planners began to concentrate on the island- hopping campaign expected against Japan. By using Midway as an intermediate, unnamed objective, rather...your location. The morality would be debated, old ghosts would be dredged up from World War I, but the tactical framework had been laid from...GAMING THE INTERWAR: HOW NAVAL WAR COLLEGE WARGAMES TILTED THE PLAYING FIELD FOR THE U.S. NAVY DURING WORLD WAR II A thesis
Almanacco Navale 1988. Genoa, Italy: Institute Idrografico Della Marina, 1988. 1092pp. $59 These two large volumes are awesome compilations of data and...surging west to escape the Russians. This is a story of war eloquently told. Semmlec, Kenneth, ed. The War Despatches of Kenneth Slessor. St. Lucia
great many Americans to see as the culprits in the latest series of White House shenanigans two distinguished military officers on active duty...ination of Atlas and Titan missiles (ICBMs) from the SAC inventory for financial reasons. This completely ignores the military’s cognizance of...connection to financial , comn1crcial. and mari- time interest<. Mostimportantly, the 162 Naval War College Review authors, by examining the early stages of
Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Meeting of the Board of Advisors to the Presidents of the Naval Postgraduate School and Naval War College, Naval Postgraduate School Subcommittee AGENCY... War College report on progress to the Secretary of the Navy. The Board will meet in closed executive...
Impeccable Incident. Summer 2009:101–11 Raymond, Catherine Zara . Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Malacca Strait: A Problem Solved? Summer 2009:31–42...an Old Problem: Report of the Naval War College Workshop on Countering Maritime Piracy. Autumn 2009:141–54 Raymond, Catherine Zara . Piracy and Armed
commander. Though not assigned to Farragut’s flagship, USS Hartford, Dewey was able to observe Farragut’s leadership style closely and quickly became a... librarians should make a point of ac- quiring it for their permanent collections. JOHN B. HATTENDORF Naval War College Dietl, Wilhelm. Schattenarmeen...code of honor. But Evans, in spite of all his sundry citations , fails to provide even one exam- ple of how on the field of battle in counterinsurgency
activities. Even major international corporations have been unable to make headway. After Dayton, the German auto giant Volkswagen AG attempted to re- build...and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of the U.S. government , the U.S. Navy Department, or...Naval War College; selected U.S. government officials and agen- cies; and selected U.S. and international libraries, research centers, publications, and
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...
Winkler, Allan M.
Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)
Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.
These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…
from Indonesia and 40 percent from Malaysia .39 Where the distances to crude oil and LPG suppliers in the Middle East are such that each VLCC and LPG...ing all levels of healthy dissent and denies the senior the opportunity to capital- ize on the perspective and wisdom of the entire staff. One of...citing official Diet testimony that “the greatest cause of [Japan’s World War II] defeat was the loss of shipping” to the Allied blockade. Graham
Department of Defense, Washington, DC.
This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…
Naval Mine and Anti-submarine Warfare Command, Corpus Christi, Texas. He also served at the U.S. Naval Academy as a company of- ficer, celestial... Mine Warfare • Electronic Warfare • Air Defense • C4ISR • Civil Affairs • Installation Management Navy-centric Common Areas USMC...Brinsfield, and Col. jamie Iñiguez of the NATO SOF Coordination Centre. 37. Barbara Opall -Rome, “U.S. Seeks global Spec Ops Network,” Defense News, 12
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT EXPLORATION OF LOGISTICS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SOLUTIONS FOR THE...INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SOLUTIONS FOR THE ROYAL SAUDI NAVAL FORCE WITHIN THE SAUDI NAVAL EXPANSION PROGRAM II (SNEP II) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...Expansion Program II (SNEP II). A part of this program includes upgrading and rebuilding its information technology (IT) infrastructure. The United
attacks of grave conse- quences. The aspiration of this small-wars force element is to prevent even one nuclear, biological , or chemical weapon attack...153 Preventive Attack and Weapons of Mass...Default screen Bioethics and Armed Conflict: Moral Dilemmas of Medicine and War, by Michael L. Gross reviewed by Arthur M. Smith, MD
India, Japan, the United States, Indonesia, Malaysia , and Australia would almost certainly bolster their own naval forces and would also likely seek to...formulated by Capt. Sir Basil H. Lid- dell Hart (who corresponded with Eccles from the early 1950s until shortly before Lid- dell Hart’s death in 1970
Healy, among others, would contest assertions that the doctrine represented an exercise in international philanthropy . David Healy, Drive to Hegemony...formed an elite force of truly innovative capabilities during the “cold war at sea” with the Soviet Navy. Since the end of the Cold War, the submarine...evidently has extreme respect for the U.S. submarine force, the San Francisco incident appeared to show awareness that even this elite force can make errors
profile: Disabled Composite Default screen Although reasoned strategic exposés were rare in the late Victorian era, the Royal Navy’s long-standing...complex warships more cheaply overall and far more quickly than anyone else. This advantage meant that a part of the late Victorian naval policy was the...depended: in short, if these vessels could be made fast enough to react in a timely fashion to events abroad and powerful enough to prevail against
Special Warfare Development Group; Assistant Chief of Staff for Op- erations, Plans and Policy at Naval Special Warfare Command; Director of Legislative ...Admiral Guillermo E� Barrera, Colombian Navy (Ret�), on its faculty as a CNO Distinguished International Fellow� He is in the unique position of having...reports increasing “disillusionment and frustration,” as well as “deepening � � � deprivation and environmental devasta- tion�”101 Research suggests
concern of political risk or consequences of sovereignty . 15. SUBJECT TERMS TENDER, SEABASING, SUBMARINE MAINTENANCE, NAVAL COMBAT LOGISTICS...anywhere in the world’s oceans, with minimal concern of political risk or consequences of sovereignty . 1 INTRODUCTION...logistics beyond the basic peacetime considerations of food and fuel. If a maritime conflict occurs in a distant theatre, the Navy will find that it
english in about 1938, it has been published only in french. the original typescript docu- ment is in Manuscript Collection 91: Herbert rosinski...english typescript pp. 33–34). 24. Ibid. see a. t. Mahan, lessons of the war with Spain (boston: little, brown, 1899), pp. 78, 123–24; Mahan, life
Ohanian, Lee E
During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...
Enrique Plasencia de la Parra
Full Text Available This paper analyses the participation of Mexican and Mexican- American troops in the United States army during World War II. Recruiting, discrimination, their role in the armed forces and their reinsertion into society once the war ended, are examined. Special emphasis is placed on the Hispanics fight for their civil and political rights that was carried on very actively by many War veterans.
effectively dividing the French fleet in the process—the geo- graphical handicap of the Iberian Peninsula and France’s continuing need to base major units...conception of applying high technology in war. For the Defense Department, it is about: • A command climate that swept away preconceived notions of strategic...as counterterrorism. On the Korean Peninsula , our planned enhancements and realignments are intended to strengthen our overall military effectiveness
158 Hotel Florida: Truth, Love, and Death in the Spanish Civil War, by Amanda Vaill reviewed by Jeffrey M. Shaw...Administrative Service of the Ministry of Customs —are being united to form a unified maritime law-enforcement agency, the China Coast Guard, with a...and organizations, mentoring is consistently associated with greater work satisfaction and perfor- mance, higher retention, better physical health
reoccurrence of global depression and world war by establishing regimes soon after the Second World War that addressed the factors that were thought to have...Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 1986), 164. 8 John B. Hattendorf, John R. Wadleigh, and B. Mitchell Simpson, Sailors and Scholars: The Centennial ...Simpson. Sailors and Scholars: The Centennial History of the United States Naval War College. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1984. 387
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II...
Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Brazil in War World II): In order to have personnel to perform the jobs of company commanders, it was necessary to...Branco, 136. 18Octavio Costa, Trinta Anos Depois da Volta. O Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Rio de Janeiro: Bibliex, 1976), 30. 46 19McCann...na Segunda Guerra Mundial . Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército Editora, 1976. Dulles, John W. F. Vargas of Brazil: A Political Biography. Austin
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War...
Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III
International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…
The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.
propulsion was done with military applications in mind: Könz, 57 AJIL (1963), 109; Szasz , 2 JMLC (1971), No. 3, 553. 313 International Environmental Law and...International Environmental Law and Naval War Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently
Hunt, N; Robbins, I
People use many different coping strategies to deal with their traumatic recollections. Twenty-five British World War II veterans were interviewed regarding the ways they used social support both during the war and in the years afterwards. The findings demonstrate that social support is used in fundamentally different ways. During the war comradeship was particularly important and even fifty years after the war comrades are still a valuable resource for discussing war experiences, and dealing with the emotional content of traumatic recollections. Veterans rely on wives and families to help deal with the more physical and practical elements of coping, but tend not to discuss their traumatic memories with them. The findings show that social support is an important lifelong coping strategy for World War II veterans.
.... Perhaps at no other period in the Navy's history has the adoption of new technology in the Navy been as pronounced and effective as during the Cold War throughout the fifty or so years following the end of World War II...
Introduction. This study is part the project “Nursing in Borderland – Finnmark 1939–1950” within nursing history that sheds light on nursing and health care during World War II in Finnmark County, Northern Norway. The study focuses on challenges in nursing care that arose during the war because of war activities in the Barents area. This article focuses on challenges caused by shortage of supplies. The aim of the project is to widen the understanding of development within health care and livi...
comparatively little is known in South Africa about Chilean military history. Chile's naval history in ... HUASCAR and INDEPENDENCIA. The Chil- .... In the meantime the INDEPENDENCIA had ... vian shipping near Panama but were no more.
E. G. Bahdanovich
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the main events of the last period of the World War II. A special attention is paid to the feat of the Soviet Armed Forces, that defeated the Kwantun Army in August 1945 and precipitated an unconditional capitulation of Japan and brought freedom to the peoples of Asia. The paper also reveals tragic consequences of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The authors emphasize a key role of the Soviet Union in victorious completion of the World War II.
Focuses on how the United States Post Office reacted to the massive influx of political propaganda, primarily from the Soviet Union, immediately prior to and during World War II. Describes how the Post Office played an active role in stopping and burning some 50 tons of incoming material. (RS)
Carter, Dan T.
Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)
Provides a teaching plan which helps students imaginatively take the roles of leaders in the United States during World War II so that they might more completely understand such difficult decisions as allying with the Soviet Union, relocating Japanese-Americans, and dropping the atomic bomb. Provides a statement of goals and objectives, required…
Describes government efforts to mobilize U.S. women during World War II. Discusses the need for women's participation and the problems confronted by women who joined the wartime labor force. Describes efforts to increase participation by women in the armed forces. (CFR)
Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…
Machowski, James Stanley; Brown, James William
To examine the role of the animated cartoon in propaganda associated with World War II, 194 of 262 cartoons produced for theatrical release by Warner Brothers, Inc., from 1939 to 1946 were analyzed. Propaganda content was determined by the number and nature of symbols used and the cartoon's "attitudes" toward these symbols. An analysis…
Ultee, W.C.; Luijkx, R.; van Tubergen, F.; Sher, L.; Vilens, A.
World War II in the Netherlands lasted from May 1940 to May 1945. Suicide numbers peaked in these months, in the first case because of suicide by Jews, and in the second case because of suicide by collaborators with the German occupier. Suicide rates for Jews were higher in 1942 than in 1940 and
Ossowski, Andrzej; Kuś, Marta; Brzeziński, Piotr; Prüffer, Jakub; Piątek, Jarosław; Zielińska, Grażyna; Bykowska, Milena; Jałowińska, Katarzyna; Torgaszev, Anton; Skoryukov, Antoliy; Parafiniuk, Mirosław
This paper presents the procedure elaborated by our team which was applied to the mode of identification of Red Army soldiers who were taken as prisoners by the German Army during World War II and deceased in captivity. In the course of our search the unmarked burial of ten Soviet prisoners of war was found. Historical, anthropological and genetic research conducted by us led to the personal identification of nine of them, including two by means of DNA analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The nation recently celebrated the 50th anniversary of World War II (WWII) with a renewed interest in Pearl Harbor and D-Day (ie, the day the Allies invaded Europe.) One group of war heroes--all volunteers--received little attention, although they endured bombings, torpedoes, antiaircraft fire, prison, starvation, and death. They were the nurses of WWII. They served all over the world and left a legacy that today's perioperative nurses are committed to preserving. This article was written to honor the nurses of WWII. It relates only a few stories of thousands that could be told.
comparatively little is known in South Africa about Chilean military history. Chile's naval history in particular is most interesting and as obviously in the 18th century the only practical means of travel to and around South America was by sea, her navy has played a very important historical role. This article is an attempt to ...
Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy
How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…
tionships between Chile, Peru, Argentina, Para- guay and ... On 1 March 1879 Bolivia declared war on Chile, knowing that she .... tion and then hoisted the flag signal "Enemy to. North". ... soared and Prat and Condell became national heroes.
Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats ( SWOT ) ............ 23 Strengths...27 SWOT Net Assessment...enterprise underpins excellence in other mission endeavors. Sophisticated war gaming, research, and analysis will continue to support the Navy’s
34 35 VI. Central Pacific Theater • . . . . . 49 VII. Southwest Pacific Theater 55 VIII: Political, Economic , Psychological. 79 1 Dec...on IJ+! mpu b;r 10 enenw planes. Kesa11vai attacked a:t ·dawn by eneziw l)laries; ,no dar.iage’ re")qr~.?9.·•. ·~Solomon ls.: Impro’v~ng vJeather...EOLTTJC.(!.L, ECONOMIC , PSYCHOLOGIC.iiL 1943 11 ·8 Yugoslav. Government-in-exile as its representative on Advisory ’Council to Allied Control
... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War II...
Czabański, Adam; Lester, David
Although scholars have examined the occurrence of suicide in the concentration camps during World War Two, little has appeared on suicide in prisoner-of-war camps. The present note presents an attempt to document the occurrence of suicide in the Oflag II-C Woldenberg camp in what is now Western Poland, and estimates a suicide rate of between 22.4 to 38.4 per 100,000 per year in the roughly 6,600 prisoners.
Van den Heede, Pieter; Ribbens, Kees; Jeroen, Jansz
Especially since the 1990s, World War II has been one of the most popular historical conflicts to be represented and simulated in digital games (Mobygames, 2016). Yet, in the current body of research about these games, mainly aspects of individual games or game types, such as the World War II-themed
Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran
Relatively little is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II (WWII) veterans, despite the significant number of studies on this problem in Vietnam veterans. The authors document the prevalence of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders and investigate the etiological correlates of the syndrome in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans. Sixty-two cognitively intact subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residents in a veterans' long-term care facility, were assessed for past and present psychopathology. A second investigator, blind to patients' psychiatric status, determined the degree of combat exposure and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 23%. Of those veterans with PTSD, 57% experienced chronic symptoms. The lifetime prevalence of other diagnoses was also high, including 3 7% for major depression and 53% for alcohol abuse. There was a strong correlation between the severity of the combat stressor and the development of PTSD. Significant correlations between PTSD and some pre-war variables were also found: more family histories of alcohol abuse, more deaths of close family members in early life, and less likelihood of having held a job for more than 1 year prior to the war. PTSD in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans is a common, serious problem that is often unrecognized. Copyright © 1994 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
.... World War II provides an interesting setting to study women and warfare because the belligerent countries mobilized millions of women for the war effort, both in civilian and military capacities...
A S Protopopov
Full Text Available The author examines the international context of the Soviet Union and today's Russia during and after the World War II. Relations between the allies (the USSR, the US and the UK shortly after the end of World War II «gave a crack». Particular attention is paid to the development of the American nuclear program in an international context and objectives of the nuclear bombing of Japan, the expansion of NATO. The author concludes that the problem of military and economic development in the post-war period were largely dictated by the difficult international situation at that time. The Soviet Union was forced not only to establish a peaceful life, but also to take steps to create its own nuclear weapons and their means of delivery, strengthening the country's defense. After the troubled times of the second half of the 1980s and 1990s, in the XXI century Russia again began to strengthen its international position. The author proves the need for a consistent foreign policy.
Barker, Anne M.
The field of engineering has been one of the most difficult for women to enter. Even with an increase in the proportion of women in the engineering workforce from 0.3% before the 1970s to 9.5% in 1999, women are still seriously underrepresented. This article examines the history of women in engineering in the United States during World War II. Women were actively recruited as engineering aides by the federal government, which saw them as a temporary substitute for men who were in the military. Yet this crisis did not break down the barriers to and prejudices against women in engineering, nor did it give them a real opportunity to become professional engineers equal to men. After the war, calls for a return to normalcy were used to reestablish social norms, which kept women at home and reserved desirable places in the workforce, including in engineering, for men.
V M Falin
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the Battle of Moscow in October- December, 1941. Author analyzes the causes of the failure of German army, who tries to encircle and capture Moscow, the events taking place on the outskirts of Moscow, German troops attempts to encircle Moscow. The author presents data on the speech by Adolf Hitler in Berlin on October 5, 1941, in which he acknowledged the failure of the Blitzkrieg and the Battle for Moscow and its suburbs. The researcher uses the documents of the Wehrmacht High Command, which stated that after the Battle of Moscow, German troops could not on any further stage of the war to restore the quality and morale of the armed forces, with whom Reich rushed to a campaign for world domination. The author, a prominent public and political figure of the USSR, also relies on personal recollections, interviews with prominent generals of World War II, including I. Konev.
This paper draws on evidence from a range of sources to consider the extent to which World War II served as a turning point in the employment opportunities open to women chemists in Britain. It argues that wartime conditions expanded women's access to some areas of employment, but that these opportunities represented, in many ways, an expansion of existing openings rather than wholly new ones, and not all of them proved permanent. Instead, women chemists benefited more permanently from increased state expenditure on higher education and on research and development after the war. This enabled some women to remain in what had originally been temporary wartime posts and others to secure employment in wholly new positions. Women were most successful in securing positions created by the expansion of state welfare and support for agriculture, but also found new employment opportunities as a result of the heavy investment in weapons development that accelerated with the advent of the Cold War. In higher education, an initial expansion of openings was not sustained, and the proportion of women in university chemistry departments actually fell during the second half of the 1950s. Industry presents a rather ambiguous picture, with many firms continuing to refuse to employ women chemists, whereas elsewhere they enjoyed enhanced opportunities and better salaries than those offered before the war. This did not mean, however, that women chemists received equal treatment to their male colleagues, and, despite the changes, they remained concentrated in subordinate positions and were expected to concentrate on routine work. Prospects in the 1950s were certainly better than they had been during the 1930s, but they remained strongly gendered.
... the Naval Postgraduate School and the Naval War College AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION...) to the Presidents of the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) and the Naval War College (NWC) and its... elicit the advice of the Board on the Naval Service's Postgraduate Education Program and the...
... the Naval Postgraduate School and the Naval War College AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... of Advisors (BOA) to the Presidents of the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) and the Naval War College... elicit the advice of the Board on the Naval Service's Postgraduate Education Program and the...
The author describes the history of Maribor General Hospital from its foundation in 1799 until the beginning of World War II. In 1799 the magistrate of the town of Maribor issued a memorandum regarding the establishment of a town hospital in the renovated building of the town hospice, providing space for 24 patients. The work of the hospital was carried out in the former hospice building until 1855. In the period between its establishment and eventual relocation 26 beds were added. The last two decades of the hospital's operation at the original location were marked by the assiduous work of the town's physicist, Dr. Anton Kuker. In the first half of the 19th century, the population of Maribor grew rapidly as a consequence of the construction of the Southern Railway. The town authorities therefore purchased the Prosenjak family villa in the Magdalena suburbs and relocated the hospital to it in 1855, providing 28 rooms for 110 patients. For a whole century, the care of patients was taken over by the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul. The hospital was soon admitting over 1000 patients a year, the most common complaints being pulmonary catarrh, gastritis and fever. In 1872, when the Master of Surgery Feliks Ferk joined the hospital, the internal "medical" and the "external" surgical departments were formed. Although medical studies were not easily accessible, there were a number of Slovene physicians working in the hospital and the town in that period. In the last decades of the 19th century, the hospital was often renovated and enlarged. The infrastructure (telephone, water supply system, heating, lighting) had also been modernized before World War I. In 1914, the first X-ray apparatus was purchased. Between the wars, the hospital's development was boosted by recruitment of the Slovene physicians Ivan Matko, Mirko Cernic, Janko Dernovsek and Hugon Robic. The initial external and medical departments split into several departments: internal medicine, surgery
Full Text Available Author describes the history of General Hospital Maribor from its foundation (1799 to the beginning of World War II. In 1799 the magistrate of the town Maribor issued a memorandum regarding establishment of a town hospital in the renovated building of the town hospice, providing space for 24 patients. The work of the hospital was carried out in the former hospice building until 1855. 26 beds were added in the period between its establishment and eventual relocation. The last two decades of the hospital’s operation at the original location were marked by the assiduous work of the town’s physicist, Dr. Anton Kuker. In the first half of the 19th century, the population of Maribor rapidly grew as a consequence of the construction of the Southern Railway. The city authorities therefore purchased the Prosenjak family villa in the Magdalena suburbs and relocated the hospital to it in 1855, providing 28 rooms for 110 patients. For a whole century, the care of patients was taken over by the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul. The hospital was soon admitting over 1000 patients a year; the most common complaints being pulmonary catarrh, gastritis and fever. In 1872, when the Master of Surgery, Feliks Ferk, joined the hospital, the internal, medical, and the »external« surgical departments were formed. Although medical studies were not easily accessible, there was a number of Slovene physicians working in the hospital and the town in that period. In the last decades of the 19th century, the hospital was often renovated and enlarged. The infrastructure (telephone, water supply system, heating, lighting had also been modernized by World War I. In 1914, the first X-ray apparatus was purchased. Between the wars, the hospital’s development was stepped up by the recruitment of the Slovene physicians Ivan Matko, Mirko Černič, Janko Dernovšek and Hugon Robič. The initial external and medical departments split into several departments
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II. 831.304 Section 831.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay is...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a) In...
Larsen, Matthew F; McCarthy, T J; Moulton, Jeremy G; Page, Marianne E; Patel, Ankur J
World War II and its subsequent GI Bill have been widely credited with playing a transformative role in American society, but there have been few quantitative analyses of these historical events' broad social effects. We exploit between-cohort variation in the probability of military service to investigate how WWII and the GI Bill altered the structure of marriage, and find that it had important spillover effects beyond its direct effect on men's educational attainment. Our results suggest that the additional education received by returning veterans caused them to "sort" into wives with significantly higher levels of education. This suggests an important mechanism by which socioeconomic status may be passed on to the next generation.
Beins, Bernard C
Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.
Víctor M. Gruel Sández
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to explain some journalistic representations of the Northern Territory of Baja California. The body of documents that pertain this article, will document different versions of the past of the peninsula, from the nature of political discourse. Bajacalifornians will appear represented by journalists, struggling to eliminate an image of an isolated, uninhabited place filled with U.S. citizens. The editorial portrayal of the Tijuana, Mexicali and Mexico City press will be analyzed in context with the regional, national and international conflicts. Public opinion was a ground where the people of Baja California negotiated the nationalism, as the rest of the world collapsed with World War ii.
West, John B
The history of respiratory mechanics is reviewed over a period of some 2,500 years from the ancient Greeks to World War II. A cardinal early figure was Galen (130-199 AD) who made remarkably perceptive statements on the diaphragm and the anatomy of the phrenic nerves. The polymath Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) contributed observations on pulmonary mechanics including the pleural space and bronchial airflow that still make good reading. Vesalius (1514-1564) produced magnificent illustrations of the lung, ribcage, and diaphragm. In the 17th century, the Oxford School including Boyle, Hooke, Lower, and Mayow were responsible for many contributions on mechanical functions including the intercostal muscles and the pleura. Hales (1677-1761) calculated the size and surface area of the alveoli, the time spent by the blood in the pulmonary capillaries, and intrathoracic pressures. Poiseuille (1799-1869) carried out classical studies of fluid mechanics including one of the first demonstrations of flow limitation in collapsible vessels. The culmination of the pre-World War II period was the outstanding contributions of Rohrer (1888-1926) and his two Swiss countrymen, Wirz (1896-1978) and von Neergaard (1887-1947). Rohrer developed the first comprehensive, quantitative treatment of respiratory mechanics in the space of 10 years including an analysis of flow in airways, and the pressure-volume behavior of the respiratory system. von Neergaard performed landmark studies on the effects of surface tension on pressure-volume behavior. Progress over the 2,500 years was slow and erratic at times, but by 1940 the stage was set for the spectacular developments of the next 70 years. © 2012 American Physiological Society
Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.
We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973
Silver, Shawn A
Osteopathic physicians were denied the same rights and privileges that were granted to allopathic physicians by the US government regarding voluntary and compulsory service in World War I and World War II. Even after changes to the examination process allowed osteopathic physicians to take the examinations required to obtain commission as a physician in the army, osteopathic physicians' service was still rejected. The US government's decision to ban DOs from serving in the war was a blessing in disguise that led to tremendous changes in osteopathic medicine, education, and public acceptance of osteopathic physicians. Using primary documents from military officials, congressional hearings, and archived publications of the American Osteopathic Association, the author recounts the battle osteopathic physicians fought to serve their country during war and the challenges they faced while obtaining both legal and social equality in the eyes of the government and the public.
Bramsen, I.; van der Ploeg, H.M.
This study examined the mental and medical health care utilization of World War II (WW II) survivors and the characteristics of survivors seeking professional health care. Forty seven years after the end of WW II, a random sample of 4,057 Dutch WW II survivors answered a four-page questionnaire;
Full Text Available The World War II led to serious casualties and left deep scars / wounds of memory. As the victory over occupation regime was glorified, honored and starting from 1965 was widely celebrated at national level, there was a great gap between official and personal memory of war. Monuments are one of the forms of living examples of the past and thus are reliable sources for the study of different epochs and Zeitgeist / spirit of time and their changes. This article considers the development of Soviet memorial landscape by the World War II starting from the war termination to the Soviet Union collapse. Special attention is attached to internal political and international views / interpretations and development with respect to victims of war. In other words, the process of different groups of war victims exclusion and inclusion in Soviet collective memory under the influence of internal political and foreign political interests symbiosis. And, as a result, resultant attitude towards memorial places.
Field, Sherry L.
Profiles the extraordinary World War II public support efforts conducted by school children and teachers across the United States. Encouraged by the Roosevelt administration, teachers and pupils mobilized support for war bond sales and salvage collection drives. Many children raised "Victory Gardens" producing food to help the war…
During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…
Gould, Winston A
.... This paper will examine the Luftwaffe's thinking, organization, and technology as they pertained to Countersea Operations during World War II, with a focus on the Battle of the Atlantic during the period 1939-1945...
Kleinman, Steven M
As World War II unfolded, the strategic interrogation programs established by the British, German, and American forces evolved into robust collection entities that proved to be a unique source of critical intelligence...
Cathey, Emily A
This thesis explores the impact of atrocities that Japan committed against its neighbors during and prior to World War II on Japan's relationships with its neighbors, China and the Republic of Korea...
Hwahng, Sel J
During the Pacific War (World War II), Japan maintained an elaborate system of sexual slavery by implementing certain practices based on institutionalized policies of hygiene, efficiency, and the use of mostly Korean girls and women. Two hygienic techniques were established--vaccination and quarantine. No. 606 injections were given at mandatory regularly scheduled medical examinations to prevent and treat venereal disease, and to also deter pregnancy, induce abortions, and ultimately sterilize sex slaves. Secondary textual analysis of data collected from 1995-2000, N = 67 interview transcripts, and participant observation in 2003 and 2006. Geographic area: East Asia and the Pacific Islands.
Marcos Eduardo Meinerz
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze why Latin America, especially Argentina, was the region of the world that harbored the most Nazi war criminals—for example, Josef Mengele, Adolf Eichmann and Klaus Barbie—after World War II. It also aims to analyze how this fact has set the tone for the appearance of literary works about the fantastic adventures of “Nazi hunters” seeking the whereabouts of those individuals. For this purpose, in the first part of the article we will address Nazis’ escape to Latin America. Next, we analyze some literary works by authors who called themselves Nazi hunters.
smallpox, chicken pox , meningitis, typhoid, diptheria and other diseases resulted in the deaths of between 17,000 to 19,000 men during the course of...lessons of previous wars in both periods. The Spanish-American War and the United States’ incursion into Mexico provided valuable experience in
den Velde, Wybrand Op; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Hovens, Johannes E.; Van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Aarts, Petra G. H.
The mental and physical health of 146 Dutch males exposed to severe war stress during their young adulthood were examined in 1986-1987 when they were at ages 61 to 66 years. The veterans' data were compared with a randomly selected population-based sample of same-aged males. In 2005, 70% of the war
17 Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918 -1945, 485. 18 Ronald D. Bachman and Eugene K. Keefe, Romania : A Country...Suffering What They Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II A Monograph by MAJ Edward M. Kaspar United States Army...Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6
This paper examines the images of women war workers in advertisements for foundation garments during World War II in the United States. In wartime America, functional underwear such as brassieres and girdles were sold as a “vital necessity” for women at work, especially those engaged in defense work. \\Advertisements for foundation garments frequently depicted women war workers who were doing man-sized jobs and lauded those women for their contribution to the war effort, and women war workers’...
Duray, Jr, Paul H
Prior to the current Global War on Terror (GWOT), the United States military had not participated in occupation and military governance mission on as a massive a scale as that experienced in World War II...
Hilton describes the team of cryptanalysts who tried to decipher German and Japanese codes during the Second World War. The work of Turing, essentially developing the computer, is reported, as well as inferences about pure and applied mathematics. (MNS)
..., The squadron's participation in the famous Doolittle raid on Tokyo is examined along with a brief description of the planes they flew during the war, the B-25 and the B-26, The bulk of the report covers...
Machin, P; de C Williams, A C
Study of coping with phantom pain in nonclinical war veteran amputees. Semistructured interview with amputees in their home setting. Residential home for war veteran amputees or respondents' own homes. Amputee veterans of World War II with phantom pain. Pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire) and pain history, coping (daily coping; Stone and Neale, J Pers Soc Psychol 1984;46:892-906), size of social network, and quality of war memories. No differences in pain or coping were associated with place of residence (and prevalence of cues) or social networks; war memories appeared not to be associated with availability of cues, whether media coverage or other amputees. There was some association between the emotional tone of war memories and pain intensity. Veteran amputees were in general accepting of high levels of pain and made little use of medical resources, relating that to past experience of their pain being dismissed. Coping with phantom pain in war veteran amputees is predominantly silent acceptance of the pain, with little use of social support however available, and rare recourse to medical help, based on past unhelpful experience. Pain and mood appeared to be unrelated to specific war cues, but higher pain scores were reported by those with unhappier war memories.
During the Second World War, thousands of captured British and Commonwealth troops were interned in prisoner-of-war (POW) camps in the Far East. Imprisonment was extremely harsh, and prisoners developed multiple pathologies induced by physical hardship, tropical infections and starvation. Immediately after the war, several POW doctors published their clinical experiences, including reports of skin disease caused by malnutrition. The most notable deficiency dermatoses seen in Far East POWs were ariboflavinosis (vitamin B2 or riboflavin deficiency) and pellagra (vitamin B3 or niacin deficiency). A lack of vitamin B2 produces a striking inflammatory disorder of scrotal skin. Reports of pellagra in POWs documented a novel widespread eruption, developing into exfoliative dermatitis, in addition to the usual photosensitive dermatosis. A review of the literature from 70 years ago provides a reminder of the skin's response to malnutrition. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.
Romero, Joseph; Belliss, Richard D; Tideswell, Tammy P; Antolin-Jenkins, Vida M; O'Neil, Kevin R; Wildhack, III, William A; McLaughlin, Rob; Gonzalez, Jason A; Sarnoski, Stephen R
.... This issue of "Naval Law Review" contains the following articles: "Of War and Punishment: 'Time of War' In Military Jurisprudence and a Call for Congress to Define Its Meaning," by LCDR Joseph Romero, JAGC, USN...
Valiente-Neighbours, Jimiliz Maramba
The United States recruited more than half a million Filipino soldiers and guerrillas in the Philippines during World War II with the promise of American citizenship in return for their wartime service. Even after the official victory of the United States and its allies in 1945, the United States government continued to recruit Filipinos to serve under the American flag for post-war reconstruction and the development of American military bases in the Pacific. But in February 1946, the United ...
Julie B. Wiest
Full Text Available We are all storytellers. We tell stories in a variety of settings, to a variety of audiences, and for a variety of reasons. We tell structured stories about personal experiences—narratives—as a means of understanding the past, constructing identities, and communicating ourselves to others. Drawing on social psychological literature on narratives, identities, and autobiographical memories, this study examines the construction, recitation, and evaluation of 28 World War II veterans’ narratives. Findings indicate cultural influences in the ways these veterans constructed their war stories, the ways they constructed meanings about their war experiences, and the ways they constructed their identities in relation to those experiences.
Hoeneveld, F; van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One
Hoeneveld, F.; van Dongen, J.
Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One
.... And it is now clear that the Air Force also was destined to play the leading role in creating the strategic conditions for victory in that war, executed by a total of 466,985 US and allied forces in Spring 2003...
Mere Eglise- Chef du Pont- Etienneville-Amfreville. The 101st Airborne Division’s mission 20War...Division, United States Army, 1993. Copp, Terry. “Canadian Operational Art: The Seige of Boulogne and Calais.” Canada’s Professional Journal on Army
Baars, Patricia, Ed.
Covers the Victory Garden campaign of the early 1940s begun by the Office of War Information and the Office of Civil Defense. Provides a facsimile of a poster designed to publicize the program in addition to seven teaching activities. (JDH)
Page, W F; Ostfeld, A M
The harsh treatment of former prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean conflict resulted in severe malnutrition. Although rarely linked to specific long-term medical problems, a specific marker of malnutrition, self-reported lower limb edema (presumably due to a vitamin B deficiency) was associated with a three-fold increase in subsequent death attributed to ischemic heart disease (IHD) during the follow-up period from 1967 through 1975. Although there is at present no medical basis for linking edema, which is perhaps a marker for some unmeasured risk factor, to subsequent IHD, this finding may nonetheless have medical implications for the group of former POWs and other populations with severe dietary deficiency. It also suggests there may be a need to reexamine currently held theories on malnutrition and subsequent chronic disease.
French prior to World War II. The United States has also stationed naval forces in areas that were previously colonized such as the Philippines after the...Forward Deployed Naval Forces is not a new concept or strategy. In fact, it was utilized by other nations such as the British and French prior to World...the west, to the Cook Islands in the east, and from Russia in the north, to New Zealand in the south The region covers an area from Mongolia in the
Igor I. Belousov
Full Text Available After the Second World War 70 years have passed. Essentially already gone a generation of people for whom it was not a story, and the nationwide disaster and personal experience. And let time more and more we move away from the victory of 1945, the value and results of the war are enormous for the future of the modern world. Memory of the Great Victory presents to all of us now living, special requirements, the main of which consists in the fact that based on the analysis draw the necessary lessons from the past, draw the right conclusions for the safety of modern Russia. Over the years, the world has changed considerably. On the stage of world politics, a host of new independent states. There are new centers of economic development, and hence the new poles of power. Meanwhile, the events of recent months show that the main results of the Victory have not lost their importance today. This is best spoken of their incessant attempts to challenge by distorting the main points of the war and its lessons. And, obviously, it is no accident the day before and during the celebration of 70th anniversary of Victory wishing her to steal the peoples of Russia have been particularly active, as they claim - stiff and awkward. For domestic historiography it is not something unexpected. On the socio-political, military and economic results of the Second World War written many works, but probably in the light of the development of military-political processes in the world of individual instructive lesson it is important not to forget.
States: centralized intelligence, “fifth column” activities, psycho- logical or “ political warfare,” and the kind of sabotage, com- mando raids and...ship of Lt. Col. Serge Obolen- sky, a former Russian prince and New York socialite who had fought the Germans in World War I, the Bolsheviks in...and conflicting political agendas. Some veter- ans grumbled about undue emphasis on “cloak and dagger creepiness” instead of practical training that
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring to naturalize...
Ahern, John; Sandmann, Alexa
Provides an annotated bibliography and suggested teaching activities for units on the Great Depression and World War II. The materials support inquiry into the causes of the Great Depression and World War II and how these events transformed U.S. society. The annotated bibliography includes novels, memoirs, biographies, and political studies. (MJP)
Hulanicka, B; Gronkiewicz, L; Zietkiewicz, B
Poland is a country with significant regional differences in socio-economic, demographic and epidemiological phenomena. This is partly due to its history; notably the division of Poland among three different countries and the change of the borders after the second World War. The latter caused massive migratory movements of population. Then from the territory which now constitutes one third of Poland, Germans were evicted and Poles settled. These, then new, Western and Northern Territories of Poland (WNTP) are still the most developed parts of Poland with better roads, better housing and easier access to medical service and schools. On the other hand, some of the statistical data concerning the health and lifestyle of the population of these parts of Poland are worse than the corresponding data concerning the rest of Poland. For example the rate of lung cancer, the rate of divorce, the rate of adolescence pregnancies, the rate of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are all higher in the WNTP. In 1955, a very comprehensive anthropological nationwide survey of school children was performed. Our findings based on this material exhibit a number of phenomena which might contribute to the explanation of these negative population data. We have observed that the boys born in various regions of pre-war Poland and settled with their parents in the new territories were of different height at the age of 7-18 years than those from the four other regions of Poland whose parents were not resettled. Also the average height of boys, those sons of the migrants who during post-war migration did not go to the west but settled in the central region of Poland, was greater than those who settled in the west of Poland. Our results indicate that among the migrants there was a considerable fraction of people who were physically weaker and less socially adapted in comparison to the rest of the Polish population and that these characteristics have been passed down to the subsequent
The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...
Stevens, John D.
Black newspapers, like the "Chicago Defender,""The Pittsburgh Courier," and the "Baltimore Afro-American," opened the eyes of Americans to the injustices suffered at home as well as in the armed services. The black press attacked the Navy for its Jim Crowism because when World War II began, the only black sailors were…
Examines the loss of various collections, especially school libraries and the Ezra Library, in Cracow (Poland) during World War II. Highlights include Nazi policies toward Cracow's Jews; the destruction of libraries, archives, and collections; Jewish book collections in the Staatsbibliotek Krakau (state library); and the removal of books by Jewish…
Friese, Elizabeth E. G.; Nixon, Jenna
Two educators and a classroom of fifth grade students integrated poetry writing into social studies curriculum focusing on World War II. Several strategies and approaches to writing poetry are highlighted including list poems, writing from photographs and artifacts, and two voice poems. The study culminated in a poetry reading and the creation of…
National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.
Guns, tanks, and bombs were the principal weapons of World War II, but there were other, more subtle forms of warfare. Words, posters, and films waged a constant battle for the hearts and minds of the U.S. citizenry as military weapons engaged the enemy. Persuading the U.S. public became a wartime industry, almost as important as the manufacturing…
Programs intended to improve nutrition often fall short of expectations. One exception, however, occurred during the rationing years of World War II, when U.S. citizens were encouraged to incorporate protein-rich organ meats into their protein-deficient diets. Unfortunately,, most of tire insights
Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)
The article explores interactions between digital media and cultural memory in post-Soviet countries by focusing on internet memes related to World War II. It introduces the concept of historical internet memes, which are groups of digital content units associated with a historical event or a
countries. The low percentage of neuropsychological patients in the Soviet Army is evidence of the achievements of pre- war years of the Soviet people...unsplinted 269 I I II I fracture did not bother them. To the question of the physician about =npn.aints, they most often pointed out hunger . As early
This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
After World War II, Dutch psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals articulated ideals of democratic citizenship. Framed in terms of self-development, citizenship took on a broad meaning, not just in terms of political rights and obligations, but also in the context of material, social, psychological and moral conditions that individuals should meet in order to develop themselves and be able to act according to those rights and obligations in a responsible way. In the post-war period of reconstruction (1945-65), as well as between 1965 and 1985, the link between mental health and ideals of citizenship was coloured by the public memory of World War II and the German occupation, albeit in completely different, even opposite ways. The memory of the war, and especially the public consideration of its victims, changed drastically in the mid-1960s, and the mental health sector played a crucial role in bringing this change about. The widespread attention to the mental effects of the war that surfaced in the late 1960s after a period of 20 years of public silence should be seen against the backdrop of the combination of democratization and the emancipation of emotions.
Surov, Alexey; Thermann, Florian; Behrmann, Curd; Spielmann, Rolf-Peter; Kornhuber, Malte
A number of people injured during the second world war harbour foreign bodies such as grenade splinters or bullets in some part of the body. Most of these metal fragments remain clinically silent. Some of them, however, may cause delayed complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of delayed complications associated with foreign bodies after world war II injuries. 159 patients with retained foreign bodies after world war II injuries were retrospectively identified radiologically in our data bases in the time interval from 1997 to 2009. Diverse delayed complications secondary to the metal objects were diagnosed in 3 cases (2%): one patient with grenade splinter migration into the choledochal duct, one case with pseudotumoural tissue reaction, and one patient with late osteomyelitis. The time from injury to clinical presentation varied from 56 to 61 years. PubMed and Medline were screened for additional cases with delayed sequelae after foreign body acquisition during the 2nd world war. A 30 year search period from 1980 up to date was selected. 15 cases were identified here. Our study demonstrates that health consequences of the 2nd world war extend into the present time, and therefore physicians should be aware of the presence of hidden foreign bodies and their different possible late reactions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus
We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....
Full Text Available Romania’s participation in World War II was brought about by political reasons and strategic needs that resulted from the internationalpolitical situation at the middle of the twentieth century. One can hardly say that Romania did not do its best to avoid becoming involved in the war.From September 1939 to June 1941, the foreign policy laid focus on non-belligerency and neutrality. But eventually Romania was drawn in, too,right after the series of unfortunate events in the summer of 1940
Full Text Available TheJapanese economic policy in South Sulawesi seemed to have different policies when compared to the other colonies in Indonesia. It was indicated by leadership typology of Japanese Navy which based in Makassar, Bukittinggi, and Java. In South Sulawesi, the policy was more focused on the compliance of logistic materials by strengthening on clothing industry, plantation of cotton and castor oil, and fisheries. The important policy of the army was the agricultural massive production sector to support the war. In addition, the agricultural and industrial sectors were also developed such as salt, castor oil, textile, silk, handicrafts and the like. Those phenomena analyzed by historical method. It used archives such as Japanese occupation reports in Makassar, Romusha archives in Makassar, and Japanese local politic documents in South Sulawesi. The reports on Japanese economic activities in South Sulawesi were also consulted. Information from magazines and newspapers were also taken such as Pemberitaan Makassar, Bintang Timoer, Sinar Baroe, Soeara Asia, Hong Po, and Pemandangan. In addition to, it has complied oral history with direct interviews to the people who are still alive and experienced on the era. The Japanese economic policies in South Sulawesi influenced great changes in new economic structure on the emergence of the diversification of popular-based commodity especially clothing and foodstuff during the war. That was the reason why people in South Sulawesi directed to execute intensification of agriculture in a professional productive manner supported by communal industrial policy.
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Tine T. Kurent
Full Text Available The American-Croatian painter Maksimilian Vanka, 1 1889-1963, or Maxo for his friends, composed together with his American wife Margaret, her father dr. Stetten DeWitt and his friends Louis and Stella Adamic, his most enigmatic work, the "WORLD WAR II" collage. The collage originated at the reunion of Maxo Vanka, his wife Margaret, his friends Louis and Stella Adamic, with Margaret's father Dr. Stetten DeWitt, after his return from Europe at war. The party was exhilarated with Dr. Stetten's safe escape from Korcula (Dalmatia to Paris, Le Havre and on board of the French liner lie de France to New York, and preoccupied with the imminent World War.
Full Text Available How is the continuing reconciliation process between the former "hereditary enemies" Germany and France reflected in German daily newspapers between 1946 and 1970? Using quantitative content analysis, a representative sample of coverage of France and French-related topics published during this period was examined with an emphasis on a the choice of news topics and possible deviations from the predictions of Galtung’s news-factors model and on b how protagonists and events were portrayed in these articles. A further qualitative analysis was made of some promising journalistic attempts to achieve "constructive" coverage during the same period. This was intended a to determine whether and how several theoretical deductions from Kempf’s conflict model of de-escalation processes are manifest in post-conflict coverage and b to identify the stylistic "tools" journalists used – even unintentionally – to further a better understanding of the former enemy and – in the long run – to build peace and reconciliation between Germany and France. The overarching questions addressed by this study are: (What can we learn from coverage during a successful reconciliation process, and how can these lessons be transferred to contemporary coverage of post-war processes? Major findings of the two studies will be presented.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show how the filmmaker’s genre of choice shapes the main discourse of the film. The author compares Helke Sander’s documentary Liberators Take Liberties (1991-1992 and Max Farberbock’s narrative feature A Woman in Berlin (2008 both dealing with the dramatic effect of the end of WWII, in particular with the instances of German women having been raped by the Allied troops, a theme first publicized in the anonymous diary A Woman in Berlin (1953. There is a clear connection between the book and the two films, but if Sander focuses on the rape itself and on the extraordinary female experience of war, Farberbock is more concerned with cross-national revenge. The author looks closer at the genre elements, particularly at the genres of the diary, the (feminist documentary, and the narrative film. Then, the author draws some parallels between the Helke Sander film and the diary A Woman of Berlin and discusses the documentaries within the feminist framework inspired by Sander’s accomplishments.
Full Text Available Crossroads is the name of the concept that narratively connects several WWII-related cultural institutions in Brabant. We were initially looking for ways to connect 4 otherwise very diverse World War II-related institutions (in fact, 3 museums and a commemoration centre and we found it in this overarching paradigm. Crossroads does not require museums to share their collection items. It offers them instead a tool to build and offer visitors a cohesive experience related to WWII heritage. This experience is characterized by the specific focus into their WWII stories using storytelling that they can adopt. This paper will highlight the creative process that brought to the development of this concept and will discuss examples of the resulting transmedia narratives.
The author conducted sociological interviews of 12 OSS spies (7 male, 5 female) who were operatives in France during World War II (WW II). The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) existed from 1941 to 1945 and was later renamed the CIA in 1947. This paper includes family studies of six close relatives of OSS vets and observation of 400 OSS veterans at the 50th anniversary of WW II. Three of the 12 OSS veterans who had been tortured by the Gestapo still suffered from PTSD-startle symptoms after 50 years; those three also suffered massive strokes in later life. The majority of OSS vets, regardless of gender, exhibited "war excitement" when talking about the war 50 years later. Most saw the war as the highpoint of their lives. War excitement needs more careful study within PTSD circles.
Okawa, Gail Y.
One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…
Saha, A.; Jung, J.; Olson, G. B.
Application of a systems approach to computational materials design led to the theoretical design of a transformation toughened ultratough high-strength plate steel for blast-resistant naval hull applications. A first prototype alloy has achieved property goals motivated by projected naval hull applications requiring extreme fracture toughness (C v > 85 ft-lbs or 115 J corresponding to K Id≥ 200 ksi.in1/2 or 220 MPa.m1/2) at strength levels of 150 180 ksi (1,030 1,240 MPa) yield strength in weldable, formable plate steels. A continuous casting process was simulated by slab casting the prototype alloy as a 1.75‧‧ (4.45 cm) plate. Consistent with predictions, compositional banding in the plate was limited to an amplitude of 6 7.5 wt% Ni and 3.5 5 wt% Cu. Examination of the oxide scale showed no evidence of hot shortness in the alloy during hot working. Isothermal transformation kinetics measurements demonstrated achievement of 50% bainite in 4 min at 360 °C. Hardness and tensile tests confirmed predicted precipitation strengthening behavior in quench and tempered material. Multi-step tempering conditions were employed to achieve the optimal austenite stability resulting in significant increase of impact toughness to 130 ft-lb (176 J) at a strength level of 160 ksi (1,100 MPa). Comparison with the baseline toughness strength combination determined by isochronal tempering studies indicates a transformation toughening increment of 65% in Charpy energy. Predicted Cu particle number densities and the heterogeneous nucleation of optimal stability high Ni 5 nm austenite on nanometer-scale copper precipitates in the multi-step tempered samples was confirmed using three-dimensional atom probe microanalysis. Charpy impact tests and fractography demonstrate ductile fracture with C v > 80 ft-lbs (108 J) down to -40 °C, with a substantial toughness peak at 25 °C consistent with designed transformation toughening behavior. The properties demonstrated in this first
Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G.; Have, Margreet ten; Kessler, Ronald C.
Purpose Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Methods Adults (n= 3,370)who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Results Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders. (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Conclusions Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders. PMID:29119266
Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E; Betancourt, Theresa S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G; Ten Have, Margreet; Kessler, Ronald C
Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders.
Moore, R.H.; Kathren, R.L.
Two individuals were exposed to massive quantities of airborne uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and its hydrolysis products following a World War II equipment rupture. An excretion pattern for uranium exhibited by these patients is, in light of current knowledge, anomalous. The possible role of pulmonary edema is discussed. Examination of these individuals 38 years later showed no physical changes believed to be related to their uranium exposure and no deposition of uranium could be detected
To be published in the proceedings of the 2nd ESHS conference (Krakow, September 2006); International audience; Before World War II, international science was mainly European and Eurocentric. The International Council of Scientific Unions and the International Institute for Intellectual Co-operation paid very little attention to science and scientists beyond Europe, which were mostly confined to colonial science institutions. Non-Western scientific achievements were ignored.When joining the n...
in Peru or in other countries. In Ecuador , bartonellosis has l»een report«! from the Provinces of Loja and Oro. This author " cultivated...fatal, caused by BartoneUa baciUiformis and transmitted by the bite of Phlebotomies. The dis- ease is limited to certain parts of Peru, Ecuador , and...Colombia. The disease was not a military problem in World War II. American troops stationed in Peru (Talara) and Ecuador (Salinas) were outside the
Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A
Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mark James Crowley
Full Text Available In Britain during the Second World War, the Post Office constituted the single largest employer of women. Historically, the Post Office, like many other employers, had discriminated against women. During World War I, shortages of male labor had resulted in some opportunities for women at the Post Office, but the improvement had neither been comprehensive nor enduring. Unlike World War I, World War II, however, proved to a real turning point in the Post Office's personnel practices. By the end of the Second World War, while the Post Office still did not treat women workers completely equally (persisting, for instance, in gender-biased pay practices, management nevertheless had made strides in their treatment and perception of women workers. Post Office executives increasingly perceived women on the payroll not as temporary wartime employees, but as permanent employees, who would be just as essential peacetime as in war.
Strauss, Kristin; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Silke
Dose-response relation of war experiences and posttraumatic stress, depression and poor health functioning in late life is well documented in war-affected populations. The influence of differing trauma types experienced by war-affected population in the study of dose-response relation of war trauma and psychological maladaptation in late life has not been investigated. We examined a subgroup of displaced elders and investigated whether specific trauma types were associated with differential health outcomes. From representative practitioner lists, matched groups of former displaced and non-displaced World War II children were assigned, yielding a total sample of 417 participants (response rate 50%). Measurement encompassed a self-report survey including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Consistent dose-relation between war-related experiences and posttraumatic stress or depressive symptoms in late life was found for both, displaced and non-displaced elders, whereas a gradient for poor health perception was only found in displaced people. Trauma types derived from principal component analysis showed differential associations with health outcomes. Human Right Violations emerged as risk factor for posttraumatic stress symptoms and Deprivation & Threat to Life as risk factor for depressive symptoms. Poor self-rated health was associated with multiple trauma types. Non-random recruitment, retrospective design and use of self-report. Posttraumatic stress and depression are associated with war-related experiences more than 60 years after World War II. Results suggest that different trauma types lead to unique variants of syndrome configurations, which may result from different etiological factors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prof. Dr. Alev SINAR UĞURLU
Full Text Available World War II started actually on 1st September1939 with the invasion of Poland by Germany, thenspread to almost the three fourths of the world with thepartaking of the states in the war such as England,France, Russia, Italy, Japan, and ended on 9th August1945 with the atomic bomb dropped by the USA onNagazaki. Due to the importance of its strategic location,Turkey was desired to partake in the war, but theRepublic of Turkey, adopting the principle “Peace athome, peace in the world”, refused to enter the war onthe condition that its territorial integrity would not bethreatened, and managed not to partake in this war byresisting to pressures made. However, although it did notenter the war, Turkey had to put up with great difficultiesduring those years, and there appeared an extremelynegative picture especially economically. Turkish writersregarded World War II as material for literature as theydid any other political and social events affecting thecountry deeply and considered it their duty to hand onthis historical period to next generations. The novelsmentioning World War II dealt with not only the state ofTurkey managing to stay “out of the stage” during thiswar, but also the situations of the states partaking in thewar such as Poland, Yugoslavia, England, France,Germany, Switzerland, Norway, and Russia and thepeople living in these countries.
JOSEPH C. EBEGBULEM
Full Text Available The League of Nations and the United Nations Organization were two post-World War (World War I and World War II organizations established for the maintenance of peace and security in the international system. One of the cardinal objectives of these organizations was the promotion of a Collective Security System which was considered as vital in the pursuit of global peace and security. In other words, Collective Security is an institutional mechanism established to address a comprehensive list of major threats to peace and security around the world. With the escalation of conflicts and wars in different parts of the world, there is therefore the need for collective responses at global, regional and national levels in conflict situations. The achievement of collective security in the international system would be based on the principle that any attack on any member of the United Nations would be considered as an attack on all the members. After a panoramic discourse of the meaning and nature of Collective Security, the paper also examines the problems of collective security in the international system; its failure under the League of Nations and the United Nations. The paper concludes that the weaknesses inherent in the system do not make it unuseful as it is a relevant factor in the maintenance of international peace and security.
Full Text Available When the Nazi Germany attacked the Soviets at the beginning of World War II, the USA, the UK and the Soviet Union took part on the same side and were called the Allies. In order to convey the military aid to the Soviets through Iran, the USA and the UK invaded Iran with the Soviets and dethroned Ahmad Reza Shah, who felt sympathy for Germany. By signing a treaty in 1942, they pledged to evacuate their troops from Iran six months after the war ended. They published a declaration that they would protect Iran’s territorial integrity as well as they repeated these decisions during the conference they made in Tehran in 1943. However; despite these decisions, a hidden rivalry began between the USSR and the West in Iran. The rivalry became very clear towards the end of the war. The Soviets wouldn’t withdraw from Iran. Additionally, they endeavored to divide Iran. The Iran crisis of 1946 between the West and the Soviets formed the start of the Cold War according to some people. As a country, Iran was highly affected by this process.
Full Text Available This publication adds to a rapidly growing volume of scholarship on U.S. cultural diplomacy. Most of this scholarship focuses on the Cold War and on Europe. This volume, in turn, is concerned with a lesser-known episode that came to fruition during World War II and that focused not on Europe but on Latin America. As Nazi German troops entered Paris, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration set out to launch a massive campaign to win hearts and minds for inter-American cooperation and solidarity. This campaign came to be spearheaded by an emergency agency, the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs or CIAA. Headed by the young multimillionaire and entrepreneur Nelson A. Rockefeller, the CIAA existed for only six years, but during its brief existence it helped to construct a dense State-private network that managed cultural relations with foreign countries and that continued to operate and expand long after the war was over. Of course, by then Latin America was no longer at the center of geopolitical attention. Well before the end of hostilities, the State Department began to prepare for the winding down of the CIAA’s cultural programs. The agency itself was abolished in 1946. With the onset of the Cold War, the State-private network reshuffled, its main attention now focusing elsewhere and mainly on Europe.
Full Text Available French film historian Laurent Véray has famously called World War I ‘the first media war of the twentieth century’. Newsreels, which first appeared in 1910, brought the war to movie theaters across Europe and the U.S., screening combat for those on the ‘home front’. However, while the audience could see the action it could not hear it – sometimes only live music would accompany the movements of the troops. The arrival of sound newsreels in 1929 radically transformed moviegoers’ experiences of the news, and, by necessity, of armed conflict. Drawing on examples of World War II newsreels from British Pathé’s archive that was recently made available online, this article seeks to delineate the logic governing the combination of voice-over commentary, music, sound effects, and field-recorded sound, and argues that it can be traced directly to the treatment of sound in the ‘Great War’ fiction films of the preceding decade.
Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.
.... Naval mines first evolved as a weapon during the Revolutionary War. The United States employed them during both World Wars, most notably the North Sea Barrage in WWI and Operations Starvation in WWII...
Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shi; Keinan-Boker, Lital
The vast numbers of studies regarding caloric restriction (CR) and breast cancer risk are based on war-related extreme situations. Studying the impact of CR in Jews during World War II (WW II) is challenging due to its variance and duration. To develop novel research tools in order to assess CR exposure in Jews that occurred more than 60 years ago during WW II. A pilot study based on Israeli women born in Europe in 1926-45, who lived there during WWII. Primary incident breast cancer patients and population-based controls were interviewed using a detailed questionnaire referring to demographic, obstetric factors and WW II experiences. Exposure to WWII-related CR was assessed by several proxy variables based on this information. The individual hunger score was higher in the exposed cases [mean score 141.06 vs. 130.07 in the controls). The same trend was observed for self perceived hunger score (mean score 2.75 in cases vs. 2.40 in controls) and hunger symptoms score (4.89 vs. 3.56, respectively). The novel research tools are appropriate for comparative assessment of CR exposure in case control studies.
Rahmi, Miftahul; Qiram, Ikhwanul
Banyuwangi district has some Japanese caves and bunkers of World War II. The location of the objects are along the Banyuwangi coast as a maritime defense during the war. This structures can be used as education historical tourism object. There are many similar structures in other area that have been neglected and do not get enough preservation attention. This research is aimed to identify the potency of education historical tourism of Japanese caves and bunker in Banyuwangi. The research is done by field research for the observation of objects physical condition. It is also done by interviewing local government, historical actors and surrounding community. The result shows that the caves and bunker have a great potency but have not been used as education historical object.
Cassidy, David C
This gripping book brings back to life the events surrounding the internment of ten German Nuclear Scientists immediately after World War II. It is also an "eye-witness" account of the dawning of the nuclear age, with the dialogue and narrative spanning the period before, during and after atomic bombs were dropped on Japan at the end of the war. This pivotal historical episode is conveyed, along with the emotions as well as the facts, through drama, historical narrative, and photographs of the captive German nuclear scientists - who included Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn, and Max von Laue. The unique story that unfolds in the play is based on secretly recorded transcripts of the scientists’ actual conversations at Farm Hall, together with related documents and photographs.
Full Text Available "Marking Time" considers the relative scarcity of woman's image in Nazi propaganda posters during World War II. This scarcity departs from the ubiquity of women in paintings and sculptures of the same period. In the fine arts, woman served to solidify the "Nazi myth" and its claim to the timeless time of an Aryan order simultaneously achieved and yet to come. Looking at poster art and using Ernst Bloch's notion of the nonsynchronous, this essay explores the extent to which women as signifiers of the modern – and thus as markers of time – threatened to expose the limits of this Nazi myth especially as the regime's war effort ground to its catastrophic end.
Nagata, Donna K; Takeshita, Yuzuru J
The psychological reactions of 2nd-generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans to receiving redress from the U.S. government for the injustices of their World War II internment were investigated. The respondents, all of whom had been interned during the war, rated the degree to which the receipt of redress nearly 50 years after their incarceration was associated with 8 different areas of personal impact. Results indicated that redress was reported to be most effective in increasing faith in the government and least effective in reducing physical suffering from the internment. Women and older respondents reported more positive redress effects. In addition, lower levels of current income, an attitudinal preference for Japanese Americans, and preredress support for seeking monetary compensation each increased the prediction of positive redress effects. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of social and retributive justice.
Bramsen, Inge; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Boers, Maarten
Little is known about the effects of cumulative trauma and whether traumatized individuals are more vulnerable. In 2000, a fireworks disaster created the possibility to examine this issue among World War II survivors who were part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Between 1998 and 2000 posttraumatic stress increased in disaster exposed respondents as opposed to the control group. War-related reexperiencing and avoidance also increased. The strongest increase occurred in disaster-exposed respondents who had low levels of wartime stress and a slight decrease occurred in those who had high wartime exposure. This unique controlled observation suggests that disasters do increase the levels of posttraumatic stress, and that reactivation of previous traumatic events generally occurs. However, the vulnerability hypothesis was not supported.
operation were to take Turkey out of the war, open a direct link with the Entente’s embattled ally Russia, force the Ger- mans to shift troops from the...heavy losses. By August 1915, the allied forces amounted to twelve divisions. A new landing was conducted in early August at Suvla Bay aimed to link ...lethal weapons, such as antiship missiles and tor- pedoes , and the nature of the physical environment. Here again, combat be- tween modern naval forces
Robson, D; Welch, E; Beeching, N J; Gill, G V
Though medical consequences of war attract attention, the health consequences of the prisoner-of-war (POW) experience are poorly researched and appreciated. The imprisonment of Allied military personnel by the Japanese during the World War II provides an especially dramatic POW scenario in terms of deprivation, malnutrition and exposure to tropical diseases. Though predominantly British, these POWs also included troops from Australia, Holland and North America. Imprisonment took place in various locations in Southeast Asia and the Far East for a 3.5-year period between 1942 and 1945. Nutritional deficiency syndromes, dysentery, malaria, tropical ulcers and cholera were major health problems; and supplies of drugs and medical equipment were scarce. There have been limited mortality studies on ex-Far East prisoners (FEPOWs) since repatriation, but these suggest an early (up to 10 years post-release) excess mortality due to tuberculosis, suicides and cirrhosis (probably related to hepatitis B exposure during imprisonment). In terms of morbidity, the commonest has been a psychiatric syndrome which would now be recognized as post-traumatic stress disorder--present in at least one-third of FEPOWs and frequently presenting decades later. Peptic ulceration, osteoarthritis and hearing impairment also appear to occur more frequently. In addition, certain tropical diseases have persisted in these survivors--notably infections with the nematode worm Strongyloides stercoralis. Studies 30 years or more after release have shown overall infection rates of 15%. Chronic strongyloidiasis of this type frequently causes a linear urticarial 'larva currens' rash, but can potentially lead to fatal hyperinfection if immunity is suppressed. Finally, about 5% of FEPOW survivors have chronic nutritional neuropathic syndromes--usually optic atrophy or sensory peripheral neuropathy (often painful). The World War II FEPOW experience was a unique, though often tragic, accidental experiment into
Vorstenbosch, Tom; de Zwarte, Ingrid; Duistermaat, Leni; van Andel, Tinde
Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944-1945) made at least 25,000 victims. The Dutch government took action by opening soup kitchens and providing information on wild plants and other famine food sources in "wartime cookbooks." The Dutch wartime diet has never been examined from an ethnobotanical perspective. We interviewed 78 elderly Dutch citizens to verify what they remembered of the consumption of vegetal and fungal famine food during World War II by them and their close surroundings. We asked whether they experienced any adverse effects from consuming famine food plants and how they knew they were edible. We identified plant species mentioned during interviews by their local Dutch names and illustrated field guides and floras. We hypothesized that people living in rural areas consumed more wild species than urban people. A Welch t test was performed to verify whether the number of wild and cultivated species differed between urban and rural citizens. A total number of 38 emergency food species (14 cultivated and 21 wild plants, three wild fungi) were mentioned during interviews. Sugar beets, tulip bulbs, and potato peels were most frequently consumed. Regularly eaten wild species were common nettle, blackberry, and beechnuts. Almost one third of our interviewees explicitly described to have experienced extreme hunger during the war. People from rural areas listed significantly more wild species than urban people. The number of cultivated species consumed by both groups was similar. Negative effects were limited to sore throats and stomachache from the consumption of sugar beets and tulip bulbs. Knowledge on the edibility of famine food was obtained largely by oral transmission; few people remembered the written recipes in wartime
Richards, Erin E
Since the Civil War, a proportion of U.S. service members continues to return from war with new health problems and continues to reference battlefield exposures as the cause. Hence, one of the most pressing public health debates in military policy, the determination of causality and linking of battlefield exposures to health outcomes in veterans, continues. The advances in military environmental and occupational epidemiologic research and Department of Defense policy concerning battlefield exposures are summarized and examples from World War II through the first Gulf War are provided. The limitations associated with the unique battlefield environment, multiple environmental exposures, and the inherent stresses of war, beget challenges for researchers responsible for determining causality. In light of these difficulties, six strategies for addressing environmental exposures and their possible impact on veterans were recommended by the Institute of Medicine post Operation Desert Storm. These strategies, along with their respective progress and remaining gaps, are addressed.
Frome, E.L.; Cragle, D.L.; McLain, R.W.
A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 28,008 white male employees who had worked for at least 1 month in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during World War II. The workers were employed at two plants that were producing enriched uranium and a research and development laboratory. Vital status was ascertained through 1980 for 98.1% of the cohort members and death certificates were obtained for 96.8% of the 11,671 decedents. A modified version of the traditional standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis was used to compare the cause-specific mortality experience of the World War II workers with the U.S. white male population. An SMR and a trend statistic were computed for each cause-of-death category for the 30-year interval from 1950 to 1980. The SMR for all causes was 1.11, and there was a significant upward trend of 0.74% per year. The excess mortality was primarily due to lung cancer and diseases of the respiratory system. Poisson regression methods were used to evaluate the influence of duration of employment, facility of employment, socioeconomic status, birth year, period of follow-up, and radiation exposure on cause-specific mortality. Maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in a main-effects model were obtained to describe the joint effects of these six factors on cause-specific mortality of the World War II workers. We show that these multivariate regression techniques provide a useful extension of conventional SMR analysis and illustrate their effective use in a large occupational cohort study
Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira
This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded.
Schnuelle, David L.
A program of evaluation of compression algorithms proposed for use in a digital cinema application is described and the results presented in general form. The work was intended to aid in the selection of a compression system to be used for the digital cinema release of Star Wars: Episode II, in May 2002. An additional goal was to provide feedback to the algorithm proponents on what parameters and performance levels the feature film industry is looking for in digital cinema compression. The primary conclusion of the test program is that any of the current digital cinema compression proponents will work for digital cinema distribution to today's theaters.
Katter, I; Kunitz, O; Deller, A
The discovery of an aircraft bomb from World War II made the complete evacuation of a tertiary care hospital with 629 beds and 17 specialist departments including a neonatal intensive care unit necessary. Some months before an alarm plan had been issued and a fire practice had been carried out which made it obvious to all concerned how important such measures are. Nevertheless, more room for improvement could be learned from the evacuation, in particular the rapid classification of the patients into categories and the fact that 20-30% of the patients needed stretcher-based transport for evacuation.
This essay sketches the rise of a Popular Front-inflected vision of the U.S. city neighborhood's meaning and worth, a communitarian ideal that reached its zenith during World War II before receding in the face of cold-war anxieties, postwar suburbanization, and trepidation over creeping blight. During the war years, numerous progressives interpreted the ethnic-accented urban neighborhood as place where national values became most concrete, casting it as a uniquely American rebuff to the fascist drive for purity. Elaborations appeared in the popular press's celebratory cadences, in writings by educators and social scientists such as Rachel DuBois and Louis Wirth, and in novels, plays, and musicals by Sholem Asch, Louis Hazam, Kurt Weill, Langston Hughes, and others. Each offered new ways for making sense of urban space, yet their works reveal contradictions and uncertainties, particularly in an inability to meld competing impulses toward assimilation and particularism. Building on the volume's theme "The Arts in Place," this essay examines these texts as a collective form of imaginative "placemaking." It explores the conflicted mode of liberal nationalism that took the polyglot city neighborhood as emblem. And it outlines the fissures embedded in that vision, which emerged more fully as the provisional wartime consensus dissolved.
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II-TB/ALL. 32.20-1 Section 32.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Installations § 32.20-1 Equipment installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL....
Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, P; Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J; Maercker, Andreas
Objectives: To examine posttraumatic growth and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence, trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. Participants: 103 former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years, 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Measurement: Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth ...
Brittany L. Roberts
Full Text Available When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941, they little realized what a formidable foe they had aroused. An enraged America immediately declared war on Japan. As a result, Germany declared war on America. Now facing enemies on both fronts, America mobilized her troops for action and prepared weapons of mass destruction. The unity experienced by the American people during this time had never been and would never be matched. Both soldiers and civilians launched themselves into the war effort. This great national endeavor called for anthems of reflection and encouragement. While they continued to sing national favorites such as "The Star-Spangled Banner" and "America the Beautiful," contemporary musicians wrote pieces that directly pertained to the country’s present trials and triumphs. New works remembering Pearl Harbor, praising the soldiers and comforting the sweethearts saturated the airwaves and were featured in performance venues. Music gave a tangibility and expression to the deeply felt emotional turmoil of the American people. They identified with and drew comfort from the subject matters it explored. Musicians such as Artie Shaw, Glenn Miller and the Andrews Sisters took tours entertaining troops at home and abroad, giving them courage and strength for the daunting fight they faced. When victory was finally achieved for the Allies on September 2, 1945, the people again turned to music as an outlet for their jubilant celebrations. Thus, music played a significant part in boosting American patriotism and troop support throughout the entirety of World War II.
Smith, Kylie M
In 1952, Hildegard Peplau published her textbook Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. This was the same year the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st ed.; DSM-I; APA). These events occurred in the context of a rapidly changing policy and practice environment in the United States after World War II, where the passing of the National Mental Health Act in 1946 released vast amounts of funding for the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the development of advanced educational programs for the mental health professions including nursing. This article explores the work of two nurse leaders, Hildegard Peplau and Dorothy Mereness, as they developed their respective graduate psychiatric nursing programs and sought to create new knowledge for psychiatric nursing that would facilitate the development of advanced nursing practice. Both nurses had strong ideas about what they felt this practice should look like and developed distinct and particular approaches to their respective programs. This reflected a common belief that it was only through nurse-led education that psychiatric nursing could shape its own practice and control its own future. At the same time, there are similarities in the thinking of Peplau and Mereness that demonstrate the link between the specific social context of mental health immediately after World War II and the development of modern psychiatric nursing. Psychiatric nurses were able to gain significant control of their own education and practice after the war, but this was not without a struggle and some limitations, which continue to impact on the profession today.
Full Text Available The article focuses on the experiences of Gertrude Stein in France during World War II that is portrayed in her book "Wars I Have Seen." The book depicts a picture of her and her partner Alice B. Toklas as well as an emphasis on media technologies. The book reveals that Stein has been preoccupied during the war with disconnected telephones and addictive radio. It also discusses the impact of acoustic communication technologies on war writing.
... on the Naval Service's Postgraduate Education Program and the collaborative exchange and partnership... of the NPS and the Naval War College Committee will follow at a later date. Individuals without a DoD...
Devorkin, David H.
The exploration of the upper atmosphere was given a jump start in the United States by German V-2 rockets - Hitler's "vengeance weapon" - captured at the end of World War II. The science performed with these missiles was largely determined by the missile itself, such as learning more about the medium through which a ballistic missile travels. Groups rapidly formed within the military and military-funded university laboratories to build instruments to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere, the nature of cosmic radiation, and the ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun. Few, if any, members of these research groups had prior experience or demonstrated interests in atmospheric, cosmic-ray, or solar physics. Although scientific agendas were at first centered on what could be done with missiles and how to make ballistic missile systems work, reports on techniques and results were widely publicized as the research groups and their patrons sought scientific legitimacy and learned how to make their science an integral part of the national security state. The process by which these groups gained scientific and institutional authority was far from straightforward and offers useful insight both for the historian and for the scientist concerned with how specialties born within the military services became part of post-war American science.
Pearson, Richard M
To provide an overview of the use of contact lenses by RAF aircrew in World War II by identifying some of the fitters and wearers and appraising the clinical results that they achieved. A wide-ranging literature search was undertaken that encompassed peer-reviewed journals, non-refereed publications, books, official publications, newspapers and archived documents. Thirty-one aircrew are known to have worn sealed scleral lenses in order to meet the required visual standards. Of these, only two were considered to be completely unsuccessful, one of whom was unilaterally aphakic. One additional case of undisclosed contact lens wear was found and the identity of this officer was established. Brief biographies of a few pilots establish the context of their contact lens wear. Overall, the results of scleral lens wear were variable reflecting those achieved by civilian patients of the period. While three men complained of discomfort due to heat and glare, one pilot experienced no photophobia when flying above white clouds in brilliant sunshine and another found no difficulty caused by altitude or tropical climate. Wearing time ranged from about 2h to 16, or more, hours. In about a third of the cases, wearing time was limited due to the onset of a form of contact lens induced-epithelial oedema known as Sattler's veil and effective solutions to this problem were not implemented until after the war. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eichhorn, Svenja; Klauer, Thomas; Grundke, Elena; Freyberger, Harald J; Brähler, Elmar; Kuwert, Philipp
The aim of the study was to document perceived social support in a sample of German war-raped women in World War II. Furthermore the impact of this potential resource on today's posttraumatic symptoms should be pointed out. 27 women (M = 80.3 years, SD = 3.1 years) answered each a semi-structured interview and several questionnaires. Perceived social support shows clearly lower values than in the comparative samples. The measured degree of the variable in the present sample bears negative relationship to the actual posttraumatic symptoms of the women. In World War II sexually traumatized women could profit only few from the examined resource. The found negative relationship between perceived social support and posttraumatic symptoms shows additionally the potentially long-lasting impact of these form of coping on psychological health in trauma victims. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...
Butina, Michelle; Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer
A review of professional literature was conducted to examine the history of the education of medical laboratory practitioners. This comprehensive review included historical educational milestones from the birth of medical technology to the advent of World War II. During this time period standards were developed by clinical pathologists for laboratory personnel and training programs. In addition, a formal educational model began to form and by the 1940's two years of college was required for matriculation into a medical technology program. Intertwined within the educational milestones are imprints of the evolution of critical thinking requirements and skills within the profession. For the first laboratory practitioners, critical thinking was not developed, discussed, or encouraged as duties were primarily repetitive promoting psychomotor skills.
Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Tohya, Toshimitsu; Onoda, Chikashi; Okamura, Hitoshi
To assess the extent to which malnutrition in childhood affects bone mineral density (BMD) decades later. BMDs were compared in healthy women (35-59 years old) who visited our hospital for annual examinations between 1992 and 1993 (group 1) and between 1999 and 2002 (group 2). The BMDs of 50- to 54-year-old women in group 1 averaged 0.86+/-0.15 g/cm2, which was significantly (pWar II (1945) undernutrition was rampant throughout Japan, and there were unprecedented numbers of cases of malnutrition. BMD was lower in women who experienced those conditions while they were 5 years old in average, a time when rapid skeletal growth was beginning. Thus, nutrition in childhood is a particularly crucial determinant of lifelong bone health.
Jankowski, M Kay; Schnurr, Paula P; Adams, Gary A; Green, Bonnie L; Ford, Julian D; Friedman, Matthew J
Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine associations among trauma-related contextual factors, initial psychological reactions, social support, and subsequent disclosure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of World War II (WWII) veterans exposed to mustard gas (N = 305). A structural model suggested that initial psychological reaction mediated the relationship between variables related to the context of mustard gas exposure and severity of PTSD symptoms 50 years later. Unexpectedly, social support appeared to be positively related to PTSD symptoms, and not related to the contextual variables or initial psychological reactions. These findings contribute to our understanding of PTSD in older veterans, and have relevance for early intervention services to prevent PTSD among those at risk for exposure to toxic agents.
V. Bhatnagar (Vibha); M.A. Stoto (Michael); S.C. Morton (Sally); R. Boer (Rob); S.A. Bozzette (Samuel)
textabstractBackground: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library
During World War II, a close friendship and excellent working relations developed between President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) and Prime Minister Winston Churchill that were crucial in the establishment of a unified effort to deal with the Axis powers. In early 1941, FDR began the long-term correspondence that developed into a close working…
A typology of crises is developed to be used with critical aspects of the social system to predict both crisis and postcrisis period role changes. The crisis framework is then applied to macro-changes in family structure in response to an archetypal crisis, World War II. Census data generally support the hypotheses. (Author)
In France, World War II lasted from 1939 to 1945. Under-nourishment was a national problem, and was more severe in mental hospitals. The mortality of psychiatric inpatients in France during World War II has long been a controversial issue in the country. Some authors wrote of the "soft extermination" of 40 000 mental patients, although this has been proven false. The historical study published in 2007 by Isabelle von Bueltzingsloewen provides in-depth description and analysis of starvation due to food restrictions in French mental hospitals. Although the French official statistic services published detailed data, no demographic study has been published so far. Such studies have been conducted in Norway and in Finland. "The influence of a period of under-nourishment upon mortality in mental hospitals can rarely be seen with a clarity equal to that in this work. The strict rationing was the same for everybody, but, extra muros, there was private initiative and ingenuity to help in alleviating the distress. Naturally, patients in institution had no ability to act on their own. The immense increase during the period of war from 1941 to 1945 appeared both as an increase in the exact death-risk and as an increase in the disproportion with normal mortality. The men reacted more strongly than women; which is readily comprehensible on physiological grounds, as the rations were virtually the same for all." Excess mortality continued after the war. Even though under-nourishment had ceased, death rates from tuberculosis remained high the following year. Both papers state that the poor hygiene and bad living conditions existing in mental hospitals before the war worsened the effects of food restrictions. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA: French data were published by the General Statistics of France (SGF) that became the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Insee) in 1946. A series of datasets were published each year according to sex, diagnosis and type of psychiatric
Dr. Carnes Lord Managing Editor: Pelham G. Boyer Telephone: 401.841.2236 Fax: 401.841.1071 DSN exchange: 948 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web...Naval War College, who provided valuable assistance in locating copies of the documents pub- lished here; Pelham Boyer , managing editor of the Naval War...Corbett and Admiral Sir Herbert Richmond, ed. James Goldrick and John B. Hattendorf (Newport, R.I.: Naval War College Press, 1993), pp. 141–75, with
Winton, A Black Hole in the Wild Blue Yonder: The Need for a Comprehensive Theory of Airpower (Air Command and Staff College War Theory Coursebook ... statistical comparisons made, of which most are summarized as follows2: 1. Statistical data compiled on the utilization of both planes showed that the B-17 was...easier to maintain and therefore more available for combat. 2. Statistical data on time from aircraft acceptance to delivery in theater showed that
Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M
: Although multiple sources chronicle the practice of vascular surgery in the North African, Mediterranean, and European theaters of World War II, that of the Pacific campaign remains undescribed. Relying on primary source documents from the war, this article provides the first discussion of the management of vascular injuries in the island-hopping battles of the Pacific. It explains how the particular military, logistic, and geographic conditions of this theater influenced medical and surgical care, prompting a continued emphasis on ligation when surgeons in Europe had already transitioned to repairing arteries.
Full Text Available This article questions the validity of Deborah S. Cornelius’s claims which she presents in her recently published book on interwar and World War II Hungary. These exonerate the revisionist, anti-Semitic and war-time policies of the Horthy regime. The monograph also presents the Hungarian leaders in an undeservedly positive light. The author of the review demonstrates that Cornelius’s representation of the past was accomplished by the selective reading of primary and secondary sources. Cornelius also commits too many factual errors in order to justify some of her assertions.
O. V. Kovalev
Full Text Available During the war, government of the allies considered the construction of ice structures converted from artificial icebergs into aircraft carriers. The idea to use ice for construction of floating aerodromes, or giant aircraft carriers, was launched by Geoffrey Pyke, and then was developed in a project called «Habbakuk». Aircraft carriers, made of ice, had to work for a long period of time at temperatures of water and air, resulting in rapid destruction of the structure of ordinary ice. The ice in its pure form is unsuitable for any engineering form therefore the experiments on reinforcement of ice were undertaken. New form of ice engineering was based on the type of reinforcement patterns of ice and coating it with an insulating material, which would greatly reduce the influence of melting due to the temperature of the ambient air. After tests with different substances and proportions, it was found that the mixture of ice with wood pulp, amounting to about 14%, gives the best result of reinforcement. Proposed dimensions of «Habbakuk» were 610 m (2000 ft long, 90 m (300 feet in width and a height of 60 m (200 ft. In 1943, on the surface of the lake Patricia a reduced model to test the viability of the project was constructed. Development of improved long-range aviation, the airbase in Iceland and other technological advances contributed to the successful elimination of the threat from submarines, so the project had been suspended. The technology of strong ice structures invented during the World War II time can still have practical applications today.
After WW II, trends developed in the energy markets that continued virtually unbroken till 1972. The main trend was the strong growth of oil as a percentage of total energy consumed. Not only did oil monopolise the rapidly growing transportation market but it also penetrated rapidly into the stationary energy market. In the second half of the sixties, after the discovery of the Groningen Gas field, pipeline natural gas took a sizable share of the domestic and commercial energy market in Western Europe. This market was mainly fed by gas from Groningen, the North Sea and Russia. Another trend was the steady growth of electricity as a percentage of the stationary market partly based on nuclear energy. Coal was the loser. This rather steady development was upset by the first oil crisis in 1972. This crisis was a political crisis which had little to do with the physical availability of crude oil. Between 1972 and the present, periods of reasonable price stability were interrupted by violent swings in the price of oil and gas. Moreover, during this period the environmental movement became a major influence in the energy field. Notwithstanding the generally unstable market, some new trends developed after 1972 and some old ones continued. Will these trends continue long enough to be useful for making a scenario for the future? The forecaster should not assume that the development of energy consumption in the USA, Western Europe and Japan will continue to be of overwhelming importance. Developments in South East Asia and Eastern Europe should be watched very carefully. There are reasons to believe that at a certain stage in economic development, transportation demand shoots up much faster than economic growth, leading to a rapid demand growth for distillate oil. Of importance is also how will the rapidly developing countries generate their increasing demand for electricity and how will they fuel their industry? There can be little doubt that in the rich countries
considerable array of supporting services -- from the chaplain to the cinema, the rest-billet to the soccer field; a great deal of Bratish working...governments. At home, Wilson seldom interfered with Baker’s running the War Department or Daniels’ the Navy Depar tnen t. During 1916-1917 Congress...sense of urgency In the military bureaucracy: ’The divergencies of opinion among the experts were only a pretext for those I who did not know or did not
Rębała, Krzysztof; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Lindner, Iris; Büttner, Andreas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Comas, David
Homogeneous Proto-Slavic genetic substrate and/or extensive mixing after World War II were suggested to explain homogeneity of contemporary Polish paternal lineages. Alternatively, Polish local populations might have displayed pre-war genetic heterogeneity owing to genetic drift and/or gene flow with neighbouring populations. Although sharp genetic discontinuity along the political border between Poland and Germany indisputably results from war-mediated resettlements and homogenisation, it re...
Orlowski, Henning V; Klauer, Thomas; Freyberger, Harald J; Seidler, Günter H; Kuwert, Philipp
Despite today's extensive research on the psychosocial consequences of World War II, the group of wives and children whose husbands or fathers went "missing in action" during the Second World War, has yet to be studied systematically in Germany. The present review article shows the special role the wives, and in particular the children, of missing German soldiers played in society and discusses the impact of their loved ones being unaccounted has had on the mental health of this group. An overview of current research on the psychosocial status of the war generation is given following a short historical introduction to the theme. Subsequently, we discuss the legal and social situation of the families of missing German soldiers during the postwar decades. Finally, two psychological concepts drawn from the US research show that specific disorders, such as complicated grief or "boundary ambiguity," can occur in the relatives of missing persons and blur the line between hope and grief occurring as a result of ambiguous loss. The psychosocial impact of having a relative go missing has hardly been noticed in the German research tradition after World War II. Particularly in light of the age structure of those directly affected and the experiences of transgenerational transmission this neglected psychosocial research subject urgently needs further scientific investigation, inasmuch as the age of the family members still allows it.
Milić, Petar; Milić, Slavica
From the historical point of view, there are three time periods when the process of modernization of Serbian society took place. First period includes the interval from the beginning of the 19th century until the end of World War I, when the Serbian country was reestablished as Serbian Knezevina (princedom) and in 1882 as Serbian Kingdom. Second period includes an interval from the unity of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians, which was established at the end of World War I (1918) and in 1929 changed the name into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which lasted until the end of World War II. The third period includes time after World War II. In this paper, the social-economical conditions in the Leskovac area during the first two periods of modernization were described, as well as the pharmacy development emphasizing the characteristic of the pharmaceutics. The Leskovac area belongs to most recently liberated areas in Serbia, i.e. Leskovac was liberated at the end of 1877. Nevertheless, the first pharmacy was opened in Leskovac in 1862, during the reign of the Turks. The authors being the people from Leskovac as well as the pharmacists believe that they contributed to better overview of the activities of people from modernization period, paying them well-deserved recognition.
A survey is offered of applications to fundamental physical research, in the years immediately following World War II, of the instrumentalities developed for radar during that war. Attention is given to radar astronomy and radio astronomy, linear and cyclical accelerators, microwave spectroscopy, molecular beams, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic and ferromagnetic resonance, measurements of resistivity at high frequencies in metals and of second sound in helium II, and to the concepts of information and signal-to-noise ratio as basic to the design and analysis of experiments. In conjunction with this survey, consideration is given to the autonomy of physics as a knowledge-producing enterprise, framed as a question of continuity in research directions. As that question implies a baseline, the survey of postwar applications is preceded by a survey of those prewar directions of physical research requiring the highest available radio frequencies. Some 500 references are given
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how the United States transformed its foreign policy to promote China as an “equal state” in international politics during World War II, with focus on the process of the American relinquishment of its unequal treaties with China in 1943. In particular, it concentrates on analyzing the conflicts between the United States and Japan in the process of relinquishment. By examining the rivalry between the United States and Japan in the social warfare – propaganda – we can see that the relinquishment of the unequal treaties in 1943 not only marked a historical turning point in America’s China policy, but also had a great impact on the transformation of East Asian politics in World War II and its influence in the world politics.
Butina, Michelle; Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer
A review of professional literature was conducted to examine the history of the education of medical laboratory practitioners. This comprehensive review included historical educational milestones from World War II to present day. During this time period the standard of two years of college required for matriculation into a medical technology program increased to four years. Critical thinking skills promoted in the educational model and applied in practice expanded from an analytic and psychomotor orientation to include those requiring extensive situational interpretation and negotiation. By the end of the twentieth century, the clinical laboratory had experienced significant scientific and technologic transformations necessitating greatly expanded roles for the medical laboratory practitioner. Though the educational requirements and education model have changed minimally since the 1970's, the knowledge and skills required for the next generation of medical laboratory practitioners continue to escalate. The second decade of the 21st century portends a transformation in medical laboratory practitioner education commensurate with the rapid advancement of science, technology, communications, and the precepts of evidence-based practice.
Hagen, Joel B
During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the development of an area of research variously referred to as physiological ecology, environmental physiology, or ecophysiology. This area of research was distinctive in its self-conscious blend of field and laboratory practices and its explicit integration with other areas of biology such as ecology, animal behavior, and evolution in order to study adaptation. Comparing the intersecting careers of Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew highlights two strikingly different approaches to physiological ecology. These alternative approaches to studying the interactions of organisms and environments also differed in important ways from the organismal biology championed by leading figures in the modern synthesis.
Foulkes, Julia L
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan and the revitalization of the Brooklyn Academy of Music in Brooklyn offer insights into the intersection of arts and urbanization after World War II. This intra-city comparison shows the aggrandizing pull of the international arena in the shaping of Lincoln Center and the arts it featured in contrast to the local focus and debate that transformed how BAM fit into its Brooklyn neighborhood. The performing arts, bound as they are to a moment fused in space and time, reveal the making of place within grandiose formal buildings as well as outside on the streets that surround them—and it is, perhaps, that tensile connection between stages and streets that informs the relevancy of both the institution and the arts it features. At a time when the suburbs pulled more and more people, the arts provided a counterforce in cities, as magnet and stimulus. The arts were used as compensation for the demolition and re-building of a neighborhood in urban renewal, but they also exposed the more complex social dynamics that underpinned the transformation of the mid-20th century American city from a segregated to a multi-faceted place.
Sasse, Julia; Gelderblom, Hans R
Even though smallpox was declared eradicated by WHO in 1980, it cannot be ruled out that the etiological variola virus could be used as a biological weapon. Undestroyed viruses from biowarfare programmes, virus strains left undetected in a freezer or dangerous recombinant poxvirus constructs could cause dangerous outbreaks in a relatively unprotected population. Despite an abundance of studies performed during the eradication of smallpox, epidemiological data for preparedness planning and outbreak control in modern, industrialized countries are scarce. Full-text hand search for the period from 1945 to 1975 in the main German public health journals. After World War II 12 smallpox outbreaks occurred in Germany. They were studied with the focus on the period of contagiousness, the protective effect of vaccination, booster-effect of revaccination and the place of infection. A total of 95 individuals contracted smallpox, including 10 fatalities. Despite having been previously vaccinated, 81 vaccinated persons came down with smallpox, yet 91% of them developed only mild symptoms. These patients presented a high risk for spreading the infection to contact persons due to misinterpretation of symptoms and the continuing social contacts. Basically, the risk of transmission in the first 2 to 3 days after onset of symptoms was low, thus facilitating antiepidemic measures. The importance of hospital preparedness is emphasized by the fact that most infections occurred in hospitals. The data analyzed provide valuable information for today's outbreak response planning and counter bioterrorism preparedness.
Full Text Available Immediately before and shortly after the collapse of socialism in 1989, a large number of private publishing houses were founded in Hungary. Some of them began their career by republishing the novels of selected popular Hungarian women writers of the preWorld War II era that had been banned following the Soviet occupation of the country in 1945. The lack of comprehensive literary criticism on the works of women authors drove the new publishers to rely on the so-called “oral canon” of collective memory, which had saved some of their names from oblivion. To grab the attention of prospective readers, the books selected for publication were provided with modern book cover designs, reflecting new, but still patriarchal values. After a brief overview of how prewar literature was censored after 1945, focusing on the editors’ inevitable reinterpretation of the writings of Renée Erdős, Mrs. Kosáry Lola Réz, and Anna Tutsek through book cover designs, Kádár aims in this paper to survey in what ways and how successfully the re-editions of the novels by women writers have contributed to their inclusion in the literary canon since 1989.
The CANOL project was a joint U.S.-Canada undertaking during World War II. It entailed the construction of a road and pipeline from the oil fields of Norman Wells on the Mackenzie River, 960 kms over the Mackenzie Mountains to a new refinery at Whitehorse. The goal was to provide a secure supply of aviation fuel far from the menace of Japanese bombers. Initially, the pipeline was expected to operate by October 1942. In actual fact, the first gasoline was not produced in the crude distillation unit until April 24, 1944, and it was not until November 1944 that the refinery finally began producing aviation fuel. Four months later, the pipeline and the refinery were shut down. The project cost American taxpayers $ 134 million. A total of 2650 kms of pipeline was laid. During the first nine months of pipeline operation 46,000 barrels of oil was spilled, much of it directly into the Mackenzie River. Total production from the refinery, which itself cost $ 27 million, wa 866,670 barrels of products. When the refinery was shut down, most of the refinery structures were dismantled and moved, via the Alaska Highway, to the newly discovered Leduc oilfields, but buildings, tanks and hydrocarbon waste were left behind. In a 1960 report it was estimated that some four million litres of oil has been pumped into a pit located within the containment berm formerly surrounding an 80,000 barrel oil storage tank which was dismantled after the shutdown. The bureaucratic dispute about who is responsible for cleaning up has been an issue ever since. The cost of cleanup was estimated at about $ 4 million in 1994. Since the federal government, the original owners of the land , transferred the land to provincial jurisdiction in 1970, it disclaimed any responsibility for site cleanup, however, there has been some recent evidence of willingness on the part of the Department of National Defence and the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs to determine proper actions to clean up the site
Radchenko, I. G.
(donations, which was given by JDC through the ICRC and Romanian Jewish Community, food parcels, clothes, medicaments, and emigrations from "Transnistria" to Romania, Palestine (after 1943. Considering the status of Romania (as Nazi Germany's ally in World War II, the international financial transactions dealt with some difficulties, which delayed the relief, but it was changed after the Romania's joining to Allies. The further research on the topic raises new problem for scholars. Particularly, it deals with using of memoirs. There is one other important point is inclusion of national (Ukrainian historiography on the topic, concerning the rescue of Romanian Jews, to European and world history context.
.... Sea Basing through a combination of naval platforms provides the bridge for the American military forces between the advance force operations needed to prepare the battlespace and the war-winning...
experienced the consistent recycling of gliders from mission to mission. James Mrazek’s The Glider War and John L. Lowden’s Silent Wings at War are two...Germans were able to transform the glider, curiosities of the 1920’s and 30’s, into an effective element of airborne warfare. With the single
Within two weeks of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. Office of Education Wartime Commission was formed to provide guidance to institutions of higher learning and public schools for the duration of the war. The goals set for the commission included: (1) facilitating the adjustment of education agencies to war needs; (2) informing government…
of that year, General Craig directed the war plans division to begin looking at how to prepare the army should war break out in Europe or Asia ...and AGF strongly disagreed with the recommendation.70 AGF argued that expanding the courses to six months would not aid the overpopulation problem
Chilcoat, George W.
By using propaganda commercial radio broadcasts which occurred during the Second World War as the basis for classroom activities, teachers can help students capture the emotional drama of various topics of the war, as well as certain themes still applicable in contemporary society, and stimulate student curiosity about the past. (RM)
As the United States prepared to enter the Second World War and during the early years of the conflict, Music Educators National Conference (MENC) focused attention on how music educators could support the war effort. The association worked with the federal government and other agencies on a number of national programs. Through its publication,…
Kuwert, Philipp; Glaesmer, Heide; Eichhorn, Svenja; Grundke, Elena; Pietrzak, Robert H; Freyberger, Harald J; Klauer, Thomas
The aim of the study was to compare the long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence experienced at the end of World War II (WWII) with non-sexual WWII trauma (e.g., being exposed to shell shock or physical violence). A total of 27 elderly wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects who were drawn from a larger sample of subjects over 70 years of age who had experienced WWII-related trauma. A modified version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess trauma characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 was used to assess current psychopathology. Additionally, measures of posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and social acknowledgement as a trauma survivor (Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire) were used to assess two mediating variables in post-trauma conditions of rape victims. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence reported greater severity of PTSD-related avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as anxiety, compared with female long-term survivors of non-sexual WWII trauma. The vast majority (80.9 %) of these women also reported severe sexual problems during their lifetimes relative to 19.0 % of women who experienced non-sexual war trauma. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence also reported greater posttraumatic growth, but less social acknowledgement as trauma survivors, compared to survivors of non-sexual war trauma. The results were consistent with emerging neurobiological research, which suggests that different traumas may be differentially associated with long-term posttraumatic sequelae in sexual assault survivors than in other survivor groups and highlights the need to treat (or better prevent) deleterious effects of conflict-related sexual violence in current worldwide crisis zones.
34 Military Review, (February 1983), 13-34. Drury , M.T., "Naval Strike Warfare and the Outer Battle." Naval Forces, Vol.VII, (1986), 46-49. Fedyszn...Fort Leavenworth, KS., June 1987. Martin, Cormander Colin L., "Tomahawk Technology and the Maritime Strategy." Paper, Naval War College, Newport, RI
Full Text Available The Japanese Buddhist clergy’s collaboration with the Japanese war machine during the Fifteen Year War (1931–1945 is notorious. Yet the struggles of ordinary lay Buddhist youths during World War II remain less publicized. This article examines the case of a young Shinshū Buddhist soldier, Hirose Akira, 廣瀬明 (1919–1947, and scrutinizes the diary he kept between 1939 and 1946. Mobilized between February 1942 and January 1945, Hirose became increasingly disillusioned, especially when he witnessed injustices and the officers’ thoughtlessness in ordering junior soldiers to make sacrifices while enjoying their privileges. His diary reveals an early skepticism toward the Japanese embrace of expansionism and the hypocrisy of its justifications for the war of aggression waged against China and Asia as a whole. Independently from the battle’s fate, by 1944 Hirose considered that Japan was already defeated because of what he saw as “her own people’s ego and selfishness.”
Broennimann, S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, PO Box 210092, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Luterbacher, J. [Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); NCCR Climate, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)
Monthly mean fields of temperature and geopotential height (GPH) from 700 to 100 hPa were statistically reconstructed for the extratropical Northern Hemisphere for the World War II period. The reconstruction was based on several hundred predictor variables, comprising temperature series from meteorological stations and gridded sea level pressure data (1939-1947) as well as a large amount of historical upper-air data (1939-1944). Statistical models were fitted in a calibration period (1948-1994) using the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data set as predictand. The procedure consists of a weighting scheme, principal component analyses on both the predictor variables and the predictand fields and multiple regression models relating the two sets of principal component time series to each other. According to validation experiments, the reconstruction skill in the 1939-1944 period is excellent for GPH at all levels and good for temperature up to 500 hPa, but somewhat worse for 300 hPa temperature and clearly worse for 100 hPa temperature. Regionally, high predictive skill is found over the midlatitudes of Europe and North America, but a lower quality over Asia, the subtropics, and the Arctic. Moreover, the quality is considerably better in winter than in summer. In the 1945-1947 period, reconstructions are useful up to 300 hPa for GPH and, in winter, up to 500 hPa for temperature. The reconstructed fields are presented for selected months and analysed from a dynamical perspective. It is demonstrated that the reconstructions provide a useful tool for the analysis of large-scale circulation features as well as stratosphere-troposphere coupling in the late 1930s and early 1940s. (orig.)
Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka
The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt; Hielscher, Eva
Historical films made by neuroscientists have shown up in several countries during past years. Although originally supposed to have been lost, we recently found a collection of films produced between 1909 and 1940 by Rudolf Magnus (1873-1927), professor of pharmacology (Utrecht) and his student Gysbertus Rademaker (1887-1957), professor of physiology (1928, succeeding Willem Einthoven) and neurology (1945, both in Leiden). Both collections deal with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were done with animals (labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brainstem sections) and observations on patients. The films demonstrate the results of these studies. Moreover, there are films with babies showing tonic neck reflexes and moving images capturing adults with cerebellar symptoms following cerebellectomies for tumors and several other conditions. Magnus' studies resulted in his well-known Körperstellung (1924, "Body Posture") and Rademaker's research in his Das Stehen (1931, "Standing"). The films probably had an educative and scientific purpose. Magnus demonstrated his films at congresses, including the Eighth International Congress of Physiologists (Vienna, 1910) and Rademaker screened his moving images at meetings of the Amsterdam Neurologists Society (at several occasions as reflected in the Winkler-Monakow correspondence and the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde). Next to these purposes, the films were used to analyze movement and a series of images from the films were published in articles and books. The films are important historical sources that provide a portrait of the pre-World War II era in neuroscience, partly answering questions on how physicians dealt with patients and researchers with their laboratory animals. Moreover, the films confirm that cinematography was an important scientific tool in neuroscience research.
Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio; Manfredi, Roberto
After the fall of the Fascist regime on September 8, 1943, Italy was split into two parts: (i) the Southern regions where the King Victor Emanuel III and the military general staff escaped was under the control of English-American allied armies, and (ii) the northern regions comprising Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche still under the control of the Germans. The German Wehrmacht, after suffering several defeats on Southern lines, established a new strengthened line of defence called the Gustav line, located south of Rome and crossing in the western portion the recently-drained Pontine Marshes. In his book published in 2006, Frank Snowden hypothesised that occupying German armies in 1943 had initiated a programme of re-flooding the Pontine plain as a biological warfare strategy to re-introduce malaria infection in the territories south of Rome, Such a plan was intended (i) to slow down the advance of English-American forces, and (ii) to punish Italians who abandoned their former allies. Other authors, including Annibale Folchi, Erhard Geissler, and Jeanne Guillemin, have disputed this hypothesis based on an analysis of recently-uncovered archive documents. What is not disputed is that the flooding of the Pontine and Roman plains in 1943 contributed to a severe malaria epidemic in 1944, which was associated with exceptionally high morbidity and mortality rates in the afflicted populations. Herein, we critically evaluate the evidence and arguments of whether the Wehrmacht specifically aimed to spread malaria as a novel biological warfare strategy in Italy during the Second World War. In our opinion, evidence for specific orders to deliberately spread malaria by the German army is lacking, although the strategy itself may have been considered by Nazis during the waning years of the war.
Gratale, Joseph Michael
The Second World War commenced in 1939 when Germany’s Nazi regime invaded the nation-state of Poland. The violation of Polish sovereignty by both Germany and the Soviet Union compelled the British and the French to stand alongside their Polish allies as was stipulated in pre-existing treaty obligations. In spite of Nazi-Soviet cooperation in Poland, war between the two ultimately came to fruition in 1941 when Hitler initiated Operation Barbarossa. With all major powers involved in the war,...
Full Text Available The cult of World War II once again occupies a hegemonic position in the frigid, increasingly militaristic cultural climate of modern-day Russia. A matter of great pride for the overwhelming majority of Russian people, the war serves as a model for group solidarity and a means of social control. It is used as a positive, character forming experience as each new generation is initiated into it through popular culture. Three recent films, the duology We are from the Future and The Fog, take on the role of the « ceremony masters » for contemporary Russian youth in its rite of passage. Essentially the vehicles of state propaganda, the films not only explore the idiosyncrasies of the proverbial Russian character, while reviving military traditions and encouraging civic responsibility, but also reflect the deep-seated anxieties of Russian society regarding its younger members.
Clausewitz and Baron Antoine -Henri Jomini, discussed getting service members and their equipment to the right place at the right time. The sustainment of... Antoine H. Jomini, The Art of War (London: Greenhill Books; California: Presidio Press, 1992), 69. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. 4 operational...Jomini, Antoine Henri. The Art of War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971. 48 Kaigun, Nihon. "Guadalcanal Campaign | Nihon Kaigun
27Ian Dear, Escape and Evasion, (London, UK: Arms and Armour Press, 1997), 11. 28Lloyd R. Shoemaker, The Escape Factory (New York: St. Martin’s...soldiers are beginning to understand that they are the underdogs carrying the weight of the bureaucracy. 11. Building up the Nazi Gangster Ideal. In...and Evasion: Prisoner of War Breakouts and the Routes to Safety in World War Two. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1997. DeForest, Orrin, and David
disabling the armor accompanying the force at a rapid pace. After nearly two hours of continuous attempts to extract forces from the beach, radio...the heavy surf . These factors, combined with the lack of integration between the ground maneuver plan and naval gunfire support, resulted in the...from the beaches due to the surf , causing slight delays that had little effect on the course of the landings and subsequent actions. At Yellow Beach
Stanford University Press, 1993. 26. Rudolf Hrbek and Sabine Wegand, Betrifft! Europa der Regionen, Berlin: C.H. Beck, 1994. 27. John Mueller...Barracks: U.S. Army War College, November 1998. Navarro, Jaime . Joint Vision 2010: Naval Warfare Imperatives. Newport: U.S. Naval War College
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bangor Naval Submarine Base... Bangor Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, WA. (a) Location. The following is a security zone: The waters of... States Naval vessels. (ii) Vessels that are performing work at Naval Submarine Base Bangor pursuant to a...
Angell-Andersen, E; Tretli, S; Bjerknes, R; Forsén, T; Sørensen, T I A; Eriksson, J G; Räsänen, L; Grotmol, T
The purpose of the study was to examine the height and weight in Nordic children during the years around World War II (WWII), and compare them with the nutritional situation during the same period. Information on food consumption and energy intake were obtained from the literature. Anthropometric data were collected from the Nordic capitals and cover the period from 1930 to 1960 for ages 7-13 years. The greatest energy restriction took place in Norway (20%), followed by Finland (17%), while Sweden and Denmark had a restriction of 4-7% compared to pre-war levels. The most pronounced effect of WWII on height and weight is seen in Norwegian children, while some effect is observed for the youngest children in Finland. Little or no effect is seen in Sweden and Denmark. The Nordic children were affected by WWII in terms of a transient reduction in temporal trends in height and weight, and the magnitude of this decrease was associated with the severity of the energy restriction prevailing in the respective country during the war. These findings warrant further studies of the chronic diseases associated with height and weight for cohorts being in their growth periods during WWII. Copyright 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd.
Foster, D; Davies, S; Steele, H
The authors used attachment theory to hypothesize about the possible long-term psychological effects of evacuation during World War II, focusing on children who were evacuated unaccompanied by their parents. The study aimed to establish whether this experience had long-term effects on psychological well-being, and to investigate mediating and moderating factors. The study utilized a retrospective non-randomized design, comparing 169 former evacuees with 43 people who were children during the war but not evacuated. No differences between the groups were found in terms of demographic variables or exposure to war-related events. All participants completed a range of standardized self-report questionnaires. Findings indicated that former evacuees were more likely to have insecure attachment styles and lower levels of present psychological well-being. Satisfaction with, but not quantity of, current social support was found to mediate the relationship between attachment style and present psychological well-being. Conclusions are limited due to the method of measurement of attachment style, non-randomized design and method of recruitment. Nevertheless, findings offer an indication that the experience of evacuation is associated with long-term psychological vulnerability through its relationship with insecure attachment.
Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, Philipp; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald J; Maercker, Andreas
To examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence (SOC), trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Cross-sectional. University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. One hundred three former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years in which 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Social Acknowledgment Questionnaire (SAQ), and SOC Scale. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed by the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Number of traumas, recognition by significant others, and general disapproval as facets of social acknowledgment as a survivor, and meaningfulness as a dimension of SOC correlated significantly with PTG. In a multiple hierarchical regression analysis, recognition as a survivor by significant others (SAQ) and meaningfulness (SOC) remained the only significant predictors of PTG. Social acknowledgment as a survivor by significant others and the belief that the world is meaningful are among the most important factors contributing to PTG. Further research should investigate whether treatments of PTSD in people who experienced war traumas recently or many years ago might benefit from a focus on the belief system and the role of family and social support.
Full Text Available Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades.To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8. War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS. Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = - .31, p = .014. The effect size and power were sufficient (f(2 = 0.51, (1-β = .99. The same was true for current PTSD (β = - .27, p = .030.Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans.
Santavirta, Torsten; Santavirta, Nina; Gilman, Stephen E
Although there is evidence that adverse childhood experiences are associated with worse mental health in adulthood, scarce evidence is available regarding an emerging concern that the next generation might also be affected. To compare the risk of psychiatric hospitalization in cousins whose parents were vs were not exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy that involved a mean 2-year stay with a Swedish foster family. This multigenerational, population-based cohort study of Finnish individuals and their siblings born between January 1, 1933, and December 31, 1944, analyzed the association of evacuee status as a child during World War II in the first generation with the risk of psychiatric hospitalization among offspring in the second generation. Evacuee status during World War II was determined using the Finnish National Archive's registry of participants in the Finnish evacuation. Data on evacuee status were linked to the psychiatric diagnoses in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012, for offspring (n = 93 391) born between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 2010. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for risk of psychiatric hospitalization during the follow-up period. Because offspring of evacuees and their nonevacuated siblings are cousins, the Cox proportional hazards regression models included fixed effects to adjust for confounding factors in families. Data analysis was performed from June 15, 2016, to August 26, 2017. Parental participation in the evacuation during World War II (coded 1 for parents who were evacuated and placed in foster care and 0 for those not evacuated). Offspring's initial admission to the hospital for a psychiatric disorder, obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012. Of the 93 391 study persons, 45 955 (49.2%) were women and 47 436 (50.8) were men; mean (SD) age in
Maria Mercedes Palandri
explore the development and importance that this sport had to do with the national sphere of sport starting with its reconstruction after the World War II. This period coincides with the years of the Second Vatican Council (CVII on one side and the Olympic Games in Rome on the other, and wish to show the reciprocal influence that exist between these events. It will be also be explained the Centro Sportivo Italiano (CSI and its contribution to the sports system in Italy during this time, the Olympic Games in Rome in 1960 and about the push that CSI gave to spread the Olympic spirit among the population, of the CVII and the influence that this event had in the dynamics of the CSI. There are not many who know that the Council speaks also about sports, in particular in the Constitution Gaudium et Spes, a document in which the Church give heed to the signs of times and listens to the contemporary world, and opens for further research and dialogue. This attitude of openness gave a chance to the conciliar Fathers to reflect about sports as an important social phenomenon of the twentieth century.
Ferris, Daniel Hunter
The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…
Th ;e 8epre--cdin this paper .rv thoe. of ’:ceauhor IDep 2rtmt-nt of Diefense rayo t gr: s hsPcC % FOC, O P 0- C GOUND OP!-txA’TONS ’A NS tTAI.D 11...NOTE S T edder, Wi.th Preudice: The War Memoirs . - y Air Force. Lord Tedaer. rr- 40-43. 2.".~ : X :"~ , M~.c, ’ = A r Power in Three Wars WW 7:, Kora...that FEAF assume operational control over land based Marine air units and over carri.er bjdsed aviation operating over Korea effective as soon as X
Cdr H. R. Gordon-Cumming has written that in the early days of the Second World War large drafts of RNVR (SA) officers and ratings were taken by the few British Warships which called at. Simonstown and Durban to make up their war complements and that later on 'Union nationals took part in nearly every major naval ...
PURPOSE - This paper aims to discuss the “truism” that learning organizations cannot be large organizations and, conversely, that large organizations cannot be learning organizations. This paper analyzes learning in the German and US armies in the Second World War, based on a four-dimensional model
Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the "truism" that learning organizations cannot be large organizations and, conversely, that large organizations cannot be learning organizations. This paper analyzes learning in the German and US armies in the Second World War, based on a four-dimensional model of the learning organization.…
Van Ruyskensvelde, Sarah
Power over education and the upcoming generations has always been an important instrument in shaping religious and secular values. As a consequence, control over schools, pupils and teachers was, particularly in periods of war, an important means for bringing about acceptance of the new regime. The aim of this paper is to discuss priest-teachers'…
Coleman, Peter G.; Podolskij, Andrei
Purpose: We examined the adjustment to societal change following the fall of communism in a group of Soviet war veterans from Russia and the Ukraine. The focus of the study was on the dynamics of identity development, and especially generativity, in a period of intense social upheaval. Design and Methods: We administered measures of self-esteem,…
WWII is widely remembered and represented. Keeping the memories of this international conflict alive, both within academic and popular history writing, occurred largely within various national frameworks. On the one hand, in the immediate post-war world many stories appeared about the great events
Wolff, Kristina B; Mills, Peter D
Since 2004, there has been increased effort to reduce military sexual trauma (MST) in the U.S. military. Although MST covers a range of inappropriate behaviors, the majority of research, treatment, and outreach are focused on sexual assault and the experiences of individuals serving in Afghanistan and Iraq. During a study on veterans' involvement in a national peace organization, participants were asked about their military experiences. Veterans served from World War II to current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Emerging out of the responses were descriptions of women's experiences with MST, barriers to reporting incidents of sexual misconduct and sexual assault, and the challenges they faced when seeking care. Data were gathered using anonymous questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Out of 52 female veterans, the majority (90%) was subjected to at least one form of MST, and 15% (8) attempted to report the incident(s). Over half of the assailants were of a higher rank than the survivors. The majority of veterans remained silent due to lack of options to report, the status of perpetrators, and fear of retaliation. These data provide a glimpse into the challenges many women veterans faced when seeking assistance reporting incidents or obtaining health care for their MST. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Yahya, Ali Mahmood
In the piece radioactive depleted uranium is a mineral density of 1.7 times heavier than lead a radiation active low level remains on the uranium used as fuel in nuclear reactors or after the manufacture of atomic bombs, and when it enters this dust into the body either by breathing or eating it causes harm caused by toxic chemotherapy and radiation in each of the bronchi and bronchial lung damage and also damage to the kidneys, liver, bone and the incidence of cancer and the potential for causing damage to the gene, Americans and British used between 300-800 tons of depleted uranium irradiated in ammunition were distributed in the deserts of Kuwait and southern Iraq in the 1991 II Gulf War when it began U.S. tanks, planes and Warthog A-10 using this ammunition against the Iraqi army Russian was measured by the level of radiation in the region by the Environmental Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Baghdad and found equal to that between several hundred to a thousand times the natural level of radiation to the soil of lraq, which is (70 bq/kg) of the soil and congenital malformations of newborns has increased 7 times the rate in 1990 as the use of depleted uranium in the war against Iraq caused thousands of cancer cases among civilians in the Iraq and the so-called symptoms of Gulf War illness or disease, the curse of Iraq suffered by many soldiers, members of the U.S. and Europe are due to exposure to radiation from depleted uranium, in addition to this has started to show thousands of cases of deformity among Iraqi children who were born after the war and the high proportion of children of war veterans were born and their distortions or suffering from acute illness. The Piece Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter of Human Rights and the Treaty of the Organization of Armed Conflict, Conventions and Protocols to the Four Geneva and UN Resolution 1540, for the year 2004, and the principles of international law are
Kauffman, C J
Having weathered the Depression and war years, CHA in the late 1940s looked forward to a new era in Catholic healthcare. The third and fourth articles of Health Progress's six-part history of CHA described how Rev. Alphonse M. Schwitalla, SJ, led the association through one of the most difficult periods in U.S. history. This article follows CHA's development into a modern service organization under the leadership of Rev. John J. Flanagan, SJ. The series' final installment, which will appear in the July-August issue, describes how CHA has modernized its services and structure in the past two decades to help its members adjust to a turbulent environment.
Full Text Available Peter Doyle. World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties, illustrated by Lindsey Johns (Buffalo NY: Firefly Books, 2013. 224 pp. ISBN: 177085195X. Doyle’s book contains dozens of graphs of statistical data dealing with World War II. Many of these graphs are visually striking. However, they often violate fundamental graphing principles, in that they distort quantitative relationships, use unidentified scales, and often make it difficult to compare quantities. Graphic software makes it easy to create imaginative images, but these can fail to communicate the very information that is the graph’s purpose.
Leonardo Dallacqua de Carvalho
Full Text Available Overall, the period after World War II is characterized as a turning point or discontinuance of racial theories and debate about racial identity, especially when referring to the history of eugenics. From the analysis of medical work of eugenicist Renato Kehl, the aim of this study is to investigate the continuities and discontinuities of eugenic through this author, trying to understand the way that eugenic ideas gained in the post-World War II. The continuity of Kehl publications on eugenics in the 1940s to 1960s allows us to observe the development of this debate in a context of contestation to the Eugenics theories.
Frankenhuis, Maarten Th
Thanks to the wise management of its director, dr. Armand Sunier, and his team, 'Artis' survived the difficult war period without great losses of its animals and only material damage to some buildings. Artis has meant very much for the inhabitants of the city of Amsterdam during the war. In the first place for the employees and their families, that were kept for starvation and forced labour by extra rations of food and safe hiding places. But also for jewish persons in hiding, who could escape from a certain death by hiding in animal houses or other buildings in the garden. And also for hundreds of thousands people of Amsterdam who found in their zoological garden an oasis of relaxation in a town full of threat and violence.
the 21st Century: An Effect-Based Approach to the Planning Process”, War Theory Coursebook , Air Command and Staff College: Maxwell AFB, 1996, 36. 6...French and other operations allowed. Of all the contextual elements, the leadership and physical environment were perhaps most influential in the...military liaisons to the Partisans and Chetniks and to gather reliable information about their effectiveness.7 The physical environment of Yugoslavia
phase of which was the supply of p asma for the Armed Forces. At the suggestion of Col. (later Brig. Gen.) Charles C. Hillman, MC, Chief, Professional...American Red Cross and the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis at the cost of processing. THE KOREAN WAR 785 RED BLOOD CELLS During the Korean...after, 725 262-263 National Formulary, 377 Multiple injections of- National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, blood substitutes, 373 784 bovine
progressive-foreign-policy. 8 Charles King , "The Five-Day War," Foreign Affairs, August 16, 2015, accessed August 16, 2015, https://www.foreignaffairs.com...substantial material aid.”91 The United States used several routes to supply the Soviet Union, including the Persian Gulf route. “The safest all-year...route through the Persian Gulf was also the longest in mileage and ship turn-around time, but it nevertheless remained a military necessity because of
were returned to duty. OTHER REPORTED SERIES A curious lack of realism pervades many of the reports of menis- cectomy, undoubtedly because the...irreversible changes. Another note of realism was struck by Major Breck, at the regional hospital at Camp Swift, Tex. (31). He reported that 75 percent of men...far as is known, cinematization was attempted in only five cases in World War I, in two of which it was done overseas (2). In only one of the five
Full Text Available The article discusses the problems and tensions surrounding the definition of Athenian citizenship at the end of fifth century and early fourth century BC, which are related to the evolution in forms of dependence after the Peloponnesian War. Citizenship rights, alongside personal leadership questions and public and private economic factors, analyzed in other works, reveal a complex but consistent picture of the Athenian society, in which all of these elements interact and explain each other.
reaction to World War I, antiwar sentiment, and the Great Depression led to a large decline in the United States military.1 This decline was experienced...posts. 30Ibid., 68. 311st Engineer Amphibian Brigade to the Commanding General, Allied Forces, 30 December 1942, Lessons from Operation Torch...hostilities in Europe and Japan (celebrated as Victory in Japan Day, 2 September 1945) brought about a rapid declination of trainees within the engineer
The author comments on the information presented in this volume and speculates on the long-term consequences of nuclear war and the prospects for recovery. In order to do that, it might be useful to define long term. To him this means time frames of years to perhaps even hundreds of years in terms of the ultimate response and recovery of large-scale ecosystems. Such long time frames may seem excessive, but if some of the speculated efforts of nuclear war are actually realized, it may indeed take centuries before native ecosystems restabilize. Also, when referring to long-term effects of the magnitude required to have a major impact on entire ecosystems, it is clear that the driving force would not be the direct effects of nuclear war. Of potentially greater significance would be the secondary effects mediated by the intermediate-term impacts on global climate. Specifically, he refers to the speculative impacts of major decreases in the heat and light fluxes reaching the Earth's surface. Such changes are commonly referred to as ''nuclear winter.''
Larisa M. Efimova
Full Text Available Victorious ending of the World War 2 on May, 9, 1945, stroke a crushing blow on the military axis Berlin - Rome - Tokyo. The USSR played a decisive role both on European and Asian fronts. Fulfilling its allied duty the Soviet Union entered the war in the Far East on 9 August, 1945 and defeated the Japanese army in Manchuria. This act became a great contribution to liberation of Asian peoples from the Japanese occupation. On the 17 August 1945 the Republic of Indonesia declared its independence. The recognition on the side of international community as well as diplomatic support became\\e vital for the survival of the newly emerged Republic.The Soviet victory together with the allied nations in the Second World War, the new status of the USSR as a superpower, its constant anticolonial stance stimulated former colonies to appeal to the Soviet Union for backing and support. One of the first was the Republic of Indonesia, to which the USSR rendered all kind of help and encourages. The present article which is a result of the study of newly available documents from several recently opened Soviet archives shows the Soviet backing of Indonesia in the UN, its diplomatic recognition, in strengthening of Indonesian status as a sovereign state on the international arena as a whole.
U.S. Army Training & Doctrine Ccmmand, Fort Monroe, Va. Naval Postgraduate School, (NPS-55-80-023), June, 1980. 42 p. Hartman, J K Grcund movement ... movement Elmsford, N.Y., Pergamon, 1980. 300 p. Amos, J W Deception and the Middle East war IN D. C. Daniel and K. L. Herbig, eds.: Strategic military...Service, (NOAA), i6 p., (1980). * Moose, P B The qradient maqnetC- telluric method at the sea floor IEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 19, no. 1
After his abdication in November 1918, the German emperor Wilhelm II continued to haunt the minds of his people. With the abolition of the lese-majesty laws in the new republic, many topics that were only discussed privately or obliquely before could now be broached openly. One of these topics was the mental state of the exiled Kaiser. Numerous psychiatrists, physicians and laypeople published their diagnoses of Wilhelm in high-circulation newspaper articles, pamphlets, and books shortly after the end of the war. Whether these diagnoses were accurate and whether the Kaiser really was mentally ill became the issue of a heated debate.This article situates these diagnoses of Wilhelm II in their political context. The authors of these diagnoses - none of whom had met or examined Wilhelm II in person - came from all political camps and they wrote with very different motives in mind. Diagnosing the exiled Kaiser as mentally ill was a kind of exorcism of the Hohenzollern rule, opening the way for either a socialist republic or the hoped-for rule of a new leader. But more importantly, it was a way to discuss and allocate political responsibility and culpability. Psychiatric diagnoses were used to exonerate both the Emperor (for whom the treaty of Versailles provided a tribunal as war criminal) and the German nation. They were also used to blame the Kaiser's entourage and groups that had allegedly manipulated the weak-willed monarch. Medical concepts became a vehicle for a debate on the key political questions in interwar Germany.
Eckart, W U; Vondra, H
The epidemiological and pharmacological fight against malaria and German malaria research during the Nazi dictatorship were completely under the spell of war. The Oberkommando des Heeres (German supreme command of the army) suffered the bitter experience of unexpected high losses caused by malaria especially at the Greek front (Metaxes line) but also in southern Russia and in the Ukraine. Hastily raised anti-malaria units tried to teach soldiers how to use the synthetic malaria drugs (Plasmochine, Atebrine) properly. Overdoses of these drugs were numerous during the first half of the war whereas in the second half it soon became clear that it would not be possible to support the army due to insufficient quantities of plasmochine and atebrine. During both running fights and troop withdrawals at all southern and southeastern fronts there was hardly any malaria prophylaxis or treatment. After war and captivity many soldiers returned home to endure heavy malaria attacks. In German industrial (Bayer, IG-Farben) and military malaria laboratories of the Heeres-Sanitäts-Akademie (Army Medical Academy) the situation was characterised by a hasty search for proper dosages of anti-malaria drugs, adequate mechanical and chemical prophylaxis (Petroleum, DDT, and other insecticides) as well as an anti-malaria vaccine. Most importantly, large scale research for proper atebrine and plasmochine dosages was conducted in German concentration camps and mental homes. In Dachau Professor Claus Schilling tested synthetic malaria drugs and injected helpless prisoners with high and sometimes lethal doses. Since the 1920s he had been furiously looking for an anti-malaria vaccine in Italian mental homes and from 1939 he continued his experiments in Dachau. Similar experiments were also performed in Buchenwald and in a psychiatric clinic in Thuringia, where Professor Gerhard Rose tested malaria drugs with mentally ill Russian prisoners of war. Schilling was put to death for his criminal
Kure City, Hiroshima Prefecture, was the site of a Japanese naval shipyard before World War II, and commercial ships were built there after the War. Large amounts of asbestos were used in this area primarily for shipbuilding, from before the war to around 1975. Probably due to exposure to asbestos, the incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma is high in this city. Of the 31 patients with this disease, 27 were men. Patients over 60 years of age constituted a high percentage of the total and 28 had a history of asbestos exposure: 12 in the Japanese naval shipyard and 12 in the commercial shipyards. The average period of asbestos exposure for these 28 patients was 20 years. Malignant pleural mesothelioma developed more than 40 years after the first exposure to asbestos. Many asbestos particles and fibers were detected in the lungs and tumors of these patients. Most of the asbestos fibers detected were crocidolites or amosites. Considering that the amount of asbestos used in Japanese has been higher than in any other country, the incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma may be expected to increase in this country. Countermeasures are now advisable.
Rębała, Krzysztof; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Lindner, Iris; Büttner, Andreas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Comas, David
Homogeneous Proto-Slavic genetic substrate and/or extensive mixing after World War II were suggested to explain homogeneity of contemporary Polish paternal lineages. Alternatively, Polish local populations might have displayed pre-war genetic heterogeneity owing to genetic drift and/or gene flow with neighbouring populations. Although sharp genetic discontinuity along the political border between Poland and Germany indisputably results from war-mediated resettlements and homogenisation, it remained unknown whether Y-chromosomal diversity in ethnically/linguistically defined populations was clinal or discontinuous before the war. In order to answer these questions and elucidate early Slavic migrations, 1156 individuals from several Slavic and German populations were analysed, including Polish pre-war regional populations and an autochthonous Slavic population from Germany. Y chromosomes were assigned to 39 haplogroups and genotyped for 19 STRs. Genetic distances revealed similar degree of differentiation of Slavic-speaking pre-war populations from German populations irrespective of duration and intensity of contacts with German speakers. Admixture estimates showed minor Slavic paternal ancestry (~20%) in modern eastern Germans and hardly detectable German paternal ancestry in Slavs neighbouring German populations for centuries. BATWING analysis of isolated Slavic populations revealed that their divergence was preceded by rapid demographic growth, undermining theory that Slavic expansion was primarily linguistic rather than population spread. Polish pre-war regional populations showed within-group heterogeneity and lower STR variation within R-M17 subclades compared with modern populations, which might have been homogenised by war resettlements. Our results suggest that genetic studies on early human history in the Vistula and Oder basins should rely on reconstructed pre-war rather than modern populations.
This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan.
Full Text Available This article presents a study of Norwegian-recorded music for children from World War II to the present, combining a historical perspective with an ethnographic approach. The underlying research has employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches, producing various data sets. The results of the data analyses indicate that the evolution of children’s phonograms is characterized by some distinct genre- and style-related development features. This article describes and interprets such features in light of concepts and theories of children’s culture and music sociology. It also elaborates on the emergence of a music market aimed at children, with an emphasis on phonograms. The association with the popular music industry enables an apparent contradiction, addressed in this article, between pedagogical and commercial considerations and outcomes.
Felder, M.; Minca, C.; Ong, C.E.
Through analysing the correspondence between key refugee camp commanders based at Amsterdam's Lloyd Hotel and different authorities involved in Dutch refugee matters, this paper examines how "the Dutch state" responded to German-Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi Germany in the prelude to World War II.
Beetsma, R.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.
The paper presents evidence of an upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer) agenda setter
Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.
The paper presents evidence of an substantial upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer)
Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.
Full Text Available This research is devoted to studying the impact of international financial aid on economic growth in Europe after the Second World War. The aim of the investigation is the identification of regularities of post-war recovery of European economies in the second half of the twentieth century and the assessment of international financial aid’s role in the economic growth stimulation. The author summarizes domestic and foreign researchers’ achievements of studying the issue of the Marshall Plan and its importance for modern Ukraine, and differentiates the classic, capitalistic and modern stages of post-conflict reconstruction of the national economies. The relation between the amount of financial assistance from US government to 14 European countries and the growth of GDP in 1947–1952 is studied with the help of correlation and regression analysis and their significant linear dependence is determined. The issue of institutional support of international financing program of economic recovery of Europe has not been left without attention.
Doward, Jr, Oscar W
... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...
Orange Plan (Orange was the color assigned to Japan In war games and planning exercises, prior to World War Z; Mexico was "Green," I Great Britain "Red...204. Renato Cov:no, I Gianpaoio Galio and Enrico )lantovand, "L’industria dali’ economia dl guerra alla ricostruzione" In PIerluJqJ Clocca and Giani...Tonlolo, eds., V . economia Italiana nel periodo fascista (Bologna, 3 1976), p. 189. S ,, ...... ... ... .... ..... .. ..., -. ,.. .. ,, , , ._ 1 398. 5
...) and at the Naval War College (NWC) for evaluation during the Global 2000 War Game. The prototype KW was designed to meet 14 user requirements identified in a previous cognitive task analysis of potential KW users...
McRae, Kenneth D
This book provides a rounded biography of Franz (later Sir Francis) Simon, his early life in Germany, his move to Oxford in 1933, and his experimental contributions to low temperature physics approximating absolute zero. After 1939 he switched his research to nuclear physics, and is credited with solving the problem of uranium isotope separation by gaseous diffusion for the British nuclear programme Tube Alloys. The volume is distinctive for its inclusion of source materials not available to previous researchers, such as Simon's diary and his correspondence with his wife, and for a fresh, well-informed insider voice on the five-power nuclear rivalry of the war years. The work also draws on a relatively mature nuclear literature to attempt a comparison and evaluation of the five nuclear rivals in wider political and military context, and to identify the factors, or groups of factors, that can explain the results.
Full Text Available After the German invasion in 1941, the USSR declared to be the defender of the Slavic nations occupied by Germany. It did not defend their allies, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, against the Germans in the 1938-1941. In alliance with Germans it attacked Poland in 1939. Soviets used the Slavic idea to organize armed resistance in occupied nations. After the war, the Soviet Union intended to make them politically and militarily dependent. The Polish government rejected participation in the Soviet Slavic bloc. In the Polish political emigration and in the occupied country the Slavic idea was really popular, but as an anti-Soviet idea. Poland not the Soviet Union was expected to become the head of Slavic countries in Central and South-Eastern Europe.
Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul
In 1945-46, representatives of the U.S. government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the United States, influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the United States played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and in securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes.
Spearman, M. L.
An historical account is presented of the new departures in aerodynamic research conducted by NACA, and subsequently NASA, as a result of novel aircraft technologies and operational regimes encountered in the course of the Second World War. The invention and initial development of the turbojet engine furnished the basis for a new speed/altitude regime in which numerous aerodynamic design problems arose. These included compressibility effects near the speed of sound, with attendant lift/drag efficiency reductions and longitudinal stability enhancements that were accompanied by a directional stability reduction. Major research initiatives were mounted in the investigation of swept, delta, trapezoidal and variable sweep wing configurations, sometimes conducted through flight testing of the 'X-series' aircraft. Attention is also given to the development of the first generation of supersonic fighter aircraft.
Full Text Available This paper highlights how the National Socialist regime in Germany created the so-called «Selbstschutz» («self protection» in civil air defense as an «apparatus of society» (Michel Foucault to educate the German population with regard to the new possibility of aerial bombing. Mechanisms, functions of emotional control and their relationship to concrete practices of the people involved are shown alongside a local example. Regarding the spread and development of fears, this article maintains that practices of «Selbstschutz» had to bridge the temporal gap between future expectations and actual experiences in crucial ways. Before the war, «Selbstschutz» followed its own logic of expectation of danger and risk, as exemplified in aerial-defense simulation exercises, which clashed with the reality of bombs falling on German cities later on.
Keinan-Boker, Lital; Shasha-Lavsky, Hadas; Eilat-Zanani, Sofia; Edri-Shur, Adi; Shasha, Shaul M
Findings of studies addressing outcomes of war-related famine in non-Jewish populations in Europe during the Second World War (WWII) confirmed an association between prenatal/early life exposure to hunger and adult obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Fetal programming was suggested as the explanatory mechanism. To study the association between being born during WWII in Europe and physical long-term outcomes in child Holocaust survivors. We conducted a cross-sectional study on all Jewish Clalit Health Services (CHS) North District members born in 1940-1945 in Europe ('exposed', n = 653) or in Israel to Europe-born parents ('non-exposed', n = 433). Data on sociodemographic variables, medical diagnoses, medication procurement, laboratory tests and health services utilization were derived from the CHS computerized database and compared between the groups. The exposed were significantly more likely than the non-exposed to present with dyslipidemia (81% vs. 72%, respectively), hypertension (67% vs. 53%), diabetes mellitus (41% vs. 28%), vascular disease (18% vs. 9%) and the metabolic syndrome (17% vs. 9%). The exposed also made lower use of health services but used anti-depressive agents more often compared to the non-exposed. In multivariate analyses, being born during WWII remained an independent risk marker for hypertension (OR = 1.52), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.60), vascular disease (OR = 1.99) and the metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.14). The results of this cross-sectional study based on highly validated data identify a high risk group for chronic morbidity. A question regarding potential trans-generational effects that may impact the 'second generation' is also raised.
Liczbińska, Grażyna; Czapla, Zbigniew; Piontek, Janusz; Malina, Robert M
Although the relationships between economic conditions and biological variables over the past two centuries in Poland are reasonably well-documented, the influence of economic and political disruptions, including nutritional privation, during the years immediately before, during and shortly after World War II (WWII) has received less attention. This paper considers the association between age at menarche and body size of university students born before, during and after WWII and father's level of education, a commonly used indicator of family economic status in Poland. Subjects were 518 university students surveyed between 1955 and 1972, birth years 1931 through 1951. The sample was divided into three birth cohorts: before (n=237), during (n=247) and after (n=34) WWII. Age at menarche was compared among birth cohorts, and by weight status and father's level of education. Age at menarche increased slightly but significantly among women born during WWII (14.4 yrs) compared to those born before (14.2 yrs) and after (13.9 yrs) the war. Controlling for year of birth and age of the student, age at menarche was significantly earlier in overweight (13.42±0.35 yrs) than in normal weight (14.33±0.06 yrs) and thin (14.54±0.21 yrs) women. Adjusted mean ages at menarche in small samples of overweight women did not differ by father's level of education, and were earlier than corresponding ages of thin and normal weight women. Adjusted mean ages at menarche did not differ between thin and normal weight women with fathers having primary or no education, but were slightly later in thin than in normal weight women with fathers having a vocational, secondary or higher education. Although age at menarche was associated with father's level of education, young adult weight status was a somewhat more important correlate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
.... The relationship between peacetime human activities and the environment is in the stage of advanced public debate and scholarly attention, and much progress has been made in recent years regarding...
Full Text Available Second World War was one of the most devastating experiences that World as a whole had to endure. The war left so many issues unhandled, one such issue is the theme of this thesis, and that is to analyze legal regime that is governing sunken warships. Status of warship still in service is protected by international law and national law of flag State, stipulating that warships are entitled on sovereign immunity. The question rises whether or not such sovereign immunity status follows warship wreck? Contemporary international law regulates very little considering ‘sovereign wrecks’, but customary international law, municipal court decisions and State practices are addressing issue quite profoundly, stating that even the warship is no longer in service it is still entitled on sovereign immunity status. HMAS Perth is Australian owned warship whose wreck current location is within Indonesian Territorial Sea. Recent reports show that commercial salvaging has been done, provoking outrage amongst surviving HMAS Perth’s naval personnel and Australian historians. In order to acquire clear stand point on issue of Sovereign Wrecks legal status, especially of HMAS Perth’s wreck, an in-depth analysis of legal material is necessary. Keywords: Territorial Waters, Warship, Warship Wreck, Salvage
... Naval War College (NPS). This meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting will be held on... Postgraduate Education Program and the collaborative exchange and partnership between NPS and the Air Force...
... War College). This meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting will be held on Wednesday... purpose of the meeting is to elicit the advice of the Board on the Naval Service's Postgraduate Education...
Silverstein, Christine M
During World War II, psychiatric nurses learned valuable lessons on how to deal with the traumas of war. Using psychohistorical inquiry, this historian examined primary and secondary sources, beyond the facts and dates associated with historical events, to understand why and how psychiatric nurse pioneers developed therapeutic techniques to address the psychosocial and physical needs of combatants. Not only is the story told about the hardships endured as nurses ministered to soldiers, but their attitudes, beliefs, and emotions, that is, how they felt and what they thought about their circumstances, are explored. In this study the lived experiences of two psychiatric nurses, Votta and Peplau, are contrasted to explicate how knowledge development improved care and how this knowledge had an impact on the home front in nursing practice and education, as well as in mental institutions and society, long after the war was won.
Vin-Raviv, N; Barchana, M; Linn, S; Keinan-Boker, L
The objective of the study was to examine the impact of WWII-related caloric restriction (CR) on subsequent breast cancer (BC) risk based on individual exposure experiences and whether this effect was modified by age at exposure. We compared 65 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2005-2010 to 200 controls without breast cancer who were all members of various organizations for Jewish WWII survivors in Israel. All participants were Jewish women born in Europe prior to 1945 who lived at least 6 months under Nazi rule during WWII and immigrated to Israel after the war. We estimated CR using a combined index for hunger and used logistic regression models to estimate the association between CR and BC, adjusting for potential confounders. Women who were severely exposed to hunger had an increased risk of BC (OR=5.0, 95% CI= 2.3-10.8) compared to women who were mildly exposed. The association between CR and BC risk was stronger for women who were exposed at a younger age (0-7 years) compared to the risk of BC in women exposed at ≥ 14 years (OR= 2.8, 95% CI=1.3-6.3). Severe exposure to CR is associated with a higher risk for BC decades later, and may be generalized to other cases of severe starvation during childhood that may have long-term effects on cancer in adulthood. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available One of the requirements that emerged from the accelerated industrialisation of Yugoslavia following the Second World War was qualifi ed specialist personnel. Despite the eff orts of the Yugoslav government, which built the future on the working class and increased support for vocational schools that taught future professionals to work in production factories, the regulation of secondary technical education remained unresolved until 1967, when the Secondary Education Act was adopted. Lower vocational education, in particular, was neglected. The primary focus of this article is on the organisation of secondary and higher textile education, and on the numerous problems that accompanied the introduction of vocational textile education in Slovenia. In this research was proved that textile education did not develop in accordance with the needs of Yugoslav industry, that vocational textile education was at a disadvantage relative to other vocational schools and that the educational structure of employees in the textile industry did not follow the presented development of professional education. Archive materials and school chronicles were used in the study, as well as articles in periodicals and literature that address the problems of textile and vocational education in general. Using diff erent methodological approaches, the data were broken down into individual parts (as the basis for determining the situation and then combined into a whole. Descriptions were provided and diff erent terms compiled.
Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ciesielska, Maria
Professor Ludwik Fleck was a famous scientist and a prominent philosopher. Although his life and work were studied extensively, the Second World War period was a subject of some discussion and controversy. On account of his Jewish origin, he was first arrested and moved from the Lwów ghetto to the 'Laokoon' factory and then imprisoned in KL Auschwitz-Birkenau and in KL Buchenwald. Fleck produced the anti-typhus vaccine in the chemo-bacteriological laboratory in the Jewish Hospital at Kuszewicza Street and in the 'Laokoon' factory in Lwów. During his incarceration in KL Auschwitz-Birkenau, Fleck worked in the camp laboratory in Block 10 carrying out bacteriological studies for the inmates and then was assigned to work in the Wasserman station in Rajsko. From January 1944 Fleck performed routine laboratory tests in Block 50 in KL Buchenwald. Though Fleck had a privileged life in the camp, he participated in the sabotage activities organized by the camp resistance. © The Author(s) 2016.
Tretli, S; Gaard, M
There are biologic reasons to believe that the period between the larche and the first full-term pregnancy is a particularly sensitive period in a woman's life regarding the development of breast cancer. In this ecologic study, data provided by the Norwegian Cancer Registry were analyzed to compare risk of breast cancer among women who experienced this sensitive period before, during, or after World War II. An ordinary age-cohort model and a model where the cohort was described by exposure by calendar period and sensitivity to this exposure at different ages, were fitted to the data. The incidence of breast cancer was lower than expected among women who experienced puberty during the war. The estimated configuration of the exposure variable showed an increase in exposure up to the start of WWII to twice the level in 1916, dropped by 13 percent during the war, and increased again after the war. The level in 1975 was approximately 2.7 times higher than the level in 1916. The results indicate that one or more lifestyle factors that changed among adolescent women during the war, influenced their risk of breast cancer. Dietary intake of energy, fat, meat, milk, fish, fresh vegetables, and potatoes, in addition to physical activity level and height, are important factors to consider in relation to breast cancer risk.
Santavirta, Nina; Santavirta, Torsten
This paper combined data collected from war time government records with survey data including background characteristics, such as factors that affected eligibility, to examine the adult depression outcomes of individuals who were evacuated from Finland to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II. Using war time government records and survey data for a random sample of 723 exposed individuals and 1321 matched unexposed individuals, the authors conducted least squares adjusted means comparison to examine the association between evacuation and adult depression (Beck Depression Inventory). The random sample was representative for the whole population of evacuees who returned to their biological families after World War II. The authors found no statistically significant difference in depressive symptoms during late adulthood between the two groups; for example, the exposed group had a 0.41 percentage points lower average Beck Depression Inventory score than the unexposed group (p = 0.907). This study provides no support for family disruption during early childhood because of the onset of sudden shocks elevating depressive symptoms during late adulthood. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Page, W F; Brass, L M
For the first 30 years after repatriation, former American prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean Conflict had lower death rates for heart disease and stroke than non-POW veteran controls and the U.S. population, but subsequent morbidity data suggested that this survival advantage may have disappeared. We used U.S. federal records to obtain death data through 1996 and used proportional hazards analysis to compare the mortality experience of POWs and controls. POWs aged 75 years and older showed a significantly higher risk of heart disease deaths than controls (hazard ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.56), and their stroke mortality was also increased, although not significantly (hazard ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.91). These results suggest that circulatory disease sequelae of serious, acute malnutrition and the stresses associated with imprisonment may not appear until after many decades.
Tomasz Marcin Duchnowski
Full Text Available Since the earliest times, the Vistula River has been an artery used for movement of people, commodities and cultures. The settlement network that began to develop along it constituted the foundation of the emerging Polish state in the Early Middle Ages. In the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights appeared downriver. After the outbreak of Prussia and Gdańsk Pomerania, they formed a state with a powerful economy and army. During their reign along the Vistula River (Wisła, many castles and fortified towns guarding its particular sections were erected. After the end of the Thirteen Years’ War (1466, almost the whole river with its tributaries was incorporated within the limits of Poland or countries recognising its authority. From the middle of the 16th century to the mid-17th century, the Vistula River performed the role of the main Polish trade route for many products sent to Western European countries through Gdańsk. The city was then experiencing the apogee of its magnificence. Cereals were the most important commodity back then. The gentry – the producers – and many towns intermediating in trade were growing rich thanks to the good economic situation. Then, the rich folklore of raftsmen immortalised by poets and pictured by painters came into being. In the 18th century, changes in agriculture in Western European countries and increasing competition caused depression in the export of Polish cereals. In addition, the partitions of Poland affected its balance. Because of this, the Vistula River flowed through three states: Austria, Russia and Prussia. All of them conducted separate policies concerning the river, which caused its decline as an important European water artery. In the 19th century, it remained unregulated. Germans performed the most works in the lower course of the river, while Russians did the least in its middle course. In the period of Second Polish Republic, the revived state had new needs, thus river development was not
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Font, Laura; Jonker, Geert; van Aalderen, Patric A; Schiltmans, Els F; Davies, Gareth R
In 2010 and 2012 two sets of unidentified human remains of two World War II soldiers were recovered in the area where the 1944-1945 Kapelsche Veer bridgehead battle took place in The Netherlands. Soldiers of four Allied nations: British Royal Marine Commandos, Free Norwegian Commandos, Free Poles and Canadians, fought against the German Army in this battle. The identification of these two casualties could not be achieved using dental record information of DNA analysis. The dental records of Missing in Action soldiers of the Allied nations did not match with the dental records of the two casualties. A DNA profile was determined for the casualty found in 2010, but no match was found. Due to the lack of information on the identification of the casualties provided by routine methods, an isotope study was conducted in teeth from the soldiers to constrain their provenance. The isotope study concluded that the tooth enamel isotope composition for both casualties matched with an origin from the United Kingdom. For one of the casualties a probable origin from the United Kingdom was confirmed, after the isotope study was conducted, by the recognition of a characteristic belt buckle derived from a Royal Marine money belt, only issued to British Royal Marines, found with the remains of the soldier. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Jeewon; Kwak, Young-Sook; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Eun-Ji; Park, E Jin; Shin, Yunmi; Lee, Bun-Hee; Lee, So Hee; Jung, Hee Yeon; Lee, Inseon; Hwang, Jung Im; Kim, Dongsik; Lee, Soyoung Irene
"Comfort women" refers to young women and girls who were forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese military during World War II. They were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule, mostly from Korea, and the rest from China, Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Netherlands, etc. "Comfort women" endured extreme trauma involving rape, sexual torture, physical abuse, starvation, threats of death, and witnessed many others being tortured and killed. This article reviews all the studies that have investigated the psychiatric or psychosocial sequelae of the survivors of the Japanese military sexual slavery. Most importantly, a recent study which conducted a psychiatric evaluation on the former "comfort women" currently alive in South Korea is introduced. The participants' unmarried rate was relatively high and their total fertility rate was relatively low. Majority of the participants reported having no education and being the low economic status. They showed high current and lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic disorder, major depressive disorder, somatic symptom disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and alcohol use disorder. Participants showed high suicidality and majority of the participants still reported being ashamed of being former "comfort women" after all these years. This article high-lights the fact that the trauma has affected the mental health and social functioning of former "comfort women" throughout their lives, and even to the present day.
Since the early 1990s home care increasingly has emerged as a favoured policy response to the growing costs which an aging population poses for our health care system. This paper explores the early history of home care for the elderly in Ontario during the first three decades after World War II. It demonstrates that policy debates over the merits of home versus institutional care for the elderly, and community-based over hospital-based approaches to home care are not recent phenomenon but have been on going since the 1940s within the public health and social services sector. The paper examines why home care failed for so long to develop beyond the margins of Ontario's highly institutionalized health care system. It also explores how earlier visions of community-based home care, designed to help the elderly age in place, increasingly were obscured by an exclusive preoccupation with home care's "cost effectiveness" as an alternative to hospital or residential care, a rationale which discounted home care's costs to unpaid and principally female care givers. The paper concludes that the Ontario health ministry's systematic devaluing of caregiving and home maker skills, the fear of undermining the family's willingness to provide care, as well as the failure to develop effective mechanisms for integrated regional health care planning, also impeded the progress of home care's development before the 1980s.
This volume, Volume II presents the site data that was used to generate the Department of Energy's (DOE) initial Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The raw data was obtained by DOE field personnel from existing information sources and anticipated environmental management strategies for their sites and was tempered by general assumptions and guidance developed by DOE Headquarters personnel. This data was then integrated by DOE Headquarters personnel and modified to ensure that overall constraints such as funding and waste management capacity were addressed. The site summaries are presented by State and broken out by discrete activities and projects. The Volume I Glossary has been repeated to facilitate the reader's review of Volume II. The information presented in the site summaries represents the best data and assumptions available as of February 1, 1995. Assumptions that have not been mandated by formal agreement with appropriate regulators and other stakeholders do not constitute decisions by the Department nor do they supersede existing agreements. In addition, actions requiring decisions from external sources regarding unknowns such as future land use and funding/scheduling alternatives, as well as internal actions such as the Department's Strategic Realignment initiative, will alter the basis and general assumptions used to generate the results for this report. Consequently, the numbers presented in the site summaries do not represent outyear budget requests by the field installations
Ma, Menglin; Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A
Clostridium perfringens type C strains are the only non-type-A isolates that cause human disease. They are responsible for enteritis necroticans, which was termed Darmbrand when occurring in post-World War II Germany. Darmbrand strains were initially classified as type F because of their exceptional heat resistance but later identified as type C strains. Since only limited information exists regarding Darmbrand strains, this study genetically and phenotypically characterized seven 1940s era Darmbrand-associated strains. Results obtained indicated the following. (i) Five of these Darmbrand isolates belong to type C, carry beta-toxin (cpb) and enterotoxin (cpe) genes on large plasmids, and express both beta-toxin and enterotoxin. The other two isolates are cpe-negative type A. (ii) All seven isolates produce highly heat-resistant spores with D(100) values (the time that a culture must be kept at 100°C to reduce its viability by 90%) of 7 to 40 min. (iii) All of the isolates surveyed produce the same variant small acid-soluble protein 4 (Ssp4) made by type A food poisoning isolates with a chromosomal cpe gene that also produce extremely heat-resistant spores. (iv) The Darmbrand isolates share a genetic background with type A chromosomal-cpe-bearing isolates. Finally, it was shown that both the cpe and cpb genes can be mobilized in Darmbrand isolates. These results suggest that C. perfringens type A and C strains that cause human food-borne illness share a spore heat resistance mechanism that likely favors their survival in temperature-abused food. They also suggest possible evolutionary relationships between Darmbrand strains and type A strains carrying a chromosomal cpe gene.
The second of two linked papers examining the interactions of psychiatry and the social sciences since World War II examines the role of NIMH on these disciplines. It analyses the effects of the prominence and the decline of psychoanalysis, and the impact of the psychotropic drugs revolution and the associated rise of biological psychiatry on relations between psychiatry and clinical psychology; and it explores the changing relationships between psychiatry and sociology, from collaboration to conflict to mutual disdain.
Y. Hugh Jo
Full Text Available In response to the emerging cold war, why did the United States stress industrial expansion in Western Europe but focus on primary production alongside policing operations in the non-western world? Examining US postwar occupation in Germany and Korea from a world-systems perspective, this article argues that a given countrys standing in the capitalist economy generally shapes American foreign policy toward that particular country in the early cold war years. A paladin of system-wide prosperity and peace, the United States sought to restore the international division of labor after World War II. Reactions varied across the system, however, because of distinct socio-economic developments. The presence of capital-intensive export-dependent industry afforded western Germany flexible labor-management relations. Politics was overall stable there, and America dispensed with heavy-handed intervention. In southern Korea, labor-exploitive tenancy farming rendered interclass compromise virtually impossible. As intransigent peasants threatened the market economy, the United States used force to keep the ally in the system.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Because smallpox (variola major may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library of Medicine, Embase, Biosis, Cochrane Library, Defense Technical Information Center, WorldCat, and reference lists of included publications. Two authors reviewed selected papers for smallpox outbreaks. Results 51 relevant outbreaks were identified from 1,389 publications. The median for the effective first generation reproduction rate (initial R was 2 (range 0–38. The majority outbreaks were small (less than 5 cases and contained within one generation. Outbreaks with few hospitalized patients had low initial R values (median of 1 and were prolonged if not initially recognized (median of 3 generations; outbreaks with mostly hospitalized patients had higher initial R values (median 12 and were shorter (median of 3 generations. Index cases with an atypical presentation of smallpox were less likely to have been diagnosed with smallpox; outbreaks in which the index case was not correctly diagnosed were larger (median of 27.5 cases and longer (median of 3 generations compared to outbreaks in which the index case was correctly diagnosed (median of 3 cases and 1 generation. Conclusion Patterns of spread during Smallpox outbreaks varied with circumstances, but early detection and implementation of control measures is a most important influence on the magnitude of outbreaks. The majority of outbreaks studied in Europe and North America were controlled within a few generations if detected early.
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p77 This article seeks to analyze the ways in which immigrants experienced Australia in the years following World War II, when the makeup of Australian society changed. In The Voyage of Their Life: The Story of the SS Derna and Its Passengers, Diane Armstrong – a child immigrant to Australia – writes, “Homogenous, conservative and almost entirely Anglo-Saxon in its origin, Australians were about to awake from there illusion of perfection” (274. Focusing on memoir, poetry and short stories, this article analyzes Andra Kins’ memoir Coming and Going: A Family Quest; Serge Liberman’s short stories “Home,” “Greetings, Australia! To You I Have Come,” “The Fortress” and “Two Years in Exile;” Peter Skrzynecki’s The Sparrow Garden; Lily Brett’s poetry; and Susan Varga’s memoir Heddy and Me. Jewish and non-Jewish immigrants from Russia, Poland, Latvia, Hungary and Ukriane struggled with trying to build new lives in a new land in the face of prejudice and “anti-refo” feeling. Measures were introduced to limit severely the number of Jewish refugees allowed to travel to Australia. Despite these obstacles, Australia was transformed. According to Mark Wyman, “Eventually, 182,159 DPs emigrated to Australia, led by 60,000 Poles and 36,000 Balts. Enough of an Eastern European mixture was admitted through Australian gates to constitute a small revolution in the nation’s much-publicized homogeneity. The long tradition of allowing only British stock down under was broken. By 1966 almost one in five Australians was a postwar immigrant or the child of one, and 60 percent of this group had non-British ethnic backgrounds” (191.
Hernigou, Philippe; Pariat, Jacques
The first techniques of operative fracture with plates were developed in the 19th century. In fact, at the beginning these methods consisted of an open reduction of the fracture usually followed by a very unstable fixation. As a consequence, the fracture had to be opened with a real risk of (sometimes lethal) infection, and due to unstable fixation, protection with a cast was often necessary. During the period between World Wars I and II, plates for fracture fixation developed with great variety. It became increasingly recognised that, because a fracture of a long bone normally heals with minimal resorption at the bone ends, this may result in slight shortening and collapse, so a very rigid plate might prevent such collapse. However, as a consequence, delayed healing was observed unless the patient was lucky enough to have the plate break. One way of dealing with this was to use a slotted plate in which the screws could move axially, but the really important advance was recognition of the role of compression. After the first description of compression by Danis with a "coapteur", Bagby and Müller with the AO improved the technique of compression. The classic dynamic compression plates from the 1970s were the key to a very rigid fixation, leading to primary bone healing. Nevertheless, the use of strong plates resulted in delayed union and the osteoporosis, cancellous bone, comminution, and/or pathological bone resulted in some failures due to insufficient stability. Finally, new devices represented by locking plates increased the stability, contributing to the principles of a more biological osteosynthesis while giving enough stability to allow immediate full weight bearing in some patients.
.... The theme of CIDOS-97 is 'Cloud Effects in War Gaming, Modeling and Simulation.' Three days of CIDOS-97 were devoted to oral and poster presentations in seven sessions: (1) Introduction; (2) Program Reviews; (3) Cloud...
Second World War contain few details of South . Africans who served in the Far East. Commander. H.R. Gordon-Cumming's unpublished Official His- tory of the SA Naval Forces in the Second World. War 1939-1945 includes narratives of the two South. African ships which served in the Far East, HMSAS. BARBRAKE.
Church, R. A.; Irion, J. B.; Schroeder, W. W.; Warren, D. J.
In the summer of 2004 researchers from across the United States and Canada partnered together to investigate biological and archaeological questions relating to six World War II era shipwrecks discovered in the Gulf of Mexico. The science team included microbiologists, marine vertebrate and invertebrate zoologists, a molecular biologist, an oceanographer, marine archaeologists, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) technicians, and a professional marine survey crew. The United States Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, and the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration sponsored this multidisciplinary project under the auspices of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. The organizational involvement included six universities, two non-profit organizations, three commercial companies, and three U. S. federal agencies. The depth of the shipwrecks ranged from 87 to 1,964 meters. All six shipwrecks were war casualties, found during the past two decades on oil and gas surveys. These wrecks serve as artificial reefs sunk on well- documented dates, thereby offering biologists a unique opportunity to study the "artificial reef effect" of man- made structures in deep water. Taken together, these sites are an underwater battlefield, and a vital historical resource documenting a little-studied area in a crucial period of world history. They preserve information vital to scholarly and popular understanding of the war's impact in the Gulf of Mexico, on the American home front, and the global conflict. This paper will discuss the field methodology and touch on many of the scientific and technical aspects, and findings of the project.
Keledei, Raymond F
.... Forward deployed Naval forces have consistently been stationed in the world s hotspots and are usually the first on the scene for emergent crises giving credence to the oft quoted line Where are the...
Naval power, as part of a U.S. preventive diplomacy effort, can be flexibly mixed with political, economic, and informational power to intervene early in places of incipient crisis or before mass violence...
competitive U 1 : E x t r e m i s m d i s e m p o w e r e d / p a s s i v e s u p e r e m p o w e r e d...Current Military Needs War Gaming Department Perspectives Connections 2008 Stephen Downes-Martin, Ph.D. Professor, Center for Naval Warfare Studies...policy of the War Gaming Department, the CNWS, the U.S. Naval War College, the U.S. Navy,
Previous literature has found inconsistent effects of tracking students in secondary school on student performance using various ways to alleviate the endogeneity in tracking. Sociological literature argues that the threat for war with and invasion by the French around the 1800s induced European
Previous literature has found inconsistent effects of tracking students in secondary school on student performance using various ways to alleviate the endogeneity in tracking. Sociological literature argues that the threat for war with and invasion by the French around the 1800s induced European
Riesterer, Becky A.
Scholars have determined popular literature often contains propaganda imperatives (Berelson, 1952; Budd, 1967; Davis, 1942). Given the persuasive impact children's literature has upon the reader, children's literature containing propagandistic intent is a powerful force (Desai, 2014). This is especially true during times of war. Several studies…
epidemic of p) neumonia with about 400 cases occurring among 40,000 troops and a 20-percent case mortality. 3 During World War I, the great pandemic of...1,600 cases of l) neumonia occurred. On several occasions, the attack rate exceeded 150 cases per annum per 1,000 average strength. The experience of
Full Text Available The article presents the origins, development and liquidation of the Jewish cooperative movement in Poland after the Second World War. It outlines the socio-political background, which contributed to the creation of a kind of national-cultural autonomy for the Jews, including one of its pillars - the cooperative movement. The functioning of cooperative institutions was analyzed for the structure of the industry, distribution and their number, and the number of workers employed there. I also assessed the role that their own cooperatives played in the reconstruction of post-war life of the Jewish population in Poland, both in the material as well as social and psychological fields, and also in the development of the cooperative movement in general.
experience of the Italian Armed Forces. In the last two centuries, significant origins of wars fought with allies are: 1. Common enemies, as with the Italian...result of the Paris conference in December 1917, significant 4 David Trask, The AEF and Coalition...on 16 December 1917. The formal closure of the Eastern Front, which became effective with the Treaty of Brest -Litovsk on 3 March 1918, freed a
criticism, especially since it protects the unborn from conception regardless of viability, it is clearly founded on the “ eggshell skull” or “defendant...Presence on Hungarian Soil The first question that must be answered concerns the legal basis for the continued stationing of Soviet troops on...Hungarian soil eleven years after the conclusion of World War II. Under the terms of the 1945 Armistice Agreement90 ending the Second World War for
Simon , Jonathan
Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...
Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide
At the end of World War II and during the first decade after the war, roughly 200,000 children were fathered in intimate contacts between German women and foreign soldiers. The experiences of these German occupation children (GOC) have been so far described in case reports and from historical perspective only. Research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as a GOC has been missing so far. This study examined traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization, and depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire. Findings have then been compared with a representative birth cohort-matched sample from the German general population (N = 977). German occupation children showed significantly higher prevalence rates of most traumatic experiences, higher point prevalence rates of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and somatization than the control group. In summary, GOC often grew up under difficult conditions (e.g., poverty, single mothers, and stigmatization). Even decades later, they showed higher rates of different mental disorders and higher comorbidity. These findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their burdened social, financial, and familial conditions. The results underpin the importance of conceptualizing occupation children as a vulnerable group in postconflict settings.
Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital
Several studies have suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is related to adverse health outcomes. There are limited data on PTSD and cancer, which has a long latency period. We investigated the association between World War II (WWII)-related PTSD and subsequent breast cancer (BC) risk among Jewish WWII survivors and examined whether this association was modified by exposure to hunger during WWII. We compared 65 BC patients diagnosed in 2005 through 2010 to 200 population-based controls who were members of various organizations for Jewish WWII survivors in Israel. All participants were born in Europe, lived at least six months under Nazi rule during WWII, and immigrated to Israel after the war. We estimated PTSD using the PTSD Inventory and applied logistic regression models to estimate the association between WWII-related PTSD and BC, adjusting for potential confounders. We observed a linear association between WWII-related PTSD and BC risk. This association remained significant following adjustment for potential confounders, including obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking, age during WWII, hunger exposure during WWII, and total number of traumatic life events (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.14-7.31). However, the level of hunger exposure during WWII modified this effect significantly. These findings suggest an independent association between WWII-related PTSD and subsequent BC risk in Jewish WWII survivors that is modified by hunger, a novel finding. Future research is needed to further explore these findings.
Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Raninger, Simone; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte
Sense of Coherence (SOC) and mindfulness are known protective factors against psychopathology, also in older age. We set out to investigate the influence of SOC and mindfulness on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions in the context of lifetime trauma in elderly persons with a history of childhood war-experiences. Elderly Austrians (N = 97) filled in questionnaires on traumatic lifetime experiences and posttraumatic symptoms (ETI), posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI), SOC (SOC-13) and mindfulness (FFMQ). We expected the influence of SOC scores on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions to be on one hand influenced by mindfulness. On the other hand, we expected that both aspects would uniquely explain fewer posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions. Participants reported various lifetime traumas (M = 2.42), including experiences during World War II (WWII) as children and adolescents. Mindfulness partially mediated the association of SOC scores with posttraumatic cognitions, but not with posttraumatic symptoms. However, in a two-stage mediation model, mindfulness significantly predicted posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. Although SOC was the strongest predictor of posttraumatic symptoms, mindfulness influenced the severity of posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. We discuss implications for mindfulness-based interventions on trauma-related cognitions in the elderly.
Full Text Available During the infamous Nanking Atrocity, some Western businesspersons and missionaries established the Nanking Safety Zone to protect about 250,000 refugees. When the Japanese army was pressing on Nanking, Minnie Vautrin, an educational missionary from the United Christian Missionary Society, took charge of the Ginling College campus. As one of the 25 refugee camps, Ginling provided shelter to about 10,000 women and children in late December 1937—the hardest time during World War II in China. With her neutral identity of American nationality, Vautrin seriously struggled with Japanese soldiers when they were seizing Chinese women for rape from the campus; thus, she helped many women avoid the possible fate of sexual violence and slaughter. The Chinese people promoted her as a “Goddess of Mercy”, in the Chinese language a “Living Buddha” (Huo pu sa or “Guanyin Buddha” (Guan Yin pu sa. The Chinese central government awarded her the Order of Jade (Cai Yu xun zhang. Drawing from Vautrin’s diaries and other original materials, this paper narrates this Christian female missionary’s moving story in humanism, evangelism, and internationalism. Her devotion to the Chinese refugee women and children made her an eyewitness to the Nanking Massacre, a rehabilitator of refugee sufferings, and a mental and bodily victim of disastrous war.
Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Spragins, Wendy
During World War II, nearly all US and Allied troops received yellow fever vaccine. Until May 1942, it was both grown and suspended in human serum. In April 1942, major epidemics of hepatitis occurred in US and Allied troops who had received yellow fever vaccine. A rapid and thorough investigation by the US surgeon general followed, and a directive was issued discontinuing the use of human serum in vaccine production. The large number of cases of hepatitis caused by the administration of this vaccine could have been avoided. Had authorities undertaken a thorough review of the literature, they would have discovered published reports, as early as 1885, of postvaccination epidemics of hepatitis in both men and horses. It would take 4 additional decades of experiments and epidemiological research before viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E were identified, their modes of transmission understood, and their genomes sequenced. PMID:23327242
Thomas, Roger E; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Spragins, Wendy
During World War II, nearly all US and Allied troops received yellow fever vaccine. Until May 1942, it was both grown and suspended in human serum. In April 1942, major epidemics of hepatitis occurred in US and Allied troops who had received yellow fever vaccine. A rapid and thorough investigation by the US surgeon general followed, and a directive was issued discontinuing the use of human serum in vaccine production. The large number of cases of hepatitis caused by the administration of this vaccine could have been avoided. Had authorities undertaken a thorough review of the literature, they would have discovered published reports, as early as 1885, of postvaccination epidemics of hepatitis in both men and horses. It would take 4 additional decades of experiments and epidemiological research before viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E were identified, their modes of transmission understood, and their genomes sequenced.
Ruus, Anders; Green, Norman W; Maage, Amund; Amundsen, Carl Einar; Schøyen, Merete; Skei, Jens
The Sørfjord has a long history of agriculture and industry, and environmental monitoring has been conducted for decades, comprising analyses of contaminants in mussel, fish and sediments. DDT was used as an insecticide in orchards surrounding the fjord between World War II and 1970. Since the early 1990 s, elevated concentrations of DDT were found in mussels and fish. Unexpectedly, DDT-concentrations increased towards present day, despite the discontinuation of use. The highest concentrations in mussels (in 2006) corresponded to about two orders of magnitude higher than background. Analyses of sediment core sections also indicated increased input towards present day. Shifts in climatic parameters, as well as increased amounts of soil dissolved organic carbon following a decline in atmospheric sulphate deposition may have contributed to this phenomenon. We warrant the need for increased knowledge of the effects of alterations in variables acting regionally and globally on the disposition of contaminants in ecosystems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conference on the Trend in Income Inequality in the U.S. Part I, Trends in Inequality of Well-Offness in the United States since World War II. Part 2, Conference Overview: Conceptual Issues, Data Issues, and Policy Implications
Taussig, Michael K.; Danziger, Sheldon
The first part of this document summarizes the current state of knowledge on trends in inequality of economic well-being in the United States since World War II. It surveys alternative answers to the often asked question: Has inequality in the U.S. increased, decreased, or remained roughly the same over a period of time? Intelligent laymen, and…
The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter.
The history of modern pharmaceutical science and technology, from the second half of the 19th century to the end of World War II, is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. The European medical and pharmaceutical science and technology at the end of the 19th century is reviewed. Pharmacology, bacteriology and biochemistry were built in this period. 2. The Meiji Government accepted Western medicine and medical law and regulations in 1883. Consequently, the Japanese physician changed from Eastern (Kanpooi) to Western (Seiyooi). 3. Modern scientific and engineering education had been accepted in America, England, Germany, and France etc. Foreign scientists and engineers (Oyatoi-gai-kokujin) were educated by practice and theory. The Faculty of Engineering was established in the universities in Japan. This fact is one of the differences in the history of universities in Europe and America. 4. Pharmaceutical education in the Meiji period (1873-1911). Twenty-nine schools of pharmacy were built in this period. However, 20 schools of pharmacy had been closed. Pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry was not established in the Meiji era. 5. The profession of pharmacist in 1873-1944. The policy of medicine was changed by the Meiji Government in 1889, when Western physicians were allowed to prepare medicines for patients, and this practice continues today. Political and technological power of Japanese pharmacists was weak, so their role was not estimated. 6. Consequences of world War I, and the establishment of the pharmaceutical industry. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) were won fortunately. The first pharmaceutical company was established in 1885. At this times, many pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, which were converted from whole sale merchants, were built. Then started the manufacturing of commercial drugs. 7. Hygienic chemistry and some problems of public hygiene. The causes of diseses unique to Japan, such as
Objective During the two decades following Japan's World War II surrender in 1945, tremendous improvement in the population's health was observed, particularly in infant mortality and life expectancy. How did Japanese rural dwellers achieve such remarkable health improvement during this relatively short time span while its economy remained heavily damaged following the war? While the efforts from government-driven public health strategies and programs are well known, relatively little is known about the contributions of policies in non-health sectors. Therefore, the main aim is to verify, using literature based sources, whether non-health sectors contributed to the betterment of the population's health in addition to the public health sector policies.Hypotheses Synergistic efforts of diverse interventions from different policies and programs likely catalyzed the drastic health improvement observed in the Japanese population in the two decades after World War II. The Ministry of Health and Welfare, for example, implemented programs to provide health care services. These are thought to have contributed directly to reducing maternal and child mortality, as well as tuberculosis-related mortality. Additionally, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry carried out a nationwide livelihood improvement program to enhance individual and family lifestyles, improve indoor and outdoor environments, and strengthen social solidarity. The ministry also attempted to generate income stability for farmers through an agricultural improvement program to ensure allocation of household income to family health. The Ministry of Education also had an initiative to disseminate the concepts of democracy and rational thought to the Japanese population through a social education program. Through these efforts, superstition and pre-modern customs were reduced, and subsequently health awareness increased, leading to an improvement in the population's health.Conclusion The public health
Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E.; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul
In 1945-46, representatives of the United States government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the U.S., influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the U.S. played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes. PMID:24534743
The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages
Lehner, William D
This thesis conducts an extensive literature review of prior studies on the three major commissioning programs for United States naval officers the United States Naval Academy, Naval Reserve Officers...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Used for astrometry and astronomical imaging, the Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a distributed aperture optical telescope. It is operated...
Full Text Available From the navigation of 1940 the rate of traffic on Volga as well as throughout the country was slowing down. Transportations in the 1930s were carried out in hard conditions. While freight and passenger traffic increased annually, propelled fleet declined. Fleet replenishment, as well as its decline mainly occurred due to redistribution of old vessels between shipping companies but not due to the building of new ships. Besides, during the pre-war period the USSR had the acute problem of providing the river transport with professionals. The main difficulty lies in the inability to supply fleet, routes and coastal enterprises with qualified personnel that during the 1930s was not numerous. The situation with unskilled labor force was no better. It was complicated by the huge turnover and disproportionate distribution of workers between shipping companies and within them. The importance of training qualified specialists for working in ports and marines was underestimated. Low rate of technical reconstruction due to insufficient investments reduced the efficiency of water transport enterprises. The Lower Volga river fleet and the shore facilities were not sufficiently developed. All these difficulties had influence on the rate of cargo and passenger transportation.
ALTIC, NICK A
In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ship’s air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.
Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel
Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...
.... Naval forward presence in the Asia-Pacific region. With the shift of defense focus from the European to the Asia-Pacific region, and the current "War on Terrorism," the problem of finding more secure bases for U.S...
defeat the Allied forces, and Admiral Henning von Holtzendorff presented a paper calling for renewed, unrestricted attacks on British commercial...by the defensive posture of the Royal Navy. He noted that the navy had drawn tremendous resources during the war, but had not contributed decisively...Under these propositions, Britain and France chose a defensive posture at the beginning of the war, including a British naval blockade to restrict
School,, (IPS-.531071O1)p 1W7. 3* Conhri Aceofthecna taraW 8to ncoen 0 mnkionai goostrophic adibxamat with. f1 itt 1 oh1 maduate School, (BPS-531h77041...Nor h Holand , 1977. 267 p. MorAn techniques of 3.A. - dynamic programming (Ch. 141) IN Naval operations analysis, 2nd ed. Naval lust. Press, 1977, p
Lee, Jeewon; Kwak, Young-Sook; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Eun-Ji; Park, E Jin; Shin, Yunmi; Lee, Bun-Hee; Lee, So Hee; Jung, Hee Yeon; Lee, Inseon; Hwang, Jung Im; Kim, Dongsik; Lee, Soyoung Irene
“Comfort women” refers to young women and girls who were forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese military during World War II. They were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule, mostly from Korea, and the rest from China, Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Netherlands, etc. “Comfort women” endured extreme trauma involving rape, sexual torture, physical abuse, starvation, threats of death, and witnessed many others being tortured and killed. This article reviews all the studies that have investigated the psychiatric or psychosocial sequelae of the survivors of the Japanese military sexual slavery. Most importantly, a recent study which conducted a psychiatric evaluation on the former “comfort women” currently alive in South Korea is introduced. The participants’ unmarried rate was relatively high and their total fertility rate was relatively low. Majority of the participants reported having no education and being the low economic status. They showed high current and lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic disorder, major depressive disorder, somatic symptom disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and alcohol use disorder. Participants showed high suicidality and majority of the participants still reported being ashamed of being former “comfort women” after all these years. This article high-lights the fact that the trauma has affected the mental health and social functioning of former “comfort women” throughout their lives, and even to the present day. PMID:29669407
Full Text Available This paper outlines the changes in the organisation of the Catholic Church in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia after World War II. A detailed analysis of the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the Rijeka Diocese, Archdiocese and Metropolitan Archdiocese, ecclesiastical union of the Istrian region in Croatia, the abolition of the Zadar Metropolitan Archdiocese, the raising of the Split-Makarska Diocese to an Archdiocese, and the establishment of the Split Metropolitan Archdiocese. The principles upon which the Church reorganisation in the spatial sense are considered, and presents new insights, particularly for the Croatian dimension. The second part of the paper gives a comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, with other countries. Examples were selected based on compatibility of different factors, with consideration to the historical context of events and their causes. To that aim, specific examples of the church administration in France and Italy are given. Using these examples and documents of church archives and official records and documents of the Catholic Church, this paper gives a final overview of the possibilities for the reorganisation of the church administration on the Croatian Adriatic coast.
Full Text Available This paper outlines the changes in the organisation of the Catholic Church in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia after World War II. A detailed analysis of the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the Rijeka Diocese, Archdiocese and Metropolitan Archdiocese, ecclesiastical union of the Istrian region in Croatia, the abolition of the Zadar Metropolitan Archdiocese, the raising of the Split-Makarska Diocese to an Archdiocese, and the establishment of the Split Metropolitan Archdiocese. The principles upon which the Church reorganisation in the spatial sense are considered, and presents new insights, particularly for the Croatian dimension. The second part of the paper gives a comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, with other countries. Examples were selected based on compatibility of different factors, with consideration to the historical context of events and their causes. To that aim, specific examples of the church administration in France and Italy are given. Using these examples and documents of church archives and official records and documents of the Catholic Church, this paper gives a final overview of the possibilities for the reorganisation of the church administration on the Croatian Adriatic coast.
Aschim, Elin L; Grotmol, Tom; Tretli, Steinar; Haugen, Trine B
Since registration started in the 1950s, the incidence of testicular cancer (TC) in the Western world has increased, which is also the case in Norway. Men born in Norway during World War II (WWII), however, have a lower TC incidence than men born in the years before or after WWII. Increased fetal exposure to estrogen during the first trimester of pregnancy has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of TC later in life. Increased maternal weight is associated with higher insulin levels, leading to lower sex hormone-binding globulin levels and thereby increased levels of bioavailable estrogens for transplacental transfer from mother to fetus. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine whether there was an association between maternal weight and the incidence of TC among those who were born in a time period where the nutritional conditions changed, i.e., around the time of WWII. We compared data for a random sample of women giving birth in Oslo, Norway, in the years 1931 to 1955 with the TC incidence among men born in the whole country in the same time period. Maternal weight at delivery was used as a proxy for first-trimester weight. We found a correlation (Spearman's rho = 1.00, p utero conditions. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
During World War II, black women migrated largely out of the South to take advantage of the growing defense industries in California. Black women flocked to the shipbuilding industry in Richmond for the great economic opportunities industrial jobs offered. What they found when they arrived and attempted to secure jobs in the shipyards hardly lived up to their dreams and expectations. Black women found themselves faced with dual discrimination due to their race and gender. The shortage of a...
田中, 里尚; 中村, 仁; 梅原, 宏司; 齋木, 吉隆; 古賀, 令子
The purpose of this research collect and arrange documents and historical materials to determine how pop culture influenced the fashion in Japan after World War II. In 2010, we firstly collected previous fashion and popular culture studies done in foreign countries. We found many intriguing studies, but we came upon one which was particularly noteworthy. As a means of clarifying the relationship between fashion and pop culture, we collected books written by Angela McRobbie. Second, we collect...
Full Text Available The reason for the opening of the Dardanel Front was to establish a link between allies and Russia and to push The Ottoman Empire out of the war. In order to reach this cause, upon Churchill’s suggestion, the English War Commitee met on 28 January 1915 and decided to attack the Dardanels on February 19. The allies fleet tried to pass the Dardanels several times but they failed. Their biggest attack for the Straits took place on 18 March, which was failed and the fleet lost one third of its power. After the failure on the sea to pass the Straits the allies landed on Gallipoli to invade İstanbul. Landing took place from April 1 to December 22 the wars on lands lasted more than 8 months, during which Turkish army fought heroic battles. Fierce battles took place on Kabatepe, Seddülbahir, Alçıtepe, Kilitbahir, Anafartalar, Arıburnu. Upon failure on the land the allies started to withdraw from this front on 8 January 1915. The Dardanels wars which was lost by the allies caused the First World War to continue two more years. Tsarist regime was collapsed in Russia and its place Bolshevik regime came. The Turks put aside bad results of the Balkan Wars and became again a heroic nation. Because of his successes Mustafa Kemal became a genious commander. Most importantly Dardanels wars gave its honours to the Turkish army
As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...
Mattheisen, Donald J.
Discusses the television series "Victory at Sea" and "The World at War" and their use in teaching about World War II. Contrasts that war's glorious portrayal in "Victory at Sea" with the more ambiguous presentation of "The World at War." Suggests that students can learn a great deal about war and film itself…
Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate
Butler, James M; Pace, Phillip E; Powers, John P
.... Topics include featured project, Menneken Award Winner, naval research, naval research facilities, naval research laboratories, technology transfer, conferences, faculty news, student research...
Smart limbed vehicles for naval applications. Part II. Relevant technologies and performance evaluation. Interim report on research work on smart vehicle concepts for military use on the ocean surface
Weisberg, A.; Wood, L.
Research work in smart, unmanned water-traversing limbed vehicles for naval warfare applications is reported. The areas covered include prime movers, power transformers and actuators, structural considerations, physical control, joint servo-control, motion control, visual data and the ocean surface, smartness, and vehicle characterization. (TFD)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NATF specializes in Aerodynamics testing of scaled and fullsized Naval models, research into flow physics found on US Navy planes and ships, aerosol testing and...
Hannoun, Antoine B; Nassar, Anwar H; Usta, Ihab M; Zreik, Tony G; Abu Musa, Antoine A
To study the effect of a short period of war on the menstrual cycles of exposed women. Six months after a 16-day war, women in exposed villages aged 15-45 years were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to their menstrual history at the beginning, 3 months after, and 6 months after the war. A control group, not exposed to war, was also interviewed. The data collected were analyzed to estimate the effect of war on three groups of women: those who stayed in the war zone for 3-16 days (Group A), those who were displaced within 2 days to safer areas (Group B), and women not exposed to war or displacement (Group C-control). More than 35% of women in Group A and 10.5% in Group B had menstrual aberrations 3 months after the cessation of the war. These percentages were significantly different from each other and from that in Group C (2.6%). Six months after the war most women regained their regular menstrual cycles with the exception of 18.6% in Group A. We found a short period of war, acting like an acute stressful condition, resulted in menstrual abnormalities in 10-35% of women and is probably related to the duration of exposure to war. This might last beyond the war time and for more than one or two cycles. In most women the irregular cycles reversed without any medical intervention. II.
Friends (Tomodachi) to the prefecture of Miyagi and did not go into the prefecture of Fukushima. Wataru Iwata, the man behind 'Project 47', which unites the victims of nuclear disaster, is not afraid to talk of 'war'. According to him, 'the situation in Japan is looking more and more like one of war: the television, press, and Internet media are being urged to implement a voluntary gag order'; or, in other words, to curb their language and suppress their revolt. The disinformation is also provoking sentiments of war among some citizens, according to Tatsuru Uchida, professor emeritus of philosophy in Kobe, who evokes 'the anger of [major newspaper] readers who see it as a repeat of what happened during World War II'. Then there is the daily newspaper Asahi Shimbun, for which covering the Fukushima accident is like covering a war since the only information available is provided by a single antagonist, namely TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power Company - Tokyo denryoku kabushiki kaisha). Moreover, perhaps we can talk of the 'war,' or at least defiance, of citizens against all types of authority, a war that is crystallizing new forms of confrontation. For essayist Sakaiya Taiici, 3.11 marks 'Japan's third defeat', after 1868 and 1945, thus implying that a war has indeed taken place
This paper depicts the foundations of the early postwar Argentine naval memories of the Anglo-Argentine Malvinas/Falklands War. During the tenth anniversary of the sinking of the Belgrano Cruiser (May 2nd 1982, the greatest Argentine disaster is tied to two events in Argentine politics in which the Navy was involved. Such an articulation deploys the national bases underlying the memories of this international war.
Full Text Available Although it is known for a long time, hybrid war taken place in Ukraine under the umbrella of Russian Federation surprised the whole world and produced the greatest worry for humankind’s fate since the World War II. The political and military analysts appreciate if the World War III does not come will at least follow a long time of a new cold war. Remembering the hybrid war is not declared, can be prolonged in time and the adversary is unknown, thus neither the aggressor state, it is hard to settle which are the countermeasures and how should be act when this clever adversary attacks you using hostile propaganda, to the limit of trick and war perfidy (the first is allowed as method of war, the latter is not, influences the political decision-makers by blackmail, military, economic and energetic deterrence or nuclear bombardments and undergoes subversive, clandestine actions and particularly it is hard to predict their consequences.
operation were to take Turkey out of the war, open a direct link with the Entente’s embattled ally in Russia, force the Germans to shift troops from the...ing craft, while four combat craft (two tor- pedo craft and two light patrol craft) were captured in Port of Adabia. 5. Hartmut Zehrer, ed., Der...mission as a whole is accomplished. At the operational level, the intent is an expression of the commander’s operational vision. It provides a link
Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier....... Many of the German advisors to the Chinese Army had been through the war in the trenches and took the tactics they had honed there with them to Shanghai. This resulted in near-impregnable Chinese defenses in and around the city, and it also manifested itself in the introduction of shock tactics...
connections and related wealth—some billion dollars—of Aya - tollah Ali-Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani’s family offer a good example.39 Hashemi-Rafsanjani was born to...increasing interest in foreign affairs. Ayatollah Ali-Akbar Meshkini-Qomi is the speaker of the Assembly of Experts, and his deputy is Aya - tollah Ali...Utilizing firsthand accounts from diaries and let- ters, and writing in a graceful style, he humanizes the stories of the lesser char- acters of those
month (thirty-four)� Elinor Mills, “Microsoft Plugs Critical Holes in Huge Patch Tuesday ,” CNET�com, 8 July 2010� 78� L� Elaine Halchin...Defence or the government of Canada� The author would like to thank Donald Spearin and Noelle Morris for their assistance in the preparation of
original Star Trek series), you get 196 hits. Singer notes that “science fiction [sci-fi] is more than just popular; it is also incredibly influential...million Roomba robotic vacuums have been sold), in research ( NASA flies several Global Hawks), and in everyday life (ATMs, security robots, and
Indeed, he was quite skeptical about the explosion of ethics courses being offered in business, dental , and medical schools throughout the land. As...and electronic warfare. As a result, the PLA is in a position to impose a high-risk calculus on opposing forces in the western Pacific in times of...overvalued yuan (the PRC currency) in either the PRC’s strategic calculus or the economy of the Unit- ed States, it has become a focal point of U.S
Hokkaido islands), the Tsushima Strait, and the Soya Strait (between Sakhalin and Hokkaido). Beyond the archi- pelago, the Luzon (Bashi) Strait between...attack left Taranto to take cover in the ports of Naples and La Spezia. It was a re- treat. After five months of illusionary superior- ity, the Italian
competitors as Vietnam, the Philippines, or Malaysia , should Beijing attempt again to acquire territory as it did in 1974, 1988, and 1995. A similar...people, to gain their full consensus and support. In terms of healthy civilian con- trol, the introduction of a new system or ship of such significance...the JMSDF. 14. When the JFY 1988 budget was passed by the Diet , a captain responsible for plans, policy, and programs within the JMSDF said (the
NBR Analysis (Seattle, Wash.: National Bureau of Asian Research, June 2002); Scobell and Wortzel, eds., China’s Growing Military Power; and Alan D...flat rubber deck—the “carpet”—along which the land- ing aircraft was to skid. Tests with modified gliders dropped onto such a surface showed that a...ill conceived, and so scotched, a scheme by X Corps to employ a unit of the 1st Marine Division for a rubber -raft crossing of the Han River to seize
presenta- tions on Midway as to what Fuchida’s likely motivations were for his actions. This has led to considerable ruminating , and not a little...in- formation while dismissing data from other credible sources? The authors contend that his misjudgment resulted from two cognitive errors: he
not relinquish control, and a military dictatorship ensues. The brief and well written “Coup” attracted immediate attention from a wide variety of...through a typical African childhood on the veldt, one accompanies Mandela on his journey of political awakening in the South Africa of the 1940s and
attention must be paid to the law that governs these activities—to borrow a sports analogy, a team that takes the field without knowing the rules is...coordinated [malicious] cyber operations” (Tallinn Manual, p� 257)� To borrow a sports analogy, a team that takes the field without knowing the rules...Security,” Sofia, 1–3 November 2005; proceedings available at eaei�files�wordpress�com/2008/01/ black-sea�pdf� 3� “Bulgaria Tourism Statistics for
until fall 2014, when the report and raw data will be released publicly� 4� Remarks to the Surface Navy Association, 15 January 2014, YouTube video...panied by depressions move eastward across the northwestern Mediterranean. Southerly and southwesterly gales bring low clouds, drizzle or continuous
the Licensing State (X.3). Writing in the beginning of the 1970s, Professor Szasz noted that the hesita- tion of the United States to ratify the...see too UNCC, Well Blowout Control Claim (1996), 36 ILM (1997), 1289 at para 85. 37. Szasz , in 85 ASIL Proceedings (1991), 219; Momtaz, 37 AFDI (1991...1991), 401–2; Szasz , in 85 ASIL Proceedings (1991), 216; Witteler, op. cit., 239. 140. If the opening of valves and the setting alight of oil wells is
an increasingly active drug traf ficking hub; the growing drug trade, in turn, is giving inter- national criminal syndicates a foothold within... syndicates are gaining a foothold among what are already some of the world’s most fragile states.72 This statement is as true of South Africa in...In the eighteenth century, columnist Richard Steele said, “Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.” • One of America’s greatest
sage?,” vanderbilt Journal of Transnational law 42, no. 4 (october 2009), p. 1153. 94. david Curtis Wright, “the Panda bear readies to Meet the...United states. to obtain permission to reproduce material bearing a copyright notice, or to reproduce any material for commercial pur- poses, contact...the editor for each use. Material not bearing a copyright notice may be freely reproduced for academic or other noncommercial use; however, it is
this highly sensitive issue in the open Chinese literature. Of particular interest is Professor Yoshihara’s identification of possible Chinese...that going on here in a variety of areas. We have faculty experts in both the teaching and research ranks, as you can see from the lineup of articles in...11, 2010 8:49:03 AM Color profile: Disabled Composite Default screen identification problem by displaying a target’s silhouette, a physical image
re- sponse to the 11 March triple disaster, the dock landing ship Uss Tortuga (lsd 46) got under way from sasebo, embarked over ninety sdf vehicles...and around three hundred sdf personnel, and carried them to northern Honshu, where Tortuga served as a forward service base afloat for helicopter
you a new idea, and in that context it is interesting to think for a moment about the name of this beautiful , small town on the Narragansett Bay. It is...at everyone’s fingertips • Exploding Internet with bloggers , hackers, and chat rooms • Cell-phone cameras and recorders, making everyone a “reporter...simply The Road, and it is notable in every sense, most particularly for the heartbreaking beauty of its poetic language and as well for the utterly
Lexington. Yorktown received one bomb hit, but Lexington was struck by two tor- pedoes and two bombs.223 Lexington was heavily damaged and unsalvageable...sixty-nine aircraft (twelve fighters, twenty-seven dive-bombers, and thirty tor- pedo bombers) and 1,074 men; the Allies lost sixty-six aircraft and
recover ever heavier and faster aircraft. We will also link these issues. When we began this study, we thought that those linkages would stand out once...even larger carrier aircraft were required, and so the bureau officially asked Grumman to develop a twin-engine tor- pedo bomber for use from carriers.20...could not provide cylinder liners, cylinder link forgings, or the sealing strip (to keep the propelling gas from leak- ing through the slot) quickly
Service at Klang; it is available from Malaysian Vessel Traffic Service statistics posted on the Malaysian Marine Department website, www.marine.gov.my...to levy taxes.28 This is not at all the case. The Convention does not provide for or authorize taxation of individuals 1 2 2 N A V A L W A R C O L L E
Secretary Sylvester to have coffee with CNO and be briefed in Flag Plot. Captain Kidd said, “Flag Plot ok, but not IP.” THE NIGHT OF 23–24 OCTOBER: WHAT...profes- sionals, politically suspect individuals, and—always, always—Jews. Impressed with pseudoscience and apparently obsessed with sanguinary
hammers, $600 toilet seats, and $7,622 coffee brewers emerged and outraged the public as well as members of Congress. In light of the outcomes of...toward an obsession with student happi- ness rather than educational results. The idea that the faculty should teach and the students should learn...Academics, for their part, have no understanding of the military obsession with hierarchy and procedure—also a point Wiarda mentions. Yet in this too
Churchill� The National Review thought it “really stupefying” that the liberal government appeared obsessed with “the Disarmament craze,” and it poured...Submarines and Underwater Warfare is focused on modern submarines and undersea warfare� However, this is not the case� Instead, it is a small coffee -table
31 Catherine Zara Raymond Whatever the flaws of the efforts of littoral states to...collapse of the local fishing industry as well as that of a functioning Somali state during the 1990s. Catherine Zara Raymond, in “Piracy and Armed...Problem Solved? Catherine Zara Raymond The Malacca Strait is a narrow waterway that extends nearly six hundred nau-tical miles from the Andaman Sea to
for two overarching reasons. First, a loosening of ties to both society and state was occurring, symbolized by the rise of a moral relativism in which...a time when the fortunes of the West’s own honour culture are at a low ebb.”15 MORAL PHILOSOPHY FOR MILITARY PROFESSIONALS: THE CASE FOR REVIVING...five apparently coura- geous, but in reality morally unworthy, comrades.118 LIFE IS BEING A SOLDIER In contemporary Western culture , the teachings of
This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare as a profou......This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare...
in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...
Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Pajnič, Irena Zupanič; Walsh, Susan; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Kayser, Manfred
Retrieving information about externally visible characteristics from DNA can provide investigative leads to find unknown perpetrators, and can also help in disaster victim and other missing person identification cases. Aiming for the application to both types of forensic casework, we previously developed and forensically validated the HIrisPlex test system enabling parallel DNA prediction of eye and hair colour. Although a recent proof-of-principle study demonstrated the general suitability of the HIrisPlex system for successfully analysing DNA from bones and teeth of various storage times and conditions, practical case applications to human remains are scarce. In this study, we applied the HIrisPlex system to 49 DNA samples obtained from bones or teeth of World War II victims excavated at six sites, mostly mass graves, in Slovenia. PCR-based DNA quantification ranged from 4pg/μl to 313pg/μl and on an average was 41pg/μl across all samples. All 49 samples generated complete HIrisPlex profiles with the exception of one MC1R DNA marker (N29insA) missing in 83.7% of the samples. In 44 of the 49 samples (89.8%) complete 15-loci autosomal STR (plus amelogenin) profiles were obtained. Of 5 pairs of skeletal remains for which STR profiling suggested an origin in the same individuals, respectively, 4 showed the same HIrisPlex profiles and predicted eye and hair colours, respectively, while discrepancies in one pair (sample 26 and 43) are likely to be explained by DNA quantity and quality issues observed in sample 43. Sample 43 had the lowest DNA concentration of only 4pg/μl, producing least reliable STR results and could be misleading in concluding that samples 43 and 26 originate from the same individual. The HIrisPlex-predicted eye and hair colours from two skeletal samples, suggested to derive from two brothers via STR profiling together with a living sister, were confirmed by the living sister's report. Overall, we demonstrate that after more than 70 years, HIris
Ohmi, Kenichi; Marui, Eiji
To estimate the excess death associated with influenza pandemics and epidemics in Japan after World War II, and to reexamine the relationship between the excess death and the vaccination system in Japan. Using the Japanese national vital statistics data for 1952-2009, we specified months with influenza epidemics, monthly mortality rates and the seasonal index for 1952-74 and for 1975-2009. Then we calculated excess deaths of each month from the observed number of deaths and the 95% range of expected deaths. Lastly we calculated age-adjusted excess death rates using the 1985 model population of Japan. The total number of excess deaths for 1952-2009 was 687,279 (95% range, 384,149-970,468), 12,058 (95% range, 6,739-17,026) per year. The total number of excess deaths in 6 pandemic years of 1957-58, 58-59, 1968-69, 69-70, 77-78 and 78-79, was 95,904, while that in 51 'non-pandemic' years was 591,376, 6.17 fold larger than pandemic years. The average number of excess deaths for pandemic years was 23,976, nearly equal to that for 'non-pandemic' years, 23,655. At the beginning of pandemics, 1957-58, 1968-69, 1969-70, the proportion of those aged pandemic' years. In the 1970s and 1980s, when the vaccination program for schoolchildren was mandatory in Japan on the basis of the "Fukumi thesis", age-adjusted average excess mortality rates were relatively low, with an average of 6.17 per hundred thousand. In the 1990s, when group vaccination was discontinued, age-adjusted excess mortality rose up to 9.42, only to drop again to 2.04 when influenza vaccination was made available to the elderly in the 2000s, suggesting that the vaccination of Japanese children prevented excess deaths from influenza pandemics and epidemics. Moreover, in the age group under 65, average excess mortality rates were low in the 1970s and 1980s rather than in the 2000s, which shows that the "Social Defensive" schoolchildren vaccination program in the 1970s and 1980s was more effective than the
European nations would be involved 25 though the lineup was obscure. Three members of the class of 1927, Commanders R. E. Ingersoll, R. A. Spruance...operations and attack on and defense of trade in the western Pacific. Another sequential problem studied by the Senior Class included a series of exer...1-4. Effective use of the publication required a syste- matic, sequential consideration of each phase of the de- cision making process
Full Text Available I investigated the effect of government demand on firms’ innovation activities comparing the German and American synthetic rubber industries before, during and after World War II. I obtained three main results. 1. Because of the low price of natural rubber, price and sales guarantees were needed to motivate firms to produce the synthetic rubber BUNA S. 2. Facing fixed prices I.G. Farben improved their efficiency more than the American firms working under cost plus contracts. 3. The patent sharing agreement of the American synthetic rubber program caused firms to hold back advanced synthetic rubber inventions.
Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...
During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...
Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.
Hills seemed especially urgent. An economic depression hit the country in 1873 followed by the discovery of gold in the Black Hills the next year...University of Oklahoma Press, 1994). 84 Endnotes 1. John S. Gray, “ Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876,” (n.p.: The Old Army Press, 1976) p. 211
Burkle, Frederick M; Kushner, Adam L; Giannou, Christos; Paterson, Mary A; Wren, Sherry M; Burnham, Gilbert
ABSTRACTNo discipline has been impacted more by war and armed conflict than health care has. Health systems and health care providers are often the first victims, suffering increasingly heinous acts that cripple the essential health delivery and public health infrastructure necessary for the protection of civilian and military victims of the state at war. This commentary argues that current instructional opportunities to prepare health care providers fall short in both content and preparation, especially in those operational skill sets necessary to manage multiple challenges, threats, and violations under international humanitarian law and to perform triage management in a resource-poor medical setting. Utilizing a historical framework, the commentary addresses the transformation of the education and training of humanitarian health professionals from the Cold War to today followed by recommendations for the future. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 14).
Full Text Available This article is the result of research of the museum's collection of postcards on the theme of the First World War, which was carried out in connection with the centenary since the war began. At the present stage of the evolution of historical science a special role belongs to the documentary sources that had previously been "less required", including illustrated postcards. At the beginning of the 20th century postcards know peak of their evolution. Being very popular, mobile and accessible, during the war they fulﬁlled several functions. In addition to performing the functions of postal items, they become an accessible form of propaganda and a source of supplementing military budget.
Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 3. Wars from 1805 through 1900. Part 1. Wars of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.
defend the approaches to Lisbon. Wellington could field fewer than 50,000 men. Massena overcame the twin fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo and Almeida on the...NAPOILENC WARS: THE PHEINSLJIAR WAR, 1809-1814 Vittoria, 21 June 1813 Having spent the winter of 1812-1813 at Ciudad Rodrigo, near the Spanish- LO_...Great Britain. In a show of strength~ a camined Pruuco-Dritish naval squadron *:~ d montated at Alexmiria (Maky 1882). However, anti-airopean agitation
not manipulated to be in favor of any system based on the assumption that stock positioned closer to demand would result in more favorable delivery...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ANALYSIS OF NAVAL AMMUNITION STOCK POSITIONING...professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF NAVAL AMMUNITION STOCK POSITIONING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) David Sharp and Eric
Hills, California LEE D. HIEB, Yuma, Arizona MICHAEL R. HILLIARD, Oak Ridge National Laboratory ERWIN F. HIRSCH, Boston Medical Center DAVID B... Gaffney II, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 (as of May 29, 1998) iv Marine Corps Liaison Representative LtGen John E. Rhodes, USMC...Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He is also currently the deputy project manager for the Airlift De- ployment Analysis System Project, a major effort
Impact of the Highly Improbable (New York: Random House, 2007), 199. 2 Carl Sagan , Cosmos (New York: Random House, 1980), 48-71. Sagan artfully...what makes war. Carl Von Clausewitz cuts to the heart of the matter, famously calling war “an act of force to compel an enemy to do our will.”8 The force...they offer as partial proof the work of Carl Barksdale, a 2002 Naval War College graduate who analyzed the Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979-1989), the
Engerman, David C
This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.
Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William
National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.
reconnaissance mission was complete, the film was processed by a photo lab and then interpreted for intelligence value. Photo interpretation typically...The stark contrast in philosophies amongst the different Tenth Air Force leadership teams significantly influenced the organizational design of...regarding post-war interests of the French and British prevented the sharing of intelligence amongst allies.102 The political sensitivity associated
This paper analyzes the distribution of the Subsidiary Fund for Scientific Research, a predecessor to the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI), which operated in Japan from the 1930s to 1950s. It reveals that the Japanese government maintained this wide-ranging promotion system since its establishment during the war until well into the postwar period. Previous studies insist that, at the end of the war, the Japanese government generally only funded the research that it considered immediately and practically useful. In contrast to this general perception, my analysis illustrates that both before and after the war, funding was allotted to four research areas: natural science, engineering, agriculture, and medicine. In order to illuminate this continuity, I compare the Subsidiary Fund with another research fund existing from 1933 to 1947: the Grant of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). The comparison demonstrates that the JSPS received externally raised capital from the military and munitions companies. However, while this group focused upon engineering and military-related research as the war dragged on, the Subsidiary Fund has consistently entrusted scientists with the authority to decide the allocation of financial support.
www.bbc.co.uk/cgi-bin/history/renderplain.pl?file=history/war/wwtwo/spying/sis_0/> [27 March 2003]. 37 Ibid. 38 “Operation Overlord,” Saving Private Ryan Online...Security, (Washington, DC: 2002), 17; National Strategy for Combating Terrorism. Washington, DC: 2003. “Operation Overlord,” Saving Private Ryan Online
Clark, General Wesley; Mann, Michael
Michael Mann documents the increasing substitution of war for diplomacy by US policy elites. In part, the substitution has come about because of ideological change but also because the "Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex" maintains a high level of military spending due to the fact that most congressional districts receive some form of military expenditure from bases to munitions production. General Wesley Clark considers foreign policy under the Bush administration. He argues ...
Treball final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs academic 2015-2016 A currency war (also known as the competitive depreciation or a policy of impoverish the neighbor) occurs when a country wants to obtain a competitive advantage which improve its trade balancethrough a series of changes in its currency. With these currency movements exports become cheaper for foreigners while imports become more expensive for residents in the own nation. These advantages produce strong...
Brenda J. Flinn
On May 12, 1942, at Christopher coal mine No. 3 in Osage, West Virginia, a continent away from the frontlines of World War II, Superintendent Ed O'Neil saw the mine ventilation fan suddenly run backwards, propelled by a strong gust of air that tore the belt off the huge blower. The second shift mantrip of 115 coal miners, traversing the drift mouth for the 3:00 p.m. shift, ground to an uneasy halt. The article recounts the tragic consequences of this incident. It also tells of other events affecting coal miners during World War I and World War II.
There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008).These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ pre...
Introduction War is Cinema and Cinema is War - Paul Virilo World War II: Film and History Why is a war film made? The need to communicate and...Poland in Why We Fight; and racially profiling Japanese in Disney’s Victory through Air Power could be forgiven, considering the justified angst...from the perspective of international target audience can be better appreciated by studying the Indian cinema industry, which is popularly known as
Satzberg, S.; Field, S.; Abu-Ali, M.
Recent advances in fuel cell technology have occurred which make fuel cells increasingly attractive for electric power generation on future naval and commercial aircraft applications. These advances include significant increases in power density, the development of compact fuel reformers, and cost reductions due to commercialization efforts. The Navy's interest in aircraft fuel cells stems from their high energy efficiency (up to 40-60% for simple cycle; 60-70% for combined gas turbine/fuel cell hybrid cycles), and their negligible NOx and hydrocarbon emissions compared to conventional generators. While the U.S. Navy has been involved with fuel cell research and development as early as the 1960s, many of the early programs were for special warfare or undersea applications. In 1997, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) initiated a program to marinize commercial fuel cell technology for future Navy shipboard applications. The power density of fuel cell power systems is approaching the levels necessary for serious consideration for aircraft suitability. ONR and Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) are initiating a program to develop a fuel cell power system suitable for future Navy aircraft applications, utilizing as much commercially-available technology as possible. (author)
Full Text Available Naval Base as part of Integrated Fleet Weapon System has an important role in maintaining the strategic environment in the region of Indonesia. Naval Base with a strategic location will support Indonesian Navy’s main duty to carry out the administrative and logistical support. Due to the limitation of Naval Base’s condition, feasibility study will be required to relocate the Naval Base. In this feasibility study, a combination of methods between SWOT analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is used. The results of the Internal Factors Evaluation (IFE Matrix Analysis is 4.72 and External Factors Evaluation (EFE Matrix Analysis is 2.91. In general, the balance of power between the IFE Matrix and EFE Matrix is located in Quadrants I and thus, the Aggressive Strategy is supported. While the Matrix Analysis’ result of Internal - External (IE showed that the score of IFE and EFE located in Quadrant II and VII.
The popularity of adolescent fantasy movies about cosmic war and the enjoyment of military adventures that we find in World War II movies suggest the unique importance of war-themed culture in fostering solidarity in large, complex, and factionalized societies. War movies offset the power of sub-cultural movements by emphasizing the togetherness…
Mayall, Berry; Morrow, Virginia
Using a rich collection of archives, school histories, photographs and memoirs, this book charts and discusses the contributions English children made to the war effort during World War II. As men and women were increasingly called up for war work, as the country needed to grow as much food as possible, and as the war effort required ever…
This paper is the script for a slide presentation about photographer David Douglas Duncan and his view of war. It is intended to be used with slides made from pictures Duncan took during World War II, the Korean War, and the war in Viet Nam and published in various books and periodicals. It discusses a shift in emphasis to be seen both in the…
International discussions of transboundary pollution, which have not been able to find a way to effect the agreed-upon principle that no nation should have to suffer another nation's pollution, parallel the smog wars across state boundaries. The states, however, can blame the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as each other because of relaxed and unevenly applied standards. Several EPA decisions are cited to illustrate tensions between states and the alienation of the environmental lobby. Of particular concern are the application of smog and ozone standards in rural areas and the effect of offset policy on industrial development.
At the end of World War II Europe was divided by two ideological super powers. President Truman had hoped that newly conquered Eastern Europe would hold free elections and determine their own course of government...
Trimble, Virginia L.
World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.
Planeta , 1983. Coil, Alberto R. and Arend, Anthony C. The Falklands War. Lessons for Strategy, Diplomacy and International Law. Boston-London-Sidney...Horacio. No vencidos. Relato de las operaciones navales en el conflicto del Atlantico Sur. Buenos Aires: Planeta , 1998. Middlebrook, Martin. The fight
Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…
Dobbins, James; Poole, Michele A; Long, Austin; Runkle, Benjamin
.... The authors start with a review of the post World War II occupations of Germany and Japan. The end of the Cold War brought a second spate of such missions -- in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, and Kosovo...
Black, Helen K
This article emerged from pilot research exploring experiences of war and suffering among African American veterans who served in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Men's experiences as soldiers reflected both racism and the social change that occurred in the Unites States while they served. We used techniques of narrative elicitation, conducting qualitative, ethnographic interviews with each of five veterans in his home. Interviews focused on unique and shared experiences as an African American man and a soldier. Three important themes emerged: (a) Expectations related to War--Although men viewed service to country as an expected part of life, they also expected equal treatment in war, which did not occur; (b) Suffering as an African American--Informants interpreted experiences of suffering in war as related to the lower status of African American servicemen; and (c) Perception of present identity--Each man was honed by the sum of his experiences, including those of combat, racism, and postwar opportunities and obstacles. From 40 to 70 years after the wars were fought, there are few scholarly narrative studies on African American veterans, despite the fact that Korean War Veterans are entering old-old age and few World War II Veterans are alive. The value of pilot research that offers narratives of unheard voices is significant; larger studies can interview more African American veterans to advance knowledge that might soon be lost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
.... This report provides the results of the audit of 19 projects, valued at $288.9 million, for the realignment of the Naval Air Technical Training Center from Naval Air Station Memphis, Tennessee, to Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida...
The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...
Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; colonial wars in V.; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various...... culture wars – hippies against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland and Inherent Vice; and the war on terror in Bleeding Edge. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only political or military but also social...... and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order; from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic missiles of the cold war, the irregular engagements of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and the digitalized fall-out of cyber-warfare....
NPS Research contains articles on the Naval Postgraduate School, naval research, academic source network, information operations planning, joint task forces, planning and analysis laboratory at NPS...
same outcome with the promise of using overwhelming force similar to a strategy of annihilation employed during the Second World War ...the Passage of the 1973 War Powers Resolution Approved by: ______ ____________________________, Monograph Director Robert T. Davis II, PhD...Why does the United States not wage war as it did during World War II? Understanding the authorities granted to the branches of the US government is
Wiesinger, Christine; Frewer, Andreas
Psychiatrists and medical historians Werner Leibbrand (1896 - 1974) and Annemarie Wettley (1913 - 1996) are amongst the most striking figures in the field of history of medicine. Leibbrand was appointed director of the "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" in Erlangen shortly after the war. Fuelled by his own experiences of suppression and persecution during the Nazi era he promised to unearth the crimes and atrocities which had happened under watch of the Nazi regime. He was joined by Annemarie Wettley, who worked as a physician at the hospital and had developed an increasing interest in the history of medicine. In 1946 they published "Um die Menschenrechte der Geisteskranken" ("Human Rights of the Mentally Ill") about the "euthanasia" campaign of the Nazi regime. Although a number of substantial works followed, Leibbrand and Wettley failed to inform in more depth on crimes and atrocities, for instance killings of patients and forced malnutrition. Doubts and charges against Wettley regarding her role in dietary programmes at the Erlangen hospital and against Leibbrand regarding special expert's reports--both had a short-term arrest warrant--might have contributed to stagnation in their efforts. In 1953 Leibbrand accepted the offer of a chair at the University in Munich, Wettley followed and habilitated in history of medicine; in the year 1962 they married. Contacts and exchange amongst medico-historical experts shed light on developments during the post-war era; still, a critical and fundamental review of the crimes within the medical system of the Nazi regime did not take place during this time.
the strategic planning program for action. The pros and cons of the current NMR&D organization structure, management support funding, and officer...Distribution List D-4 Naval Medical Research and Development Strategic Plan March 2008 SWE Naval Surface Warfare Enterprise SWOT Strengths
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval pension. 3.803 Section 3.803 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.803 Naval pension. (a) Payment of...
During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming
Davis, Curtiss O.; Kappus, Mary E.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Bissett, W. Paul; Snyder, William A.
A wide variety of applications of imaging spectrometry have been demonstrated using data from aircraft systems. Based on this experience the Navy is pursuing the Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technology (HRST) Program to use hyperspectral imagery to characterize the littoral environment, for scientific and environmental studies and to meet Naval needs. To obtain the required space based hyperspectral imagery the Navy has joined in a partnership with industry to build and fly the Naval EarthMap Observer (NEMO). The NEMO spacecraft has the Coastal Ocean Imaging Spectrometer (COIS) a hyperspectral imager with adequate spectral and spatial resolution and a high signal-to- noise ratio to provide long term monitoring and real-time characterization of the coastal environment. It includes on- board processing for rapid data analysis and data compression, a large volume recorder, and high speed downlink to handle the required large volumes of data. This paper describes the algorithms for processing the COIS data to provide at-launch ocean data products and the research and modeling that are planned to use COIS data to advance our understanding of the dynamics of the coastal ocean.
SCIENCE TECHNICAL REPORTS AND NOTES (cont’d) McCoy, E E, Carey, B J Desirable properties of a network taxonomy Naval Postgraduate School, (NPS-52-80-007...Postgraduate School, (NPS-53-81-002), Mar., 1981. Franker R H; ]ay achandran, T A slu-y o’fth properties of a new goodness-of-fit test Sponsored by Foundation...of the Psycometric Soc. Mcftaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Aug., i§76. Weitzman 111 A Test bias: one of those partial correlations is the
van Bergen, L
Georg Friedrich Nicolai was a German professor and heart specialist who was one of the few who protested against the war at the beginning of World War I. As a result, he lost his job and was convicted. After the war, right-wing nationalist students and lack of support from his university superiors made it impossible for him to teach. He left Germany in 1922, never to return. In his book, Die Biologie des Krieges (The Biology of War), which was published in neutral Switzerland in 1917, he contradicted the social Darwinist idea - supported by many physicians as well - that war strengthened humanity, people and races, physically and mentally. On the contrary, he argued, war is biologically counterproductive.
ESAC NA- 1- 11 II -OFFICE O NAVA LB RESEARC 1 O FIC OF NAV LARSRCH7~ 81 C iS8 ................ NAVAL RESEARCH LOGISTICS QUARTERLY EDITORIAL BOARD...of’ opcration of’ a replacenment are instantaneous. It is also assumed that replacements are Mau .eied v at th 111e cost arid marketed at thle same...continued-fraction expansion otther% ise. [hle procedure is part of’ a package of c~oni- p)Uter programs entitled ’IThe JMSI. I ibrar\\" %%hich is marketed h
A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository
Denton, Gary R.W.; Emborski, Carmen A.; Habana, Nathan C.; Starmer, John A.
Highlights: • Heavy metals were examined in sediments from the southern half of Saipan Lagoon. • This area is chronically impacted by stormwater discharges all along the coast. • Generally, the study identified moderate metal enrichment that attenuated seawards. • Mercury distributions within the lagoon also seemed to reflect past WWII activities. • Additional Pb, Cu and Zn inputs at the S end of the lagoon came from an old dumpsite. - Abstract: Heavy metals were examined in sediments from the southern half of Saipan Lagoon. These waters provided tactical access for US troops during WWII and were heavily shelled at the time. Mercury profiles in sediments were, to some extent, reflective of this event. Samples from the southern end of the lagoon, where an old post-war dumpsite once existed, were found to be substantially enriched with Pb, Cu and Zn. Further north, the lagoon was primarily impacted by urban runoff. Metal enrichment in sediments from this region was generally highest at storm drain outlets and attenuated seawards. Moderate enrichment was rarely exceeded for any element other than Hg beyond the 50 m mark. Sediment quality guidelines used to flag potentially adverse ecological health effects revealed no PEL exceedances. TEL exceedances for Pb and Cu were identified in sediments near the former dumpsite. The public health implications of the data are briefly addressed
Banking Act and the introduction of protectionism. The Union was also more successful in both the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus and the use of its...Americans could "’turn with fresh interests to our own tyrannies-to our Colorado mines. our autocratic steel industries, our sweatshops . and our slums...conservation programs and the introduction of hybrid seeds, added another 14 percent, and more scientific disease control and better feeding, breeding
... Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia. 334.300 Section 334.300 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.300 Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted...
Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.
This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki
in World War * 14 II. American forces were psychologically ill-prepared to fight a jungle war against highly motivated, indigenous Communist forces... atar - : a by/ necessity a realistic consequLence cf that ob 1,ecz~e The- ’::nm- tainment" objective spawned a political polt- wh-c :ra’-e dilemma
This article categorizes the American historical scholarship on the Cold War into five, perhaps six, clusters. After discussing these clusters, it argues that in spite of paradigmatic differences, there are also areas of agreement in the literature. For one thing, it is clear that before the end of World War II, and therefore before the ...
Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war
Univ. of Texas - Arlington. 1983. Evered, R The Falklands War: Intercultural and transcultural issues Int. Soc. of Political Psychol. Conf., Oxford Univ...OF NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS (cont’d) Valenta, J Empire strikes back: Falkland Islands crisis Atlantic Allies and Discord...H; Darius R G Responding to crisis in Southwest Asia: the RDJTF and its alternatives IN R. H. Magnus and J. W. Amos: Regional reaction to the RDJTF
Full Text Available The Regulations on laws and customs of land warfare of 1907 that existed during World War I did not protect war prisoners. The tragic experience forced us to return tothe problem of protection of the rights of the victims of war. The Geneva Convention on the war prisoners of 1929 was the first document of international law in which the status of war prisoners was determined in detail. The Soviet Union did not join the states which had signed the Convention, and during the World War II it was guided by its national legislation confirmed by the Soviet Government on July 1, 1941. On the whole, the items of the Regulations on War Prisoners adopted in 1941 corresponded to the Geneva Convention. But non-recognition of the international convention provided the heads of fascist Germany with the reason for inhuman treatment of the Soviet captives. Serious consequences of war compelled the world community to pay the closest attention to the issues of military captivity again. On August 12, 1949 in Geneva the Soviet Union joined the new Convention on prisoners.
EIA-6B Electronics Warfare Officer (EWO) will complete their training in FY2015 and FY2017, respectively, with the last Fl A-18D and El A-6B squadrons...Capability (IOC) of the F-4 Phantom, A-6 Intruder, and the OV -10 Bronco introduced the requirement for Naval Flight Officers and Aerial Observers (AO...Officer (ECMO) to target Surface to Air Radars during the Vietnam War and was subsequently replaced by the four-seat E/A-6B. The OV-10 Bronco , roc in
Nicholas W. Mitiukov
On the basis of previously published author’s works about biographies of individual ships, considered Russian-Spanish ship’s exchange as an aspect of naval cooperation between Russia and Spain. There is offer a periodization of this process. The first period (1810-1820-s.) associated with the sale for the Spanish fleet the Russian Baltic Fleet at the end of the Napoleonic wars, that reasons were on the needing to regain the Spanish colonies in Latin America. On two parties there were purchase...
War history as a modern historic discipline is by far no longer a mere history of arms technique or a chronicle of battles. It deals with the change of warfare, shows how the wars of the various ages had determined society, and vice versay investigates the influence of social, economic, and -concerning mentality-historical changes on war. With this survey, which covers the period between the Middle Ages and the recent past, the author has presented a small masterpiece of the history of war. A book like this is particularly important and instructive in a time when all depends on the preventing of wars. (orig.) [de
Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.
We provide empirical evidence on two, major war-related, regularities of U.S. fiscal policy. First, while during and around World War I there is a positive correlation between defense spending and civil non-defense spending, this correlation becomes negative during World War II. This may be
Hickey, Christopher M
... and Japan in World War II. A major problem for Joint Force commanders and their staffs is that the speed of the campaign in this "New American Way of War" challenges their ability to adequately plan for both the decisive war...
The Virtual Naval Hospital (VNH) is a digital medical library administered over the Internet by the Electronic Differential Multimedia Laboratory, University of Iowa College of Medicine in collaboration with the U.S...
Stouffer, Dean; Wilson, Daryl
The purpose of this MBA project is to assist the Naval Postgraduate School's Public Works department to assimilate into a Demand Response program that will not only benefit the school but also the community...
Greathouse, Carlus A
This thesis describes a web-based continuous learning module (CLM) for use in introducing members of the Department of the Navy s acquisition community to software reuse in the context of Naval Open Architecture...
The objective of this study is to review relevant theories and research pertaining to the fundamental mental representations that are common to humans in general and, in particular, to naval operations...
Villalonga, Francisco J
This thesis addresses the problem of optimal evacuation of a naval ship. We propose the use of a dynamic escape-route system which employs a signaling system to adapt the emergency egress process to the instigating contingency...
Magdalena El Ghamari
Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".
Cabrey, Richard M
Although the threat to today's U.S. national interests is a form of terrorism being waged by Radical Islam, there are distinct similarities to the threat of communism that was posed after World War II...
Sep 28, 2013 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2013 .... Diaspora groups based in the United States to intervene in the war. Ulti- .... take security sector reform as required by the Abuja II Peace Accord.
Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Zeilinger, Elisabeth L
Wartime rape is an atrocity with long-lasting impacts not only on victims but whole societies. In this brief report, we present data on experience and witness of sexual violence during World War II (WWII) and subsequent time of occupation and on indicators of mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians. Interviews of 298 elderly Austrians from a larger epidemiological study on WWII traumatization were analyzed for the impact of experience and witness of sexual violence during the wartime committed by occupational forces. Interviews comprised a biographical/historical section and psychological measures (BSI, TLEQ, PCL-C). Participants were recruited in all nine provinces of Austria with respect to former zones of occupation (Western Allied/Soviet). Twelve persons reported direct experience of sexual violence, 33 persons witnessed such atrocities. One third of the victims and 18.2% of the witnesses reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD full/subthreshold). Sexual violence occurred more often in the former Soviet zone. Victims and witnesses displayed higher odds of post-traumatic symptoms and symptoms of depression and phobic fear than non-victims. Furthermore, witnesses displayed higher levels of aggression compared to victims and non-witnesses. Our results corroborate previous findings that wartime rape has long-lasting effects over decades on current mental health and post-traumatic distress in victims and witnesses. We recommend integration of psychotraumatological knowledge on consequences of sexual violence on mental health into geriatric care and the education of dedicated personnel.
Dilemas da cooperação: conflitos gerados pela política das "Listas Negras" no Brasil durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial Dilemmas of cooperation: the conflicts provoked by the policy of "Black Lists" in Brazil during World War II
Full Text Available No artigo são analisados os conflitos políticos gerados pela implementação das "Listas Negras" norte-americanas entre órgãos estatais e interesses privados no Brasil durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.The article analyses the political conflicts caused by the implementation of American Black Lists between State agencies and private interests in Brazil during World War II.
Camping Magazine, 1999
Camps continued to operate during World War II, but young male counselors, food, and supplies were difficult to obtain. An illustrative article from 1943, "Meal Planning for Summer Camps in Wartime" (Agnes B. Peterson), presents a guide to planning nutritious meals for campers despite shortages caused by wartime rationing, increased food…
This report summarizes work conducted at the U.S. Navy's Naval Base Norfolk, Naval Air Station (NAS) located at Sewells Point in Norfolk, Virginia, under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. This project w...
5 Table 1. Aircraft Combat Radius from World War II (WWII) Through 1990s6 Period Airframe Distance WW2 F6F 400nm TBF 400nm SB2C...override the computers, take control, and guide his two bombs to target by infrared video imagery. Otherwise, our auto piloted computer was programmed
This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....
Between 12th July and 2nd August 1988, Greenpeace took sediment samples from around four Royal Navy bases in the United Kingdom. Faslane, where nuclear powered submarines are berthed; Devonport and Rosyth where refit work is carried out and Portsmouth where US and UK nuclear submarines often visit. Samples were also taken from the US Navy base at Holy Loch, Scotland, where nuclear powered ballistic missile submarines are based. The samples were analysed at St Bartholomew Hospital Medical School, London. Identical samples were provided to the MoD personnel at Faslane and Devonport on the date taken. The purpose of carrying out the sampling programme was to highlight the fact that publicly available statistics from Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food (MAFF) are too limited in range, concentrating as they do merely on radioactive levels found between tides. The findings point to the necessity of monitoring subtidal as well as intertidal areas since levels of radioactivity found in the samples at Faslane and Holy Loch were four to nine times the figures published by MAFF. Until such time as nuclear power is no longer used at sea, it is the contention of Greenpeace that a more independent and comprehensive picture of the nature of radioactive contamination from around UK naval establishments must be obtained, than that presently available from MAFF. (author)
During the next decade the two major nuclear powers will each have to decommission more than 100 naval nuclear vessels, in particular submarines. The problems connected with this task is considered in this report. Firstly the size of the task is considered, i.e. the number of nuclear vessels that has to be decommissioned. Secondly the reactors of these vessels, their fuel elements, their power level, the number of reactors per vessel and the amount of radioactivity to be handled are discussed. Thirdly the decommissioning procedures, i.e. The removal of fuel from the vessels, the temporary storage of the reactor fuel near the base, and the cleaning and disposal of the reactor and the primary circuit components are reviewed. Finally alternative uses of the newer submarines are briefly considered. It should be emphasizes that much of the detailed information on which this report is based, may be of dubious nature, and that may to some extent affect the validity of the conclusions of the report. (au)
Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger
This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....
Bas, Muhammet Ali; Coe, A. J.
The authors present a model of the relationship between the spread of new military technologies and the occurrence of war. A new technology could shift the balance of power, causing anticipatory war as one side tries to prevent the other from obtaining it. When one side already has it, war is more likely when the shift in power is large, likely, and durable. When neither side has it, war is more likely when the expected shift is asymmetric (e.g., one side is more likely to get it) and when th...
Musser, William G.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...
Head, J.L.; Lowther, C.A.; Marsh, J.R.W.
The paper describes some of the nuclear training facilities at the Royal Naval College and the way the facilities are used in the training of personnel for the Naval nuclear propulsion programme. (author)
Looney, Robert E; Schrady, David A; Brown, Ronald L
In preparing for the 1997 quadrennial defense review, U.S. Navy leaders asked the Naval Postgraduate School to study the economic benefits of forward-engaged naval forces and communicate them to policy makers and the public...
Full Text Available La obra de Jacques Tardi ha recurrido con frecuencia a la Historia como marco de referencia para sus relatos. En su último álbum, el autor francés aprovecha las vivencias personales de su propio padre y, a partir de los testimonios escritos que éste dejó, ahonda de manera minuciosa y documentada en la experiencia de miles de soldados y oficiales franceses en los campos de prisioneros de la Alemania nazi entre 1940 y 1945. Pero, más allá de la representación detallada de este periodo tan poco tratado por la historiografía oficial francesa, Tardi hace gala de un extraordinario dominio del lenguaje del cómic y utiliza de manera magistral muchos de los recursos narrativos pertenecientes a este medio de expresión. Además, la manera en la que el autor trata la conflictiva y problemática relación con su progenitor otorga una dimensión especial a su última obra.Jacques Tardi has frequently used history as a point of reference for his stories. In his last work, the French author incorporates his own father’s personal memories, and, from the written testimonials he left behind, Tardi, painstakingly, documents the experiences of hundreds of thousands of French soldiers and officers who were held captive in Nazi prisoner of war camps between 1940 and 1945. Furthermore, in Tardi’s detailed representation of this period, which has received little coverage in official French history, he demonstrates an extraordinary mastery of the language of comics, and uses many of the narrative techniques specific to this medium. In addition, the way in which the author writes about the conflictive and problematic relationship he has with his father gives a special dimension to Tardi’s final work.
Andersen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
At the Technical University of Denmark naval architecture has been taught for students of Master of Science in more than 100 years. This teaching has of course seen many changes as has the science. During the last 20 years the university has used a modular system of courses where students can quite...... freely select their courses. In the paper this system is briefly outlined and the teaching of naval achitecture and offshore engineering within this system described. In contrast to many other universities ship design is taught for students relatively early in their study. This course and the advantages...... and disadvantages of it will be discussed. Finally, a few reflections on teaching naval architecture in the future will be made, including subjects likedecision support and reliability....
After 44 years of operation, the Naval Weapons Evaluation Facility (NWEF) at Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico closed its doors in April. According to the Navy's open-quotes History of the Naval Weapons Evaluation Facility, Albuquerque, 1948-1993,close quotes it was open-quotes the first nuclear-weapons-related facility in the Free World to be shut down.close quotes This article briefly relates the history of NWEF. Over the years, NWEF helped develop procedures for certifying 21 U.S. naval aircraft and helicopter types as nuclear-capable, integrating nuclear missiles into ships and submarines, and developing nuclear weapons transportation and storage safety rules. The relationship between NWEF and China Lake, California is described. The indirect role played by NWEF in the bombing of Hiroshima is briefly discussed
... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a naval base. 700.1054 Section 700.1054 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1054 Command of a naval base. The officer detailed to command a naval base...
EVSEEVA G. P.
Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Despite the attempts of historians to objectively present the events of the prehistory and history of the war, the opening of new archives and the desire to get rid of ideological stereotypes, are driving the need to once again explore the role of Ukraine in world war II to prevent its recurrence. On the other hand, the deep understanding of the history of the previous generations will provide an opportunity to properly understand the events of today. The analysis of the research. During the years of independence in the national historiography it was a new understanding of the conceptual foundations of the study of war. Over the past decade it was written a large number of scientific studies in which the main direction of new concepts there was an increased attention to the person, separate social groups and society as a whole in situations of conflict and crises. The article aims to analyze the role and place of Ukraine in the events of the Second world war; identify "Ukrainian dimension" of war and its implications for the modern generation, especially the youth. Conclusion. The effects of war for decades identified the complex and contradictory political, economic and social processes in Ukrainian society, affected the moral and psychological qualities of post-war generations. The memory of war – spiritual-historical heritage of our nation, which lays the foundations for self-sufficiency and identity and integrates it seamlessly into a civilizational flow. The modern level of researches of the events of world war II pays special attention to humanitarian problems of the war. For the youth of Ukraine it is important to join the European perception of the war as tragedy, to understand the responsibility for the memory of the past, because it's a chance for the future.
Karl Marx trumpeted in the nineteenth century and that contributed to the ruthless and mur- derous civil wars characterizing so much of the blood...occurs, in 431 bC, greece is teetering on the brink of a long-awaited war between athens and sparta. the thebans decide to capitalize on that fact to
Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...
.... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...
Becker, Patti Clayton
Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)
Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W
... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...
unified and cohesive as to allow its negotiators to act without extensive consensus building and persuasion among their own side—certain elements will...UNDERSTANDING WHEN MEDIATORS COMMIT RESOURCES TO CIVIL WAR NEGOTIATIONS by Michael D. Caplan December 2015 Thesis Advisor: T. Camber Warren Second Reader... NEGOTIATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael D. Caplan 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA
II . C. WORLD WAR II Pope Pius XII, in an address to the United Nations in 1952, said “The enormous violence of modern warfare means that...to the global community, Pope John Paul II cited “conscience of humanity and international humanity law” and claimed that nations and the...Unclassified 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassified 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UL ii
This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...
Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.
Tester, Rodrick A
Based on numerous high level concerns that the cyber threat is expected to increase, as well as the already documented uses of cyber warfare, it is necessary to ensure our naval ships are hardened against such attacks...
Orcutt, John A.; Brink, Kenneth
The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council reviewed the changing role of basic ocean science research in the Navy at a recent board meeting. The OSB was joined by Gerald Cann, assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development, and acquisition; Geoffrey Chesbrough, oceanographer of the Navy; Arthur Bisson, deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for antisubmarine warfare; Robert Winokur, technical director of the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy; Bruce Robinson, director of the new science directorate at the Office of Naval Research (ONR); and Paul Gaffney, commanding officer of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The past 2-3 years have brought great changes to the Navy's mission with the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and challenges presented by conflicts in newly independent states and developing nations. The new mission was recently enunciated in a white paper, “From the Sea: A New Direction for the Naval Service,” which is signed by the secretary of the Navy, the chief of naval operations, and the commandant of the Marine Corps. It departs from previous plans by proposing a heavier emphasis on amphibious operations and makes few statements about the traditional Navy mission of sea-lane control.
strengthening programs for the entire crew. Aerobic programs for select populations (e.g., overweight personnel), however, were found on 20% of the...Institute, Lima Detachment, Peru (Command) 25-26 UCOR R. Kallal, CUP W. J. Lambert, & M. Nave, Naval Data Services Center, Bethesda, Maryland (Dr
João Paulo Alsina Jr.
Full Text Available This article addresses Baron of Rio Branco's grand strategy and the role played by the naval reorganization program (1904-1910 in this context. The ensuing case study determined the domestic and international constraints that affected the program, as well as the worldview of the patron of Brazilian diplomacy regarding military power's instrumentality to foreign policy.
Miranda, Andrew T
To better understand the external factors that influence the performance and decisions of aviators involved in Naval aviation mishaps. Mishaps in complex activities, ranging from aviation to nuclear power operations, are often the result of interactions between multiple components within an organization. The Naval aviation mishap database contains relevant information, both in quantitative statistics and qualitative reports, that permits analysis of such interactions to identify how the working atmosphere influences aviator performance and judgment. Results from 95 severe Naval aviation mishaps that occurred from 2011 through 2016 were analyzed using Bayes' theorem probability formula. Then a content analysis was performed on a subset of relevant mishap reports. Out of the 14 latent factors analyzed, the Bayes' application identified 6 that impacted specific aspects of aviator behavior during mishaps. Technological environment, misperceptions, and mental awareness impacted basic aviation skills. The remaining 3 factors were used to inform a content analysis of the contextual information within mishap reports. Teamwork failures were the result of plan continuation aggravated by diffused responsibility. Resource limitations and risk management deficiencies impacted judgments made by squadron commanders. The application of Bayes' theorem to historical mishap data revealed the role of latent factors within Naval aviation mishaps. Teamwork failures were seen to be considerably damaging to both aviator skill and judgment. Both the methods and findings have direct application for organizations interested in understanding the relationships between external factors and human error. It presents real-world evidence to promote effective safety decisions.
Brian B. Crisher
Full Text Available Does an increase in naval power increase the likelihood of interstate disputes? While volumes have been written on the importance of naval power, we are left with little more than intuition and anecdotal evidence to provide potential answers to this question. Endogeneity issues in particular make it difficult to untangle the links between developing naval power and interstate conflict. Here I present a new instrument for naval power. Utilizing a new dataset of naval power and employing an instrumental variable analysis, I present one of the first large cross-national studies showing a significant link between naval power and a specific type of interstate conflict - non-contiguous disputes. The findings have implications for the future actions of states whose naval strength is growing.
Roč. 16, č. 60 (2015), s. 91-106 ISSN 1586-4197 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : World War I * World War II * Central Europe * Czechoslovakia * National Relations Subject RIV: AB - History
This volume brings together a group of interdisciplinary experts who demonstrate that Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes is a text of continuing relevance and value for exploring ancient, contemporary and comparative issues of war and its attendant trauma. The volume features contributions from...... an international cast of experts, as well as a conversation with a retired U.S. Army Lt. Col., giving her perspectives on the blending of reality and fiction in Aeschylus’ war tragedies and on the potential of Greek tragedy to speak to contemporary veterans. This book is a fascinating resource for anyone...... interested in Aeschylus, Greek tragedy and its reception, and war literature....
Brennan, Matthew Philip
The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...
Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...... included within humanity. Conversely, focusing on how these techniques are being questioned within the work, I will discuss the resistance potential of what I will refer to as practices of subjectivization. Eventually, I will seek to position the “war-critical” strategy of the work within a broader context...... of the late modern war paradigm....
For a long time, World War I has been shortchanged by the historiography of science. Until recently, World War II was usually considered as the defining event for the formation of the modern relationship between science and society. In this context, the effects of the First World War, by contrast, were often limited to the massive deaths of promising young scientists. By focusing on a few key places (Paris, Cambridge, Rome, Chicago, and others), the present book gathers studies representing a broad spectrum of positions adopted by mathematicians about the conflict, from militant pacifism to military, scientific, or ideological mobilization. The use of mathematics for war is thoroughly examined. This book suggests a new vision of the long-term influence of World War I on mathematics and mathematicians. Continuities and discontinuities in the structure and organization of the mathematical sciences are discussed, as well as their images in various milieux. Topics of research and the values with which they were d...
Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R
Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.
be Japanese and be served by a Japanese waiter . In addition, the universities required students to watch Japanese movies for enter- tainment. Finally...China; another was a radio commentator. One student managed a nightclub, and another was an orches- tra leader. Others chosen included a ship fi...and 79 military POWs.160 Although eff orts by U.S. troops to persuade the Japanese to surrender were mostly futile, Cary did manage to persuade one
Where data exist, measures of average happiness in industrialized countries typically show little or no upward trend over time, despite substantial growth in real per capita incomes. This paper examines the existing Canadian data to see if they support this generalization. The Canadian data have some overall positive trend. Some simple regressions…
www.docstoc.com/docs/445063/when-is-a-cyberconflict-an-armed-conflict). 5 See discussion infra part II.B. 6 See D. Jean Veta & Rochelle E . Rubin...Kisor NO PORT IN A STORM – A REVIEW OF RECENT HISTORY AND LEGAL CONCEPTS RESULTING IN THE EXTINCTION OF PORTS OF REFUGE 65 Lieutenant Lena E ...goods purchased prior to the outbreak of hostilities was swept away in wartime. As “[ e ]very individual of the one nation must acknowledge every
Handler, B.H. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Hunnum, W.H. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Smith, D.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (USA))
Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.
The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War'' is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details of the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.
Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein
This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....
countries, African decision makers nonetheless began to reconsider the role and place of military ..... challenged the war—ﬁghting paradigm for armed forces or the 2003 Gulf ..... Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Evans ...
Reflects upon two attributes common to children from many countries who have known nothing but war--the absence of revenge and the belief in God. Considers how they differ from the older generation in these respects. (CMG)
Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.
Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...
Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional
for individual‟s remains equally true for groups and nations.ŗ Abraham H. Maslow did groundbreaking work on a hierarchy of needs; he identified five...Penguin Press, 1991), 48. 3 Ibid, 49. 4 Abraham H. Maslow , Motivation and Personality, Second Edition. (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 35-58. 5... Maslow , Needs, and War by Lieutenant Colonel John P. Baker United States Air Force United States Army War College
Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær
The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....
Union officer become Supreme Court Justice, spoke of the Civil War’s psychic effect on those who had fought. Determined to act greatly, Holmes and his...than psychic and hardiy limited to those who, like himself, had served in the Union armies. Institutions as well as individuals had emerged from the war...to match unemployed workers with vacant jobs. 39 If by the close of 1918, the government reacted to possible strikes with threatened removal of a
: Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary......In this article I primarily analyse observational war documentaries in order to deal with how this particular form of documentary contribute to our understanding of how it is to be at war as a soldier or as a civilian in a war zone. I analyse two very different observational war documentaries...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...
Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.
Nicholas W. Mitiukov
Full Text Available On the basis of previously published author’s works about biographies of individual ships, considered Russian-Spanish ship’s exchange as an aspect of naval cooperation between Russia and Spain. There is offer a periodization of this process. The first period (1810-1820-s. associated with the sale for the Spanish fleet the Russian Baltic Fleet at the end of the Napoleonic wars, that reasons were on the needing to regain the Spanish colonies in Latin America. On two parties there were purchased five battleships and six frigates. The second period (1904-1917 associated with negotiations for the purchasing for Russian a Spanish warships during the Russian-Japanese war, and the acquisition of five Spanish trawlers in 1915 for the needs of the Arctic Ocean Flotilla. The third period (1936-1939 – mutual capture of merchant vessels and the Soviet aid for Republican Spain, when it was handed over to four torpedo boats G-5-class, two of which at the end of the Civil War were served in the Nationalists Navy.
C. c ) CPi i 0 0 00 0 le C C.C~r In 1]1 In 00 It .- I to C-38 ’U2 WIX ’W~ - m u. -C-LC m4 C v , v ul FA ?w % -D 1 o r cl jc j, II t %c oK W)i Ir of... platform programs, while Program 11 contains 26 sub-programs each having a separate Reserve program sponsor. The distribution of Program 11 resources is...a mix of specific skills required to bring an active Navy oper-Iating platform to organizational manning. Each SRU is tailored to a specific ship
Skinner, Rasjid; Kaplick, Paul M
Post-traumatic stress disorder is an established diagnostic category. In particular, over the past 20 years, there has been an interest in culture as a fundamental factor in post-traumatic stress disorder symptom manifestation. However, only a very limited portion of this literature studies the historical variability of post-traumatic stress within a particular culture. Therefore, this study examines whether stress responses to violence associated with armed conflicts have been a culturally stable reaction in Western troops. We have compared historical records from World War I to those of the Vietnam War. Reference is also made to observations of combat trauma reactions in pre-World War I conflicts, World War II, the Korean War, the Falklands War, and the First Gulf War. The data set consisted of literature that was published during and after these armed conflicts. Accounts of World War I Shell Shock that describe symptom presentation, incidence (both acute and delayed), and prognosis were compared to the observations made of Vietnam War post-traumatic stress disorder victims. Results suggest that the conditions observed in Vietnam veterans were not the same as those which were observed in World War I trauma victims. The paper argues that the concept of post-traumatic stress disorder cannot be stretched to cover the typical battle trauma reactions of World War I. It is suggested that relatively subtle changes in culture, over little more than a generation, have had a profound effect on how mental illness forms, manifests itself, and is effectively treated. We add new evidence to the argument that post-traumatic stress disorder in its current conceptualisation does not adequately account, not only for ethnocultural variation but also for historical variation in stress responses within the same culture.