environmental savings are achieved through substitution of virgin materials with recycled ones. The results of the sensitivity analysis carried out for IWMS 1 shows that increasing recycling rate by 5%, 10% and 15% compared to the baseline scenario can reduce GWP by 8%, 17% and 25% respectively. Sensitivity analysis also shows how changes in waste composition affect the overall result of the system. The outcomes of such assessments provide decision-makers with fundamental information regarding the environmental impacts of different waste treatment options necessary for

  3. THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND ENGINEERING ECONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WAR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory defines potential environmental impact indexes that characterize the generation and t...

  4. Coupling Legacy and Contemporary Deterministic Codes to Goldsim for Probabilistic Assessments of Potential Low-Level Waste Repository Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattie, P. D.; Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Tien, N.; Kuo, M.

    2006-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory, has over 30 years experience in radioactive waste disposal and is providing assistance internationally in a number of areas relevant to the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems. International technology transfer efforts are often hampered by small budgets, time schedule constraints, and a lack of experienced personnel in countries with small radioactive waste disposal programs. In an effort to surmount these difficulties, Sandia has developed a system that utilizes a combination of commercially available codes and existing legacy codes for probabilistic safety assessment modeling that facilitates the technology transfer and maximizes limited available funding. Numerous codes developed and endorsed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and codes developed and maintained by United States Department of Energy are generally available to foreign countries after addressing import/export control and copyright requirements. From a programmatic view, it is easier to utilize existing codes than to develop new codes. From an economic perspective, it is not possible for most countries with small radioactive waste disposal programs to maintain complex software, which meets the rigors of both domestic regulatory requirements and international peer review. Therefore, re-vitalization of deterministic legacy codes, as well as an adaptation of contemporary deterministic codes, provides a creditable and solid computational platform for constructing probabilistic safety assessment models. External model linkage capabilities in Goldsim and the techniques applied to facilitate this process will be presented using example applications, including Breach, Leach, and Transport-Multiple Species (BLT-MS), a U.S. NRC sponsored code simulating release and transport of contaminants from a subsurface low-level waste disposal facility used in a cooperative technology transfer

  5. MANAGING HANFORD'S LEGACY NO-PATH-FORWARD WASTES TO DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEST LD

    2011-01-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. This vision will protect the Columbia River, reduce the Site footprint, and reduce Site mortgage costs. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W&FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 m{sup 3} of waste was defined as 'no-path-forward waste.' The majority of these wastes are suspect transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes which are currently stored in the low-level Burial Grounds (LLBG), or stored above ground in the Central Waste Complex (CWC). A portion of the waste will be generated during ongoing and future site cleanup activities. The DOE-RL and CHPRC have collaborated to identify and deliver safe, cost-effective disposition paths for 90% ({approx}8,000 m{sup 3}) of these problematic wastes. These paths include accelerated disposition through expanded use of offsite treatment capabilities. Disposal paths were selected that minimize the need to develop new technologies, minimize the need for new, on-site capabilities, and accelerate shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  6. AGGRESSION AS “ORGANIZED HYPOCRISY?” – HOW THE WAR ON TERRORISM AND HYBRID THREATS CHALLENGE THE NUREMBERG LEGACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha-Dominik Bachmann

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern threats to international peace and security from so called “Hybrid Threats”, multimodal threats such as cyber war, low intensity asymmetric conflict scenarios, global terrorism etc. which involve a diverse and broad community of affected stakeholders involving both regional and international organisations/structures, also pose further questions for the existing legacy of Nuremberg. The (perhaps unsettling question arises of whether our present concept of “war and peace”, with its legal pillars of the United Nations Charter’s Articles 2(4, 51, and the notion of the criminality of waging aggressive war based on the “legacy” of Nuremberg has now become outdated to respond to new threats arising in the 21st century. This article also serves to warn that one should not use the definition of aggression, adopted at the ICC Review Conference in Kampala in 2010, to repeat the most fundamental flaw of Nuremberg: ex post facto criminalisation of the (unlawful use of force. A proper understanding of the “legacy of Nuremberg” and a cautious reading of the text of the ICC definition of aggression provide some markers for purposes of the debate on the impact of new threats to peace and security and the use of force in international law and politics. Les menaces modernes à la paix et à la sécurité internationales, par exemple les menaces dites « hybrides », les menaces multimodales comme la cyberguerre, les conflits asymétriques de faible intensité et le terrorisme mondial, qui impliquent un groupe vaste et diversifié d’intervenants provenant de structures et d’organismes régionaux ou internationaux, remettent en cause l’héritage du procès de Nuremberg. Se pose également la question (peut-être troublante de savoir si la notion actuelle de « guerre et paix » ancrée juridiquement dans le paragraphe 2(4 et l’article 51 de la Charte des Nations Unies et la criminalisation de la guerre d’agression fondée sur l

  7. Implementation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Waste Reduction (WAR) Algorithm in Cape-Open Based Process Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sustainable Technology Division has recently completed an implementation of the U.S. EPA's Waste Reduction (WAR) Algorithm that can be directly accessed from a Cape-Open compliant process modeling environment. The WAR Algorithm add-in can be used in AmsterChem's COFE (Cape-Op...

  8. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  9. Characterisation of imperial college reactor centre legacy waste using gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuhaimi, Alif Imran Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Waste characterisation is a principal component in waste management strategy. The characterisation includes identification of chemical, physical and radiochemical parameters of radioactive waste. Failure to determine specific waste properties may result in sentencing waste packages which are not compliant with the regulation of long term storage or disposal. This project involved measurement of intensity and energy of gamma photons which may be emitted by radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of Imperial College Reactor Centre (ICRC). The measurement will use High Purity Germanium (HPGe) as Gamma-ray detector and ISOTOPIC-32 V4.1 as analyser. In order to ensure the measurements provide reliable results, two quality control (QC) measurements using difference matrices have been conducted. The results from QC measurements were used to determine the accuracy of the ISOTOPIC software

  10. Characterisation of imperial college reactor centre legacy waste using gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuhaimi, Alif Imran Mohd [Nuclear Energy Department, Regulatory Economics & Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Waste characterisation is a principal component in waste management strategy. The characterisation includes identification of chemical, physical and radiochemical parameters of radioactive waste. Failure to determine specific waste properties may result in sentencing waste packages which are not compliant with the regulation of long term storage or disposal. This project involved measurement of intensity and energy of gamma photons which may be emitted by radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of Imperial College Reactor Centre (ICRC). The measurement will use High Purity Germanium (HPGe) as Gamma-ray detector and ISOTOPIC-32 V4.1 as analyser. In order to ensure the measurements provide reliable results, two quality control (QC) measurements using difference matrices have been conducted. The results from QC measurements were used to determine the accuracy of the ISOTOPIC software.

  11. A facility design for repackaging ORNL CH-TRU legacy waste in Building 3525

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huxford, T.J.; Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Davis, L.E.; Fuller, A.B.; Gabbard, W.A.; Smith, R.B.; Guay, K.P.; Smith, L.C.

    1995-07-01

    For the last 25 years, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted operations which have generated solid, contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. At present the CH-TRU waste inventory at ORNL is about 3400 55-gal drums retrievably stored in RCRA-permitted, aboveground facilities. Of the 3400 drums, approximately 2600 drums will need to be repackaged. The current US Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for disposal of these drums is to transport them to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico which only accepts TRU waste that meets a very specific set of criteria documented in the WIPP-WAC (waste acceptance criteria). This report describes activities that were performed from January 1994 to May 1995 associated with the design and preparation of an existing facility for repackaging and certifying some or all of the CH-TRU drums at ORNL to meet the WIPP-WAC. For this study, the Irradiated Fuel Examination Laboratory (IFEL) in Building 3525 was selected as the reference facility for modification. These design activities were terminated in May 1995 as more attractive options for CH-TRU waste repackaging were considered to be available. As a result, this document serves as a final report of those design activities

  12. Environmental remediation of the Wismut legacy and utilization of the reclaimed areas, waste rock piles and tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, M.; Jakubick, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1945 and reunification (1989) of Germany more than 232 000 t of U 3 O 8 has been produced in Saxony and Thuringia, East Germany. This affected an area of approximately 100 km 2 and left behind an extensive legacy of contaminated operations areas, underground and open pit mines, waste rock piles and tailings ponds. Following reunification, DM 13 billion (Euro 6.6 billion) were committed (and later revised to Euro 6.2 billion) to remediation of the liabilities and the government owned corporation, Wismut GmbH entrusted with the implementation of the Environmental Remediation (ER) of the liabilities. The prime goal of the ER Project follows from the legal requirements to abate health risks, mitigate existing and prevent future environmental damages. During the investigations and assessment of risks, development of remediation concepts, adoption of suitable technologies and work procedures as well as physical implementation of the remedial measures extensive use was made of international (mostly US and Canadian) ER experience. The extent of remedial measures was based on object-specific Environmental Assessments rather than on uniformly applied health/environmental standards. The ER workflow is more an iterative process than a linear succession of tasks, such as common for civil engineering projects. The internal (technical) parts of the problems were partly resolved by using Conceptual Site Models (CSM) for selection and prioritization of remedial measures. Reclamation of the waste rock piles is by covering in situ, relocation to a central pile or backfilling into an open pit. The backfilling of the open pit at Ronneburg with acid generating waste rock has been optimized from a geochemical point of view. For tailings ponds reclamation in form of dry landforms is being followed. To increase release (and reuse) of scrap metal from demolition, a fast and reliable method of discrimination of the non-contaminated metal has been developed. The flooding of

  13. Long-lived radioactive waste and nuclear plant decommissioning a legacy to future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAulay, I.R.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste is an inevitable by-product of all uses of radioactive substances. This is the case of natural radioactivity as well as for artificially produced radioactive isotopes, and it is easy to overlook the significance of the waste problem in the case of technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. Several options are available for the disposal of radioactive waste and the paper considers these in detail from the point of view of the possible future impact of radiation doses to individuals or populations. Particular consideration is given to the use of deep disposal at stable geological sites as a means of dealing with large amounts of radioactive waste. It should not be forgotten that some of what we term waste today need not necessarily always be so. Indeed, there is a good case to make for the recycling of low activity materials rather than the uneconomic expedient of burying them. The paper will consider the possible recycling of valuable materials following suitable reprocessing and dilution and mention the dose implications of examples of such re-utilisation of radioactive materials

  14. Long-lived radioactive waste and nuclear plant decommissioning a legacy to future generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAulay, I R [Trinity Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Physical Lab.

    1996-10-01

    Radioactive waste is an inevitable by-product of all uses of radioactive substances. This is the case of natural radioactivity as well as for artificially produced radioactive isotopes, and it is easy to overlook the significance of the waste problem in the case of technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. Several options are available for the disposal of radioactive waste and the paper considers these in detail from the point of view of the possible future impact of radiation doses to individuals or populations. Particular consideration is given to the use of deep disposal at stable geological sites as a means of dealing with large amounts of radioactive waste. It should not be forgotten that some of what we term waste today need not necessarily always be so. Indeed, there is a good case to make for the recycling of low activity materials rather than the uneconomic expedient of burying them. The paper will consider the possible recycling of valuable materials following suitable reprocessing and dilution and mention the dose implications of examples of such re-utilisation of radioactive materials.

  15. A prototype scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Mahon, David; Clarkson, Anthony; Ireland, Dave G; Kaiser, Ralf [University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland, (United Kingdom); Mountford, David; Ryan, Matt; Shearer, Craig; Yang, Guangliang [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG, England, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    A prototype scintillating-fibre detector system has been developed at the University of Glasgow in collaboration with the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) for the nondestructive assay of UK legacy nuclear waste containers. This system consists of two tracking modules above, and two below, the container under interrogation. Each module consists of two orthogonal planes of 2 mm-pitch fibres yielding one space point. Per plane, 128 fibres are read out by a single Hamamatsu H8500 64-channel MAPMT with two fibres multiplexed onto each pixel. A dedicated mapping scheme has been developed to avoid space point ambiguities and retain the high spatial resolution provided by the fibres. The configuration allows the reconstruction of the incoming and scattered muon trajectories, thus enabling the container content, with respect to atomic number Z, to be determined. Results are shown from experimental data collected for high-Z objects within an air matrix and, for the first time, within a shielded, concrete-filled container. These reconstructed images show clear discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials present, with dimensions and positions determined with sub-centimetre precision. (authors)

  16. Forensic microanalysis of Manhattan Project legacy radioactive wastes in St. Louis, MO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltofen, Marco; Alvarez, Robert; Hixson, Lucas W

    2018-06-01

    Radioactive particulate matter (RPM) in St Louis, MO, area surface soils, house dusts and sediments was examined by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Analyses found RPM containing 238 U and decay products (up to 46 wt%), and a distinct second form of RPM containing 230 Th and decay products (up to 15.6 wt%). The SEM-EDS analyses found similar RPM in Manhattan Project-era radioactive wastes and indoor dusts in surrounding homes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-02

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  18. Trench 'bathtubbing' and surface plutonium contamination at a legacy radioactive waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Timothy E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Hughes, Catherine E; Johansen, Mathew P; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry L; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Rowling, Brett; Zawadzki, Atun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (~12 Bq/L of (239+240)Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest (239+240)Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0-1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the 'bathtub' effect.

  19. Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (∼12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

  20. Characterization of legacy low level waste at the Svafo facility using gamma non-destructive assay and X-ray non-destructive examination techniques - 59289

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, Stephen; Mottershead, Gary; Ekenborg, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Over 7000 drums containing legacy, low level radioactive waste are stored at four SVAFO facilities on the Studsvik site which is located near Nykoeping, Sweden. The vast majority of the waste drums (>6000) were produced between 1969 and 1979. The remainder were produced from 1980 onwards. Characterization of the waste was achieved using a combination of non-destructive techniques via mobile equipment located in the AU building at the Studsvik site. Each drum was weighed and a dose rate measurement was recorded. Gamma spectroscopy was used to measure and estimate radionuclide content. Real time xray examination was performed to identify such prohibited items as free liquids. (authors)

  1. Removal of Legacy Low-Level Waste Reactor Moderator De-ionizer Resins Highly Contaminated with Carbon-14 from the 'Waste with no Path to Disposal List' Through Innovative Technical Analysis and Performance Assessment Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, W.T.; Hiergesell, R.A.; Kaplan, D.I.; Pope, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors used de-ionizers to control the chemistry of the reactor moderator during their operation to produce nuclear materials primarily for the weapons program. These de-ionizers were removed from the reactors and stored as a legacy waste and due to the relatively high carbon-14 (C-14) contamination (i.e., on the order of 740 giga becquerel (GBq) (20 curies) per de-ionizer) were considered a legacy 'waste with no path to disposal'. Considerable progress has been made in consideration of a disposal path for the legacy reactor de-ionizers. Presently, 48 - 50 de-ionizers being stored at SRS have 'no path to disposal' because the disposal limit for C-14 in the SRS's low-level waste disposal facility's Intermediate Level Vault (ILV) is only 160 GBq (4.2 curies) per vault. The current C-14 ILV disposal limit is based on a very conservative analysis of the air pathway. The paper will describe the alternatives that were investigated that resulted in the selection of a route to pursue. This paper will then describe SRS's efforts to reduce the conservatism in the analysis, which resulted in a significantly larger C-14 disposal limit. The work consisted of refining the gas-phase analysis to simulate the migration of C-14 from the waste to the ground surface and evaluated the efficacy of carbonate chemistry in cementitious environment of the ILV for suppressing the volatilization of C-14. During the past year, a Special Analysis was prepared for Department of Energy approval to incorporate the results of these activities that increased the C-14 disposal limits for the ILV, thus allowing for disposal of the Reactor Moderator De-ionizers. Once the Special Analysis is approved by DOE, the actual disposal would be dependent on priority and funding, but the de-ionizers will be removed from the 'waste with no path to disposal list'. (authors)

  2. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  3. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation of land protected with the Rural Legacy program. The Rural Legacy Area protects farmland, forests and Civil War sites, within view of the Washington Monument State Park,, Published in 2008, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset current as of 2008. Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation...

  4. Long-lived legacy: Managing high-level and transuranic waste at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The document focuses on high-level and transuranic waste at the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Reviews some of the critical areas and aspects of the DOE waste problem in order to provide data and further analysis of important issues. Partial contents, High-Level Waste Management at the DOE Weapons Complex, are as follows: High-Level Waste Management: Present and Planned; Amount and Distribution; Current and Potential Problems; Vitrification; Calcination; Alternative Waste Forms for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Technologies for Pretreatment of High-Level Waste; Waste Minimization; Regulatory Framework; Definition of High-Level Waste; Repository Delays and Contingency Planning; Urgency of High-Level Tank Waste Treatment; Technologies for High-Level Waste Treatment; Rethinking the Waste Form and Package; Waste Form for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Releases to the Atmosphere; Future of the PUREX Plant at Hanford; Waste Minimization; Tritium Production; International Cooperation; Scenarios for Future HLW Production. Partial contents of Chapter 2, Managing Transuranic Waste at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex, are as follows: Transuranic Waste at Department of Energy Sites; Amount and Distribution; Waste Management: Present and Planned; Current and Potential Problems; Three Technologies for Treating Retrievably Stored Transuranic Waste; In Situ Vitrification; The Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation Plan (RDDT ampersand E); Actinide Conversion (Transmutation); Waste Minimization; The Regulatory Framework; Definition of, and Standards for, Disposal of Transuranic Waste; Repository Delays; Alternative Storage and Disposal Strategies; Remediation of Buried Waste; The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; Waste Minimization; Scenarios for Future Transuranic Waste Production; Conditions of No-Migration Determination

  5. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: Environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Adriana C., E-mail: ABejarano@researchplanning.co [Research Planning Inc., 1121 Park St., Columbia, SC 29201 (United States); Michel, Jacqueline [Research Planning Inc., 1121 Park St., Columbia, SC 29201 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU{sub FCV,43}). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU{sub FCV,43} values: no-risk (<=1), low (>1-<=2), low-medium (>2-<=3), medium (>3-<=5) and high-risk (>5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU{sub FCV,43} > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30-<60 cm layer from heavily oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. - Risk Assessment of PAHs in shoreline sediments 12 years after the Gulf War oil spill.

  6. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: Environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Adriana C.; Michel, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU FCV,43 ). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU FCV,43 values: no-risk (≤1), low (>1-≤2), low-medium (>2-≤3), medium (>3-≤5) and high-risk (>5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU FCV,43 > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30-<60 cm layer from heavily oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. - Risk Assessment of PAHs in shoreline sediments 12 years after the Gulf War oil spill.

  7. War waste and pollution of karstic area of Bosnia and Herzegovina with PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picer, N.; Hodak-Kobasic, V.; Kovac, T.; Calic, V. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Miosic, N.; Hrvatovic, H. [Geological Survey, Sarajevo (Yugoslavia)

    2004-09-15

    During the recent war, the karst area of Bosnia and Herzegovina has been jeopardized by hazardous waste and deserves particular attention because of its exceptional ecological sensitivity and unfortunately unscrupulous destruction of natural resources, infrastructure, homes and enterprises. This was the reason for creation and planning of a joint three year Project - APOPSBAL, within which scientists from the jeopardized countries (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia and Montenegro) with the help of scientists from other friendly countries (Czech Republic, Austria, Slovenia and Greece) would identify the real problems concerning the PCB and other POP's contamination of the environment. Objectives of this Project in Bosnia and Herzegovina are: To collect data about damaged facilities with oil with PCBs and also other even more dangerous POPs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Much better determining the hydrogeological fate of PCBs and other POPs compounds in the most threatened areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina polluted with the POPs. Special emphasis will be paid for the sensitive karstic media of these areas. To recognize in the field directly the technical state of electrotransformers and capacitors with pyralene with special attention to spilling of this oil into the environment. To sample soil and sediments from the sites thought polluted with PCBs and to analyse themselves on its content. To choose several sites for atmospheric monitoring samples with POPs, which are in surroundings to the ground argumentative contaminated with POPs in Bosnia and Herzegovina to establish real data about level of contamination of this very important part of human ecosphere. In this paper it will be reported the results of investigation from the first to the fourth objectives.

  8. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Michel, Jacqueline

    2010-05-01

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU(FCV,43)). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU(FCV,43) values: no-risk (1 - 2 - 3 - 5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU(FCV,43) > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30 - oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nightingale in Scutari: her legacy reexamined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; Gill, Gillian C

    2005-06-15

    Nearly a century after the death of Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), historians continue to debate her legacy. We discuss her seminal work during the Crimean War (1854-1856), the nature of these interventions during the war, and her continued impact today. We argue that Florence Nightingale's influence today extends beyond her undeniable impact on the field of modern nursing to the areas of infection control, hospital epidemiology, and hospice care.

  10. Planning for the recreational end use of a future LLR waste mound in Canada - Leaving an honourable legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleb, H.R.; Zelmer, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office was established in 1982 to carry out the federal government's responsibilities for low-level radioactive (LLR) waste management in Canada. In this capacity, the Office operates programs to characterize, delineate, decontaminate and consolidate historic LLR waste for interim and long-term storage. The Office is currently the proponent of the Port Hope Area Initiative; a program directed at the development and implementation of a safe, local long-term management solution for historic LLR waste in the Port Hope area. A legal agreement between the Government of Canada and the host community provides the framework for the implementation of the Port Hope Project. Specifically, the agreement requires that the surface of the long-term LLR waste management facility be 'conducive to passive and active recreational uses such as soccer fields and baseball diamonds'. However, there are currently no examples of licensed LLR waste management facilities in Canada that permit recreational use. Such an end use presents challenges with respect to engineering and design, health and safety and landscape planning. This paper presents the cover system design, the environmental effects assessment and the landscape planning processes that were undertaken in support of the recreational end use of the Port Hope long-term LLR waste management facility. (authors)

  11. Training to Fight Training and Education During the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winkler, David

    1997-01-01

    ... requirements of military missions." One of Legacy's nine task areas is the Cold War Project, which seeks to "inventory, protect, and conserve DoD's physical and literary property and relics" associated with the Cold War. In early 1993, Dr...

  12. Darwin's legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Leonard

    2009-07-01

    Charles Darwin was no theoretical physicist, and I am no biologist. Yet, as a theoretical physicist, I have found much to think about in Darwin's legacy - and in that of his fellow naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace. Darwin's style of science is not usually thought of as theoretical and certainly not mathematical: he was a careful observer of nature, kept copious notes, contributed to zoological collections; and eventually from his vast repertoire of observation deduced the idea of natural selection as the origin of species. The value of theorizing is often dismissed in the biological sciences as less important than observation; and Darwin was the master observer.

  13. Analyzing Patterns of Community Interest at a Legacy Mining Waste Site to Assess and Inform Environmental Health Literacy Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Lothrop, Nathan; Wilkinson, Sarah T.; Root, Robert A.; Artiola, Janick F.; Klimecki, Walter; Loh, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a community’s concerns and informational needs is crucial to conducting and improving environmental health research and literacy initiatives. We hypothesized that analysis of community inquiries over time at a legacy mining site would be an effective method for assessing environmental health literacy efforts and determining whether community concerns were thoroughly addressed. Through a qualitative analysis, we determined community concerns at the time of being listed as a Superfund site. We analyzed how community concerns changed from this starting point over the subsequent years, and whether: 1) communication materials produced by the USEPA and other media were aligned with community concerns; and 2) these changes demonstrated a progression of the community’s understanding resulting from community involvement and engaged research efforts. We observed that when the Superfund site was first listed, community members were most concerned with USEPA management, remediation, site-specific issues, health effects, and environmental monitoring efforts related to air/dust and water. Over the next five years, community inquiries shifted significantly to include exposure assessment and reduction methods and issues unrelated to the site, particularly the local public water supply and home water treatment systems. Such documentation of community inquiries over time at contaminated sites is a novel method to assess environmental health literacy efforts and determine whether community concerns were thoroughly addressed. PMID:27595054

  14. Shield evaluation and validation for design and operation of facility for treatment of legacy Intermediate Level Radioactive Liquid Waste (ILW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepa, A.; Jakhete, A.P.; Rathish, K.R.; Saroj, S.K.; Patel, H.S.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Gangadharan, Anand; Singh, Neelima

    2014-01-01

    An ion exchange treatment facility has been commissioned at PRIX facility, for the treatment of legacy ILW generated at reprocessing plant, Trombay. The treatment system is based on the deployment of selective sorbents for removal of cesium and strontium from ILW. Activity concentration due to beta emitters likely to be processed is of the order of 111-1850 MBq/l. Dose rates in different areas of the facility were evaluated using shielding code and design input. Present work give details of the comparison of dose rates estimated and dose rates measured at various stages of the processing of ILW. At PRIX, the ILW treatment system comprises of shielded IX columns (two cesium and one strontium) housed in a MS cubicle the process lines inlet and outlet of IX treatment system and effluent storage tanks. The MS cubicle, prefilter and piping are housed in a process cell of 500 mm concrete shielding. Effluent storage tanks are outside processing building. Theoretical assessment of expected dose rates were carried out prior to installation of various systems in different areas of PRIX. Dose rate on IX column and MS cubicle for a maximum inventory of 3.7x10 7 MBq of 137 Cs and its contribution in operating gallery was estimated

  15. Radioactive waste: the poisoned legacy of the nuclear industry; Dechets radioactifs: l'heritage empoisonne du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousselet, Y. [Campagne Climat/Energie - Greenpeace (France)

    2011-02-15

    The nuclear industry produces a huge amount of radioactive waste from one end to the other of the nuclear cycle: i.e. from mining uranium to uranium enrichment through reactor operating, waste reprocessing and dismantling nuclear power plants. Nuclear power is now being 'sold' to political leaders and citizens as an effective way to deal with climate change and ensure security of energy supplies. Nonetheless, nuclear energy is not a viable solution and is thus a major obstacle to the development of clean energy for the future. In addition to safety and security issues, the nuclear industry is, above all, faced with the huge problem of how to deal with the waste it produces and for which it has no solution. This ought to put a brake on the nuclear industry, but instead, against all expectations, its development continues to gather pace. (author)

  16. A Prototype Scintillating Fibre Tracker for the Cosmic-Ray Muon Tomography of Legacy Nuclear Waste Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, R.; Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.G.; Johnstone, J.R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly-penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm−2 min−1. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. This paper presents the prototype scintillating-fibre detector developed for this application at the University of Glasgow. Experimental results taken with test objects are shown in comparison to results from...

  17. A Prototype Scintillating-Fibre Tracker for the Cosmic-ray Muon Tomography of Legacy Nuclear Waste Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, R.; Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnston, J. R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-03-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly-penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm-2 min-1. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. This paper presents the prototype scintillating-fibre detector developed for this application at the University of Glasgow. Experimental results taken with test objects are shown in comparison to results from GEANT4 simulations. These results verify the simulation and show discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials imaged.

  18. A Prototype Scintillating-Fibre Tracker for the Cosmic-ray Muon Tomography of Legacy Nuclear Waste Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic-ray muons are highly-penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm−2 min−1. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. This paper presents the prototype scintillating-fibre detector developed for this application at the University of Glasgow. Experimental results taken with test objects are shown in comparison to results from GEANT4 simulations. These results verify the simulation and show discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials imaged.

  19. The design and performance of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-05-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons are increasingly being exploited for the non-destructive assay of shielded containers in a wide range of applications. One such application is the characterisation of legacy nuclear waste materials stored within industrial containers. The design, assembly and performance of a prototype muon tomography system developed for this purpose are detailed in this work. This muon tracker comprises four detection modules, each containing orthogonal layers of Saint-Gobain BCF-10 2 mm-pitch plastic scintillating fibres. Identification of the two struck fibres per module allows the reconstruction of a space point, and subsequently, the incoming and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. These allow the container content, with respect to the atomic number Z of the scattering material, to be determined through reconstruction of the scattering location and magnitude. On each detection layer, the light emitted by the fibre is detected by a single Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMT with two fibres coupled to each pixel via dedicated pairing schemes developed to ensure the identification of the struck fibre. The PMT signals are read out to standard charge-to-digital converters and interpreted via custom data acquisition and analysis software. The design and assembly of the detector system are detailed and presented alongside results from performance studies with data collected after construction. These results reveal high stability during extended collection periods with detection efficiencies in the region of 80% per layer. Minor misalignments of millimetre order have been identified and corrected in software. A first image reconstructed from a test configuration of materials has been obtained using software based on the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation algorithm. The results highlight the high spatial resolution provided by the detector system. Clear discrimination between the low, medium and high

  20. GEANT4 simulation of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D.J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.G. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Johnstone, J.R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG, England (United Kingdom); Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mahon, D.F., E-mail: David.Mahon@Glasgow.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Shearer, C.; Staines, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG, England (United Kingdom); Yang, G. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Zimmerman, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG, England (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-11

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly penetrative charged particles that are observed at the sea level with a flux of approximately one per square centimetre per minute. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering, which is exploited in the field of muon tomography to image shielded objects in a wide range of applications. In this paper, simulation studies are presented that assess the feasibility of a scintillating-fibre tracker system for use in the identification and characterisation of nuclear materials stored within industrial legacy waste containers. A system consisting of a pair of tracking modules above and a pair below the volume to be assayed is simulated within the GEANT4 framework using a range of potential fibre pitches and module separations. Each module comprises two orthogonal planes of fibres that allow the reconstruction of the initial and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. A likelihood-based image reconstruction algorithm has been developed that allows the container content to be determined with respect to the scattering density λ, a parameter which is related to the atomic number Z of the scattering material. Images reconstructed from this simulation are presented for a range of anticipated scenarios that highlight the expected image resolution and the potential of this system for the identification of high-Z materials within a shielded, concrete-filled container. First results from a constructed prototype system are presented in comparison with those from a detailed simulation. Excellent agreement between experimental data and simulation is observed showing clear discrimination between the different materials assayed throughout.

  1. GEANT4 simulation of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-05-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly penetrative charged particles that are observed at the sea level with a flux of approximately one per square centimetre per minute. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering, which is exploited in the field of muon tomography to image shielded objects in a wide range of applications. In this paper, simulation studies are presented that assess the feasibility of a scintillating-fibre tracker system for use in the identification and characterisation of nuclear materials stored within industrial legacy waste containers. A system consisting of a pair of tracking modules above and a pair below the volume to be assayed is simulated within the GEANT4 framework using a range of potential fibre pitches and module separations. Each module comprises two orthogonal planes of fibres that allow the reconstruction of the initial and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. A likelihood-based image reconstruction algorithm has been developed that allows the container content to be determined with respect to the scattering density λ, a parameter which is related to the atomic number Z of the scattering material. Images reconstructed from this simulation are presented for a range of anticipated scenarios that highlight the expected image resolution and the potential of this system for the identification of high-Z materials within a shielded, concrete-filled container. First results from a constructed prototype system are presented in comparison with those from a detailed simulation. Excellent agreement between experimental data and simulation is observed showing clear discrimination between the different materials assayed throughout.

  2. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  3. Denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter dominate bacterial communities in the highly contaminated subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Stefan [Florida State University; Prakash, Om [Florida State University; Jasrotia, Puja [Florida State University; Overholt, Will [Florida State University; Cardenas, Erick [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hubbard, Daniela [Florida State University; Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Watson, David B [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Kostka, Joel [Florida State University

    2011-01-01

    The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of ribosomal RNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure, and denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen and sampling season did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter. Results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment.

  4. A prototype scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, D.F., E-mail: David.Mahon@Glasgow.ac.uk [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom); Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D.J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.G. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom); Johnstone, J.R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG England (United Kingdom); Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom); Shearer, C.; Staines, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG England (United Kingdom); Yang, G. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom); Zimmerman, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG England (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-21

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm{sup −2} min{sup −1}. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. A prototype scintillating-fibre detector has been developed for this application, consisting of two tracking modules above and below the volume to be assayed. Each module comprises two orthogonal planes of 2 mm fibres. The modular configuration allows the reconstruction of the initial and scattered muon trajectories which enable the container content, with respect to atomic number Z, to be determined. Fibre signals are read out by Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMTs with two fibres coupled to each pixel via dedicated pairing schemes developed to avoid space point ambiguities and retain the high spatial resolution of the fibres. A likelihood-based image reconstruction algorithm was developed and tested using a GEANT4 simulation of the prototype system. Images reconstructed from this simulation are presented in comparison with experimental results taken with test objects. These results verify the simulation and show discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials imaged.

  5. Denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter dominate bacterial communities in the highly contaminated subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stefan J; Prakash, Om; Jasrotia, Puja; Overholt, Will A; Cardenas, Erick; Hubbard, Daniela; Tiedje, James M; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher W; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka, Joel E

    2012-02-01

    The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of rRNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure and that denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower-pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as the concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen level, and sampling season, did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter bacteria. The results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment.

  6. INCORPORATING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS INTO PROCESS DESIGN: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WASR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory integrates environmental impact assessment into chemical process design Potential en...

  7. A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A. [ANTECH Corporation 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States); Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel [Environmental Alternatives, Inc., 149 Emerald Street, Suite R, Keene, NH 03431 (United States); Nachtman, Thomas J. [InstaCote, Inc., 160 C. Lavoy Road, Erie, MI, 48133 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the process of decommissioning two gloveboxes at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that were employed for work with plutonium and other radioactive materials. The decommissioning process involved an initial phase of clearing tools and materials from the glove boxes and disconnecting them from the laboratory infrastructure. The removed materials, assessed as Transuranic (TRU) waste, were packaged into 55 gallon (200 litre) drums and prepared for ultimate disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad New Mexico. The boxes were then sampled to determine the radioactive contents by means of smears that were counted with alpha and beta detectors to determine the residual surface contamination, especially in terms of alpha particle emitters that are an indicator of TRU activity. Paint chip samples were also collected and sent for laboratory analysis in order to ascertain the radioactive contamination contributing to the TRU activity as a fixed contamination. The investigations predicted that it may be feasible to reduce the residual surface contamination and render the glovebox structure low level waste (LLW) for disposal. In order to reduce the TRU activity a comprehensive decontamination process was initiated using chemical compounds that are particularly effective for lifting and dissolving radionuclides that adhere to the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes. The result of the decontamination process was a reduction in the TRU surface activity on the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes by four orders of magnitude in terms of disintegrations per unit area (DPA). The next phase of the process involved a comprehensive assay of the gloveboxes using a combination of passive neutron and gamma ray scintillation detectors and a shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The HPGe detector was used to obtain gamma ray spectra for a variety of measurement positions within the glovebox. The spectra were used to

  8. A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard; Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel; Nachtman, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the process of decommissioning two gloveboxes at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that were employed for work with plutonium and other radioactive materials. The decommissioning process involved an initial phase of clearing tools and materials from the glove boxes and disconnecting them from the laboratory infrastructure. The removed materials, assessed as Transuranic (TRU) waste, were packaged into 55 gallon (200 litre) drums and prepared for ultimate disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad New Mexico. The boxes were then sampled to determine the radioactive contents by means of smears that were counted with alpha and beta detectors to determine the residual surface contamination, especially in terms of alpha particle emitters that are an indicator of TRU activity. Paint chip samples were also collected and sent for laboratory analysis in order to ascertain the radioactive contamination contributing to the TRU activity as a fixed contamination. The investigations predicted that it may be feasible to reduce the residual surface contamination and render the glovebox structure low level waste (LLW) for disposal. In order to reduce the TRU activity a comprehensive decontamination process was initiated using chemical compounds that are particularly effective for lifting and dissolving radionuclides that adhere to the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes. The result of the decontamination process was a reduction in the TRU surface activity on the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes by four orders of magnitude in terms of disintegrations per unit area (DPA). The next phase of the process involved a comprehensive assay of the gloveboxes using a combination of passive neutron and gamma ray scintillation detectors and a shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The HPGe detector was used to obtain gamma ray spectra for a variety of measurement positions within the glovebox. The spectra were used to

  9. Nuclear waste dumping in the oceans: Has the Cold War taught us anything?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody-O'Grady, K.

    1995-01-01

    The United States and other international actors have relied without much success on traditional approaches to contain environmental damage done to our oceans by Russian dumping of nuclear waste. Our arms control experience suggests that on-site inspection is successful in situations where there is a lack of information or a lack of trust. Using on-site inspection to gather information and bolster trust could ameliorate the problem of Russian dumping of radioactive wastes into the ocean, so long as the political and financial costs of on-site inspection do not prove to be prohibitively high

  10. The complex challenge of repairing the gantry steelwork on the first generation magnox storage pond at Sellafield: Legacy Waste Storage, First Generation Magnox Storage Pond - 59133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Ian E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts into context the challenges that were faced when repairing the Gantry Steelwork of the First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP). The First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond (FGMSP) provided fuel storage and de-canning capability from the early 1960's until 1986. A significant programme of work has been underway since the completion of operational activities to support the programmes strategic intent of retrieving and storing all legacy wastes, and remediating the structure of the plant to support decommissioning activities. A key enabler to the retrievals programme is the Pond Skip Handler Machine (SHM), removed from service in 2002 following the discovery of significant signs of corrosion and distress, an inevitable consequence of being located in a coastal, salt laden environment. The SHM provides sole capability to access and retrieve the inventory of over 1000 fuel skips. It is also fundamental to future operations and the deployment of de-sludging equipment to recover significant bulk sludge's from the pond floor. Failure of the SHM steelwork gantry at worst case could potentially result in the Skip Handler Machine being derailed. This has some potential to damage to the pond structure and at worst case may result in local radiological and environmental consequences. This paper will examine the challenges faced by the team as they successfully defined, planned and executed remedial work to a specific aspect of the civil structure, the SHM gantry rail system, using a purpose built refurbishment platform; the Gantry Refurbishment System. The paper will examine how an 'innovative' approach was adopted to resolve the related issues of: - Refurbishing an aged structure to meet extended future operational demands. - The application of pragmatic engineering solutions against current codes and standards including seismic performance; - Provision of safe access for the workforce to undertake the refurbishment work against significant radiological

  11. Ten Years of Legacy Management: U.S. DOE Office of Legacy Management Accomplishments - 13246

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Tony [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Miller, Judith [S.M. Stoller Corporation, 2597 Legacy Way, Grand Junction, CO 81503 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to provide a long-term, sustainable solution to environmental impacts that remain from nuclear weapons production during World War II and the Cold War. The production activities created adverse environmental conditions at over 100 sites. When LM was established on December 15, 2003, it became responsible for 33 sites where active environmental remediation was complete. Currently, LM is responsible for long-term surveillance and maintenance of environmental remedies, promotion of beneficial reuse of land and buildings, and management of records and information at 89 sites in 29 states and Puerto Rico. LM is also responsible for meeting contractual obligations associated with former contractor workers' pensions and post-retirement benefits. Effectively addressing this environmental and human legacy will continue to require a focused and well-managed effort. (authors)

  12. Ten Years of Legacy Management: U.S. DOE Office of Legacy Management Accomplishments - 13246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Tony; Miller, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to provide a long-term, sustainable solution to environmental impacts that remain from nuclear weapons production during World War II and the Cold War. The production activities created adverse environmental conditions at over 100 sites. When LM was established on December 15, 2003, it became responsible for 33 sites where active environmental remediation was complete. Currently, LM is responsible for long-term surveillance and maintenance of environmental remedies, promotion of beneficial reuse of land and buildings, and management of records and information at 89 sites in 29 states and Puerto Rico. LM is also responsible for meeting contractual obligations associated with former contractor workers' pensions and post-retirement benefits. Effectively addressing this environmental and human legacy will continue to require a focused and well-managed effort. (authors)

  13. Children and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  14. Legacy material work-off project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, T.J.; Baker, D.H. IV

    1999-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and its subcontractors recently completed a nine-month legacy material clean-up effort. Legacy materials were defined as chemicals, hazardous, non-hazardous, and both hazardous and radioactive (mixed), that no longer served a programmatic use and had no identified individual owner within the Laboratory. Once personnel identified the legacy materials, the items were transferred to Solid Waste Operation's (EM-SWO) control. Upon completing this process, the responsible division-level manager was required to certify that all non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous materials and acceptable mixed legacy materials had been identified and transferred to EM-SWO for proper handling or disposal. The major expense in this project was the cost of actual chemical and radiological analysis. This expense was the result of items not having an identified individual owner. The major benefit of this project is that LANL is now in an excellent position to implement its Integrated Safety Management (ISM) Plan, which requires the implementation of safe work practices, including requirements for removing unused items when vacating workspaces. Effective implementation of ISM will go a long way toward ensuring that legacy materials are no longer an issue at the Laboratory

  15. Radioactive legacies from medicine and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, R.; Rodriguez, J.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the unintended disposal of radioactive legacies (waste from medicine, industry or private persons) radioactive material occasionally enters the disposal ways of conventional waste. The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) and the Swiss accident Insurance Fund (Swiss) are the licensing authorities and regulatory agencies of the handling with radioactive materials for non-nuclear use. The aim is to avoid such incidents with concrete measures and so to preserve men and environment from the negative effect of not correctly disposed radioactive waste. (orig.)

  16. Nuclear war as false memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Timberlake

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Timberlake outlines aspects of his creative practice as an artist, explaining his fascination for the ‘fictions of nuclear war’ – a war that never happened and so became the subject of ‘false memory’. Highlighting discontinued historical trajectories, the author shows how the cultural legacy of Britain’s nuclear test programme of the 1950s and ’60s may be explored meaningfully in paintings and photography resulting from his archival research at the Imperial War Museum in London.

  17. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  18. Understanding legacy liabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossi, G.J. [Venable, LLP (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Among the most immediate issues facing operations with a workforce represented by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) are the so-called 'legacy liabilities'. Legacy liabilities fall under two categories: retiree health care and pension. The retiree health benefit obligations fall into two categories; statutory - those created under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 and contractual - the 1993 Employer Benefit Plan and the Individual Employer Plans. The pension liabilities are more straightforward; there are three different retirement plans in the NBCWA; the UMWA 1950 Pension Plan, the UMWA 1974 Pension Plan and the UMWA Cash Deferred Savings Plan of 1988.

  19. Altmetrics, Legacy Scholarship, and Scholarly Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B. Collister

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When using alternative metrics (altmetrics to investigate the impact of a scholar’s work, researchers and librarians are typically cautioned that altmetrics will be less useful for older works of scholarship. This is because it is difficult to collect social media and other attention retroactively, and the numbers will be lower if the work was published before social media marketing and promotion were widely accepted in a field. In this article, we argue that altmetrics can provide useful information about older works in the form of documenting renewed attention to past scholarship as part of a scholar’s legacy. Using the altmetrics profile of the late Dr. Thomas E. Starzl, often referred to as “the father of modern transplantation”, we describe two cases where altmetrics provided information about renewed interest in his works: a controversy about race and genetics that shows the ongoing impact of a particular work, and posthumous remembrances by colleagues which reveal his scholarly legacy.

  20. Environmental vulnerability as a legacy of violent conflict: a case study of the 2012 waste crisis in the Palestinian gathering of Shabriha, South Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Nora; van der Molen, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, South Lebanon faced a solid waste management crisis that particularly affected Palestinian refugee communities, which were excluded from municipal service mandates. By means of a case study of the Palestinian community living in Shabriha, this article demonstrates that the vulnerability to

  1. Creating legacy through evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Hans-Peter; Lynghøj, Hanne; Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    Contemporary discussions regarding sustainability and cultural policy increasingly tends to focus on the longterm perspective of cultural legacy. This paper addresses the complex relation between an overall program and its underlying projects and activities. A central question in this respect is ...

  2. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed

  3. Ivor Jennings's Constitutional Legacy beyond the Occidental-Oriental Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Malagodi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sir W. Ivor Jennings (1903–1965) was one of Britain's most prominent constitutional law scholars of the twentieth century. He is mostly famed for his work in the 1930s on English Public Law. In 1941, Jennings, however, moved to Sri Lanka, progressively becoming involved in both an academic and professional capacity with constitutional processes across the decolonizing world in the early stages of the Cold War. This article provides an alternative account of Jennings's constitutional legacy to...

  4. Paralympic Games: History and Legacy of a Global Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, David

    2018-05-01

    The Paralympic Games have an interesting history that began after World War II. The Games and movement have been impacted by and have had an impact on society and the larger able-bodied sport system. The future of the Games and movement is also further impacted by larger cultural shifts, and the Games themselves have potentially left lasting legacies for the host cities and persons with impairment worldwide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    Simon , Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...

  6. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The legacy of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armaroli, N.; Balzani, V. [CNR, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

  8. THE SECOND GENERATION OF THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM: A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    chemical process designers using simulation software generate alternative designs for one process. One criterion for evaluating these designs is their potential for adverse environmental impacts due to waste generated, energy consumed, and possibilities for fugitive emissions. Co...

  9. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called 'waste' is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented

  10. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  11. The SIRTF Legacy Observing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, M. A.; Leisawitz, D.; Gehrz, R. D.; Clemens, D. P.; Force, Sirtf Community Task

    1997-12-01

    Legacy Observations and General Observations(GO)are separate categories in which SIRTF observing time will be allocated through peer reviewed community proposals. The Legacy Program will embrace several projects, each headed by a Legacy Principal Investigator. Legacy Observations are distinguished from General Observations by the following three criteria: [1] the project is a large, coherent investigation whose scientific goals can not be met by a number of smaller, uncoordinated projects; [2] the data will be of both general and lasting importance to the broad astronomical community and of immediate utility in motivating and planning follow-on GO investigations with SIRTF; and [3] the data (unprocessed, fully processed, and at intermediate steps in processing) will be placed in a public data base immediately and with no proprietary period. The goals of the SIRTF Legacy program are: [1] enable community use of SIRTF for large coherent survey observations, [2] provide prompt community access to SIRTF survey data, and [3] enable GO program observations based on Legacy program results. A likely attribute (but not a requirement) for Legacy projects is that they may involve hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of hours of observing time. It is anticipated that as much as 6000 hours of telescope time will be allocated through the Legacy program. To meet Legacy program goal [3], allocation of as much as 70% of SIRTF's first year on orbit to Legacy projects may be necessary, and the observing phase of the Legacy program will be completed during the following year. A Legacy call for proposals will be issued 1 year prior to launch or sooner, and will be open to all scientists and science topics. In this poster, we display Legacy program definition and schedule items that will be of interest to those intending to propose under this unique opportunity.

  12. Movement of a tritium plume in shallow groundwater at a legacy low-level radioactive waste disposal site in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C E; Cendón, D I; Harrison, J J; Hankin, S I; Johansen, M P; Payne, T E; Vine, M; Collins, R N; Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T

    2011-10-01

    Between 1960 and 1968 low-level radioactive waste was buried in a series of shallow trenches near the Lucas Heights facility, south of Sydney, Australia. Groundwater monitoring carried out since the mid 1970s indicates that with the exception of tritium, no radioactivity above typical background levels has been detected outside the immediate vicinity of the trenches. The maximum tritium level detected in ground water was 390 kBq/L and the median value was 5400 Bq/L, decay corrected to the time of disposal. Since 1968, a plume of tritiated water has migrated from the disposal trenches and extends at least 100 m from the source area. Tritium in rainfall is negligible, however leachate from an adjacent and fill represents a significant additional tritium source. Study data indicate variation in concentration levels and plume distribution in response to wet and dry climatic periods and have been used to determine pathways for tritium migration through the subsurface.

  13. Organisational scenarios and legacy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brooke, Carole; Ramage, Magnus

    2001-01-01

    A legacy system is made up of technical components and social factors (such as software, people, skills, business processes) which no longer meet the needs of the business environment. The study of legacy systems has tended to be biased towards a software engineering perspective and to concentrate on technical properties. This paper suggests that the evaluation of potential change options for legacy systems can only be carried out as part of an holistic organisational analysis. That is, the e...

  14. Ite Boerema--surgeon and engineer with a double-Dutch legacy to medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopardi, Lisa N; Metcalfe, Matthew S; Forde, Allison; Maddern, Guy J

    2004-01-01

    Ite Boerema, 1902-1978: a Dutchman with a brilliant academic surgical career, and war hero, decorated for resistance to the Germans in World War II. As a man who regarded surgery as "engineering in medicine," we still feel his legacy in medical technology today, specifically with regard to his work on esophageal anastomoses and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. This biography places his major contributions to medicine in context of the man himself and of contemporary medicine.

  15. Issues Associated with Tritium Legacy Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Michael

    2008-01-01

    term study; - Molecular sieves containing adsorbed tritiated water; - Containers used to store 3 He (containing trace quantities of tritium); - Miscellaneous containers housing 'as yet' un-identified materials. AWE has developed a plan to manage, process and dispose of legacy tritium materials applying treatment methodologies that protect the environment and minimise waste arisings. This has been accomplished through the implementation of the well established BPM process

  16. Overview of radium legacies in Belgium - 59367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehandschutter, B.; Jadoul, L.; Mannaerts, K.; Pepin, S.; Poffijn, A.; Blommaert, W.; Sonck, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Belgian metallurgical company, Union Miniere, has been a key-player in the sector of radium production between 1922 and 1969. The factory based in Olen has extracted radium from minerals and produced radium sources during that period. The radium production facilities have been dismantled in the 70's but legacies of the former production have still to be remediated. An overview of these legacies and of their radiological characteristics will be given. Next to the sites related to radium production, other radium legacies are related to NORM industries, essentially from the phosphate sector (phosphogypsum and CaF 2 stacks). The issue of radium legacies in Belgium encompasses a variety of concrete situations. Next to the issue of the legacies of the former radium production, the other radium contaminated sites are related to current or former NORM industries, especially from the phosphate sector. The methodological and regulatory approaches towards these sites have been described elsewhere in these proceedings. The outcome differs according to the specificities of the site: it will not be the same for the legacies of former radium production where the inventory of radioactivity includes materials which have to be considered and treated as radioactive waste (for example, disused radium sources) than for phosphogypsum stacks where a sufficient level of protection may be brought by relatively simple measures such as restrictions on the use of the site. For these sites, like PG stacks, where radon is the most important exposure pathway in case of intrusion scenario, regulatory measures similar to the ones applied to 'radon-prone areas' (restrictions in the construction of buildings, compulsory radon monitoring in workplaces present on the site,...) may be implemented. In all cases, the radiological risk-assessment will be crucial for the decision-making process. The examples given showed that the probability of occurrence of 'intrusion scenario' (like construction of

  17. Remediation of legacy sites in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiryaeva, Nina; Skurat, Vladimir; Zhemzhurov, Michail; Myshkina, Nadezhda; Chaternik, Romouald; Yacko, Svetlana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In Belarus there are several kinds several types of radioactive waste repositories, which present the different legacy sites, namely: 1-) Decontamination wastes of the Chernobyl origin from decontaminating the territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Decontamination wastes (DW) are placed in repositories of near surface type with engineered barriers and without them; 2-) Disused radioactive sources, that were found in the territories of the former military bases disbanded in Belarus after disintegration of the Soviet Union. These wastes have been stored in the concrete wells in different places of Belarus. Decontamination wastes of the Chernobyl origin are a great problem for Belarus. They result from decontaminating the territory of Belarus from radioactive fall-outs after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident. Decontamination wastes were placed in more than 90 repositories near 78 settlements. Their disposal sites were mainly chosen without detail account of hydrogeological conditions. Therefore the most of them are of potential hazard because of possible secondary radioactive contamination of the ecosystems. At the moment in accordance with the State Program of Republic of Belarus to mitigate and overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident the necessary measures on the guaranteeing of decontamination waste storage reliability have been performed, such as compacting of DW disposal sites; upper isolation of DW with the protected one or two layers clay layer of 0.5 m thickness and soil layer from near territory of 1.0 m thickness; turfing of disposal site territory by sowing grasses. At present works are being continued on decontamination of residential properties, and also dismantling and burying of contaminated industrial equipment. For these purposes and also for control and maintenance of these legacy sites Belarus allocates 1.6 million dollars annually. After disbanding the military divisions of

  18. Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  19. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  20. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM

  1. Process analytical chemistry applied to actinide waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy is being called upon to clean up it's legacy of waste from the nuclear complex generated during the cold war period. Los Alamos National Laboratory is actively involved in waste minimization and waste stream polishing activities associated with this clean up. The Advanced Testing Line for Actinide Separations (ATLAS) at Los Alamos serves as a developmental test bed for integrating flow sheet development of nitric acid waste streams with process analytical chemistry and process control techniques. The wastes require processing in glove boxes because of the radioactive components, thus adding to the difficulties of making analytical measurements. Process analytical chemistry methods provide real-time chemical analysis in support of existing waste stream operations and enhances the development of new waste stream polishing initiatives. The instrumentation and methods being developed on ATLAS are designed to supply near-real time analyses on virtually all of the chemical parameters found in nitric acid processing of actinide waste. These measurements supply information on important processing parameters including actinide oxidation states, free acid concentration, interfering anions and metal impurities

  2. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jager, Sheila M

    2007-01-01

    ... of memory, identity, and nationalism. The potential for violent military clashes in the Taiwan Strait and the Korean peninsula largely involve disputes over history and territory, linked as they are to the unresolved legacies of the Cold War...

  3. Schiaparelli and his legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, A.; Trinchieri, G.

    Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli has been one of the most important Italian astronomers of the eighteen hundreds. He was an active scientist and the director of the Brera Observatory for close to 40 years; his scientific achievements and his personal influence can be traced to a very large community of people and subjects, which go well beyond the observations of Mars, for which he is most famous. His vast range of interests, which include studies on history of Astronomy and ancient languages, Solar System bodies, meteorology, and Earth sciences, are well documented and will be the reviewed in this conference. More relevant to modern science, he has left us a very solid legacy, both with his pioneering scientific works, now progressing with new discoveries and the aid of new technology, and with the consequences of his observations of Mars, which have greatly influenced the literary world and have opened new research activities in medicine.

  4. Dardanel Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet EYİCİL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the opening of the Dardanel Front was to establish a link between allies and Russia and to push The Ottoman Empire out of the war. In order to reach this cause, upon Churchill’s suggestion, the English War Commitee met on 28 January 1915 and decided to attack the Dardanels on February 19. The allies fleet tried to pass the Dardanels several times but they failed. Their biggest attack for the Straits took place on 18 March, which was failed and the fleet lost one third of its power. After the failure on the sea to pass the Straits the allies landed on Gallipoli to invade İstanbul. Landing took place from April 1 to December 22 the wars on lands lasted more than 8 months, during which Turkish army fought heroic battles. Fierce battles took place on Kabatepe, Seddülbahir, Alçıtepe, Kilitbahir, Anafartalar, Arıburnu. Upon failure on the land the allies started to withdraw from this front on 8 January 1915. The Dardanels wars which was lost by the allies caused the First World War to continue two more years. Tsarist regime was collapsed in Russia and its place Bolshevik regime came. The Turks put aside bad results of the Balkan Wars and became again a heroic nation. Because of his successes Mustafa Kemal became a genious commander. Most importantly Dardanels wars gave its honours to the Turkish army

  5. Till Moritz Karbach, Scientific Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    We are deeply touched by the sudden loss of our dear friend and colleague Till Moritz Karbach. With this memorial book we wish to commemorate Moritz’ scientific legacy, and what Moritz meant to us as a friend.

  6. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  7. Privatization considerations of environmental remediation of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zocher, M.A.; Paananen, O.H.; Kost, K.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of privatizing the application of environmental cleanup technologies to remediate nuclear waste within the DOE complex. These wastes are the legacy of the production of nuclear materials during the cold war era. It is anticipated that the privatization strategy will result in more efficient and less expensive approaches to the cleanup of DOE wastes. Similar privatization initiatives have the potential to achieve increased efficiency and cost savings at sites under the Department of Defense (DOD) and other Federal agencies. The DOE is privatizing a major, complex portion of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program at the Hanford nuclear reservation located in eastern Washington State. This effort will involve private companies that will design, permit, construct, operate, and finally deactivate waste treatment facilities that will be owned entirely by the private sector. The DOE will purchase treated waste products on a unit cost basis from the facilities after supplying the vendors with waste from the tank farm at Hanford. The privatization of selected United States and international Government functions involve decisions that are based on accurate and valid cost information. Private firms are beginning to privatize certain corporate activities so that they may concentrate business activities along main product or mission lines. In either the public or private sector, many aspects of cost engineering are utilized to make prioritization a success

  8. Mud, Blood, and Bullet Holes: Teaching History with War Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    From handwritten letters of the American Revolution to typed emails from Iraq and Afghanistan, correspondence from U.S. troops offers students deep insight into the specific conflicts and experiences of soldiers. Over 100,000 correspondences have been donated to the Legacy Project, a national initiative launched in 1998 to preserve war letters by…

  9. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  10. Maxwell's Enduring Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longair, Malcolm

    2016-07-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Figure credits; Part I. To 1874: 1. Physics in the nineteenth century; 2. Mathematics and physics in Cambridge in the nineteenth century; Part II. 1874 to 1879: 3. The Maxwell era; Part III. 1879 to 1884: 4. Rayleigh's Quinquennium; Part IV. 1884 to 1919: 5. The challenges facing J. J. Thomson; 6. The J. J. Thomson era, 1884-1900 - the electron; 7. The Thomson era, 1900-19 - atomic structure; Part V. 1919 to 1937: 8. Rutherford at McGill and Manchester Universities - new challenges in Cambridge; 9. The Rutherford era - the radioactivists; 10. Rutherford era - the seeds of the new physics; Part VI. 1938 to 1953: 11. Bragg and the war years; 12. Bragg and the post-war years; Part VII. 1953 to 1971: 13. The Mott era - an epoch of expansion; 14. The Mott era - radio astronomy and high energy physics; 15. The Mott era - the growth of condensed matter physics; Part VIII. 1971 to 1982: 16. The Pippard era - a new laboratory and a new vision; 17. The Pippard era - radio astronomy, high energy physics and laboratory astrophysics; 18. The Pippard era - condensed matter physics; Part IX. 1984 to 1995: 19. The Edwards era - a new epoch of expansion; 20. The Edwards era - new directions in condensed matter physics; 21. The Edwards era - high energy physics and radio astronomy; Part X. 1995 to present: 22. Towards the new millennium and beyond; 23. The evolution of the New Museums site; Notes; Bibliography; Author index; Index.

  11. The Planck Legacy Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupac, X.; Arviset, C.; Fernandez Barreiro, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Tauber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Planck Collaboration has released in 2015 their second major dataset through the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA). It includes cosmological, Extragalactic and Galactic science data in temperature (intensity) and polarization. Full-sky maps are provided with unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity, together with a large number of ancillary maps, catalogues (generic, SZ clusters and Galactic cold clumps), time-ordered data and other information. The extensive cosmological likelihood package allows cosmologists to fully explore the plausible parameters of the Universe. A new web-based PLA user interface is made public since Dec. 2014, allowing easier and faster access to all Planck data, and replacing the previous Java-based software. Numerous additional improvements to the PLA are also being developed through the so-called PLA Added-Value Interface, making use of an external contract with the Planetek Hellas and Expert Analytics software companies. This will allow users to process time-ordered data into sky maps, separate astrophysical components in existing maps, simulate the microwave and infrared sky through the Planck Sky Model, and use a number of other functionalities.

  12. Negative legacy of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohsuke Shirakawa

    Full Text Available Obesity promotes excessive inflammation, which is associated with senescence-like changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. We have reported that a unique population of CD44hi CD62Llo CD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 exhibit cellular senescence and cause VAT inflammation by producing large amounts of osteopontin. Weight loss improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors, but its long-term effects on cardiovascular events and longevity in obese individuals with T2DM are somewhat disappointing and not well understood. High-fat diet (HFD-fed obese mice were subjected to weight reduction through a switch to a control diet. They lost body weight and visceral fat mass, reaching the same levels as lean mice fed a control diet. However, the VAT of weight reduction mice exhibited denser infiltration of macrophages, which formed more crown-like structures compared to the VAT of obese mice kept on the HFD. Mechanistically, CD153+ PD-1+ CD4+ T cells are long-lived and not easily eliminated, even after weight reduction. Their continued presence maintains a self-sustaining chronic inflammatory loop via production of large amounts of osteopontin. Thus, we concluded that T-cell senescence is essentially a negative legacy effect of obesity.

  13. The Bruno Touschek legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, E.

    1981-01-01

    A biographical portrait of Bruno Touschek, an Austrian physicist who, before and during the Second World War, went through the dramatic adventures of a non-pure arian young person. Later he worked in Germany, Great Britain and Italy. Touschek was the first to propose chiral symmetry. He was the initiator and main driving force in the early developments of e + e - colliding machines. His wide scientific culture, his ingenuity and enthusiams for any new challenging problem and the search of its solution were essential elements in determining the extraordinary influence Bruno had on the work of his younger colleagues. 'He led an intense and vigorous life and by his example and friendliness helped many colleagues and friends to achieve greater happiness and awareness in their own lives'. (orig.)

  14. A remarkable legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Stuart

    2008-02-01

    Joseph Rotblat, who died in 2005 at the age of 96, was a rare combination of distinguished scientist and leading peace advocate. During the Second World War he was involved with the Manhattan Project - which created the world's first atomic bombs - but then decided to resign on ethical grounds. This life-changing decision set the scene for the dual role that he would play for the rest of his life. On the one hand, Rotblat was a key figure in setting up and leading the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, which bring together scientists and public figures concerned with reducing the danger of armed conflict and seeking co-operative solutions for global problems. On the other, he was an accomplished nuclear and medical physicist, eventually becoming president of the British Institute of Radiology.

  15. The CEO's real legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Kenneth W

    2004-11-01

    The literature on CEO succession planning is nearly unanimous in its advice: Begin early, look first inside your company for exceptional talent, see that candidates gain experience in all aspects of the business, and help them develop the skills they will need in the top job. It all makes sense and sounds pretty straightforward. Nevertheless, the list of CEOs who last no more than a few years on the job continues to grow. Implicit in many, if not all, of these unceremonious departures is the absence of an effective CEO succession plan. The problem is, most boards simply don't want to talk about CEO succession: Why rock the boat when things are going well? Why risk offending the current CEO? Meanwhile, most CEOs can't imagine that anyone could adequately replace them. In this article, Kenneth W. Freeman, the retired CEO of Quest Diagnostics, discusses his own recent handoff experience (Surya N. Mohapatra became chief executive in May 2004) and offers his approach to succession planning. He says it falls squarely on the incumbent CEO to put ego aside and initiate and actively manage the process of selecting and grooming a successor. Aggressive succession planning is one of the best ways for CEOs to ensure the long-term health of the company, he says. Plus, thinking early and often about a successor will likely improve the chief executive's performance during his tenure. Freeman advocates the textbook rules for succession planning but adds to that list a few more that apply specifically to the incumbent CEO: Insist that the board become engaged in succession planning, look for a successor who is different from you, and make the successor's success your own. After all, Freeman argues, the CEO's true legacy is determined by what happens after he leaves the corner office.

  16. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  17. The radiation legacy of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear weapons making and testing, operation of enterprises of the nuclear industry, of military and civilian nuclear fleet, as well as peaceful nuclear explosions -- all that led in the USSR to release of radioactive products into the environment. In some parts of the FSU radioactive contamination exceeded permissible levels. The necessity of remediation of such territories became evident. The most part of the contamination resulted from major radiation accidents in Kyshtym (19570 and Chernobyl (1986). Today those objects, as well as some sites of radwaste storage and disposal, written-off nuclear submarines with non-unloaded spent nuclear fuel, some floating and on-shore repositories of nuclear fleet's radwaste and spent nuclear fuel, pose a potential hazard to the biosphere. Appropriate measures aimed at decreasing their impact on the population and environment are needed. Such measures should include both restoration of contaminated lands and social support programs for the population affected by radiation. The main task of the rehabilitation is reduction of consequences of internal and external exposure of the people, creation of necessary conditions for efficient and safe economical activities. Concrete objectives should be determined, as well as principles and standards to ensure radiation safety when conducting remediation works, and also -- specifications for evaluation of the lands condition prior to their remediation, criteria of decision making, rehabilitation planning, techniques of the lands' restoration and recommendations for their future uses. The Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' envisages studies on Russia's radiation legacy's assessment on the basis of up-to-date information technologies of computer-based systems for data collection, storage and processing for accounting and analysis of information on availability, origin, physical and chemical

  18. War Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare as a profou......This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare...

  19. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  20. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  1. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  2. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  3. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    Hills seemed especially urgent. An economic depression hit the country in 1873 followed by the discovery of gold in the Black Hills the next year...University of Oklahoma Press, 1994). 84 Endnotes 1. John S. Gray, “ Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876,” (n.p.: The Old Army Press, 1976) p. 211

  4. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  5. Einstein's Legacy, at the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    One-hundred years on, Albert Einstein's theories continue to fuel the daily work of physicists. From research into gravity waves to the quest for grand unification in physics, today's researchers have not finished with the legacy of the most famous and iconic physicist of the 20th Century.

  6. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla - The AC System that he Helped to Usher in. D P Sen Gupta. General Article Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 54-69. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 4. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla - AC Power System and its Growth in India. D P Sen Gupta. General Article Volume 12 Issue 4 April 2007 pp 69-79. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Scientific legacy of Stanley Ruby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, G. K.

    2006-01-01

    Stanley L. Ruby (1924-2004) made major contributions to Moessbauer spectroscopy and was the first to suggest the feasibility of observing the Moessbauer effect using synchrotron radiation. In this article we recall his scientific legacy that have inspired his scientific colleagues.

  9. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  10. Contemporary Modernity and 'Death Ethics': Antecedents and Impacts of Western Expansion as War in the Northern Plains, 1820 - 1880

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Leece Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In the broadest sense, the dissertation identifies the "death ethics of war" during Western expansion of the United States, its claims to exceptionalism, and its enduring legacies in Native American contexts historically and today. The logic of Western European expansion in the Americas can be argued to have exemplified the theory the "death ethics of war". I engage Nelson Maldonado-Torres's articulation of the "death ethics of war" to identify the political logics behind the normalization of...

  11. Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o`clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course.

  12. Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o'clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course

  13. The biomedicalisation of war and military remains: US nuclear worker compensation in the 'post-Cold War'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Shiloh

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent legislation and administration of United States nuclear worker compensation--the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Programme Act (EEOICPA)--in order to show the domestic impacts of war and the social order that has been established to respond to the Cold War legacy of occupational exposures, illness, and death. Examining the epistemological politics and material effects of compensation, an insufficiently analysed aspect of the Cold War, I argue that the system designed to redress the occupational exposures of nuclear workers accomplishes something else: obscuring the ethical problem of misinformation and missing data from the Cold War era; mobilising an industry of knowledge and market-economic opportunities in the arena of biomedical exposure assessment and dose reconstruction for parts of the former US nuclear complex; and, lastly, dematerialising and depoliticising geographies of the Cold War and its differential impacts through an individualistic epidemiological reprocessing of radiation exposures. The paper shows how the general claims procedure, combined with two methods mandated by EEOICPA--dose reconstruction and the probability of causation--effectively de-link workers from each other, and worksites from homes, pin compensation to a cost-benefit logic, implicate genuine scientific complexity and uncertainty in an ongoing denial of the toxic legacies of war, and ethically undermine the social justice aims of the legislation. The article ends by considering some of the ways that US nuclear workers have responded to living as the remains of both US bomb production and the compensation system.

  14. Perpetual War?

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, General Wesley; Mann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Michael Mann documents the increasing substitution of war for diplomacy by US policy elites. In part, the substitution has come about because of ideological change but also because the "Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex" maintains a high level of military spending due to the fact that most congressional districts receive some form of military expenditure from bases to munitions production. General Wesley Clark considers foreign policy under the Bush administration. He argues ...

  15. Currency wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs academic 2015-2016 A currency war (also known as the competitive depreciation or a policy of impoverish the neighbor) occurs when a country wants to obtain a competitive advantage which improve its trade balancethrough a series of changes in its currency. With these currency movements exports become cheaper for foreigners while imports become more expensive for residents in the own nation. These advantages produce strong...

  16. Globalizing Contemporary War

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Zisler

    2009-01-01

    There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008).These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ pre...

  17. Smog wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospodarek, M.P.

    1979-04-12

    International discussions of transboundary pollution, which have not been able to find a way to effect the agreed-upon principle that no nation should have to suffer another nation's pollution, parallel the smog wars across state boundaries. The states, however, can blame the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as each other because of relaxed and unevenly applied standards. Several EPA decisions are cited to illustrate tensions between states and the alienation of the environmental lobby. Of particular concern are the application of smog and ozone standards in rural areas and the effect of offset policy on industrial development.

  18. Gulf War Syndrome: a review of current knowledge and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, D

    2014-01-01

    The 1991 Persian Gulf War was a resounding military success for coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait following the Iraqi invasion. The medical legacy we have from the conflict is the poorly understood, yet remarkable, phenomenon of Gulf War Syndrome, which surfaced soon after. Epidemiological research has proven beyond doubt that Gulf War veterans report a wide variety of symptoms, in excess of appropriately matched control subjects, and experience worse general health. Numerous toxic environmental hazards have been suggested as causes of Gulf War Syndrome, yet exhaustive scientific study has failed to provide conclusive proof of any link. No novel or recognised disease has been found to account for the symptomatic burden of veterans, and the optimal treatment remains uncertain. This understanding can be added to from an anthropological perspective, where the narratives of those afflicted provide further insight. The nature of military life was changing at the time of the Gulf War, challenging the identity and beliefs of some veterans and causing socio-cultural distress. The symptomatic presentation of Gulf War Syndrome can be considered an articulation of this disharmony. Gulf War Syndrome can also be considered within the group of post-combat disorders such as shellshock, the like of which have occurred after major wars in the last century. With the current withdrawal from Afghanistan, the Defence Medical Services (DMS) should heed the lessons of history.

  19. Repurposing legacy data innovative case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing Legacy Data: Innovative Case Studies takes a look at how data scientists have re-purposed legacy data, whether their own, or legacy data that has been donated to the public domain. Most of the data stored worldwide is legacy data-data created some time in the past, for a particular purpose, and left in obsolete formats. As with keepsakes in an attic, we retain this information thinking it may have value in the future, though we have no current use for it. The case studies in this book, from such diverse fields as cosmology, quantum physics, high-energy physics, microbiology,

  20. Images, Imagination and Impact: War in Painting and Photography from Vietnam to Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    the United 66 Lawrence Freedman, Kennedy’s Wars: Berlin, Cuba , Laos, and Vietnam (New York: Oxford...had solid anti-Nazi legacies. Thus, especially postwar philosophy in Germany was influenced by Marxism as a clear counter-reaction to National...165. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993. Freedman, Lawrence. Kennedy’s Wars: Berlin, Cuba , Laos, and Vietnam. New York: Oxford University Press

  1. A salute to the nurses of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakiron, M

    1995-11-01

    The nation recently celebrated the 50th anniversary of World War II (WWII) with a renewed interest in Pearl Harbor and D-Day (ie, the day the Allies invaded Europe.) One group of war heroes--all volunteers--received little attention, although they endured bombings, torpedoes, antiaircraft fire, prison, starvation, and death. They were the nurses of WWII. They served all over the world and left a legacy that today's perioperative nurses are committed to preserving. This article was written to honor the nurses of WWII. It relates only a few stories of thousands that could be told.

  2. China's Scientific Investigation for Liquid Waste Treatment Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liangjin, B.; Meiqiong, L.; Kelley, D.

    2006-01-01

    Post World War II created the nuclear age with several countries developing nuclear technology for power, defense, space and medical applications. China began its nuclear research and development programs in 1950 with the establishment of the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) located near Beijing. CIAE has been China's leader in nuclear science and technical development with its efforts to create advanced reactor technology and upgrade reprocessing technology. In addition, with China's new emphasis on environmental safety, CIAE is focusing on waste treatment options and new technologies that may provide solutions to legacy waste and newly generated waste from the full nuclear cycle. Radioactive liquid waste can pose significant challenges for clean up with various treatment options including encapsulation (cement), vitrification, solidification and incineration. Most, if not all, nuclear nations have found the treatment of liquids to be difficult, due in large part to the high economic costs associated with treatment and disposal and the failure of some methods to safely contain or eliminate the liquid. With new environmental regulations in place, Chinese nuclear institutes and waste generators are beginning to seek new technologies that can be used to treat the more complex liquid waste streams in a form that is safe for transport and for long-term storage or final disposal. [1] In 2004, CIAE and Pacific Nuclear Solutions, a division of Pacific World Trade, USA, began discussions about absorbent technology and applications for its use. Preliminary tests were conducted at CIAE's Department of Radiochemistry using generic solutions, such as lubricating oil, with absorbent polymers for solidification. Based on further discussions between both parties, it was decided to proceed with a more formal test program in April, 2005, and additional tests in October, 2005. The overall objective of the test program was to apply absorbent polymers to various waste streams

  3. Nuclear weapons at 70: reflections on the context and legacy of the Manhattan Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, B Cameron

    2015-01-01

    August 2015 marks the 70th anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These bombs, the products of the United States Army’s Manhattan Project, helped to end World War II and had enormous long-term effects on global political strategies by setting the stage for the Cold War and nuclear proliferation. This article explores the context and legacy of the Manhattan Project. The state of the war in the summer of 1945 is described, as are how the target cities came to be chosen, deliberations surrounding whether the bombs should be used directly or demonstrated first, and the long-term effects of the Project on individual scientists, the relationship between scientists and society, the subsequent development of nuclear arsenals around the world, and the current status of these arsenals and how they might evolve in the future. (invited comment)

  4. Nuclear weapons at 70: reflections on the context and legacy of the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2015-08-01

    August 2015 marks the 70th anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These bombs, the products of the United States Army’s Manhattan Project, helped to end World War II and had enormous long-term effects on global political strategies by setting the stage for the Cold War and nuclear proliferation. This article explores the context and legacy of the Manhattan Project. The state of the war in the summer of 1945 is described, as are how the target cities came to be chosen, deliberations surrounding whether the bombs should be used directly or demonstrated first, and the long-term effects of the Project on individual scientists, the relationship between scientists and society, the subsequent development of nuclear arsenals around the world, and the current status of these arsenals and how they might evolve in the future.

  5. The Sensitivity Of Carbon Steels' Susceptibility To Localized Corrosion To The pH Of Nitrate Based Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Hanford tank reservation contains approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war weapons production, which is stored in 177 underground storage tanks. The tanks will be in use until waste processing operations are completed. The wastes tend to be high pH (over 10) and nitrate based. Under these alkaline conditions carbon steels tend to be passive and undergo relatively slow uniform corrosion. However, the presence of nitrate and other aggressive species, can lead to pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This work is a continuation of previous work that investigated the propensity of steels to suffer pitting and stress corrosion cracking in various waste simulants. The focus of this work is an investigation of the sensitivity of the steels' pitting and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility tosimulant pH. Previous work demonstrated that wastes that are high in aggressive nitrate and low in inhibitory nitrite are susceptible to localized corrosion. However, the previous work involved wastes with pH 12 or higher. The current work involves wastes with lower pH of 10 or 11. It is expected that at these lower pHs that a higher nitrite-to-nitrate ratio will be necessary to ensure tank integrity. This experimental work involved both electrochemical testing, and slow strain rate testing at either the free corrosion potential or under anodic polarization. The results of the current work will be discussed, and compared to work previously presented.

  6. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  7. Philosophical Remarks on Nelson Mandela's Education Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Yusef

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on Nelson Mandela's (Madiba, the clan name of Mandela) education legacy. I argue that Madiba's education legacy is constituted by three interrelated aspects: firstly, an education for non-violence guided by deliberation, compassion and reconciliation; secondly, education as responsibility towards the Other; and thirdly,…

  8. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  9. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2018-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; colonial wars in V.; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various...... culture wars – hippies against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland and Inherent Vice; and the war on terror in Bleeding Edge. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only political or military but also social...... and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order; from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic missiles of the cold war, the irregular engagements of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and the digitalized fall-out of cyber-warfare....

  10. The Legacy of S Chandrasekhar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    broader perspective of a life devoted to science. It is from this broader perspective that I want to reflect upon Chandra's life in this article. ... He wrapped up his findings in a monograph, his first book titled, An .... During the second world war, he.

  11. Immobilization of hazardous and radioactive waste into glass structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1997-01-01

    As a result of more than three decades of international research, glass has emerged as the material of choice for immobilization of a wide range of potentially hazardous radioactive and non-radioactive materials. The ability of glass structures to incorporate and then immobilize many different elements into durable, high integrity, waste glass products is a direct function of the unique random network structure of the glassy state. Every major country involved with long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has either selected or is considering glass as the matrix of choice for immobilizing and ultimately, disposing of the potentially hazardous, high-level radioactive material. There are many reasons why glass is preferred. Among the most important considerations are the ability of glass structures to accommodate and immobilize the many different types of radionuclides present in HLW, and to produce a product that not only has excellent technical properties, but also possesses good processing features. Good processability allows the glass to be fabricated with relative ease even under difficult remote-handling conditions necessary for vitrification of highly radioactive material. The single most important property of the waste glass produced is its ability to retain hazardous species within the glass structure and this is reflected by its excellent chemical durability and corrosion resistance to a wide range of environmental conditions. In addition to immobilization of HLW glass matrices are also being considered for isolation of many other types of hazardous materials, both radioactive as well as nonradioactive. This includes vitrification of various actinides resulting from clean-up operations and the legacy of the cold war, as well as possible immobilization of weapons grade plutonium resulting from disarmament activities. Other types of wastes being considered for immobilization into glasses include transuranic wastes, mixed wastes, contaminated

  12. Quality assurance program plan for cesium legacy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanke, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides information on how the Quality Assurance Program is implemented for the Cesium Legacy Project. It applies to those items and tasks which affect the completion of activities identified in the work breakdown structure of the Project Management Plan (PMP). These activities include all aspects of cask transportation, project related operations within the 324 Building, and waste management as it relates to the specific activities of this project. General facility activities (i.e. 324 Building Operations, Central Waste Complex Operations, etc.) are covered in other appropriate QAPPs. The 324 Building is currently transitioning from being a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) managed facility to a B and W Hanford Company (BWHC) managed facility. During this transition process existing PNNL procedures and documents will be utilized until replaced by BWHC procedures and documents

  13. Creation and implementation of the international information system for radiation legacy of the USSR 'RADLEG'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The stating of radiological problem of the radiation legacy of the Soviet and Russian military and civil programs of the nuclear fuel cycle have became possible after 'cold war' termination. The objective of the 'RADLEG' project is 'Development of a sophisticated computer based data system for evaluation of the radiation legacy of the former USSR and setting priorities on remediation and prevention policy'. The goal of the 'RADLEG' Project Phase 1 was creation of a simple operational database to be linked to GIS, describing currently available information on radiation legacy of the former USSR. During the Project Phase 2 the public accessible database linked to GIS has been developed. This GIS data system containing comprehensive information on the radiation legacy of the former Soviet Union has been developed in order to aid policy makers in two principle areas: to identify and set priorities on radiation safety problems, and to provide guidance for the development of technically, economically and socially sound policies to reduce health and environmental impact of radioactively contaminated sites. (author)

  14. [Georg Friedrich Nicolai: war physician against war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, L

    2017-01-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai was a German professor and heart specialist who was one of the few who protested against the war at the beginning of World War I. As a result, he lost his job and was convicted. After the war, right-wing nationalist students and lack of support from his university superiors made it impossible for him to teach. He left Germany in 1922, never to return. In his book, Die Biologie des Krieges (The Biology of War), which was published in neutral Switzerland in 1917, he contradicted the social Darwinist idea - supported by many physicians as well - that war strengthened humanity, people and races, physically and mentally. On the contrary, he argued, war is biologically counterproductive.

  15. When the Drug War Hits the Fan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A growing number of experts and ordinary citizens are realizing that our current drug policies are immoral, wasteful, inefficient, un-American, and more harmful than beneficial. The Drug War places U.S. liberties, communities, and children at risk. A sidebar outlines drug abuse lies promulgated by the media. Another sidebar provides seven…

  16. Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but

  17. Legacies of the bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvey, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Legacies are what we pass on to those who follow us, the foundations on which the next advances in our science are being made; the things by which we shall be remembered, recorded in learned journals, written in the text books -food for the historians of science. This is not a summary, and it will draw no conclusions. It is a personal view which will look a little wider than the main physics results to include a mention of one or two of the technologies and methods handed on to both particle physics and other branches of sciences, a brief reference to bubble chamber pictures as aids in teaching, and a comment on the challenge now increasingly applied in the UK - and perhaps elsewhere -as a criterion for funding research: will it contribute to ''wealth creation''? (orig.)

  18. Influence of urban runoff, inappropriate waste disposal practices and World War II on the heavy metal status of sediments in the southern half of Saipan Lagoon, Saipan, CNMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, Gary R.W.; Emborski, Carmen A.; Habana, Nathan C.; Starmer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metals were examined in sediments from the southern half of Saipan Lagoon. • This area is chronically impacted by stormwater discharges all along the coast. • Generally, the study identified moderate metal enrichment that attenuated seawards. • Mercury distributions within the lagoon also seemed to reflect past WWII activities. • Additional Pb, Cu and Zn inputs at the S end of the lagoon came from an old dumpsite. - Abstract: Heavy metals were examined in sediments from the southern half of Saipan Lagoon. These waters provided tactical access for US troops during WWII and were heavily shelled at the time. Mercury profiles in sediments were, to some extent, reflective of this event. Samples from the southern end of the lagoon, where an old post-war dumpsite once existed, were found to be substantially enriched with Pb, Cu and Zn. Further north, the lagoon was primarily impacted by urban runoff. Metal enrichment in sediments from this region was generally highest at storm drain outlets and attenuated seawards. Moderate enrichment was rarely exceeded for any element other than Hg beyond the 50 m mark. Sediment quality guidelines used to flag potentially adverse ecological health effects revealed no PEL exceedances. TEL exceedances for Pb and Cu were identified in sediments near the former dumpsite. The public health implications of the data are briefly addressed

  19. Waste management progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    During the Cold War era, when DOE and its predecessor agencies produced nuclear weapons and components, and conducted nuclear research, a variety of wastes were generated (both radioactive and hazardous). DOE now has the task of managing these wastes so that they are not a threat to human health and the environment. This document is the Waste Management Progress Report for the U.S. Department of Energy dated June 1997. This progress report contains a radioactive and hazardous waste inventory and waste management program mission, a section describing progress toward mission completion, mid-year 1997 accomplishments, and the future outlook for waste management

  20. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  1. Cesium legacy safety project management work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    This Management Work Plan (MWP) describes the process flow, quality assurance controls, and the Environment, Safety, and Health requirements of the Cesium Legacy Safety Project. This MWP provides an overview of the project goals and methods for repackaging the non-conforming Type W overpacks and packaging the CsCl powder and pellets. This MWP is not intended to apply to other activities associated with the CsCl Legacy Safety Program (i.e., clean out of South Cell)

  2. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  3. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Easterling, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  4. Lessons learned in planning the Canadian Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.; Brooks, S.; Miller, J.; Neal, P.; Mason, R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) began implementing a $7B CDN, 70-year Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) to deal with legacy decommissioning and environmental issues at AECL nuclear sites. The objective of the NLLP is to safely and cost-effectively reduce the nuclear legacy liabilities and associated risks based on sound waste management and environmental principles in the best interest of Canadians. The NLLP comprises a number of interlinked decommissioning, waste management and environmental restoration activities that are being executed at different sites by various technical groups. Many lessons about planning and executing such a large, diverse Program have been learned in planning the initial five-year 'start-up' phase (concluded 2011 March), in planning the three-year second phase (currently being commenced), and in planning individual and interacting activities within the Program. The activities to be undertaken in the start-up phase were planned by a small group of AECL technical experts using the currently available information on the liabilities. Several internal and external reviews of the Program during the start-up phase examined progress and identified several improvements to planning. These improvements included strengthening communications among the groups within the Program, conducting more detailed advance planning of the interlinked activities, and being cautious about making detailed commitments for activities for which major decisions had yet to be made. The second phase was planned by a dedicated core team. More and earlier input was solicited from the suppliers than in the planning for the first phase. This was to ensure that the proposed program of work was feasible, and to be able to specify in more detail the resources that would be required to carry it out. The NLLP has developed several processes to assist in the detailed planning of the numerous projects and

  5. War in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.

    1981-01-01

    War history as a modern historic discipline is by far no longer a mere history of arms technique or a chronicle of battles. It deals with the change of warfare, shows how the wars of the various ages had determined society, and vice versay investigates the influence of social, economic, and -concerning mentality-historical changes on war. With this survey, which covers the period between the Middle Ages and the recent past, the author has presented a small masterpiece of the history of war. A book like this is particularly important and instructive in a time when all depends on the preventing of wars. (orig.) [de

  6. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  7. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  8. Russian Experience in the Regulatory Supervision of the Uranium Legacy Sites - 12441

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, M.F.; Romanov, V.V. [Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Seregin, V.A.; Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khokhlova, E.A. [Regional Management-107 under FMBA of Russia, Krasnokamensk (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Management of the uranium legacy is accompanied with environmental impact intensity of which depends on the amount of the waste generated, the extent of that waste localization and environmental spreading. The question is: how hazardous is such impact on the environment and human health? The criterion for safety assurance is adequate regulation of the uranium legacy. Since the establishment of the uranium industry, the well done regulatory system operates in the FMBA of Russia. Such system covers inter alia, the uranium legacy. This system includes the extent laboratory network of independent control and supervision, scientific researches, regulative practices. The current Russian normative and legal basis of the regulation and its application practice has a number of problems relating to the uranium legacy, connected firstly with the environmental remediation. To improve the regulatory system, the urgent tasks are: -To introduce the existing exposure situation into the national laws and standards in compliance with the ICRP system. - To develop criteria for site remediation and return, by stages, to uncontrolled uses. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary storage of SNF and RW. - To consider possibilities and methods of optimization for the remediation strategies under development. - To separate the special category - RW resulted from uranium ore mining and dressing. The current Russian RW classification is based on the waste subdivision in terms of the specific activities. Having in mind the new RW-specific law, we receive the opportunity to separate some special category - RW originated from the uranium mining and milling. Introduction of such category can simplify significantly the situation with management of waste of uranium mining and milling processes. Such approach is implemented in many countries and approved by IAEA. The category of 'RW originated

  9. Leo Szilard Award Lecture: Unwinding the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Thomas

    1997-04-01

    Two generations of scientists in the US and the Soviet Union spent their lives in the shadow of the cold war, building the scientific and technical infrastructure and shaping the institutional and policy structures that maintained a stable "balance of terror." The cold war is now over, but the lethal products of it, and the decaying institutions and policies that perpetuated it, are probably more dangerous than ever. At the same time, the loss of cold war imperatives means fewer government resources and less policy attention to the problems of reversing the cold war. Moreover, solving these problems will require that the forces and talents of economics and business be integrated with the technical skill and imagination of physical scientists. Science fundamentally involves skills of problem definition and problem-solving. Both American and Russian scientists and engineers must expand their tool kits and the scope of their imaginations if they are to undo the dangerous legacy of the cold war and find productive new roles in a post-cold war world. This address is intended to illustrate how this can be done, using the past five years' experience in developing and implementing the agreement between the U.S. and Russia to motivate, finance, and institutionalize the destruction of approximately 20,000 Russian nuclear weapons through the commercially-driven recovery and destruction of 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium from those weapons. Such approaches can have benefits much broader than the destruction of weapons, if we can recognize the opportunities and pursue them wisely. Unfortunately, there is a basic lack of imagination and will, one that is further frustrated by bureaucratic inertia and the parochial interests of cold war institutions. The irony is that Russia is more ready to change than the US, but it is the US that is, in principle but perhaps not in practice, most able to help lead the world out of the cold war era.

  10. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  11. Implementation of SAP Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, M.L.; LaBorde, C.M.; Nichols, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) assumed responsibility for newly generated waste on October 1, 2005. To ensure effective management and accountability of newly generated waste, Y-12 has opted to utilize SAP, Y-12's Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) tool, to track low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW), hazardous waste, and non-regulated waste from generation through acceptance and disposal. SAP Waste will include the functionality of the current waste tracking system and integrate with the applicable modules of SAP already in use. The functionality of two legacy systems, the Generator Entry System (GES) and the Waste Information Tracking System (WITS), and peripheral spreadsheets, databases, and e-mail/fax communications will be replaced by SAP Waste. Fundamentally, SAP Waste will promote waste acceptance for certification and disposal, not storage. SAP Waste will provide a one-time data entry location where waste generators can enter waste container information, track the status of their waste, and maintain documentation. A benefit of the new system is that it will provide a single data repository where Y-12's Waste Management organization can establish waste profiles, verify and validate data, maintain inventory control utilizing hand-held data transfer devices, schedule and ship waste, manage project accounting, and report on waste handling activities. This single data repository will facilitate the production of detailed waste generation reports for use in forecasting and budgeting, provide the data for required regulatory reports, and generate metrics to evaluate the performance of the Waste Management organization and its subcontractors. SAP Waste will replace the outdated and expensive legacy system, establish tools the site needs to manage newly generated waste, and optimize the use of the site's ERP tool for integration with related business processes while promoting disposition of waste. (authors)

  12. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  13. Arms Diffusion and War

    OpenAIRE

    Bas, Muhammet Ali; Coe, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a model of the relationship between the spread of new military technologies and the occurrence of war. A new technology could shift the balance of power, causing anticipatory war as one side tries to prevent the other from obtaining it. When one side already has it, war is more likely when the shift in power is large, likely, and durable. When neither side has it, war is more likely when the expected shift is asymmetric (e.g., one side is more likely to get it) and when th...

  14. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    : students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen...... with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past....

  15. Terminating America's wars : the Gulf War and Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...

  16. Customer service model for waste tracking at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorries, Alison M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-02-02

    The goal is to transition from five legacy database systems that have reached end-of-life to a single inventory system that supports workflow, data, and reporting for all waste streams. Plutonium Processing Facility (TA-55) Waste Team provides a high quality system that insures safe, efficient and compliant management of all radioactive and hazardous wastes generated, including waste characterization and repackaging of Transuranic Waste (TRU) and TRU mixed waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  17. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  18. Spies, Assassins, and Statesmen in Mexico’s Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wil G. Pansters

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Essay Eclipse of the Assassins. The CIA, Imperial Politics, and the Slaying of Mexican Journalist Manuel Buendía, by Russell H. Bartley and Sylvia Erickson Bartley. University of Wisconsin Press, 2015. Mexico’s Cold War. Cuba, the United States, and the Legacy of the Mexican Revolution, by Renata Keller. Cambridge University Press, 2015. The Logic of Compromise in Mexico. How the Countryside Was Key to the Emergence of Authoritarianism, by Gladys I. McCormick. The University of North Carolina Press, 2016.

  19. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-10-30

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF CURRENTLY GENERATED TRANUSRANIC WASTE AT THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY'S PLUTONIUM PRODUCTION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, Robert L.; Montoya, Andy M.

    2003-01-01

    By the time the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) completes its Disposal Phase in FY 2034, the Department of Energy (DOE) will have disposed of approximately 109,378 cubic meters (m3) of Transuranic (TRU) waste in WIPP (1). If DOE adheres to its 2005 Pollution Prevention Goal of generating less than 141m3/yr of TRU waste, approximately 5000 m3 (4%) of that TRU waste will be newly generated (2). Because of the overwhelming majority (96%) of TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP is legacy waste, the characterization and certification requirements were developed to resolve those issues related to legacy waste. Like many other DOE facilities Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has a large volume (9,010m3) of legacy Transuranic Waste in storage (3). Unlike most DOE facilities LANL will generate approximately 140m3 of newly generated TRU waste each year3. LANL's certification program was established to meet the WIPP requirements for legacy waste and does not take advantage of the fundamental differences in waste knowledge between newly generated and legacy TRU waste

  1. Scientific Solutions to Nuclear Waste Environmental Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bradley R.

    2014-01-01

    The Hidden Cost of Nuclear Weapons The Cold War arms race drove an intense plutonium production program in the U.S. This campaign produced approximately 100 tons of plutonium over 40 years. The epicenter of plutonium production in the United States was the Hanford site, a 586 square mile reservation owned by the Department of Energy and located on the Colombia River in Southeastern Washington. Plutonium synthesis relied on nuclear reactors to convert uranium to plutonium within the reactor fuel rods. After a sufficient amount of conversion occurred, the rods were removed from the reactor and allowed to cool. They were then dissolved in an acid bath and chemically processed to separate and purify plutonium from the rest of the constituents in the used reactor fuel. The acidic waste was then neutralized using sodium hydroxide and the resulting mixture of liquids and precipitates (small insoluble particles) was stored in huge underground waste tanks. The byproducts of the U.S. plutonium production campaign include over 53 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground tanks at Hanford and another 34 million gallons stored at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This legacy nuclear waste represents one of the largest environmental clean-up challenges facing the world today. The nuclear waste in the Hanford tanks is a mixture of liquids and precipitates that have settled into sludge. Some of these tanks are now over 60 years old and a small number of them are leaking radioactive waste into the ground and contaminating the environment. The solution to this nuclear waste challenge is to convert the mixture of solids and liquids into a durable material that won't disperse into the environment and create hazards to the biosphere. What makes this difficult is the fact that the radioactive half-lives of some of the radionuclides in the waste are thousands to millions of years long. (The half-life of a radioactive substance is the amount

  2. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  3. The Legacy of Manfred Held with Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    President Executive Vice President and Provost The report entitled “The Legacy of Manfred Held with Critique” contains the results of research...xxii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xxiii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Prof (Dr) Manfred Held...de choc des explosifs solides. Propellants and Explosives, 6, 63-66. [013] Held, M. (1987). Experiments of initiation of covered, but unconfined

  4. The Timeless Legacy of Robert Koch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. The Timeless Legacy of Robert Koch - Founder of Medical Microbiology. Jaya S Tyagi. General Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 20-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Thucydides: Theorist of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Karl Marx trumpeted in the nineteenth century and that contributed to the ruthless and mur- derous civil wars characterizing so much of the blood...occurs, in 431 bC, greece is teetering on the brink of a long-awaited war between athens and sparta. the thebans decide to capitalize on that fact to

  6. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  7. America's Holy War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, John

    2006-01-01

    .... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...

  8. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  9. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  10. War and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    ... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...

  11. U.S. Department of Energy's 'initiatives for proliferation prevention' program: solidification technologies for radioactive waste treatment in Russia - 16037

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhitonov, Yuri; Kelley, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of liquid radioactive waste have existed in the U.S. and Russia since the 1950's as a result of the Cold War. Comprehensive action to treat and dispose of waste products has been lacking due to insufficient funding, ineffective technologies or no proven technologies, low priority by governments among others. Today the U.S. and Russian governments seek new, more reliable methods to treat liquid waste, in particular the legacy waste streams. A primary objective of waste generators and regulators is to find economical and proven technologies that can provide long-term stability for repository storage. In 2001, the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (Khlopin), St. Petersburg, Russia, and Pacific Nuclear Solutions (PNS), Indianapolis, Indiana, began extensive research and test programs to determine the validity of polymer technology for the absorption and immobilization of standard and complex waste streams. Over 60 liquid compositions have been tested including extensive irradiation tests to verify polymer stability and possible degradation. With conclusive scientific evidence of the polymer's effectiveness in treating liquid waste, both parties have decided to enter the Russian market and offer the solidification technology to nuclear sites for waste treatment and disposal. In conjunction with these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will join Khlopin and PNS to explore opportunities for direct application of the polymers at predetermined sites and to conduct research for new product development. Under DOE's 'Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention' (IPP) program, funding will be provided to the Russian participants over a three year period to implement the program plan. This paper will present updated details of U.S. DOE's IPP program, the project structure and its objectives both short and long-term, polymer tests and applications for LLW, ILW and HLW, and new product development initiatives. (authors)

  12. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  13. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  14. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipway, Richard

    2007-05-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  15. Equity issues in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The 15 papers in this book deal with the equity issues of locus, legacy and labor/laity as they occur in the nuclear industry's handling of radioactive wastes. The intent is to identify and clarify inequities in alternative approaches to radioactive waste management in a way that will inform current public policy deliberations and planning. The papers are arranged in five parts which put the problem in perspective, then define the locus, the legacy, and the labor problem, and conclude with a set of proposals for a more equitable management. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 15 chapters selected for INS, EDB, and EPA

  16. Verification and the safeguards legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perricos, Demetrius

    2001-01-01

    of Iraq was a case of late detection of undeclared activities, the case of DPRK was a case of prompt detection of discrepancies in the initial declaration through implementation of modem detection techniques, such as environmental sampling, and access to information. Access to the Security Council became important in view of the protracted process of non-compliance. The Model Additional Protocol (INFCIRC 540) agreed in 1997 incorporates the results of the efforts to strengthen the safeguards system and as such provides the possibility for more transparency by the States and more access to locations by the inspectors on the basis of information. It does not provide the broad and intrusive access rights as in the case of Iraq, since such rights are unprecedented and the result of a cease-fire arrangement involving the Security Council. But the expectations are that the broad implementation of the Additional Protocol will result in an effective and efficient safeguards verification system for the future. The on-site verification systems on a national, regional or multinational basis that have been put into operation in the past or are being discussed by States for the implementation of disarmament and non-proliferation conventions related to weapons of mass destruction whether nuclear, chemical or biological, have benefited and will benefit in the future from the guiding experience - both from the strengths and weaknesses -of the IAEA verification system. This is hopefully a legacy for the future of verification

  17. Aeschylus and War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume brings together a group of interdisciplinary experts who demonstrate that Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes is a text of continuing relevance and value for exploring ancient, contemporary and comparative issues of war and its attendant trauma. The volume features contributions from...... an international cast of experts, as well as a conversation with a retired U.S. Army Lt. Col., giving her perspectives on the blending of reality and fiction in Aeschylus’ war tragedies and on the potential of Greek tragedy to speak to contemporary veterans. This book is a fascinating resource for anyone...... interested in Aeschylus, Greek tragedy and its reception, and war literature....

  18. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  19. Revisiting and renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...... included within humanity. Conversely, focusing on how these techniques are being questioned within the work, I will discuss the resistance potential of what I will refer to as practices of subjectivization. Eventually, I will seek to position the “war-critical” strategy of the work within a broader context...... of the late modern war paradigm....

  20. WAR DSS: A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second generation of the Waste Reduction (WAR) Algorithm is constructed as a decision support system (DSS) in the design of chemical manufacturing facilities. The WAR DSS is a software tool that can help reduce the potential environmental impacts (PEIs) of industrial chemical...

  1. Off the Chart: The Crimean War in British Public Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Berridge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean War revealed in this issue of '19' is of such rich and varied historical interest as to make a mystery of its relative obscurity with the general public in the UK. My own article adopts a novelist’s perspective to chart some aspects of this popular decline, exploring the treatment of the Siege of Sebastopol through the media of painting, literature, and cinema, and considering whether those aspects of the war that have made the greatest impression on the public mind are also those that make it least commercially attractive. It also examines the more official legacy, from the treatment of war dead to the changing face of sculpted memorials, and by comparing British commemoration with that of Russians in Crimea, discusses the possible role played in national memory by both shame and pride. In a final brief analysis of the 1968 film 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', I consider the extent to which modern rejection of Victorian values has created historical distortion, and whether a more truthful presentation might better serve the cause of preserving an important war in the British public consciousness.

  2. The ATLAS Trigger Simulation with Legacy Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Physics analyses at the LHC require accurate simulations of the detector response and the event selection processes, generally done with the most recent software releases. The trigger response simulation is crucial for determination of overall selection efficiencies and signal sensitivities and should be done with the same software release with which data were recorded. This requires potentially running with software dating many years back, the so-called legacy software. Therefore having a strategy for running legacy software in a modern environment becomes essential when data simulated for past years start to present a sizeable fraction of the total. The requirements and possibilities for such a simulation scheme within the ATLAS software framework were examined and a proof-of-concept simulation chain has been successfully implemented. One of the greatest challenges was the choice of a data format which promises long term compatibility with old and new software releases. Over the time periods envisaged, data...

  3. The ATLAS Trigger Simulation with Legacy Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Physics analyses at the LHC which search for rare physics processes or measure Standard Model parameters with high precision require accurate simulations of the detector response and the event selection processes. The accurate simulation of the trigger response is crucial for determination of overall selection efficiencies and signal sensitivities. For the generation and the reconstruction of simulated event data, generally the most recent software releases are used to ensure the best agreement between simulated data and real data. For the simulation of the trigger selection process, however, the same software release with which real data were taken should be ideally used. This requires potentially running with software dating many years back, the so-called legacy software. Therefore having a strategy for running legacy software in a modern environment becomes essential when data simulated for past years start to present a sizeable fraction of the total. The requirements and possibilities for such a simulatio...

  4. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of data sources are available on the Internet, many of which offer semantically overlapping data, but based on different schemas, or models. While it is often of interest to integrate such data sources, the lack of consistency among them makes this integration difficult....... This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  5. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  6. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries, African decision makers nonetheless began to reconsider the role and place of military ..... challenged the war—fighting paradigm for armed forces or the 2003 Gulf ..... Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Evans ...

  7. Children of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Roger

    1984-01-01

    Reflects upon two attributes common to children from many countries who have known nothing but war--the absence of revenge and the belief in God. Considers how they differ from the older generation in these respects. (CMG)

  8. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  9. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  10. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus...

  11. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gulsen, Guler; Holden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental\\ud and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  12. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  13. Maslow, Needs, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    for individual‟s remains equally true for groups and nations.ŗ Abraham H. Maslow did groundbreaking work on a hierarchy of needs; he identified five...Penguin Press, 1991), 48. 3 Ibid, 49. 4 Abraham H. Maslow , Motivation and Personality, Second Edition. (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 35-58. 5... Maslow , Needs, and War by Lieutenant Colonel John P. Baker United States Air Force United States Army War College

  14. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  15. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Union officer become Supreme Court Justice, spoke of the Civil War’s psychic effect on those who had fought. Determined to act greatly, Holmes and his...than psychic and hardiy limited to those who, like himself, had served in the Union armies. Institutions as well as individuals had emerged from the war...to match unemployed workers with vacant jobs. 39 If by the close of 1918, the government reacted to possible strikes with threatened removal of a

  16. Environmental Remediation and Radioactivity Monitoring of Uranium Mining Legacy in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F.P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt [Nuclear and Technological Institute, Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-05-15

    The main legacy site of uranium mining and milling in Portugal, located near the town of Canas de Senhorim, contained around 15 million tones of solid waste in various mill tailings and spoil heaps. Approval of an environmental remediation plan for this area was followed by the start of engineering works, including the transportation of several wastes to the main tailings pile, re shaping and contouring the waste heap and placing a multi layer cap. These works were mostly performed in 2006 and 2007. During part of this period, monitoring of radioactivity was performed in the surface air, surface waters from the area including the monitoring of the small river that receives drainage from the mill tailings area, and agriculture products. This paper presents the results of measurements of the main alpha emitting radionuclides of uranium series in water and compares them with previous data for the region. Implications for the radiological protection of the population are discussed. (author)

  17. A legacy building model for holistic nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Bernadette; Zahourek, Rothlyn P; Mariano, Carla

    2014-06-01

    This pilot project was an effort to record the historical roots, development, and legacy of holistic nursing through the visionary spirit of four older American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA) members. The aim was twofold: (a) to capture the holistic nursing career experiences of elder AHNA members and (b) to begin to create a Legacy Building Model for Holistic Nursing. The narratives will help initiate an ongoing, systematic method for the collection of historical data and serve as a perpetual archive of knowledge and inspiration for present and future holistic nurses. An aesthetic inquiry approach was used to conduct in-depth interviews with four older AHNA members who have made significant contributions to holistic nursing. The narratives provide a rich description of their personal and professional evolution as holistic nurses. The narratives are presented in an aesthetic format of the art forms of snapshot, pastiche, and collage rather than traditional presentations of research findings. A synopsis of the narratives is a dialogue between the three authors and provides insight for how a Legacy Model can guide our future. Considerations for practice, education, and research are discussed based on the words of wisdom from the four older holistic nurses.

  18. Institute of legacy in the testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization as the new world order has brought to a more planned human life. This planning not only entails the individual life, but it must plan for a longer term future as well. When we talk about long terms, we immediately think about analytical skills of Roman lawyers in creating the mortis causa institute (effec-ting upon death. A characteristic of this paper comes with the latin term “leg”. The testament is a statement of will, which defines the heirs and the inheritance. While the Testament is a rather more elaborated work, the Legacy is a special provision, an order in the testament, addressed to the heirs, to submit an item or a material value to the privileged persons, called the Legatar. The Legatar, as the benefi-ciary of this provision is only a beneficiary, and does not take res-ponsibility for the debts of the inherited property. Planning of wealth may serve various functions or purposes. The Legacy represents a balance between the freedom of disposing inheritance in a free manner, and limitation of a part called nece-ssary fortune. The money or the values we decide to give away with the Institute of Legacy are not about their material value, but the significance of their investment, the goal and the best reminis-cence of the testators’ contribution in generations.

  19. Migration Performance for Legacy Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Woods

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present performance data relating to the use of migration in a system we are creating to provide web access to heterogeneous document collections in legacy formats. Our goal is to enable sustained access to collections such as these when faced with increasing obsolescence of the necessary supporting applications and operating systems. Our system allows searching and browsing of the original files within their original contexts utilizing binary images of the original media. The system uses static and dynamic file migration to enhance collection browsing, and emulation to support both the use of legacy programs to access data and long-term preservation of the migration software. While we provide an overview of the architectural issues in building such a system, the focus of this paper is an in-depth analysis of file migration using data gathered from testing our software on 1,885 CD-ROMs and DVDs. These media are among the thousands of collections of social and scientific data distributed by the United States Government Printing Office (GPO on legacy media (CD-ROM, DVD, floppy disk under the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP over the past 20 years.

  20. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary......In this article I primarily analyse observational war documentaries in order to deal with how this particular form of documentary contribute to our understanding of how it is to be at war as a soldier or as a civilian in a war zone. I analyse two very different observational war documentaries...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...

  1. From Star Wars to 'turf wars'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.

  2. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  3. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  4. Legacy sample disposition project. Volume 2: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurley, R.N.; Shifty, K.L.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the legacy sample disposition project at the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), which assessed Site-wide facilities/areas to locate legacy samples and owner organizations and then characterized and dispositioned these samples. This project resulted from an Idaho Department of Environmental Quality inspection of selected areas of the INEEL in January 1996, which identified some samples at the Test Reactor Area and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant that had not been characterized and dispositioned according to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. The objective of the project was to manage legacy samples in accordance with all applicable environmental and safety requirements. A systems engineering approach was used throughout the project, which included collecting the legacy sample information and developing a system for amending and retrieving the information. All legacy samples were dispositioned by the end of 1997. Closure of the legacy sample issue was achieved through these actions

  5. Transforming Cobol Legacy Software to a Generic Imperative Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moraes, DinaL

    1999-01-01

    .... This research develops a transformation system to convert COBOL code into a generic imperative model, recapturing the initial design and deciphering the requirements implemented by the legacy code...

  6. Criticality Safety Support to a Project Addressing SNM Legacy Items at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, J S; Burch, J G; Dodson, K E; Huang, S T

    2005-01-01

    and new ES and H container labels applied. In many cases, legacy material that was inspected was determined to be excess to programmatic needs and it was then either processed to meet the DOE-3013-STD or designated as TRU waste and disposed of accordingly. During FY2003 through FY2004 approximately 1600 items were opened and the items processed if necessary, repackaged and newly labeled with ES and H labels. As of April, 2005, there are only 32 non-ES and H labeled items in existence within the Plutonium Facility. Due to a consolidated effort in dealing with the legacy items, the problems associated with storage of these items at LLNL has been substantially abated. The paper will discuss the background, implementation, and results of the SNM Legacy Items Implementation Project. Benefits and Lessons Learned will be identified

  7. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  8. Forms of War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Bartelt, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate

  9. The Fukushima War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We know that henceforth there will be a 'before' and an 'after' Fukushima, just as there is a before and an after Hiroshima-Nagasaki. However, these two nuclear-related events are quite different in nature, and the characteristics they do share are not those we might expect. Although atomic fission is the common denominator, the consequences of their respective origins diverge - an industrial accident for Fukushima, military attacks for Hiroshima-Nagasaki - even (paradoxically, as we shall see) with respect to radioactivity. Yet their catastrophic proportions and geopolitical implications draw them together. Represented in Japan by well-known numbers that refer to the dates on which they occurred - 3.11 for March 11, 2011; 8.6 and 8.9 for August 6 and 9, 1945 - Fukushima and Hiroshima-Nagasaki are geopolitical markers, each having both a temporal and a spatial dimension. In other words, to quote the late Pierre Gentelle, these are major spatial events generating widespread repercussions, both locally and globally, and affecting political action and ideological discourse in a number of countries. Their geography is fully fledged in that it comprises a physical and geophysical dimension, thus reflecting natural phenomena, nature itself, and the individualized perception that everyone has of it - scientists, individuals, and populations alike. This is also about war. An actual war that ended with Hiroshima and Nagasaki. And a war now being fought against the invisible enemy of radiation at Fukushima and in other areas of Japan, with the country's 'hot spots' (hotto supoto), 'evacuation zones' (hinan kuiki), and other such 'exclusion zones' (haijo kuiki). A war with devastated landscape, theoretically unaffected hinterland, and a division of the land dictated by emerging battlefields; and with its front lines and a population caught in the crossfire or forced to leave. In this war against radiation, the 2011 US military (Japan's occupiers in 1945) limited Operation

  10. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  11. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  12. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...... the different genres address different parts of our cognition and emotion....

  13. United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

  14. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  15. Portuguese Cistercian Churches - An acoustic legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabiel G.; Lanzinha, João C. G.; Martins, Ana M. T.

    2017-10-01

    The Cistercian Order (11th century) stands out as an apologist of the simplicity and austerity of the space. According to the Order of Cîteaux, only with an austere space, without any distractions, the true spiritual contemplation is achieved. This Order was an aggregator and consolidator pole during the Christian Reconquest. Thus, as it happens with other Religious Orders, Cîteaux has a vast heritage legacy. This heritage is witness, not only of the historical, but also social, political, and spiritual evolution. This legacy resumes the key principles to an austere liturgy, which requirements, in the beginning, are based on the simplicity of worship and of the connection between man and God. Later, these requirements allowed the development of the liturgy itself and its relation with the believers. Consequently, it can be concisely established an empirical approach between the Cistercian churches and the acoustics conditioning of these spaces. This outcome is fundamental in order to understand the connection between liturgy and the conception of the Cistercian churches as well as the constructed space and its history. So, an analysis of these principles is essential to establish the relation between acoustic and religious buildings design throughout history. It is also a mean of understanding the knowledge of acoustics principles that the Cistercian Order bequeathed to Portugal. This paper presents an empirical approach on Cistercian monastic churches acoustics. These spaces are the place where the greatest acoustic efforts are concentrated and it is also the space where the liturgy reaches greater importance. On the other hand, Portugal is a country which has an important Cistercian legacy over several periods of history. Consequently, the Portuguese Cistercian monastic churches are representative of the development of the liturgy, the design of spaces and of the acoustic requirements of their churches since the 12th century until the 21st century and it is of

  16. Integrating commercial and legacy systems with EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemir, K.U.

    1997-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software toolkit, developed by a worldwide collaboration, which significantly reduces the level of effort required to implement a new control system. Recent developments now also significantly reduce the level of effort required to integrate commercial, legacy and/or site-authored control systems with EPICS. This paper will illustrate with an example both the level and type of effort required to use EPICS with other control system components as well as the benefits that may arise

  17. Eventscapes and the creation of event legacies

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, G.; Lee, I.S.; King, Katherine; Shipway, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Attention is directed to the difference in event legacies created by mega-events which often cause dramatic physical changes in urban environments and those which accompany events which leave very little imprint on the landscape where they are held. The Tour Down Under cycle race, which is held annually in South Australia, is examined as an example of the latter. The spatial pattern of the event and the range of settings which support it are presented as an eventscape by drawing on concepts s...

  18. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  19. Nuclear war effects studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.

  20. Lessons learned in planning the Canadian Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael E.; Brooks, Sheila M.; Miller, Joan M.; Mason, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) began implementing a $7B CDN, 70-year Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) to deal with legacy decommissioning and environmental issues at AECL nuclear sites. The objective of the NLLP is to safely and cost-effectively reduce the nuclear legacy liabilities and associated risks based on sound waste management and environmental principles in the best interest of Canadians. The liabilities include shutdown research and prototype power reactors, fuel handling facilities, radiochemical laboratories, support buildings, radioactive waste storage facilities, and contaminated lands at several sites located across eastern Canada from Quebec to Manitoba. The largest site, Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in Ontario, will continue as an operational nuclear site for the foreseeable future. Planning and delivery of the Program is managed by the Liability Management Unit (LMU), a group that was formed within AECL for the purpose. The composition and progress of the NLLP has been reported in recent conferences. The NLLP comprises a number of interlinked decommissioning, waste management and environmental restoration activities that are being executed at different sites, and by various technical groups as suppliers to the LMU. Many lessons about planning and executing such a large, diverse Program have been learned in planning the initial five-year 'start-up' phase (which will conclude 2011 March), in planning the five-year second phase (which is currently being finalized), and in planning individual and interacting activities within the Program. The activities to be undertaken in the start-up phase were planned by a small group of AECL technical experts using the currently available information on the liabilities. Progress in executing the Program was slower than anticipated due to less than ideal alignment between some planned technical solutions and the actual requirements, as well as the

  1. The 5L Instructional Design For Exploring Legacies through Biography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulware, Beverly J.; Monroe, Eula E.; Wilcox, Bradley Ray

    2013-01-01

    People who have impacted generations have left legacies we can explore today through biographies. The 5L instructional design introduced in this article includes five components: Listen, Learn, Locate, Link, and Legacy. In the "Listen" section, teachers use storytelling and read-alouds to introduce individuals who shaped history. During…

  2. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark Stromberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  3. The Legacy Project--William E. Dugger, Jr., DTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Johnny J.; Dugger, William E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This is the ninth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged the educator profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize these…

  4. Jack Wescott and Donald F. Smith. The Legacy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Johnny J.; Wescott, Jack W.; Smith, Donald F.

    2017-01-01

    This is the tenth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged our profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize these leaders and…

  5. WHY NATIONS GO TO WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Vrey

    This 11th edition of Why nations go to war analyses ten case studies covering major ... of the time (Germany, Russia, Serbia and Austria in particular), Stoessinger depicts ... The section on the war in Vietnam depicts how five consecutive American ... to war. The nuclear option is available to both countries and the strategic.

  6. Iowa and World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…

  7. The Great War: Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  8. Public and nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinberg, D.

    1979-01-01

    Public concern on nuclear power is centered on the waste disposal problem. Some of the environmentalist and anti-nuclear movements are discussed, both in USA and abroad. The public is skeptical in part because of the secrecy legacy, although scientists are still largely trusted. However, the scientists are far from united in their viewpoints on the nuclear issue. The task for scientists are to put into perspective the limits to scientific knowledge and to interpret this knowledge to the public

  9. Legacy management: An old challenge with a new focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillogly, Mari; ); Sneve, Malgorzata; Smith, Graham

    2017-01-01

    The NEA Expert Group on Legacy Management (EGLM) aims to promote a practical and optimised approach for the regulatory supervision of nuclear legacy sites and installations. NEA member countries share their experiences and approaches on legacy management and have submitted case studies to the EGLM that illustrate the common challenges and approaches of many countries. The first report of the expert group will be based on these case studies and will be released in late 2017. A new, broader focus on decommissioning and legacy management issues within the NEA is expected to take shape in early 2018, carrying forward the mission to develop and promote a practical and optimised approach for the regulatory supervision of nuclear legacy sites and installations

  10. National Legislation and Regulations in the Uranium Legacy Radiation Safety of the Former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, V.V.; Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    There are many uranium legacy sites in Russia and ex-Soviet republics in the Central Asia, which are decommissioned now. In Russia, there is a number of operating uranium mines and ore milling facilities to be decommissioned after termination of their life cycle. Today, the list of Russian subsoil areas of the federal significance includes 135 uranium deposits. The uranium legacy management is accompanied with the environmental impact. The intensity of such impact depends on the amount of generated waste, degree of its confining and dispersion in the environment. The whole question reduces itself to the following: to what extent this impact is harmful to the environment and human health. The proper regulation of this problem is a criterion for the safe work. Today, the advanced guidance document is under development 'Health-care requirements for design and operation of facilities for uranium ore mining and milling'. In order to enhance the regulatory framework, the following tasks are urgent: introduction of the existing exposure situation in the national laws and regulations in compliance with the ICRP statutory system; development criteria for remediation of sites and their gradual return to uncontrolled use. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary SNF and Radioactive Wastes storage; review of possibilities and methods for optimization of the remediation strategies under development; identification of the special category - R W originated from the uranium ore mining and milling. Some regulatory problems assume to be solved under the Eurasian Economic Community inter-state target programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'. Within this programme, by examples of the uranium legacy facilities in Kyrgyzstan and in Tajikistan, posed to trans-border disasters and required urgent remediation, the

  11. Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being replaced by short-chain PFASs and fluorinated alternatives. For ten legacy PFASs and seven recently discovered perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs), we report (1) their occurrence in the Cape Fear River (CFR) watershed, (2) their fate in water treatment processes, and (3) their adsorbability on powdered activated carbon (PAC). In the headwater region of the CFR basin, PFECAs were not detected in raw water of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), but concentrations of legacy PFASs were high. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s lifetime health advisory level (70 ng/L) for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was exceeded on 57 of 127 sampling days. In raw water of a DWTP downstream of a PFAS manufacturer, the mean concentration of perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (PFPrOPrA), a replacement for PFOA, was 631 ng/L (n = 37). Six other PFECAs were detected, with three exhibiting chromatographic peak areas up to 15 times that of PFPrOPrA. At this DWTP, PFECA removal by coagulation, ozonation, biofiltration, and disinfection was negligible. The adsorbability of PFASs on PAC increased with increasing chain length. Replacing one CF2 group with an ether oxygen decreased the affinity of PFASs for PAC, while replacing additional CF2 groups did not lead to further affinity changes. The USEPA’s recently completed Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR3) p

  12. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ronald H; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-06-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen and Jakob Lange in Denmark. Volumes of color paintings and several exsiccati, most notably one edited by Lundell and Nannfeldt attached fungal portraits and preserved specimens (and often photographs) to Fries names. The result is a massive resource from which to harvest the name-concept relationship with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past.

  13. Legacy Panorama on Spirit's Way to 'Bonneville'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Legacy Panorama on Spirit's Way to 'Bonneville' (QTVR) This view captured by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit nearly a year ago is called Spirit's 'Legacy' panorama. It combines many frames acquired during Spirit's 59th through 61st martian days, or sols (March 3 to 5, 2004) from a position about halfway between the landing site and the rim of 'Bonneville Crater.' The location is within the transition from the relatively smooth plains to the more rocky and rugged blanket of material ejected from Bonneville by the force of the impact that dug the crater. The panorama spans 360 degrees and consists of images obtained in 78 individual pointings. The camera took images though 5 different filter at each pointing. This mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters centered at wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers. The Columbia Memorial Station lander can be seen about 200 meters (about 650 feet) in the distance by following the rover tracks back toward right of center in the mosaic and zooming in.

  14. Three legacies of humanitarianism in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Miwa

    2013-10-01

    The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  15. Tracking legacy radionuclides in St. Louis, Missouri, via unsupported "2"1"0Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltofen, Marco P.J.; Alvarez, Robert; Hixson, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of 287 soil, sediment and house dust samples collected in a 200 km"2-zone in northern St. Louis County, Missouri, establish that offsite migration of radiological contaminants from Manhattan Project-era uranium processing wastes has occurred in this populated area. Specifically, 48% of samples (111 of a subset of 229 soils and sediments tested) had "2"1"0Pb concentrations above the risk-based soil cleanup limits for residential farming established by the US Department of Energy at the Fernald, OH, uranium plant, which handled and stored the same concentrated Manhattan Project-era wastes; the geographical distribution of the exceedances are consistent with water and radon gas releases from a landfill and related sites used to store and dispose of legacy uranium wastes; and offsite soil and house dust samples proximal to the landfill showed distinctive secular disequilibrium among uranium and its progeny indicative of uranium ore processing wastes. The secular disequilibrium of uranium progeny in the environment provides an important method for distinguishing natural uranium from industrial uranium wastes. In this study, the detection of unsupported "2"1"0Pb beyond expected atmospheric deposition rates is examined as a possible indicator of excessive radon emissions from buried uranium and radium-containing wastes. - Highlights: • We sampled and analyzed 287 urban soils and sediments for uranium processing wastes. • Radium and unsupported "2"1"0Pb were the primary tracers for wastes. • The goal was to track Manhattan Project wastes around St. Louis, MO. • Activity levels in the environment peaked around land disposal sites. • Unsupported "2"1"0Pb and isotopic uranium & thorium were also found in house dusts.

  16. Federal facilities compliance act waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.; Gates-Anderson, D.; Hollister, R.; Painter, S.

    1999-01-01

    Site Treatment Plans (STPs) developed through the Federal Facilities Compliance Act pose many technical and administrative challenges. Legacy wastes managed under these plans require Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) compliance through treatment and ultimate disposal. Although capacity has been defined for most of the Department of Energy wastes, many waste streams require further characterization and many need additional treatment and handling beyond LDR criteria to be able to dispose of the waste. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Hazardous Waste Management Division has developed a comprehensive Legacy Waste Program. The program directs work to manage low level and mixed wastes to ensure compliance with nuclear facility rules and its STP. This paper provides a survey of work conducted on these wastes at LLNL. They include commercial waste treatment and disposal, diverse forms of characterization, inventory maintenance and reporting, on-site treatment, and treatability studies. These activities are conducted in an integrated fashion to meet schedules defined in the STP. The processes managing wastes are dynamic due to required integration of administrative, regulatory, and technical concerns spanning the gamut to insure safe proper disposal

  17. Commentary: Warring ants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 2. Commentary: Warring ants: Lessons from Lanchester's laws of combat? Renee M Borges. Volume 27 Issue 2 March 2002 pp 75-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/027/02/0075-0078 ...

  18. Castles at War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...

  19. Fighting the Last War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Peter

    Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier....... Many of the German advisors to the Chinese Army had been through the war in the trenches and took the tactics they had honed there with them to Shanghai. This resulted in near-impregnable Chinese defenses in and around the city, and it also manifested itself in the introduction of shock tactics...

  20. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  1. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  2. Education and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people…

  3. Wars of Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    , both political and military, war between the two forms, the post-napoleonic, Fichtean notion of nationality (1807-8) and the historical notion of imperium. “Nationality” entered the political semantics witch such a force and shook the existing political order of empires to the ground because of its...

  4. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  5. Is it possible to limit or control a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, K.D.

    1983-01-01

    A controlled response after a limited aggression by using strategic nuclear weapons is improbable alone for reasons relating to political institutions and political psychology. As long as it is in the least possible that a threat with selective nuclear strikes may result in a great atomic war and by that in mutual destruction the threat itself is - according to rational standards - unbelievable. Plans to prepare oneself technically and politically to make a nuclear war for several months at an controlled extent are the expression of a wrong way of peaceful policy and military strategy. The money spent for such plannings is at best wasted money. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. Cold war legacy: sub-surface investigation of unsaturated prairie soil radiologically contaminated in 1951

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, D.J.; Andrews, W.S.; Wang, Z.; Creber, K.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    An unintentional release of fission products (FPs) from a buried storage tank in 1951 resulted in 6.7 L of liquid, bearing radioactive material, being spilled into unsaturated prairie soil at a depth of 3.7 m. Since then, the site has been undisturbed. In October 2001, boreholes were drilled and soil samples were recovered for analysis. Gamma well logging showed higher than background radiation readings at a depth of 3.5 m (corresponding to the storage container location) and a peak reading at 4.7 m (attributed to the breakthrough curve). The soil was determined to be predominantly lean clay with a silty sand layer between 4.4 and 5.1 m. Future work includes radiochemical analysis, soil column simulation, determination of distribution coefficients and transport modelling. (author)

  7. Development of Characterization Protocol for Mixed Liquid Radioactive Waste Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasalwa Zakaria; Syed Asraf Wafa; Wo, Y.M.; Sarimah Mahat; Mohamad Annuar Assadat Husain

    2017-01-01

    Mixed organic liquid waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclide posed specific challenges in its management. Often, this waste becomes legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as 'problematic' waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using analytical procedures involving gross alpha beta, and gamma spectrometry. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste. (author)

  8. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Waste Technology Development Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wafa, Syed Asraf [Radioisotop Technology and Innovation, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wo, Yii Mei [Radiochemistry and Environment, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahat, Sarimah [Material Technology Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  9. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  10. [The war at home: "war amenorrhea" in the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenbrock, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In 1917, the Göttingen gynaecologist Dietrich published a short article about a phenomenon which he called "war amenorrhea" ("Kriegsamenorrhoe"). The article attracted the attention of his colleagues. While the affected women did not pay much attention to their amenorrhea, the physicians considered the phenomenon a new disease which was mainly caused by the war. This new disease gave the gynaecologists the opportunity to present their specialty as a discipline with high relevance for medicine in times of war. Nevertheless, there was no consensus about the importance, the incidence, the diagnostic criteria, the causes and the appropriate therapy of"war amenorrhea". Although the gynaecologists failed to define a uniform clinical syndrome, they maintained the construction of "war amenorrhea" after the war and subsumed it under well known types of amenorrhea. We can conclude that under the conditions of war a new disease emerged which was not sharply defined.

  11. Peter Waterman and his scientific legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Kahnert, Michael; Mackowski, Daniel W.; Wriedt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Peter C. Waterman, a giant figure in the theory of electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic wave scattering, passed away on 3 June, 2012. In view of his fundamental contributions, which to a large degree have guided the progress of these disciplines over the past five decades and affected profoundly the multifaceted research published in the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT), we felt that it would be appropriate to solicit papers for a special issue of JQSRT commemorating Peter Waterman's scientific legacy. This initiative was endorsed by the JQSRT management and has resulted in a representative collection of high-quality papers which have undergone the same peer scrutiny as any paper submitted to JQSRT.

  12. Exploring the Legacies of Filmed Patient Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Glenn; Maben, Jill

    2015-01-01

    We trace the legacies of filmed patient narratives that were edited and screened to encourage engagement with a participatory quality improvement project in an acute hospital setting in England. Using Gabriel’s theory of “narrative contract,” we examine the initial success of the films in establishing common grounds for participatory project and later, and more varied, interpretations of the films. Over time, the films were interpreted by staff as either useful sources of learning by critical reflection, dubious (invalid or unreliable) representations of patient experience, or as “closed” items available as auditable evidence of completed quality improvement work. We find these interpretations of the films to be shaped by the effect of social distance, the differential outcomes of project work, and changing organizational agendas. We consider the wider conditions of patient narrative as a form of quality improvement knowledge with immediate potency and fragile or fluid legitimacy over time. PMID:25576480

  13. Cassini: The Journey and the Legacy

    KAUST Repository

    Porco, Carolyn

    2018-01-15

    An international mission to explore, in depth, the Saturnian system ヨthe planet Saturn and its magnetosphere, glorious rings, and many moons- begun over 27 years ago. After seven years of development, the Cassini spacecraft was launched in 1997, spent seven years trekking to Saturn, and finally entered Saturn orbit in the summer of 2004. In the course of its 13 years orbiting this ring world, Cassini returned over 450 thousand images, 635GB of data, and invaluable insights on the solar systemメs most splendid and scientifically rich planetary system. In this lecture, Carolyn Porco, the leader of the imaging science team on NASA\\'s Cassini mission, will delight her audience with a retrospective look at what has been learned from this profoundly successful mission and what its final legacy is likely to be.

  14. The eugenic legacy in psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2008-05-01

    Assumptions about genetic differences in human mental characteristics can be traced in large part to the eugenic movement, ascendant at the turn of the 20th century. This paper offers historical case studies, of 'innate general cognitive ability' and 'psychiatric genetics', in order to appraise the eugenic legacy in current psychology and psychiatry. Reviewing the work of representatives, Cyril Burt, Franz Kallmann and Eliot Slater, along with their research networks, it is argued that eugenics remains a quiet but powerful background influence in modern-day psychology and psychiatry. At the turn of the 21st century, eugenics remains an important area of inquiry, reflection and education for those in the inter-disciplinary field of social psychiatry.

  15. The Phenomenal Legacy of Rabindranath Tagore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki Kushari Dyson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to a generation of Bengalis who received Tagore as an acknowledged classic of their tradition, I grew up reading his books, listening to his music, watching his dance-dramas, and writing poetry under the inspiration of his words. This youthful appreciation of Tagore eventually led to a deeper understanding of his stature as an artist and thinker, but it was only when I entered Tagore studies in a more formal manner that I realized how truly spectacular his achievements were from an international perspective. Tagore was fortunate in that his time, place, and circumstances allowed him to give a good run to the natural versatility and fecundity of his genius. He has thereby secured a rich and diverse legacy for us, which tends to mean different things to different groups of people.

  16. The European Legacy in Africa, the African Legacy in Europe: Postcolonial Violence and the Specter of Genocide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Jalušič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on selected elements of the European legacy in Africa that frame the twentieth century in a crucial way. They mark the “Western” picture of the world during that period, and they contributed to the perpetration of major atrocities on the African continent on a scale that invites comparison with the Holocaust – that is, the genocide of Namibian Hereros at the beginning of the twentieth century and the genocide of the Rwandan Tutsis at its end. This paper also discusses elements of the African legacy in Europe – particularly the emergence and transfer of a new form of power that depends on the experience of imperialism as central to the “Western” worldview – and the question of how one can explain this. The Rwandan genocide in 1994 did not represent a repetition or even an approximation of the European Holocaust, just as the Herero genocide (1904–8 cannot be seen as its forerunner, although they all share many points in common. The Rwandan genocide is qualitatively different from both: it represents a new development in the nature of the atrocity, in which the victims become the killers. A better understanding of it could therefore also shed light on some related, but different, events, such as “humanitarian interventions” and the “war against terror.” This contribution draws on some recent historical studies and builds on the analysis of imperialism, race, and bureaucracy in Hannah Arendt’s work; it is also inspired by the works of some authors that adopted the Arendtian analysis of totalitarianism, such as Mahmood Mamdani. The article focuses on the organization of the colonial and postcolonial bureaucratic apparatus of rule, its special form of non-state power, and its connection with “race,” “tribe,” and “tradition” as crucial elements of post-totalitarian forms of government and new forms of identitarian collective violence. The main aim is not so much to analyze the Rwanda genocide

  17. Managing a project's legacy: implications for organizations and project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Majchrzak, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Organizations that rely on projects to implement their products must find effective mechanisms for propagating lessons learned on one project throughout the organization. A broad view of what constitutes a project's 'legacy' is presented that includes not just the design products and leftover parts, but new processes, relationships, technology, skills, planning data, and performance metrics. Based on research evaluating knowledge reuse in innovative contexts, this paper presents an approach to project legacy management that focuses on collecting and using legacy knowledge to promote organizational learning and effective reuse, while addressing factors of post-project responsibility, information obsolescence, and the importance of ancillary contextual information. .

  18. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  19. A social theory of war: Clausewitz and war reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    of war. I then show how this framework helps us understand some key problems in the political science literature on war and conflict. I attempt to show two main things: (1) that there are different types of wars (and that these differences are not necessarily related to the standing of the actors, i......This article presents a new theory of war that is grounded in the insights of Clausewitz on the social nature of conflict. Clausewitz had argued that war is a political process; he therefore distinguished between ‘war’—understood in political terms—and warfare—understood as fighting. He...... then created a typology covering a spectrum of war ranging from total to limited, the political stakes of a conflict determining where it would fall on the spectrum. I develop and modify this basic framework by arguing that the social organization of the actors has a determining role in predicting the stakes...

  20. Peace and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, A.

    1981-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties, Albert Schweitzer fought for a policy of peace and warned of the dangers of nuclear war in speeches and publications. Reading his appeals again today, we find that they have lost nothing of their uncanny up-to-dateness. Just the opposite: The disaster predicted by Albert Schweitzer is a stronger threat now than it was at his time. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Technology of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1973-01-01

    This Article is the Note of a lecture, which was hold by Engelbert Borda at the Catholic-Theological Faculty of the University of Vienna in 27. 03. 1973. The author describes the development of modern nuclear weapon systems and the resulting war strategies. He is concerned about a possible end of the ‚balance of terror’ and the development in automation of nuclear strike back strategies. (rössner) [de

  2. Australia and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denborough, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume compiles the papers presented in the conference held in May 1983 under the auspices of the Center for Continuing Education at the Australian National University. It also includes some previously unpublished scientific research. The papers range from analyses of the atmospheric and medical consequences of nuclear war to summaries of the efforts of people in all walks of life to prevent a global catastrophe

  3. Military Adaptation in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    war, there was little role for air defense. In a 1924 memorandum, the air staff explicitly stated “as a principle that the bombing squa- drons ...pulling his squa- drons back from southeastern England, if the pressure on them became too great and then redeploying them forward again, if the...minute as more and more British air- craft arrived in the area. Before reality set in, the controllers had scrambled three squa- drons of Hurricanes and

  4. AECL's mixed waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peori, R.; Hulley, V.

    2006-01-01

    Every nuclear facility has it, they wish that they didn't but they have generated and do possess m ixed waste , and until now there has been no permanent disposition option; it has been for the most been simply maintained in interim storage. The nuclear industry has been responsibly developing permanent solutions for solid radioactive waste for over fifty years and for non-radioactive, chemically hazardous waste, for the last twenty years. Mixed waste (radioactive and chemically hazardous waste) however, because of its special, duo-hazard nature, has been a continuing challenge. The Hazardous Waste and Segregation Program (HW and SP) at AECL's CRL has, over the past ten years, been developing solutions to deal with their own in-house mixed waste and, as a result, have developed solutions that they would like to share with other generators within the nuclear industry. The main aim of this paper is to document and describe the early development of the solutions for both aqueous and organic liquid wastes and to advertise to other generators of this waste type how these solutions can be implemented to solve their mixed waste problems. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and in particular, CRL has been satisfactorily disposing of mixed waste for the last seven years. CRL has developed a program that not only disposes of mixed waste, but offers a full service mixed waste management program to customers within Canada (that could eventually include U.S. sites as well) that has developed the experience and expertise to evaluate and optimize current practices, dispose of legacy inventories, and set up an efficient segregation system to reduce and effectively manage, both the volumes and expense of, the ongoing generation of mixed waste for all generators of mixed waste. (author)

  5. Information War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the

  6. Securing South Africa during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Legacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Africa during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Legacy implications for post-event safety and security ... can be sustained to benefit local residents and businesses when the event is over.

  7. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-06

    The objective of this study was to locate legacy wells in Versailles Borough so that the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection could mitigate dangerous CH4 concentrations in the community by venting or plugging leaking wells.

  8. The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on forced migration in modern Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... On its part, globalization is about pauperizing and victimizing more and more people ...

  9. A legacy of perseverance NAFCOC: 50 years of Leadership in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A legacy of perseverance NAFCOC: 50 years of Leadership in Business. ... New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or ...

  10. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tew Garry A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives.

  11. An Architectural Framework for Integrating COTS/GOTS/Legacy Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gee, Karen

    2000-01-01

    .... To fully realize the DoD's goal, a new architectural framework is needed. This thesis proposes an architectural framework suitable for integrating COTS/GOTS/legacy systems in a distributed, heterogeneous environment...

  12. The Aftermath of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Siyan; Loayza, Norman V.; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Using an event-study methodology, the article analyzes the aftermath of civil war in a cross-section of countries. It focuses on cases where the end of conflict marks the beginning of relatively lasting peace. The analysis considers 41 countries involved in internal wars over the period 1960--2003. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the aftermath of war, a range of social areas is considered: basic indicators of economic performance, health and education, political development, demograp...

  13. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  14. Environmental radioactivity and mitigation of radiological impact at legacy uranium sites in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium legacy sites in the country contain large amounts of milling tailings, mining waste, old infrastructures and acid mine drainage with high radioactivity concentrations. Radioactivity surveillance of these sites has been maintained for many years and institutional control kept beyond cessation of Portuguese uranium mining in 2001. A research programme (2003-2006) requested by the government to assess environmental contamination and public health risks in these regions advised implementing environmental remediation measures. A national programme was approved for remediation of abandoned mine sites, including radioactive and non-radioactive mines, that started in 2005 and since has completed significant remediation works in several old uranium mines. One amongst these sites, the Urgeiriça mine and milling site, was re-engineered, tailings were covered, the mine was closed, the area of mine and milling facilities cleaned, and an automated contaminated water treatment plant installed. Environmental radioactivity surveys carried out in this region showed reduced ambient radiation doses, lower radon concentrations in surface air, return to background radioactivity in surface air aerosols, and decrease of radionuclide concentrations in the river receiving water discharges from the mine site, resulting in a reduced radiation exposure to members of the public. Other legacy uranium mines without milling tailings, were mainly remediated for landscape engineering and the adopted solutions included, for example, preservation of non-contaminated ponds for public leisure. Although not completed yet in many sites, the remediation works implemented contributed already to a significant abatement of radiation exposure allowing for safer implementation of activities, such as agriculture and cattle grazing, in the surroundings of legacy sites. Environmental remediation and abatement of radiation exposure contributed to revitalize socio-economic activities of the region and

  15. The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanian, Lee E

    1997-01-01

    During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...

  16. Radiation hazards and victims: a bitter legacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, T [Monash Univ., Clayton (Australia)

    1989-05-01

    The problems of contamination as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation, whether human or natural in origin are reviewed. It is revealed that cancer is still on the increase in the exposed population from the Hirosima and Nagasaki bombings, with genetic defects and chromosomal aberrations higher than thought. The effect of radiation fallout from the nuclear weapon tests in the Pacific and USA are also discussed and it is concluded that nuclear arsenals and the very existence of nuclear facilities containing large inventories of long-lived radionuclides constitute a major threat to the health of humankind, even if nuclear war never occurs.

  17. Using health statistics: a Nightingale legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloman, B F

    2001-01-01

    No more forceful example of the value of using health statistics to understand and improve health conditions exists than displayed by Florence Nightingale. The recent book by Dossey (1999), Florence Nightingale: Mystic, Visionary, Healer, relates the dramatic tale of Nightingale s use of statistics to understand the causes of deaths in the Crimean War and of her advocacy to standardize the collection of medical data within the army and in civilian hospitals. For her, the use of health statistics was a major tool to improve health and influence public opinion.

  18. Development of Legal and Regulatory Framework for Radioactive Waste Management Safety in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, E.

    2016-01-01

    Key RW management challenges in Russian Federation: - Full-scale implementation of legislation for radioactive waste management including administrative arrangements; - Transition from RW storage to RW conditioning and final disposal; - Construction of RW disposal facilities for accumulated waste; - Safety of waste management in connection with decommissioning and remediation activity; - Nuclear legacy liability: balanced approach to RW classification and management options in terms of “exceptional” and “retrievable” waste categories

  19. Rhumb lines and map wars a social history of the Mercator projection

    CERN Document Server

    Monmonier, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In Rhumb Lines and Map Wars, Mark Monmonier offers an insightful, richly illustrated account of the controversies surrounding Flemish cartographer Gerard Mercator's legacy. He takes us back to 1569, when Mercator announced a clever method of portraying the earth on a flat surface, creating the first projection to take into account the earth's roundness. As Monmonier shows, mariners benefited most from Mercator's projection, which allowed for easy navigation of the high seas with rhumb lines-clear-cut routes with a constant compass bearing-for true direction. But the projection's popularity amo

  20. War Without Politics: A Critique of Clausewitz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sellers, Robin B

    1997-01-01

    Perhaps no aspect of Carl von Clausewitz's classic "On War" has more continuing relevance for strategists than his assertion that war "is an act of policy" and further that "war is not merely an act...

  1. Airpower in Three Wars (WWII, Korea, Vietnam)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Momyer, William

    2003-01-01

    ... (Operation Allied Force), and the war in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom). It is not my intent to analyze air operations in these wars but to see if there are trends that might be appropriate for another war...

  2. Reexamining Fourth Generation War as a Paradigm for Future War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Charter of the League of Nations and the subsequent Kellogg -Briand Pact “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy.” To demonstrate...twenty-years after the Kellogg -Briand Pact. Although the 1945-1991 period did see a decline in major interstate war relative to the immediately

  3. A proposed alternative approach for protection of inadvertent human intruders from buried Department of Energy low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The burial of radioactive wastes creates a legacy. To limit the impact of this legacy on future generations, we establish and comply with performance objectives. This paper reviews performance objectives for the long-term isolation of buried radioactive wastes; identifies regulatorly-defined performance objectives for protecting the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) from buried low-level radioactive waste (LLW); (3) discusses a shortcoming of the current approach; and (4) offers an alternative approach for protecting the IHI. This alternative approach is written specifically for the burial of US Department of Energy (DOE) wastes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), although the approach might be applied at other DOE burial sites

  4. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  5. The Cost of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibey Asthappan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spending almost US$700 billion to combat insurgents in Afghanistan, the U.S. population should be hopeful that they “bought” something of value as the Afghan War concludes. This exploratory study focuses on evaluating operations within Afghanistan by accounting for enemy and civilian losses. Integration of civilian losses offers an opportunity to evaluate operations that represent societal losses to the Afghan people. Regression estimates using zero-inflated negative-binomial models indicate that military operations resulted in more civilian casualties than enemy losses.

  6. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the

  7. Fear of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radil, T.

    1987-01-01

    Problem of psychological consequences of nuclear war threat is considered. Two categories of persons are distinguished: persons who are not decision-making but whose life is threatened, and persons who make decisions but are not responsible for them. An active approach to problems, related to a possible nuclear disaster, appears to be a powerfull socio-political means against nuclear danger and also has both psychotherapeutic and preventive meaning from the viewpoint of at least a partial liberation and protecion of people against the fear of nuclear death. By their effective activity among people, physicians and psychologists can effectively struggle against the fear of nuclear death

  8. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  9. The Legacy of G. Wilson Knight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raw Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available G. Wilson Knight (1897-1985 was one of the most influential Shakespearean critics of the mid-twentieth century. This piece surveys his work from 1930 until the early 1980s. Much affected by the First World War, he developed a style of criticism based on Christian principles of respect for other people and belief in an all-powerful God. Many of his most famous pieces (in THE WHEEL OF FIRE, for instance argue for human insignificance in an indifferent universe. It is up to all of us as individuals to develop methods of coping with this world. Wilson Knight’s ideas gained particular currency during the Second World War, when Britain’s very future seemed at risk due to the threat of Nazi invasion. Although much derided for his use of transcendent language—especially by his contemporary F. R. Leavis—Wilson Knight’s ideas seem to have acquired new significance in a globalized world, where individuals fight to main their identity in a technology-driven environment.

  10. The History and Legacy of BATSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2012-01-01

    The BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory was the first large detector system specifically designed for the study of gamma-ray bursts. The eight large-area detectors allowed full-sky coverage and were optimized to operate in the energy region of the peak emission of most GRBs. BATSE provided detailed observations of the temporal and spectral characteristics of large samples of GRBs, and it was the first experiment to provide rapid notifications of the coarse location of many them. It also provided strong evidence for the cosmological distances to GRBs through the observation of the sky distribution and intensity distribution of numerous GRBs. The large number of GRBs observed with the high- sensitivity BATSE detectors continues to provide a database of GRB spectral and temporal properties in the primary energy range of GRB emission that will likely not be exceeded for at least another decade. The origin and development of the BATSE experiment, some highlights from the mission and its continuing legacy are described in this paper.

  11. Hubble Legacy Archive And The Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jessica; Whitmore, B.; Eisenhamer, B.; Bishop, M.; Knisely, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) hosts the Image of the Month (IOTM) Series. The HLA is a joint project of STScI, the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC). The HLA is designed optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing online enhanced Hubble products and advanced browsing capabilities. The IOTM's are created for astronomers and the public to highlight various features within HLA, such as the "Interactive Display", "Footprint” and "Inventory” features to name a few. We have been working with the Office of Public Outreach (OPO) to create a standards based educational module for middle school to high school students of the IOTM: Rings and the Moons of Uranus. The set of Uranus activities are highlighted by a movie that displays the orbit of five of Uranus’ largest satellites. We made the movie based on eight visits of Uranus from 2000-06-16 to 2000-06-18, using the PC chip on the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and filter F850LP (proposal ID: 8680). Students will be engaged in activities that will allow them to "discover” the rings and satellites around Uranus, calculate the orbit of the satellites, and introduces students to analyze real data from Hubble.

  12. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  13. Electrical distribution grids: from legacy to innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The electrical distribution networks in general and distributed generation in particular are undergoing tremendous technological, economic and conceptual changes. Indeed, with the establishment of Distribution System Operators (DSOs), the environmental concerns of our modern societies, the needs of security and quality of supply and the emergence of new services related to the 'active energy customer' character have particularly highlighted the potential for innovation and development of distribution networks. Distribution networks are of particular importance because of their close link with the end user, their interface with distributed generation and their ability to facilitate and integrate new applications and services such as plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles or smart meters. On the other hand, they represent a large infrastructure that has become complex to manage with the emergence of this new energy paradigm. However, this strategic legacy is aging and the quality of supply, after years of improvement, begins to deteriorate again. It is therefore essential to increase investment in these assets at all levels whether in innovation, expansion or renovation to prepare the smarter grid of the future. (authors)

  14. Corruption in Mexico: A Historical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Nieto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the many consequences of colonialism that are still present in postcolonial societies are corruption and the lack of strong institutions to fight against this phenomenon. What used to be unequal power relations between the colonizers and the colonies have been replaced by the dominance of the local elites over ordinary citizens, who have practically given the former a lot of leeway to commit acts of corruption with a sense of impunity and without regard for accountability. One case in point is Mexico which, in recent times, has made international news headlines because of incidences of drug trafficking, violence, and corruption in the country. This article delineates the historical relationship between corruption and colonialism, and how these forces have shaped Mexican culture. The discussion tackles the presence of corruption since the colonial times to the present. Specif ically, it starts with an analysis of the role of colonialism in the incidence of corruption. Secondly, it describes the discrepancy between the law and its application, from the arrival of the Spanish colonizers to the present. Finally, it examines the cultural, educational, and social challenges that should be addressed in order to surmount the colonial legacies that breed corruption.

  15. John Napier life, logarithms, and legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Havil, Julian

    2014-01-01

    John Napier (1550–1617) is celebrated today as the man who invented logarithms—an enormous intellectual achievement that would soon lead to the development of their mechanical equivalent in the slide rule: the two would serve humanity as the principal means of calculation until the mid-1970s. Yet, despite Napier’s pioneering efforts, his life and work have not attracted detailed modern scrutiny. John Napier is the first contemporary biography to take an in-depth look at the multiple facets of Napier’s story: his privileged position as the eighth Laird of Merchiston and the son of influential Scottish landowners; his reputation as a magician who dabbled in alchemy; his interest in agriculture; his involvement with a notorious outlaw; his staunch anti-Catholic beliefs; his interactions with such peers as Henry Briggs, Johannes Kepler, and Tycho Brahe; and, most notably, his estimable mathematical legacy. Julian Havil explores Napier’s original development of logarithms, the motivations for his approa...

  16. Russian Planetary Exploration History, Development, Legacy, Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Russia’s accomplishments in planetary space exploration were not achieved easily. Formerly, the USSR experienced frustration in trying to tame unreliable Molniya and Proton upper stages and in tracking spacecraft over long distances. This book will assess the scientific haul of data from the Venus and Mars missions and look at the engineering approaches. The USSR developed several generations of planetary probes: from MV and Zond to the Phobos type. The engineering techniques used and the science packages are examined, as well as the nature of the difficulties encountered which ruined several missions. The programme’s scientific and engineering legacy is also addressed, as well as its role within the Soviet space programme as a whole. Brian Harvey concludes by looking forward to future Russian planetary exploration (e.g Phobos Grunt sample return mission). Several plans have been considered and may, with a restoration of funding, come to fruition. Soviet studies of deep space and Mars missions (e.g. TMK, ...

  17. The intangible legacy of the Indonesian Bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Nuraini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sama-Bajau, or Bajo diaspora, extends from the southern Philippines and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo to the eastern part of Indonesia. The Indonesian Bajo, now scattered along the coasts of Sulawesi (Celebes and East Kalimantan, the Eastern Lesser Sunda Islands and Maluku, were once mostly nomadic fishermen of the sea or ocean freight carriers. Today, the Bajo are almost all fishermen and settled. Their former and present ways of life made them favour intangible forms of culture: it is impossible to transport bulky artefacts when moving frequently by boat, or when living in stilt houses, very close to the sea or on a reef. It is therefore an intangible legacy that is the essence of the Bajo’s culture. Sandro healers have a vast range of expertise that allows them to protect and heal people when they suffer from natural or supernatural diseases. On the other hand, music and especially oral literature are very rich. In addition to song and the pantun poetry contests, the most prestigious genre is the iko-iko, long epic songs that the Bajo consider to be historical rather than fictional narratives. The Bajo’s intangible heritage is fragile, since it is based on oral transmission. In this article, I give a description of this heritage, dividing it into two areas: the knowledge that allows them to “protect and heal” on the one hand, and to “distract and relax”, on the other.

  18. Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, E.; Kramer, I.

    2000-01-01

    Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs

  19. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  20. War, Journalism, and Oral History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

  1. Critique of the War Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    was soldier and prisoner of war from age 15-17, would not write a “Der Krieg der Gesellschaft”. Yet the attempt to narrow this lacuna is indeed a heavy burden and a difficult task, in which, firstly, it is methodologically decisive to get the basic distinctions right about a second order observation of war......, and in social theory and sociology as well, there is a missing link in the lack of a sociology of war. A number of German systems theoreticians use Luhmann’s theory to fulfil that gap (Gertrud Brücher; Krysztof Matuszek; Rasmus Beckmann; Barbara Kuchler; Tobias Kohl; Klaus Dammann) Luhmann (born 1927), who...... as a conflict system – to be distinct from a military organisational system. This, I do initially with a reconceptualization of Carl von Clausewitz’ form analysis and self-description of war from Vom Kriege (1832). The central point, then, is to observe the self-reference of war, or how war became war about war...

  2. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political part...

  3. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations

  4. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  5. Quantifying and Predicting Reactive Transport of Uranium in Waste Plumes: Are Colloids and Nanoparticles Important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiamin Wan; Tetsu Tokunaga; Carl Steefel; Peter Burns

    2006-01-01

    The Hanford Site is the DOE's largest legacy waste site, with uranium (U) from plutonium processing being a major contaminant in its subsurface. Accidental release of highly concentrated high-level wastes left large quantities of U in the vadose zone under tank farms. The U contamination has been found in groundwater beneath the tank farms, indicating U is mobile

  6. Suicide among War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Rozanov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  7. Suicide among war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its' frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  8. Ecological and human impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas - human and ecological impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Centre for Environmental radioactivity CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, 1430 Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Fen Complex in Norway is an area well-known with its specific magmatic bedrock rich in thorium (Th), iron (Fe), niobium (Nb) and rare earth elements (REE). During several past centuries, intensive mining was conducted at sites in the area, giving rise to enhanced radioactivity levels. Previous human health studies demonstrated exposure doses among the highest in Europe. In the current work, contamination status with respect to radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, uranium ({sup 238}U)) and trace elements (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb)) and possible impact on humans and biota were investigated at legacy NORM and undisturbed surrounding NOR rich sites in the Fen Complex area. Significantly heterogeneous radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, and daughters) distribution was found in soil at both legacy NORM and undisturbed NOR rich sites. Thorium activity concentration levels exceeded screening levels for radioactive waste material given by Norwegian Pollution Control Act. Based on sequential extraction results, mobility of {sup 232}Th and trace elements were low, although higher at legacy NORM than at undisturbed NOR rich sites. Uranium was present at considerable levels (up to 50 %) in pH and redox sensitive soil fraction, as well as bound to soil organic compounds. However, no further transport towards biggest water source Norsjoe Lake was observed, as concentration levels of all investigated elements in water samples were extremely low. Long-term surveys of outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rates, thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in the air demonstrated elevated values (up to 9.2 μGy/h, 5000 Bq/m{sup 3} and 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively) with significant seasonal variation. Calculated annual exposure doses to humans due to outdoor exposure could exceed 10 mSv, i.e., be higher than 1 mSv dose constraint given by ICRP. Roughly summarized with previously published data on indoor doses for Fen village population, total annual exposure

  9. Young people navigating political engagement through post-war instability and mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The everyday politics of rural young people who live in post-war settings in the Global South is poorly explored. In the aftermath of a recent civil war in Nepal (1996-2006), villages have been operating without elected bodies, and poorly functioning local governance has been concentrated around ......, as well as by involving themselves in disruptive events and seeking personal benefit from them. Secondly, young men and women negotiate their political motivations in community development politics primarily through household dynamics adjusted to their mobile lifestyle....... activists balance their daily lives, mobility and household obligations with involvement in party and local development politics? By exploring their motivations and engagement, I come to two conclusions. Firstly, young men navigate party politics by juggling the legacy of patronage and rejecting parties...

  10. Mobility of radionuclides and trace elements in soil from legacy NORM and undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Meland, Sondre; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2014-05-01

    Investigation of radionuclides (232Th and 238U) and trace elements (Cr, As and Pb) in soil from two legacy NORM (former mining sites) and one undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich site was conducted as a part of the ongoing environmental impact assessment in the Fen Complex area (Norway). The major objectives were to determine the radionuclide and trace element distribution and mobility in soils as well as to analyze possible differences between legacy NORM and surrounding undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich soils. Inhomogeneous soil distribution of radionuclides and trace elements was observed for each of the investigated sites. The concentration of 232Th was high (up to 1685 mg kg(-1), i.e., ∼7000 Bq kg(-1)) and exceeded the screening value for the radioactive waste material in Norway (1 Bq g(-1)). Based on the sequential extraction results, the majority of 232Th and trace elements were rather inert, irreversibly bound to soil. Uranium was found to be potentially more mobile, as it was associated with pH-sensitive soil phases, redox-sensitive amorphous soil phases and soil organic compounds. Comparison of the sequential extraction datasets from the three investigated sites revealed increased mobility of all analyzed elements at the legacy NORM sites in comparison with the undisturbed 232Th-rich site. Similarly, the distribution coefficients Kd (232Th) and Kd (238U) suggested elevated dissolution, mobility and transportation at the legacy NORM sites, especially at the decommissioned Nb-mining site (346 and 100 L kg(-1) for 232Th and 238U, respectively), while the higher sorption of radionuclides was demonstrated at the undisturbed 232Th-rich site (10,672 and 506 L kg(-1) for 232Th and 238U, respectively). In general, although the concentration ranges of radionuclides and trace elements were similarly wide both at the legacy NORM and at the undisturbed 232Th-rich sites, the results of soil sequential extractions together with Kd values supported the expected differences

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Legacy Uranium Mine Site Reclamation - Lessons Learned - 12384

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, Laura E. [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado 80021 (United States); Cotter, Ed [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado 81503 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management is responsible for administering the DOE Uranium Leasing Program (ULP) and its 31 uranium lease tracts located in the Uravan Mineral Belt of southwestern Colorado (see Figure 1). In addition to administering the ULP for the last six decades, DOE has also undertaken the significant task of reclaiming a large number of abandoned uranium (legacy) mine sites and associated features located throughout the Uravan Mineral Belt. In 1995, DOE initiated a 3-year reconnaissance program to locate and delineate (through extensive on-the-ground mapping) the legacy mine sites and associated features contained within the historically defined boundaries of its uranium lease tracts. During that same time frame, DOE recognized the lack of regulations pertaining to the reclamation of legacy mine sites and contacted the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) concerning the reclamation of legacy mine sites. In November 1995, The BLM Colorado State Office formally issued the United States Department of the Interior, Colorado Bureau of Land Management, Closure/Reclamation Guidelines, Abandoned Uranium Mine Sites as a supplement to its Solid Minerals Reclamation Handbook (H-3042-1). Over the next five-and-one-half years, DOE reclaimed the 161 legacy mine sites that had been identified on DOE withdrawn lands. By the late 1990's, the various BLM field offices in southwestern Colorado began to recognize DOE's experience and expertise in reclaiming legacy mine sites. During the ensuing 8 years, BLM funded DOE (through a series of task orders) to perform reclamation activities at 182 BLM mine sites. To date, DOE has reclaimed 372 separate and distinct legacy mine sites. During this process, DOE has learned many lessons and is willing to share those lessons with others in the reclamation industry because there are still many legacy mine sites not yet reclaimed. DOE currently administers 31 lease tracts (11,017 ha) that

  12. Commemorating a war that never came

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    and activated in the representations stem from cultural memories of the Second World War. In the proccesses of establishing this Cold War cultural memory as a war memory, it has become part of a transcultural passion for memories of traumatic pasts, but the Cold War as cultural memory is a counter-factual war......The Cold War never became the global World War III. It was a war that never broke out. Nevertheless, in some countries like for instance Denmark it is commemorated as exactly that: a war. This is particularly apparent at museums and heritage sites, where the narrative and mnemonic frame works used...... memory. Because the war never broke out, it is a malleable and usable past with a great potential for contestation – and counter-factuality. In Denmark, the Cold War has, moreover, become part of a fierce competition between rivaling memory communities, preventing a common commemoration culture...

  13. Decommissioning of AECL Whiteshell Laboratories: progress from first five years of legacy funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, R.S.; Bilinsky, D.M.; Harding, J.W.; Ridgway, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Government of Canada adopted a new long-term strategy to deal with the nuclear legacy liabilities and initiated a five-year start-up phase. The objective is to safely and cost-effectively reduce these liabilities, and associated risks, based on sound waste management and environmental principles in the best interests of Canadians. AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories is part of the long-term strategy and decommissioning activities are underway. Several redundant non-nuclear buildings have been removed/decommissioned, and redundant nuclear facilities (hot cell facilities, radiochemical laboratories) are being decontaminated and prepared for demolition. This paper describes the progress in the first five-year funding period (2006 April to 2011 March). (author)

  14. ''Cats and Dogs'' disposition at Sandia: Last of the legacy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, Warren R.; Jackson, John L.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 12 months, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), has successfully conducted an evaluation of its nuclear material holdings. As a result, approximately 46% of these holdings (36% by mass) have been reclassified as no defined use (NDU). Reclassification as NDU allows Sandia to determine the final disposition of a significant percentage of its legacy nuclear material. Disposition will begin some time in mid CY2000. This reclassification and the proposed disposition of the material has resulted in an extensive coordination effort lead by the Nuclear Materials Management Team (NMMT), which includes the nuclear material owners, the Radioactive Waste/Nuclear Material Disposition Department (7135), and DOE Albuquerque Operations Office. The process of identifying and reclassifying the cats and dogs or miscellaneous lots of nuclear material has also presented a number of important lessons learned for other sites in the DOE complex

  15. Graded activity: legacy of the sanatorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C

    1993-08-01

    Occupational therapists in all areas of practice grade therapeutic activities to help patients progress toward their goals. It is proposed in this paper that the concept of graded activity originated in German tuberculosis sanatoria in the late 1800s, when patients were required to walk on graded (sloped) land for exercise. British physician Marcus Paterson included work, as well as walking, in his graduated exercise program for tuberculosis patients and was honored for this innovation at the founding meeting of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy (NSPOT). George Barton, Susan Tracy, and Herbert Hall were among the NSPOT members who contributed to the development of graded activity as a principle in occupational therapy intervention. The military rehabilitation programs established during World War I provided additional impetus, and by the mid-1920s, graded activity was recognized as central to the profession.

  16. Stakeholder participation for the legacy ponds and legacy silos (LP and LS) facility at Sellafield, Cumbria. UK: the nature and effectiveness of the dialogue - 16030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, John

    2009-01-01

    The Legacy Ponds and Silos (LP and S) facilities are part of the UK nuclear legacy located at the Sellafield Site, Cumbria. There are four individual facilities containing nuclear wastes that have accumulated over a period of approximately 50 years. Waste retrieval and conditioning, in preparation for decommissioning, is currently being carried out by the site operator. LP and S have recently proposed a re-engagement with stakeholders following the initial engagement in December 2005. This paper reviews this earlier engagement in terms of the nature of dialogue that was carried out when compared against definitions of deliberation provided in the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide those planning future engagement with a better understanding of how the nature of dialogue can vary and uses participation and deliberation as indicators of effective engagement. A concern of those working towards a programme of effective stakeholder participation in 2005 was how to ensure genuine dialogue and stakeholder representation in such a strictly controlled and regulated environment with a technical complexity that challenges technical specialist and lay person alike. LP and S recognised that effective dialogue with stakeholders on the available technical options and their associated societal impacts would form a significant part of this process if options were to prove resilient. However, the challenge presented to LP and S was how to engage stakeholders on a variety of projects, whilst ensuring the output could be used by the projects as part of their technical decision making. Initial contact was made with stakeholders in December 2005, as part of a 'Baseline' Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) study. A BPEO study leads to decisions on waste management based on an integrated assessment of alternative options, on the basis of factors such as the occupational and environmental risks, the environmental impacts, costs and social implications of the options

  17. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  18. The Environmental Legacy of Modern Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Smith, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Purves, Drew; Ewers, Robert M

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation has caused a significant share of carbon emissions and species losses, but historical patterns have rarely been explicitly considered when estimating these impacts [1]. A deforestation event today leads to a time-delayed future release of carbon, from the eventual decay either of forest products or of slash left at the site [2]. Similarly, deforestation often does not result in the immediate loss of species, and communities may exhibit a process of "relaxation" to their new equilibrium over time [3]. We used a spatially explicit land cover change model [4] to reconstruct the annual rates and spatial patterns of tropical deforestation that occurred between 1950 and 2009 in the Amazon, in the Congo Basin, and across Southeast Asia. Using these patterns, we estimated the resulting gross vegetation carbon emissions [2, 5] and species losses over time [6]. Importantly, we accounted for the time lags inherent in both the release of carbon and the extinction of species. We show that even if deforestation had completely halted in 2010, time lags ensured there would still be a carbon emissions debt of at least 8.6 petagrams, equivalent to 5-10 years of global deforestation, and an extinction debt of more than 140 bird, mammal, and amphibian forest-specific species, which if paid, would increase the number of 20(th)-century extinctions in these groups by 120%. Given the magnitude of these debts, commitments to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss are unlikely to be realized without specific actions that directly address this damaging environmental legacy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel waste forms for HLW and ILW immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, William E.; Milestone, Neil B.; Ojovan, Michael I.; Hyatt, Neil C.; Stennett, Martin C.; Setiadi, Anthony; Zhou, Qizhi

    2006-01-01

    The complex nature and heterogeneity of legacy wastes means that a toolbox of different host systems must be developed in which to immobilize them. New zirconolite ceramic, glass composite materials and novel cement systems including calcium sulpho aluminate cements and alkali activated slags being examined in the Immobilisation Science Laboratory at the University of Sheffield are described. (authors)

  20. Emergency Physicians at War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Andrew E; Givens, Melissa; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Mason, Phillip E; Goolsby, Craig

    2018-05-01

    Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs) fully participated as an integrated part of the military's health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM) training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  1. Atomic war field Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, N.

    1980-01-01

    Progressive atomic weapons, results of a perfect and perfidious technology face each other in the centre of a possible crisis - in Europe. The strategists of the Warszhaw Pact and of Nato seem very optimistic, which they owe to their professions, the population's increasing fear of a war, however, can no longer be denied. Nervous military personnel, political and religions fanatics and perplexed politicians sit at the switches of fear - without a concept and without alternatives. Despite this alarming conditions, Nigel Calder who has investigated in the USA and in the USSR, and in Europe, managed to remain a calm spectator of the imminent apocalypse. Without compromises and clearly he analyses the nearly hopeless consequences resulting from the changed world-political situation, the tremendously fast development of the arms technology, and the crazy strategical doctrines in East and West and in the Third World. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Water and wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  3. Emergency Physicians at War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Givens

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs fully participated as an integrated part of the military’s health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  4. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  5. The cultural dimension of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kochetkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present article introduces the concept of the culture wars. Reviewed the features and characteristics of the culture wars. Described the basic methods of the culture wars. Сoncluded that the theoretical design concept of the culture wars can be a uniting point for a number of important areas of the science of international relations.

  6. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  7. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  8. The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

  9. The Falkland Islands War: An Image of War in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, J

    1997-01-01

    .... By any reckoning, it was a war that should never have been fought. It was a war unlike any other war in the twentieth century, and since 1945 it was the first war to erupt outside the construct of the Cold War paradigm...

  10. The War on War League: A South African pacifist movement, 1914 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Communist Party. This article however contends that it needs to be understood in its own terms, as a pacifist movement, reflecting a political moment of resistance to the plunge into global war. Keywords: War on War League, South Africa, Pacifism, Anti-War Movement, First World War, Syndicalism, Internationalism, ...

  11. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will... National Park Service (NPS) concerning the Cold War Theme Study. DATES: The teleconference meeting will be...

  12. Wars of Ideas and the War of Ideas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Echevarria, II, Antulio J

    2008-01-01

    ... as such. With that in mind, this monograph offers a brief examination of four common types of wars of ideas, and uses that as a basis for analyzing how the United States and its allies and strategic partners...

  13. Biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons

  14. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...

  15. Mapping the Sorrows of War

    OpenAIRE

    West, Philip; Philip, West

    2007-01-01

    The two keywords in this essay, mapping and sorrows, are used as heuristic devices to explore the sticky problems of reconciliation among former enemies from the Asia Pacific War, 1931-1945, primarily Japan and China, but also Korea and the United States. Sorrows, as a word and concept, offers an innovative approach to healing the wounds of war by countering the powerful influence of war memories in the familiar narratives of self-pity and self-glorification. In the language of politics and d...

  16. The legacy of pesticide pollution: An overlooked factor in current risk assessments of freshwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    We revealed a history of legacy pesticides in water and sediment samples from 19 small streams across an agricultural landscape. Dominant legacy compounds included organochlorine pesticides, such as DDT and lindane, the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and triazine herbicides such as terbutylazine...

  17. Legacy to Industry 4.0: A Profibus Sniffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegaye Mamo, Fesseha; Sikora, Axel; Rathfelder, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    Legacy industrial communication protocols are proved robust and functional. During the last decades, the industry has invented completely new or advanced versions of the legacy communication solutions. However, even with the high adoption rate of these new solutions, still the majority industry applications run on legacy, mostly fieldbus related technologies. Profibus is one of those technologies that still keep on growing in the market, albeit a slow in market growth in recent years. A retrofit technology that would enable these technologies to connect to the Internet of Things, utilize the ever growing potential of data analysis, predictive maintenance or cloud-based application, while at the same time not changing a running system is fundamental.

  18. U.S. Spacesuit Legacy: Maintaining it for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; McMann, Joe; Thomas, Ken; Kosmo, Joe; Lewis, Cathleen; Wright, Rebecca; Bitterly, Rose; Olivia, Vladenka Rose

    2013-01-01

    The history of U.S. spacesuit development and its use are rich with information on lessons learned, and constitutes a valuable legacy to those designing spacesuits for the future, as well as to educators, students, and the general public. The genesis of lessons learned is best understood by studying the evolution of past spacesuit programs - how the challenges and pressures of the times influenced the direction of the various spacesuit programs. This paper shows how the legacy of various spacesuit-related programs evolved in response to these forces. Important aspects of how this U.S. spacesuit legacy is being preserved today is described, including the archiving of spacesuit hardware, important documents, videos, oral history, and the rapidly expanding U.S. Spacesuit Knowledge Capture program.

  19. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  20. The inclusion of Brazilian flight female nurses in the second world war: challenges and achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Bonfante Cesário Lourenço

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe the circumstances of inclusion of female nurses in the Second World War through the Brazilian Air Force, and discuss the challenges faced by and the achievements of these nurses. Methods: Socio-historical study developed with textual and photographic sources, in addition to oral sources through interviews with war veterans. Data were treated according to the historical method and discussed with concepts support from the theory of social world, by Pierre Bourdieu. Results: The research has demonstrated that the inclusion of female nurses to the Air Force was characterized by social and symbolic effects of war demands and gender boundaries. Conclusion: The great challenge was the official incorporation of women by the Brazilian Air Forces in the post-war period. For this purpose, the organization of a flight female nurses cadre during the conflict was fundamental. Moreover, the record of this history reiterates the Nursing's legacy and the necessity of preparation for care in chaos situations.

  1. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  2. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  3. Developing a TTCN-3 Test Harness for Legacy Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Siddalingaiah, Lokesh

    2006-01-01

    We describe a prototype test harness for an embedded system which is the control software for a modern marine diesel engine. The operations of such control software requires complete certification. We adopt Testing and Test Control Notation (TTCN-3) to define test cases for this purpose. The main...... challenge in developing the test harness is to interface a generic test driver to the legacy software and provide a suitable interface for test engineers. The main contribution of this paper is a demonstration of a suitable design for such a test harness. It includes: a TTCN-3 test driver in C++, the legacy...

  4. Failed catharsis after the Second World War

    OpenAIRE

    Bijelić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugos...

  5. Nuclear legacy: Students of two atomic cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Battelle Memorial Institute operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Within PNNL is the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) assigned to work on improving the safe operations of 67 Soviet-designed nuclear reactors in nine countries. One major mission of this program has been Chernobyl NPP activities, both for the operating plant, and for the Chernobyl Shelter. In conjunction with the activities at Chernobyl, several Battelle staff members have been living in Slavutych (the city closest to Chernobyl) for periods of up to two years. Through these personal relationships, Battelle began to take personal interest in students in Slavutych. In 1999 Battelle used private funding to support 20 students from Slavutych, Ukraine; and 20 students from Richland, Washington, U.S.A., in authoring a book called Nuclear Legacy: Students of Two Atomic Cities. This hard-bound book was researched, and written, entirely by these 40 13-to-15-year-old students. It is an amazing book, which describes the past, the present, and the future of two nuclear cities - Slavutych near Chernobyl, and Richland, near Hanford. It was written in two languages, with every article translated into both English and Ukrainian. It was published in June, 2000, and has now sold more than 2,600 copies in 14 countries. The book is primarily an educational publication designed to teach students how to write and publish a book on a sensitive subject - nuclear. It is not a political statement. However, the student researched and written articles do discuss politically sensitive nuclear topics in straightforward detail. The moving first hand accounts through the eyes of these young people of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, and interviews with scientists and engineers who worked on the 1940's Manhattan Project in the United States, make the book a unique collaboration on two nuclear cultures. What started as a one-semester project took a full

  6. The Hubble Legacy Archive ACS grism data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, M.; Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Nilsson, K. K.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    A public release of slitless spectra, obtained with ACS/WFC and the G800L grism, is presented. Spectra were automatically extracted in a uniform way from 153 archival fields (or "associations") distributed across the two Galactic caps, covering all observations to 2008. The ACS G800L grism provides a wavelength range of 0.55-1.00 μm, with a dispersion of 40 Å/pixel and a resolution of ~80 Å for point-like sources. The ACS G800L images and matched direct images were reduced with an automatic pipeline that handles all steps from archive retrieval, alignment and astrometric calibration, direct image combination, catalogue generation, spectral extraction and collection of metadata. The large number of extracted spectra (73,581) demanded automatic methods for quality control and an automated classification algorithm was trained on the visual inspection of several thousand spectra. The final sample of quality controlled spectra includes 47 919 datasets (65% of the total number of extracted spectra) for 32 149 unique objects, with a median iAB-band magnitude of 23.7, reaching 26.5 AB for the faintest objects. Each released dataset contains science-ready 1D and 2D spectra, as well as multi-band image cutouts of corresponding sources and a useful preview page summarising the direct and slitless data, astrometric and photometric parameters. This release is part of the continuing effort to enhance the content of the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) with highly processed data products which significantly facilitate the scientific exploitation of the Hubble data. In order to characterize the slitless spectra, emission-line flux and equivalent width sensitivity of the ACS data were compared with public ground-based spectra in the GOODS-South field. An example list of emission line galaxies with two or more identified lines is also included, covering the redshift range 0.2 - 4.6. Almost all redshift determinations outside of the GOODS fields are new. The scope of science projects

  7. After the Fall: The RHESSI Legacy Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard A.; Zarro, Dominic M.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2017-08-01

    Launched in 2002 the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) continues to observe the Sun with a nearly 50% duty cycle. During that time the instrument has recorded ~100,000 solar flares in energies from 4 keV to over 10 MeV.with durations of 10s to 1000s of seconds. However, for the reasons of the decline of the solar cycle, possible failure of the instrument, or the absence of funding, our operational phase will end someday. We describe here our plans to continue to serve this dataset in raw, processed, and analyzed forms to the worldwide solar community to continue our legacy of a stream of rich scientific results.We have and are providing a stream of quicklook lightcurves, spectra, and images that we mainly serve through a web interface as well as the data in raw form to be fully analyzed within our own branch of Solar Software written in IDL. We are in the process of creating higher quality images for flares in multiple energy bands on relevant timescales for those whose needs can be met without further processing. For users with IDL licenses we expect this software to be available far into the unknowable future. Together with a database of AIA cutouts during all SDO-era flares, along with software to recover saturated images by using the AIA diffraction fringes, these will be a highly used resource.We also are developing additional tools and databases that will increase the utility of RHESSI data to members of the community with and without either IDL licenses or full access to the RHESSI database. We will provide a database of RHESSI x-ray visibilities obtained during flares at a >4 second cadence over a broad range of detectable energies. With our IDL software those can be rendered as images for times and energies of nearly the analysts's choosing. And going beyond that we are converting our imaging procedures to the Python language to eliminate the need for an IDL license. We are also developing methods to allow the customization of these

  8. Lessons from World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had any idea of what it would be like. Technology had changed the character of war, but old patterns of thought remained in place. We also examine the roots of the war in industrial and colonial competition, and in an arms race. Finally, parallels with current events, and the important lessons for today’s world are discussed.

  9. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Turco, Richard P. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  10. Religious ethics, Christianity, and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Syse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses elements within Christian ethics and anthropology that have ramifications for the ethics and laws of war. The author argues that several distinctively Christian conceptions of morality and of human beings contribute importantly to the idea of just war, namely the Christian (and more specifically Augustinian view of history, the Christian view of killing, and the Christian view of sin and grace. While other religious and philosophical traditions also offer significant contributions to a normative discussion about armed force, it remains a fact that Christian thought, historically speaking, has furnished much of the groundwork of what we today know as the ethics and laws of war, and that the experience of being a Christian in the world has important ramifications for thinking about war and the use of armed force.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1708

  11. Clausewitz Nuclear War and Deterrence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barr, Alan W

    1991-01-01

    .... The advent of nuclear weapons and their role in the evolving east-west struggle following the second world war created a situation, however, unforeseen by Clausewitz, where the most basic political...

  12. The Justice of Preventive War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephenson, Henry

    2004-01-01

    In response to the 9/11 attacks and continuing threats of mass-casualty terrorism, the United States has adopted a new security strategy that emphasizes anticipatory actions, including preventive war...

  13. Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry

    1995-01-01

    .... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...

  14. Characterization of low level mixed waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepworth, E.; Montoya, A.; Holizer, B.

    1995-01-01

    The characterization program was conducted to maintain regulatory compliance and support ongoing waste treatment and disposal activities. The characterization team conducted a characterization review of wastes stored at the Laboratory that contain both a low-level radioactive and a hazardous component. The team addressed only those wastes generated before January 1993. The wastes reviewed, referred to as legacy wastes, had been generated before the implementation of comprehensive waste acceptance documentation procedures. The review was performed to verify existing RCRA code assignments and was required as part of the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA). The review entailed identifying all legacy LLMW items in storage, collecting existing documentation, contacting and interviewing generators, and reviewing code assignments based upon information from knowledge of process (KOP) as allowed by RCRA. The team identified 7,546 legacy waste items in the current inventory, and determined that 4,200 required further RCRA characterization and documentation. KOP characterization was successful for accurately assigning RCRA codes for all but 117 of the 4,200 items within the scope of work. As a result of KOP interviews, 714 waste items were determined to be non-hazardous, while 276 were determined to be non-radioactive. Other wastes were stored as suspect radioactive. Many of the suspect radioactive wastes were certified by the generators as non-radioactive and will eventually be removed

  15. 31 CFR 357.20 - Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®. 357.20 Section 357.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.20 Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®. (a...

  16. 76 FR 15311 - Legacy Learning Systems, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 102 3055] Legacy Learning Systems, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed... electronically or in paper form. Comments should refer to ``Legacy Learning Systems, File No. 102 3055'' to... it. A comment filed in paper form should include the ``Legacy Learning Systems, File No. 102 3055...

  17. Local meanings of a sport mega-event's legacies : Stories from a South African urban neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waardenburg, Maikel; van den Bergh, Marjolein; van Eekeren, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Studies on sport mega-events and their legacies often seem only loosely connected to local experiences. Stories on sport mega-event legacy appear as a setting-the-scene or function as a reference to illustrate specific types of legacy. However, stories themselves are never the primary focus in these

  18. Engineering properties of nuclear waste slurries - 16378

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, Simon; Fairweather, Michael; Hunter, Timothy; Omokanye, Qanitalillahi; Peakall, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The type of particulate systems encountered in legacy nuclear waste slurries is highly complicated, with the aggregation and flow behaviour being at times very variable. However, deconstructing the complex overall slurry activity to singular particle-particle interactions can lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved with particle aggregation, and so to predictions of their settling and flow in nuclear systems. Of particular importance to legacy waste is the role of salts in controlling the attraction of particles (and so in dictating the rheological properties of the system) as sludge may contain a variety of specific ions and generally have high ionic conductivity [1]. In this paper, particle-particle interactions are characterised using a number of complimentary methods, and their influence on resulting flow and bed compression is measured. The methods used to characterise the particle-particle interactions under various salt and pH conditions were electro-acoustic analysis (zeta potential) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Following on from the analysis of particle-particle properties, bulk sediment behaviour was investigated using shear and compressive yield stress measurements, vital parameters in dictating flow and dewatering performance, respectively. Together, these techniques enable the characterisation of a range of particulate systems that may be encountered in legacy wastes, and results point to a number of important factors that can help explain the observed variability in industrial slurry behaviour. (authors)

  19. WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SRS - MAKING IT HAPPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heenan, T. F.; Kelly, S.

    2002-01-01

    The past five years have witnessed a remarkable transition in the pace and scope of waste management activities at SRS. At the start of the new M and O contract in 1996, little was being done with the waste generated at the site apart from storing it in readiness for future treatment and disposal. Large volumes of legacy waste, particularly TRU and Low Level Waste, had accumulated over many years of operation of the site's nuclear facilities, and the backlog was increasing. WSRC proposed the use of the talents of the ''best in class'' partners for the new contract which, together with a more commercial approach, was expected to deliver more results without a concomitant increase in cost. This paper charts the successes in the Solid Waste arena and analyzes the basis for success

  20. Zheng Manqing: The Memorial Hall and Legacy of the Master of Five Excellences in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Mason

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Professor Zheng Manqing (1902-1975, a fine artist and a notable taijiquan disciple of Yang Chengfu, emigrated to Taiwan in 1949 following the Chinese civil war between the Guomindang and Maoist factions. Under Republic of China President Chiang Kai-shek’s Cultural Renaissance Movement, Zheng played an important role in preserving the cultural treasures of traditional China. During the period of Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution when the Mainland was veiled to foreign eyes behind the Bamboo Curtain, Zheng was instrumental in introducing taijiquan and other elements of Chinese culture to the West. Zheng passed away at his home in Yonghe, Taiwan in 1975 but not before establishing an international reputation for his mastery in taijiquan and other arts. Recently, a portion of his former residence was converted into a memorial hall (the Zheng Manqing Jinian Guan by senior students interested in preserving his martial tradition, paintings, calligraphy, and other artifacts. This article provides a brief history of Zheng’s life and his legacy in Taiwan, as well as a photographic tour of the Zheng Manqing Memorial Hall.

  1. Clara Haber, nee Immerwahr (1870-1915): Life, Work and Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Bretislav; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    We examine the life, work, and legacy of Clara Haber, nee Immerwahr, who became the first woman to earn a doctorate from the University of Breslau, in 1900. In 1901 she married the chemist Fritz Haber. With no employment available for female scientists, Clara freelanced as an instructor in the continued education of women, mainly housewives, while struggling not to become a housewife herself. Her duties as a designated head of a posh household hardly brought fulfillment to her life. The outbreak of WWI further exacerbated the situation, as Fritz Haber applied himself in extraordinary ways to aid the German war effort. The night that he celebrated the "success" of the first chlorine cloud attack, Clara committed suicide. We found little evidence to support claims that Clara was an outspoken pacifist who took her life because of her disapproval of Fritz Haber's involvement in chemical warfare. We conclude by examining "the myth of Clara Immerwahr" that took root in the 1990s from the perspective offered by the available scholarly sources, including some untapped ones.

  2. Transmitted Holocaust trauma: curse or legacy? The aggravating and mitigating factors of Holocaust transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Natan P F

    2008-01-01

    For children of Holocaust survivors, the trauma of their parents can be perceived both as a curse and as a legacy. On the one hand, it may fill their inner lives with terrible anxiety-provoking associations; on the other, it may be a source of creative inspiration that motivates them to make the world a better place. As a result, most of them struggle with the contradictory forces of vulnerability and resilience that they inherited from their parents. Since there is such a wide spectrum of adaptive reactions to the Holocaust, it is important to identify the various aggravating and mitigating factors that are assumed to increase or decrease the risk of children to absorb the trauma of their parents and to develop specific second-generation psychopathology as a result. In an effort to understand more clearly some of the aggravating factors, a demographic study of a clinical sub-population of the "Second Generation" was conducted. Results indicated that most of this clinical population was born soon after the war ended, to parents who were both Holocaust survivors, and that they were mostly female, married, highly educated, working as teachers or in the helping professions, were the first or the second child, and had parents who were inclined not to share their Holocaust experiences with their children. Parents were mostly rated as fully functioning, without severe mental and physical disease and as not overly preoccupied with the Holocaust.

  3. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  4. Cyber-Physical War Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Sullivan, D. T.; Kott, A

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents general strategies for cyber war gaming of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) that are used for cyber security research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL). Since Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and other CPSs are operational systems, it is difficult or impossible to perform security experiments on actual systems. The authors describe how table-top strategy sessions and realistic, live CPS war games are conducted at ARL. They also discuss how the recorde...

  5. Joseph Rotblat: influences, scientific achievements and legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Joseph Rotblat was one of the most distinguished nuclear physicists and peace campaigners of the post Second World War period. His peace activities rank alongside those of Albert Einstein and Bertrand Russell; he won the Nobel Peace Prize, jointly with the Pugwash movement, that he helped found. However, he made significant contributions to science, and in particular to the medical applications of accelerators, radiation and radio-nuclides. In this article his early work and influences in Poland are described. He then joined James Chadwick at Liverpool University and began work on the cyclotron recently constructed there. Rotblat then, together with Chadwick, joined the Manhattan Project. This experience was to shape his life. He stayed at Los Alamos for less than a year before walking out. He was suspected of being a spy. Rotblat then became Professor of Physics at St Bartholomew's Medical College and pioneered the use of a 15 MeV linear accelerator in treatment and research. He made fundamental contributions to understanding the effects of the fallout from nuclear bomb tests. He also, together with Patricia Lindop, made important contributions to understanding the biological effects of radiation.

  6. Streamlined approach to waste management at CRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, L.; Campbell, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive, mixed, hazardous and non-hazardous wastes have been and continue to be generated at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) as a result of research and development activities and operations since the 1940s. Over the years, the wastes produced as a byproduct of activities delivering the core missions of the CRL site have been of many types, and today, over thirty distinct waste streams have been identified, all requiring efficient management. With the commencement of decommissioning of the legacy created as part of the development of the Canadian nuclear industry, the volumes and range of wastes to be managed have been increasing in the near term, and this trend will continue into the future. The development of a streamlined approach to waste management is a key to successful waste management at CRL. Waste management guidelines that address all of the requirements have become complex, and so have the various waste management groups receiving waste, with their many different processes and capabilities. This has led to difficulties for waste generators in understanding all of the requirements to be satisfied for the various CRL waste receivers, whose primary concerns are to be safe and in compliance with their acceptance criteria and license conditions. As a result, waste movement on site can often be very slow, especially for non-routine waste types. Recognizing an opportunity for improvement, the Waste Management organization at CRL has implemented a more streamlined approach with emphasis on early identification of waste type and possible disposition path. This paper presents a streamlined approach to waste identification and waste management at CRL, the implementation methodology applied and the early results achieved from this process improvement. (author)

  7. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  8. On depleted uranium: gulf war and Balkan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraković, A

    2001-04-01

    The complex clinical symptomatology of chronic illnesses, commonly described as Gulf War Syndrome, remains a poorly understood disease entity with diversified theories of its etiology and pathogenesis. Several causative factors have been postulated, with a particular emphasis on low level chemical warfare agents, oil fires, multiple vaccines, desert sand (Al-Eskan disease), botulism, Aspergillus flavus, Mycoplasma, aflatoxins, and others, contributing to the broad scope of clinical manifestations. Among several hundred thousand veterans deployed in the Operation Desert Storm, 15-20% have reported sick and about 25,000 died. Depleted uranium (DU), a low-level radioactive waste product of the enrichment of natural uranium with U-235 for the reactor fuel or nuclear weapons, has been considered a possible causative agent in the genesis of Gulf War Syndrome. It was used in the Gulf and Balkan wars as an armor-penetrating ammunition. In the operation Desert Storm, over 350 metric tons of DU was used, with an estimate of 3-6 million grams released in the atmosphere. Internal contamination with inhaled DU has been demonstrated by the elevated excretion of uranium isotopes in the urine of the exposed veterans 10 years after the Gulf war and causes concern because of its chemical and radiological toxicity and mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Polarized views of different interest groups maintain an area of sustained controversy more in the environment of the public media than in the scientific community, partly for the reason of being less than sufficiently addressed by a meaningful objective interdisciplinary research.

  9. The ANSTO waste management action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levins, D.

    1997-01-01

    ANSTO's Waste Management Action Plan is a five-year program which addresses legacy issues that have arisen from the accumulation of radioactive wastes at Lucas Heights over the last forty years. Following an extensive review of waste management practices, a detailed Action Plan was prepared involving seventeen projects in the areas of solid wastes, liquid wastes, control of effluents and emissions, spent reactor fuel and organisational issues. The first year of the Waste Management Action Plan has resulted in significant achievements, especially in the areas of improved storage of solid wastes, stabilisation of uranium scrap, commissioning and operation of a scanning system for low-level waste drums, treatment of intermediate-level liquid wastes and improvements in the methods for monitoring of spent fuel storage facilities. The main goal of the Waste Management Action Plan is to achieve consistency, by the year 2000, with best practice as identified in the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards and Guidelines currently under development by the IAEA

  10. Three wars that never happened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, W M S

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses three serious wars that were averted and the three men who averted them. In 1478-79, Pope Sixtus IV's hatred of the Medici culminated in aggressive war against Florence, supported by his powerful ally King Ferrante of Naples. The initial stags of this war were indecisive, but it was about to become much more serious, probably involving all the Italian states and possibly meaning the total destruction of Florence. Lorenzo il Magnifico sailed to Naples, convinced Ferrante this more serious war was against his interests and obtained a generous peace. In 1861, the British Government responded to the boarding of a British ship by a vessel of the American North with a peremptory letter. Albert, Prince Consort, though dying of typhoid fever amended the letter to save Lincoln's face and thus averted war with the North. From 1871 to 1890, Otto von Bismarck worked for a stable peace between the European powers to be attained by arranging meetings of most or all of them to accustom them to solving disputes by negotiation. Two such meetings in Berlin secured 36 years of peace between the powers, despite many disputes, and in particular averted war for possessions in Africa, which could have involved them all.

  11. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheblanov, V Y; Sneve, M K; Bobrov, A F

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority.

  12. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheblanov, V Y; Bobrov, A F; Sneve, M K

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical–Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. (paper)

  13. Problems of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, D.

    1999-01-01

    An enormous stockpile of nuclear weapons was reduced during the Cold War as a result of frantic Soviet-US competition, accompanied by considerable radioactive pollution of the environment. This pollution was inevitable. Former adversaries began to sober only recently. As a result, areas of weapons complexes both in the USA (Hanford, Savannah, Oak Ridge) and in Russia (Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, Krasnoyarsk-25) look like battlefields of the Cold War. A Nuclear weapon-free world will only be achieved (if at all) after reaching changes in the principles that guide state policies and actions. A nuclear-waste-free world implies that the environment's radioactive pollution of a military nature would be eliminated and all potential dangers from civil nuclear energy prevented. This can be attained after solution of some economic, political and social problems

  14. Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0382 TITLE: Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0382 5b. GRANT...of the 1990-1991 Gulf War are affected by Gulf War illness (GWI), the chronic condition currently defined only by veterans’ self-reported symptoms

  15. The Just War or Just a War? A Proposal for Ethical Joint Doctrine of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, Sarah J

    2005-01-01

    .... It is the foundation of joint professional military education and training, forming the basis for how the warfighter will prosecute a war, and is a reflection of the judgments of senior military leadership...

  16. Innominate artery war injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Radoje

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A case is reported of successfully surgically treated explosive war injury to the innominate artery. Case report. A 26 - year-old soldier was injured in combat by a fragment of mortar shell. In the field hospital, the wound gauze packing was applied, followed by orotracheal intubation and thoracic drainage. The soldier was admitted to MMA six hours later. Physical examination, on admission, revealed huge swelling of the neck, the absence of pulse in the right arm and the right common carotid artery. Chest x-ray revealed hemopneumothorax of the right side and the foreign metal body in the projection of the right sternoclavicular joint. Due to the suspicion of large vessel injury, a median sternotomy was immediately performed. Surgery revealed disrupted bifurcation of the right innominate artery, so the ligation was performed. Aortography was performed postoperatively, followed by the reconstruction of innominate bifurcation with synthetic grafts. Control aortography showed good graft patency, and the patient was discharged from the hospital in good general condition with palpable pulses and mild anisocoria as a sole neurological sequela. Conclusion. A rare and life-threatening injury was successfully managed, mainly due to the rational treatment carried out in the field hospital that helped the injured to survive and arrive to the institution capable of performing the most sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  17. Prevention of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  18. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death

  19. War of Images and Images of War: Rape and Sacrifice in the Iraq War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Rial

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses one of the great issues about which global media remains silent: the rape of Muslim women by U.S. soldiers in Iraq. Contemporary mediascape is prolix. But some silences remain, such as the issue of rape during war. With an anthropological approach to the meaning of war and through the analysis of images, the article focuses on the participation of women in this male space.

  20. Nevada Test Site Perspective on Characterization and Loading of Legacy Transuranic Drums Utilizing the Central Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.G. Lahoud; J. F. Norton; I. L. Siddoway; L. W. Griswold

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has successfully completed a multi-year effort to characterize and ship 1860 legacy transuranic (TRU) waste drums for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a permanent TRU disposal site. This has been a cooperative effort among the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), the U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO), the NTS Management and Operations (M and O) contractor Bechtel Nevada (BN), and various contractors under the Central Characterization Project (CCP) umbrella. The success is due primarily to the diligence, perseverance, and hard work of each of the contractors, the DOE/CBFO, and NNSA/NSO, along with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Headquarters (DOE/HQ). This paper presents, from an NTS perspective, the challenges and successes of utilizing the CCP for obtaining a certified characterization program, sharing responsibilities for characterization, data validation, and loading of TRU waste with BN to achieve disposal at WIPP from a Small Quantity Site (SQS) such as the NTS. The challenges in this effort arose from two general sources. First, the arrangement of DOE/CBFO contractors under the CCP performing work and certifying waste at the NTS within a Hazard Category 2 (HazCat 2) non-reactor nuclear facility operated by BN, presented difficult challenges. The nuclear safety authorization basis, safety liability and responsibility, conduct of operations, allocation and scheduling of resources, and other issues were particularly demanding. The program-level and field coordination needed for the closely interrelated characterization tasks was extensive and required considerable effort by all parties. The second source of challenge was the legacy waste itself. None of the waste was generated at the NTS. The waste was generated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lynchburg, Rocky

  1. The Kemper History Project: From Historical Narrative to Institutional Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunzicker, Jana

    2017-01-01

    An "institutional legacy" can be understood as knowledge, values, and shared experiences transmitted by or received from a college or university for the benefit of all who have taught, served, researched, and/or learned there. This article describes a year-long, collaborative writing project carried out by one university to chronicle two…

  2. Leaving a Legacy: Passing Montessori to the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    For each of the past 19 years, the American Montessori Society has chosen to recognize one Montessorian as an AMS Living Legacy. Recipients are honored at the AMS annual conference for their salient work or volunteerism in the Montessori field and their dedication and leadership that has made an impact on the AMS community. It seems fitting that…

  3. Modernization Solution for Legacy Banking System Using an Open Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Marian MATEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Banks are still using legacy systems as the core of their business is comprised within such sys-tems. Since the technology and client demands are changing rapidly, the banks have to adapt their systems in order to be competitive. The issue is to identify correctly what are the bank users preferences in terms of software reliability and how modern is the system For instance, there are users who enjoy working using the old screen format, and there are users who enjoy working with newer layouts, Web interfaces, and so on. We need also to know the constraints generated by the usage of legacy systems, and how these systems can be improved or replaced. The scope of the article is to present a solution of modernizing a legacy banking system by using a SOA approach. The research is based on the modernization of a legacy system developed in COBOL/400 under IBM iSeries. The modernization process uses a SOA ap-proach using JAVA technologies.

  4. Language Learners and Diverse Legacies: Question of Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 43 Scottish open university students, aged 28-87, who were studying another language, examined extent of bilingualism; schooling in and exposure to other languages in youth; school, family, media, and travel influences on language attitudes; and motivations for language study. Social and educational legacies affecting student…

  5. A generic framework for extracting XML data from legacy databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiran, Ph.; Estiévenart, F.; Hainaut, J.L.; Houben, G.J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a generic framework of which semantics-based XML data can be derived from legacy databases. It consists in first recovering the conceptual schema of the database through reverse engineering techniques, and then in converting this schema, or part of it, into XML-compliant data

  6. Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education: Reverence for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rud, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    "Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education" is the first book devoted to the study of the thought and deeds of Albert Schweitzer in relation to education. Schweitzer's life and work offer both inspiration and timely insights for educational thought and practice in the twenty-first century. Focusing on Schweitzer's central thought,…

  7. An object-oriented framework for managing cooperating legacy databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, H; de Brock, EO

    2003-01-01

    We describe a general semantic framework for precise specification of so-called database federations. A database federation provides for tight coupling of a collection of heterogeneous legacy databases into a global integrated system. Our approach to database federation is based on the UML/OCL data

  8. Legacy, resource mobilisation and the olympic movement | Girginov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been a growing interest in legacies of the Olympic Games focusing on external tangible outcomes, such as the number of sport competitions, participants and jobs created. Little is still known about the equally valuable internal benefits to individuals and organisational capacities of national sport systems.

  9. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Dr. John Hope Franklin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert L., Jr.; Levering-Lewis, David; French, John D.; Wharton, Clifton R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. John Hope Franklin chronicled the experiences of African-Americans like no one before him, forcing America to recognize Black history as American history. His contributions were innumerable and his impact was abiding. In celebration of his life and legacy, the authors profile the celebrated scholar and activist, Dr. John Hope Franklin.

  10. The portrayal of J. Marion Sims' controversial surgical legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spettel, Sara; White, Mark Donald

    2011-06-01

    In the mid 1800s Dr. J. Marion Sims reported the successful repair of vesicovaginal fistulas with a technique he developed by performing multiple operations on female slaves. A venerated physician in his time, the legacy of Dr. Sims is controversial and represents a significant chapter in the mistreatment of African-Americans by the medical establishment. This review compares the modern debate surrounding his legacy with the presentation of his operation in widely consulted urological texts and journals. A literature review was performed of medical, sociological and periodical sources (1851 to the present) regarding J. Marion Sims and vesicovaginal fistula repair. During the last several decades, while the controversy around Dr. Sims' surgical development has produced a steady stream of articles in the historical and popular literature, relatively little mention is found in standard urology textbooks or journals. With increased public attention, some have debated the removal or modification of public tributes to Dr. Sims. This move has been countered by arguments against the validity of judging a 19th century physician by modern standards. While historians, ethicists and the popular press have debated Dr. Sims' legacy, medical sources have continued to portray him unquestionably as a great figure in medical history. This division keeps the medical profession uninformed and detached from the public debate on his legacy and, thus, the larger issues of ethical treatment of surgical patients. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Paralympics 2012 Legacy: Accessible Housing and Disability Equality or Inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    The golden summer of sport is now over, but what is the legacy of London 2012 for disabled people? Nadia Ahmed, a disabled student, discusses the difficulties she has faced in finding accessible accommodation in London. She argues that while the Games are over, the United Kingdom still has lots of hurdles to leap when it comes to disability. The…

  12. An assessment of mine legacies and how to prevent them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    in eastern El Salvador, compared the country’s mine closure legislation against world’s best practice standards and provided strategies for awareness, prevention and remediation. The most damaging legacy to the environment is that of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) contamination of the local river. The impact...

  13. The Rights of theWronged: Norms of Nuclearism, the Polygon and the Making of Waste-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Sartbayeva Peleo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available On 16th December 1991 Kazakhstan inherited “1216 nuclear warheads for intercontinental ballistic missiles and heavy bombers” (Werner and Purvis-Roberts, 2006. Moreover, Kazakhstan was also presumed to have significant amounts of enriched weapon-grade uranium enough for at least “two dozen warheads” (ibid.. However on 23rd May 1992 Kazakhstan signed the Lisbon Protocol to the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START, gave up its “nuclear ambitions” and agreed “to become a non-nuclear weapon state” (Ayazbekov, 2014. Why did Kazakhstan give up nuclear weapons? This can be adequately answered only by linking the issue with the high material, human and environmental costs of hosting WMDs within the state territory. This paper examines the case of ‘waste-lives’ (Bauman, 2004 related to the Semipalatinsk Polygon in Kazakhstan. The Polygon experienced 467 nuclear tests during the period of 1949-1989 “without regard for the health and safety of those living and working near the test site” (Loretz, 2015. The issues of “human” exclusion of the periphery of the Cold War IR and its effects after the end of the Cold War are at the core of this case study. The structure of the international system (Waltz, 1979 and “nuclear deterrence” (Brodie, 1958 that explain “Long Peace” during the Cold War came at the cost of well-being of the population that supposed to benefit out of the absence of warfare. Geopolitical perspective of the Cold War views historical events as anonymous or mechanical, except those that involved prominent leaders and disregards the “human” aspects of military industrial complex, particularly its biopolitical impact on the life-system of population. The fall of the USSR and “triumph of liberalism” helped to politicise and recognise the long-term effects of radiation contamination. However, this revelation did not resolve the issues as persistent problems being framed as a legacy of the

  14. War Remembered, Revolution Forgotten: Recasting the Sino-North Korean Alliance in China’s Post-Socialist Media State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From October 1950 to July 1953, the nascent Chinese state entered into a strategic alliance with North Korea; hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers shed blood on the Korean peninsula in defense of the socialist homeland and advancing Communist internationalism. But since the end of the Korean War, China has moved from revolutionary idealism and political radicalism in Mao’s era to the current post-socialist pragmatism and materialism. As the ideological winds shift, China’s contemporary propaganda apparatus must redefine the Korean War in order to reconcile the complexity of the war and wartime alliance with contemporary political concerns and popular views. By focusing on a documentary film, The Unforgettable Victory, produced by China’s leading state-run film studio in 2013, this article explores the ways in which the official media of the post-socialist era presents the past revolutionary war. The new film celebrates the splendid valor of Chinese soldiers, civilians’ heroic sacrifices, and the war’s nationalist legacy; however, it purposefully forgets the revolutionary fervor and internationalist sentiments that once forged the Sino–North Korean alliance and empowered wartime mobilization. This article examines the process of remembering and forgetting, and reveals government propaganda’s latest efforts to demobilize contemporary viewers while infusing the past revolutionary war with ideological clarity and political certainty in post-socialist China.

  15. Bulk monitoring and segregation of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddow, H.; Adsley, I.; Pearman, I.; Sweeney, A.; Davies, M., E-mail: helen.beddow@nuvia.co.uk [Nuvia Limited, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Several sites in the UK are contaminated by radioactive legacy wastes. These include; radium luminising sites and more recently the oil, and (potentially) fracking industries; sites contaminated from thorium gas mantle factories; old nuclear research sites; nuclear power sites, and the Sellafield reprocessing site. Nuvia has developed a suite of technologies to map the location of and to recover and process wastes during remedial operations. The main method for delineating contaminated areas in-situ is by use of the Groundhog system, whilst bulk monitoring methods employ the Gamma Excavation Monitor, the High Resolution Assay Monitor, and the Conveyor Active Particle System. (author)

  16. Bulk monitoring and segregation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddow, H.; Adsley, I.; Pearman, I.; Sweeney, A.; Davies, M.

    2014-01-01

    Several sites in the UK are contaminated by radioactive legacy wastes. These include; radium luminising sites and more recently the oil, and (potentially) fracking industries; sites contaminated from thorium gas mantle factories; old nuclear research sites; nuclear power sites, and the Sellafield reprocessing site. Nuvia has developed a suite of technologies to map the location of and to recover and process wastes during remedial operations. The main method for delineating contaminated areas in-situ is by use of the Groundhog system, whilst bulk monitoring methods employ the Gamma Excavation Monitor, the High Resolution Assay Monitor, and the Conveyor Active Particle System. (author)

  17. Scale and legacy controls on catchment nutrient export regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T.; Worrall, F.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient dynamics in river catchments are complex: water and chemical fluxes are highly variable in low-order streams, but this variability declines as fluxes move through higher-order reaches. This poses a major challenge for process understanding as much effort is focussed on long-term monitoring of the main river channel (a high-order reach), and therefore the data available to support process understanding are predominantly derived from sites where much of the transient response of nutrient export is masked by the effect of averaging over both space and time. This may be further exacerbated at all scales by the accumulation of legacy nutrient sources in soils, aquifers and pore waters, where historical activities have led to nutrient accumulation where the catchment system is transport limited. Therefore it is of particular interest to investigate how the variability of nutrient export changes both with catchment scale (from low to high-order catchment streams) and with the presence of legacy sources, such that the context of infrequent monitoring on high-order streams can be better understood. This is not only a question of characterising nutrient export regimes per se, but also developing a more thorough understanding of how the concepts of scale and legacy may modify the statistical characteristics of observed responses across scales in both space and time. In this paper, we use synthetic data series and develop a model approach to consider how space and timescales combine with impacts of legacy sources to influence observed variability in catchment export. We find that: increasing space and timescales tend to reduce the observed variance in nutrient exports, due to an increase in travel times and greater mixing, and therefore averaging, of sources; increasing the influence of legacy sources inflates the variance, with the level of inflation dictated by the residence time of the respective sources.

  18. Climate wars and fat wars: A new role for law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma J. Kroeze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Public trust in science is eroding because of a number of conflicts. In the sphere of climate science and of nutrition science, a basic methodological difference between scientists has escalated into what can be called wars. These wars are the result of influences such as personalities of leading scientists and powerful commercial and political interests. The wars have escalated to such an extent that leading scientists are being threatened with legal action and disciplinary procedures for advocating divergent views. These legal processes are not primarily about the procedural aspects of their actions, but are couched as being ‘about the science’. This means that legal processes are being used to ‘settle’ the science – something that the law has never been required to do. This new role for law has implications for legal education and requires that lawyers become more capable to understand empirical research.

  19. The history and legacy of Project X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.J.; Johnson, R.S.

    1994-12-01

    About 2,100 metric tons of irradiated uranium materials (i.e. spent fuel) are stored at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state. This is the largest single inventory of spent fuel in wet storage in the DOE complex. This spent fuel is currently stored in two separate fuel storage basins which were constructed to store spent fuel from Hanford's K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactors which were deactivated in the early 1970's. The information below provides a description of the operational history of the facilities and discusses the current environmental and waste management challenges facing continued operations at these facilities. It also serves as a driving force for arriving at an alternative storage configuration for spent fuel until a final disposition method of the spent fuel is determined through the NEPA process

  20. A Lyrical War: Gallipoli War through Poetry in Anzac Diaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Çelikel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the First World War, Dardanelles witnessed one of the fiercest clashes in history between the British and the Turkish forces. This eight-month-war caused the settlement of British army that included Australian and New Zealand Army Corps known as Anzacs on particularly the Gallipoli Peninsula. The Australian and New Zealander soldiers and officers constantly kept diaries and wrote letters that in a sense recorded history from the personal perspective contributing to history with individual observation. If Anzac diaries kept during the Gallipoli clashes in 1915 function as secondary historical sources, they also do function as reminiscences of military officers who found consolation in expressing themselves lyrically during harsh conflicts. Some Anzac officers quote poems in their diaries and some write their own poetry to cope with the violence of war using the aestheticism of poetry. Their poems, on the other hand, remain not only as the lyrical reflections of a deadly reality but also as even more painful portrayals of war. This paper aims to read poems either quoted or written in the diaries of Anzac soldiers and officers in order to analyse the emotional effects of war on individuals. The poems will be analysed through the perspective of cultural landscape and question the influence of landscape on the perception of war in the minds of the Anzacs. From the new historicist perspective, the diaries bearing poetry will be read not as the sources of historical information but as the texts that use history as the material for poetry. The paper will also question whether or not the individual observations change the perception of official history that does not become the main impulse behind the writing of poetry but turns merely into one of its sources.

  1. Radio-ecological characterization and radiological assessment in support of regulatory supervision of legacy sites in northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneve, M K; Kiselev, M; Shandala, N K

    2014-05-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has been implementing a regulatory cooperation program in the Russian Federation for over 10 years, as part of the Norwegian government's Plan of Action for enhancing nuclear and radiation safety in northwest Russia. The overall long-term objective has been the enhancement of safety culture and includes a special focus on regulatory supervision of nuclear legacy sites. The initial project outputs included appropriate regulatory threat assessments, to determine the hazardous situations and activities which are most in need of enhanced regulatory supervision. In turn, this has led to the development of new and updated norms and standards, and related regulatory procedures, necessary to address the often abnormal conditions at legacy sites. This paper presents the experience gained within the above program with regard to radio-ecological characterization of Sites of Temporary Storage for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha in the Kola Peninsula in northwest Russia. Such characterization is necessary to support assessments of the current radiological situation and to support prospective assessments of its evolution. Both types of assessments contribute to regulatory supervision of the sites. Accordingly, they include assessments to support development of regulatory standards and guidance concerning: control of radiation exposures to workers during remediation operations; emergency preparedness and response; planned radionuclide releases to the environment; development of site restoration plans, and waste treatment and disposal. Examples of characterization work are presented which relate to terrestrial and marine environments at Andreeva Bay. The use of this data in assessments is illustrated by means of the visualization and assessment tool (DATAMAP) developed as part of the regulatory cooperation program, specifically to help control radiation exposure in operations and to support

  2. Bringing Legacy Visualization Software to Modern Computing Devices via Application Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ward

    2014-05-01

    Planning software compatibility across forthcoming generations of computing platforms is a problem commonly encountered in software engineering and development. While this problem can affect any class of software, data analysis and visualization programs are particularly vulnerable. This is due in part to their inherent dependency on specialized hardware and computing environments. A number of strategies and tools have been designed to aid software engineers with this task. While generally embraced by developers at 'traditional' software companies, these methodologies are often dismissed by the scientific software community as unwieldy, inefficient and unnecessary. As a result, many important and storied scientific software packages can struggle to adapt to a new computing environment; for example, one in which much work is carried out on sub-laptop devices (such as tablets and smartphones). Rewriting these packages for a new platform often requires significant investment in terms of development time and developer expertise. In many cases, porting older software to modern devices is neither practical nor possible. As a result, replacement software must be developed from scratch, wasting resources better spent on other projects. Enabled largely by the rapid rise and adoption of cloud computing platforms, 'Application Streaming' technologies allow legacy visualization and analysis software to be operated wholly from a client device (be it laptop, tablet or smartphone) while retaining full functionality and interactivity. It mitigates much of the developer effort required by other more traditional methods while simultaneously reducing the time it takes to bring the software to a new platform. This work will provide an overview of Application Streaming and how it compares against other technologies which allow scientific visualization software to be executed from a remote computer. We will discuss the functionality and limitations of existing application streaming

  3. American growth and Napoleonic Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the French Revolution, in 1793 a series of wars among France and other major powers of Europe began and they lasted until 1815. There is disagreement among economic historians about the effects of these wars on the trend of US economic growth. This paper aims to answer the following question. Did America as a neutral nation take advantage of economic possibilities caused by Europe at war through trade? To put it differently, this paper questions whether there was an export-led growth due to the war. To answer this question, we re-examined the export-led growth hypothesis for the period 1790-1860 using the ARDL methodology. Based on this methodology, a cointegrated relationship is found among the variables of real GDP, labor, exports and exchange rates. The results suggest that the economic growth of the US was not export-driven. In addition, parallel to the results of unit root tests with structural breaks, the coefficient of the dummy variable was statistically significant in the long run, implying that the war did have a significant effect on the economic growth trend of the US.

  4. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  5. The Scientific Legacy of Ugo Fano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuti, Mitio

    2001-04-01

    In 1934 Fano received a Sc. D. degree in mathematics at University of Turin, Italy (the city of his birth in 1912). He was then led to physics by his cousin Guilio Racah, and received postdoctoral training from Fermi at Rome and from Heisenberg at Leipzig. He worked at institutions near Washington, D. C. during the war, and joined the staff of the National Bureau of Standards in 1946. He became a professor of physics at The University of Chicago in 1966. His contributions to radiation physics, atomic and molecular physics, and statistical physics are extensive and outstanding. Recognition includes many honors such as the Fermi Award by the DOE, and terms such as the Beutler-Fano profile of certain spectral lines, the Fano factor characterizing the fluctuations of the radiation-induced ionization, the Fano-Lichten mechanism for inelastic atomic collisions, and the Fano effect leading to spin-polarized photoelectrons. His work follows a style inherited from Fermi and is characterized by incisive insight into the physics behind experimental data, penetrating mathematical analysis, and close communications with many colleagues. Because he took a leading role in developing new areas of research and in nurturing young scientists, his influence now permeates many topics of physics. They include far uv and soft x-ray spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation and fundamental radiological physics, both stemming from his time at NBS, as well as multi-channel quantum-defect theory and hyperspherical-coordinate approach, both pioneered at Chicago. Fuller accounts of his life and science are seen in Inokuti [1], in Rau [2], and in a forthcoming special issue of Physics Essays in his honor. The present work is supported by U. S. DOE, Office of Science, Nuclear Physics Division, under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38. References 1. M. Inokuti, in Fundamental Processes of Atomic Dynamics, J. S. Briggs et al. (eds.), (Plenum, New York, 1988), p. 1. 2. A. R. P. Rau, Comments At. Mol. Phys

  6. The scientific legacy of Ugo Fano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1934 Fano received a Sc. D. degree in mathematics at University of Turin, Italy (the city of his birth in 1912). He was then led to physics by his cousin Guilio Racah, and received postdoctoral training from Fermi at Rome and from Heisenberg at Leipzig. He worked at institutions near Washington, D. C. during the war, and joined the staff of the National Bureau of Standards in 1946. He became a professor of physics at The University of Chicago in 1966. His contributions to radiation physics, atomic and molecular physics, and statistical physics are extensive and outstanding. Recognition includes many honors such as the Fermi Award by the DOE, and terms such as the Beutler-Fano profile of certain spectral lines, the Fano factor characterizing the fluctuations of the radiation-induced ionization, the Fano-Lichten mechanism for inelastic atomic collisions, and the Fano effect leading to spin-polarized photoelectrons. His work follows a style inherited from Fermi and is characterized by incisive insight into the physics behind experimental data, penetrating mathematical analysis, and close communications with many colleagues. Because he took a leading role in developing new areas of research and in nurturing young scientists, his influence now permeates many topics of physics. They include far uv and soft x-ray spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation and fundamental radiological physics, both stemming from his time at NBS, as well as multi-channel quantum-defect theory and hyperspherical-coordinate approach, both pioneered at Chicago. Fuller accounts of his life and science are seen in Inokuti [1], in Rau [2], and in a forthcoming special issue of Physics Essays in his honor. The present work is supported by U. S. DOE, Office of Science, Nuclear Physics Division, under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38. References 1. M. Inokuti, in Fundamental Processes of Atomic Dynamics, J. S. Briggs et al. (eds.), (Plenum, New York, 1988), p. 1. 2. A. R. P. Rau, Comments At. Mol. Phys

  7. War Gamers Handbook: A Guide for Professional War Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    by McCarty Little in 1912 continues today. Others have also contributed to war gaming scholarship. McHugh (1966), a NWC war gamer from the mid-1930s...select areas of particular interest to the sponsor ( McHugh , 1966). The game-specific purposes, more recently referred to as objectives, are discrete...no intent to try to win. Such a design is used mainly to promote participant learning ( McHugh , 1966). Scenario A game scenario is the scenic

  8. Catchment legacies and time lags: a parsimonious watershed model to predict the effects of legacy storage on nitrogen export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J Van Meter

    Full Text Available Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy. The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast, a random pattern of conversion results in a 1:1 relationship between percent land conversion and percent concentration reduction, irrespective of denitrification rates within the landscape. Our modeling framework allows for the quantification of tradeoffs between costs associated with implementation of conservation measures and the time needed to see the desired concentration reductions, making it of great value to decision makers regarding optimal implementation of watershed conservation measures.

  9. Wastes options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, M.

    1992-01-01

    After a description of the EEC environmental policy, some wastes families are described: bio-contaminant wastes (municipal and industrial), hospitals wastes, toxic wastes in dispersed quantities, nuclear wastes (radioactive and thermal), plastics compounds wastes, volatiles organic compounds, hydrocarbons and used solvents. Sources, quantities and treatments are given. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  10. Controversy. The wood war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

  11. Genetic consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the aftermath of a nuclear war, genetic effects may appear trivial in comparison with the enormity of the catastrophic development in the survivors' health and the environment. Gross effects are immediately or subtly demonstrable on the basis of diverse war scenarios. On the other hand, in a great number of organisms, genetic effects of radiation have been shown to occur according to a no-threshold dose-effect curve, thus implying that effects may be found even in situations and population groups where other direct effects are small. The discussions on the effects of nuclear war have indicated that whatever sector of effects is focused on, closer examination has, in each case - be it treatment of casualties, effects on climate, or effects on world trade - led to a picture of possible and often probable catastrophic collapse

  12. Possible consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Speeches of Soviet and foreign scientists at the Second Section of 2d All-UNION conference of scientists on problems of peace and prevention of nuclear war related to possible consequences of nuclear war have been considered. It is noted that production of a large amount of aerosol particles, dust, smoke and combustion products due to forest-fires, fires in cities, which change considerably atmosphere properties, will be the greatest effect of nuclear strike from the point of view of global consequencies. ''Nuclear winter'', photosynthesis suppression, plant bioproductivity weakening, long-term climate changes, ozone layer disturbance, mass and irreversible degeneration of all biosphere on the whole are great consequencies of nuclear conflict. Attention is paid to medical service, industrial accidents, radioactive fallouts consequence of radiation and other harmful factors for people in nuclear war

  13. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...... outcomes and information on deployment history was studied using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until April 27, 2014. RESULTS: As the main finding, no difference was found between veterans...

  14. Nuclear War. The moral dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Child, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

  15. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  16. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  17. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  19. Former Prisoner of War Statistical Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Former Prisoner of War (POW) Statistical Tracking System database is a registry designed to comply with Public Law 97-37, the Former Prisoner of War Benefits Act...

  20. The World of WarsRisky systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have....... The "extreme 20th century" will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be more extreme and its temporal bindings easier to observe. The much celebrated revolutions in military affairs will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away. Kantian convergences may appear....

  1. The War in Afghanistan: A Strategic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herring, G

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a strategic analysis of the war in Afghanistan. It begins by articulating the United States' strategic objectives for the war, the approaches taken to achieve those objectives, and the resources employed in each approach...

  2. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  3. Failed catharsis after the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugoslavs’ examples, where ethnic violence in after war period was overshadowed by general suffering from foreign occupants and local traitors in the Second World War. Instead of reassessment of existing ethnic and national identities, the process of reconciliation between Croatian and Serbian community after the Second World War was exhilarated with radical changes of collective identities.

  4. Patterns of War Termination: A Statistical Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, II, Paul D

    2007-01-01

    .... Specifically, this thesis addressed questions concerning the most relevant factors toward predicting both the outcomes of interstate wars and the winners of intrastate and extra-systemic wars, within...

  5. Health physics challenges involved with opening a "seventeen-inch" concrete waste vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick T; Pizzulli, Michelle

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the various activities involved with opening a sealed legacy "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault and the health physics challenges and solutions employed. As part of a legacy waste stream that was removed from the former Hazardous Waste Management Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault labeled 1-95 was moved to the new Waste Management Facility for ultimate disposal. Because the vault contained 239Pu foils with a total activity in excess of the transuranic waste limits, the foils needed to be removed and repackaged for disposal. Conventional diamond wire saws could not be used because of facility constraints, so this project relied mainly on manual techniques. The planning and engineering controls put in place enabled personnel to open the vault and remove the waste while keeping dose as low as reasonably achievable.

  6. Two tales of legacy effects on stream nutrient behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieroza, M.; Heathwaite, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Intensive agriculture has led to large-scale land use conversion, shortening of flow pathways and increased loads of nutrients in streams. This legacy results in gradual build-up of nutrients in agricultural catchments: in soil for phosphorus (biogeochemical legacy) and in the unsaturated zone for nitrate (hydrologic legacy), controlling the water quality in the long-term. Here we investigate these effects on phosphorus and nitrate stream concentrations using high-frequency (10-5 - 100 Hz) sampling with in situ wet-chemistry analysers and optical sensors. Based on our 5 year study, we observe that storm flow responses differ for both nutrients: phosphorus shows rapid increases (up to 3 orders of magnitude) in concentrations with stream flow, whereas nitrate shows both dilution and concentration effects with increasing flow. However, the range of nitrate concentrations change is narrow (up to 2 times the mean) and reflects chemostatic behaviour. We link these nutrient responses with their dominant sources and flow pathways in the catchment. Nitrate from agriculture (with the peak loading in 1983) is stored in the unsaturated zone of the Penrith Sandstone, which can reach up to 70 m depth. Thus nitrate legacy is related to a hydrologic time lag with long travel times in the unsaturated zone. Phosphorus is mainly sorbed to soil particles, therefore it is mobilised rapidly during rainfall events (biogeochemical legacy). The phosphorus stream response will however depend on how well connected is the stream to the catchment sources (driven by soil moisture distribution) and biogeochemical activity (driven by temperature), leading to both chemostatic and non-chemostatic responses, alternating on a storm-to-storm and seasonal basis. Our results also show that transient within-channel storage is playing an important role in delivery of phosphorus, providing an additional time lag component. These results show, that consistent agricultural legacy in the catchment (high

  7. Legacy model integration for enhancing hydrologic interdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, A.; Arabi, M.; David, O.

    2013-12-01

    Many challenges are introduced to interdisciplinary research in and around the hydrologic science community due to advances in computing technology and modeling capabilities in different programming languages, across different platforms and frameworks by researchers in a variety of fields with a variety of experience in computer programming. Many new hydrologic models as well as optimization, parameter estimation, and uncertainty characterization techniques are developed in scripting languages such as Matlab, R, Python, or in newer languages such as Java and the .Net languages, whereas many legacy models have been written in FORTRAN and C, which complicates inter-model communication for two-way feedbacks. However, most hydrologic researchers and industry personnel have little knowledge of the computing technologies that are available to address the model integration process. Therefore, the goal of this study is to address these new challenges by utilizing a novel approach based on a publish-subscribe-type system to enhance modeling capabilities of legacy socio-economic, hydrologic, and ecologic software. Enhancements include massive parallelization of executions and access to legacy model variables at any point during the simulation process by another program without having to compile all the models together into an inseparable 'super-model'. Thus, this study provides two-way feedback mechanisms between multiple different process models that can be written in various programming languages and can run on different machines and operating systems. Additionally, a level of abstraction is given to the model integration process that allows researchers and other technical personnel to perform more detailed and interactive modeling, visualization, optimization, calibration, and uncertainty analysis without requiring deep understanding of inter-process communication. To be compatible, a program must be written in a programming language with bindings to a common

  8. (Resurveying Mediterranean Rural Landscapes: GIS and Legacy Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Witcher

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Legacy data have always been important for Mediterranean archaeologists. Over the past decade, one specific category of legacy data, that deriving from regional survey, has become particularly important. Not only has the scale of research questions become larger (requiring greater reliance on others' data, but the surface archaeological record is deteriorating (diminishing the ability to recover good data. The legacy data from many individual surveys have now been subject to digitisation and GIS analysis, successfully redeploying data collected for one purpose within new theoretical and interpretive frameworks. However, a key research focus is now comparative survey - using the results of many different Mediterranean surveys side-by-side to identify regional variability in settlement organisation, economy and demography. In order to overcome the significant methodological differences between these surveys, attention has focused on the documentation of metadata. Yet, many legacy data lack vital information about their creation and hence how they might be (reinterpreted and compared. GIS has been advanced as an environment in which to contain, order and analyse the data necessary for comparative survey. However, there is a danger that the technology will facilitate inappropriate use of these datasets in a way that fails to acknowledge and understand the very real differences between them. Here, emphasis is placed upon the use of GIS as a space for exploratory data analysis: a process that encompasses and emphasises the integral processes of digitisation, visualisation and simple analysis for the characterisation of datasets in order to derive an alternative form of metadata. Particular emphasis is placed upon the interaction of past human behaviour (e.g. in the Roman period and archaeological recovery (i.e. the behaviour of archaeologists in the present, or recent past; these two sets of 'social action' combine to create distinctive archaeological

  9. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  10. 17. The Thirty Years War

    OpenAIRE

    Blamires, David

    2013-01-01

    Without any question the period of the Thirty Years War, from 1618 to 1648, was one of the most horrifying in the history of Germany. Not only were huge numbers of soldiers killed in battle in virtually every part of the Holy Roman Empire, but even greater numbers of the civilian population died in the conflict or through starvation or disease. Houses, churches, villages and towns were burnt and destroyed, and by the end of the war the population had been reduced from about sixteen millions t...

  11. War and Peace: an Economic Liberalist Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. HUNG

    2009-01-01

    In a simple formal model of two-country, two-good with an elementary Conflict Technology, we use a rudimentary game theoretics to study the matter of war and peace, where under peace, cooperative exchange takes place, and where, in case of war, the winner takes all through appropriation of the whole endowment left after payment of armament expenditures. We provide conditions under which war is inevitable, then go on to characterize situations where war, still probable, is not necessarily the ...

  12. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  13. Economic Origins of War and Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Why do wars happen, and what do societies fight over? Why are international relations sometimes fearful and aggressive and other times harmonious? I show that these questions can be fruitfully explored by importing some basic economic theory into the existing bargaining theory of war. A separate essay analyzes the interactions between the United States and countries that may be pursuing nuclear weapons. "Costly Peace: A New Rationalist Explanation for War" posits a new explanation for war: so...

  14. The Effect of War on the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan, Li; Lu, Wang

    2008-01-01

    Since 1991 the Gulf war occurred, global concern on human being health and environmental damages has continued to increase. This project assesses the damages caused by the war to environment. Wars started by countries could bring infinite damages to the natural environment; in this project we intend to discuss and clarify our viewpoint that” the impacts of war on the environment most have negative effects”. We also focus on the fundamental information for understanding the further developing ...

  15. War and reconstruction in northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Bruck

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses some of the economic effects of war in northern Mozambique. It indicates how the historical and structural features of the economy of northern Mozambique restricted post-war reconstruction and post-war poverty alleviation. These features include the dominance of only a few cash crops for export, the absence of much rural trading, poor communication infrastructure, and weak political and state institutions. The specific nature of the internal war further weakened the stat...

  16. North Dalmatian Outline Of War Ethnology

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, Jadran

    2016-01-01

    The text presents the anthropological, ethnological and ethnographic interests in the war, problematizes them within the borders of North Dalmatia and suggests possible future disciplinary interests. The war ethnography is a type of text which can be useful in the local communities which are still recovering from the effects of the war. Compared with the global practice of dealing with these topics, it can be assumed that the corpus of the war ethnography would have cultural, social and scien...

  17. Analysis of Selected Legacy 85Kr Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Legacy samples composed of 85Kr encapsulated in solid zeolite 5A material and five small metal tubes containing a mixture of the zeolite combined with a glass matrix resulting from hot isostatic pressing have been preserved. The samples were a result of krypton R&D encapsulation efforts in the late 1970s performed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These samples were shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in mid-FY 2014. Upon receipt the outer shipping package was opened, and the inner package, removed and placed in a radiological hood. The individual capsules were double bagged as they were removed from the inner shipping pig and placed into individual glass sample bottles for further analysis. The five capsules were then x-ray imaged. Capsules 1 and 4 appear intact and to contain an amorphous mass within the capsules. Capsule 2 clearly shows the saw marks on the capsule and a quantity of loose pellet or bead-like material remaining in the capsule. Capsule 3 shows similar bead-like material within the intact capsule. Capsule 5 had been opened at an undetermined time in the past. The end of this capsule appears to have been cut off, and there are additional saw marks on the side of the capsule. X-ray tomography allowed the capsules to be viewed along the three axes. Of most interest was determining whether there was any residual material in the closed end of Capsule 5. The images confirmed the presence of residual material within this capsule. The material appears to be compacted but still retains some of the bead-like morphology. Based on the nondestructive analysis (NDA) results, a proposed path forward was formulated to advance this effort toward the original goals of understanding the effects of extended storage on the waste form and package. Based on the initial NDA and the fact that there are at least two breached samples, it was proposed that exploratory tests be conducted with the breached specimens before opening the three intact

  18. The State, War, and the State of War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts to offer an understanding of the relationship between war making and state creation in the world have been undertaken by many international relations and strategic studies scholars. In most of these attempts attention has been focused on how state making in Europe differed from that in other parts of the world.

  19. The Unprincipled War: Looking at the War on Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-18

    Unidad Movid de Patrullaje Rural iv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Drug war - reality or rhetoric? Drugs from Latin America kill an estimated 10,000...PiP), the Peruvian equivalent to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Unidad Movil de Patrullaje Rural (UMOPR), the agency charged exclusively

  20. Penetrating abdominal war injuries among the war victims at Lacor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hospital for prompt and appropriate treatment. All cases of such injuries should have exploratory laparotomy as soon as possible. Introduction. Penetrating abdominal injuries among the war wounded present a challenge in its management especially in a situation with limited human and financial resources such as ours.