WorldWideScience

Sample records for war ii material

  1. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  2. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  3. “Experience World War II like never before!” : A systematic content analysis of promotional materials surrounding World War II-themed digital games.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heede, Pieter; Ribbens, Kees; Jeroen, Jansz

    2016-01-01

    Especially since the 1990s, World War II has been one of the most popular historical conflicts to be represented and simulated in digital games (Mobygames, 2016). Yet, in the current body of research about these games, mainly aspects of individual games or game types, such as the World War II-themed

  4. World War II Informational Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…

  5. Pykrete is the frozen composite material of the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kovalev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the war, government of the allies considered the construction of ice structures converted from artificial icebergs into aircraft carriers. The idea to use ice for construction of floating aerodromes, or giant aircraft carriers, was launched by Geoffrey Pyke, and then was developed in a project called «Habbakuk». Aircraft carriers, made of ice, had to work for a long period of time at temperatures of water and air, resulting in rapid destruction of the structure of ordinary ice. The ice in its pure form is unsuitable for any engineering form therefore the experiments on reinforcement of ice were undertaken. New form of ice engineering was based on the type of reinforcement patterns of ice and coating it with an insulating material, which would greatly reduce the influence of melting due to the temperature of the ambient air. After tests with different substances and proportions, it was found that the mixture of ice with wood pulp, amounting to about 14%, gives the best result of reinforcement. Proposed dimensions of «Habbakuk» were 610 m (2000 ft long, 90 m (300 feet in width and a height of 60 m (200 ft. In 1943, on the surface of the lake Patricia a reduced model to test the viability of the project was constructed. Development of improved long-range aviation, the airbase in Iceland and other technological advances contributed to the successful elimination of the threat from submarines, so the project had been suspended. The technology of strong ice structures invented during the World War II time can still have practical applications today.

  6. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  7. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  8. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  9. The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanian, Lee E

    1997-01-01

    During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...

  10. Invisible Infantry: Mexicans in World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Plasencia de la Parra

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the  participation of Mexican  and  Mexican- American troops in the United States army during World War II. Recruiting, discrimination, their  role  in the  armed forces  and their reinsertion into society once the war ended, are examined. Special emphasis is placed  on the  Hispanics  fight for their  civil and political rights that was carried on very actively by many War veterans.

  11. World Wars at Home: U.S. Response to World War II Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on how the United States Post Office reacted to the massive influx of political propaganda, primarily from the Soviet Union, immediately prior to and during World War II. Describes how the Post Office played an active role in stopping and burning some 50 tons of incoming material. (RS)

  12. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II...

  13. Brazilian Participation in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Brazil in War World II): In order to have personnel to perform the jobs of company commanders, it was necessary to...Branco, 136. 18Octavio Costa, Trinta Anos Depois da Volta. O Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Rio de Janeiro: Bibliex, 1976), 30. 46 19McCann...na Segunda Guerra Mundial . Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército Editora, 1976. Dulles, John W. F. Vargas of Brazil: A Political Biography. Austin

  14. The Study about the Influence of the Pop Culture for the Japanese Fashion : The Historical Materials Collection about the Connection of Japanese Fashion and Pop Cultures after World War II

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 里尚; 中村, 仁; 梅原, 宏司; 齋木, 吉隆; 古賀, 令子

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research collect and arrange documents and historical materials to determine how pop culture influenced the fashion in Japan after World War II. In 2010, we firstly collected previous fashion and popular culture studies done in foreign countries. We found many intriguing studies, but we came upon one which was particularly noteworthy. As a means of clarifying the relationship between fashion and pop culture, we collected books written by Angela McRobbie. Second, we collect...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War...

  16. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  17. World war II veterans, social support, and veterans' associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, N; Robbins, I

    2001-05-01

    People use many different coping strategies to deal with their traumatic recollections. Twenty-five British World War II veterans were interviewed regarding the ways they used social support both during the war and in the years afterwards. The findings demonstrate that social support is used in fundamentally different ways. During the war comradeship was particularly important and even fifty years after the war comrades are still a valuable resource for discussing war experiences, and dealing with the emotional content of traumatic recollections. Veterans rely on wives and families to help deal with the more physical and practical elements of coping, but tend not to discuss their traumatic memories with them. The findings show that social support is an important lifelong coping strategy for World War II veterans.

  18. Literature and History--A Focus on the Era of the Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, John; Sandmann, Alexa

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography and suggested teaching activities for units on the Great Depression and World War II. The materials support inquiry into the causes of the Great Depression and World War II and how these events transformed U.S. society. The annotated bibliography includes novels, memoirs, biographies, and political studies. (MJP)

  19. Nursing during World War II: Finnmark County, Northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Immonen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study is part the project “Nursing in Borderland – Finnmark 1939–1950” within nursing history that sheds light on nursing and health care during World War II in Finnmark County, Northern Norway. The study focuses on challenges in nursing care that arose during the war because of war activities in the Barents area. This article focuses on challenges caused by shortage of supplies. The aim of the project is to widen the understanding of development within health care and livi...

  20. End of World War II: Truth and Lie of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Bahdanovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the main events of the last period of the World War II. A special attention is paid to the feat of the Soviet Armed Forces, that defeated the Kwantun Army in August 1945 and precipitated an unconditional capitulation of Japan and brought freedom to the peoples of Asia. The paper also reveals tragic consequences of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The authors emphasize a key role of the Soviet Union in victorious completion of the World War II.

  1. The World War II Homefront: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)

  2. The Rise of Conservatism since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dan T.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)

  3. Decision-Making under Stress: World War II and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides a teaching plan which helps students imaginatively take the roles of leaders in the United States during World War II so that they might more completely understand such difficult decisions as allying with the Soviet Union, relocating Japanese-Americans, and dropping the atomic bomb. Provides a statement of goals and objectives, required…

  4. Propaganda to Mobilize Women for World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Describes government efforts to mobilize U.S. women during World War II. Discusses the need for women's participation and the problems confronted by women who joined the wartime labor force. Describes efforts to increase participation by women in the armed forces. (CFR)

  5. China's Propaganda in the United States during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kuo-jen

    Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…

  6. Propaganda in Warner Brothers World War II Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machowski, James Stanley; Brown, James William

    To examine the role of the animated cartoon in propaganda associated with World War II, 194 of 262 cartoons produced for theatrical release by Warner Brothers, Inc., from 1939 to 1946 were analyzed. Propaganda content was determined by the number and nature of symbols used and the cartoon's "attitudes" toward these symbols. An analysis…

  7. The Netherlands and World War II, Jews and suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, W.C.; Luijkx, R.; van Tubergen, F.; Sher, L.; Vilens, A.

    2009-01-01

    World War II in the Netherlands lasted from May 1940 to May 1945. Suicide numbers peaked in these months, in the first case because of suicide by Jews, and in the second case because of suicide by collaborators with the German occupier. Suicide rates for Jews were higher in 1942 than in 1940 and

  8. Example of human individual identification from World War II gravesite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, Andrzej; Kuś, Marta; Brzeziński, Piotr; Prüffer, Jakub; Piątek, Jarosław; Zielińska, Grażyna; Bykowska, Milena; Jałowińska, Katarzyna; Torgaszev, Anton; Skoryukov, Antoliy; Parafiniuk, Mirosław

    2013-12-10

    This paper presents the procedure elaborated by our team which was applied to the mode of identification of Red Army soldiers who were taken as prisoners by the German Army during World War II and deceased in captivity. In the course of our search the unmarked burial of ten Soviet prisoners of war was found. Historical, anthropological and genetic research conducted by us led to the personal identification of nine of them, including two by means of DNA analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A salute to the nurses of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakiron, M

    1995-11-01

    The nation recently celebrated the 50th anniversary of World War II (WWII) with a renewed interest in Pearl Harbor and D-Day (ie, the day the Allies invaded Europe.) One group of war heroes--all volunteers--received little attention, although they endured bombings, torpedoes, antiaircraft fire, prison, starvation, and death. They were the nurses of WWII. They served all over the world and left a legacy that today's perioperative nurses are committed to preserving. This article was written to honor the nurses of WWII. It relates only a few stories of thousands that could be told.

  10. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy

    2014-01-01

    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  11. World War II: A Chronology. December 1943

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-12-01

    34 35 VI. Central Pacific Theater • . . . . . 49 VII. Southwest Pacific Theater 55 VIII: Political, Economic , Psychological. 79 1 Dec...on IJ+! mpu b;r 10 enenw planes. Kesa11vai attacked a:t ·dawn by eneziw l)laries; ,no dar.iage’ re")qr~.?9.·•. ·~Solomon ls.: Impro’v~ng vJeather...EOLTTJC.(!.L, ECONOMIC , PSYCHOLOGIC.iiL 1943 11 ·8 Yugoslav. Government-in-exile as its representative on Advisory ’Council to Allied Control

  12. Mental health, citizenship, and the memory of World War II in the Netherlands (1945-85).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Harry

    2014-03-01

    After World War II, Dutch psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals articulated ideals of democratic citizenship. Framed in terms of self-development, citizenship took on a broad meaning, not just in terms of political rights and obligations, but also in the context of material, social, psychological and moral conditions that individuals should meet in order to develop themselves and be able to act according to those rights and obligations in a responsible way. In the post-war period of reconstruction (1945-65), as well as between 1965 and 1985, the link between mental health and ideals of citizenship was coloured by the public memory of World War II and the German occupation, albeit in completely different, even opposite ways. The memory of the war, and especially the public consideration of its victims, changed drastically in the mid-1960s, and the mental health sector played a crucial role in bringing this change about. The widespread attention to the mental effects of the war that surfaced in the late 1960s after a period of 20 years of public silence should be seen against the backdrop of the combination of democratization and the emancipation of emotions.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War II...

  14. WORLD WAR II THROUGH THE EYES OF TURKISH NOVELISTS / TÜRK ROMANCISININ GÖZÜYLE II. DÜNYA SAVASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Alev SINAR UĞURLU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available World War II started actually on 1st September1939 with the invasion of Poland by Germany, thenspread to almost the three fourths of the world with thepartaking of the states in the war such as England,France, Russia, Italy, Japan, and ended on 9th August1945 with the atomic bomb dropped by the USA onNagazaki. Due to the importance of its strategic location,Turkey was desired to partake in the war, but theRepublic of Turkey, adopting the principle “Peace athome, peace in the world”, refused to enter the war onthe condition that its territorial integrity would not bethreatened, and managed not to partake in this war byresisting to pressures made. However, although it did notenter the war, Turkey had to put up with great difficultiesduring those years, and there appeared an extremelynegative picture especially economically. Turkish writersregarded World War II as material for literature as theydid any other political and social events affecting thecountry deeply and considered it their duty to hand onthis historical period to next generations. The novelsmentioning World War II dealt with not only the state ofTurkey managing to stay “out of the stage” during thiswar, but also the situations of the states partaking in thewar such as Poland, Yugoslavia, England, France,Germany, Switzerland, Norway, and Russia and thepeople living in these countries.

  15. Suicide among Polish officers during World War II in Oflag II-C Woldenberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabański, Adam; Lester, David

    2013-06-01

    Although scholars have examined the occurrence of suicide in the concentration camps during World War Two, little has appeared on suicide in prisoner-of-war camps. The present note presents an attempt to document the occurrence of suicide in the Oflag II-C Woldenberg camp in what is now Western Poland, and estimates a suicide rate of between 22.4 to 38.4 per 100,000 per year in the roughly 6,600 prisoners.

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Institutionalized World War II Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran

    1994-01-01

    Relatively little is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II (WWII) veterans, despite the significant number of studies on this problem in Vietnam veterans. The authors document the prevalence of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders and investigate the etiological correlates of the syndrome in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans. Sixty-two cognitively intact subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residents in a veterans' long-term care facility, were assessed for past and present psychopathology. A second investigator, blind to patients' psychiatric status, determined the degree of combat exposure and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 23%. Of those veterans with PTSD, 57% experienced chronic symptoms. The lifetime prevalence of other diagnoses was also high, including 3 7% for major depression and 53% for alcohol abuse. There was a strong correlation between the severity of the combat stressor and the development of PTSD. Significant correlations between PTSD and some pre-war variables were also found: more family histories of alcohol abuse, more deaths of close family members in early life, and less likelihood of having held a job for more than 1 year prior to the war. PTSD in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans is a common, serious problem that is often unrecognized. Copyright © 1994 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Soviet and American Airwomen During World War II: A Comparison of Their Formation, Treatment and Dismissal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Beth

    2003-01-01

    .... World War II provides an interesting setting to study women and warfare because the belligerent countries mobilized millions of women for the war effort, both in civilian and military capacities...

  18. International Context during and after World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Protopopov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the international context of the Soviet Union and today's Russia during and after the World War II. Relations between the allies (the USSR, the US and the UK shortly after the end of World War II «gave a crack». Particular attention is paid to the development of the American nuclear program in an international context and objectives of the nuclear bombing of Japan, the expansion of NATO. The author concludes that the problem of military and economic development in the post-war period were largely dictated by the difficult international situation at that time. The Soviet Union was forced not only to establish a peaceful life, but also to take steps to create its own nuclear weapons and their means of delivery, strengthening the country's defense. After the troubled times of the second half of the 1980s and 1990s, in the XXI century Russia again began to strengthen its international position. The author proves the need for a consistent foreign policy.

  19. The Effect of World War II on Women in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anne M.

    The field of engineering has been one of the most difficult for women to enter. Even with an increase in the proportion of women in the engineering workforce from 0.3% before the 1970s to 9.5% in 1999, women are still seriously underrepresented. This article examines the history of women in engineering in the United States during World War II. Women were actively recruited as engineering aides by the federal government, which saw them as a temporary substitute for men who were in the military. Yet this crisis did not break down the barriers to and prejudices against women in engineering, nor did it give them a real opportunity to become professional engineers equal to men. After the war, calls for a return to normalcy were used to reestablish social norms, which kept women at home and reserved desirable places in the workforce, including in engineering, for men.

  20. The Battle of Moscow - Turning Point of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V M Falin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the Battle of Moscow in October- December, 1941. Author analyzes the causes of the failure of German army, who tries to encircle and capture Moscow, the events taking place on the outskirts of Moscow, German troops attempts to encircle Moscow. The author presents data on the speech by Adolf Hitler in Berlin on October 5, 1941, in which he acknowledged the failure of the Blitzkrieg and the Battle for Moscow and its suburbs. The researcher uses the documents of the Wehrmacht High Command, which stated that after the Battle of Moscow, German troops could not on any further stage of the war to restore the quality and morale of the armed forces, with whom Reich rushed to a campaign for world domination. The author, a prominent public and political figure of the USSR, also relies on personal recollections, interviews with prominent generals of World War II, including I. Konev.

  1. World War II, post-war reconstruction and British women chemists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Sally

    2011-07-01

    This paper draws on evidence from a range of sources to consider the extent to which World War II served as a turning point in the employment opportunities open to women chemists in Britain. It argues that wartime conditions expanded women's access to some areas of employment, but that these opportunities represented, in many ways, an expansion of existing openings rather than wholly new ones, and not all of them proved permanent. Instead, women chemists benefited more permanently from increased state expenditure on higher education and on research and development after the war. This enabled some women to remain in what had originally been temporary wartime posts and others to secure employment in wholly new positions. Women were most successful in securing positions created by the expansion of state welfare and support for agriculture, but also found new employment opportunities as a result of the heavy investment in weapons development that accelerated with the advent of the Cold War. In higher education, an initial expansion of openings was not sustained, and the proportion of women in university chemistry departments actually fell during the second half of the 1950s. Industry presents a rather ambiguous picture, with many firms continuing to refuse to employ women chemists, whereas elsewhere they enjoyed enhanced opportunities and better salaries than those offered before the war. This did not mean, however, that women chemists received equal treatment to their male colleagues, and, despite the changes, they remained concentrated in subordinate positions and were expected to concentrate on routine work. Prospects in the 1950s were certainly better than they had been during the 1930s, but they remained strongly gendered.

  2. Maribor General Hospital from its foundation until World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivec, Gregor

    2006-01-01

    The author describes the history of Maribor General Hospital from its foundation in 1799 until the beginning of World War II. In 1799 the magistrate of the town of Maribor issued a memorandum regarding the establishment of a town hospital in the renovated building of the town hospice, providing space for 24 patients. The work of the hospital was carried out in the former hospice building until 1855. In the period between its establishment and eventual relocation 26 beds were added. The last two decades of the hospital's operation at the original location were marked by the assiduous work of the town's physicist, Dr. Anton Kuker. In the first half of the 19th century, the population of Maribor grew rapidly as a consequence of the construction of the Southern Railway. The town authorities therefore purchased the Prosenjak family villa in the Magdalena suburbs and relocated the hospital to it in 1855, providing 28 rooms for 110 patients. For a whole century, the care of patients was taken over by the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul. The hospital was soon admitting over 1000 patients a year, the most common complaints being pulmonary catarrh, gastritis and fever. In 1872, when the Master of Surgery Feliks Ferk joined the hospital, the internal "medical" and the "external" surgical departments were formed. Although medical studies were not easily accessible, there were a number of Slovene physicians working in the hospital and the town in that period. In the last decades of the 19th century, the hospital was often renovated and enlarged. The infrastructure (telephone, water supply system, heating, lighting) had also been modernized before World War I. In 1914, the first X-ray apparatus was purchased. Between the wars, the hospital's development was boosted by recruitment of the Slovene physicians Ivan Matko, Mirko Cernic, Janko Dernovsek and Hugon Robic. The initial external and medical departments split into several departments: internal medicine, surgery

  3. GENERAL HOSPITAL MARIBOR FROM ITS FOUNDATION TILL WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Pivec

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Author describes the history of General Hospital Maribor from its foundation (1799 to the beginning of World War II. In 1799 the magistrate of the town Maribor issued a memorandum regarding establishment of a town hospital in the renovated building of the town hospice, providing space for 24 patients. The work of the hospital was carried out in the former hospice building until 1855. 26 beds were added in the period between its establishment and eventual relocation. The last two decades of the hospital’s operation at the original location were marked by the assiduous work of the town’s physicist, Dr. Anton Kuker. In the first half of the 19th century, the population of Maribor rapidly grew as a consequence of the construction of the Southern Railway. The city authorities therefore purchased the Prosenjak family villa in the Magdalena suburbs and relocated the hospital to it in 1855, providing 28 rooms for 110 patients. For a whole century, the care of patients was taken over by the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul. The hospital was soon admitting over 1000 patients a year; the most common complaints being pulmonary catarrh, gastritis and fever. In 1872, when the Master of Surgery, Feliks Ferk, joined the hospital, the internal, medical, and the »external« surgical departments were formed. Although medical studies were not easily accessible, there was a number of Slovene physicians working in the hospital and the town in that period. In the last decades of the 19th century, the hospital was often renovated and enlarged. The infrastructure (telephone, water supply system, heating, lighting had also been modernized by World War I. In 1914, the first X-ray apparatus was purchased. Between the wars, the hospital’s development was stepped up by the recruitment of the Slovene physicians Ivan Matko, Mirko Černič, Janko Dernovšek and Hugon Robič. The initial external and medical departments split into several departments

  4. 5 CFR 831.304 - Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II. 831.304 Section 831.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay is...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1059 - Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a) In...

  6. War and Marriage: Assortative Mating and the World War II GI Bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew F; McCarthy, T J; Moulton, Jeremy G; Page, Marianne E; Patel, Ankur J

    2015-10-01

    World War II and its subsequent GI Bill have been widely credited with playing a transformative role in American society, but there have been few quantitative analyses of these historical events' broad social effects. We exploit between-cohort variation in the probability of military service to investigate how WWII and the GI Bill altered the structure of marriage, and find that it had important spillover effects beyond its direct effect on men's educational attainment. Our results suggest that the additional education received by returning veterans caused them to "sort" into wives with significantly higher levels of education. This suggests an important mechanism by which socioeconomic status may be passed on to the next generation.

  7. Early Tests of Piagetian Theory Through World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beins, Bernard C

    2016-01-01

    Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.

  8. Media and nationalism in Baja California during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Gruel Sández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to explain some journalistic representations of the Northern Territory of Baja California. The body of documents that pertain this article, will document different versions of the past of the peninsula, from the nature of political discourse. Bajacalifornians will appear represented by journalists, struggling to eliminate an image of an isolated, uninhabited place filled with U.S. citizens. The editorial portrayal of the Tijuana, Mexicali and Mexico City press will be analyzed in context with the regional, national and international conflicts. Public opinion was a ground where the people of Baja California negotiated the nationalism, as the rest of the world collapsed with World War ii.

  9. History of respiratory mechanics prior to World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2012-01-01

    The history of respiratory mechanics is reviewed over a period of some 2,500 years from the ancient Greeks to World War II. A cardinal early figure was Galen (130-199 AD) who made remarkably perceptive statements on the diaphragm and the anatomy of the phrenic nerves. The polymath Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) contributed observations on pulmonary mechanics including the pleural space and bronchial airflow that still make good reading. Vesalius (1514-1564) produced magnificent illustrations of the lung, ribcage, and diaphragm. In the 17th century, the Oxford School including Boyle, Hooke, Lower, and Mayow were responsible for many contributions on mechanical functions including the intercostal muscles and the pleura. Hales (1677-1761) calculated the size and surface area of the alveoli, the time spent by the blood in the pulmonary capillaries, and intrathoracic pressures. Poiseuille (1799-1869) carried out classical studies of fluid mechanics including one of the first demonstrations of flow limitation in collapsible vessels. The culmination of the pre-World War II period was the outstanding contributions of Rohrer (1888-1926) and his two Swiss countrymen, Wirz (1896-1978) and von Neergaard (1887-1947). Rohrer developed the first comprehensive, quantitative treatment of respiratory mechanics in the space of 10 years including an analysis of flow in airways, and the pressure-volume behavior of the respiratory system. von Neergaard performed landmark studies on the effects of surface tension on pressure-volume behavior. Progress over the 2,500 years was slow and erratic at times, but by 1940 the stage was set for the spectacular developments of the next 70 years. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  10. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  11. Stature of boys post World War II migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulanicka, B; Gronkiewicz, L; Zietkiewicz, B

    1999-01-01

    Poland is a country with significant regional differences in socio-economic, demographic and epidemiological phenomena. This is partly due to its history; notably the division of Poland among three different countries and the change of the borders after the second World War. The latter caused massive migratory movements of population. Then from the territory which now constitutes one third of Poland, Germans were evicted and Poles settled. These, then new, Western and Northern Territories of Poland (WNTP) are still the most developed parts of Poland with better roads, better housing and easier access to medical service and schools. On the other hand, some of the statistical data concerning the health and lifestyle of the population of these parts of Poland are worse than the corresponding data concerning the rest of Poland. For example the rate of lung cancer, the rate of divorce, the rate of adolescence pregnancies, the rate of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are all higher in the WNTP. In 1955, a very comprehensive anthropological nationwide survey of school children was performed. Our findings based on this material exhibit a number of phenomena which might contribute to the explanation of these negative population data. We have observed that the boys born in various regions of pre-war Poland and settled with their parents in the new territories were of different height at the age of 7-18 years than those from the four other regions of Poland whose parents were not resettled. Also the average height of boys, those sons of the migrants who during post-war migration did not go to the west but settled in the central region of Poland, was greater than those who settled in the west of Poland. Our results indicate that among the migrants there was a considerable fraction of people who were physically weaker and less socially adapted in comparison to the rest of the Polish population and that these characteristics have been passed down to the subsequent

  12. Thanks, but no thanks: how denial of osteopathic service in World War I and World War II shaped the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Osteopathic physicians were denied the same rights and privileges that were granted to allopathic physicians by the US government regarding voluntary and compulsory service in World War I and World War II. Even after changes to the examination process allowed osteopathic physicians to take the examinations required to obtain commission as a physician in the army, osteopathic physicians' service was still rejected. The US government's decision to ban DOs from serving in the war was a blessing in disguise that led to tremendous changes in osteopathic medicine, education, and public acceptance of osteopathic physicians. Using primary documents from military officials, congressional hearings, and archived publications of the American Osteopathic Association, the author recounts the battle osteopathic physicians fought to serve their country during war and the challenges they faced while obtaining both legal and social equality in the eyes of the government and the public.

  13. Use of medical and mental health care by World War II survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramsen, I.; van der Ploeg, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the mental and medical health care utilization of World War II (WW II) survivors and the characteristics of survivors seeking professional health care. Forty seven years after the end of WW II, a random sample of 4,057 Dutch WW II survivors answered a four-page questionnaire;

  14. External and Internal Impact on Soviet Memorial Landscape Development by THE World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Cherkasski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The World War II led to serious casualties and left deep scars / wounds of memory. As the victory over occupation regime was glorified, honored and starting from 1965 was widely celebrated at national level, there was a great gap between official and personal memory of war. Monuments are one of the forms of living examples of the past and thus are reliable sources for the study of different epochs and Zeitgeist / spirit of time and their changes. This article considers the development of Soviet memorial landscape by the World War II starting from the war termination to the Soviet Union collapse. Special attention is attached to internal political and international views / interpretations and development with respect to victims of war. In other words, the process of different groups of war victims exclusion and inclusion in Soviet collective memory under the influence of internal political and foreign political interests symbiosis. And, as a result, resultant attitude towards memorial places.

  15. Roosevelt's World War II Army of Community Service Workers. Children and Their Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Sherry L.

    1996-01-01

    Profiles the extraordinary World War II public support efforts conducted by school children and teachers across the United States. Encouraged by the Roosevelt administration, teachers and pupils mobilized support for war bond sales and salvage collection drives. Many children raised "Victory Gardens" producing food to help the war…

  16. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…

  17. Luftwaffe Maritime Operations in World War II: Thought, Organization and Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gould, Winston A

    2005-01-01

    .... This paper will examine the Luftwaffe's thinking, organization, and technology as they pertained to Countersea Operations during World War II, with a focus on the Battle of the Atlantic during the period 1939-1945...

  18. The History of MIS-Y: U.S. Strategic Interrogation During World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleinman, Steven M

    2002-01-01

    As World War II unfolded, the strategic interrogation programs established by the British, German, and American forces evolved into robust collection entities that proved to be a unique source of critical intelligence...

  19. The Effects of Japan's Apology for World War II Atrocities on Regional Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cathey, Emily A

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the impact of atrocities that Japan committed against its neighbors during and prior to World War II on Japan's relationships with its neighbors, China and the Republic of Korea...

  20. Vaccination, quarantine, and hygiene: Korean sex slaves and No. 606 injections during the Pacific War of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwahng, Sel J

    2009-01-01

    During the Pacific War (World War II), Japan maintained an elaborate system of sexual slavery by implementing certain practices based on institutionalized policies of hygiene, efficiency, and the use of mostly Korean girls and women. Two hygienic techniques were established--vaccination and quarantine. No. 606 injections were given at mandatory regularly scheduled medical examinations to prevent and treat venereal disease, and to also deter pregnancy, induce abortions, and ultimately sterilize sex slaves. Secondary textual analysis of data collected from 1995-2000, N = 67 interview transcripts, and participant observation in 2003 and 2006. Geographic area: East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

  1. OPERATION ODESSA: THE FLIGHT OF NAZI WAR CRIMINALS TO LATIN AMERICA AFTER WORLD WAR II AND THE NAZI HUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Eduardo Meinerz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze why Latin America, especially Argentina, was the region of the world that harbored the most Nazi war criminals—for example, Josef Mengele, Adolf Eichmann and Klaus Barbie—after World War II. It also aims to analyze how this fact has set the tone for the appearance of literary works about the fantastic adventures of “Nazi hunters” seeking the whereabouts of those individuals. For this purpose, in the first part of the article we will address Nazis’ escape to Latin America. Next, we analyze some literary works by authors who called themselves Nazi hunters.

  2. Training of the American Soldier During World War I and World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    smallpox, chicken pox , meningitis, typhoid, diptheria and other diseases resulted in the deaths of between 17,000 to 19,000 men during the course of...lessons of previous wars in both periods. The Spanish-American War and the United States’ incursion into Mexico provided valuable experience in

  3. War stress and late-life mortality in World War II civilian resistance veterans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Velde, Wybrand Op; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Hovens, Johannes E.; Van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Aarts, Petra G. H.

    The mental and physical health of 146 Dutch males exposed to severe war stress during their young adulthood were examined in 1986-1987 when they were at ages 61 to 66 years. The veterans' data were compared with a randomly selected population-based sample of same-aged males. In 2005, 70% of the war

  4. Suffering What They Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    17 Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918 -1945, 485. 18 Ronald D. Bachman and Eugene K. Keefe, Romania : A Country...Suffering What They Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II A Monograph by MAJ Edward M. Kaspar United States Army...Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  5. Heterogeneous Materials I and Heterogeneous Materials II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, K M

    2004-01-01

    In these two volumes the author provides a comprehensive survey of the various mathematically-based models used in the research literature to predict the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of hetereogeneous materials, i.e., materials containing two or more phases such as fibre-reinforced polymers, cast iron and porous ceramic kiln furniture. Volume I covers linear properties such as linear dielectric constant, effective electrical conductivity and elastic moduli, while Volume II covers nonlinear properties, fracture and atomistic and multiscale modelling. Where appropriate, particular attention is paid to the use of fractal geometry and percolation theory in describing the structure and properties of these materials. The books are advanced level texts reflecting the research interests of the author which will be of significant interest to research scientists working at the forefront of the areas covered by the books. Others working more generally in the field of materials science interested in comparing predictions of properties with experimental results may well find the mathematical level quite daunting initially, as it is apparent that the author assumes a level of mathematics consistent with that taught in final year undergraduate and graduate theoretical physics courses. However, for such readers it is well worth persevering because of the in-depth coverage to which the various models are subjected, and also because of the extensive reference lists at the back of both volumes which direct readers to the various source references in the scientific literature. Thus, for the wider materials science scientific community the two volumes will be a valuable library resource. While I would have liked to see more comparison with experimental data on both ideal and 'real' heterogeneous materials than is provided by the author and a discussion of how to model strong nonlinear current--voltage behaviour in systems such as zinc oxide varistors, my overall

  6. Women and Body Image in Wartime: Advertisements for Foundation Garments during World War II in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    板橋, 晶子

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the images of women war workers in advertisements for foundation garments during World War II in the United States. In wartime America, functional underwear such as brassieres and girdles were sold as a “vital necessity” for women at work, especially those engaged in defense work. \\Advertisements for foundation garments frequently depicted women war workers who were doing man-sized jobs and lauded those women for their contribution to the war effort, and women war workers’...

  7. Observations on Occupation and Military Governance: An Analysis of the American Occupation of Japan and Germany in World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duray, Jr, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    Prior to the current Global War on Terror (GWOT), the United States military had not participated in occupation and military governance mission on as a massive a scale as that experienced in World War II...

  8. Cryptanalysis in World War II--and Mathematics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Hilton describes the team of cryptanalysts who tried to decipher German and Japanese codes during the Second World War. The work of Turing, essentially developing the computer, is reported, as well as inferences about pure and applied mathematics. (MNS)

  9. The 37th Bombardment Squadron's Service in World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loben

    2001-01-01

    ..., The squadron's participation in the famous Doolittle raid on Tokyo is examined along with a brief description of the planes they flew during the war, the B-25 and the B-26, The bulk of the report covers...

  10. Stiff upper lip: coping strategies of World War II veterans with phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, P; de C Williams, A C

    1998-12-01

    Study of coping with phantom pain in nonclinical war veteran amputees. Semistructured interview with amputees in their home setting. Residential home for war veteran amputees or respondents' own homes. Amputee veterans of World War II with phantom pain. Pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire) and pain history, coping (daily coping; Stone and Neale, J Pers Soc Psychol 1984;46:892-906), size of social network, and quality of war memories. No differences in pain or coping were associated with place of residence (and prevalence of cues) or social networks; war memories appeared not to be associated with availability of cues, whether media coverage or other amputees. There was some association between the emotional tone of war memories and pain intensity. Veteran amputees were in general accepting of high levels of pain and made little use of medical resources, relating that to past experience of their pain being dismissed. Coping with phantom pain in war veteran amputees is predominantly silent acceptance of the pain, with little use of social support however available, and rare recourse to medical help, based on past unhelpful experience. Pain and mood appeared to be unrelated to specific war cues, but higher pain scores were reported by those with unhappier war memories.

  11. Malnutrition and skin disease in Far East prisoners-of-war in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, D

    2018-05-31

    During the Second World War, thousands of captured British and Commonwealth troops were interned in prisoner-of-war (POW) camps in the Far East. Imprisonment was extremely harsh, and prisoners developed multiple pathologies induced by physical hardship, tropical infections and starvation. Immediately after the war, several POW doctors published their clinical experiences, including reports of skin disease caused by malnutrition. The most notable deficiency dermatoses seen in Far East POWs were ariboflavinosis (vitamin B2 or riboflavin deficiency) and pellagra (vitamin B3 or niacin deficiency). A lack of vitamin B2 produces a striking inflammatory disorder of scrotal skin. Reports of pellagra in POWs documented a novel widespread eruption, developing into exfoliative dermatitis, in addition to the usual photosensitive dermatosis. A review of the literature from 70 years ago provides a reminder of the skin's response to malnutrition. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Gaming the Interwar: How Naval War College Wargames Tilted the Playing Field for the U.S. Navy During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    planners began to concentrate on the island- hopping campaign expected against Japan. By using Midway as an intermediate, unnamed objective, rather...your location. The morality would be debated, old ghosts would be dredged up from World War I, but the tactical framework had been laid from...GAMING THE INTERWAR: HOW NAVAL WAR COLLEGE WARGAMES TILTED THE PLAYING FIELD FOR THE U.S. NAVY DURING WORLD WAR II A thesis

  13. Racialized Bodies and Phantom Limb Citizenship: The Case of the Filipino World War II Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Valiente-Neighbours, Jimiliz Maramba

    2016-01-01

    The United States recruited more than half a million Filipino soldiers and guerrillas in the Philippines during World War II with the promise of American citizenship in return for their wartime service. Even after the official victory of the United States and its allies in 1945, the United States government continued to recruit Filipinos to serve under the American flag for post-war reconstruction and the development of American military bases in the Pacific. But in February 1946, the United ...

  14. My Wartime Self: Meaning Construction in Narratives of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Wiest

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are all storytellers. We tell stories in a variety of settings, to a variety of audiences, and for a variety of reasons. We tell structured stories about personal experiences—narratives—as a means of understanding the past, constructing identities, and communicating ourselves to others. Drawing on social psychological literature on narratives, identities, and autobiographical memories, this study examines the construction, recitation, and evaluation of 28 World War II veterans’ narratives. Findings indicate cultural influences in the ways these veterans constructed their war stories, the ways they constructed meanings about their war experiences, and the ways they constructed their identities in relation to those experiences.

  15. Out of a Clear Blue Sky? FOM, The Bomb, and The Boost in Dutch Physics Funding after World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeneveld, F; van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One

  16. Out of a clear blue sky? FOM, the bomb and the boost in Dutch physics funding after World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeneveld, F.; van Dongen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One

  17. Gulf War II: Air and Space Power Led the Way

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grant, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    .... And it is now clear that the Air Force also was destined to play the leading role in creating the strategic conditions for victory in that war, executed by a total of 466,985 US and allied forces in Spring 2003...

  18. Scratched: World War II Airborne Operations That Never Happened

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Mere Eglise- Chef du Pont- Etienneville-Amfreville. The 101st Airborne Division’s mission 20War...Division, United States Army, 1993. Copp, Terry. “Canadian Operational Art: The Seige of Boulogne and Calais.” Canada’s Professional Journal on Army

  19. Teaching with Documents: Victory Gardens in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Patricia, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Covers the Victory Garden campaign of the early 1940s begun by the Office of War Information and the Office of Civil Defense. Provides a facsimile of a poster designed to publicize the program in addition to seven teaching activities. (JDH)

  20. Malnutrition and subsequent ischemic heart disease in former prisoners of war of World War II and the Korean conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W F; Ostfeld, A M

    1994-12-01

    The harsh treatment of former prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean conflict resulted in severe malnutrition. Although rarely linked to specific long-term medical problems, a specific marker of malnutrition, self-reported lower limb edema (presumably due to a vitamin B deficiency) was associated with a three-fold increase in subsequent death attributed to ischemic heart disease (IHD) during the follow-up period from 1967 through 1975. Although there is at present no medical basis for linking edema, which is perhaps a marker for some unmeasured risk factor, to subsequent IHD, this finding may nonetheless have medical implications for the group of former POWs and other populations with severe dietary deficiency. It also suggests there may be a need to reexamine currently held theories on malnutrition and subsequent chronic disease.

  1. Lessons of the Great Patriotic War and World War II for Contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor I. Belousov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War 70 years have passed. Essentially already gone a generation of people for whom it was not a story, and the nationwide disaster and personal experience. And let time more and more we move away from the victory of 1945, the value and results of the war are enormous for the future of the modern world. Memory of the Great Victory presents to all of us now living, special requirements, the main of which consists in the fact that based on the analysis draw the necessary lessons from the past, draw the right conclusions for the safety of modern Russia. Over the years, the world has changed considerably. On the stage of world politics, a host of new independent states. There are new centers of economic development, and hence the new poles of power. Meanwhile, the events of recent months show that the main results of the Victory have not lost their importance today. This is best spoken of their incessant attempts to challenge by distorting the main points of the war and its lessons. And, obviously, it is no accident the day before and during the celebration of 70th anniversary of Victory wishing her to steal the peoples of Russia have been particularly active, as they claim - stiff and awkward. For domestic historiography it is not something unexpected. On the socio-political, military and economic results of the Second World War written many works, but probably in the light of the development of military-political processes in the world of individual instructive lesson it is important not to forget.

  2. Office of Strategic Services Training during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    States: centralized intelligence, “fifth column” activities, psycho- logical or “ political warfare,” and the kind of sabotage, com- mando raids and...ship of Lt. Col. Serge Obolen- sky, a former Russian prince and New York socialite who had fought the Germans in World War I, the Bolsheviks in...and conflicting political agendas. Some veter- ans grumbled about undue emphasis on “cloak and dagger creepiness” instead of practical training that

  3. 8 CFR 329.5 - Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring to naturalize...

  4. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  5. From the Back of the Foxhole: Black Correspondents in World War II. Journalism Monographs, No. 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, John D.

    Black newspapers, like the "Chicago Defender,""The Pittsburgh Courier," and the "Baltimore Afro-American," opened the eyes of Americans to the injustices suffered at home as well as in the armed services. The black press attacked the Navy for its Jim Crowism because when World War II began, the only black sailors were…

  6. The Destruction of Jewish Libraries and Archives in Cracow during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Examines the loss of various collections, especially school libraries and the Ezra Library, in Cracow (Poland) during World War II. Highlights include Nazi policies toward Cracow's Jews; the destruction of libraries, archives, and collections; Jewish book collections in the Staatsbibliotek Krakau (state library); and the removal of books by Jewish…

  7. Poetry and World War II: Creating Community through Content-Area Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Elizabeth E. G.; Nixon, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    Two educators and a classroom of fifth grade students integrated poetry writing into social studies curriculum focusing on World War II. Several strategies and approaches to writing poetry are highlighted including list poems, writing from photographs and artifacts, and two voice poems. The study culminated in a poetry reading and the creation of…

  8. Powers of Persuasion--Poster Art of World War II. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Guns, tanks, and bombs were the principal weapons of World War II, but there were other, more subtle forms of warfare. Words, posters, and films waged a constant battle for the hearts and minds of the U.S. citizenry as military weapons engaged the enemy. Persuading the U.S. public became a wartime industry, almost as important as the manufacturing…

  9. Changing eating habits on the home front: Lost lessons from World War II research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.

    2002-01-01

    Programs intended to improve nutrition often fall short of expectations. One exception, however, occurred during the rationing years of World War II, when U.S. citizens were encouraged to incorporate protein-rich organ meats into their protein-deficient diets. Unfortunately,, most of tire insights

  10. Everything for the Lulz: Historical Memes and World War II Memory on Lurkomor’e

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makhortykh, M.

    2015-01-01

    The article explores interactions between digital media and cultural memory in post-Soviet countries by focusing on internet memes related to World War II. It introduces the concept of historical internet memes, which are groups of digital content units associated with a historical event or a

  11. The Experience of Soviet Medicine in World War II 1941-1945. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-25

    countries. The low percentage of neuropsychological patients in the Soviet Army is evidence of the achievements of pre- war years of the Soviet people...unsplinted 269 I I II I fracture did not bother them. To the question of the physician about =npn.aints, they most often pointed out hunger . As early

  12. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  13. Late sequelae of retained foreign bodies after world war II missile injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Thermann, Florian; Behrmann, Curd; Spielmann, Rolf-Peter; Kornhuber, Malte

    2012-09-01

    A number of people injured during the second world war harbour foreign bodies such as grenade splinters or bullets in some part of the body. Most of these metal fragments remain clinically silent. Some of them, however, may cause delayed complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of delayed complications associated with foreign bodies after world war II injuries. 159 patients with retained foreign bodies after world war II injuries were retrospectively identified radiologically in our data bases in the time interval from 1997 to 2009. Diverse delayed complications secondary to the metal objects were diagnosed in 3 cases (2%): one patient with grenade splinter migration into the choledochal duct, one case with pseudotumoural tissue reaction, and one patient with late osteomyelitis. The time from injury to clinical presentation varied from 56 to 61 years. PubMed and Medline were screened for additional cases with delayed sequelae after foreign body acquisition during the 2nd world war. A 30 year search period from 1980 up to date was selected. 15 cases were identified here. Our study demonstrates that health consequences of the 2nd world war extend into the present time, and therefore physicians should be aware of the presence of hidden foreign bodies and their different possible late reactions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  15. Romania’s economic contribution to making a Long World War II shorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan GHEORGHE

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s participation in World War II was brought about by political reasons and strategic needs that resulted from the internationalpolitical situation at the middle of the twentieth century. One can hardly say that Romania did not do its best to avoid becoming involved in the war.From September 1939 to June 1941, the foreign policy laid focus on non-belligerency and neutrality. But eventually Romania was drawn in, too,right after the series of unfortunate events in the summer of 1940

  16. Radiology in World War II (Medical Department, United States Army)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    efornied each wvorkinog dav. bv a roil utie dlevelopied lo1 expiediite till(- elir . t8 ii~ap .11id ~iieiui’iie~hiiloi’ij~i were. facil itated by thle...ETOUSA. The officer sent to the European theater as Chief of Redeployment, a pharmacist by training, made arbitrary decisions on matters in which he was...lgt44 f.4t. wL*r ithi1l14’iI that lo4,keli tiks, pilorlen e-xuldite bill thant wals found14 ote il411’ uti r After f1’,lebidelo’ilt. I cavit v 1II4

  17. Maxo Vanka's collage "World War II" is a brilliant gematrical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine T. Kurent

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The American-Croatian painter Maksimilian Vanka, 1 1889-1963, or Maxo for his friends, composed together with his American wife Margaret, her father dr. Stetten DeWitt and his friends Louis and Stella Adamic, his most enigmatic work, the "WORLD WAR II" collage. The collage originated at the reunion of Maxo Vanka, his wife Margaret, his friends Louis and Stella Adamic, with Margaret's father Dr. Stetten DeWitt, after his return from Europe at war. The party was exhilarated with Dr. Stetten's safe escape from Korcula (Dalmatia to Paris, Le Havre and on board of the French liner lie de France to New York, and preoccupied with the imminent World War.

  18. The German press coverage on France after World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Jaeger

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available How is the continuing reconciliation process between the former "hereditary enemies" Germany and France reflected in German daily newspapers between 1946 and 1970? Using quantitative content analysis, a representative sample of coverage of France and French-related topics published during this period was examined with an emphasis on a the choice of news topics and possible deviations from the predictions of Galtung’s news-factors model and on b how protagonists and events were portrayed in these articles. A further qualitative analysis was made of some promising journalistic attempts to achieve "constructive" coverage during the same period. This was intended a to determine whether and how several theoretical deductions from Kempf’s conflict model of de-escalation processes are manifest in post-conflict coverage and b to identify the stylistic "tools" journalists used – even unintentionally – to further a better understanding of the former enemy and – in the long run – to build peace and reconciliation between Germany and France. The overarching questions addressed by this study are: (What can we learn from coverage during a successful reconciliation process, and how can these lessons be transferred to contemporary coverage of post-war processes? Major findings of the two studies will be presented.

  19. Rape in World War II film: comparing narrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzadevych, Tetyana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show how the filmmaker’s genre of choice shapes the main discourse of the film. The author compares Helke Sander’s documentary Liberators Take Liberties (1991-1992 and Max Farberbock’s narrative feature A Woman in Berlin (2008 both dealing with the dramatic effect of the end of WWII, in particular with the instances of German women having been raped by the Allied troops, a theme first publicized in the anonymous diary A Woman in Berlin (1953. There is a clear connection between the book and the two films, but if Sander focuses on the rape itself and on the extraordinary female experience of war, Farberbock is more concerned with cross-national revenge. The author looks closer at the genre elements, particularly at the genres of the diary, the (feminist documentary, and the narrative film. Then, the author draws some parallels between the Helke Sander film and the diary A Woman of Berlin and discusses the documentaries within the feminist framework inspired by Sander’s accomplishments.

  20. Crossroads. Life Changing Stories from the Second World War: A (Transmedia Storytelling Approach to World War II Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Calvi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crossroads is the name of the concept that narratively connects several WWII-related cultural institutions in Brabant. We were initially looking for ways to connect 4 otherwise very diverse World War II-related institutions (in fact, 3 museums and a commemoration centre and we found it in this overarching paradigm. Crossroads does not require museums to share their collection items. It offers them instead a tool to build and offer visitors a cohesive experience related to WWII heritage.  This experience is characterized by the specific focus into their WWII stories using storytelling that they can adopt. This paper will highlight the creative process that brought to the development of this concept and will discuss examples of the resulting transmedia narratives.

  1. World War II never ended in my house: interviews of 12 Office of Strategic Services veterans of wartime espionage on the 50th anniversary of WW II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Susan

    2006-07-01

    The author conducted sociological interviews of 12 OSS spies (7 male, 5 female) who were operatives in France during World War II (WW II). The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) existed from 1941 to 1945 and was later renamed the CIA in 1947. This paper includes family studies of six close relatives of OSS vets and observation of 400 OSS veterans at the 50th anniversary of WW II. Three of the 12 OSS veterans who had been tortured by the Gestapo still suffered from PTSD-startle symptoms after 50 years; those three also suffered massive strokes in later life. The majority of OSS vets, regardless of gender, exhibited "war excitement" when talking about the war 50 years later. Most saw the war as the highpoint of their lives. War excitement needs more careful study within PTSD circles.

  2. Putting Their Lives on the Line: Personal Narrative as Political Discourse among Japanese Petitioners in American World War II Internment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2011-01-01

    One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…

  3. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G.; Have, Margreet ten; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Methods Adults (n= 3,370)who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Results Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders. (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Conclusions Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders. PMID:29119266

  4. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E; Betancourt, Theresa S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G; Ten Have, Margreet; Kessler, Ronald C

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders.

  5. World War II uranium hexafluoride inhalation event with pulmonary implications for today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.H.; Kathren, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two individuals were exposed to massive quantities of airborne uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and its hydrolysis products following a World War II equipment rupture. An excretion pattern for uranium exhibited by these patients is, in light of current knowledge, anomalous. The possible role of pulmonary edema is discussed. Examination of these individuals 38 years later showed no physical changes believed to be related to their uranium exposure and no deposition of uranium could be detected

  6. The "Periphery Principle": Unesco and the International Commitment of Scientists After World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Petitjean, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    To be published in the proceedings of the 2nd ESHS conference (Krakow, September 2006); International audience; Before World War II, international science was mainly European and Eurocentric. The International Council of Scientific Unions and the International Institute for Intellectual Co-operation paid very little attention to science and scientists beyond Europe, which were mostly confined to colonial science institutions. Non-Western scientific achievements were ignored.When joining the n...

  7. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume 7. Communicable Diseases. Arthropodborne other than Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    in Peru or in other countries. In Ecuador , bartonellosis has l»een report«! from the Provinces of Loja and Oro. This author " cultivated...fatal, caused by BartoneUa baciUiformis and transmitted by the bite of Phlebotomies. The dis- ease is limited to certain parts of Peru, Ecuador , and...Colombia. The disease was not a military problem in World War II. American troops stationed in Peru (Talara) and Ecuador (Salinas) were outside the

  8. Military labour mobilisation in colonial Lesotho during World War II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1940, Great Britain's wartime exploitation of the human and material resources of its colonial empire was extended to colonial Lesotho (then known as Basutoland). The aim of this article, therefore, is to trace the four-year military labour mobilisation process in that colony, with special attention to the timing, number and ...

  9. Understanding the Influence of Parkinson Disease on Adolf Hitler's Decision-Making during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. WOMEN POST OFFICE WORKERS IN BRITAIN: THE LONG STRUGGLE FOR GENDER EQUALITY AND THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark James Crowley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Britain during the Second World War, the Post Office constituted the single largest employer of women. Historically, the Post Office, like many other employers, had discriminated against women. During World War I, shortages of male labor had resulted in some opportunities for women at the Post Office, but the improvement had neither been comprehensive nor enduring. Unlike World War I, World War II, however, proved to a real turning point in the Post Office's personnel practices. By the end of the Second World War, while the Post Office still did not treat women workers completely equally (persisting, for instance, in gender-biased pay practices, management nevertheless had made strides in their treatment and perception of women workers. Post Office executives increasingly perceived women on the payroll not as temporary wartime employees, but as permanent employees, who would be just as essential peacetime as in war.

  11. Range and specificity of war-related trauma to posttraumatic stress; depression and general health perception: displaced former World War II children in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kristin; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Silke

    2011-02-01

    Dose-response relation of war experiences and posttraumatic stress, depression and poor health functioning in late life is well documented in war-affected populations. The influence of differing trauma types experienced by war-affected population in the study of dose-response relation of war trauma and psychological maladaptation in late life has not been investigated. We examined a subgroup of displaced elders and investigated whether specific trauma types were associated with differential health outcomes. From representative practitioner lists, matched groups of former displaced and non-displaced World War II children were assigned, yielding a total sample of 417 participants (response rate 50%). Measurement encompassed a self-report survey including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Consistent dose-relation between war-related experiences and posttraumatic stress or depressive symptoms in late life was found for both, displaced and non-displaced elders, whereas a gradient for poor health perception was only found in displaced people. Trauma types derived from principal component analysis showed differential associations with health outcomes. Human Right Violations emerged as risk factor for posttraumatic stress symptoms and Deprivation & Threat to Life as risk factor for depressive symptoms. Poor self-rated health was associated with multiple trauma types. Non-random recruitment, retrospective design and use of self-report. Posttraumatic stress and depression are associated with war-related experiences more than 60 years after World War II. Results suggest that different trauma types lead to unique variants of syndrome configurations, which may result from different etiological factors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. World War II, The CANOL project and the Marwell Tar Pit: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolsky, H.

    2000-01-01

    The CANOL project was a joint U.S.-Canada undertaking during World War II. It entailed the construction of a road and pipeline from the oil fields of Norman Wells on the Mackenzie River, 960 kms over the Mackenzie Mountains to a new refinery at Whitehorse. The goal was to provide a secure supply of aviation fuel far from the menace of Japanese bombers. Initially, the pipeline was expected to operate by October 1942. In actual fact, the first gasoline was not produced in the crude distillation unit until April 24, 1944, and it was not until November 1944 that the refinery finally began producing aviation fuel. Four months later, the pipeline and the refinery were shut down. The project cost American taxpayers $ 134 million. A total of 2650 kms of pipeline was laid. During the first nine months of pipeline operation 46,000 barrels of oil was spilled, much of it directly into the Mackenzie River. Total production from the refinery, which itself cost $ 27 million, wa 866,670 barrels of products. When the refinery was shut down, most of the refinery structures were dismantled and moved, via the Alaska Highway, to the newly discovered Leduc oilfields, but buildings, tanks and hydrocarbon waste were left behind. In a 1960 report it was estimated that some four million litres of oil has been pumped into a pit located within the containment berm formerly surrounding an 80,000 barrel oil storage tank which was dismantled after the shutdown. The bureaucratic dispute about who is responsible for cleaning up has been an issue ever since. The cost of cleanup was estimated at about $ 4 million in 1994. Since the federal government, the original owners of the land , transferred the land to provincial jurisdiction in 1970, it disclaimed any responsibility for site cleanup, however, there has been some recent evidence of willingness on the part of the Department of National Defence and the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs to determine proper actions to clean up the site

  13. THE FAILURE OF COLLECTIVE SECURITY IN THE POST WORLD WARS I AND II INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEPH C. EBEGBULEM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The League of Nations and the United Nations Organization were two post-World War (World War I and World War II organizations established for the maintenance of peace and security in the international system. One of the cardinal objectives of these organizations was the promotion of a Collective Security System which was considered as vital in the pursuit of global peace and security. In other words, Collective Security is an institutional mechanism established to address a comprehensive list of major threats to peace and security around the world. With the escalation of conflicts and wars in different parts of the world, there is therefore the need for collective responses at global, regional and national levels in conflict situations. The achievement of collective security in the international system would be based on the principle that any attack on any member of the United Nations would be considered as an attack on all the members. After a panoramic discourse of the meaning and nature of Collective Security, the paper also examines the problems of collective security in the international system; its failure under the League of Nations and the United Nations. The paper concludes that the weaknesses inherent in the system do not make it unuseful as it is a relevant factor in the maintenance of international peace and security.

  14. The Invasion of Iran by the Allies during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Erkan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When the Nazi Germany attacked the Soviets at the beginning of World War II, the USA, the UK and the Soviet Union took part on the same side and were called the Allies. In order to convey the military aid to the Soviets through Iran, the USA and the UK invaded Iran with the Soviets and dethroned Ahmad Reza Shah, who felt sympathy for Germany. By signing a treaty in 1942, they pledged to evacuate their troops from Iran six months after the war ended. They published a declaration that they would protect Iran’s territorial integrity as well as they repeated these decisions during the conference they made in Tehran in 1943. However; despite these decisions, a hidden rivalry began between the USSR and the West in Iran. The rivalry became very clear towards the end of the war. The Soviets wouldn’t withdraw from Iran. Additionally, they endeavored to divide Iran. The Iran crisis of 1946 between the West and the Soviets formed the start of the Cold War according to some people. As a country, Iran was highly affected by this process.

  15. Darlene J. Sadlier. Americans All. Good Neighbor Cultural Diplomacy in World War II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Cramer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This publication adds to a rapidly growing volume of scholarship on U.S. cultural diplomacy. Most of this scholarship focuses on the Cold War and on Europe. This volume, in turn, is concerned with a lesser-known episode that came to fruition during World War II and that focused not on Europe but on Latin America. As Nazi German troops entered Paris, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration set out to launch a massive campaign to win hearts and minds for inter-American cooperation and solidarity. This campaign came to be spearheaded by an emergency agency, the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs or CIAA. Headed by the young multimillionaire and entrepreneur Nelson A. Rockefeller, the CIAA existed for only six years, but during its brief existence it helped to construct a dense State-private network that managed cultural relations with foreign countries and that continued to operate and expand long after the war was over. Of course, by then Latin America was no longer at the center of geopolitical attention. Well before the end of hostilities, the State Department began to prepare for the winding down of the CIAA’s cultural programs. The agency itself was abolished in 1946. With the onset of the Cold War, the State-private network reshuffled, its main attention now focusing elsewhere and mainly on Europe.

  16. The din of gunfire: Rethinking the role of sound in World War II newsreels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Shpolberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available French film historian Laurent Véray has famously called World War I ‘the first media war of the twentieth century’. Newsreels, which first appeared in 1910, brought the war to movie theaters across Europe and the U.S., screening combat for those on the ‘home front’. However, while the audience could see the action it could not hear it – sometimes only live music would accompany the movements of the troops. The arrival of sound newsreels in 1929 radically transformed moviegoers’ experiences of the news, and, by necessity, of armed conflict. Drawing on examples of World War II newsreels from British Pathé’s archive that was recently made available online, this article seeks to delineate the logic governing the combination of voice-over commentary, music, sound effects, and field-recorded sound, and argues that it can be traced directly to the treatment of sound in the ‘Great War’ fiction films of the preceding decade.

  17. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  18. [Developing indices for caloric restriction related to World War II--a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shi; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2011-04-01

    The vast numbers of studies regarding caloric restriction (CR) and breast cancer risk are based on war-related extreme situations. Studying the impact of CR in Jews during World War II (WW II) is challenging due to its variance and duration. To develop novel research tools in order to assess CR exposure in Jews that occurred more than 60 years ago during WW II. A pilot study based on Israeli women born in Europe in 1926-45, who lived there during WWII. Primary incident breast cancer patients and population-based controls were interviewed using a detailed questionnaire referring to demographic, obstetric factors and WW II experiences. Exposure to WWII-related CR was assessed by several proxy variables based on this information. The individual hunger score was higher in the exposed cases [mean score 141.06 vs. 130.07 in the controls). The same trend was observed for self perceived hunger score (mean score 2.75 in cases vs. 2.40 in controls) and hunger symptoms score (4.89 vs. 3.56, respectively). The novel research tools are appropriate for comparative assessment of CR exposure in case control studies.

  19. Potency of Education Historical Tourismof World War II Japanese Cavesand Bunkersin Coastal Banyuwangi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmi, Miftahul; Qiram, Ikhwanul

    2018-05-01

    Banyuwangi district has some Japanese caves and bunkers of World War II. The location of the objects are along the Banyuwangi coast as a maritime defense during the war. This structures can be used as education historical tourism object. There are many similar structures in other area that have been neglected and do not get enough preservation attention. This research is aimed to identify the potency of education historical tourism of Japanese caves and bunker in Banyuwangi. The research is done by field research for the observation of objects physical condition. It is also done by interviewing local government, historical actors and surrounding community. The result shows that the caves and bunker have a great potency but have not been used as education historical object.

  20. Farm Hall and the German atomic project of World War II a dramatic history

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David C

    2017-01-01

    This gripping book brings back to life the events surrounding the internment of ten German Nuclear Scientists immediately after World War II. It is also an "eye-witness" account of the dawning of the nuclear age, with the dialogue and narrative spanning the period before, during and after atomic bombs were dropped on Japan at the end of the war. This pivotal historical episode is conveyed, along with the emotions as well as the facts, through drama, historical narrative, and photographs of the captive German nuclear scientists - who included Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn, and Max von Laue. The unique story that unfolds in the play is based on secretly recorded transcripts of the scientists’ actual conversations at Farm Hall, together with related documents and photographs.

  1. Marking Time: Women and Nazi Propaganda Art during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara McCloskey

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available "Marking Time" considers the relative scarcity of woman's image in Nazi propaganda posters during World War II. This scarcity departs from the ubiquity of women in paintings and sculptures of the same period. In the fine arts, woman served to solidify the "Nazi myth" and its claim to the timeless time of an Aryan order simultaneously achieved and yet to come. Looking at poster art and using Ernst Bloch's notion of the nonsynchronous, this essay explores the extent to which women as signifiers of the modern – and thus as markers of time – threatened to expose the limits of this Nazi myth especially as the regime's war effort ground to its catastrophic end.

  2. Psychological reactions to redress: diversity among Japanese Americans interned during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Donna K; Takeshita, Yuzuru J

    2002-02-01

    The psychological reactions of 2nd-generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans to receiving redress from the U.S. government for the injustices of their World War II internment were investigated. The respondents, all of whom had been interned during the war, rated the degree to which the receipt of redress nearly 50 years after their incarceration was associated with 8 different areas of personal impact. Results indicated that redress was reported to be most effective in increasing faith in the government and least effective in reducing physical suffering from the internment. Women and older respondents reported more positive redress effects. In addition, lower levels of current income, an attitudinal preference for Japanese Americans, and preredress support for seeking monetary compensation each increased the prediction of positive redress effects. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of social and retributive justice.

  3. Posttraumatic stress in aging World War II survivors after a fireworks disaster: a controlled prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsen, Inge; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Boers, Maarten

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about the effects of cumulative trauma and whether traumatized individuals are more vulnerable. In 2000, a fireworks disaster created the possibility to examine this issue among World War II survivors who were part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Between 1998 and 2000 posttraumatic stress increased in disaster exposed respondents as opposed to the control group. War-related reexperiencing and avoidance also increased. The strongest increase occurred in disaster-exposed respondents who had low levels of wartime stress and a slight decrease occurred in those who had high wartime exposure. This unique controlled observation suggests that disasters do increase the levels of posttraumatic stress, and that reactivation of previous traumatic events generally occurs. However, the vulnerability hypothesis was not supported.

  4. Consequences of captivity: health effects of far East imprisonment in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, D; Welch, E; Beeching, N J; Gill, G V

    2009-02-01

    Though medical consequences of war attract attention, the health consequences of the prisoner-of-war (POW) experience are poorly researched and appreciated. The imprisonment of Allied military personnel by the Japanese during the World War II provides an especially dramatic POW scenario in terms of deprivation, malnutrition and exposure to tropical diseases. Though predominantly British, these POWs also included troops from Australia, Holland and North America. Imprisonment took place in various locations in Southeast Asia and the Far East for a 3.5-year period between 1942 and 1945. Nutritional deficiency syndromes, dysentery, malaria, tropical ulcers and cholera were major health problems; and supplies of drugs and medical equipment were scarce. There have been limited mortality studies on ex-Far East prisoners (FEPOWs) since repatriation, but these suggest an early (up to 10 years post-release) excess mortality due to tuberculosis, suicides and cirrhosis (probably related to hepatitis B exposure during imprisonment). In terms of morbidity, the commonest has been a psychiatric syndrome which would now be recognized as post-traumatic stress disorder--present in at least one-third of FEPOWs and frequently presenting decades later. Peptic ulceration, osteoarthritis and hearing impairment also appear to occur more frequently. In addition, certain tropical diseases have persisted in these survivors--notably infections with the nematode worm Strongyloides stercoralis. Studies 30 years or more after release have shown overall infection rates of 15%. Chronic strongyloidiasis of this type frequently causes a linear urticarial 'larva currens' rash, but can potentially lead to fatal hyperinfection if immunity is suppressed. Finally, about 5% of FEPOW survivors have chronic nutritional neuropathic syndromes--usually optic atrophy or sensory peripheral neuropathy (often painful). The World War II FEPOW experience was a unique, though often tragic, accidental experiment into

  5. Famine food of vegetal origin consumed in the Netherlands during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Tom; de Zwarte, Ingrid; Duistermaat, Leni; van Andel, Tinde

    2017-11-17

    Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944-1945) made at least 25,000 victims. The Dutch government took action by opening soup kitchens and providing information on wild plants and other famine food sources in "wartime cookbooks." The Dutch wartime diet has never been examined from an ethnobotanical perspective. We interviewed 78 elderly Dutch citizens to verify what they remembered of the consumption of vegetal and fungal famine food during World War II by them and their close surroundings. We asked whether they experienced any adverse effects from consuming famine food plants and how they knew they were edible. We identified plant species mentioned during interviews by their local Dutch names and illustrated field guides and floras. We hypothesized that people living in rural areas consumed more wild species than urban people. A Welch t test was performed to verify whether the number of wild and cultivated species differed between urban and rural citizens. A total number of 38 emergency food species (14 cultivated and 21 wild plants, three wild fungi) were mentioned during interviews. Sugar beets, tulip bulbs, and potato peels were most frequently consumed. Regularly eaten wild species were common nettle, blackberry, and beechnuts. Almost one third of our interviewees explicitly described to have experienced extreme hunger during the war. People from rural areas listed significantly more wild species than urban people. The number of cultivated species consumed by both groups was similar. Negative effects were limited to sore throats and stomachache from the consumption of sugar beets and tulip bulbs. Knowledge on the edibility of famine food was obtained largely by oral transmission; few people remembered the written recipes in wartime

  6. Enabling Operational Reach and Endurance: The Use of Contractors During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    progressive-foreign-policy. 8 Charles King , "The Five-Day War," Foreign Affairs, August 16, 2015, accessed August 16, 2015, https://www.foreignaffairs.com...substantial material aid.”91 The United States used several routes to supply the Soviet Union, including the Persian Gulf route. “The safest all-year...route through the Persian Gulf was also the longest in mileage and ship turn-around time, but it nevertheless remained a military necessity because of

  7. The use of depleted uranium in II Gulf War and its impact on Iraq and the perspective of international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, Ali Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    In the piece radioactive depleted uranium is a mineral density of 1.7 times heavier than lead a radiation active low level remains on the uranium used as fuel in nuclear reactors or after the manufacture of atomic bombs, and when it enters this dust into the body either by breathing or eating it causes harm caused by toxic chemotherapy and radiation in each of the bronchi and bronchial lung damage and also damage to the kidneys, liver, bone and the incidence of cancer and the potential for causing damage to the gene, Americans and British used between 300-800 tons of depleted uranium irradiated in ammunition were distributed in the deserts of Kuwait and southern Iraq in the 1991 II Gulf War when it began U.S. tanks, planes and Warthog A-10 using this ammunition against the Iraqi army Russian was measured by the level of radiation in the region by the Environmental Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Baghdad and found equal to that between several hundred to a thousand times the natural level of radiation to the soil of lraq, which is (70 bq/kg) of the soil and congenital malformations of newborns has increased 7 times the rate in 1990 as the use of depleted uranium in the war against Iraq caused thousands of cancer cases among civilians in the Iraq and the so-called symptoms of Gulf War illness or disease, the curse of Iraq suffered by many soldiers, members of the U.S. and Europe are due to exposure to radiation from depleted uranium, in addition to this has started to show thousands of cases of deformity among Iraqi children who were born after the war and the high proportion of children of war veterans were born and their distortions or suffering from acute illness. The Piece Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter of Human Rights and the Treaty of the Organization of Armed Conflict, Conventions and Protocols to the Four Geneva and UN Resolution 1540, for the year 2004, and the principles of international law are

  8. Responses to occupational and environmental exposures in the U.S. military--World War II to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Erin E

    2011-07-01

    Since the Civil War, a proportion of U.S. service members continues to return from war with new health problems and continues to reference battlefield exposures as the cause. Hence, one of the most pressing public health debates in military policy, the determination of causality and linking of battlefield exposures to health outcomes in veterans, continues. The advances in military environmental and occupational epidemiologic research and Department of Defense policy concerning battlefield exposures are summarized and examples from World War II through the first Gulf War are provided. The limitations associated with the unique battlefield environment, multiple environmental exposures, and the inherent stresses of war, beget challenges for researchers responsible for determining causality. In light of these difficulties, six strategies for addressing environmental exposures and their possible impact on veterans were recommended by the Institute of Medicine post Operation Desert Storm. These strategies, along with their respective progress and remaining gaps, are addressed.

  9. Poisson regression analysis of the mortality among a cohort of World War II nuclear industry workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, E.L.; Cragle, D.L.; McLain, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 28,008 white male employees who had worked for at least 1 month in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during World War II. The workers were employed at two plants that were producing enriched uranium and a research and development laboratory. Vital status was ascertained through 1980 for 98.1% of the cohort members and death certificates were obtained for 96.8% of the 11,671 decedents. A modified version of the traditional standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis was used to compare the cause-specific mortality experience of the World War II workers with the U.S. white male population. An SMR and a trend statistic were computed for each cause-of-death category for the 30-year interval from 1950 to 1980. The SMR for all causes was 1.11, and there was a significant upward trend of 0.74% per year. The excess mortality was primarily due to lung cancer and diseases of the respiratory system. Poisson regression methods were used to evaluate the influence of duration of employment, facility of employment, socioeconomic status, birth year, period of follow-up, and radiation exposure on cause-specific mortality. Maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in a main-effects model were obtained to describe the joint effects of these six factors on cause-specific mortality of the World War II workers. We show that these multivariate regression techniques provide a useful extension of conventional SMR analysis and illustrate their effective use in a large occupational cohort study

  10. [Brazilian Army nurses and transportation of the wounded: a challenge faced during World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded.

  11. Image compression evaluation for digital cinema: the case of Star Wars: Episode II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuelle, David L.

    2003-05-01

    A program of evaluation of compression algorithms proposed for use in a digital cinema application is described and the results presented in general form. The work was intended to aid in the selection of a compression system to be used for the digital cinema release of Star Wars: Episode II, in May 2002. An additional goal was to provide feedback to the algorithm proponents on what parameters and performance levels the feature film industry is looking for in digital cinema compression. The primary conclusion of the test program is that any of the current digital cinema compression proponents will work for digital cinema distribution to today's theaters.

  12. [Diary of a hospital evacuation. Discovery of a 5 hundredweight bomb from World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katter, I; Kunitz, O; Deller, A

    2008-07-01

    The discovery of an aircraft bomb from World War II made the complete evacuation of a tertiary care hospital with 629 beds and 17 specialist departments including a neonatal intensive care unit necessary. Some months before an alarm plan had been issued and a fire practice had been carried out which made it obvious to all concerned how important such measures are. Nevertheless, more room for improvement could be learned from the evacuation, in particular the rapid classification of the patients into categories and the fact that 20-30% of the patients needed stretcher-based transport for evacuation.

  13. Microcosms of democracy: imagining the city neighborhood in World War II-era America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches the rise of a Popular Front-inflected vision of the U.S. city neighborhood's meaning and worth, a communitarian ideal that reached its zenith during World War II before receding in the face of cold-war anxieties, postwar suburbanization, and trepidation over creeping blight. During the war years, numerous progressives interpreted the ethnic-accented urban neighborhood as place where national values became most concrete, casting it as a uniquely American rebuff to the fascist drive for purity. Elaborations appeared in the popular press's celebratory cadences, in writings by educators and social scientists such as Rachel DuBois and Louis Wirth, and in novels, plays, and musicals by Sholem Asch, Louis Hazam, Kurt Weill, Langston Hughes, and others. Each offered new ways for making sense of urban space, yet their works reveal contradictions and uncertainties, particularly in an inability to meld competing impulses toward assimilation and particularism. Building on the volume's theme "The Arts in Place," this essay examines these texts as a collective form of imaginative "placemaking." It explores the conflicted mode of liberal nationalism that took the polyglot city neighborhood as emblem. And it outlines the fissures embedded in that vision, which emerged more fully as the provisional wartime consensus dissolved.

  14. 46 CFR 32.20-1 - Equipment installations on vessels during World War II-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II-TB/ALL. 32.20-1 Section 32.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Installations § 32.20-1 Equipment installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL....

  15. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, P; Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J; Maercker, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine posttraumatic growth and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence, trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. Participants: 103 former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years, 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Measurement: Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth ...

  16. Boosting the Bugle Boy: The Role of Music in American Patriotism During World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Roberts

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941, they little realized what a formidable foe they had aroused. An enraged America immediately declared war on Japan. As a result, Germany declared war on America. Now facing enemies on both fronts, America mobilized her troops for action and prepared weapons of mass destruction. The unity experienced by the American people during this time had never been and would never be matched. Both soldiers and civilians launched themselves into the war effort. This great national endeavor called for anthems of reflection and encouragement. While they continued to sing national favorites such as "The Star-Spangled Banner" and "America the Beautiful," contemporary musicians wrote pieces that directly pertained to the country’s present trials and triumphs. New works remembering Pearl Harbor, praising the soldiers and comforting the sweethearts saturated the airwaves and were featured in performance venues. Music gave a tangibility and expression to the deeply felt emotional turmoil of the American people. They identified with and drew comfort from the subject matters it explored. Musicians such as Artie Shaw, Glenn Miller and the Andrews Sisters took tours entertaining troops at home and abroad, giving them courage and strength for the daunting fight they faced. When victory was finally achieved for the Allies on September 2, 1945, the people again turned to music as an outlet for their jubilant celebrations. Thus, music played a significant part in boosting American patriotism and troop support throughout the entirety of World War II.

  17. [The zoological garden of Amsterdam Natura Artis Magistra during world War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Maarten Th

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to the wise management of its director, dr. Armand Sunier, and his team, 'Artis' survived the difficult war period without great losses of its animals and only material damage to some buildings. Artis has meant very much for the inhabitants of the city of Amsterdam during the war. In the first place for the employees and their families, that were kept for starvation and forced labour by extra rations of food and safe hiding places. But also for jewish persons in hiding, who could escape from a certain death by hiding in animal houses or other buildings in the garden. And also for hundreds of thousands people of Amsterdam who found in their zoological garden an oasis of relaxation in a town full of threat and violence.

  18. Different Places, Different Ideas: Reimagining Practice in American Psychiatric Nursing After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie M

    2018-01-01

    In 1952, Hildegard Peplau published her textbook Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. This was the same year the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st ed.; DSM-I; APA). These events occurred in the context of a rapidly changing policy and practice environment in the United States after World War II, where the passing of the National Mental Health Act in 1946 released vast amounts of funding for the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the development of advanced educational programs for the mental health professions including nursing. This article explores the work of two nurse leaders, Hildegard Peplau and Dorothy Mereness, as they developed their respective graduate psychiatric nursing programs and sought to create new knowledge for psychiatric nursing that would facilitate the development of advanced nursing practice. Both nurses had strong ideas about what they felt this practice should look like and developed distinct and particular approaches to their respective programs. This reflected a common belief that it was only through nurse-led education that psychiatric nursing could shape its own practice and control its own future. At the same time, there are similarities in the thinking of Peplau and Mereness that demonstrate the link between the specific social context of mental health immediately after World War II and the development of modern psychiatric nursing. Psychiatric nurses were able to gain significant control of their own education and practice after the war, but this was not without a struggle and some limitations, which continue to impact on the profession today.

  19. ‘There was Nothing to Say and Nobody Said It’: Silence, Disconnection and Interruptions of Gertrude Stein’s Writing Voice during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Walker

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the experiences of Gertrude Stein in France during World War II that is portrayed in her book "Wars I Have Seen." The book depicts a picture of her and her partner Alice B. Toklas as well as an emphasis on media technologies. The book reveals that Stein has been preoccupied during the war with disconnected telephones and addictive radio. It also discusses the impact of acoustic communication technologies on war writing.

  20. Charitable activities in Tsaritsyn during the World War I (on materials of periodicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana A. Karagodina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the charitable activities carried out in the city of Tsaritsyn during the World War I. As a method of research used analysis of materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals published in the city in time of war. The main source of analysis is the issues of the newspaper «Tsaritsyno Bulletin» for the period from July 1914 to February 1917. The analysis allowed to identify the most priority directions of charitable aid, carried out in Tsaritsyn in the war. Also, the article discusses the activities of public organizations and associations, involved in the provision of charitable assistance to the sick and wounded soldiers, their wives and children, refugees. In particular, the reports of the Ladies' Committee of Tsaritsyn and the Tsaritsyn branch of the Russian Red Cross Society are analyzed and the features of the activity of these organizations are revealed.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Heterogeneous Materials I and Heterogeneous Materials II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, K. M.

    2004-02-01

    In these two volumes the author provides a comprehensive survey of the various mathematically-based models used in the research literature to predict the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of hetereogeneous materials, i.e., materials containing two or more phases such as fibre-reinforced polymers, cast iron and porous ceramic kiln furniture. Volume I covers linear properties such as linear dielectric constant, effective electrical conductivity and elastic moduli, while Volume II covers nonlinear properties, fracture and atomistic and multiscale modelling. Where appropriate, particular attention is paid to the use of fractal geometry and percolation theory in describing the structure and properties of these materials. The books are advanced level texts reflecting the research interests of the author which will be of significant interest to research scientists working at the forefront of the areas covered by the books. Others working more generally in the field\

  2. Science with a vengeance: How the Military created the US Space Sciences after World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devorkin, David H.

    The exploration of the upper atmosphere was given a jump start in the United States by German V-2 rockets - Hitler's "vengeance weapon" - captured at the end of World War II. The science performed with these missiles was largely determined by the missile itself, such as learning more about the medium through which a ballistic missile travels. Groups rapidly formed within the military and military-funded university laboratories to build instruments to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere, the nature of cosmic radiation, and the ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun. Few, if any, members of these research groups had prior experience or demonstrated interests in atmospheric, cosmic-ray, or solar physics. Although scientific agendas were at first centered on what could be done with missiles and how to make ballistic missile systems work, reports on techniques and results were widely publicized as the research groups and their patrons sought scientific legitimacy and learned how to make their science an integral part of the national security state. The process by which these groups gained scientific and institutional authority was far from straightforward and offers useful insight both for the historian and for the scientist concerned with how specialties born within the military services became part of post-war American science.

  3. Contact lens wear by Royal Air Force aircrew in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Richard M

    2014-04-01

    To provide an overview of the use of contact lenses by RAF aircrew in World War II by identifying some of the fitters and wearers and appraising the clinical results that they achieved. A wide-ranging literature search was undertaken that encompassed peer-reviewed journals, non-refereed publications, books, official publications, newspapers and archived documents. Thirty-one aircrew are known to have worn sealed scleral lenses in order to meet the required visual standards. Of these, only two were considered to be completely unsuccessful, one of whom was unilaterally aphakic. One additional case of undisclosed contact lens wear was found and the identity of this officer was established. Brief biographies of a few pilots establish the context of their contact lens wear. Overall, the results of scleral lens wear were variable reflecting those achieved by civilian patients of the period. While three men complained of discomfort due to heat and glare, one pilot experienced no photophobia when flying above white clouds in brilliant sunshine and another found no difficulty caused by altitude or tropical climate. Wearing time ranged from about 2h to 16, or more, hours. In about a third of the cases, wearing time was limited due to the onset of a form of contact lens induced-epithelial oedema known as Sattler's veil and effective solutions to this problem were not implemented until after the war. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Coping skills and social support in German long-time survivors of rape in the end of World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Svenja; Klauer, Thomas; Grundke, Elena; Freyberger, Harald J; Brähler, Elmar; Kuwert, Philipp

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to document perceived social support in a sample of German war-raped women in World War II. Furthermore the impact of this potential resource on today's posttraumatic symptoms should be pointed out. 27 women (M = 80.3 years, SD = 3.1 years) answered each a semi-structured interview and several questionnaires. Perceived social support shows clearly lower values than in the comparative samples. The measured degree of the variable in the present sample bears negative relationship to the actual posttraumatic symptoms of the women. In World War II sexually traumatized women could profit only few from the examined resource. The found negative relationship between perceived social support and posttraumatic symptoms shows additionally the potentially long-lasting impact of these form of coping on psychological health in trauma victims. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  6. From Technical Assistants to Critical Thinkers: The Journey to World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Michelle; Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2014-01-01

    A review of professional literature was conducted to examine the history of the education of medical laboratory practitioners. This comprehensive review included historical educational milestones from the birth of medical technology to the advent of World War II. During this time period standards were developed by clinical pathologists for laboratory personnel and training programs. In addition, a formal educational model began to form and by the 1940's two years of college was required for matriculation into a medical technology program. Intertwined within the educational milestones are imprints of the evolution of critical thinking requirements and skills within the profession. For the first laboratory practitioners, critical thinking was not developed, discussed, or encouraged as duties were primarily repetitive promoting psychomotor skills.

  7. Poor nutrition in prepubertal Japanese children at the end of World War II suppressed bone development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Tohya, Toshimitsu; Onoda, Chikashi; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-09-16

    To assess the extent to which malnutrition in childhood affects bone mineral density (BMD) decades later. BMDs were compared in healthy women (35-59 years old) who visited our hospital for annual examinations between 1992 and 1993 (group 1) and between 1999 and 2002 (group 2). The BMDs of 50- to 54-year-old women in group 1 averaged 0.86+/-0.15 g/cm2, which was significantly (pWar II (1945) undernutrition was rampant throughout Japan, and there were unprecedented numbers of cases of malnutrition. BMD was lower in women who experienced those conditions while they were 5 years old in average, a time when rapid skeletal growth was beginning. Thus, nutrition in childhood is a particularly crucial determinant of lifelong bone health.

  8. A mediational model of PTSD in World War II veterans exposed to mustard gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, M Kay; Schnurr, Paula P; Adams, Gary A; Green, Bonnie L; Ford, Julian D; Friedman, Matthew J

    2004-08-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine associations among trauma-related contextual factors, initial psychological reactions, social support, and subsequent disclosure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of World War II (WWII) veterans exposed to mustard gas (N = 305). A structural model suggested that initial psychological reaction mediated the relationship between variables related to the context of mustard gas exposure and severity of PTSD symptoms 50 years later. Unexpectedly, social support appeared to be positively related to PTSD symptoms, and not related to the contextual variables or initial psychological reactions. These findings contribute to our understanding of PTSD in older veterans, and have relevance for early intervention services to prevent PTSD among those at risk for exposure to toxic agents.

  9. Transmission patterns of smallpox: Systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bhatnagar (Vibha); M.A. Stoto (Michael); S.C. Morton (Sally); R. Boer (Rob); S.A. Bozzette (Samuel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library

  10. Documents Related to Churchill and FDR. The Constitution Community: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tom

    During World War II, a close friendship and excellent working relations developed between President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) and Prime Minister Winston Churchill that were crucial in the establishment of a unified effort to deal with the Axis powers. In early 1941, FDR began the long-term correspondence that developed into a close working…

  11. A Crisis Framework Applied to Macrosociological Family Changes: Marriage, Divorce, and Occupational Trends Associated with World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman-Blumen, Jean

    1975-01-01

    A typology of crises is developed to be used with critical aspects of the social system to predict both crisis and postcrisis period role changes. The crisis framework is then applied to macro-changes in family structure in response to an archetypal crisis, World War II. Census data generally support the hypotheses. (Author)

  12. [Mortality of psychiatric inpatients in France during World War II: a demographic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapireau, F

    2009-04-01

    In France, World War II lasted from 1939 to 1945. Under-nourishment was a national problem, and was more severe in mental hospitals. The mortality of psychiatric inpatients in France during World War II has long been a controversial issue in the country. Some authors wrote of the "soft extermination" of 40 000 mental patients, although this has been proven false. The historical study published in 2007 by Isabelle von Bueltzingsloewen provides in-depth description and analysis of starvation due to food restrictions in French mental hospitals. Although the French official statistic services published detailed data, no demographic study has been published so far. Such studies have been conducted in Norway and in Finland. "The influence of a period of under-nourishment upon mortality in mental hospitals can rarely be seen with a clarity equal to that in this work. The strict rationing was the same for everybody, but, extra muros, there was private initiative and ingenuity to help in alleviating the distress. Naturally, patients in institution had no ability to act on their own. The immense increase during the period of war from 1941 to 1945 appeared both as an increase in the exact death-risk and as an increase in the disproportion with normal mortality. The men reacted more strongly than women; which is readily comprehensible on physiological grounds, as the rations were virtually the same for all." Excess mortality continued after the war. Even though under-nourishment had ceased, death rates from tuberculosis remained high the following year. Both papers state that the poor hygiene and bad living conditions existing in mental hospitals before the war worsened the effects of food restrictions. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA: French data were published by the General Statistics of France (SGF) that became the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Insee) in 1946. A series of datasets were published each year according to sex, diagnosis and type of psychiatric

  13. World War II War Production-Why Were the B-17 and B-24 Produced in Parallel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Winton, A Black Hole in the Wild Blue Yonder: The Need for a Comprehensive Theory of Airpower (Air Command and Staff College War Theory Coursebook ... statistical comparisons made, of which most are summarized as follows2: 1. Statistical data compiled on the utilization of both planes showed that the B-17 was...easier to maintain and therefore more available for combat. 2. Statistical data on time from aircraft acceptance to delivery in theater showed that

  14. Vascular Surgery in the Pacific Theaters of World War II: The Persistence of Ligation Amid Unique Military Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M

    2018-06-18

    : Although multiple sources chronicle the practice of vascular surgery in the North African, Mediterranean, and European theaters of World War II, that of the Pacific campaign remains undescribed. Relying on primary source documents from the war, this article provides the first discussion of the management of vascular injuries in the island-hopping battles of the Pacific. It explains how the particular military, logistic, and geographic conditions of this theater influenced medical and surgical care, prompting a continued emphasis on ligation when surgeons in Europe had already transitioned to repairing arteries.

  15. Review Article: Inventing Historical Myths—Deborah S. Cornelius. Hungary in World War II. Caught in the Cauldron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pastor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the validity of Deborah S. Cornelius’s claims which she presents in her recently published book on interwar and World War II Hungary. These exonerate the revisionist, anti-Semitic and war-time policies of the Horthy regime. The monograph also presents the Hungarian leaders in an undeservedly positive light. The author of the review demonstrates that Cornelius’s representation of the past was accomplished by the selective reading of primary and secondary sources. Cornelius also commits too many factual errors in order to justify some of her assertions.

  16. The Impact of Materialism on the Familial Ties in Post-War American Society: A Study of Saul Bellow's Seize the Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sabbar Abdulbaqi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Saul Bellow (1915 –2005 is an American novelist and the winner of Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes for literature (1976. He is known for his critique of Post-II World War American society. The research discusses Saul Bellow's Seize the Day (1956 in regard of materialism and its impact on the familial ties not only in terms of monetary considerations but also the maltreatment of family members among themselves. It reviews the materialistic relationship between the father and son on the one hand and the husband and wife on the other hand. The study aims to recognize to what extent materialism represents a dispersed element for the family unit.

  17. Trends in the energy market after World War II (WW II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, K.

    1992-01-01

    After WW II, trends developed in the energy markets that continued virtually unbroken till 1972. The main trend was the strong growth of oil as a percentage of total energy consumed. Not only did oil monopolise the rapidly growing transportation market but it also penetrated rapidly into the stationary energy market. In the second half of the sixties, after the discovery of the Groningen Gas field, pipeline natural gas took a sizable share of the domestic and commercial energy market in Western Europe. This market was mainly fed by gas from Groningen, the North Sea and Russia. Another trend was the steady growth of electricity as a percentage of the stationary market partly based on nuclear energy. Coal was the loser. This rather steady development was upset by the first oil crisis in 1972. This crisis was a political crisis which had little to do with the physical availability of crude oil. Between 1972 and the present, periods of reasonable price stability were interrupted by violent swings in the price of oil and gas. Moreover, during this period the environmental movement became a major influence in the energy field. Notwithstanding the generally unstable market, some new trends developed after 1972 and some old ones continued. Will these trends continue long enough to be useful for making a scenario for the future? The forecaster should not assume that the development of energy consumption in the USA, Western Europe and Japan will continue to be of overwhelming importance. Developments in South East Asia and Eastern Europe should be watched very carefully. There are reasons to believe that at a certain stage in economic development, transportation demand shoots up much faster than economic growth, leading to a rapid demand growth for distillate oil. Of importance is also how will the rapidly developing countries generate their increasing demand for electricity and how will they fuel their industry? There can be little doubt that in the rich countries

  18. Nuclear dawn F. E. Simon and the race for atomic weapons in World War II

    CERN Document Server

    McRae, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a rounded biography of Franz (later Sir Francis) Simon, his early life in Germany, his move to Oxford in 1933, and his experimental contributions to low temperature physics approximating absolute zero. After 1939 he switched his research to nuclear physics, and is credited with solving the problem of uranium isotope separation by gaseous diffusion for the British nuclear programme Tube Alloys. The volume is distinctive for its inclusion of source materials not available to previous researchers, such as Simon's diary and his correspondence with his wife, and for a fresh, well-informed insider voice on the five-power nuclear rivalry of the war years. The work also draws on a relatively mature nuclear literature to attempt a comparison and evaluation of the five nuclear rivals in wider political and military context, and to identify the factors, or groups of factors, that can explain the results.

  19. On the Effectiveness of Military Institutions: Historical Case Studies from World War I, The Interwar Period and World War II. Volume 1. World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    considerable array of supporting services -- from the chaplain to the cinema, the rest-billet to the soccer field; a great deal of Bratish working...governments. At home, Wilson seldom interfered with Baker’s running the War Department or Daniels’ the Navy Depar tnen t. During 1916-1917 Congress...sense of urgency In the military bureaucracy: ’The divergencies of opinion among the experts were only a pretext for those I who did not know or did not

  20. Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements

    OpenAIRE

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Lindner, Iris; Büttner, Andreas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Comas, David

    2012-01-01

    Homogeneous Proto-Slavic genetic substrate and/or extensive mixing after World War II were suggested to explain homogeneity of contemporary Polish paternal lineages. Alternatively, Polish local populations might have displayed pre-war genetic heterogeneity owing to genetic drift and/or gene flow with neighbouring populations. Although sharp genetic discontinuity along the political border between Poland and Germany indisputably results from war-mediated resettlements and homogenisation, it re...

  1. The Attitude to War Prisoners in the USSR in the Initial Period of Captivity (on the Materials of Stalingrad and the Stalingrad Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Polyakov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the attitude of soldiers and officers of the Red Army, local population and authorities to the prisoners of war in Stalingrad. The historical sources verified by V.G. Polyakov are represented by the official documents from the Archive of Federal Security Service of Russia in the Volgograd region, memories of the Soviet and German parties involved in the events. These materials allow assessing the condition of war prisoners of Stalingrad in military camps. After the victory in the battle on the Volga tens of thousands of enemy soldiers of different nationalities were captured: Germans, Romanians, Italians and Poles. Their survival depended not only on the policy of the Soviet Command, but also on the specific actions of servants at distribution points and camps. The methodology proposed by M.P. Nazarova made it possible to determine the complex causes of high mortality of war prisoners at the initial stage of their captivity: grave malnutrition and diseases, cruel treatment, lack of food and water, difficulties of reception, transportation, accommodation and medical care. Stalingrad was heavily damaged, and there was a lack of resources for the organization of military camps. The sources of personal origin, reviewed by E.P. Vorobyev, reveal the change for the better attitude of both camp administration and residents to former soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. The compassion and help let many war prisoners survive. Many years later they retained vivid memories of the most tragic period in their life. Today the study of the fate of war prisoners in Stalingrad and in the Stalingrad region is an important aspect of preserving the historical memory about the events of World War II both in Russia and abroad.

  2. [The psychology of being unaccounted for, based on the example of children of missing German soldiers from World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Henning V; Klauer, Thomas; Freyberger, Harald J; Seidler, Günter H; Kuwert, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Despite today's extensive research on the psychosocial consequences of World War II, the group of wives and children whose husbands or fathers went "missing in action" during the Second World War, has yet to be studied systematically in Germany. The present review article shows the special role the wives, and in particular the children, of missing German soldiers played in society and discusses the impact of their loved ones being unaccounted has had on the mental health of this group. An overview of current research on the psychosocial status of the war generation is given following a short historical introduction to the theme. Subsequently, we discuss the legal and social situation of the families of missing German soldiers during the postwar decades. Finally, two psychological concepts drawn from the US research show that specific disorders, such as complicated grief or "boundary ambiguity," can occur in the relatives of missing persons and blur the line between hope and grief occurring as a result of ambiguous loss. The psychosocial impact of having a relative go missing has hardly been noticed in the German research tradition after World War II. Particularly in light of the age structure of those directly affected and the experiences of transgenerational transmission this neglected psychosocial research subject urgently needs further scientific investigation, inasmuch as the age of the family members still allows it.

  3. [Development of pharmacy in the Leskovac region for the period from liberation from the Turks until World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Petar; Milić, Slavica

    2013-01-01

    From the historical point of view, there are three time periods when the process of modernization of Serbian society took place. First period includes the interval from the beginning of the 19th century until the end of World War I, when the Serbian country was reestablished as Serbian Knezevina (princedom) and in 1882 as Serbian Kingdom. Second period includes an interval from the unity of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians, which was established at the end of World War I (1918) and in 1929 changed the name into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which lasted until the end of World War II. The third period includes time after World War II. In this paper, the social-economical conditions in the Leskovac area during the first two periods of modernization were described, as well as the pharmacy development emphasizing the characteristic of the pharmaceutics. The Leskovac area belongs to most recently liberated areas in Serbia, i.e. Leskovac was liberated at the end of 1877. Nevertheless, the first pharmacy was opened in Leskovac in 1862, during the reign of the Turks. The authors being the people from Leskovac as well as the pharmacists believe that they contributed to better overview of the activities of people from modernization period, paying them well-deserved recognition.

  4. ''Swords into ploughshares'': Breaking new ground with radar hardware and technique in physical research after World War II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, P.

    1995-01-01

    A survey is offered of applications to fundamental physical research, in the years immediately following World War II, of the instrumentalities developed for radar during that war. Attention is given to radar astronomy and radio astronomy, linear and cyclical accelerators, microwave spectroscopy, molecular beams, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic and ferromagnetic resonance, measurements of resistivity at high frequencies in metals and of second sound in helium II, and to the concepts of information and signal-to-noise ratio as basic to the design and analysis of experiments. In conjunction with this survey, consideration is given to the autonomy of physics as a knowledge-producing enterprise, framed as a question of continuity in research directions. As that question implies a baseline, the survey of postwar applications is preceded by a survey of those prewar directions of physical research requiring the highest available radio frequencies. Some 500 references are given

  5. China, Japan, and the United States in World War II: The Relinquishment of Unequal Treaties in 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how the United States transformed its foreign policy to promote China as an “equal state” in international politics during World War II, with focus on the process of the American relinquishment of its unequal treaties with China in 1943. In particular, it concentrates on analyzing the conflicts between the United States and Japan in the process of relinquishment. By examining the rivalry between the United States and Japan in the social warfare – propaganda – we can see that the relinquishment of the unequal treaties in 1943 not only marked a historical turning point in America’s China policy, but also had a great impact on the transformation of East Asian politics in World War II and its influence in the world politics.

  6. From Technical Assistants to Critical Thinkers: From World War II to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Michelle; Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2014-01-01

    A review of professional literature was conducted to examine the history of the education of medical laboratory practitioners. This comprehensive review included historical educational milestones from World War II to present day. During this time period the standard of two years of college required for matriculation into a medical technology program increased to four years. Critical thinking skills promoted in the educational model and applied in practice expanded from an analytic and psychomotor orientation to include those requiring extensive situational interpretation and negotiation. By the end of the twentieth century, the clinical laboratory had experienced significant scientific and technologic transformations necessitating greatly expanded roles for the medical laboratory practitioner. Though the educational requirements and education model have changed minimally since the 1970's, the knowledge and skills required for the next generation of medical laboratory practitioners continue to escalate. The second decade of the 21st century portends a transformation in medical laboratory practitioner education commensurate with the rapid advancement of science, technology, communications, and the precepts of evidence-based practice.

  7. Camels, Cormorants, and Kangaroo Rats: Integration and Synthesis in Organismal Biology After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the development of an area of research variously referred to as physiological ecology, environmental physiology, or ecophysiology. This area of research was distinctive in its self-conscious blend of field and laboratory practices and its explicit integration with other areas of biology such as ecology, animal behavior, and evolution in order to study adaptation. Comparing the intersecting careers of Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew highlights two strikingly different approaches to physiological ecology. These alternative approaches to studying the interactions of organisms and environments also differed in important ways from the organismal biology championed by leading figures in the modern synthesis.

  8. Streets and stages: urban renewal and the arts after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, Julia L

    2010-01-01

    Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan and the revitalization of the Brooklyn Academy of Music in Brooklyn offer insights into the intersection of arts and urbanization after World War II. This intra-city comparison shows the aggrandizing pull of the international arena in the shaping of Lincoln Center and the arts it featured in contrast to the local focus and debate that transformed how BAM fit into its Brooklyn neighborhood. The performing arts, bound as they are to a moment fused in space and time, reveal the making of place within grandiose formal buildings as well as outside on the streets that surround them—and it is, perhaps, that tensile connection between stages and streets that informs the relevancy of both the institution and the arts it features. At a time when the suburbs pulled more and more people, the arts provided a counterforce in cities, as magnet and stimulus. The arts were used as compensation for the demolition and re-building of a neighborhood in urban renewal, but they also exposed the more complex social dynamics that underpinned the transformation of the mid-20th century American city from a segregated to a multi-faceted place.

  9. [Lessons learnt from the German smallpox outbreaks after World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Julia; Gelderblom, Hans R

    2015-07-01

    Even though smallpox was declared eradicated by WHO in 1980, it cannot be ruled out that the etiological variola virus could be used as a biological weapon. Undestroyed viruses from biowarfare programmes, virus strains left undetected in a freezer or dangerous recombinant poxvirus constructs could cause dangerous outbreaks in a relatively unprotected population. Despite an abundance of studies performed during the eradication of smallpox, epidemiological data for preparedness planning and outbreak control in modern, industrialized countries are scarce. Full-text hand search for the period from 1945 to 1975 in the main German public health journals. After World War II 12 smallpox outbreaks occurred in Germany. They were studied with the focus on the period of contagiousness, the protective effect of vaccination, booster-effect of revaccination and the place of infection. A total of 95 individuals contracted smallpox, including 10 fatalities. Despite having been previously vaccinated, 81 vaccinated persons came down with smallpox, yet 91% of them developed only mild symptoms. These patients presented a high risk for spreading the infection to contact persons due to misinterpretation of symptoms and the continuing social contacts. Basically, the risk of transmission in the first 2 to 3 days after onset of symptoms was low, thus facilitating antiepidemic measures. The importance of hospital preparedness is emphasized by the fact that most infections occurred in hospitals. The data analyzed provide valuable information for today's outbreak response planning and counter bioterrorism preparedness.

  10. Republishing Pre-World War II Hungarian Women Writers After the Fall of Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Kádár

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Immediately before and shortly after the collapse of socialism in 1989, a large number of private publishing houses were founded in Hungary. Some of them began their career by republishing the novels of selected popular Hungarian women writers of the preWorld War II era that had been banned following the Soviet occupation of the country in 1945. The lack of comprehensive literary criticism on the works of women authors drove the new publishers to rely on the so-called “oral canon” of collective memory, which had saved some of their names from oblivion. To grab the attention of prospective readers, the books selected for publication were provided with modern book cover designs, reflecting new, but still patriarchal values. After a brief overview of how prewar literature was censored after 1945, focusing on the editors’ inevitable reinterpretation of the writings of Renée Erdős, Mrs. Kosáry Lola Réz, and Anna Tutsek through book cover designs, Kádár aims in this paper to survey in what ways and how successfully the re-editions of the novels by women writers have contributed to their inclusion in the literary canon since 1989.

  11. Fissile materials and international security in the post-Cold War world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    It is essential that members of industry, government and international organizations be able to come together to discuss the latest developments in this vital field at events such as this. Given the number of years this organization has devoted to the issue, the INMM must find it interesting that the control of fissile materials has become such a high-profile issue in the policy and political communities. But, this evolution in policy is a natural outgrowth of the changing world situation. While just 10 years ago the US and Soviet Union were churning out the fissile materials needed for weapons, today these former rivals are working together, hand in hand, to corral the danger posed by these materials. And, while it is clear that the world no longer lives on the edge of nuclear war, the nuclear danger still exists, though in a less obvious and perhaps more insidious form. It is a great challenge in this post-Cold War world to contain this nuclear threat. It is prudent and necessary for the US to be in the forefront of efforts to address and tame this problem. The fundamental threat posed by the proliferation of nuclear weapons and materials is a direct challenge to US and world security. President Clinton has clearly recognized the changed nature of the nuclear danger. To meet this challenge, he has labored to put in place a comprehensive and integrated plan for addressing this threat. The US Department of Energy has a unique role in this effort because, as an institution with many decades of experience in fissile material matters, it is able to provide expertise and technical analyses that are essential in defining and implementing policy prescriptions. The president's comprehensive plan to prevent nuclear proliferation and reduce the danger posed by weapons-usable nuclear materials has four essential elements: secure existing nuclear material stockpiles; limit fissile material production and use, eliminate warheads, and strengthen the nonproliferation regime

  12. The Philanthropic Organizations' Assistance to Jews of Romania and "Transnistria" during the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchenko, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    (donations, which was given by JDC through the ICRC and Romanian Jewish Community, food parcels, clothes, medicaments, and emigrations from "Transnistria" to Romania, Palestine (after 1943. Considering the status of Romania (as Nazi Germany's ally in World War II, the international financial transactions dealt with some difficulties, which delayed the relief, but it was changed after the Romania's joining to Allies. The further research on the topic raises new problem for scholars. Particularly, it deals with using of memoirs. There is one other important point is inclusion of national (Ukrainian historiography on the topic, concerning the rescue of Romanian Jews, to European and world history context.

  13. Gliders of World War II: ’The Bastards No One Wanted’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    experienced the consistent recycling of gliders from mission to mission. James Mrazek’s The Glider War and John L. Lowden’s Silent Wings at War are two...Germans were able to transform the glider, curiosities of the 1920’s and 30’s, into an effective element of airborne warfare. With the single

  14. The Unintended Consequences of World War II and the Victory Corps on Austin High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    Within two weeks of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. Office of Education Wartime Commission was formed to provide guidance to institutions of higher learning and public schools for the duration of the war. The goals set for the commission included: (1) facilitating the adjustment of education agencies to war needs; (2) informing government…

  15. Adaptations to Curriculum at the Quartermaster School Officer Candidate Course during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    of that year, General Craig directed the war plans division to begin looking at how to prepare the army should war break out in Europe or Asia ...and AGF strongly disagreed with the recommendation.70 AGF argued that expanding the courses to six months would not aid the overpopulation problem

  16. Commercial Radio Broadcasts of Propaganda: An Activity for Teaching about World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1983-01-01

    By using propaganda commercial radio broadcasts which occurred during the Second World War as the basis for classroom activities, teachers can help students capture the emotional drama of various topics of the war, as well as certain themes still applicable in contemporary society, and stimulate student curiosity about the past. (RM)

  17. "MEJ" and World War II: A Review of "Music Educators Journal", 1940-42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    As the United States prepared to enter the Second World War and during the early years of the conflict, Music Educators National Conference (MENC) focused attention on how music educators could support the war effort. The association worked with the federal government and other agencies on a number of national programs. Through its publication,…

  18. The Impact of Materialism on the Familial Ties in Post-War American Society: A Study of Saul Bellow's Seize the Day

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Sabbar Abdulbaqi

    2017-01-01

    Saul Bellow (1915 –2005) is an American novelist and the winner of Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes for literature (1976). He is known for his critique of Post-II World War American society. The research discusses Saul Bellow's Seize the Day (1956) in regard of materialism and its impact on the familial ties not only in terms of monetary considerations but also the maltreatment of family members among themselves. It reviews the materialistic relationship between the father and son on the one hand an...

  19. Long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence compared with non-sexual war trauma in female World War II survivors: a matched pairs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwert, Philipp; Glaesmer, Heide; Eichhorn, Svenja; Grundke, Elena; Pietrzak, Robert H; Freyberger, Harald J; Klauer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence experienced at the end of World War II (WWII) with non-sexual WWII trauma (e.g., being exposed to shell shock or physical violence). A total of 27 elderly wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects who were drawn from a larger sample of subjects over 70 years of age who had experienced WWII-related trauma. A modified version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess trauma characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 was used to assess current psychopathology. Additionally, measures of posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and social acknowledgement as a trauma survivor (Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire) were used to assess two mediating variables in post-trauma conditions of rape victims. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence reported greater severity of PTSD-related avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as anxiety, compared with female long-term survivors of non-sexual WWII trauma. The vast majority (80.9 %) of these women also reported severe sexual problems during their lifetimes relative to 19.0 % of women who experienced non-sexual war trauma. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence also reported greater posttraumatic growth, but less social acknowledgement as trauma survivors, compared to survivors of non-sexual war trauma. The results were consistent with emerging neurobiological research, which suggests that different traumas may be differentially associated with long-term posttraumatic sequelae in sexual assault survivors than in other survivor groups and highlights the need to treat (or better prevent) deleterious effects of conflict-related sexual violence in current worldwide crisis zones.

  20. Fissile material and international security in the post-Cold War world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    Given the number of years this organization has devoted to the issue, the INMM must find it quite interesting that the control of fissile materials has become such a high profile issue in the policy and political communities. But, this evolution in policy is a natural outgrowth of the changing world situation. While just ten years ago the United States and the Soviet Union were churning out the fissile materials needed for weapons, today these former rivals are working together, hand in hand, to corral the danger posed by these materials. And, while it is clear that the world no longer lives on the edge of nuclear war, the nuclear danger still exists, though in a less obvious and perhaps more insidious form. It is a great challenge in this post Cold War-world to contain this nuclear threat. It is prudent and necessary for the United States to be in the forefront of efforts to address and tame this problem. The fundamental threat posed by the proliferation of nuclear weapons and materials is a direct challenge to US and world security. President Clinton has clearly recognized the changed nature of the nuclear danger. To meet this challenge, he also labored to put in place a comprehensive and integrated plan for addressing this threat. The Department of Energy has a unique role in this effort because, as an institution with man decades of experience in fissile material matters, it is able to provide expertise and technical analyses which are essential in defining and implementing policy prescriptions. The President's comprehensive plan to prevent nuclear proliferation and reduce the danger posed by weapons-usable nuclear materials has four essential elements: (1) secure existing stockpiles; (2) limit production and use; (3) eliminate warheads; and (4) strengthen the nonproliferation regime

  1. The Case of Hirose Akira: The Ethical Predicament of a Japanese Buddhist Youth during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Terasawa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Buddhist clergy’s collaboration with the Japanese war machine during the Fifteen Year War (1931–1945 is notorious. Yet the struggles of ordinary lay Buddhist youths during World War II remain less publicized. This article examines the case of a young Shinshū Buddhist soldier, Hirose Akira, 廣瀬明 (1919–1947, and scrutinizes the diary he kept between 1939 and 1946. Mobilized between February 1942 and January 1945, Hirose became increasingly disillusioned, especially when he witnessed injustices and the officers’ thoughtlessness in ordering junior soldiers to make sacrifices while enjoying their privileges. His diary reveals an early skepticism toward the Japanese embrace of expansionism and the hypocrisy of its justifications for the war of aggression waged against China and Asia as a whole. Independently from the battle’s fate, by 1944 Hirose considered that Japan was already defeated because of what he saw as “her own people’s ego and selfishness.”

  2. Development of Textile Education following World War II, until the Introduction of Publicly Recognised Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estera Cerar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the requirements that emerged from the accelerated industrialisation of Yugoslavia following the Second World War was qualifi ed specialist personnel. Despite the eff orts of the Yugoslav government, which built the future on the working class and increased support for vocational schools that taught future professionals to work in production factories, the regulation of secondary technical education remained unresolved until 1967, when the Secondary Education Act was adopted. Lower vocational education, in particular, was neglected. The primary focus of this article is on the organisation of secondary and higher textile education, and on the numerous problems that accompanied the introduction of vocational textile education in Slovenia. In this research was proved that textile education did not develop in accordance with the needs of Yugoslav industry, that vocational textile education was at a disadvantage relative to other vocational schools and that the educational structure of employees in the textile industry did not follow the presented development of professional education. Archive materials and school chronicles were used in the study, as well as articles in periodicals and literature that address the problems of textile and vocational education in general. Using diff erent methodological approaches, the data were broken down into individual parts (as the basis for determining the situation and then combined into a whole. Descriptions were provided and diff erent terms compiled.

  3. Reconstructing Northern Hemisphere upper-level fields during World War II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broennimann, S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, PO Box 210092, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Luterbacher, J. [Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); NCCR Climate, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2004-05-01

    Monthly mean fields of temperature and geopotential height (GPH) from 700 to 100 hPa were statistically reconstructed for the extratropical Northern Hemisphere for the World War II period. The reconstruction was based on several hundred predictor variables, comprising temperature series from meteorological stations and gridded sea level pressure data (1939-1947) as well as a large amount of historical upper-air data (1939-1944). Statistical models were fitted in a calibration period (1948-1994) using the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data set as predictand. The procedure consists of a weighting scheme, principal component analyses on both the predictor variables and the predictand fields and multiple regression models relating the two sets of principal component time series to each other. According to validation experiments, the reconstruction skill in the 1939-1944 period is excellent for GPH at all levels and good for temperature up to 500 hPa, but somewhat worse for 300 hPa temperature and clearly worse for 100 hPa temperature. Regionally, high predictive skill is found over the midlatitudes of Europe and North America, but a lower quality over Asia, the subtropics, and the Arctic. Moreover, the quality is considerably better in winter than in summer. In the 1945-1947 period, reconstructions are useful up to 300 hPa for GPH and, in winter, up to 500 hPa for temperature. The reconstructed fields are presented for selected months and analysed from a dynamical perspective. It is demonstrated that the reconstructions provide a useful tool for the analysis of large-scale circulation features as well as stratosphere-troposphere coupling in the late 1930s and early 1940s. (orig.)

  4. The decline in BMI among Japanese women after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka

    2015-07-01

    The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurocinematography in Pre-World War II Netherlands: The Magnus-Rademaker Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt; Hielscher, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Historical films made by neuroscientists have shown up in several countries during past years. Although originally supposed to have been lost, we recently found a collection of films produced between 1909 and 1940 by Rudolf Magnus (1873-1927), professor of pharmacology (Utrecht) and his student Gysbertus Rademaker (1887-1957), professor of physiology (1928, succeeding Willem Einthoven) and neurology (1945, both in Leiden). Both collections deal with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were done with animals (labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brainstem sections) and observations on patients. The films demonstrate the results of these studies. Moreover, there are films with babies showing tonic neck reflexes and moving images capturing adults with cerebellar symptoms following cerebellectomies for tumors and several other conditions. Magnus' studies resulted in his well-known Körperstellung (1924, "Body Posture") and Rademaker's research in his Das Stehen (1931, "Standing"). The films probably had an educative and scientific purpose. Magnus demonstrated his films at congresses, including the Eighth International Congress of Physiologists (Vienna, 1910) and Rademaker screened his moving images at meetings of the Amsterdam Neurologists Society (at several occasions as reflected in the Winkler-Monakow correspondence and the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde). Next to these purposes, the films were used to analyze movement and a series of images from the films were published in articles and books. The films are important historical sources that provide a portrait of the pre-World War II era in neuroscience, partly answering questions on how physicians dealt with patients and researchers with their laboratory animals. Moreover, the films confirm that cinematography was an important scientific tool in neuroscience research.

  6. [The re-introduction of malaria in the Pontine Marshes and the Cassino district during the end of World War II. Biological warfare or global war tactics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio; Manfredi, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    After the fall of the Fascist regime on September 8, 1943, Italy was split into two parts: (i) the Southern regions where the King Victor Emanuel III and the military general staff escaped was under the control of English-American allied armies, and (ii) the northern regions comprising Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche still under the control of the Germans. The German Wehrmacht, after suffering several defeats on Southern lines, established a new strengthened line of defence called the Gustav line, located south of Rome and crossing in the western portion the recently-drained Pontine Marshes. In his book published in 2006, Frank Snowden hypothesised that occupying German armies in 1943 had initiated a programme of re-flooding the Pontine plain as a biological warfare strategy to re-introduce malaria infection in the territories south of Rome, Such a plan was intended (i) to slow down the advance of English-American forces, and (ii) to punish Italians who abandoned their former allies. Other authors, including Annibale Folchi, Erhard Geissler, and Jeanne Guillemin, have disputed this hypothesis based on an analysis of recently-uncovered archive documents. What is not disputed is that the flooding of the Pontine and Roman plains in 1943 contributed to a severe malaria epidemic in 1944, which was associated with exceptionally high morbidity and mortality rates in the afflicted populations. Herein, we critically evaluate the evidence and arguments of whether the Wehrmacht specifically aimed to spread malaria as a novel biological warfare strategy in Italy during the Second World War. In our opinion, evidence for specific orders to deliberately spread malaria by the German army is lacking, although the strategy itself may have been considered by Nazis during the waning years of the war.

  7. G. Kurt Piehler, ed. The United States in World War II: A Documentary Reader.

    OpenAIRE

    Gratale, Joseph Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Second World War commenced in 1939 when Germany’s Nazi regime invaded the nation-state of Poland.  The violation of Polish sovereignty by both Germany and the Soviet Union compelled the British and the French to stand alongside their Polish allies as was stipulated in pre-existing treaty obligations.  In spite of Nazi-Soviet cooperation in Poland, war between the two ultimately came to fruition in 1941 when Hitler initiated Operation Barbarossa.  With all major powers involved in the war,...

  8. That’ll Teach’em to Love Their Motherland!: Russian Youth Revisit the Battles of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kucherenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cult of World War II once again occupies a hegemonic position in the frigid, increasingly militaristic cultural climate of modern-day Russia. A matter of great pride for the overwhelming majority of Russian people, the war serves as a model for group solidarity and a means of social control. It is used as a positive, character forming experience as each new generation is initiated into it through popular culture. Three recent films, the duology We are from the Future and The Fog, take on the role of the « ceremony masters » for contemporary Russian youth in its rite of passage. Essentially the vehicles of state propaganda, the films not only explore the idiosyncrasies of the proverbial Russian character, while reviving military traditions and encouraging civic responsibility, but also reflect the deep-seated anxieties of Russian society regarding its younger members.

  9. Setting the Theater: US Sustainment Operations in the Pacific during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Clausewitz and Baron Antoine -Henri Jomini, discussed getting service members and their equipment to the right place at the right time. The sustainment of... Antoine H. Jomini, The Art of War (London: Greenhill Books; California: Presidio Press, 1992), 69. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. 4 operational...Jomini, Antoine Henri. The Art of War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971. 48 Kaigun, Nihon. "Guadalcanal Campaign | Nihon Kaigun

  10. The History of MIS-Y: U.S. Strategic Interrogation During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    27Ian Dear, Escape and Evasion, (London, UK: Arms and Armour Press, 1997), 11. 28Lloyd R. Shoemaker, The Escape Factory (New York: St. Martin’s...soldiers are beginning to understand that they are the underdogs carrying the weight of the bureaucracy. 11. Building up the Nazi Gangster Ideal. In...and Evasion: Prisoner of War Breakouts and the Routes to Safety in World War Two. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1997. DeForest, Orrin, and David

  11. Os periódicos acadêmicos de geografia francesa de 1940-1945. Entre a pobreza material e a resistência intelectual Les revues universitaires de géographie française de 1940 à 1945. Entre pénurie matérielle et résistance intellectuelle French Geographical Journals facing World War II. Between material scarcity and intellectual resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Beauguitte

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da guerra e da escassez decorrente dela, apesar da ocupação e dos censores do governo de Vichy e alemaes, os geógrafos franceses cuidaram, entre 1940 e 1945 de continuar seus trabalhos científicos. Este artigo tem como objetivo destacar as condições de produção dos seis jornais da geografia francesa durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial e as atitudes dos geógrafos frente às notícias deste momento difícil. O impacto da escassez é facilmente quantificável, e também é possível encontrar sinais claros de resistência à ocupação e ao regime de Vichy. Falando da censura como dos prisioneiros de guerra ou das dificuldades diárias relacionadas à Segunda Guerra Mundial, os geógrafos aqui estudados escreviam sobre uma geografia do presente.Malgré la guerre et les pénuries qu’elle entraîne, malgré l’occupation et les censures tant vichystes qu’allemandes, les géographes français veillent de 1940 à 1945 à poursuivre leur activité scientifique. Cet article vise à mettre en lumière tant les conditions de production des six revues de géographie françaises durant la Seconde guerre mondiale que l’attitude des géographes vis à vis de l’actualité difficile de cette époque. Si l’impact des pénuries est aisément quantifiable, il est également possible de trouver des signes nets de résistance à l’Occupation et au régime de Vichy. Evoquant tant la censure que les prisonniers de guerre ou les difficultés quotidiennes liées à la Seconde guerre mondiale, les géographes étudiés ici écrivent une géographie au présent.Despite the war and the shortages it causes, despite the Occupation and both Vichy and German censorships, French geographers achieved, from 1940 to 1945, to continue their scientific work. This article aims to highlight both the production of French geographical journals during the World War II and the behaviour of geographers in this difficult time.If the impact of shortages can be

  12. Methods of humidity determination Part II: Determination of material humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Rübner, Katrin; Balköse, Devrim; Robens, E.

    2008-01-01

    Part II covers the most common methods of measuring the humidity of solid material. State of water near solid surfaces, gravimetric measurement of material humidity, measurement of water sorption isotherms, chemical methods for determination of water content, measurement of material humidity via the gas phase, standardisation, cosmonautical observations are reviewed.

  13. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  14. Medical Aid for Russian Soldiers During the First World War (on the Materials of Tsaritsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepkova Elena

    2014-11-01

    hospitals, financed “personal beds” in infirmaries, carried out charitable evenings and “passing the hat”. The article is written on the basis of archival materials which described the Tsaritsyn hospitals, the wounded and captives of the First World War.

  15. RTNS-II fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Tuckerman, D.B.; Davis, J.C.; Massoletti, D.J.; Short, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-II) facility provides an intense source of 14-MeV neutrons for the fusion energy programs of Japan and the United States. Each of the two identical accelerator-based neutron sources is capable of providing source strengths in excess of 3 x 10 13 n/s using deuteron beam currents up to 150 mA. The present status of the facility, as well as the various upgrade options, will be described in detail

  16. The association between nutritional conditions during World War II and childhood anthropometric variables in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell-Andersen, E; Tretli, S; Bjerknes, R; Forsén, T; Sørensen, T I A; Eriksson, J G; Räsänen, L; Grotmol, T

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the height and weight in Nordic children during the years around World War II (WWII), and compare them with the nutritional situation during the same period. Information on food consumption and energy intake were obtained from the literature. Anthropometric data were collected from the Nordic capitals and cover the period from 1930 to 1960 for ages 7-13 years. The greatest energy restriction took place in Norway (20%), followed by Finland (17%), while Sweden and Denmark had a restriction of 4-7% compared to pre-war levels. The most pronounced effect of WWII on height and weight is seen in Norwegian children, while some effect is observed for the youngest children in Finland. Little or no effect is seen in Sweden and Denmark. The Nordic children were affected by WWII in terms of a transient reduction in temporal trends in height and weight, and the magnitude of this decrease was associated with the severity of the energy restriction prevailing in the respective country during the war. These findings warrant further studies of the chronic diseases associated with height and weight for cohorts being in their growth periods during WWII. Copyright 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd.

  17. The evacuation of British children during World War II: a preliminary investigation into the long-term psychological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D; Davies, S; Steele, H

    2003-09-01

    The authors used attachment theory to hypothesize about the possible long-term psychological effects of evacuation during World War II, focusing on children who were evacuated unaccompanied by their parents. The study aimed to establish whether this experience had long-term effects on psychological well-being, and to investigate mediating and moderating factors. The study utilized a retrospective non-randomized design, comparing 169 former evacuees with 43 people who were children during the war but not evacuated. No differences between the groups were found in terms of demographic variables or exposure to war-related events. All participants completed a range of standardized self-report questionnaires. Findings indicated that former evacuees were more likely to have insecure attachment styles and lower levels of present psychological well-being. Satisfaction with, but not quantity of, current social support was found to mediate the relationship between attachment style and present psychological well-being. Conclusions are limited due to the method of measurement of attachment style, non-randomized design and method of recruitment. Nevertheless, findings offer an indication that the experience of evacuation is associated with long-term psychological vulnerability through its relationship with insecure attachment.

  18. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, Philipp; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald J; Maercker, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    To examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence (SOC), trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Cross-sectional. University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. One hundred three former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years in which 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Social Acknowledgment Questionnaire (SAQ), and SOC Scale. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed by the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Number of traumas, recognition by significant others, and general disapproval as facets of social acknowledgment as a survivor, and meaningfulness as a dimension of SOC correlated significantly with PTG. In a multiple hierarchical regression analysis, recognition as a survivor by significant others (SAQ) and meaningfulness (SOC) remained the only significant predictors of PTG. Social acknowledgment as a survivor by significant others and the belief that the world is meaningful are among the most important factors contributing to PTG. Further research should investigate whether treatments of PTSD in people who experienced war traumas recently or many years ago might benefit from a focus on the belief system and the role of family and social support.

  19. Appetitive aggression as a resilience factor against trauma disorders: appetitive aggression and PTSD in German World War II veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades.To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8. War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS. Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = - .31, p = .014. The effect size and power were sufficient (f(2 = 0.51, (1-β = .99. The same was true for current PTSD (β = - .27, p = .030.Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans.

  20. Association of the World War II Finnish Evacuation of Children With Psychiatric Hospitalization in the Next Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Torsten; Santavirta, Nina; Gilman, Stephen E

    2018-01-01

    Although there is evidence that adverse childhood experiences are associated with worse mental health in adulthood, scarce evidence is available regarding an emerging concern that the next generation might also be affected. To compare the risk of psychiatric hospitalization in cousins whose parents were vs were not exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy that involved a mean 2-year stay with a Swedish foster family. This multigenerational, population-based cohort study of Finnish individuals and their siblings born between January 1, 1933, and December 31, 1944, analyzed the association of evacuee status as a child during World War II in the first generation with the risk of psychiatric hospitalization among offspring in the second generation. Evacuee status during World War II was determined using the Finnish National Archive's registry of participants in the Finnish evacuation. Data on evacuee status were linked to the psychiatric diagnoses in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012, for offspring (n = 93 391) born between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 2010. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for risk of psychiatric hospitalization during the follow-up period. Because offspring of evacuees and their nonevacuated siblings are cousins, the Cox proportional hazards regression models included fixed effects to adjust for confounding factors in families. Data analysis was performed from June 15, 2016, to August 26, 2017. Parental participation in the evacuation during World War II (coded 1 for parents who were evacuated and placed in foster care and 0 for those not evacuated). Offspring's initial admission to the hospital for a psychiatric disorder, obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012. Of the 93 391 study persons, 45 955 (49.2%) were women and 47 436 (50.8) were men; mean (SD) age in

  1. Catholic sports in Italy: After World War II until second Vatican Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Palandri

    2013-10-01

    explore the development and importance that this sport had to do with the national sphere of sport starting with its reconstruction after the World War II. This period coincides with the years of the Second Vatican Council (CVII on one side and the Olympic Games in Rome on the other, and wish to show the reciprocal influence that exist between these events. It will be also be explained the Centro Sportivo Italiano (CSI and its contribution to the sports system in Italy during this time, the Olympic Games in Rome in 1960 and about the push that CSI gave to spread the Olympic spirit among the population, of the CVII and the influence that this event had in the dynamics of the CSI. There are not many who know that the Council speaks also about sports, in particular in the Constitution Gaudium et Spes, a document in which the Church give heed to the signs of times and listens to the contemporary world, and opens for further research and dialogue. This attitude of openness gave a chance to the conciliar Fathers to reflect about sports as an important social phenomenon of the twentieth century.

  2. The Living Goddess of Mercy at the Rape of Nanking: Minnie Vautrin and the Ginling Refugee Camp in World War II (1937–1938 †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ping Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the infamous Nanking Atrocity, some Western businesspersons and missionaries established the Nanking Safety Zone to protect about 250,000 refugees. When the Japanese army was pressing on Nanking, Minnie Vautrin, an educational missionary from the United Christian Missionary Society, took charge of the Ginling College campus. As one of the 25 refugee camps, Ginling provided shelter to about 10,000 women and children in late December 1937—the hardest time during World War II in China. With her neutral identity of American nationality, Vautrin seriously struggled with Japanese soldiers when they were seizing Chinese women for rape from the campus; thus, she helped many women avoid the possible fate of sexual violence and slaughter. The Chinese people promoted her as a “Goddess of Mercy”, in the Chinese language a “Living Buddha” (Huo pu sa or “Guanyin Buddha” (Guan Yin pu sa. The Chinese central government awarded her the Order of Jade (Cai Yu xun zhang. Drawing from Vautrin’s diaries and other original materials, this paper narrates this Christian female missionary’s moving story in humanism, evangelism, and internationalism. Her devotion to the Chinese refugee women and children made her an eyewitness to the Nanking Massacre, a rehabilitator of refugee sufferings, and a mental and bodily victim of disastrous war.

  3. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  4. Air Force Support of Army Ground Operations Lessons Learned during World War II, Korea, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-06

    Th ;e 8epre--cdin this paper .rv thoe. of ’:ceauhor IDep 2rtmt-nt of Diefense rayo t gr: s hsPcC % FOC, O P 0- C GOUND OP!-txA’TONS ’A NS tTAI.D 11...NOTE S T edder, Wi.th Preudice: The War Memoirs . - y Air Force. Lord Tedaer. rr- 40-43. 2.".~ : X :"~ , M~.c, ’ = A r Power in Three Wars WW 7:, Kora...that FEAF assume operational control over land based Marine air units and over carri.er bjdsed aviation operating over Korea effective as soon as X

  5. Institutional autonomy of jews in Poland after world war II on the example of the cooperative movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rykała Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins, development and liquidation of the Jewish cooperative movement in Poland after the Second World War. It outlines the socio-political background, which contributed to the creation of a kind of national-cultural autonomy for the Jews, including one of its pillars - the cooperative movement. The functioning of cooperative institutions was analyzed for the structure of the industry, distribution and their number, and the number of workers employed there. I also assessed the role that their own cooperatives played in the reconstruction of post-war life of the Jewish population in Poland, both in the material as well as social and psychological fields, and also in the development of the cooperative movement in general.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and polymerization of methacrylates of copper (II), cobalt (II) and molybdenum (II). Generation of new materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Bolanos, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Coordination compounds of the species copper (II), cobalt (II) and molybdenum (II) with methacrylic acid were synthesized and characterized. Besides, it realized reactions of bromine addition to the doubles links of the species obtained previously, also too like reactions with dry HCl. Finally, it got hybrids materials by polymerization of the first compounds in an acrylic matrix. Research concluded with the characterization of all the products. (author) [es

  7. Teaching giants to learn: Lessons from army learning in World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE - This paper aims to discuss the “truism” that learning organizations cannot be large organizations and, conversely, that large organizations cannot be learning organizations. This paper analyzes learning in the German and US armies in the Second World War, based on a four-dimensional model

  8. Teaching Giants to Learn: Lessons from Army Learning in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Max

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the "truism" that learning organizations cannot be large organizations and, conversely, that large organizations cannot be learning organizations. This paper analyzes learning in the German and US armies in the Second World War, based on a four-dimensional model of the learning organization.…

  9. Remembering Wartime Schooling...Catholic Education, Teacher Memory and World War II in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ruyskensvelde, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Power over education and the upcoming generations has always been an important instrument in shaping religious and secular values. As a consequence, control over schools, pupils and teachers was, particularly in periods of war, an important means for bringing about acceptance of the new regime. The aim of this paper is to discuss priest-teachers'…

  10. Identity Loss and Recovery in the Life Stories of Soviet World War II Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Peter G.; Podolskij, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the adjustment to societal change following the fall of communism in a group of Soviet war veterans from Russia and the Ukraine. The focus of the study was on the dynamics of identity development, and especially generativity, in a period of intense social upheaval. Design and Methods: We administered measures of self-esteem,…

  11. Combining individual memory & collective memory? : Classics Illustrated’s representation of World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribbens, Kees

    WWII is widely remembered and represented. Keeping the memories of this international conflict alive, both within academic and popular history writing, occurred largely within various national frameworks. On the one hand, in the immediate post-war world many stories appeared about the great events

  12. Reporting Military Sexual Trauma: A Mixed-Methods Study of Women Veterans' Experiences Who Served From World War II to the War in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kristina B; Mills, Peter D

    2016-08-01

    Since 2004, there has been increased effort to reduce military sexual trauma (MST) in the U.S. military. Although MST covers a range of inappropriate behaviors, the majority of research, treatment, and outreach are focused on sexual assault and the experiences of individuals serving in Afghanistan and Iraq. During a study on veterans' involvement in a national peace organization, participants were asked about their military experiences. Veterans served from World War II to current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Emerging out of the responses were descriptions of women's experiences with MST, barriers to reporting incidents of sexual misconduct and sexual assault, and the challenges they faced when seeking care. Data were gathered using anonymous questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Out of 52 female veterans, the majority (90%) was subjected to at least one form of MST, and 15% (8) attempted to report the incident(s). Over half of the assailants were of a higher rank than the survivors. The majority of veterans remained silent due to lack of options to report, the status of perpetrators, and fear of retaliation. These data provide a glimpse into the challenges many women veterans faced when seeking assistance reporting incidents or obtaining health care for their MST. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Shimomura, Satoshi; Hachiya, Misao [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol`s iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs.

  14. Development of a service organization. CHA (Catholic Hospital Association) from post-World War II through Vatican II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C J

    1990-06-01

    Having weathered the Depression and war years, CHA in the late 1940s looked forward to a new era in Catholic healthcare. The third and fourth articles of Health Progress's six-part history of CHA described how Rev. Alphonse M. Schwitalla, SJ, led the association through one of the most difficult periods in U.S. history. This article follows CHA's development into a modern service organization under the leadership of Rev. John J. Flanagan, SJ. The series' final installment, which will appear in the July-August issue, describes how CHA has modernized its services and structure in the past two decades to help its members adjust to a turbulent environment.

  15. War games: using MRP (material requirements planning) audits to pinpoint problems and keep the competitive edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S H; Yocus, T E

    1994-05-01

    In today's world, it is a challenge just to stay in business, let alone remain competitive in a specific industry. We will show you how to pinpoint MRP II problems and attack them through self-assessment audits. You will discover the secrets of breaking down barriers between Master Schedulers, Material Planners, Production Control Planners, and the Manufacturing Line. Self-assessment audits are one way to take care of your planning functions before outside auditors take care of them for you.

  16. Infographics as Eye Candy: Review of World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties by Peter Doyle (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Best

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter Doyle. World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties, illustrated by Lindsey Johns (Buffalo NY: Firefly Books, 2013. 224 pp. ISBN: 177085195X. Doyle’s book contains dozens of graphs of statistical data dealing with World War II. Many of these graphs are visually striking. However, they often violate fundamental graphing principles, in that they distort quantitative relationships, use unidentified scales, and often make it difficult to compare quantities. Graphic software makes it easy to create imaginative images, but these can fail to communicate the very information that is the graph’s purpose.

  17. Continuities and ruptures in the history of eugenics: an analysis from Renato Kehl publications in the Post-World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dallacqua de Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Overall, the period after World War II is characterized as a turning point or discontinuance of racial theories and debate about racial identity, especially when referring to the history of eugenics. From the analysis of medical work of eugenicist Renato Kehl, the aim of this study is to investigate the continuities and discontinuities of eugenic through this author, trying to understand the way that eugenic ideas gained in the post-World War II. The continuity of Kehl publications on eugenics in the 1940s to 1960s allows us to observe the development of this debate in a context of contestation to the Eugenics theories.

  18. The Cinderella Front: Allied Special Air Operations in Yugoslavia during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    the 21st Century: An Effect-Based Approach to the Planning Process”, War Theory Coursebook , Air Command and Staff College: Maxwell AFB, 1996, 36. 6...French and other operations allowed. Of all the contextual elements, the leadership and physical environment were perhaps most influential in the...military liaisons to the Partisans and Chetniks and to gather reliable information about their effectiveness.7 The physical environment of Yugoslavia

  19. Blood Program in World War II. Medical Department, United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    phase of which was the supply of p asma for the Armed Forces. At the suggestion of Col. (later Brig. Gen.) Charles C. Hillman, MC, Chief, Professional...American Red Cross and the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis at the cost of processing. THE KOREAN WAR 785 RED BLOOD CELLS During the Korean...after, 725 262-263 National Formulary, 377 Multiple injections of- National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, blood substitutes, 373 784 bovine

  20. Surgery in World War II. Orthopedic Surgery in the Zone of Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    were returned to duty. OTHER REPORTED SERIES A curious lack of realism pervades many of the reports of menis- cectomy, undoubtedly because the...irreversible changes. Another note of realism was struck by Major Breck, at the regional hospital at Camp Swift, Tex. (31). He reported that 75 percent of men...far as is known, cinematization was attempted in only five cases in World War I, in two of which it was done overseas (2). In only one of the five

  1. From the Peloponnesian War to the King’s Peace (II: elements of Athenian citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Placido

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems and tensions surrounding the definition of Athenian citizenship at the end of fifth century and early fourth century BC, which are related to the evolution in forms of dependence after the Peloponnesian War. Citizenship rights, alongside personal leadership questions and public and private economic factors, analyzed in other works, reveal a complex but consistent picture of the Athenian society, in which all of these elements interact and explain each other.

  2. Combat Engineers of World War II: Lessons on training and Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    reaction to World War I, antiwar sentiment, and the Great Depression led to a large decline in the United States military.1 This decline was experienced...posts. 30Ibid., 68. 311st Engineer Amphibian Brigade to the Commanding General, Allied Forces, 30 December 1942, Lessons from Operation Torch...hostilities in Europe and Japan (celebrated as Victory in Japan Day, 2 September 1945) brought about a rapid declination of trainees within the engineer

  3. Long-term consequences of and prospects for recovery from nuclear war: Two views. View II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The author comments on the information presented in this volume and speculates on the long-term consequences of nuclear war and the prospects for recovery. In order to do that, it might be useful to define long term. To him this means time frames of years to perhaps even hundreds of years in terms of the ultimate response and recovery of large-scale ecosystems. Such long time frames may seem excessive, but if some of the speculated efforts of nuclear war are actually realized, it may indeed take centuries before native ecosystems restabilize. Also, when referring to long-term effects of the magnitude required to have a major impact on entire ecosystems, it is clear that the driving force would not be the direct effects of nuclear war. Of potentially greater significance would be the secondary effects mediated by the intermediate-term impacts on global climate. Specifically, he refers to the speculative impacts of major decreases in the heat and light fluxes reaching the Earth's surface. Such changes are commonly referred to as ''nuclear winter.''

  4. The USSR Victory in World War II and the Emergence of the Independent Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa M. Efimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Victorious ending of the World War 2 on May, 9, 1945, stroke a crushing blow on the military axis Berlin - Rome - Tokyo. The USSR played a decisive role both on European and Asian fronts. Fulfilling its allied duty the Soviet Union entered the war in the Far East on 9 August, 1945 and defeated the Japanese army in Manchuria. This act became a great contribution to liberation of Asian peoples from the Japanese occupation. On the 17 August 1945 the Republic of Indonesia declared its independence. The recognition on the side of international community as well as diplomatic support became\\e vital for the survival of the newly emerged Republic.The Soviet victory together with the allied nations in the Second World War, the new status of the USSR as a superpower, its constant anticolonial stance stimulated former colonies to appeal to the Soviet Union for backing and support. One of the first was the Republic of Indonesia, to which the USSR rendered all kind of help and encourages. The present article which is a result of the study of newly available documents from several recently opened Soviet archives shows the Soviet backing of Indonesia in the UN, its diplomatic recognition, in strengthening of Indonesian status as a sovereign state on the international arena as a whole.

  5. Diagnosing the Kaiser: Psychiatry, Wilhelm II and the Question of German War Guilt The William Bynum Prize Essay 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freis, David

    2018-07-01

    After his abdication in November 1918, the German emperor Wilhelm II continued to haunt the minds of his people. With the abolition of the lese-majesty laws in the new republic, many topics that were only discussed privately or obliquely before could now be broached openly. One of these topics was the mental state of the exiled Kaiser. Numerous psychiatrists, physicians and laypeople published their diagnoses of Wilhelm in high-circulation newspaper articles, pamphlets, and books shortly after the end of the war. Whether these diagnoses were accurate and whether the Kaiser really was mentally ill became the issue of a heated debate.This article situates these diagnoses of Wilhelm II in their political context. The authors of these diagnoses - none of whom had met or examined Wilhelm II in person - came from all political camps and they wrote with very different motives in mind. Diagnosing the exiled Kaiser as mentally ill was a kind of exorcism of the Hohenzollern rule, opening the way for either a socialist republic or the hoped-for rule of a new leader. But more importantly, it was a way to discuss and allocate political responsibility and culpability. Psychiatric diagnoses were used to exonerate both the Emperor (for whom the treaty of Versailles provided a tribunal as war criminal) and the German nation. They were also used to blame the Kaiser's entourage and groups that had allegedly manipulated the weak-willed monarch. Medical concepts became a vehicle for a debate on the key political questions in interwar Germany.

  6. Malaria and World War II: German malaria experiments 1939-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, W U; Vondra, H

    2000-06-01

    The epidemiological and pharmacological fight against malaria and German malaria research during the Nazi dictatorship were completely under the spell of war. The Oberkommando des Heeres (German supreme command of the army) suffered the bitter experience of unexpected high losses caused by malaria especially at the Greek front (Metaxes line) but also in southern Russia and in the Ukraine. Hastily raised anti-malaria units tried to teach soldiers how to use the synthetic malaria drugs (Plasmochine, Atebrine) properly. Overdoses of these drugs were numerous during the first half of the war whereas in the second half it soon became clear that it would not be possible to support the army due to insufficient quantities of plasmochine and atebrine. During both running fights and troop withdrawals at all southern and southeastern fronts there was hardly any malaria prophylaxis or treatment. After war and captivity many soldiers returned home to endure heavy malaria attacks. In German industrial (Bayer, IG-Farben) and military malaria laboratories of the Heeres-Sanitäts-Akademie (Army Medical Academy) the situation was characterised by a hasty search for proper dosages of anti-malaria drugs, adequate mechanical and chemical prophylaxis (Petroleum, DDT, and other insecticides) as well as an anti-malaria vaccine. Most importantly, large scale research for proper atebrine and plasmochine dosages was conducted in German concentration camps and mental homes. In Dachau Professor Claus Schilling tested synthetic malaria drugs and injected helpless prisoners with high and sometimes lethal doses. Since the 1920s he had been furiously looking for an anti-malaria vaccine in Italian mental homes and from 1939 he continued his experiments in Dachau. Similar experiments were also performed in Buchenwald and in a psychiatric clinic in Thuringia, where Professor Gerhard Rose tested malaria drugs with mentally ill Russian prisoners of war. Schilling was put to death for his criminal

  7. Enhanced Materials Based on Submonolayer Type-II Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamargo, Maria C [City College of New York, NY (United States); Kuskovsky, Igor L. [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States) Queens College; Meriles, Carlos [City College of New York, NY (United States); Noyan, Ismail C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-04-15

    We have investigated a nanostructured material known as sub-monolayer type-II QDs, made from wide bandgap II-VI semiconductors. Our goal is to understand and exploit their tunable optical and electrical properties by taking advantage of the type-II band alignment and quantum confinement effects. Type-II ZnTe quantum dots (QDs) in a ZnSe host are particularly interesting because of their relatively large valence band and conduction band offsets. In the current award we have developed new materials based on sub-monolayer type-II QDs that may be advantageous for photovoltaic and spintronics applications. We have also expanded the structural characterization of these materials by refining the X-ray diffraction methodologies needed to investigate them. In particular, we have 1) demonstrated ZnCdTe/ZnCdSe type-II QDs materials that have ideal properties for the development of novel high efficiency “intermediate band solar cells”, 2) we developed a comprehensive approach to describe and model the growth of these ultra-small type-II QDs, 3) analysis of the evolution of the photoluminescence (PL) emission, combined with other characterization probes allowed us to predict the size and density of the QDs as a function of the growth conditions, 4) we developed and implemented novel sophisticated X-ray diffraction techniques from which accurate size and shape of the buried type-II QDs could be extracted, 5) a correlation of the shape anisotropy with polarization dependent PL was observed, confirming the QDs detailed shape and providing insight about the effects of this shape anisotropy on the physical properties of the type-II QD systems, and 6) a detailed “time-resolved Kerr rotation” investigation has led to the demonstration of enhanced electron spin lifetimes for the samples with large densities of type-II QDs and an understanding of the interplay between the QDs and Te-isoelectroic centers, a defect that forms in the spacer layers that separate the QDs.

  8. Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Lindner, Iris; Büttner, Andreas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Comas, David

    2013-04-01

    Homogeneous Proto-Slavic genetic substrate and/or extensive mixing after World War II were suggested to explain homogeneity of contemporary Polish paternal lineages. Alternatively, Polish local populations might have displayed pre-war genetic heterogeneity owing to genetic drift and/or gene flow with neighbouring populations. Although sharp genetic discontinuity along the political border between Poland and Germany indisputably results from war-mediated resettlements and homogenisation, it remained unknown whether Y-chromosomal diversity in ethnically/linguistically defined populations was clinal or discontinuous before the war. In order to answer these questions and elucidate early Slavic migrations, 1156 individuals from several Slavic and German populations were analysed, including Polish pre-war regional populations and an autochthonous Slavic population from Germany. Y chromosomes were assigned to 39 haplogroups and genotyped for 19 STRs. Genetic distances revealed similar degree of differentiation of Slavic-speaking pre-war populations from German populations irrespective of duration and intensity of contacts with German speakers. Admixture estimates showed minor Slavic paternal ancestry (~20%) in modern eastern Germans and hardly detectable German paternal ancestry in Slavs neighbouring German populations for centuries. BATWING analysis of isolated Slavic populations revealed that their divergence was preceded by rapid demographic growth, undermining theory that Slavic expansion was primarily linguistic rather than population spread. Polish pre-war regional populations showed within-group heterogeneity and lower STR variation within R-M17 subclades compared with modern populations, which might have been homogenised by war resettlements. Our results suggest that genetic studies on early human history in the Vistula and Oder basins should rely on reconstructed pre-war rather than modern populations.

  9. Hazardous materials safety and security technology field operational test. Volume II, evaluation final report synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-11

    The catastrophic events of September 11, 2001 and the ongoing war on terrorism have heightened the level of concern from Federal government officials and the transportation industry regarding the secure transport of hazardous materials (HAZMAT). Secu...

  10. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan.

  11. Decades of Recorded Music for Children: Norwegian Children’s Phonograms from World War II to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Dyndahl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of Norwegian-recorded music for children from World War II to the present, combining a historical perspective with an ethnographic approach. The underlying research has employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches, producing various data sets. The results of the data analyses indicate that the evolution of children’s phonograms is characterized by some distinct genre- and style-related development features. This article describes and interprets such features in light of concepts and theories of children’s culture and music sociology. It also elaborates on the emergence of a music market aimed at children, with an emphasis on phonograms. The association with the popular music industry enables an apparent contradiction, addressed in this article, between pedagogical and commercial considerations and outcomes.

  12. Nuclear materials control technology in the post-cold war world: Radiation-based methods and information management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Ensslin, N.; Markin, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The end of the cold war is providing both opportunities and requirements for improving the control of nuclear materials around the world. The dismantlement of nuclear weapons and the growth of nuclear power, including the use of plutonium in light water reactors and breeder reactor programs, coupled with enhanced proliferation concerns, drive the need for improved nuclear materials control. We describe nuclear materials control and the role of technology in making controls more effective and efficient. The current use and anticipated development in selected radiation-based methods and related information management systems am described briefly

  13. Cost Analysis of Maintenance Programs for Pre-Positioned War Reserve Material Stock (PWRMS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cyr, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    ...) for that maintenance. The objective is to provide DoD, the Navy, and the Civil Engineer Corps a guideline and possible benchmark for maintenance costs required to maintain the CESE War Reserves in a Cl condition of readiness...

  14. Governing Refugee Space: The Quasi-Carceral Regime of Amsterdam’s Lloyd Hotel, a German-Jewish Refugee Camp in the Prelude to World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felder, M.; Minca, C.; Ong, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Through analysing the correspondence between key refugee camp commanders based at Amsterdam's Lloyd Hotel and different authorities involved in Dutch refugee matters, this paper examines how "the Dutch state" responded to German-Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi Germany in the prelude to World War II.

  15. The political economy of redistribution in the U.S. in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression - Evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer) agenda setter

  16. The political economy of redistribution in the US in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression: evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an substantial upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer)

  17. World War II and other historical influences on the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.

  18. Impact of international financial assistance on economic growth in Europe after the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchanov A.Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is devoted to studying the impact of international financial aid on economic growth in Europe after the Second World War. The aim of the investigation is the identification of regularities of post-war recovery of European economies in the second half of the twentieth century and the assessment of international financial aid’s role in the economic growth stimulation. The author summarizes domestic and foreign researchers’ achievements of studying the issue of the Marshall Plan and its importance for modern Ukraine, and differentiates the classic, capitalistic and modern stages of post-conflict reconstruction of the national economies. The relation between the amount of financial assistance from US government to 14 European countries and the growth of GDP in 1947–1952 is studied with the help of correlation and regression analysis and their significant linear dependence is determined. The issue of institutional support of international financing program of economic recovery of Europe has not been left without attention.

  19. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W

    2007-01-01

    ... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...

  20. On the Effectiveness of Military Institutions: Historical Case Studies from World War I, The Interwar Period and World War II. Volume 2. The Interwar Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Orange Plan (Orange was the color assigned to Japan In war games and planning exercises, prior to World War Z; Mexico was "Green," I Great Britain "Red...204. Renato Cov:no, I Gianpaoio Galio and Enrico )lantovand, "L’industria dali’ economia dl guerra alla ricostruzione" In PIerluJqJ Clocca and Giani...Tonlolo, eds., V . economia Italiana nel periodo fascista (Bologna, 3 1976), p. 189. S ,, ...... ... ... .... ..... .. ..., -. ,.. .. ,, , , ._ 1 398. 5

  1. Advanced materials for future Phase II LHC collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Dallocchio, A; Arnau Izquierdo, G; Artoos, K

    2009-01-01

    Phase I collimators, equipped with Carbon-Carbon jaws, effectively met specifications for the early phase of LHC operation. However, the choice of carbon-based materials is expected to limit the nominal beam intensity mainly because of the high RF impedance and limited efficiency of the collimators. Moreover, C/C may be degraded by high radiation doses. To overcome these limitations, new Phase II secondary collimators will complement the existing system. Their extremely challenging requirements impose a thorough material investigation effort aiming at identifying novel materials combining very diverse properties. Relevant figures of merit have been identified to classify materials: Metal-diamonds composites look a promising choice as they combine good thermal, structural and stability properties. Molybdenum is interesting for its good thermal stability. Ceramics with non-conventional RF performances are also being evaluated. The challenges posed by the development and industrialization of these materials are ...

  2. Slavic idea in political thought of underground Poland during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miszewski Dariusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After the German invasion in 1941, the USSR declared to be the defender of the Slavic nations occupied by Germany. It did not defend their allies, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, against the Germans in the 1938-1941. In alliance with Germans it attacked Poland in 1939. Soviets used the Slavic idea to organize armed resistance in occupied nations. After the war, the Soviet Union intended to make them politically and militarily dependent. The Polish government rejected participation in the Soviet Slavic bloc. In the Polish political emigration and in the occupied country the Slavic idea was really popular, but as an anti-Soviet idea. Poland not the Soviet Union was expected to become the head of Slavic countries in Central and South-Eastern Europe.

  3. U.S. responses to Japanese wartime inhuman experimentation after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul

    2014-04-01

    In 1945-46, representatives of the U.S. government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the United States, influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the United States played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and in securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes.

  4. Some lessons from NACA/NASA aerodynamic studies following World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    An historical account is presented of the new departures in aerodynamic research conducted by NACA, and subsequently NASA, as a result of novel aircraft technologies and operational regimes encountered in the course of the Second World War. The invention and initial development of the turbojet engine furnished the basis for a new speed/altitude regime in which numerous aerodynamic design problems arose. These included compressibility effects near the speed of sound, with attendant lift/drag efficiency reductions and longitudinal stability enhancements that were accompanied by a directional stability reduction. Major research initiatives were mounted in the investigation of swept, delta, trapezoidal and variable sweep wing configurations, sometimes conducted through flight testing of the 'X-series' aircraft. Attention is also given to the development of the first generation of supersonic fighter aircraft.

  5. World War II Aerial Bombings of Germany: Fear as Subject of National Socialist Governmental Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Möbius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights how the National Socialist regime in Germany created the so-called «Selbstschutz» («self protection» in civil air defense as an «apparatus of society» (Michel Foucault to educate the German population with regard to the new possibility of aerial bombing. Mechanisms, functions of emotional control and their relationship to concrete practices of the people involved are shown alongside a local example. Regarding the spread and development of fears, this article maintains that practices of «Selbstschutz» had to bridge the temporal gap between future expectations and actual experiences in crucial ways. Before the war, «Selbstschutz» followed its own logic of expectation of danger and risk, as exemplified in aerial-defense simulation exercises, which clashed with the reality of bombs falling on German cities later on.

  6. Chronic health conditions in Jewish Holocaust survivors born during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Shasha-Lavsky, Hadas; Eilat-Zanani, Sofia; Edri-Shur, Adi; Shasha, Shaul M

    2015-04-01

    Findings of studies addressing outcomes of war-related famine in non-Jewish populations in Europe during the Second World War (WWII) confirmed an association between prenatal/early life exposure to hunger and adult obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Fetal programming was suggested as the explanatory mechanism. To study the association between being born during WWII in Europe and physical long-term outcomes in child Holocaust survivors. We conducted a cross-sectional study on all Jewish Clalit Health Services (CHS) North District members born in 1940-1945 in Europe ('exposed', n = 653) or in Israel to Europe-born parents ('non-exposed', n = 433). Data on sociodemographic variables, medical diagnoses, medication procurement, laboratory tests and health services utilization were derived from the CHS computerized database and compared between the groups. The exposed were significantly more likely than the non-exposed to present with dyslipidemia (81% vs. 72%, respectively), hypertension (67% vs. 53%), diabetes mellitus (41% vs. 28%), vascular disease (18% vs. 9%) and the metabolic syndrome (17% vs. 9%). The exposed also made lower use of health services but used anti-depressive agents more often compared to the non-exposed. In multivariate analyses, being born during WWII remained an independent risk marker for hypertension (OR = 1.52), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.60), vascular disease (OR = 1.99) and the metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.14). The results of this cross-sectional study based on highly validated data identify a high risk group for chronic morbidity. A question regarding potential trans-generational effects that may impact the 'second generation' is also raised.

  7. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  8. Age at menarche in Polish University students born before, during and after World War II: Economic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liczbińska, Grażyna; Czapla, Zbigniew; Piontek, Janusz; Malina, Robert M

    2018-02-01

    Although the relationships between economic conditions and biological variables over the past two centuries in Poland are reasonably well-documented, the influence of economic and political disruptions, including nutritional privation, during the years immediately before, during and shortly after World War II (WWII) has received less attention. This paper considers the association between age at menarche and body size of university students born before, during and after WWII and father's level of education, a commonly used indicator of family economic status in Poland. Subjects were 518 university students surveyed between 1955 and 1972, birth years 1931 through 1951. The sample was divided into three birth cohorts: before (n=237), during (n=247) and after (n=34) WWII. Age at menarche was compared among birth cohorts, and by weight status and father's level of education. Age at menarche increased slightly but significantly among women born during WWII (14.4 yrs) compared to those born before (14.2 yrs) and after (13.9 yrs) the war. Controlling for year of birth and age of the student, age at menarche was significantly earlier in overweight (13.42±0.35 yrs) than in normal weight (14.33±0.06 yrs) and thin (14.54±0.21 yrs) women. Adjusted mean ages at menarche in small samples of overweight women did not differ by father's level of education, and were earlier than corresponding ages of thin and normal weight women. Adjusted mean ages at menarche did not differ between thin and normal weight women with fathers having primary or no education, but were slightly later in thin than in normal weight women with fathers having a vocational, secondary or higher education. Although age at menarche was associated with father's level of education, young adult weight status was a somewhat more important correlate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Nanoporous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debajani; Roy, Sushanta Kumar; Das, Bodhaditya; Talukdar, Anup K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work deals with the adsorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ on zeolites (ZSM-5, mordenite) and mesoporous materials (MCM-48, MCM-41). The characterization of the synthesized samples was performed by means of XRD, SEM, and thermogravimetric analysis. The batch method was employed to study the influence of adsorbent nature, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent load. The adsorption on MCM-48 follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. This material was found to be more effective for the removal of lead in a batch process as compared to the other adsorbents and the removal efficiency of the materials for Pb(II) followed the order MCM-48 > mordenite > ZSM-5 > MCM-41 and that for Cu(II) followed the order ZSM-5 > mordenite > MCM-41 > MCM-48.

  10. From the front lines to the home front: a history of the development of psychiatric nursing in the U.S. during the World War II era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Christine M

    2008-07-01

    During World War II, psychiatric nurses learned valuable lessons on how to deal with the traumas of war. Using psychohistorical inquiry, this historian examined primary and secondary sources, beyond the facts and dates associated with historical events, to understand why and how psychiatric nurse pioneers developed therapeutic techniques to address the psychosocial and physical needs of combatants. Not only is the story told about the hardships endured as nurses ministered to soldiers, but their attitudes, beliefs, and emotions, that is, how they felt and what they thought about their circumstances, are explored. In this study the lived experiences of two psychiatric nurses, Votta and Peplau, are contrasted to explicate how knowledge development improved care and how this knowledge had an impact on the home front in nursing practice and education, as well as in mental institutions and society, long after the war was won.

  11. Severe caloric restriction in young women during World War II and subsequent breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, N; Barchana, M; Linn, S; Keinan-Boker, L

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the impact of WWII-related caloric restriction (CR) on subsequent breast cancer (BC) risk based on individual exposure experiences and whether this effect was modified by age at exposure. We compared 65 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2005-2010 to 200 controls without breast cancer who were all members of various organizations for Jewish WWII survivors in Israel. All participants were Jewish women born in Europe prior to 1945 who lived at least 6 months under Nazi rule during WWII and immigrated to Israel after the war. We estimated CR using a combined index for hunger and used logistic regression models to estimate the association between CR and BC, adjusting for potential confounders. Women who were severely exposed to hunger had an increased risk of BC (OR=5.0, 95% CI= 2.3-10.8) compared to women who were mildly exposed. The association between CR and BC risk was stronger for women who were exposed at a younger age (0-7 years) compared to the risk of BC in women exposed at ≥ 14 years (OR= 2.8, 95% CI=1.3-6.3). Severe exposure to CR is associated with a higher risk for BC decades later, and may be generalized to other cases of severe starvation during childhood that may have long-term effects on cancer in adulthood. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Lesser known aspects of Ludwik Fleck's (1896-1961) heroic life during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ciesielska, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Professor Ludwik Fleck was a famous scientist and a prominent philosopher. Although his life and work were studied extensively, the Second World War period was a subject of some discussion and controversy. On account of his Jewish origin, he was first arrested and moved from the Lwów ghetto to the 'Laokoon' factory and then imprisoned in KL Auschwitz-Birkenau and in KL Buchenwald. Fleck produced the anti-typhus vaccine in the chemo-bacteriological laboratory in the Jewish Hospital at Kuszewicza Street and in the 'Laokoon' factory in Lwów. During his incarceration in KL Auschwitz-Birkenau, Fleck worked in the camp laboratory in Block 10 carrying out bacteriological studies for the inmates and then was assigned to work in the Wasserman station in Rajsko. From January 1944 Fleck performed routine laboratory tests in Block 50 in KL Buchenwald. Though Fleck had a privileged life in the camp, he participated in the sabotage activities organized by the camp resistance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Lifestyle changes during adolescence and risk of breast cancer: an ecologic study of the effect of World War II in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretli, S; Gaard, M

    1996-09-01

    There are biologic reasons to believe that the period between the larche and the first full-term pregnancy is a particularly sensitive period in a woman's life regarding the development of breast cancer. In this ecologic study, data provided by the Norwegian Cancer Registry were analyzed to compare risk of breast cancer among women who experienced this sensitive period before, during, or after World War II. An ordinary age-cohort model and a model where the cohort was described by exposure by calendar period and sensitivity to this exposure at different ages, were fitted to the data. The incidence of breast cancer was lower than expected among women who experienced puberty during the war. The estimated configuration of the exposure variable showed an increase in exposure up to the start of WWII to twice the level in 1916, dropped by 13 percent during the war, and increased again after the war. The level in 1975 was approximately 2.7 times higher than the level in 1916. The results indicate that one or more lifestyle factors that changed among adolescent women during the war, influenced their risk of breast cancer. Dietary intake of energy, fat, meat, milk, fish, fresh vegetables, and potatoes, in addition to physical activity level and height, are important factors to consider in relation to breast cancer risk.

  14. Child protection and adult depression: evaluating the long-term consequences of evacuating children to foster care during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Nina; Santavirta, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    This paper combined data collected from war time government records with survey data including background characteristics, such as factors that affected eligibility, to examine the adult depression outcomes of individuals who were evacuated from Finland to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II. Using war time government records and survey data for a random sample of 723 exposed individuals and 1321 matched unexposed individuals, the authors conducted least squares adjusted means comparison to examine the association between evacuation and adult depression (Beck Depression Inventory). The random sample was representative for the whole population of evacuees who returned to their biological families after World War II. The authors found no statistically significant difference in depressive symptoms during late adulthood between the two groups; for example, the exposed group had a 0.41 percentage points lower average Beck Depression Inventory score than the unexposed group (p = 0.907). This study provides no support for family disruption during early childhood because of the onset of sudden shocks elevating depressive symptoms during late adulthood. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Long-term heart disease and stroke mortality among former American prisoners of war of World War II and the Korean Conflict: results of a 50-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W F; Brass, L M

    2001-09-01

    For the first 30 years after repatriation, former American prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean Conflict had lower death rates for heart disease and stroke than non-POW veteran controls and the U.S. population, but subsequent morbidity data suggested that this survival advantage may have disappeared. We used U.S. federal records to obtain death data through 1996 and used proportional hazards analysis to compare the mortality experience of POWs and controls. POWs aged 75 years and older showed a significantly higher risk of heart disease deaths than controls (hazard ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.56), and their stroke mortality was also increased, although not significantly (hazard ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.91). These results suggest that circulatory disease sequelae of serious, acute malnutrition and the stresses associated with imprisonment may not appear until after many decades.

  16. Exploitation of the Vistula River from earliest times to the outbreak of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Marcin Duchnowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest times, the Vistula River has been an artery used for movement of people, commodities and cultures. The settlement network that began to develop along it constituted the foundation of the emerging Polish state in the Early Middle Ages. In the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights appeared downriver. After the outbreak of Prussia and Gdańsk Pomerania, they formed a state with a powerful economy and army. During their reign along the Vistula River (Wisła, many castles and fortified towns guarding its particular sections were erected. After the end of the Thirteen Years’ War (1466, almost the whole river with its tributaries was incorporated within the limits of Poland or countries recognising its authority. From the middle of the 16th century to the mid-17th century, the Vistula River performed the role of the main Polish trade route for many products sent to Western European countries through Gdańsk. The city was then experiencing the apogee of its magnificence. Cereals were the most important commodity back then. The gentry – the producers – and many towns intermediating in trade were growing rich thanks to the good economic situation. Then, the rich folklore of raftsmen immortalised by poets and pictured by painters came into being. In the 18th century, changes in agriculture in Western European countries and increasing competition caused depression in the export of Polish cereals. In addition, the partitions of Poland affected its balance. Because of this, the Vistula River flowed through three states: Austria, Russia and Prussia. All of them conducted separate policies concerning the river, which caused its decline as an important European water artery. In the 19th century, it remained unregulated. Germans performed the most works in the lower course of the river, while Russians did the least in its middle course. In the period of Second Polish Republic, the revived state had new needs, thus river development was not

  17. Order of Battle of the United States Army World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-12-01

    Bad Schwalbach Hersfeld ’ . Wesselroden Waltershausen Arns.tadt - • Bad Berka Kahla We Ida Werdau • REGION———————————— ___ Se ine-Inf erieure Se...8217 Germany ; . i Bad i^eusnanr ’ | Rhiueluud "tJf\\Y\\ yi i T* f ’^Tl rivJi-LiAX li>-,ti ii Nieder Bibber Germany 1 Hessan-Nassau Germany Has sen-Nassau...I’Jollmarshauson (1/2 mi SE). Ober Gebra (1 mi E) Baa Fxankenliausen Barnstadt Schladebach Markranst a’dt Bad Lausick . Ober Viechtach ROtz V 1

  18. Provenancing of unidentified World War II casualties: Application of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis in tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Laura; Jonker, Geert; van Aalderen, Patric A; Schiltmans, Els F; Davies, Gareth R

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 and 2012 two sets of unidentified human remains of two World War II soldiers were recovered in the area where the 1944-1945 Kapelsche Veer bridgehead battle took place in The Netherlands. Soldiers of four Allied nations: British Royal Marine Commandos, Free Norwegian Commandos, Free Poles and Canadians, fought against the German Army in this battle. The identification of these two casualties could not be achieved using dental record information of DNA analysis. The dental records of Missing in Action soldiers of the Allied nations did not match with the dental records of the two casualties. A DNA profile was determined for the casualty found in 2010, but no match was found. Due to the lack of information on the identification of the casualties provided by routine methods, an isotope study was conducted in teeth from the soldiers to constrain their provenance. The isotope study concluded that the tooth enamel isotope composition for both casualties matched with an origin from the United Kingdom. For one of the casualties a probable origin from the United Kingdom was confirmed, after the isotope study was conducted, by the recognition of a characteristic belt buckle derived from a Royal Marine money belt, only issued to British Royal Marines, found with the remains of the soldier. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychiatric Sequelae of Former "Comfort Women," Survivors of the Japanese Military Sexual Slavery during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeewon; Kwak, Young-Sook; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Eun-Ji; Park, E Jin; Shin, Yunmi; Lee, Bun-Hee; Lee, So Hee; Jung, Hee Yeon; Lee, Inseon; Hwang, Jung Im; Kim, Dongsik; Lee, Soyoung Irene

    2018-04-01

    "Comfort women" refers to young women and girls who were forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese military during World War II. They were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule, mostly from Korea, and the rest from China, Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Netherlands, etc. "Comfort women" endured extreme trauma involving rape, sexual torture, physical abuse, starvation, threats of death, and witnessed many others being tortured and killed. This article reviews all the studies that have investigated the psychiatric or psychosocial sequelae of the survivors of the Japanese military sexual slavery. Most importantly, a recent study which conducted a psychiatric evaluation on the former "comfort women" currently alive in South Korea is introduced. The participants' unmarried rate was relatively high and their total fertility rate was relatively low. Majority of the participants reported having no education and being the low economic status. They showed high current and lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic disorder, major depressive disorder, somatic symptom disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and alcohol use disorder. Participants showed high suicidality and majority of the participants still reported being ashamed of being former "comfort women" after all these years. This article high-lights the fact that the trauma has affected the mental health and social functioning of former "comfort women" throughout their lives, and even to the present day.

  20. "No place like home": Gender, family, and the politics of home care in post-world war II Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, James

    2003-01-01

    Since the early 1990s home care increasingly has emerged as a favoured policy response to the growing costs which an aging population poses for our health care system. This paper explores the early history of home care for the elderly in Ontario during the first three decades after World War II. It demonstrates that policy debates over the merits of home versus institutional care for the elderly, and community-based over hospital-based approaches to home care are not recent phenomenon but have been on going since the 1940s within the public health and social services sector. The paper examines why home care failed for so long to develop beyond the margins of Ontario's highly institutionalized health care system. It also explores how earlier visions of community-based home care, designed to help the elderly age in place, increasingly were obscured by an exclusive preoccupation with home care's "cost effectiveness" as an alternative to hospital or residential care, a rationale which discounted home care's costs to unpaid and principally female care givers. The paper concludes that the Ontario health ministry's systematic devaluing of caregiving and home maker skills, the fear of undermining the family's willingness to provide care, as well as the failure to develop effective mechanisms for integrated regional health care planning, also impeded the progress of home care's development before the 1980s.

  1. Estimating the cold war mortgage: The 1995 baseline environmental management report. Volume II: Site summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This volume, Volume II presents the site data that was used to generate the Department of Energy's (DOE) initial Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The raw data was obtained by DOE field personnel from existing information sources and anticipated environmental management strategies for their sites and was tempered by general assumptions and guidance developed by DOE Headquarters personnel. This data was then integrated by DOE Headquarters personnel and modified to ensure that overall constraints such as funding and waste management capacity were addressed. The site summaries are presented by State and broken out by discrete activities and projects. The Volume I Glossary has been repeated to facilitate the reader's review of Volume II. The information presented in the site summaries represents the best data and assumptions available as of February 1, 1995. Assumptions that have not been mandated by formal agreement with appropriate regulators and other stakeholders do not constitute decisions by the Department nor do they supersede existing agreements. In addition, actions requiring decisions from external sources regarding unknowns such as future land use and funding/scheduling alternatives, as well as internal actions such as the Department's Strategic Realignment initiative, will alter the basis and general assumptions used to generate the results for this report. Consequently, the numbers presented in the site summaries do not represent outyear budget requests by the field installations

  2. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from Darmbrand cases in post-World War II Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Menglin; Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

    2012-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens type C strains are the only non-type-A isolates that cause human disease. They are responsible for enteritis necroticans, which was termed Darmbrand when occurring in post-World War II Germany. Darmbrand strains were initially classified as type F because of their exceptional heat resistance but later identified as type C strains. Since only limited information exists regarding Darmbrand strains, this study genetically and phenotypically characterized seven 1940s era Darmbrand-associated strains. Results obtained indicated the following. (i) Five of these Darmbrand isolates belong to type C, carry beta-toxin (cpb) and enterotoxin (cpe) genes on large plasmids, and express both beta-toxin and enterotoxin. The other two isolates are cpe-negative type A. (ii) All seven isolates produce highly heat-resistant spores with D(100) values (the time that a culture must be kept at 100°C to reduce its viability by 90%) of 7 to 40 min. (iii) All of the isolates surveyed produce the same variant small acid-soluble protein 4 (Ssp4) made by type A food poisoning isolates with a chromosomal cpe gene that also produce extremely heat-resistant spores. (iv) The Darmbrand isolates share a genetic background with type A chromosomal-cpe-bearing isolates. Finally, it was shown that both the cpe and cpb genes can be mobilized in Darmbrand isolates. These results suggest that C. perfringens type A and C strains that cause human food-borne illness share a spore heat resistance mechanism that likely favors their survival in temperature-abused food. They also suggest possible evolutionary relationships between Darmbrand strains and type A strains carrying a chromosomal cpe gene.

  3. NNWSI Phase II materials interaction test procedure and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is investigating the volcanic tuff beds of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report describes a test method (Phase II) that has been developed to measure the release of radionuclides from the waste package under simulated repository conditions, and provides information on materials interactions that may occur in the repository. The results of 13 weeks of testing using the method are presented, and an analog test is described that investigates the relationship between the test method and expected repository conditions. 9 references, 10 figures, 11 tables

  4. The mental health sector and the social sciences in post- World War II USA. Part 2: The impact of federal research funding and the drugs revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    The second of two linked papers examining the interactions of psychiatry and the social sciences since World War II examines the role of NIMH on these disciplines. It analyses the effects of the prominence and the decline of psychoanalysis, and the impact of the psychotropic drugs revolution and the associated rise of biological psychiatry on relations between psychiatry and clinical psychology; and it explores the changing relationships between psychiatry and sociology, from collaboration to conflict to mutual disdain.

  5. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume II Fracture Mechanics and Damage

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2013-01-01

    Designing new structural materials, extending lifetimes and guarding against fracture in service are among the preoccupations of engineers, and to deal with these they need to have command of the mechanics of material behaviour. This ought to reflect in the training of students. In this respect, the first volume of this work deals with elastic, elastoplastic, elastoviscoplastic and viscoelastic behaviours; this second volume continues with fracture mechanics and damage, and with contact mechanics, friction and wear. As in Volume I, the treatment links the active mechanisms on the microscopic scale and the laws of macroscopic behaviour. Chapter I is an introduction to the various damage phenomena. Chapter II gives the essential of fracture mechanics. Chapter III is devoted to brittle fracture, chapter IV to ductile fracture and chapter V to the brittle-ductile transition. Chapter VI is a survey of fatigue damage. Chapter VII is devoted to hydogen embrittlement and to environment assisted cracking, chapter VIII...

  6. Nuclear material inventory estimation in solvent extraction contractors II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, A.

    1987-11-01

    The effectiveness of near-real-time nuclear materials accounting in reprocessing facilities can be limited by inventory variations in the separations contactors. Investigations are described in three areas: (i) Improvements in the model that the authors have described previously for the steady state inventory estimation in mixer-settler contactors, (ii) extension for the model for steady state inventory estimation to transient inventory estimation for non-steady state conditions, and (iii) the development of a computer model CUSEP (Clemson University Solvent Extraction Program) for simulating the concentration profiles and nuclear material inventories in pulsed column contactors. Improvements in the steady state model that are described in this report are the simplification of the methods for evaluating model parameters and development of methods for reducing the equation which estimates the total inventory of the set of contactors directly. The pulsed column computer model CUSEP (Clemson University Solvent Extraction Program) was developed. Concentration profiles and inventories calculated from CUSEP are compared with measured data from pilot scale contactors containing uranium. Excellent agreement between measured and simulated data for both the concentration profile and inventories is obtained, demonstrating that the program correctly predicts the concentration dispersion caused by pulsing and the dispersed phase holdup within the contactor. Further research to investigate (i) correction of the MUF (Material Unaccounted For) and CUMUF (Cumulative Material Unaccounted For) tests for mixer-settler contactor inventory using the simplified model developed in this work, (ii) development of a simple inventory estimation model for pulsed column contactors similar to that developed for mixer-settler contactors using CUSEP to provide necessary database, and (iii) sources of bias appearing in the MUF and CUMUF tests using computer simulation techniques are planned. Refs

  7. Counterinsurgency Scorecard: Afghanistan in Early 2013 Relative to Insurgencies Since World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    including (among others) a physicist , a mathematician , a material scientist, a statistician, and an expert in the history of mountebanks. Each...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) RAND Corporation,National... project sponsor and based on interactions in early briefings of draft results from Paths to Victory: Lessons from Modern Insurgencies (RR-291/1-OSD).4

  8. Infrastructure development for radioactive materials at the NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouster, D. J.; Weidner, R.; Ghose, S. K.; Dooryhee, E.; Novakowski, T. J.; Stan, T.; Wells, P.; Almirall, N.; Odette, G. R.; Ecker, L. E.

    2018-02-01

    The X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD) Beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source-II is a multipurpose instrument designed for high-resolution, high-energy X-ray scattering techniques. In this article, the capabilities, opportunities and recent developments in the characterization of radioactive materials at XPD are described. The overarching goal of this work is to provide researchers access to advanced synchrotron techniques suited to the structural characterization of materials for advanced nuclear energy systems. XPD is a new beamline providing high photon flux for X-ray Diffraction, Pair Distribution Function analysis and Small Angle X-ray Scattering. The infrastructure and software described here extend the existing capabilities at XPD to accommodate radioactive materials. Such techniques will contribute crucial information to the characterization and quantification of advanced materials for nuclear energy applications. We describe the automated radioactive sample collection capabilities and recent X-ray Diffraction and Small Angle X-ray Scattering results from neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels and oxide dispersion strengthened steels.

  9. Did Raw Material Shortages Decide World War Two? New Data for the Example of Nazi Rubber Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ferdinand Schmelzing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a well-established literature on the economics of World War Two, to this day reliable statistics on overall raw material supplies for Nazi Germany are lacking. The operations of shell companies, the special de jure status of occupied areas, and the Wehrmacht practice to “live off the land” have led to a significant underestimation of de facto resource endowments of the Third Reich. For the example of rubber—one of the prime “scarce war commodities”—this article demonstrates the extent and sources of deficiencies, and offers new data. On this basis, and in contrast to recent arguments that view raw materials as a “basic constraint” of the German economy, it is shown that surprisingly comfortable supplies existed between December 1941 and May 1944, during which Nazi-controlled Europe seemed ready to allow a realization of Hitler’s ‘Lebensraum’ designs. The failure to realize those designs originated in military setbacks—which subsequently impacted economic performance as a secondary effect.

  10. The Capitalist World-System and U.S. Cold War Policies in the Core and the Periphery: A Comparative Analysis of Post-World War II American Nation-building in Germany and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hugh Jo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the emerging cold war, why did the United States stress industrial expansion in Western Europe but focus on primary production alongside policing operations in the non-western world? Examining US postwar occupation in Germany and Korea from a world-systems perspective, this article argues that a given country’s standing in the capitalist economy generally shapes American foreign policy toward that particular country in the early cold war years. A paladin of system-wide prosperity and peace, the United States sought to restore the international division of labor after World War II. Reactions varied across the system, however, because of distinct socio-economic developments. The presence of capital-intensive export-dependent industry afforded western Germany flexible labor-management relations. Politics was overall stable there, and America dispensed with heavy-handed intervention. In southern Korea, labor-exploitive tenancy farming rendered interclass compromise virtually impossible. As intransigent peasants threatened the market economy, the United States used force to keep the ally in the system.

  11. Transmission patterns of smallpox: systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boer Rob

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because smallpox (variola major may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library of Medicine, Embase, Biosis, Cochrane Library, Defense Technical Information Center, WorldCat, and reference lists of included publications. Two authors reviewed selected papers for smallpox outbreaks. Results 51 relevant outbreaks were identified from 1,389 publications. The median for the effective first generation reproduction rate (initial R was 2 (range 0–38. The majority outbreaks were small (less than 5 cases and contained within one generation. Outbreaks with few hospitalized patients had low initial R values (median of 1 and were prolonged if not initially recognized (median of 3 generations; outbreaks with mostly hospitalized patients had higher initial R values (median 12 and were shorter (median of 3 generations. Index cases with an atypical presentation of smallpox were less likely to have been diagnosed with smallpox; outbreaks in which the index case was not correctly diagnosed were larger (median of 27.5 cases and longer (median of 3 generations compared to outbreaks in which the index case was correctly diagnosed (median of 3 cases and 1 generation. Conclusion Patterns of spread during Smallpox outbreaks varied with circumstances, but early detection and implementation of control measures is a most important influence on the magnitude of outbreaks. The majority of outbreaks studied in Europe and North America were controlled within a few generations if detected early.

  12. “Reffos, Wogs and Dagoes:” The Immigration Experience in Post-World War II Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Jacobowitz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p77 This article seeks to analyze the ways in which immigrants experienced Australia in the years following World War II, when the makeup of Australian society changed. In The Voyage of Their Life: The Story of the SS Derna and Its Passengers, Diane Armstrong – a child immigrant to Australia – writes, “Homogenous, conservative and almost entirely Anglo-Saxon in its origin, Australians were about to awake from there illusion of perfection” (274. Focusing on memoir, poetry and short stories, this article analyzes Andra Kins’ memoir Coming and Going: A Family Quest; Serge Liberman’s short stories “Home,” “Greetings, Australia!  To You I Have Come,” “The Fortress” and “Two Years in Exile;” Peter Skrzynecki’s The Sparrow Garden; Lily Brett’s poetry; and Susan Varga’s memoir Heddy and Me.  Jewish and non-Jewish immigrants from Russia, Poland, Latvia, Hungary and Ukriane struggled with trying to build new lives in a new land in the face of prejudice and “anti-refo” feeling. Measures were introduced to limit severely the number of Jewish refugees allowed to travel to Australia. Despite these obstacles, Australia was transformed.  According to Mark Wyman, “Eventually, 182,159 DPs emigrated to Australia, led by 60,000 Poles and 36,000 Balts.  Enough of an Eastern European mixture was admitted through Australian gates to constitute a small revolution in the nation’s much-publicized homogeneity.  The long tradition of allowing only British stock down under was broken.  By 1966 almost one in five Australians was a postwar immigrant or the child of one, and 60 percent of this group had non-British ethnic backgrounds” (191.

  13. History of internal fixation with plates (part 2): new developments after World War II; compressing plates and locked plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Pariat, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    The first techniques of operative fracture with plates were developed in the 19th century. In fact, at the beginning these methods consisted of an open reduction of the fracture usually followed by a very unstable fixation. As a consequence, the fracture had to be opened with a real risk of (sometimes lethal) infection, and due to unstable fixation, protection with a cast was often necessary. During the period between World Wars I and II, plates for fracture fixation developed with great variety. It became increasingly recognised that, because a fracture of a long bone normally heals with minimal resorption at the bone ends, this may result in slight shortening and collapse, so a very rigid plate might prevent such collapse. However, as a consequence, delayed healing was observed unless the patient was lucky enough to have the plate break. One way of dealing with this was to use a slotted plate in which the screws could move axially, but the really important advance was recognition of the role of compression. After the first description of compression by Danis with a "coapteur", Bagby and Müller with the AO improved the technique of compression. The classic dynamic compression plates from the 1970s were the key to a very rigid fixation, leading to primary bone healing. Nevertheless, the use of strong plates resulted in delayed union and the osteoporosis, cancellous bone, comminution, and/or pathological bone resulted in some failures due to insufficient stability. Finally, new devices represented by locking plates increased the stability, contributing to the principles of a more biological osteosynthesis while giving enough stability to allow immediate full weight bearing in some patients.

  14. Magnetic and material limiter discharges in Tokapole II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Disruptive instabilities have been studied in Tokapole II, a small poloidal divertor tokamak, in magnetic and material limiter configurations. In the magnetic limiter configuration, the divertor separatrix defines the tokamak current channel boundary. Limiters or neutralizer plates are not used to remove plasma in the scrape-off region. The relatively hot, dense plasma in the scrape-off region carries 5--20% of the current. In the material limiter configuration, limiter plates are inserted to the separatrix to remove plasma and current in the scrape-off region. The plates vary the tokamak current channel boundary condition in a controlled manner, and provide a benchmark for comparison with other tokamaks. Internal and external disruptions have been studied, and several unique features in the magnetic limiter configuration have been identified. The magnitic limiter configuration enables routine passing of the stability barriers at q(a) = 2 and q(a) = 1, where q(a) is the the edge safety factor, without a close fitting wall, external windings, or detailed profile control techniques. Passing the q(a) = 1 barrier permits operation in the q < 1 regime where total reconnection of the sawtooth does not occur. Discharges with q < 1 are also obtained in the material limiter configuration, suggesting that partial reconnection is characteristic of the sawteeth, and not the magnetic limiter configuration. The magnetic limiter configuration suppresses current termination in a major disruption. Current termination occurs in material limiter discharges due to enhanced interaction with the inboard limiter following the post-disruptive shift in major radius

  15. Magnetic- and material-limiter discharges in Tokapole II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Disruptive instabilities were studied in Tokapole II, a small poloidal-divertor tokamak, in magnetic- and material-limiter configurations. In the magnetic limiter configuration, the divertor separatrix defines the tokamak current channel boundary. Limiters or neutralizer plate are not used to remove plasma in the scrape-off region. The relatively hot, dense plasma in the scrape-off region carries 5-20% of the current. In the material-limiter configuration, limiter plates are inserted to the separatrix to remove plasma and current in the scrape-off region. The plates vary the tokamak current-channel boundary condition in a controlled manner, and provide a benchmark for comparison with other tokamaks. Internal and external disruptions have been studied, and several unique features in the magnetic-limiter configuration were identified. The magnetic-limiter configuration enables routine passing of the stability barriers at q(a) = 2 and q(a) = 1, where q(a) is the edge safety factor, without a close-fitting wall, external windings, or detailed profile control techniques. Passing the q(a) = 1 barrier permits operation in the q < 1 regime where total reconnection of the sawtooth does not occur

  16. Secondary Electron Emission Yields from PEP-II Accelerator Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    The PEP-II B-Factory at SLAC operates with aluminum alloy and copper vacuum chambers, having design positron and electron beam currents of 2 and 1 A, respectively. Titanium nitride coating of the aluminum vacuum chamber in the arcs of the positron ring is needed in order to reduce undesirable electron-cloud effects. The total secondary electron emission yield of TiN-coated aluminum alloy has been measured after samples of beam chamber material were exposed to air and again after electron-beam bombardment, as a function of incident electron beam angle and energy. The results may be used to simulate and better understand electron-cloud effects under actual operating conditions. We also present yield measurements for other accelerator materials because new surface effects are expected to arise as beam currents increase. Copper, in particular, is growing in popularity for its good thermal conductivity and self-radiation-shielding properties. The effect of electron bombardment, ''conditioning'', on the yield of TiN and copper is shown

  17. Meaning-Construction in warring states philosophical discourse : a discussion of the palaeographic materials from Tomb Guōdiàn One

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    This book analyzes a defined corpus of philosophic texts from the Warring States period. It treats texts as objects in their own right and, in a broad sense, discusses the relationship between material conditions of text and manuscript culture, writing, techniques of meaning-construction, and

  18. Learning Peace (and Conflict): The Role of Primary Learning Materials in Peacebuilding in Post-War Afghanistan, South Sudan and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanner, Catherine; Akseer, Spogmai; Kovinthan, Thursica

    2017-01-01

    Post-war education is usually considered a positive contributor to peacebuilding; however, it can also reinforce divisive perspectives. Textbooks and learning materials can be instrumental in maintaining or exacerbating existing inequalities. This paper uses case study literature reviews of Afghanistan, South Sudan and Sri Lanka to explore the…

  19. Biological and Archaeological Analysis of Deepwater Shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico: Studying the Artificial Reef Effect of Six World War II Shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, R. A.; Irion, J. B.; Schroeder, W. W.; Warren, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    In the summer of 2004 researchers from across the United States and Canada partnered together to investigate biological and archaeological questions relating to six World War II era shipwrecks discovered in the Gulf of Mexico. The science team included microbiologists, marine vertebrate and invertebrate zoologists, a molecular biologist, an oceanographer, marine archaeologists, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) technicians, and a professional marine survey crew. The United States Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, and the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration sponsored this multidisciplinary project under the auspices of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. The organizational involvement included six universities, two non-profit organizations, three commercial companies, and three U. S. federal agencies. The depth of the shipwrecks ranged from 87 to 1,964 meters. All six shipwrecks were war casualties, found during the past two decades on oil and gas surveys. These wrecks serve as artificial reefs sunk on well- documented dates, thereby offering biologists a unique opportunity to study the "artificial reef effect" of man- made structures in deep water. Taken together, these sites are an underwater battlefield, and a vital historical resource documenting a little-studied area in a crucial period of world history. They preserve information vital to scholarly and popular understanding of the war's impact in the Gulf of Mexico, on the American home front, and the global conflict. This paper will discuss the field methodology and touch on many of the scientific and technical aspects, and findings of the project.

  20. The education revolution on horseback II: Using the Napoleonic Wars to elicit the effect of tracking on student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature has found inconsistent effects of tracking students in secondary school on student performance using various ways to alleviate the endogeneity in tracking. Sociological literature argues that the threat for war with and invasion by the French around the 1800s induced European

  1. The education revolution on horseback II : using the Napoleonic wars to elicit the effect of tracking on student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature has found inconsistent effects of tracking students in secondary school on student performance using various ways to alleviate the endogeneity in tracking. Sociological literature argues that the threat for war with and invasion by the French around the 1800s induced European

  2. A Qualitative Content Analysis for the Presence of Propaganda in Select Juvenile Whitman Books Published during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesterer, Becky A.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have determined popular literature often contains propaganda imperatives (Berelson, 1952; Budd, 1967; Davis, 1942). Given the persuasive impact children's literature has upon the reader, children's literature containing propagandistic intent is a powerful force (Desai, 2014). This is especially true during times of war. Several studies…

  3. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume 4. Communicable Diseases Transmitted Chiefly through Respiratory and Alimentary Tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1958-01-01

    epidemic of p) neumonia with about 400 cases occurring among 40,000 troops and a 20-percent case mortality. 3 During World War I, the great pandemic of...1,600 cases of l) neumonia occurred. On several occasions, the attack rate exceeded 150 cases per annum per 1,000 average strength. The experience of

  4. Recalling Prerequisite Material in a Calculus II Course to Improve Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokry, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses preparation assignments used in a Calculus II course that cover material from prerequisite courses. Prior to learning new material, students work on problems outside of class involving concepts from algebra, trigonometry, and Calculus I. These problems are directly built upon in order to answer Calculus II questions,…

  5. Ceramic materials for porcelain veneers: part II. Effect of material, shade, and thickness on translucency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barizon, Karine T L; Bergeron, Cathia; Vargas, Marcos A; Qian, Fang; Cobb, Deborah S; Gratton, David G; Geraldeli, Saulo

    2014-10-01

    Information regarding the differences in translucency among new ceramic systems is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative translucency of the different types of ceramic systems indicated for porcelain veneers and to evaluate the effect of shade and thickness on translucency. Disk specimens 13 mm in diameter and 0.7-mm thick were fabricated for the following 9 materials (n=5): VITA VM9, IPS Empress Esthetic, VITA PM9, Vitablocks Mark II, Kavo Everest G-Blank, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, IPS e.maxPress, and Lava Zirconia. VITA VM9 served as the positive control and Lava as the negative control. The disks were fabricated with the shade that corresponds to A1. For IPS e.maxPress, additional disks were made with different shades (BL2, BL4, A1, B1, O1, O2, V1, V2, V3), thickness (0.3 mm), and translucencies (high translucency, low translucency). Color coordinates (CIE L∗ a∗ b∗) were measured with a tristimulus colorimeter. The translucency parameter was calculated from the color difference of the material on a black versus a white background. One-way ANOVA, the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference, and the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range tests were used to analyze the data (α=.05). Statistically significant differences in the translucency parameter were found among porcelains (PPM9, Empress Esthetic>Empress CAD>Mark II, Everest, e.max CAD>e.max Press>Lava. Significant differences also were noted when different shades and thickness were compared (Pceramic systems designed for porcelain veneers present varying degrees of translucency. The thickness and shade of lithium disilicate ceramic affect its translucency. Shade affects translucency parameter less than thickness. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The II Italian Corps Deployment on the Western Front during the First World War (April 1918-May 1919)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    experience of the Italian Armed Forces. In the last two centuries, significant origins of wars fought with allies are: 1. Common enemies, as with the Italian...result of the Paris conference in December 1917, significant 4 David Trask, The AEF and Coalition...on 16 December 1917. The formal closure of the Eastern Front, which became effective with the Treaty of Brest -Litovsk on 3 March 1918, freed a

  7. Coronal microleakage of four temporary restorative materials in Class II-type endodontic access preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mi Yun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of 4 temporary materials in teeth with Class II-type endodontic access preparations by using a glucose penetration model. Materials and Methods Glucose reaction test was performed to rule out the presence of any reaction between glucose and temporary material. Class II-type endodontic access preparations were made in extracted human premolars with a single root (n = 10. Each experimental group was restored with Caviton (GC, Spacer (Vericom, IRM (Dentsply-Caulk, or Fuji II(GC. Microleakage of four materials used as temporary restorative materials was evaluated by using a glucose penetration model. Data were analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance followed by a multiple-comparison Tukey test. The interface between materials and tooth were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results There was no significant reaction between glucose and temporary materials used in this study. Microleakage was significantly lower for Caviton and Spacer than for Fuji II and IRM. SEM observation showed more intimate adaptation of tooth-restoration interfaces in Caviton and Spacer than in IRM and Fuji II. Conclusions Compared to IRM and Fuji II, Caviton and Spacer can be considered better temporary sealing materials in Class II-type endodontic access cavities.

  8. Chromium(II) Metal–Organic Polyhedra as Highly Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinhee; Perry, Zachary; Chen, Ying-Pin; Bae, Jaeyeon; Zhou, Hong-Cai (DGIST); (TAM)

    2017-08-10

    Herein we report for the first time the synthesis of Cr(II)-based metal–organic polyhedra (MOPs) and the characterization of their porosities. Unlike the isostructural Cu(II)- or Mo(II)-based MOPs, Cr(II)-based MOPs show unusually high gas uptakes and surface areas. The combination of comparatively robust dichromium paddlewheel units (Cr2 units), cage symmetries, and packing motifs enable these materials to achieve Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface areas of up to 1000 m2/g. Reducing the aggregation of the Cr(II)-based MOPs upon activation makes their pores more accessible than their Cu(II) or Mo(II) counterparts. Further comparisons of surface areas on a molar (m2/mol cage) rather than gravimetric (m2/g) basis is proposed as a rational method of comparing members of a family of related molecular materials.

  9. MRP II (material requirements planning): one year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, W L; Norman, R L

    1994-08-01

    This article addresses the continued need for the behavior change process that must be managed long after materiel requirements planning (MRP II) implementation. Mason & Hanger, Pantex Plant is the final assembly and dismantlement facility for all United States nuclear weapons. On October 1, 1990, Mason & Hanger implemented a full production cutover to MRP II. One year later, following class A certification, the MRP II implementation team is still actively managing the change process through education and training programs and overall continuous improvement initiatives. Actual behavior change problems are identified together with the proven solutions implemented in a government-owned, contractor-operated facility environment. Performance measurements ranging from senior management planning to shop floor accomplishments and cost variance reports are shown as normal management tools used to identify target improvement areas.

  10. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    Simon , Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...

  11. Material correlations and models for the irradiation behavior of fissile and fertile material in SNR-300, Mark-II and KNK II, third core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenneker; Steinmetz; Toebbe

    1986-07-01

    The report contains the material correlations and models used in the fuel pin design code IAMBUS for the irradiation behavior of PuO 2 -UO 2 fissile materials and UO 2 fertile materials of the SNR-300 Mark-II reload and the KNK II third core. They are applicable for pellet densities of more than 90 % of the theoretical density. The presented models of the fuel behavior and the applied material correlations have been derived either from single experiments or from the comparison of theoretically predicted integral fuel behavior with the results of fuel pin irradiation experiments. The material correlations have been examined and extended in the frame of the collaborations INTERATOM/KWU and INTERATOM/KfK. French and British results were included, when available from the European fast reactor knowledge exchange [de

  12. Depression, Somatization, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Born of Occupation After World War II in Comparison With a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2015-10-01

    At the end of World War II and during the first decade after the war, roughly 200,000 children were fathered in intimate contacts between German women and foreign soldiers. The experiences of these German occupation children (GOC) have been so far described in case reports and from historical perspective only. Research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as a GOC has been missing so far. This study examined traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization, and depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire. Findings have then been compared with a representative birth cohort-matched sample from the German general population (N = 977). German occupation children showed significantly higher prevalence rates of most traumatic experiences, higher point prevalence rates of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and somatization than the control group. In summary, GOC often grew up under difficult conditions (e.g., poverty, single mothers, and stigmatization). Even decades later, they showed higher rates of different mental disorders and higher comorbidity. These findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their burdened social, financial, and familial conditions. The results underpin the importance of conceptualizing occupation children as a vulnerable group in postconflict settings.

  13. World War II-related post-traumatic stress disorder and breast cancer risk among Israeli women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is related to adverse health outcomes. There are limited data on PTSD and cancer, which has a long latency period. We investigated the association between World War II (WWII)-related PTSD and subsequent breast cancer (BC) risk among Jewish WWII survivors and examined whether this association was modified by exposure to hunger during WWII. We compared 65 BC patients diagnosed in 2005 through 2010 to 200 population-based controls who were members of various organizations for Jewish WWII survivors in Israel. All participants were born in Europe, lived at least six months under Nazi rule during WWII, and immigrated to Israel after the war. We estimated PTSD using the PTSD Inventory and applied logistic regression models to estimate the association between WWII-related PTSD and BC, adjusting for potential confounders. We observed a linear association between WWII-related PTSD and BC risk. This association remained significant following adjustment for potential confounders, including obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking, age during WWII, hunger exposure during WWII, and total number of traumatic life events (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.14-7.31). However, the level of hunger exposure during WWII modified this effect significantly. These findings suggest an independent association between WWII-related PTSD and subsequent BC risk in Jewish WWII survivors that is modified by hunger, a novel finding. Future research is needed to further explore these findings.

  14. The influence of sense of coherence and mindfulness on PTSD symptoms and posttraumatic cognitions in a sample of elderly Austrian survivors of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Raninger, Simone; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Sense of Coherence (SOC) and mindfulness are known protective factors against psychopathology, also in older age. We set out to investigate the influence of SOC and mindfulness on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions in the context of lifetime trauma in elderly persons with a history of childhood war-experiences. Elderly Austrians (N = 97) filled in questionnaires on traumatic lifetime experiences and posttraumatic symptoms (ETI), posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI), SOC (SOC-13) and mindfulness (FFMQ). We expected the influence of SOC scores on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions to be on one hand influenced by mindfulness. On the other hand, we expected that both aspects would uniquely explain fewer posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions. Participants reported various lifetime traumas (M = 2.42), including experiences during World War II (WWII) as children and adolescents. Mindfulness partially mediated the association of SOC scores with posttraumatic cognitions, but not with posttraumatic symptoms. However, in a two-stage mediation model, mindfulness significantly predicted posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. Although SOC was the strongest predictor of posttraumatic symptoms, mindfulness influenced the severity of posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. We discuss implications for mindfulness-based interventions on trauma-related cognitions in the elderly.

  15. A study on the safety regulation of byproduct material (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Sun; Song, Yang Su [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The scope of this study consists of : in relating to the domestic license of byproduct material, a survey of technical criteria and status of regulation in U.S.A., a determination of range of application and contents of byproduct material, a tentative suggestion of related technical criteria and regulatory system. A study was performed about the above topics to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally, and this can be contributed in establishing the proper domestic technical criteria related.

  16. Mortality and Morbidity Among Military Personnel and Civilians During the 1930s and World War II From Transmission of Hepatitis During Yellow Fever Vaccination: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Spragins, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    During World War II, nearly all US and Allied troops received yellow fever vaccine. Until May 1942, it was both grown and suspended in human serum. In April 1942, major epidemics of hepatitis occurred in US and Allied troops who had received yellow fever vaccine. A rapid and thorough investigation by the US surgeon general followed, and a directive was issued discontinuing the use of human serum in vaccine production. The large number of cases of hepatitis caused by the administration of this vaccine could have been avoided. Had authorities undertaken a thorough review of the literature, they would have discovered published reports, as early as 1885, of postvaccination epidemics of hepatitis in both men and horses. It would take 4 additional decades of experiments and epidemiological research before viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E were identified, their modes of transmission understood, and their genomes sequenced. PMID:23327242

  17. Mortality and morbidity among military personnel and civilians during the 1930s and World War II from transmission of hepatitis during yellow fever vaccination: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Spragins, Wendy

    2013-03-01

    During World War II, nearly all US and Allied troops received yellow fever vaccine. Until May 1942, it was both grown and suspended in human serum. In April 1942, major epidemics of hepatitis occurred in US and Allied troops who had received yellow fever vaccine. A rapid and thorough investigation by the US surgeon general followed, and a directive was issued discontinuing the use of human serum in vaccine production. The large number of cases of hepatitis caused by the administration of this vaccine could have been avoided. Had authorities undertaken a thorough review of the literature, they would have discovered published reports, as early as 1885, of postvaccination epidemics of hepatitis in both men and horses. It would take 4 additional decades of experiments and epidemiological research before viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E were identified, their modes of transmission understood, and their genomes sequenced.

  18. Post World War II orcharding creates present day DDT-problems in The Sørfjord (Western Norway)--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruus, Anders; Green, Norman W; Maage, Amund; Amundsen, Carl Einar; Schøyen, Merete; Skei, Jens

    2010-10-01

    The Sørfjord has a long history of agriculture and industry, and environmental monitoring has been conducted for decades, comprising analyses of contaminants in mussel, fish and sediments. DDT was used as an insecticide in orchards surrounding the fjord between World War II and 1970. Since the early 1990 s, elevated concentrations of DDT were found in mussels and fish. Unexpectedly, DDT-concentrations increased towards present day, despite the discontinuation of use. The highest concentrations in mussels (in 2006) corresponded to about two orders of magnitude higher than background. Analyses of sediment core sections also indicated increased input towards present day. Shifts in climatic parameters, as well as increased amounts of soil dissolved organic carbon following a decline in atmospheric sulphate deposition may have contributed to this phenomenon. We warrant the need for increased knowledge of the effects of alterations in variables acting regionally and globally on the disposition of contaminants in ecosystems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conference on the Trend in Income Inequality in the U.S. Part I, Trends in Inequality of Well-Offness in the United States since World War II. Part 2, Conference Overview: Conceptual Issues, Data Issues, and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, Michael K.; Danziger, Sheldon

    The first part of this document summarizes the current state of knowledge on trends in inequality of economic well-being in the United States since World War II. It surveys alternative answers to the often asked question: Has inequality in the U.S. increased, decreased, or remained roughly the same over a period of time? Intelligent laymen, and…

  20. [Max Planck--an adversary of Christianity? The debate about Planck's attitude towards religion after World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, Gebhard

    2012-03-01

    The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter.

  1. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 3). From the second half of the 19th century to World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    The history of modern pharmaceutical science and technology, from the second half of the 19th century to the end of World War II, is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. The European medical and pharmaceutical science and technology at the end of the 19th century is reviewed. Pharmacology, bacteriology and biochemistry were built in this period. 2. The Meiji Government accepted Western medicine and medical law and regulations in 1883. Consequently, the Japanese physician changed from Eastern (Kanpooi) to Western (Seiyooi). 3. Modern scientific and engineering education had been accepted in America, England, Germany, and France etc. Foreign scientists and engineers (Oyatoi-gai-kokujin) were educated by practice and theory. The Faculty of Engineering was established in the universities in Japan. This fact is one of the differences in the history of universities in Europe and America. 4. Pharmaceutical education in the Meiji period (1873-1911). Twenty-nine schools of pharmacy were built in this period. However, 20 schools of pharmacy had been closed. Pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry was not established in the Meiji era. 5. The profession of pharmacist in 1873-1944. The policy of medicine was changed by the Meiji Government in 1889, when Western physicians were allowed to prepare medicines for patients, and this practice continues today. Political and technological power of Japanese pharmacists was weak, so their role was not estimated. 6. Consequences of world War I, and the establishment of the pharmaceutical industry. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) were won fortunately. The first pharmaceutical company was established in 1885. At this times, many pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, which were converted from whole sale merchants, were built. Then started the manufacturing of commercial drugs. 7. Hygienic chemistry and some problems of public hygiene. The causes of diseses unique to Japan, such as

  2. Gorky’s Editorial Project The History of the Civil War: On the Materials of the A.M. Gorky (IWL RAS and RGASPI Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Bystrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the history of Maksim Gorky’s design — the publication of the History of the Civil War volumes. The analysis of Gorky’s correspondence (1929–1930 from the A.M. Gorky archives (IWL RAS reveals that the idea of the collection emerged at the beginning of 1928. In the course of the preparatory work, the Central Committee of the CPSU(b obliged Communist party officials, Soviet and military functionaries in all Soviet republics and regions to collect documents and memories of the Civil War, to write and review materials for the collection. Gorky conceived the volumes of The History of the Civil War to be popular and accessible to the average reader. For this purpose, he considered inviting talented Soviet authors who took part in the Civil War. Gorky’s recommendations were taken into account while forming the Editorial Board. The CC of the CPSU(b on July 31, 1931 established the Editorial Board (comprised of Chief, Historical and Artistic Boards that Gorky also joined. Under his guidance, the Secretariat of the Chief Editorial Board issued instructions that were intended to direct a wide range of research subjects and provide researchers with methodology. Gorky’s letters from the RGASPI collection give us idea of the huge amount of work done by the writer in the process of preparing the first volume for publication. If the first, 1935 volume reflects Gorky’s vision and concept of the collection, the subsequent 4 volumes published after his death departed from the original design. Despite this and the fact that only 5 volumes out of 15 were issued, we can state that Gorky’s design was realized and that the History of the Civil War still remains an authoritative book in the field.

  3. How did Japanese rural dwellers become rapidly healthier in the two decades following World War II?: Examining the diverse policy interventions that improved the population's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective During the two decades following Japan's World War II surrender in 1945, tremendous improvement in the population's health was observed, particularly in infant mortality and life expectancy. How did Japanese rural dwellers achieve such remarkable health improvement during this relatively short time span while its economy remained heavily damaged following the war? While the efforts from government-driven public health strategies and programs are well known, relatively little is known about the contributions of policies in non-health sectors. Therefore, the main aim is to verify, using literature based sources, whether non-health sectors contributed to the betterment of the population's health in addition to the public health sector policies.Hypotheses Synergistic efforts of diverse interventions from different policies and programs likely catalyzed the drastic health improvement observed in the Japanese population in the two decades after World War II. The Ministry of Health and Welfare, for example, implemented programs to provide health care services. These are thought to have contributed directly to reducing maternal and child mortality, as well as tuberculosis-related mortality. Additionally, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry carried out a nationwide livelihood improvement program to enhance individual and family lifestyles, improve indoor and outdoor environments, and strengthen social solidarity. The ministry also attempted to generate income stability for farmers through an agricultural improvement program to ensure allocation of household income to family health. The Ministry of Education also had an initiative to disseminate the concepts of democracy and rational thought to the Japanese population through a social education program. Through these efforts, superstition and pre-modern customs were reduced, and subsequently health awareness increased, leading to an improvement in the population's health.Conclusion The public health

  4. Advanced Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Propellant Storage Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Technology, Inc responds to the NASA solicitation Topic X9 entitled "Propulsion and Propellant Storage" under subtopic X9-01, "Long Term Cryogenic...

  5. Sputter-Resistant Materials for Electric Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 2 project shall develop sputter-resistant materials for use in electric propulsion test facilities and for plume shields on spacecraft using electric...

  6. Low Cost, Light Weight Materials for Mirrors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the phase I program Northwestern and APS, Inc., have manufactured several different materials systems that are lighter than Beryllium and stiffer than...

  7. Plumbing Specialist II & III, 3-22. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These military-developed curriculum materials consist of a course description, course chart, plan of instruction, lesson plans, study guides, and workbooks for use in training plumbing specialists II and III. Covered in the course blocks are building waste systems and exterior and interior supply systems. Course block II, on building waste…

  8. MULTIFUNCTIONAL, SELF-HEALING HYBRIDSIL MATERIALS FOR EVA SPACE SUIT PRESSURE GARMENT SYSTEMS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Phase II SBIR transition of NanoSonic's high flex HybridSil space suit bladder and glove materials will provide a pivotal funding bridge toward Phase III...

  9. United States Responses to Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation after World War II: National Security and Wartime Exigency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E.; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In 1945-46, representatives of the United States government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the U.S., influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the U.S. played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes. PMID:24534743

  10. Introduction to non-destructive testing of materials: part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, B.

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves are mechanical vibrations that require a medium, which functions as carrier. Ultrasonics are widely used in non-destructive testing of materials in which high frequency sound waves are introduced into the material being inspected. If the frequency of sound waves in within the range 10 to 20,000 Hz, the sound is audible, i.e. the range of hearing, above 20,000 Hz, the sound waves are referred to as Ultrasound or Ultrasonics. Sound waves do not cause any permanent change in material although its transient presence is very noticeable. An energy transport through a sound wave is possible only when constituent particles are connected to each other by elastic forces. Liquids and Gases are also suitable media for the transmission of sound. In vacuum no matter exists and thus no sound transmission is possible. At the end of this article advantages and limitations of ultrasonic testing are also given. (A.B.)

  11. LEGAL STATUS OF WARSHIP WRECKS FROM WORLD WAR II IN INDONESIAN TERRITORIAL WATERS (INCIDENT OF H.M.A.S. PERTH COMMERCIAL SALVAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senada Meskin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Second World War was one of the most devastating experiences that World as a whole had to endure. The war left so many issues unhandled, one such issue is the theme of this thesis, and that is to analyze legal regime that is governing sunken warships. Status of warship still in service is protected by international law and national law of flag State, stipulating that warships are entitled on sovereign immunity. The question rises whether or not such sovereign immunity status follows warship wreck? Contemporary international law regulates very little considering ‘sovereign wrecks’, but customary international law, municipal court decisions and State practices are addressing issue quite profoundly, stating that even the warship is no longer in service it is still entitled on sovereign immunity status. HMAS Perth is Australian owned warship whose wreck current location is within Indonesian Territorial Sea. Recent reports show that commercial salvaging has been done, provoking outrage amongst surviving HMAS Perth’s naval personnel and Australian historians. In order to acquire clear stand point on issue of Sovereign Wrecks legal status, especially of HMAS Perth’s wreck, an in-depth analysis of legal material is necessary. Keywords: Territorial Waters, Warship, Warship Wreck, Salvage

  12. Experimental investigations of the influence of material and thickness on fracture under pure mode II loading

    OpenAIRE

    Dong H.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental investigation to the effects of thickness and material on mode II fracture were performed. Tension-shear specimens made of aluminium alloy LC4CS and 7050-T7452 with thicknesses of 2, 4, 8 and 14 mm were used. All crack tip appearances and fracture profiles of the specimens were observed. Mode II fracture toughness were calculated. It is shown that material and thickness play an important role in mode II fracture. The fracture of LC4CS appears shear fracture under all kinds ...

  13. Materials with complex behaviour II properties, non-classical materials and new technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oechsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews developments and trends in advanced materials and their properties; modeling and simulation of non-classical materials and new technologies for joining materials. Offers tools for characterizing and predicting properties and behavior.

  14. Engineering solutions for sustainability materials and resources II

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Brajendra; Anderson, Dayan; Sarver, Emily; Neelameggham, Neale

    2016-01-01

    With impending and burgeoning societal issues affecting both developed and emerging nations, the global engineering community has a responsibility and an opportunity to truly make a difference and contribute. The papers in this collection address what materials and resources are integral to meeting basic societal sustainability needs in critical areas of energy, transportation, housing, and recycling. Contributions focus on the engineering answers for cost-effective, sustainable pathways; the strategies for effective use of engineering solutions; and the role of the global engineering community. Authors share perspectives on the major engineering challenges that face our world today; identify, discuss, and prioritize engineering solution needs; and establish how these fit into developing global-demand pressures for materials and human resources.

  15. Material control and accounting at Exxon Nuclear, II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In this session the measurements and the associated measurement control program used at the Model Plant are described. The procedures for evaluating MUF and sigma MUF are also discussed. The use of material composition codes and their role in IAEA safeguards under the US/IAEA Safeguards Agreement are described. In addition, the various accounting forms used at the plant are described and the use of tamper-indicating seals is discussed

  16. Selection and evaluation of materials for thermoelectric applications II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J W

    1997-07-01

    In good thermoelectrics phonons have short mean free paths, and charge carriers have long ones. The other requirements are a multivalley band structure and a band gap greater than 0.1 eV for the 200 to 300 K temperature range. The author discusses the use of solid state physics and chemistry concepts, along with atomic and crystal structure data, to select the new materials most likely to meet these criteria.

  17. The Effectiveness of Enterprises of the Lower Volga Water Transport on the Eve of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDOROV S.G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From the navigation of 1940 the rate of traffic on Volga as well as throughout the country was slowing down. Transportations in the 1930s were carried out in hard conditions. While freight and passenger traffic increased annually, propelled fleet declined. Fleet replenishment, as well as its decline mainly occurred due to redistribution of old vessels between shipping companies but not due to the building of new ships. Besides, during the pre-war period the USSR had the acute problem of providing the river transport with professionals. The main difficulty lies in the inability to supply fleet, routes and coastal enterprises with qualified personnel that during the 1930s was not numerous. The situation with unskilled labor force was no better. It was complicated by the huge turnover and disproportionate distribution of workers between shipping companies and within them. The importance of training qualified specialists for working in ports and marines was underestimated. Low rate of technical reconstruction due to insufficient investments reduced the efficiency of water transport enterprises. The Lower Volga river fleet and the shore facilities were not sufficiently developed. All these difficulties had influence on the rate of cargo and passenger transportation.

  18. Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  19. Chemical Stability of Cd(II and Cu(II Ionic Imprinted Amino-Silica Hybrid Material in Solution Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhani, Narsito, Nuryono, Eko Sri Kunarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stability of Cd(II and Cu(II ionic imprinted hybrid material of (i-Cd-HAS and i-Cu-HAS derived from silica modification with active compound (3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (3-APTMS has been studied in solution media. Stability test was performed with HNO3 0.1 M (pH 1.35 to investigate material stability at low pH condition, CH3COONa 0.1 M (pH 5.22 for adsorption process optimum pH condition, and in the water (pH 9.34 for base condition. Material characteristics were carried out with infrared spectrophotometer (IR and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. At interaction time of 4 days in acid and neutral condition, i-Cd-HAS is more stable than i-Cu-HAS with % Si left in material 95.89 % (acid media, 43.82 % (close to neutral, and 9.39 % (base media.Keywords: chemical stability, amino-silica hybrid, ionic imprinting technique

  20. Chemical Stability of Cd(II and Cu(II Ionic Imprinted Amino-Silica Hybrid Material in Solution Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhani Buhani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stability of Cd(II and Cu(II ionic imprinted amino-silica (HAS material of (i-Cd-HAS and i-Cu-HAS derived from silica modification with active compound (3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (3-APTMS has been studied in solution media.  Stability test was performed with HNO3 0.1 M (pH 1.35 to investigate material stability at low pH condition, acetat buffer at pH 5.22 for adsorption process optimum pH condition, and in the water (pH 9.34 for base condition.  Material characteristics were carried out with infrared spectrophotometer (IR and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS.  At interaction time of 4 days in acid and neutral condition, i-Cd-HAS is more stable than i-Cu-HAS with % Si left in material 95.89 % (acid media, 43.82 % (close to neutral, and 9.39 % (base media.Keywords: chemical stability, amino-silica hybrid, ionic imprinting technique.

  1. Crack propagation in touch ductile materials. Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venter, R.D.; Sinclair, A.N.; McCammond, D.

    1989-06-01

    The thrust of this work was to investigate published J material resistance and stress-strain data applicable to the understanding of crack propagation in tough ductile steels, particularly SA 106 Grade B pipe steel. This data has been assembled from PIFRAC, AECB report INFO-0254-1 and Ontario Hydro sources and has been uniformly formatted and presented to facilitate comparison and assessment. While the data is in many aspects incomplete it has enabled an evaluation of the influence of temperature, specimen thickness and specimen orientation to be made in the context of the experimental J-R curves so determined. Comparisons of the stress-strain data within the Ramburg-Osgood formulation are also considered. A further component of this report addresses the development of the required software to utilize what is referred to as the engineering approach to elasto-plastic analysis to investigate the load carrying capacity of selected cracked pipe geometries which are representative of applied crack propagation studies associated with piping systems in the nuclear industry. Three specific geometries and loading situations, identified as Condition A, B and C have been evaluated; the results are presented and illustrate the variation in applied load as a function of an initial and final crack extension leading to instability

  2. Development of methods for measuring materials nuclear characteristics, Phases, I, II, II and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglic, R.

    1963-04-01

    This report contains the following phases of the project 'measurement of nuclear characteristics of reactor materials': nuclear performances of the neutron chopper; method for measuring total effective cross sections by transmission method on the chopper; review of methods for measuring activation cross sections; measurement of neutron spectra of the RA reactor and measurement of total effective cross section of gold by using the chopper

  3. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  4. Forms of War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Bartelt, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate

  5. The Cold War is over. What now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, S.S.

    1995-05-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  6. The Cold War is Over. What Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, S. S.

    1995-04-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  7. Psychiatric Sequelae of Former “Comfort Women,” Survivors of the Japanese Military Sexual Slavery during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeewon; Kwak, Young-Sook; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Eun-Ji; Park, E Jin; Shin, Yunmi; Lee, Bun-Hee; Lee, So Hee; Jung, Hee Yeon; Lee, Inseon; Hwang, Jung Im; Kim, Dongsik; Lee, Soyoung Irene

    2018-01-01

    “Comfort women” refers to young women and girls who were forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese military during World War II. They were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule, mostly from Korea, and the rest from China, Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Netherlands, etc. “Comfort women” endured extreme trauma involving rape, sexual torture, physical abuse, starvation, threats of death, and witnessed many others being tortured and killed. This article reviews all the studies that have investigated the psychiatric or psychosocial sequelae of the survivors of the Japanese military sexual slavery. Most importantly, a recent study which conducted a psychiatric evaluation on the former “comfort women” currently alive in South Korea is introduced. The participants’ unmarried rate was relatively high and their total fertility rate was relatively low. Majority of the participants reported having no education and being the low economic status. They showed high current and lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic disorder, major depressive disorder, somatic symptom disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and alcohol use disorder. Participants showed high suicidality and majority of the participants still reported being ashamed of being former “comfort women” after all these years. This article high-lights the fact that the trauma has affected the mental health and social functioning of former “comfort women” throughout their lives, and even to the present day. PMID:29669407

  8. Comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian Adriatic coast. Changes after World War II and perspectives for its future reorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kajinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the changes in the organisation of the Catholic Church in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia after World War II. A detailed analysis of the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the Rijeka Diocese, Archdiocese and Metropolitan Archdiocese, ecclesiastical union of the Istrian region in Croatia, the abolition of the Zadar Metropolitan Archdiocese, the raising of the Split-Makarska Diocese to an Archdiocese, and the establishment of the Split Metropolitan Archdiocese. The principles upon which the Church reorganisation in the spatial sense are considered, and presents new insights, particularly for the Croatian dimension. The second part of the paper gives a comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, with other countries. Examples were selected based on compatibility of different factors, with consideration to the historical context of events and their causes. To that aim, specific examples of the church administration in France and Italy are given. Using these examples and documents of church archives and official records and documents of the Catholic Church, this paper gives a final overview of the possibilities for the reorganisation of the church administration on the Croatian Adriatic coast.

  9. Comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian Adriatic coast. Changes after World War II and perspectives for its future reorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kajinić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the changes in the organisation of the Catholic Church in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia after World War II. A detailed analysis of the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the Rijeka Diocese, Archdiocese and Metropolitan Archdiocese, ecclesiastical union of the Istrian region in Croatia, the abolition of the Zadar Metropolitan Archdiocese, the raising of the Split-Makarska Diocese to an Archdiocese, and the establishment of the Split Metropolitan Archdiocese. The principles upon which the Church reorganisation in the spatial sense are considered, and presents new insights, particularly for the Croatian dimension. The second part of the paper gives a comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, with other countries. Examples were selected based on compatibility of different factors, with consideration to the historical context of events and their causes. To that aim, specific examples of the church administration in France and Italy are given. Using these examples and documents of church archives and official records and documents of the Catholic Church, this paper gives a final overview of the possibilities for the reorganisation of the church administration on the Croatian Adriatic coast.

  10. Is there an association between maternal weight and the risk of testicular cancer? An epidemiologic study of Norwegian data with emphasis on World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschim, Elin L; Grotmol, Tom; Tretli, Steinar; Haugen, Trine B

    2005-08-20

    Since registration started in the 1950s, the incidence of testicular cancer (TC) in the Western world has increased, which is also the case in Norway. Men born in Norway during World War II (WWII), however, have a lower TC incidence than men born in the years before or after WWII. Increased fetal exposure to estrogen during the first trimester of pregnancy has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of TC later in life. Increased maternal weight is associated with higher insulin levels, leading to lower sex hormone-binding globulin levels and thereby increased levels of bioavailable estrogens for transplacental transfer from mother to fetus. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine whether there was an association between maternal weight and the incidence of TC among those who were born in a time period where the nutritional conditions changed, i.e., around the time of WWII. We compared data for a random sample of women giving birth in Oslo, Norway, in the years 1931 to 1955 with the TC incidence among men born in the whole country in the same time period. Maternal weight at delivery was used as a proxy for first-trimester weight. We found a correlation (Spearman's rho = 1.00, p utero conditions. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Mode II Interlaminar Fracture Toughness and Fatigue Characterization of a Graphite Epoxy Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Johnston, William M.; Toland, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and delamination onset and growth characterization data were generated for IM7/8552 graphite epoxy composite materials from two suppliers for use in fracture mechanics analyses. Both the fracture toughness testing and the fatigue testing were conducted using the End-notched Flexure (ENF) test. The ENF test for mode II fracture toughness is currently under review by ASTM as a potential standard test method. This current draft ASTM protocol was used as a guide to conduct the tests on the IM7/8552 material. This report summarizes the test approach, methods, procedures and results of this characterization effort.

  12. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  13. Biosorption of Cu(II) onto agricultural materials from tropical regions

    KAUST Repository

    Acheampong, Mike A.

    2011-04-26

    Background: In Ghana, the discharge of untreated gold mine wastewater contaminates the aquatic systems with heavy metals such as copper (Cu), threatening ecosystem and human health. The undesirable effects of these pollutants can be avoided by treatment of the mining wastewater prior to discharge. In this work, the sorption properties of agricultural materials, namely coconut shell, coconut husk, sawdust and Moringa oleifera seeds for Cu(II) were investigated. Results: The Freundlich isotherm model described the Cu(II) removal by coconut husk (R2 = 0.999) and sawdust (R2 = 0.993) very well and the Cu(II) removal by Moringa oleifera seeds (R2 = 0.960) well. The model only reasonably described the Cu(II) removal by coconut shell (R2 = 0.932). A maximum Cu(II) uptake of 53.9 mg g-1 was achieved using the coconut shell. The sorption of Cu(II) onto coconut shell followed pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2 = 0.997). FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of functional groups in the biosorbents, some of which were involved in the sorption process. SEM-EDX analysis confirmed an exchange of Mg(II) and K(I) for Cu(II) on Moringa oleifera seeds and K(I) for Cu(II) on coconut shell. Conclusion: This study shows that coconut shell can be an important low-cost biosorbent for Cu(II) removal. The results indicate that ion exchange, precipitation and electrostatic forces were involved in the Cu(II) removal by the biosorbents investigated. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. "They Are Hiring the White Women but They Won't Hire the Colored Women": Black Women Confront Racism and Sexism in the Richmond Shipyards During World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Tuft, Paige

    2015-01-01

    During World War II, black women migrated largely out of the South to take advantage of the growing defense industries in California. Black women flocked to the shipbuilding industry in Richmond for the great economic opportunities industrial jobs offered. What they found when they arrived and attempted to secure jobs in the shipyards hardly lived up to their dreams and expectations. Black women found themselves faced with dual discrimination due to their race and gender. The shortage of a...

  15. Dardanel Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet EYİCİL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the opening of the Dardanel Front was to establish a link between allies and Russia and to push The Ottoman Empire out of the war. In order to reach this cause, upon Churchill’s suggestion, the English War Commitee met on 28 January 1915 and decided to attack the Dardanels on February 19. The allies fleet tried to pass the Dardanels several times but they failed. Their biggest attack for the Straits took place on 18 March, which was failed and the fleet lost one third of its power. After the failure on the sea to pass the Straits the allies landed on Gallipoli to invade İstanbul. Landing took place from April 1 to December 22 the wars on lands lasted more than 8 months, during which Turkish army fought heroic battles. Fierce battles took place on Kabatepe, Seddülbahir, Alçıtepe, Kilitbahir, Anafartalar, Arıburnu. Upon failure on the land the allies started to withdraw from this front on 8 January 1915. The Dardanels wars which was lost by the allies caused the First World War to continue two more years. Tsarist regime was collapsed in Russia and its place Bolshevik regime came. The Turks put aside bad results of the Balkan Wars and became again a heroic nation. Because of his successes Mustafa Kemal became a genious commander. Most importantly Dardanels wars gave its honours to the Turkish army

  16. Demonstrating the Environmental & Economic Cost-Benefits of Reusing DoD’s Pre-World War II Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Cultural Resources Manager, CIV USA IMCOM, Mr. Hugo A. Gardea, CIV USA IMCOM, Mr. Michael C. Johnson, Historic Architect, and Mr. Douglas J. Yost...intended to consider the original structural design, the condition of materials, the effects of age and past usage, hurricane and other damage, and the...past usage, hurricane and other damage, and the requirements for continued service. In assessing older existing structures, the Study Team’s

  17. Characterization of the Material Microstructure for Reactive Material Design. 3rd Quarterly Progress Report II/2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-05

    metallic) materials, which fragment under certain dynamic loading conditions into small particles, which can chemically react with a suitable ambient ...medium, such as shock heated ambient air or hot detonation products. Such materials could be effectively used to devise new or improved weapons with...test is blue. The impacto conditions of the the center of the the opposite surfa reflection of the w Figure 6.1: Example o specimen. Another aspect

  18. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  19. Persuasive History: A Critical Comparison of Television's "Victory at Sea" and "The World at War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheisen, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the television series "Victory at Sea" and "The World at War" and their use in teaching about World War II. Contrasts that war's glorious portrayal in "Victory at Sea" with the more ambiguous presentation of "The World at War." Suggests that students can learn a great deal about war and film itself…

  20. Sales and marketing's partnership role in class A MRP II (material requirements planning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, J R; Lerner, W

    1994-08-01

    As the material and requirements planning (MRP) II process has evolved, many companies have discovered that the process is greatly enhanced when the entire business participates. The sales and operations planning process is the forum for the businesswide decisions concerning sales, production, and inventory. Sales and marketing must be integral parts of these decision-making activities.

  1. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  2. Ni(II immobilization by bio-apatite materials: Appraisal of chemical, thermal and combined treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivić-Ivanović Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bones are natural and rich source of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP, which was found to be a good sorbent material for heavy metals and radionuclides. Various treatments can reduce the content of bone organic phase and improve sorption properties. In this study, sorption capacities of raw bovine bones (B and samples obtained by chemical treatment with NaOH (BNaOH, by heating at 400 oC (B400 and by combined chemical and thermal treatment (BNaOH+400, were compared, using Ni(II ions as sorbates. Maximum sorption capacities increased in the order BII sorption was found to be complex, with participation of both HAP and organic phase (when present. Sequential extraction analysis was applied for testing the stability of Ni(II ions sorbed by BNaOH+400. Majority of Ni(II was found in residual phase (65% at lower level of sorbent loading, while with the increase of sorbent saturation carbonate fraction became dominant (39 %. According to the results, BNaOH+400 can be utilized in water purification systems. As an apatite based material with low organic content and high efficiency for Ni(II sorption, it is also a good candidate for in-situ soil remediation, particularly at lower contamination levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  3. The American challenge in uniform: the arrival of America’s armies in World War II and European women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellwood

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A vast body of material exists – memoirs, diaries, films, plays, novels, official records – on the impact and reception of America’s armed forces armies in Europe after 1942. Britain, Italy, France, Austria and of course Germany all offer relevant evidence. The popular British phrase about the GI’s being ‘over-paid, over-sexed and over here’ brilliantly sums up many of the tensions the encounter threw up: over money and life-styles, courtship rituals and the treatment of local women, over sovereignty and the American impulse to requisition every local resource they could get their hands on. Local men thought ‘their’ women were being requisitioned.  The Americans had not come to do ‘nation-building’, and yet their presence left memories, changed attitudes and altered prospects on the future, especially among women. Afterwards American experts claimed that their armed forces had set off a ‘revolution of rising expectations’. Although a contradictory, complex encounter, there is enough evidence to suggest they might have been right.

  4. Dynamic fracture initiation in brittle materials under combined mode I/II loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, M.; Kishida, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Sogabe, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A new test method has been developed to measure the resistance of dynamic fracture initiation in brittle materials under combined mode I/II loadings. The Brazilian disks with center-cracks have been fractured under oblique impact loadings in diametral-compression. The dynamic stress intensity factors of mode I and II are evaluated from the superposition integrals of the step response functions for the cracked disk. The experimental results are presented to elucidate the influence of loading rate on the combined mode fracture toughness for ceramics and glasses. (orig.)

  5. Effect of war on the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoun, Antoine B; Nassar, Anwar H; Usta, Ihab M; Zreik, Tony G; Abu Musa, Antoine A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of a short period of war on the menstrual cycles of exposed women. Six months after a 16-day war, women in exposed villages aged 15-45 years were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to their menstrual history at the beginning, 3 months after, and 6 months after the war. A control group, not exposed to war, was also interviewed. The data collected were analyzed to estimate the effect of war on three groups of women: those who stayed in the war zone for 3-16 days (Group A), those who were displaced within 2 days to safer areas (Group B), and women not exposed to war or displacement (Group C-control). More than 35% of women in Group A and 10.5% in Group B had menstrual aberrations 3 months after the cessation of the war. These percentages were significantly different from each other and from that in Group C (2.6%). Six months after the war most women regained their regular menstrual cycles with the exception of 18.6% in Group A. We found a short period of war, acting like an acute stressful condition, resulted in menstrual abnormalities in 10-35% of women and is probably related to the duration of exposure to war. This might last beyond the war time and for more than one or two cycles. In most women the irregular cycles reversed without any medical intervention. II.

  6. The Fukushima War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Friends (Tomodachi) to the prefecture of Miyagi and did not go into the prefecture of Fukushima. Wataru Iwata, the man behind 'Project 47', which unites the victims of nuclear disaster, is not afraid to talk of 'war'. According to him, 'the situation in Japan is looking more and more like one of war: the television, press, and Internet media are being urged to implement a voluntary gag order'; or, in other words, to curb their language and suppress their revolt. The disinformation is also provoking sentiments of war among some citizens, according to Tatsuru Uchida, professor emeritus of philosophy in Kobe, who evokes 'the anger of [major newspaper] readers who see it as a repeat of what happened during World War II'. Then there is the daily newspaper Asahi Shimbun, for which covering the Fukushima accident is like covering a war since the only information available is provided by a single antagonist, namely TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power Company - Tokyo denryoku kabushiki kaisha). Moreover, perhaps we can talk of the 'war,' or at least defiance, of citizens against all types of authority, a war that is crystallizing new forms of confrontation. For essayist Sakaiya Taiici, 3.11 marks 'Japan's third defeat', after 1868 and 1945, thus implying that a war has indeed taken place

  7. Ukrainian Hybrid War – Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotărescu Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known for a long time, hybrid war taken place in Ukraine under the umbrella of Russian Federation surprised the whole world and produced the greatest worry for humankind’s fate since the World War II. The political and military analysts appreciate if the World War III does not come will at least follow a long time of a new cold war. Remembering the hybrid war is not declared, can be prolonged in time and the adversary is unknown, thus neither the aggressor state, it is hard to settle which are the countermeasures and how should be act when this clever adversary attacks you using hostile propaganda, to the limit of trick and war perfidy (the first is allowed as method of war, the latter is not, influences the political decision-makers by blackmail, military, economic and energetic deterrence or nuclear bombardments and undergoes subversive, clandestine actions and particularly it is hard to predict their consequences.

  8. Fighting the Last War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Peter

    Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier....... Many of the German advisors to the Chinese Army had been through the war in the trenches and took the tactics they had honed there with them to Shanghai. This resulted in near-impregnable Chinese defenses in and around the city, and it also manifested itself in the introduction of shock tactics...

  9. High power CO II lasers and their material processing applications at Centre for Advanced Technology, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, A. K.; Paul, C. P.; Rao, B. T.; Kau, R.; Raghu, T.; Mazumdar, J. Dutta; Dayal, R. K.; Mudali, U. Kamachi; Sastikumar, D.; Gandhi, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed high power transverse flow (TF) CW CO II lasers up to 15kW, a high repetition rate TEA CO II laser of 500Hz, 500W average power and a RF excited fast axial flow CO II laser at the Centre for Advanced Technology and have carried out various material processing applications with these lasers. We observed very little variation of discharge voltage with electrode gap in TF CO II lasers. With optimally modulated laser beam we obtained better results in laser piercing and cutting of titanium and resolidification of 3 16L stainless steel weld-metal for improving intergranular corrosion resistance. We carried out microstructure and phase analysis of laser bent 304 stainless steel sheet and optimum process zones were obtained. We carried out laser cladding of 316L stainless steel and Al-alloy substrates with Mo, WC, and Cr IIC 3 powder to improve their wear characteristics. We developed a laser rapid manufacturing facility and fabricated components of various geometries with minimum surface roughness of 5-7 microns Ra and surface waviness of 45 microns between overlapped layers using Colmonoy-6, 3 16L stainless steel and Inconel powders. Cutting of thick concrete blocks by repeated laser glazing followed by mechanical scrubbing process and drilling holes on a vertical concrete with laser beam incident at an optimum angle allowing molten material to flow out under gravity were also done. Some of these studies are briefly presented here.

  10. New hybrid materials as Zn(II) sorbents in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Quintanilla, Damian; Sanchez, Alfredo; Hierro, Isabel del; Fajardo, Mariano; Sierra, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas have been chemically modified with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole (MTTZ) obtaining hybrid materials denominated MTTZ-MSU-2 and MTTZ-HMS. These materials were employed as Zn(II) sorbents from aqueous media at room temperature. The effect of several variables (stirring time, pH, presence of other metals) has been studied using batch and column techniques. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determinate Zn(II) concentration in the filtrate or in the eluted solution after the adsorption process. The results indicate that under pH 8, the maximum adsorption value was 0.94 ± 0.01 and 0.72 ± 0.01 mmol Zn(II)/g for MTTZ-MSU-2 and MTTZ-HMS, respectively. In tap water samples, a preconcentration factor of 200 was obtained. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically MSU-2 and HMS with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole and to use the resulting modified mesoporous silica as an effective adsorbent for Zn(II) in aqueous media.

  11. Cu(II) recognition materials: Fluorophores grafted on mesoporous silica supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kledzik, Krzysztof; Orlowska, Maja; Patralska, Dorota; Gwiazda, Marcin; Jezierska, Julia; Pikus, Stanislaw; Ostaszewski, Ryszard; Klonkowski, Andrzej M.

    2007-01-01

    There were designed and synthesized naphthalene and pyrene derivatives consisting of fluorophore group and of receptor fragment with donor N and O atoms. These fluorosensors were covalently attached by grafting carboxyl group to surfaces of silica xerogel or mesoporous silicas (MCM-41 and MCM-48) functionalized either with 3-aminopropyl or 3-glycidoxypropyl groups. The pyrene derivatives 2 and 3 covalently grafted on MCM-48 silica functionalized with 3-aminopropyl groups are potential recognition elements of a fluorescence chemical sensor. Fluorescence emission of the prepared recognition materials is quenched specifically owing to photoinduced electron transfer (PET) effect after coordination reactions with Cu(II) ions. Moreover, both the materials exhibit selectivity for Cu(II) ions in aqueous solutions in presence of such metal ions as: alkali, alkaline earth and transition. During UV irradiation the studied recognition elements undergo slowly photochemical degradation

  12. An Overview of Materials Structures for Extreme Environments Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phases I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for Agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I and II projects that specifically address areas in Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments, one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. Each article describes an innovation, defines its technical objective, and highlights NASA applications as well as commercial and industrial applications. Ten technologies are featured: metamaterials-inspired aerospace structures, metallic joining to advanced ceramic composites, multifunctional polyolefin matrix composite structures, integrated reacting fluid dynamics and predictive materials degradation models for propulsion system conditions, lightweight inflatable structural airlock (LISA), copolymer materials for fused deposition modeling 3-D printing of nonstandard plastics, Type II strained layer superlattice materials development for space-based focal plane array applications, hydrogenous polymer-regolith composites for radiation-shielding materials, a ceramic matrix composite environmental barrier coating durability model, and advanced composite truss printing for large solar array structures. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, program managers, and other personnel to learn about innovations in this technology area as well as possibilities for collaboration with innovative small businesses that could benefit NASA programs and projects.

  13. War Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare as a profou......This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare...

  14. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  15. Bringing colour back after 70 years: Predicting eye and hair colour from skeletal remains of World War II victims using the HIrisPlex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Pajnič, Irena Zupanič; Walsh, Susan; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Retrieving information about externally visible characteristics from DNA can provide investigative leads to find unknown perpetrators, and can also help in disaster victim and other missing person identification cases. Aiming for the application to both types of forensic casework, we previously developed and forensically validated the HIrisPlex test system enabling parallel DNA prediction of eye and hair colour. Although a recent proof-of-principle study demonstrated the general suitability of the HIrisPlex system for successfully analysing DNA from bones and teeth of various storage times and conditions, practical case applications to human remains are scarce. In this study, we applied the HIrisPlex system to 49 DNA samples obtained from bones or teeth of World War II victims excavated at six sites, mostly mass graves, in Slovenia. PCR-based DNA quantification ranged from 4pg/μl to 313pg/μl and on an average was 41pg/μl across all samples. All 49 samples generated complete HIrisPlex profiles with the exception of one MC1R DNA marker (N29insA) missing in 83.7% of the samples. In 44 of the 49 samples (89.8%) complete 15-loci autosomal STR (plus amelogenin) profiles were obtained. Of 5 pairs of skeletal remains for which STR profiling suggested an origin in the same individuals, respectively, 4 showed the same HIrisPlex profiles and predicted eye and hair colours, respectively, while discrepancies in one pair (sample 26 and 43) are likely to be explained by DNA quantity and quality issues observed in sample 43. Sample 43 had the lowest DNA concentration of only 4pg/μl, producing least reliable STR results and could be misleading in concluding that samples 43 and 26 originate from the same individual. The HIrisPlex-predicted eye and hair colours from two skeletal samples, suggested to derive from two brothers via STR profiling together with a living sister, were confirmed by the living sister's report. Overall, we demonstrate that after more than 70 years, HIris

  16. [Estimation of the excess death associated with influenza pandemics and epidemics in Japan after world war II: relation with pandemics and the vaccination system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmi, Kenichi; Marui, Eiji

    2011-10-01

    To estimate the excess death associated with influenza pandemics and epidemics in Japan after World War II, and to reexamine the relationship between the excess death and the vaccination system in Japan. Using the Japanese national vital statistics data for 1952-2009, we specified months with influenza epidemics, monthly mortality rates and the seasonal index for 1952-74 and for 1975-2009. Then we calculated excess deaths of each month from the observed number of deaths and the 95% range of expected deaths. Lastly we calculated age-adjusted excess death rates using the 1985 model population of Japan. The total number of excess deaths for 1952-2009 was 687,279 (95% range, 384,149-970,468), 12,058 (95% range, 6,739-17,026) per year. The total number of excess deaths in 6 pandemic years of 1957-58, 58-59, 1968-69, 69-70, 77-78 and 78-79, was 95,904, while that in 51 'non-pandemic' years was 591,376, 6.17 fold larger than pandemic years. The average number of excess deaths for pandemic years was 23,976, nearly equal to that for 'non-pandemic' years, 23,655. At the beginning of pandemics, 1957-58, 1968-69, 1969-70, the proportion of those aged pandemic' years. In the 1970s and 1980s, when the vaccination program for schoolchildren was mandatory in Japan on the basis of the "Fukumi thesis", age-adjusted average excess mortality rates were relatively low, with an average of 6.17 per hundred thousand. In the 1990s, when group vaccination was discontinued, age-adjusted excess mortality rose up to 9.42, only to drop again to 2.04 when influenza vaccination was made available to the elderly in the 2000s, suggesting that the vaccination of Japanese children prevented excess deaths from influenza pandemics and epidemics. Moreover, in the age group under 65, average excess mortality rates were low in the 1970s and 1980s rather than in the 2000s, which shows that the "Social Defensive" schoolchildren vaccination program in the 1970s and 1980s was more effective than the

  17. CAN POLITICIANS SPEED UP LONG-TERM TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE? SOME INSIGHTS FROM A COMPARISON OF THE GERMAN AND US-AMERICAN SYNTHETIC RUBBER PROGRAMS BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Streb

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available I investigated the effect of government demand on firms’ innovation activities comparing the German and American synthetic rubber industries before, during and after World War II. I obtained three main results. 1. Because of the low price of natural rubber, price and sales guarantees were needed to motivate firms to produce the synthetic rubber BUNA S. 2. Facing fixed prices I.G. Farben improved their efficiency more than the American firms working under cost plus contracts. 3. The patent sharing agreement of the American synthetic rubber program caused firms to hold back advanced synthetic rubber inventions.

  18. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  19. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  20. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  1. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    Hills seemed especially urgent. An economic depression hit the country in 1873 followed by the discovery of gold in the Black Hills the next year...University of Oklahoma Press, 1994). 84 Endnotes 1. John S. Gray, “ Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876,” (n.p.: The Old Army Press, 1976) p. 211

  2. Development of methods for measuring materials nuclear characteristics, Phases, I, II, II and IV; Razvijanje metoda merenja nuklearnih karakteristika materijala, I, II, II i VI faza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglic, R [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1963-04-15

    This report contains the following phases of the project 'measurement of nuclear characteristics of reactor materials': nuclear performances of the neutron chopper; method for measuring total effective cross sections by transmission method on the chopper; review of methods for measuring activation cross sections; measurement of neutron spectra of the RA reactor and measurement of total effective cross section of gold by using the chopper.

  3. Health Care Providers in War and Armed Conflict: Operational and Educational Challenges in International Humanitarian Law and the Geneva Conventions, Part II. Educational and Training Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M; Kushner, Adam L; Giannou, Christos; Paterson, Mary A; Wren, Sherry M; Burnham, Gilbert

    2018-05-07

    ABSTRACTNo discipline has been impacted more by war and armed conflict than health care has. Health systems and health care providers are often the first victims, suffering increasingly heinous acts that cripple the essential health delivery and public health infrastructure necessary for the protection of civilian and military victims of the state at war. This commentary argues that current instructional opportunities to prepare health care providers fall short in both content and preparation, especially in those operational skill sets necessary to manage multiple challenges, threats, and violations under international humanitarian law and to perform triage management in a resource-poor medical setting. Utilizing a historical framework, the commentary addresses the transformation of the education and training of humanitarian health professionals from the Cold War to today followed by recommendations for the future. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 14).

  4. Primul Război Mondial (1914-1918. Contribuţii cartofilice / The First World War (1914-1918 in deltiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Griţco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of research of the museum's collection of postcards on the theme of the First World War, which was carried out in connection with the centenary since the war began. At the present stage of the evolution of historical science a special role belongs to the documentary sources that had previously been "less required", including illustrated postcards. At the beginning of the 20th century postcards know peak of their evolution. Being very popular, mobile and accessible, during the war they fulfilled several functions. In addition to performing the functions of postal items, they become an accessible form of propaganda and a source of supplementing military budget.

  5. Dimensional and material characteristics of direct deposited tool steel by CO II laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.

    2006-01-01

    Laser aided direct metalimaterial deposition (DMD) process builds metallic parts layer-by-layer directly from the CAD representation. In general, the process uses powdered metaUmaterials fed into a melt pool, creating fully dense parts. Success of this technology in the die and tool industry depends on the parts quality to be achieved. To obtain designed geometric dimensions and material properties, delicate control of the parameters such as laser power, spot diameter, traverse speed and powder mass flow rate is critical. In this paper, the dimensional and material characteristics of directed deposited H13 tool steel by CO II laser are investigated for the DMD process with a feedback height control system. The relationships between DMD process variables and the product characteristics are analyzed using statistical techniques. The performance of the DMD process is examined with the material characteristics of hardness, porosity, microstructure, and composition.

  6. Removal of Cu(II) from leachate using natural zeolite as a landfill liner material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turan, N. Gamze; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    All hazardous waste disposal facilities require composite liner systems to act as a barrier against migration of contaminated leachate into the subsurface environment. Removal of copper(II) from leachate was studied using natural zeolite. A serial of laboratory systems on bentonite added natural zeolite was conducted and copper flotation waste was used as hazardous waste. The adsorption capacities and sorption efficiencies were determined. The sorption efficiencies increased with increasing natural zeolite ratio. The pseudo-first-order, the pseudo-second-order, Elovich and the intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data to estimate the rate constants. The second-order model best described adsorption kinetic data. The results indicated that natural zeolite showed excellent adsorptive characteristics for the removal of copper(II) from leachate and could be used as very good liner materials due to its high uptake capacity and the abundance in availability.

  7. Removal of Cu(II) from leachate using natural zeolite as a landfill liner material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, N Gamze; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-08-15

    All hazardous waste disposal facilities require composite liner systems to act as a barrier against migration of contaminated leachate into the subsurface environment. Removal of copper(II) from leachate was studied using natural zeolite. A serial of laboratory systems on bentonite added natural zeolite was conducted and copper flotation waste was used as hazardous waste. The adsorption capacities and sorption efficiencies were determined. The sorption efficiencies increased with increasing natural zeolite ratio. The pseudo-first-order, the pseudo-second-order, Elovich and the intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data to estimate the rate constants. The second-order model best described adsorption kinetic data. The results indicated that natural zeolite showed excellent adsorptive characteristics for the removal of copper(II) from leachate and could be used as very good liner materials due to its high uptake capacity and the abundance in availability.

  8. RADTRAN II: a computerized model for risk analysis of transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Daniel, S.L.; Biringer, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    The RADTRAN computer code, which formed the basis for the 1977 US generic transportation risk assessment, has been extensively updated. The updated version of the code, denoted RADTRAN II, includes changes based on findings from other transportation risk studies as well as changes based on reevaluation of earlier assumptions, analyses, and computerization techniques. The environmental impact of the transportation of radioactive material can be envisioned as consisting of five components, incident free transport, non-radiological impacts, vehicular accidents, breaches of security/safeguards, and failures of quality assurance. RADTRAN II is designed to evaluate both the incident-free and the accident contribution directly and can be used to evaluate the contributions of breaches of security and quality assurances deviation if some alterations in coding are made. Non-radiological impacts are not addressed

  9. Synthesis of amino functionalized magnetic graphenes composite material and its application to remove Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoyao; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin; Yang, Jian; Hu, Lihua; Yan, Liangguo; Xu, Weiying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphenes magnetic composite nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 -GS) were used to adsorb metal ions. • The adsorption of metal ions onto Fe 3 O 4 -GS could be well interpreted by the Freundlich equation. • The adsorption of metal ions onto Fe 3 O 4 -GS fit pseudo-second order kinetic model. • Thermodynamic studies illustrated that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. - Abstract: In the present study, a kind of graphenes magnetic material (Fe 3 O 4 -GS) was prepared by compositing graphene sheet with ferroferric oxide, and shown to be effictive for removing Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. The synthesized sorbent was characterized by SEM, TEM, FTIR, XRD, XPS and BET, respectively. The pH ZPC value of the sorbent was estimated to be 3.5 by alkaline-titration methods. Fe 3 O 4 -GS can be simply recovered from water with magnetic separation at low magnetic field within one minute. The sorption capacities of the metals were 17.29, 27.95, 23.03, 27.83 and 22.07 mg g −1 for Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II), respectively. Kinetic data showed good correlation with pseudo-second-order equation and the Freundlich model was found to fit for the isotherm data of all the heavy metal ions. It was found that the metals sorption was accomplished mainly via chelation or ion exchange. The results of thermodynamic studies illustrate that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature

  10. The EBR-II materials-surveillance program. 4: Results of SURV-4 and SURV-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruther, W.E.; Hayner, G.O.; Carlson, B.G.; Ebersole, E.R.; Allen, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    In March of 1965, a set of surveillance (SURV) samples was placed in the EBR-II reactor to determine the effect of irradiation, thermal aging, and sodium corrosion on reactor materials. Eight subassemblies were placed into row 12 positions of EBR-II to determine the effect of irradiation at 370 C. Two subassemblies were placed into the primary sodium basket to determine the effect of thermal aging at 370 C. For both the irradiated and thermally aged samples, one half of all samples were exposed to primary system sodium while one half were sealed in capsules with a helium atmosphere. Fifteen different structural materials were tested in the SURV program. In addition to the fifteen types of metal samples, graphite blocks were irradiated in the SURV subassemblies to determine the effect of irradiation on the graphite neutron shield. In this report, the properties of these materials irradiated at 370 C to a total fluence of 2.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (over 2,994 days) are compared with those of similar specimens thermally aged at 370 C for 2,994 days in the storage basket of the reactor. The properties analyzed were weight, density, microstructure, hardness, tensile and yield strength, impact strength, and creep

  11. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  12. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  13. Design at the Edge of the World: The Birth of American Air Intelligence in the China, Burma, India, and the Pacific Theaters during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    reconnaissance mission was complete, the film was processed by a photo lab and then interpreted for intelligence value. Photo interpretation typically...The stark contrast in philosophies amongst the different Tenth Air Force leadership teams significantly influenced the organizational design of...regarding post-war interests of the French and British prevented the sharing of intelligence amongst allies.102 The political sensitivity associated

  14. [The Continuity Between World War II and the Postwar Period: Grant Distribution by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Subsidiary Fund for Scientific Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizusawa, Hikari

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distribution of the Subsidiary Fund for Scientific Research, a predecessor to the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI), which operated in Japan from the 1930s to 1950s. It reveals that the Japanese government maintained this wide-ranging promotion system since its establishment during the war until well into the postwar period. Previous studies insist that, at the end of the war, the Japanese government generally only funded the research that it considered immediately and practically useful. In contrast to this general perception, my analysis illustrates that both before and after the war, funding was allotted to four research areas: natural science, engineering, agriculture, and medicine. In order to illuminate this continuity, I compare the Subsidiary Fund with another research fund existing from 1933 to 1947: the Grant of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). The comparison demonstrates that the JSPS received externally raised capital from the military and munitions companies. However, while this group focused upon engineering and military-related research as the war dragged on, the Subsidiary Fund has consistently entrusted scientists with the authority to decide the allocation of financial support.

  15. The Combatant Commander and Effective Operational HUMINT: Lessons From the Double Cross System of World War II and the CJ2X of Operation Joint Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-19

    www.bbc.co.uk/cgi-bin/history/renderplain.pl?file=history/war/wwtwo/spying/sis_0/> [27 March 2003]. 37 Ibid. 38 “Operation Overlord,” Saving Private Ryan Online...Security, (Washington, DC: 2002), 17; National Strategy for Combating Terrorism. Washington, DC: 2003. “Operation Overlord,” Saving Private Ryan Online

  16. Materials science in microelectronics II the effects of structure on properties in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Machlin, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The subject matter of thin-films - which play a key role in microelectronics - divides naturally into two headings: the processing / structure relationship, and the structure / properties relationship. Part II of 'Materials Science in Microelectronics' focuses on the latter of these relationships, examining the effect of structure on the following: Electrical properties Magnetic properties Optical properties Mechanical properties Mass transport properties Interface and junction properties Defects and properties Captures the importance of thin films to microelectronic development Examines the cause / effect relationship of structure on thin film properties.

  17. Perpetual War?

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, General Wesley; Mann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Michael Mann documents the increasing substitution of war for diplomacy by US policy elites. In part, the substitution has come about because of ideological change but also because the "Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex" maintains a high level of military spending due to the fact that most congressional districts receive some form of military expenditure from bases to munitions production. General Wesley Clark considers foreign policy under the Bush administration. He argues ...

  18. Currency wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs academic 2015-2016 A currency war (also known as the competitive depreciation or a policy of impoverish the neighbor) occurs when a country wants to obtain a competitive advantage which improve its trade balancethrough a series of changes in its currency. With these currency movements exports become cheaper for foreigners while imports become more expensive for residents in the own nation. These advantages produce strong...

  19. War casualties on the home front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda J. Flinn

    2005-11-01

    On May 12, 1942, at Christopher coal mine No. 3 in Osage, West Virginia, a continent away from the frontlines of World War II, Superintendent Ed O'Neil saw the mine ventilation fan suddenly run backwards, propelled by a strong gust of air that tore the belt off the huge blower. The second shift mantrip of 115 coal miners, traversing the drift mouth for the 3:00 p.m. shift, ground to an uneasy halt. The article recounts the tragic consequences of this incident. It also tells of other events affecting coal miners during World War I and World War II.

  20. Globalizing Contemporary War

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Zisler

    2009-01-01

    There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008).These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ pre...

  1. War Movies Decoded: Understanding the Logic of War Movie Making from Hollywood to Bollywood and Its Use to Spread Propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Introduction War is Cinema and Cinema is War - Paul Virilo World War II: Film and History Why is a war film made? The need to communicate and...Poland in Why We Fight; and racially profiling Japanese in Disney’s Victory through Air Power could be forgiven, considering the justified angst...from the perspective of international target audience can be better appreciated by studying the Indian cinema industry, which is popularly known as

  2. From cold power strategies to hot wars about raw materials? Game of chess of the world power between preventive war and futurable raw material politics in the age of the greenhouse; Von kalten Energiestrategien zu heissen Rohstoffkriegen? Schachspiel der Weltmaechte zwischen Praeventivkrieg und zukunftsfaehiger Rohstoffpolitik im Zeitalter des globalen Treibhauses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roithner, T. (comp.)

    2008-07-01

    The 24th international summer academy, held in Stadtschlaining (Burgenland, Austria) between 8th July and 13th July, 2007, is engaged with the reasons to the conflicts and military conflicts at the end of the fossil energy age. The following lectures are held: (a) From cold power strategies to hot wars about raw materials? (Thomas Roithner); (b) Inauguration of the 24th international summer academy 2007 (Gerald Mader); (c) A change of consciousness also changes unconsciously the being (Hans Lukits); (d) Oil in fire - Conflicts of resources as a fuel for global discord (Wolfgang Sachs); (e) Safety discourses on both sides of the Atlantic - in times o peak oil and climatic change (Elmar Altvater); (f) From energy security to the war of resources: the resource politics of China, Russia and India (Andreas Zumach); (g) Why is there no alternative to the retreat from Afghanistan? (Peter Strutynski); (h) Do ''Peak Oil'' and nuclear energy solve the climate problem? (Helga Kromp-Kolb, Wolfgang kromp); (i) Water - the material from that conflicts consist? (Juerg Staudenmann, Karin Scheurer); (j) US strategy for the regions of Middle East and Caucasus in the unipolar world order (Matin Baraki); (k) What are the influences of oil on the conflict with Iran? (Udo Steinbach); (l) Geopolicy and resources: The grasp of the USA at Africa (Werner Ruf); (m) New colonization of Africa: China, USA and Europe in the struggle for resources (Karin Kneissl); (n) Securing resources and energy politics in Latin America: US politics, EU politics or independent world politics (Peter Stania); (o) More scarcely becoming raw materials - a source for armament and war planning? (Luehr Henken); (p) Battle groups - intervening groups for securing resources (Gunther Hauser); (q) Organization of the globalization as fateful question - which future lies before us? (Franz-Josef Radermacher); (r) No peace without change of renewable resources (Hermann Scheer); (s) Peaceable, forced or

  3. The EBR-II materials-surveillance program. 5: Results of SURV-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruther, W.E.; Staffon, J.D.; Carlson, B.G.; Allen, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    In March of 1965, a set of surveillance (SURV) samples was placed in the EBR-II reactor to determine the effect of irradiation, thermal aging, and sodium corrosion on reactor materials. Eight subassemblies were placed into row 12 positions of EBR-II to determine the effect of irradiation at 370 C. Two subassemblies were placed into the primary sodium basket to determine the effect of thermal aging at 370 C. One half of all samples were exposed to primary system sodium while one half were sealed in capsules with a helium atmosphere. Fifteen different structural materials were tested in the SURV program. In this work, the properties of these materials irradiated at 370 C to a total fluence of 3.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2 were determined. These materials are the fifth set of irradiated subassemblies to be examined as part of the SURV program (SURV-5). The properties analyzed were weight, density, microstructure, hardness, tensile and yield strength, and fracture resistance. Of all the alloys examined in SURV-5, only Berylco-25 showed any significant weight loss. Stainless steel (both 304 and 347) had the largest density decrease, although the density decrease from irradiation for all alloys was less than 0.4 percent. The microstructure of both Berylco-25 and the aluminum-bronze alloy was altered significantly. Iron- and nickel-base alloys showed little change in microstructure. Austenitic steels (304 and 347) harden with irradiation. The hardness of Inconel X750 did not change significantly with irradiation. The ultimate tensile strength of Inconel X750, 304 stainless steel, 420 stainless steel and welded 304 changed little due to a fluence increase from 2.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (the maximum fluence of the SURV-4 samples) to 3.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2

  4. War Games: "Ender's Game", "The Monuments Men", and Movies for Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of adolescent fantasy movies about cosmic war and the enjoyment of military adventures that we find in World War II movies suggest the unique importance of war-themed culture in fostering solidarity in large, complex, and factionalized societies. War movies offset the power of sub-cultural movements by emphasizing the togetherness…

  5. You Can Help Your Country: English Children's Work during the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayall, Berry; Morrow, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Using a rich collection of archives, school histories, photographs and memoirs, this book charts and discusses the contributions English children made to the war effort during World War II. As men and women were increasingly called up for war work, as the country needed to grow as much food as possible, and as the war effort required ever…

  6. David Douglas Duncan's Changing Views on War: An Audio-Visual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politowski, Richard

    This paper is the script for a slide presentation about photographer David Douglas Duncan and his view of war. It is intended to be used with slides made from pictures Duncan took during World War II, the Korean War, and the war in Viet Nam and published in various books and periodicals. It discusses a shift in emphasis to be seen both in the…

  7. Measuring the Progenitor Masses and Dense Circumstellar Material of Type II Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Piro, Anthony L.; Valenti, Stefano

    2018-05-01

    Recent modeling of hydrogen-rich Type II supernova (SN II) light curves suggests the presence of dense circumstellar material (CSM) surrounding the exploding progenitor stars. This has important implications for the activity and structure of massive stars near the end of their lives. Since previous work focused on just a few events, here we expand to a larger sample of 20 well-observed SNe II. For each event we are able to constrain the progenitor zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) mass, explosion energy, and the mass and radial extent of the dense CSM. We then study the distribution of each of these properties across the full sample of SNe. The inferred ZAMS masses are found to be largely consistent with a Salpeter distribution with minimum and maximum masses of 10.4 and 22.9 M ⊙, respectively. We also compare the individual ZAMS masses we measure with specific SNe II that have pre-explosion imaging to check their consistency. Our masses are generally comparable to or higher than the pre-explosion imaging masses, potentially helping ease the red supergiant problem. The explosion energies vary from (0.1–1.3) × 1051 erg, and for ∼70% of the SNe we obtain CSM masses in the range between 0.18 and 0.83 M ⊙. We see a potential correlation between the CSM mass and explosion energy, which suggests that pre-explosion activity has a strong impact on the structure of the star. This may be important to take into account in future studies of the ability of the neutrino mechanism to explode stars. We also see a possible correlation between the CSM radial extent and ZAMS mass, which could be related to the time with respect to explosion when the CSM is first generated.

  8. Study of the adsorption of mercury (II) on lignocellulosic materials under static and dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Arias, Fabian E; Beneduci, Amerigo; Chidichimo, Francesco; Furia, Emilia; Straface, Salvatore

    2017-08-01

    WHO has declared mercury as one of the most dangerous pollutants for human health. Unfortunately, several cases of rivers and aquifers contaminated by mercury inevitably poses the problem on how to remediate them. Considerable efforts are being addressed to develop cost-effective methodologies, among which the use of low-cost adsorbing materials. In this paper, the adsorption performances of an alternative lignocellulosic material derived from the Spanish broom plant, are presented. This plant is widely diffused in the world and its usage for Hg(II) removal from water in real working conditions requires only minimal pretreatment steps. A thoroughly investigation on the kinetics and thermodynamics of Hg(II) adsorption on Spanish broom is presented, by using Hg(II) polluted aqueous solutions specifically prepared in order to simulate typical groundwater conditions. Several batch experiments, under static conditions, were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, temperature. A maximum adsorption capacity of 20 mg L -1 can be obtained at pH 5, following a pseudo second order kinetics. Moreover, adsorption experiments in dynamic conditions were carried out using Spanish broom filters. Interestingly, a systematic, unconventional double S-shape breakthrough curve was observed under different experimental conditions, revealing the occurrence of two adsorption processes with different time scales. This behavior has been fitted by a bimodal Thomas model which, unlike the single Thomas fitting, gives satisfactory results with the introduction of a new parameter related to the fraction of surface active sites involved in the adsorption processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Materials information for science and technology (MIST): Project overview: Phases I and II and general considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattidge, W.; Westbrook, J.; McCarthy, J.; Northrup, C. Jr.; Rumble, J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the initial phases of the Materials Information for Science and Technology (MIST) project jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Bureau of Standards. The purpose of MIST is to demonstrate the power and utility of computer access to materials property data. The initial goals include: to exercise the concept of a computer network of materials databases and to build a demonstration of such a system suitable for use as the core of operational systems in the future. Phases I and II are described in detail herein. In addition, a discussion is given of the expected usage of the system. The primary MIST prototype project is running on an IBM 3084 under STS at the Stanford University's Information Technology Services (ITS). Users can access the Stanford system via ARPANET, TELENET, and TYMNET, as well as via commercial telephone lines. For fastest response time and use of the full screen PRISM interface, direct connection using a 2400 baud modem with the MNP error-correcting protocol over standard telephone lines gives the best results - though slower speed connections and a line-oriented interface are also available. This report gives detailed plans regarding the properties to be enterend and the materials to be entered into the system.

  10. Smog wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospodarek, M.P.

    1979-04-12

    International discussions of transboundary pollution, which have not been able to find a way to effect the agreed-upon principle that no nation should have to suffer another nation's pollution, parallel the smog wars across state boundaries. The states, however, can blame the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as each other because of relaxed and unevenly applied standards. Several EPA decisions are cited to illustrate tensions between states and the alienation of the environmental lobby. Of particular concern are the application of smog and ozone standards in rural areas and the effect of offset policy on industrial development.

  11. FISPACT-II: An Advanced Simulation System for Activation, Transmutation and Material Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublet, J.-Ch., E-mail: jean-christophe.sublet@ukaea.uk [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Eastwood, J.W.; Morgan, J.G. [Culham Electromagnetics Ltd, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gilbert, M.R.; Fleming, M.; Arter, W. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Fispact-II is a code system and library database for modelling activation-transmutation processes, depletion-burn-up, time dependent inventory and radiation damage source terms caused by nuclear reactions and decays. The Fispact-II code, written in object-style Fortran, follows the evolution of material irradiated by neutrons, alphas, gammas, protons, or deuterons, and provides a wide range of derived radiological output quantities to satisfy most needs for nuclear applications. It can be used with any ENDF-compliant group library data for nuclear reactions, particle-induced and spontaneous fission yields, and radioactive decay (including but not limited to TENDL-2015, ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-4.0u, CENDL-3.1 processed into fine-group-structure files, GEFY-5.2 and UKDD-16), as well as resolved and unresolved resonance range probability tables for self-shielding corrections and updated radiological hazard indices. The code has many novel features including: extension of the energy range up to 1 GeV; additional neutron physics including self-shielding effects, temperature dependence, thin and thick target yields; pathway analysis; and sensitivity and uncertainty quantification and propagation using full covariance data. The latest ENDF libraries such as TENDL encompass thousands of target isotopes. Nuclear data libraries for Fispact-II are prepared from these using processing codes PREPRO, NJOY and CALENDF. These data include resonance parameters, cross sections with covariances, probability tables in the resonance ranges, PKA spectra, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and energy-dependent fission yields, supplemented with all 27 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles are provided in evaluated data tables. The Fispact-II simulation software is described in detail in this paper, together with the nuclear data libraries. The Fispact-II system also includes several utility programs for code-use optimisation

  12. Causes of the Vietnam War: An Academic Look at Wilsoniasm and Cold War Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belanger, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    At the end of World War II Europe was divided by two ideological super powers. President Truman had hoped that newly conquered Eastern Europe would hold free elections and determine their own course of government...

  13. Changes and Trends in the Pallet Industry: The Use of New Wood Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    Wood has dominated the pallet industry as its principal raw material since palletized material handling began. Pallet production and use grew dramatically after World War II and wood remained the material of choice. Throughout this period the pallet industry has been an important market for lower grades of hardwood lumber and cants. Today, the demand for pallet grade...

  14. Thermal characteristics of manganese (II) nitrate hexahydrate as a phase change material for cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, K.; Mochida, T.; Takeda, S.; Domanski, R.; Rebow, M.

    2003-01-01

    The imbalance of electrical demand in summer due to cooling system demand is a big problem in many countries. One promising solution is shifting peak demand from early afternoon to night by utilizing natural cold energy resources such as cool outside air during night or running a refrigerator driven by midnight power. In these cases, using the thermal energy storage (TES) of phase change material (PCM) which has a melting point from 15 to 25 deg. C is one of the most effective ideas. However, few suitable PCMs for this temperature range are at present commercially available. This study aims to evaluate the potential of Mn(NO 3 ) 2 · 6H 2 O (manganese (II) nitrate hexahydrate) as a new PCM for the TES of cooling systems. First, experiments on the modulation of the melting point of Mn(NO 3 ) 2 · 6H 2 O and reduction of supercooling were made by dissolving small amounts of salts in the material. Consequently, MnCl 2 · 4H 2 O was found to have good performance with regard to both modulation of the melting temperature and the heat of fusion. Next, a thermal response test was carried out by using a small cylindrical vessel. Results showed that the required temperature levels for charging and discharging the heat of this mixture were clarified. In addition, the price and safety of this material as a PCM are discussed

  15. Pulsed laser deposition of II-VI and III-V semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mele, A.; Di Palma, T.M.; Flamini, C.; Giardini Guidoni, A. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dep. di Chimica

    1998-12-01

    Pulsed laser irradiation of a solid target involves electronic excitation and heating, followed by expansion from the target of the elliptical gas cloud (plume) which can be eventually condensed on a suitable substrate. Pulsed laser ablation has been found to be a valuable technique to prepare II-VI and III-V thin films of semiconductor materials. Pulsed laser ablation deposition is discussed in the light of the results of an investigation on CdS, CdSe, CdTe and CdSe/CdTe multilayers and AIN, GaN and InN together with Al-Ga-In-N heterostructures. [Italiano] L`irradiazione di un target solido, mediante un fascio laser impulsato, genera una serie di processi che possono essere schematizzati come segue: riscaldamento ed eccitazione elettronica del target, da cui consegue l`espulsione di materiale sotto forma di una nube gassosa di forma ellissoidale (plume), che espande e puo` essere fatta depositare su un opportuno substrato. L`ablazione lasersi e` rivelata una tecnica valida per preparare film sottili di composti di elementi del II-VI e del III-V gruppo della tavola periodica. La deposizione via ablazione laser viene discussa alla luce dei risultati ottenuti nella preparazione di film di CdS, CdSe, CdTe e di film multistrato di CdSe/CdTe, di film di AIN, GaN, InN e di eterostrutture di Al-Ga-In-N.

  16. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase I and Phase II Materials Structures for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high temperature environmental barrier coating systems, deployable space structures, solid oxide fuel cells, and self-lubricating hard coatings for extreme temperatures. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  17. Non-destructive material investigation with thermal neutrons at the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastuerk, M.; Boeck, H.; Zamani, B.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron tomography providing 3D information about interior of an object is a very efficient tool to visualize inner defects of the materials, non-destructively. In this study, some applications of neutron tomography in different fields such as geology, aerospace, civil engineering and archaeology were presented. Distribution of minerals in pumice and rock samples, visualization of inner defects within a new developed titan aluminum turbine blade, and distribution of silica gel as an important impregnating agent in construction and restoration of buildings were investigated. The measurements of tomography projections taken in the 0 to 180 o angle were performed with a thermal neutron flux of 10 5 at the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Vienna, and the common filtered back projection method was used for the 3D image reconstruction. (author)

  18. DEVELOPING GUIDED DISCOVERY LEARNING MATERIALS USING MATHEMATICS MOBILE LEARNING APPLICATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE MEDIA FOR THE STUDENTS CALCULUS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunismi .

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The development research aims to develop guided-discovery learning materials of Calculus II by implementing Mathematics Mobile Learning (MML. The products to develop are MML media of Calculus II using guided discovery model for students and a guide book for lecturers. The study employed used 4-D development model consisting of define, design, develop, and disseminate. The draft of the learning materials was validated by experts and tried-out to a group of students. The data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by using a descriptive technique and t-test. The findings of the research were appropriate to be used ad teaching media for the students. The students responded positively that the MML media of Calculus II using the guided-discovery model was interestingly structured, easily operated through handphones (all JAVA, android, and blackberry-based handphones to be used as their learning guide anytime. The result of the field testing showed that the guided-discovery learning materials of Calculus II using the Mathematics Mobile Learning (MML application was effective to adopt in learning Calculus II. Keywords: learning materials, guided-discovery, mathematics mobile learning (MML, calculus II PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR MODEL GUIDED DISCOVERY DENGAN APLIKASI MATHEMATICS MOBILE LEARNING SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN MAHASISWA MATAKULIAH KALKULUS II Abstrak: Penelitian pengembangan ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan bahan ajar matakuliah Kalkulus II model guided discovery dengan aplikasi Mathematics Mobile Learning (MML. Produk yang dikembangkan berupa media MML Kalkulus II dengan model guided discovery untuk mahasiswa dan buku panduan dosen. Model pengembangan menggunakan 4-D yang meliputi tahap define, design, develop, dan dissemination. Draf bahan ajar divalidasi oleh pakar dan diujicobakan kepada sejumlah mahasiswa. Data dianalisis secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif dengan teknik deskriptif dan uji t. Temuan penelitian

  19. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  20. Probing Fe (III)/Fe (II) redox potential in a clayey material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Chainet, Fabien; Betelu, Stephanie; Hadi, Jebril; Gaucher, Eric C.; Ignatiadis, Ioannis; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Charlet, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Redox is one of the main factors affecting the migration of redox-sensitive radionuclides. As a consequence reducing conditions are considered of strategic importance for the confinement properties of a clayey formation towards nuclear waste. A representative redox potential of clay formation such as Callovian- Oxfordian (COx) can be derived from thermodynamic calculations considering equilibrium between observed redox phases such as pyrite and siderite. However, there is little information on the reactivity of the different reservoirs of redox constituents in this type of complex material. The present study aims at investigating the reactivity of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple in the structure of clay minerals using different investigation methods: electrochemistry and O 2 reduction kinetic experiments. Clay modified electrodes were specifically designed to probe Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox potential in the structure of clay minerals. The clay fraction of a Callovian-Oxfordian argillite sample originating from the same level than ANDRA underground research laboratory was used after pre-treatment to remove organic matter and accessory minerals such as pyrite that could influence redox potential measurements. These electrodes were used to verify the validity of the model of Favre et al. (2006) that links the redox potential (E clay ) to the the Fe(II)/Fe tot ratio in the structure (m rel ), the pH and the sodium concentration in solution: equation 1. The good agreement between direct potential measurements and model prediction provides a strong evidence of the relevance of this model in our experimental conditions although the clay composition and its too low Fe content do not a priori fulfil the conditions set by Drits and Manceau (2000) for the calculation of K 0 parameter. Following the verification of the model, we tried to apply it to the specific case of a Callovian-Oxfordian sample that had been very well preserved

  1. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  2. After the War: Nation-Building from FDR to George W. Bush

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dobbins, James; Poole, Michele A; Long, Austin; Runkle, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    .... The authors start with a review of the post World War II occupations of Germany and Japan. The end of the Cold War brought a second spate of such missions -- in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, and Kosovo...

  3. Hydramite II screening tests of potential bremsstrahlung converter debris shield materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Hedemann, M.A.; Stark, M.A.

    1986-03-01

    Results of a brief test series aimed at screening a number of potential bremsstrahlung converter debris shield materials are reported. These tests were run on Sandia National Laboratories' Hydramite II accelerator using a diode configuration which produces a pinched electron beam. The materials tested include: (1) laminated Kevlar 49/polyester and E-glass/polyester composites, (2) a low density laminated Kevlar 49 composite, and (3) two types of through-the-thickness reinforced Kevlar 49 composites. As expected, tests using laminated Kevlar 49/polyester shields showed that shield permanent set (i.e., permanent deflection) increased with increasing tantalum conversion foil thickness and decreased with increasing shield thickness. The through-the-thickness reinforced composites developed localized, but severe, back surface damage. The laminated composites displayed little back surface damage, although extensive internal matrix cracking and ply delaminations were generated. Roughly the same degree of permanent set was produced in shields made from the low density Kevlar 49 composite and the Kevlar 49/polyester. The E-glass reinforced shields exhibited relatively low levels of permanent set

  4. Three Generations, Three Wars: African American Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Helen K

    2016-02-01

    This article emerged from pilot research exploring experiences of war and suffering among African American veterans who served in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Men's experiences as soldiers reflected both racism and the social change that occurred in the Unites States while they served. We used techniques of narrative elicitation, conducting qualitative, ethnographic interviews with each of five veterans in his home. Interviews focused on unique and shared experiences as an African American man and a soldier. Three important themes emerged: (a) Expectations related to War--Although men viewed service to country as an expected part of life, they also expected equal treatment in war, which did not occur; (b) Suffering as an African American--Informants interpreted experiences of suffering in war as related to the lower status of African American servicemen; and (c) Perception of present identity--Each man was honed by the sum of his experiences, including those of combat, racism, and postwar opportunities and obstacles. From 40 to 70 years after the wars were fought, there are few scholarly narrative studies on African American veterans, despite the fact that Korean War Veterans are entering old-old age and few World War II Veterans are alive. The value of pilot research that offers narratives of unheard voices is significant; larger studies can interview more African American veterans to advance knowledge that might soon be lost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  6. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2018-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; colonial wars in V.; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various...... culture wars – hippies against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland and Inherent Vice; and the war on terror in Bleeding Edge. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only political or military but also social...... and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order; from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic missiles of the cold war, the irregular engagements of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and the digitalized fall-out of cyber-warfare....

  7. Authorities to Use US Military Force Since the Passage of the 1973 War Powers Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    same outcome with the promise of using overwhelming force similar to a strategy of annihilation employed during the Second World War ...the Passage of the 1973 War Powers Resolution Approved by: ______ ____________________________, Monograph Director Robert T. Davis II, PhD...Why does the United States not wage war as it did during World War II? Understanding the authorities granted to the branches of the US government is

  8. Information War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the

  9. [Werner Leibbrand, Annemarie Wettley and controversies on "euthanasia" the background of medico-historical and ethical debates in the Post World War II era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Christine; Frewer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists and medical historians Werner Leibbrand (1896 - 1974) and Annemarie Wettley (1913 - 1996) are amongst the most striking figures in the field of history of medicine. Leibbrand was appointed director of the "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" in Erlangen shortly after the war. Fuelled by his own experiences of suppression and persecution during the Nazi era he promised to unearth the crimes and atrocities which had happened under watch of the Nazi regime. He was joined by Annemarie Wettley, who worked as a physician at the hospital and had developed an increasing interest in the history of medicine. In 1946 they published "Um die Menschenrechte der Geisteskranken" ("Human Rights of the Mentally Ill") about the "euthanasia" campaign of the Nazi regime. Although a number of substantial works followed, Leibbrand and Wettley failed to inform in more depth on crimes and atrocities, for instance killings of patients and forced malnutrition. Doubts and charges against Wettley regarding her role in dietary programmes at the Erlangen hospital and against Leibbrand regarding special expert's reports--both had a short-term arrest warrant--might have contributed to stagnation in their efforts. In 1953 Leibbrand accepted the offer of a chair at the University in Munich, Wettley followed and habilitated in history of medicine; in the year 1962 they married. Contacts and exchange amongst medico-historical experts shed light on developments during the post-war era; still, a critical and fundamental review of the crimes within the medical system of the Nazi regime did not take place during this time.

  10. Biosorption of Cu(II) onto agricultural materials from tropical regions

    KAUST Repository

    Acheampong, Mike A.; Pereira, Joana P.C.; Meulepas, Roel J.W.; Lens, Piet N.L.

    2011-01-01

    model described the Cu(II) removal by coconut husk (R2 = 0.999) and sawdust (R2 = 0.993) very well and the Cu(II) removal by Moringa oleifera seeds (R2 = 0.960) well. The model only reasonably described the Cu(II) removal by coconut shell (R2 = 0.932). A

  11. Predicting critical temperatures of iron(II) spin crossover materials: Density functional theory plus U approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yachao, E-mail: yczhang@nano.gznc.edu.cn [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang 550018, Guizhou (China)

    2014-12-07

    A first-principles study of critical temperatures (T{sub c}) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the T{sub c} of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔE{sub HL} and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract T{sub c} by exploiting the ΔH/T − T and ΔS − T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in T{sub c} of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting T{sub c} of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior.

  12. [Georg Friedrich Nicolai: war physician against war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, L

    2017-01-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai was a German professor and heart specialist who was one of the few who protested against the war at the beginning of World War I. As a result, he lost his job and was convicted. After the war, right-wing nationalist students and lack of support from his university superiors made it impossible for him to teach. He left Germany in 1922, never to return. In his book, Die Biologie des Krieges (The Biology of War), which was published in neutral Switzerland in 1917, he contradicted the social Darwinist idea - supported by many physicians as well - that war strengthened humanity, people and races, physically and mentally. On the contrary, he argued, war is biologically counterproductive.

  13. Preparation and characterization of trihydroxamic acid functionalized carbon materials for the removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godino-Salido, M. Luz, E-mail: mlgodino@ujaen.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, 23071, Jaén (Spain); Santiago-Medina, Antonio; López-Garzón, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Valero, María D.; Arranz-Mascarós, Paloma; López de la Torre, M. Dolores [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, 23071, Jaén (Spain); Domingo-García, María; López-Garzón, F. Javier [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada (Spain)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Hybrid materials made by irreversible adsorption of a deferoxamine derivative on ACs. • The surface trihydroxamate groups are the active functions of the hybrid materials. • Great adsorption capacity for Cu(II) of novel trihydroxamic acid functionalized ACs. • Desorption of Cu(II) from the loaded hybrid materials regenerates the parent hybrids. - Abstract: The main objective of this study is to prepare and characterize two functionalizated carbon materials with enhanced adsorptive properties for Cu(II). Thus, two novel hybrid materials have been prepared by a non-covalent functionalization method based on the adsorption of a pyrimidine-desferrioxamine-B conjugate compound (H{sub 4}L) on two activated carbons, ACs (labelled Merck and F). The adsorption of H{sub 4}L on the ACs is pH-dependent and highly irreversible. This is due to strong π-π interactions between the arene centers of the ACs and the pyrimidine moiety of H{sub 4}L. The textural characterization of the AC/H{sub 4}L hybrids shows large decreases of their surface areas. Thus the values of Merck and F are 1031 and 1426 m{sup 2}/g respectively, while these of Merck/H{sub 4}L and F/H{sub 4}L hybrids are 200 and 322 m{sup 2}/g. An important decrease in the micropore volumes is also found, due to the blockage of narrow porosity produced by the adsorption of H{sub 4}L molecules. The ACs/H{sub 4}L hybrids show larger adsorption capacities for Cu(II) (0.105(4) and 0.13(2) mmol/g, at pH 2.0, and 0.20(3) and 0.242(9) mmol/g, at pH 5.5, for Merck/H{sub 4}L and F/H{sub 4}L, respectively) than those of the ACs (0.024(6) and 0.096(9) mmol/g, at pH 2.0, and 0.10(2) and 0.177(8) mmol/g, at pH 5.5, for Merck and F respectively), which is explained on the basis of the complexing ability of the trihydroxamic acid functions. The desorption of Cu(II) from the ACs/H{sub 4}L/Cu(II) materials in acid solution allows the regeneration of most active sites (78.5% in the case of Merck/H{sub 4}L/Cu(II) and 83

  14. Damage analysis of TRIGA MARK II Bandung reactor tank material structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo; Sumijanto

    2000-01-01

    Damage of Triga Mark II Bandung reactor tank material structure has been analyzed. The analysis carried out was based on ultrasonic inspection result in 1996 and the monthly reports of reactor operation by random data during 1988 up to 1995. Ultrasonic test data had shown that thinning processes on south and west region of reactor out side wall at upper part of water level had happened. Reactor operation data had shown the demineralized water should be added monthly to the reactor and bulk shielding water tank. Both reactor and bulk shielding tank are shielded by concrete of Portland type I cement consisting of CaO content about 58-68 %. The analysis result shows that the reaction between CaO and seepage water from bulk shielding wall had taken place and consequently the reactor out sidewall surroundings became alkaline. Based on Pourbaix diagram, the aluminum reactor tank made of aluminum alloy 6061 T6 would be corroded easily at pH equal an greater than 8.6. The passive layer AI 2 O 3 aluminum metal surface would be broken due to water reaction taken place continuously at high pH and produces hydrogen gas. The light hydrogen gas would expand the concrete cement and its expanding power would open the passive layer of aluminum metal upper tank. The water sea pages from adding water into reactor tank could indicate the upper water level tank corrosion is worse than the lower water level tank. (author)

  15. Potential Malaysia agricultural waste materials for the biosorption of cadmium(II) from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, L.P.Y.; Tee, C.Z.; Raimy, N.R.; Hassell, D.G.; Lee, L.Y. [University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-04-15

    Biosorption of cadmium(II) ions (Cd{sup 2+}) onto Ananas comosus (AC) peel, Parkia speciosa (PS) pods and Psidium guajava (PG) peel were investigated in this study. Batch sorption experiments were performed by investigating the effect of initial pH. It was found that Cd{sup 2+} uptake was highly dependent on the initial pH and Cd{sup 2+} removal efficiency was highest for PG peel, followed by AC peel and PS pods. Biosorption experiments were carried out using different initial Cd{sup 2+} concentration and the experimental data obtained was fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The experimental data was found to best fit the Langmuir isotherm, and adsorption capacities of 18.21 mg/g (AC peel), 25.64 mg/g (PS pods) and 39.68 mg/g (PG peel) were obtained. Comparison with published adsorption capacities for other low-cost biosorbents indicates that PS pods and PG peel have potential as low-cost biosorbent materials for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} from aqueous solution. (orig.)

  16. High dose-rate irradiation of materials with pulsed ion beams at NDCX-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Peter; Treffert, F.; Ji, Q.; Ludewigt, B.; Persaud, A.; Kong, X.; de Leon, S. J.; Dowling, E.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Barnard, J. J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Stepanov, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.

    2017-10-01

    Charged particle radiation effects in materials is important for the design of fusion plasma facing components. Also, radiation effects in semiconductor devices are of interest for many applications such as detectors and space electronics. We present results from radiation effects studies with intense pulses of helium ions that impinged on thin samples at the induction linac at Berkeley Lab (Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II). Intense bunches of 1.2 MeV He+ ions with peak currents of 2 A, 1-mm beam spot radius and 2-30 ns FWHM duration create controlled high instantaneous dose rates enabling the exploration of collective damage effects. We use in-situ diagnostics to monitor transient effects due to rapid heating and the ionization and damage cascade dynamics. For tin, single pulses deposit sufficient energy in the foil to drive phase transitions. A new Thomson parabola to measures ion energy loss and charge state distributions following transmission of a few micron thick samples. In silicon, ion pulses induce free electron densities of order 1021 cm-3. Supported by the Office of Science of the US DOE under contracts DE-AC0205CH11231, DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by the China Scholarship Council.

  17. Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…

  18. Fe-Ti/Fe (II)-loading on ceramic filter materials for residual chlorine removal from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kexin; Zhu, Qi; Guo, Zheng; Xing, Zipeng

    2018-06-01

    Ceramic filter material was prepared with silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), which was recovered from red mud and then modified with Fe (II) and Fe-Ti bimetal oxide. Ceramic filter material can be used to reduce the content of residual chlorine from drinking water. The results showed that after a two-step leaching process with 3 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 90% sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), the recovery of SiO 2 exceeded 80%. Fe (II)/Fe-Ti bimetal oxide, with a high adsorption capacity of residual chlorine, was prepared using a 3:1 M ratio of Fe/Ti and a concentration of 0.4 mol/L Fe 2+ . According to the zeta-potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, Fe (II) and Fe-Ti bimetal oxide altered the zeta potential and structural properties of the ceramic filter material. There was a synergistic interaction between Fe and Ti in which FeOTi bonds on the material surface and hydroxyl groups provided the active sites for adsorption. Through a redox reaction, Fe (II) transfers hypochlorite to chloride, and FeOTiCl bonds were formed after adsorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. I: Hydrodynamic-focusing microreactor II: Mechanically interlocked molecules for functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coti, Karla Karina

    I: Microreactors, a class of microfluidics, offer numerous benefits -- such as small sample requirement, short analysis times and automations -- and have been used to study reactions of chemical and biological reagents. In order to understand the relationship between fast mixing, product regioselectivity, as well as the ability to separate, in time and space, the nanoparticle (NP) formation stages, a microreactor capable of fast and controllable mixing was developed (Chapter 1) based on multi-lamination and hydrodynamic-focusing. By taking advantage of the fast and controllable mixing properties of this novel microreactor one can control the time when chemical reactions commence inside the microchannels. These properties of the microreactor can be exploited to improve the product regioselectivity of a diazo-coupling reaction to attain a product distribution of monoazo to diazo product of ˜1:99, a selectivity unprecedented in both conventional, macroscopic reactors and other microfluidic systems. Additionally, the ability to separate different stages during the NP formation process inside the microreactor, allowed us to study the aggregation of polypyrrole NPs. II: Supramolecular actuators and molecular interlocked molecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, have attracted considerable attention because of their sophisticated topology and their application in functional molecular devices. The blending of supramolecular and mechanostereochemistry with mesoporous silica NPs has proven to be a powerful combination, leading to the development of a new class of materials -- mechanized silica nanoparticles ( Chapter 2). These new hybrid materials are designed to release their content in response to an external stimuli and their development is being driven by the need to improve current drug delivery technologies. In an effort to explore how the stimuli-controlled mechanical movement of switchable, bistable [2]rotaxanes -- based on a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring

  20. The electrochemical performance and mechanism of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for lithium and sodium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Jinli; Liu, Li; Guo, Shengping; Hu, Hai; Yan, Zichao; Zhou, Qian; Huang, Zhifeng; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang; Wang, Xianyou

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The as-prepared CoF 2 shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries. •The Li insertion/extraction mechanism of CoF 2 below 1.2 V was firstly proposed. •The electrochemical performance of CoF 2 as anode material in sodium ion batteries was firstly studied. -- Abstract: Cobalt (II) fluoride begins to enter into the horizons of people along with the research upsurge of metal fluorides. It is very significative and theoretically influential to make certain its electrochemical reaction mechanism. In this work, we discover a new and unrevealed reversible interfacial intercalation mechanism reacting below 1.2 V for cobalt (II) fluoride electrode material, which contributes a combined discharge capacity of about 400 mA h g −1 with the formation of SEI film at the initial discharge process. A highly reversible storage capacity of 120 mA h g −1 is observed when the cell is cycled over the voltage of 0.01-1.2 V at 0.2 C, and the low-potential voltage reaction process has a significant impact for the whole electrochemical process. Electrochemical analyses suggest that pure cobalt (II) fluoride shows better electrochemical performance when it is cycled at 3.2-0.01 V compared to the high range (1.0-4.5 V). So, we hold that cobalt (II) fluoride is more suitable to serve as anode material for lithium ion batteries. In addition, we also try to reveal the relevant performance and reaction mechanism, and realize the possibility of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for sodium ion batteries

  1. Influence of urban runoff, inappropriate waste disposal practices and World War II on the heavy metal status of sediments in the southern half of Saipan Lagoon, Saipan, CNMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, Gary R.W.; Emborski, Carmen A.; Habana, Nathan C.; Starmer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metals were examined in sediments from the southern half of Saipan Lagoon. • This area is chronically impacted by stormwater discharges all along the coast. • Generally, the study identified moderate metal enrichment that attenuated seawards. • Mercury distributions within the lagoon also seemed to reflect past WWII activities. • Additional Pb, Cu and Zn inputs at the S end of the lagoon came from an old dumpsite. - Abstract: Heavy metals were examined in sediments from the southern half of Saipan Lagoon. These waters provided tactical access for US troops during WWII and were heavily shelled at the time. Mercury profiles in sediments were, to some extent, reflective of this event. Samples from the southern end of the lagoon, where an old post-war dumpsite once existed, were found to be substantially enriched with Pb, Cu and Zn. Further north, the lagoon was primarily impacted by urban runoff. Metal enrichment in sediments from this region was generally highest at storm drain outlets and attenuated seawards. Moderate enrichment was rarely exceeded for any element other than Hg beyond the 50 m mark. Sediment quality guidelines used to flag potentially adverse ecological health effects revealed no PEL exceedances. TEL exceedances for Pb and Cu were identified in sediments near the former dumpsite. The public health implications of the data are briefly addressed

  2. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Banking Act and the introduction of protectionism. The Union was also more successful in both the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus and the use of its...Americans could "’turn with fresh interests to our own tyrannies-to our Colorado mines. our autocratic steel industries, our sweatshops . and our slums...conservation programs and the introduction of hybrid seeds, added another 14 percent, and more scientific disease control and better feeding, breeding

  3. New Methods of Simulation of Mn(II) EPR Spectra: Single Crystals, Polycrystalline and Amorphous (Biological) Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sushil K.

    Biological systems exhibit properties of amorphous materials. The Mn(II) ion in amorphous materials is characterized by distributions of spin-Hamiltonian parameters around mean values. It has a certain advantage over other ions, being one of the most abundant elements on the earth. The extent to which living organisms utilize manganese varies from one organism to the other. There is a fairly high concentration of the Mn(II) ion in green plants, which use it in the O2 evolution reaction of photosynthesis (Sauer, 1980). Structure-reactivity relationships in Mn(II)-O2 complexes are given in a review article by Coleman and Taylor (1980). Manganese is a trace requirement in animal nutrition; highly elevated levels of manganese in the diet can be toxic, probably because of an interference with iron homeostasis (Underwood, 1971). On the other hand, animals raised with a dietary deficiency of manganese exhibit severe abnormalities in connective tissue; these problems have been attributed to the obligatory role of Mn(II) in mucopolysaccharide metabolism (Leach, 1971). Mn(II) has been detected unequivocally in living organisms.

  4. A Lyrical War: Gallipoli War through Poetry in Anzac Diaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Çelikel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the First World War, Dardanelles witnessed one of the fiercest clashes in history between the British and the Turkish forces. This eight-month-war caused the settlement of British army that included Australian and New Zealand Army Corps known as Anzacs on particularly the Gallipoli Peninsula. The Australian and New Zealander soldiers and officers constantly kept diaries and wrote letters that in a sense recorded history from the personal perspective contributing to history with individual observation. If Anzac diaries kept during the Gallipoli clashes in 1915 function as secondary historical sources, they also do function as reminiscences of military officers who found consolation in expressing themselves lyrically during harsh conflicts. Some Anzac officers quote poems in their diaries and some write their own poetry to cope with the violence of war using the aestheticism of poetry. Their poems, on the other hand, remain not only as the lyrical reflections of a deadly reality but also as even more painful portrayals of war. This paper aims to read poems either quoted or written in the diaries of Anzac soldiers and officers in order to analyse the emotional effects of war on individuals. The poems will be analysed through the perspective of cultural landscape and question the influence of landscape on the perception of war in the minds of the Anzacs. From the new historicist perspective, the diaries bearing poetry will be read not as the sources of historical information but as the texts that use history as the material for poetry. The paper will also question whether or not the individual observations change the perception of official history that does not become the main impulse behind the writing of poetry but turns merely into one of its sources.

  5. Regulation of Islamic art in confessional policy of Catherine II (on materials of the Tyumen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia A. Bortnikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of the religious conflicts and Islamic extremism, education of confessional tolerance, – these and other questions became the most actual political and scientific problem now. Art reflects outlook of people and is an ideological lever on society. In article the policy on use of Islamic art for education of confessional tolerance is analyzed. This policy began by Catherine II in 1773, had the content of reform and extended on religious art and architecture of all gentiles in the Russian Empire. Article is written on the basis of materials of the Central historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan and exhibits of the museums. The Tyumen region (the South of the modern Tyumen region was an optimum basis for carrying out this policy because of the mixed option of Islam which arose there. Muslim art included a complex of the subjects intended for execution of a religious cult. It reflected elements of Shamanism and Tengriism, and after carrying out reform – Judaism and Christianity. Thus, at it there were forms and images of all religions of the Tyumen region. Syncretism of Islamic art was shown in a typology of cult objects, their ornament and mission. The most unusual phenomenon was existence of a religious sculpture which was forbidden in Islam and Orthodoxy, but existed in both religions, and also in Catholicism, Tengriism and Shamanism. In article ways of impact on Muslim art which were used by the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting are considered. It didn't interfere in preservation of religious syncretism, and also executed orders of the government on Christianization of Islamic art. Authors come to a conclusion that reform carried lines of policy of multiculturalism for gentiles.

  6. PIREX II, a new irradiation facility for testing fusion first wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmy, P.; Daum, M.; Gavillet, D.; Green, S.; Green, W.V.; Hegedues, F.; Pronnecke, S.; Rohrer, U.; Stiefel, U.; Victoria, M.

    1988-12-01

    A new irradiation facility, PIREX II, became operational in March 1987. It is located on a dedicated beam line split from the main beam of the 590 MeV proton accelerator at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Irradiation with protons of this energy introduces simultaneously displacement damage, helium and other impurities. Because of the penetration range of 590 MeV protons, both damage and impurities are homogeneously distributed in the target. The installation has its own beam line optics that can support a proton current of up to 50 μA. At a typical beam density of 4 μA/mm 2 , the damage rate in steels is 0.7 x 10 -5 dpa/sec (dpa: displacements per atom) and the helium production rate is 170 appm He/dpa. Both flat tensile specimens of up to 0.4 mm thickness and tubular fatigue samples of 3 mm diameter can be irradiated. Cooling of the temperatures can be controlled between 100 o and 800 o C. Installation of an in situ low cycle fatigue device is foreseen. Beams of up to 20 μA have been obtained, the beam having approximately a gaussian distribution of elliptical cross section with 4 σ between 0.8 and 3 mm by 10 mm. Irradiations for a dosimetry program have been completed on samples of Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Au, W, and the 1.4914 ferritic steel. The evaluation of results allows the correct choice of reactions to be used for determining total dose, from the standpoint of half life and gamma energy. A program of irradiations on candidate materials for the Next European Torus (NET) design (Cu and Cu alloys, the 1.4914 ferritic martensitic steel, W and W-Re alloys and Mo alloys), where the above mentioned characteristics of this type of irradiation can be used advantageously, is now under way. (author) 11 figs., 4 tabs., 20 refs

  7. Bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)beryllium(II) complex as optoelectronic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Devender, E-mail: devjakhar@gmail.com; Singh, Kapoor; Bhagwan, Shri; Saini, Raman Kumar; Kadyan, Pratap Singh; Singh, Ishwar

    2016-01-15

    Metal complex bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)beryllium(II) as a light emissive material had been synthesized and characterized by various spectral techniques. The beryllium complex had high thermal stability (>250 °C) as well as high glass transition temperature (>115 °C). The prepared metal chelate had a strong photoluminescence (PL) emission at 558 nm (FWHM=72 nm) and electroluminescence (EL) at 561 nm (FWHM=55 nm) with good efficiency. Density functional theoretical calculations have been performed to demonstrate the three-dimensional geometries and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of this metal complex. Sublimed metal chelate formed thin transparent film and found appropriate material for exploring their opto-electronic applications. OLED device was fabricated using this metal complex by vacuum deposition technique with the device configuration of ITO/TPD(30 nm)/Be-complex(30 nm)/BCP(6 nm)/Alq{sub 3}(28 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(100 nm). The emitted color of the EL device showed Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates as x=0.625, y=0.366 corresponding to greenish yellow color. The maximum luminescence of the fabricated device was reported 1364 Cd/m{sup 2} at 22 V. The maximum current efficiency and power efficiency were 1.75 Cd/A and 0.51 lm/W at 10 V respectively for the fabricated OLED device. - Highlights: • Novel greenish yellow light emitting beryllium complex with 5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline was prepared. • The prepared metal complex were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. • Electron density distribution and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of resulting metal complex were computed by density functional theory in the course of DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) studies. • Sublimed synthesized metal complex of beryllium

  8. Bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)beryllium(II) complex as optoelectronic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Devender; Singh, Kapoor; Bhagwan, Shri; Saini, Raman Kumar; Kadyan, Pratap Singh; Singh, Ishwar

    2016-01-01

    Metal complex bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)beryllium(II) as a light emissive material had been synthesized and characterized by various spectral techniques. The beryllium complex had high thermal stability (>250 °C) as well as high glass transition temperature (>115 °C). The prepared metal chelate had a strong photoluminescence (PL) emission at 558 nm (FWHM=72 nm) and electroluminescence (EL) at 561 nm (FWHM=55 nm) with good efficiency. Density functional theoretical calculations have been performed to demonstrate the three-dimensional geometries and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of this metal complex. Sublimed metal chelate formed thin transparent film and found appropriate material for exploring their opto-electronic applications. OLED device was fabricated using this metal complex by vacuum deposition technique with the device configuration of ITO/TPD(30 nm)/Be-complex(30 nm)/BCP(6 nm)/Alq 3 (28 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(100 nm). The emitted color of the EL device showed Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates as x=0.625, y=0.366 corresponding to greenish yellow color. The maximum luminescence of the fabricated device was reported 1364 Cd/m 2 at 22 V. The maximum current efficiency and power efficiency were 1.75 Cd/A and 0.51 lm/W at 10 V respectively for the fabricated OLED device. - Highlights: • Novel greenish yellow light emitting beryllium complex with 5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline was prepared. • The prepared metal complex were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. • Electron density distribution and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of resulting metal complex were computed by density functional theory in the course of DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) studies. • Sublimed synthesized metal complex of beryllium gave greenish

  9. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  10. Radiation damage of the construction materials, Phase I, Part II specializations; Radijaciono ostecenje konstrukcionih materijala, - I-II, I faza, II deo - specijalizacije

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarevic, Dj [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-03-15

    This document contains three reports about the visits and training of the experts involved in VISA-2 project to Saclay. All the documents include technical description about methods for fabrication and testing the materials under different irradiation conditions.

  11. School Library Resources, Textbooks, and Other Instructional Materials: Title II, ESEA. Second Annual Report, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The second annual compilation and analysis of data on Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA Title II), this report describes how the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands, and the Department of the Interior (for children and teachers in schools…

  12. Parallels in Conflict: The American Revolution and the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    in World War * 14 II. American forces were psychologically ill-prepared to fight a jungle war against highly motivated, indigenous Communist forces... atar - : a by/ necessity a realistic consequLence cf that ob 1,ecz~e The- ’::nm- tainment" objective spawned a political polt- wh-c :ra’-e dilemma

  13. American historians on the Cold War: A historiographical interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article categorizes the American historical scholarship on the Cold War into five, perhaps six, clusters. After discussing these clusters, it argues that in spite of paradigmatic differences, there are also areas of agreement in the literature. For one thing, it is clear that before the end of World War II, and therefore before the ...

  14. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  15. Pb(II) adsorption by a novel activated carbon - alginate composite material. A kinetic and equilibrium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Antonio; Milea, Demetrio; Muratore, Nicola; Pettignano, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption capacity of an activated carbon - calcium alginate composite material (ACAA-Ca) has been tested with the aim of developing a new and more efficient adsorbent material to remove Pb(II) ion from aqueous solution. The study was carried out at pH=5, in NaCl medium and in the ionic strength range 0.1-0.75molL -1 . Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DP-ASV) technique was used to check the amount of Pb(II) ion removed during kinetic and equilibrium experiments. Different kinetic (pseudo first order, pseudo second order and Vermuelen) and equilibrium (Langmuir and Freundlich) models were used to fit experimental data, and were statistically compared. Calcium alginate (AA-Ca) improves the adsorption capacity (q m ) of active carbon (AC) in the ACAA-Ca adsorbent material (e.g., q m =15.7 and 10.5mgg -1 at I=0.25molL -1 , for ACAA-Ca and AC, respectively). SEM-EDX and thermogravimetric (TGA) measurements were carried out in order to characterize the composite material. The results of the speciation study on the Pb(II) solution and of the characterization of the ACAA-Ca and of the pristine AA-Ca and AC were evaluated in order to explain the specific contribution of AC and AA-Ca to the adsorption of the metal ion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of World Wars on the Development of International Law on War Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Regulations on laws and customs of land warfare of 1907 that existed during World War I did not protect war prisoners. The tragic experience forced us to return tothe problem of protection of the rights of the victims of war. The Geneva Convention on the war prisoners of 1929 was the first document of international law in which the status of war prisoners was determined in detail. The Soviet Union did not join the states which had signed the Convention, and during the World War II it was guided by its national legislation confirmed by the Soviet Government on July 1, 1941. On the whole, the items of the Regulations on War Prisoners adopted in 1941 corresponded to the Geneva Convention. But non-recognition of the international convention provided the heads of fascist Germany with the reason for inhuman treatment of the Soviet captives. Serious consequences of war compelled the world community to pay the closest attention to the issues of military captivity again. On August 12, 1949 in Geneva the Soviet Union joined the new Convention on prisoners.

  17. War in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.

    1981-01-01

    War history as a modern historic discipline is by far no longer a mere history of arms technique or a chronicle of battles. It deals with the change of warfare, shows how the wars of the various ages had determined society, and vice versay investigates the influence of social, economic, and -concerning mentality-historical changes on war. With this survey, which covers the period between the Middle Ages and the recent past, the author has presented a small masterpiece of the history of war. A book like this is particularly important and instructive in a time when all depends on the preventing of wars. (orig.) [de

  18. Wars, Redistribution and Civilian Federal Expenditures in the US over the 20th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2005-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence on two, major war-related, regularities of U.S. fiscal policy. First, while during and around World War I there is a positive correlation between defense spending and civil non-defense spending, this correlation becomes negative during World War II. This may be

  19. Building a Planning Transition Capability into the New American Way of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hickey, Christopher M

    2007-01-01

    ... and Japan in World War II. A major problem for Joint Force commanders and their staffs is that the speed of the campaign in this "New American Way of War" challenges their ability to adequately plan for both the decisive war...

  20. Nano-Phase Powder Based Exothermic Braze Repair Technology For RCC Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II project will advance innovative, cost effective and reliable nano-phase exothermic RCC joining processes (ExoBrazeTM) in order to be able to reinforce...

  1. Security programs for Category I or II nuclear material or certain nuclear facilities. Regulatory guide G-274

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this regulatory guide is to help applicants for a Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) licence in respect of Category I or II nuclear material - other than a licence to transport - , or a nuclear facility consisting of a nuclear reactor that may exceed 10 MW thermal power during normal operation, prepare and submit the security information to be included with the application, pursuant to the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA). Category I and II nuclear material are defined in Appendix B to this guide. This guide describes: the security information that should typically be included with the application for any licence referred to above; how the security information may be organized and presented in a separate document (hereinafter 'the security program description'), in order to assist CNSC review and processing of the application; and, the administrative procedures to be followed when preparing, submitting or revising the security program description. (author)

  2. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  3. Resurrecting NSC-68 for the Global War on Terror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cabrey, Richard M

    2007-01-01

    Although the threat to today's U.S. national interests is a form of terrorism being waged by Radical Islam, there are distinct similarities to the threat of communism that was posed after World War II...

  4. United States Foreign Policy and the Second Liberian Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2013 .... Diaspora groups based in the United States to intervene in the war. Ulti- .... take security sector reform as required by the Abuja II Peace Accord.

  5. Adsorption of Azo-Dye Orange II from Aqueous Solutions Using a Metal-Organic Framework Material: Iron- Benzenetricarboxylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas García, Elizabeth; López Medina, Ricardo; May Lozano, Marcos; Hernández Pérez, Isaías; Valero, Maria J.; Maubert Franco, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    A Metal-Organic Framework (MOF), iron-benzenetricarboxylate (Fe(BTC)), has been studied for the adsorptive removal of azo-dye Orange II from aqueous solutions, where the effect of various parameters was tested and isotherm and kinetic models were suggested. The adsorption capacities of Fe(BTC) were much higher than those of an activated carbon. The experimental data can be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 > 0.997) and revealed the ability of Fe(BTC) to adsorb 435 mg of Orange II per gram of adsorbent at the optimal conditions. The kinetics of Orange II adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating the coexistence of physisorption and chemisorption, with intra-particle diffusion being the rate controlling step. The thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption of Orange II was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic process (−25.53 kJ·mol−1). The high recovery of the dye showed that Fe(BTC) can be employed as an effective and reusable adsorbent for the removal of Orange II from aqueous solutions and showed the economic interest of this adsorbent material for environmental purposes. PMID:28788289

  6. Adsorption of Azo-Dye Orange II from Aqueous Solutions Using a Metal-Organic Framework Material: Iron- Benzenetricarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rojas García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Metal-Organic Framework (MOF, iron-benzenetricarboxylate (Fe(BTC, has been studied for the adsorptive removal of azo-dye Orange II from aqueous solutions, where the effect of various parameters was tested and isotherm and kinetic models were suggested. The adsorption capacities of Fe(BTC were much higher than those of an activated carbon. The experimental data can be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 > 0.997 and revealed the ability of Fe(BTC to adsorb 435 mg of Orange II per gram of adsorbent at the optimal conditions. The kinetics of Orange II adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating the coexistence of physisorption and chemisorption, with intra-particle diffusion being the rate controlling step. The thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption of Orange II was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic process (−25.53 kJ·mol−1. The high recovery of the dye showed that Fe(BTC can be employed as an effective and reusable adsorbent for the removal of Orange II from aqueous solutions and showed the economic interest of this adsorbent material for environmental purposes.

  7. Preparation of new diatomite-chitosan composite materials and their adsorption properties and mechanism of Hg(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong; Xu, Xiaoxu; Huang, Yue; Hu, Jianshe; Chen, Qifan; Wu, Yaoqing

    2017-12-01

    A new composite absorbent with multifunctional and environmental-friendly structures was prepared using chitosan, diatomite and polyvinyl alcohol as the raw materials, and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The structure and morphology of the composite absorbent, and its adsorption properties of Hg(II) in water were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) measurements and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra. The effect of the pH value and contact time on the removal rate and absorbance of Hg(II) was discussed. The adsorption kinetic model and static adsorption isotherm and regeneration of the obtained composite absorbent were investigated. The results indicated that the removal of Hg(II) on the composite absorbent followed a rapid adsorption for 50 min, and was close to the adsorption saturation after 1 h, which is in accord with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. When the pH value, contact time and the mass of the composite absorbent was 3, 1 h and 100 mg, respectively, the removal rate of Hg(II) on the composite absorbent reached 77%, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Hg(II) reached 195.7 mg g -1 .

  8. Preparation of new diatomite–chitosan composite materials and their adsorption properties and mechanism of Hg(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong; Xu, Xiaoxu; Huang, Yue; Hu, Jianshe; Chen, Qifan; Wu, Yaoqing

    2017-01-01

    A new composite absorbent with multifunctional and environmental-friendly structures was prepared using chitosan, diatomite and polyvinyl alcohol as the raw materials, and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The structure and morphology of the composite absorbent, and its adsorption properties of Hg(II) in water were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) measurements and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectra. The effect of the pH value and contact time on the removal rate and absorbance of Hg(II) was discussed. The adsorption kinetic model and static adsorption isotherm and regeneration of the obtained composite absorbent were investigated. The results indicated that the removal of Hg(II) on the composite absorbent followed a rapid adsorption for 50 min, and was close to the adsorption saturation after 1 h, which is in accord with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. When the pH value, contact time and the mass of the composite absorbent was 3, 1 h and 100 mg, respectively, the removal rate of Hg(II) on the composite absorbent reached 77%, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Hg(II) reached 195.7 mg g−1. PMID:29308226

  9. Sexual violence by occupational forces during and after World War II: influence of experiencing and witnessing of sexual violence on current mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Zeilinger, Elisabeth L

    2012-08-01

    Wartime rape is an atrocity with long-lasting impacts not only on victims but whole societies. In this brief report, we present data on experience and witness of sexual violence during World War II (WWII) and subsequent time of occupation and on indicators of mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians. Interviews of 298 elderly Austrians from a larger epidemiological study on WWII traumatization were analyzed for the impact of experience and witness of sexual violence during the wartime committed by occupational forces. Interviews comprised a biographical/historical section and psychological measures (BSI, TLEQ, PCL-C). Participants were recruited in all nine provinces of Austria with respect to former zones of occupation (Western Allied/Soviet). Twelve persons reported direct experience of sexual violence, 33 persons witnessed such atrocities. One third of the victims and 18.2% of the witnesses reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD full/subthreshold). Sexual violence occurred more often in the former Soviet zone. Victims and witnesses displayed higher odds of post-traumatic symptoms and symptoms of depression and phobic fear than non-victims. Furthermore, witnesses displayed higher levels of aggression compared to victims and non-witnesses. Our results corroborate previous findings that wartime rape has long-lasting effects over decades on current mental health and post-traumatic distress in victims and witnesses. We recommend integration of psychotraumatological knowledge on consequences of sexual violence on mental health into geriatric care and the education of dedicated personnel.

  10. Youth Athletic and Sports Movement in the USSR on the Eve of the Great Patriotic War (According to the Materials of the Penza Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Nurdygin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of the youth athletic and sports movement in the Penza region in the first half of 1941 – before the Great Patriotic War. The activities of local Soviet-party and public organizations for the health improvement and military sport training of the population, especially the young: mass ski trips and crosses, gymnastics competitions, athletic crosses (for the Day of the Bolshevik Press, of Komsomol-trade union, for the prize of the "Young Leninist" newspaper, etc..

  11. Dilemas da cooperação: conflitos gerados pela política das "Listas Negras" no Brasil durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial Dilemmas of cooperation: the conflicts provoked by the policy of "Black Lists" in Brazil during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Quintaneiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available No artigo são analisados os conflitos políticos gerados pela implementação das "Listas Negras" norte-americanas entre órgãos estatais e interesses privados no Brasil durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.The article analyses the political conflicts caused by the implementation of American Black Lists between State agencies and private interests in Brazil during World War II.

  12. 1940s: Camping in the War Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camping Magazine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Camps continued to operate during World War II, but young male counselors, food, and supplies were difficult to obtain. An illustrative article from 1943, "Meal Planning for Summer Camps in Wartime" (Agnes B. Peterson), presents a guide to planning nutritious meals for campers despite shortages caused by wartime rationing, increased food…

  13. War Games: Staging the Histories in an American Presidential Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Kath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ways in which the seldom performed collaborative play, Edward III, was re-contextualised by Barbara Gaines, Artistic Director of the Shakespeare Theater of Chicago, in order to create a specifically presentist piece of theatre making a forceful political statement during the 2016 US presidential election. Edward III formed the opening section of a trilogy entitled Tug of War: Foreign Fire, which continued with Henry V, and Henry VI Part I. The second trilogy, Tug of War: Civil Strife, comprised the remaining two parts of Henry VI and Richard III. The paper will address the rationale behind the selection of these specific plays, and why it was felt unnecessary to fill the historical lacuna created by the exclusion of Richard II and Henry IV Parts I and II. In addition, it will also examine the limitations inherent in the available archival material when researching an ephemeral theatrical event, particularly one which has been edited and directed in order to address issues of immediate political concern. Selected extracts from my own review of the first of these two trilogies will seek to offer a more detailed response than is possible for journalistic reviewers and to provide sufficient background to prove of benefit for future researchers.

  14. The Devil is in the Concepts: Lessons Learned from World War II Planning Staffs for Transitioning from Conceptual to Detailed Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Theatre of Operations: Logistical Support of the Armies Volume I (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 2000), 271. 102 Stanford...Soviets was clear, “it will be essential to afford the Russians material assistance to enable them to maintain their hold on Leningrad, Moscow and...through northern Russian ports as well as just over one million tons of equipment through the Persian Corridor. 115 On 19 October 1943, the United

  15. SN 2013fs and SN 2013fr: exploring the circumstellar-material diversity in Type II supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullivant, Christopher; Smith, Nathan; Williams, G. Grant; Mauerhan, Jon C.; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Fong, Wen-Fai; Bilinski, Christopher; Kilpatrick, Charles D.; Milne, Peter A.; Fox, Ori D.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Zheng, WeiKang; Kelly, Patrick L.; Clubb, Kelsey I.

    2018-05-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2013fs and SN 2013fr in the first ˜100 d post-explosion. Both objects showed transient, relatively narrow H α emission lines characteristic of SNe IIn, but later resembled normal SNe II-P or SNe II-L, indicative of fleeting interaction with circumstellar material (CSM). SN 2013fs was discovered within 8 h of explosion; one of the earliest SNe discovered thus far. Its light curve exhibits a plateau, with spectra revealing strong CSM interaction at early times. It is a less luminous version of the transitional SN IIn PTF11iqb, further demonstrating a continuum of CSM interaction intensity between SNe II-P and SNe IIn. It requires dense CSM within 6.5 × 1014 cm of the progenitor, from a phase of advanced pre-SN mass loss beginning shortly before explosion. Spectropolarimetry of SN 2013fs shows little continuum polarization (˜0.5 per cent, consistent with zero), but noticeable line polarization during the plateau phase. SN 2013fr morphed from an SN IIn at early times to an SN II-L. After the first epoch, its narrow lines probably arose from host-galaxy emission, but the bright, narrow H α emission at early times may be intrinsic to the SN. As for SN 2013fs, this would point to a short-lived phase of strong CSM interaction if proven to be intrinsic, suggesting a continuum between SNe IIn and SNe II-L. It is a low-velocity SN II-L like SN 2009kr, but more luminous. SN 2013fr also developed an infrared excess at later times, due to warm CSM dust that requires a more sustained phase of strong pre-SN mass loss.

  16. Comparative clinical evaluation of removable partial dentures made of two different materials in Kennedy Applegate class II partially edentulous situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundal, Maninder; Madan, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Cast Chromium Cobalt alloy has been the material of choice for fabricating Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs) but has certain drawbacks. Newer materials like the flexible Nylon based Super Polyamide have been introduced to overcome these drawbacks. The present study has compared the above two materials for nine clinical parameters. The study was carried out on 30 patients presenting with a Kennedy Applegate class II partially edentulous situation who were divided into two equal groups and clinically assessed. Statistically significant results were obtained in favor of flexible RPDs, in the parameters of 'aesthetics' and 'overall patient satisfaction'. Both groups showed more or less similar values for 'frequency of fracture of the prosthesis during usage' with the incidence being slightly higher for patients wearing the cast RPDs. The clinical parameters of 'oral soft tissue tolerance', 'gingival health', 'periodontal health' and 'adaptability in areas with undercut' were statistically at par for all the 30 patients thus suggesting the comparable biocompatibility of the two materials. The highlight of this study was the relative ease in fabrication of the flexible RPDs as compared to the cast RPDs. Based on the favorable clinical results of this study, it can be summarized that the flexible RPDs is a viable alternative to cast RPDs in Kennedy Applegate class II partially edentulous situation in the short term.

  17. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  18. Preparation and characterization of Schiff base Cu(II) complex and its applications on textile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oylumluoglu, G.; Oner, J.

    2017-10-01

    Schiff base ligands are regarded as an important class of organic compounds on account of the fact that their complexation ability with transition metal ions. A new monomeric Schiff base Cu(II) complex, [Cu(HL)2], 1 [H2L = 2-((E)-(2-hydroxypropylimino)methyl)-4-nitrophenol] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV and IR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence study. While the Schiff base ligand and its Cu(II) complex are excited at λex = 349 nm in UV region, the Schiff base ligand shows a blue emission band at λmax = 480 nm whereas its Cu(II) complex shows a strong green emission band at λmax = 520 nm in the solid state at room temperature. The luminescent properties showed that the Schiff base ligand and its Cu(II) complex can be used as novel potential candidates for applications in textile such as UV-protection, antimicrobial, laundry and functional bleaching treatments.

  19. Prisoners of War of the Triple Alliance within Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The work studies the problem of the detention of prisoners of war of the Triple Alliance in the camps, located within Kazakhstan. During the first months of war, the Russian authorities treated the prisoners of war in accordance with ‘Convention on the Treatment of the Prisoners of War’, approved by the Emperor of Russia. The content of this document corresponded to the Hague Convention with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The major areas of the detention of prisoners of war were Turkestan and Omsk Military Okrug, combining all military institutions of the Steppe Governorate General, including the ones of North-Eastern and Central Kazakhstan. The source base of the research is the materials of Kazakhstan and German archives, the recollections of the former prisoners of war and the published collections of documents and materials.

  20. TRUPACT-II Content Codes (TRUCON), Revision 8 and list of chemicals and materials in TRUCON (chemical list), Revision 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT-II) Content Codes document (TRUCON) represents the development of a new content code system for shipping contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste in TRUPACT-II. It will be used to convert existing waste forms, content codes, and any other identification codes into a system that is uniform throughout for all the Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These various codes can be grouped under the newly formed shipping content codes without any loss of waste characterization information. The TRUCON document provides a parametric description for each content code for waste generated and compiles this information for all ten DOE sites. Compliance with waste generation, processing and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in the TRUCON document for each content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The content code essentially gives a description of the CH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and packaging, and the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability of the waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the TRUPACT-II package can be performed

  1. H2 formation by electron irradiation of SBA-15 materials and the effect of Cu(II) grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie-Linder, N.; Le Caer, S.; Shahdo Alam, M.; Renault, J.P.; Alba-Simionesco, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of H 2 production from electron irradiation (10 MeV) on SBA-15 materials has shown that adsorbed water is attacked preferentially. Silanol groups are only attacked when they are in the majority with respect to adsorbed water, however they are much less efficient at producing H 2 . The comparison between water content before and after electron irradiation and the corresponding H 2 production indicates that water desorption is the main route to adsorbed water loss for SBA-15 materials. On the other hand, surface silanol groups are more susceptible to attack,leading to H 2 production when SBA-15 samples have undergone extensive thermal treatment. Electron irradiation of SBA-15-Cu materials has shown that the presence of Cu(II) on the surface reduces and inhibits the production of H 2 . This inhibiting power affects adsorbed water bonded to grafted copper but not surface silanol groups. (authors)

  2. Nanocomposite Thermolectric Materials by High Pressure Powder Consolidation Manufacturing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need to develop advanced nanostructured thermolectric materials, UTRON is proposing an innovative high pressure powder consolidation...

  3. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Included among...

  4. Industry to Education Technical Transfer Program & Composite Materials. Composite Materials Course. Fabrication I Course. Fabrication II Course. Composite Materials Testing Course. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuda, Rachel

    These four reports provide details of projects to design and implement courses to be offered as requirements for the associate degree program in composites and reinforced plastics technology. The reports describe project activities that led to development of curricula for four courses: composite materials, composite materials fabrication I,…

  5. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  6. Arms Diffusion and War

    OpenAIRE

    Bas, Muhammet Ali; Coe, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a model of the relationship between the spread of new military technologies and the occurrence of war. A new technology could shift the balance of power, causing anticipatory war as one side tries to prevent the other from obtaining it. When one side already has it, war is more likely when the shift in power is large, likely, and durable. When neither side has it, war is more likely when the expected shift is asymmetric (e.g., one side is more likely to get it) and when th...

  7. Terminating America's wars : the Gulf War and Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...

  8. De la Historia a la Historieta: Yo, René Tardi, prisionero de guerra en el Stalag II B = From History to Comics: I, René Tardi, prisoner of war at Stalag II B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vadillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La obra de Jacques Tardi ha recurrido con frecuencia a la Historia como marco de referencia para sus relatos. En su último álbum, el autor francés aprovecha las vivencias personales de su propio padre y, a partir de los testimonios escritos que éste dejó, ahonda de manera minuciosa y documentada en la experiencia de miles de soldados y oficiales franceses en los campos de prisioneros de la Alemania nazi entre 1940 y 1945. Pero, más allá de la representación detallada de este periodo tan poco tratado por la historiografía oficial francesa, Tardi hace gala de un extraordinario dominio del lenguaje del cómic y utiliza de manera magistral muchos de los recursos narrativos pertenecientes a este medio de expresión. Además, la manera en la que el autor trata la conflictiva y problemática relación con su progenitor otorga una dimensión especial a su última obra.Jacques Tardi has frequently used history as a point of reference for his stories. In his last work, the French author incorporates his own father’s personal memories, and, from the written testimonials he left behind, Tardi, painstakingly, documents the experiences of hundreds of thousands of French soldiers and officers who were held captive in Nazi prisoner of war camps between 1940 and 1945. Furthermore, in Tardi’s detailed representation of this period, which has received little coverage in official French history, he demonstrates an extraordinary mastery of the language of comics, and uses many of the narrative techniques specific to this medium. In addition, the way in which the author writes about the conflictive and problematic relationship he has with his father gives a special dimension to Tardi’s final work.

  9. Phase II evaluation of waste concrete road materials for use in oyster aquaculture - field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to determine the suitability of recycled concrete aggregate : (RCA) from road projects as bottom conditioning material for on-bottom oyster aquaculture in the : Chesapeake Bay. During this Phase of the study, t...

  10. Reversible Copolymer Materials for FDM 3-D Printing of Non-Standard Plastics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue efforts from the 2015 NASA SBIR Phase I topic H14.03 ?Reversible Copolymer Materials for FDM 3D Printing...

  11. Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this work is to develop new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200 to...

  12. Space Station Validation of Advanced Radiation-Shielding Polymeric Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Subtopic X11.01, NASA has identified the need to develop advanced radiation-shielding materials and systems to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation...

  13. RADTRAN II: revised computer code to analyze transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Daniel, S.L.

    1982-10-01

    A revised and updated version of the RADTRAN computer code is presented. This code has the capability to predict the radiological impacts associated with specific schemes of radioactive material shipments and mode specific transport variables

  14. Integration of Magneto-Optical Materials for Novel Optical Devices & Magnetophotonic Crystals, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to capitalize on our Phase I success in monolithically integrating magneto-optic and magnetic materials with semiconductor platforms in order to...

  15. State of the art review of degradation processes in LMFBR materials. Volume II. Corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    Degradation of materials exposed to Na in LMFBR service is reviewed. The degradation processes are discussed in sections on corrosion and mass transfer, erosion, wear and self welding, sodium--water reactions, and external corrosion. (JRD)

  16. Phase II evaluation of waste concrete road materials for use in oyster aquaculture - field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The overall objective of this study was to determine the suitability of recycled concrete : aggregate (RCA) from road projects as bottom conditioning material for on-bottom oyster : aquaculture in the Chesapeake Bay. During this Phase of the study, t...

  17. Materials safety data sheets the basis for control of toxic chemicals. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, N. E.; Ketchen, E. E.; Porter, W. E.; Hunt, C. L.

    1977-05-01

    For large industrial and research operations, maintaining reasonable control of all toxic materials used in their operations can be a formidable task. A system utilizing cards has been developed that serves a dual purpose, informing the user regarding hazards of a particular material and also facilitating appropriate workplace surveillance during its use. Selected data, including threshold limit values, routes of absorption, symptoms of exposure, chronic effects, and emergency first-aid procedures, are printed on the card. A portion of the card contains the label that the user detaches and affixes to the container. This label classifies the material according to flammability, toxicity, reactivity, and special properties on a 0 through 4 hazard rating system. This report describes the development and use of such cards, contains the associated Toxic Material Data Sheets that provide full backup data for the labels, and furnishes a glossary of biomedical terms used in the Data Sheets.

  18. Tungsten in the Second World War: China, Japan, Germany, the Allies and Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Maria Thomàs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the production, legal and illegal trade, and provisioning of strategic mineral wolfram/tungsten both by the Allies and the Axis during World War II. It analyzes the case the world’s largest producer of this mineral, China, the trade agreements signed by Chiang Kai-shek before the war with Nazi Germany, the USSR and Britain and their evolution during the global conflict. It also analyzes Japan, its difficulties in obtaining Chinese wolfram and its dependence on Korea. As for Nazi Germany, it studies its supply of Chinese ore until 1941 and later in the Iberian Peninsula, a trade made difficult by the Allied preventive purchases in Spain and Portugal. The article also studies the case of the US, its progressive auto provisioning in the Western Hemisphere, the airlift established between China and India to extract tungsten and distribution of amounts of it in Britain and the USSR. Finally, the article includes an assessment of the importance of tungsten within the set of strategic materials used by the contenders in the war and concludes that the Allied strategy hinder or prevent the provision of the enemy helped to reduce use and negatively affected the effectiveness of its machinery of war.

  19. A thermomechanical constitutive model for cemented granular materials with quantifiable internal variables. Part II - Validation and localization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arghya; Tengattini, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang D.; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Hall, Stephen A.; Einav, Itai

    2014-10-01

    We study the mechanical failure of cemented granular materials (e.g., sandstones) using a constitutive model based on breakage mechanics for grain crushing and damage mechanics for cement fracture. The theoretical aspects of this model are presented in Part I: Tengattini et al. (2014), A thermomechanical constitutive model for cemented granular materials with quantifiable internal variables, Part I - Theory (Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 10.1016/j.jmps.2014.05.021). In this Part II we investigate the constitutive and structural responses of cemented granular materials through analyses of Boundary Value Problems (BVPs). The multiple failure mechanisms captured by the proposed model enable the behavior of cemented granular rocks to be well reproduced for a wide range of confining pressures. Furthermore, through comparison of the model predictions and experimental data, the micromechanical basis of the model provides improved understanding of failure mechanisms of cemented granular materials. In particular, we show that grain crushing is the predominant inelastic deformation mechanism under high pressures while cement failure is the relevant mechanism at low pressures. Over an intermediate pressure regime a mixed mode of failure mechanisms is observed. Furthermore, the micromechanical roots of the model allow the effects on localized deformation modes of various initial microstructures to be studied. The results obtained from both the constitutive responses and BVP solutions indicate that the proposed approach and model provide a promising basis for future theoretical studies on cemented granular materials.

  20. THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND UKRAINE: HISTORY AND MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVSEEVA G. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Despite the attempts of historians to objectively present the events of the prehistory and history of the war, the opening of new archives and the desire to get rid of ideological stereotypes, are driving the need to once again explore the role of Ukraine in world war II to prevent its recurrence. On the other hand, the deep understanding of the history of the previous generations will provide an opportunity to properly understand the events of today. The analysis of the research. During the years of independence in the national historiography it was a new understanding of the conceptual foundations of the study of war. Over the past decade it was written a large number of scientific studies in which the main direction of new concepts there was an increased attention to the person, separate social groups and society as a whole in situations of conflict and crises. The article aims to analyze the role and place of Ukraine in the events of the Second world war; identify "Ukrainian dimension" of war and its implications for the modern generation, especially the youth. Conclusion. The effects of war for decades identified the complex and contradictory political, economic and social processes in Ukrainian society, affected the moral and psychological qualities of post-war generations. The memory of war – spiritual-historical heritage of our nation, which lays the foundations for self-sufficiency and identity and integrates it seamlessly into a civilizational flow. The modern level of researches of the events of world war II pays special attention to humanitarian problems of the war. For the youth of Ukraine it is important to join the European perception of the war as tragedy, to understand the responsibility for the memory of the past, because it's a chance for the future.

  1. Foreign War Prisoners in the Astrakhan Province in the Years of the First World War and the Russian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena G. Timofeeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of various aspects of military captivity, which became a mass phenomenon (“mass experience” in the years of the First World War and the revolutionary events in Russia and which influenced both the individual fate of war prisoners and different sides of the development of society. The article presents data on the number of war prisoners located in the years of war and revolution on the territory of the Astrakhan province, their categories and ethnic composition. The majority of war prisoners were soldiers of the German, Austro-Hungarian armies. The largest number of war prisoners on the territory of the province was recorded in May 1918. On the basis of documentary material, most of which is first introduced in the scientific use, the war prisoners’ accommodation, provision of clothing, food, medical care is researched. The placement of the contingent of war prisoners and their number depended on the needs of the region in labour force. War prisoners were sent to work on the municipal facilities in the provincial center and district towns, were attached to joint-stock and private enterprises, worked as doctors and paramedics in hospitals. The situation of war prisoners fully depended on socio-economic and political situation in the country. The problems of supply of war prisoners with clothing and food aggravated with the economic and political crisis in the country as well as rising prices and were common to all categories of population who needed support. The deterioration of living conditions led to increase in diseases, epidemics and deaths among the prisoners. Local authorities made efforts to supply war prisoners with food and provide with higher wages and hospitals. After the events of February 1917 there were hopes for mitigation of the regime of war prisoners, but visible improvement did not follow and the weakening supervision of war prisoners resulted in the growth of prison breaks.

  2. MODIFICATION OF KELUD VOLCANIC ASH 2014 AS SELECTIVE ADSORBENT MATERIAL FOR COPPER(II METAL ION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susila Kristianingrum

    2017-01-01

      This research aims to prepare an adsorbent from Kelud volcanic ash for better Cu(II adsorption efficiency than Kiesel gel 60G E'Merck. Adsorbent synthesis was done by dissolving 6 grams of volcanic ash activated 700oC 4 hours and washed with HCl 0.1 M into 200 ml of 3M sodium hydroxide with stirring and heating of 100 °C for 1 hour. The filtrate sodium silicate was then neutralized using sulfuric acid. The mixture was allowed to stand for 24 hours then filtered and washed with aquaDM, then dried and crushed. The procedure is repeated for nitric acid, acetic acid and formic acid with a contact time of 24 hours. The products were then characterized using FTIR and XRD, subsequently determined acidity, moisture content, and tested for its adsorption of the ion Cu (II with AAS. The results showed that the type of acid that produced highest rendemen is AK-H2SO4-3M ie 36.93%, acidity of the adsorbent silica gel synthesized similar to Kiesel gel 60G E'Merck ie adsorbent AK-CH3COOH-3M and the water content of the silica gel adsorbent synthesized similar to Kiesel gel 60G E'Merck ie adsorbent AK-H2SO4-2 M. The character of the functional groups of silica gel synthesized all have similarities with Kiesel gel 60G E'Merck as a comparison. Qualitative analysis by XRD for all modified adsorbent showed a dominant peak of SiO2 except adsorbent AK-H2SO4 amorphous and chemical bonds with FTIR indicates that it has formed a bond of Si-O-Si and Si-OH. The optimum adsorption efficiency of the metal ions Cu(II obtained from AK-H2SO4-5M adsorbent that is equal to 93.2617% and the optimum adsorption capacity of the Cu(II metal ions was obtained from the adsorbent AK-CH3COOH-3M is equal to 2.4919 mg/ g.   Keywords: adsorbents, silica gel, adsorption, kelud volcanic ash

  3. Thucydides: Theorist of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Karl Marx trumpeted in the nineteenth century and that contributed to the ruthless and mur- derous civil wars characterizing so much of the blood...occurs, in 431 bC, greece is teetering on the brink of a long-awaited war between athens and sparta. the thebans decide to capitalize on that fact to

  4. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  5. America's Holy War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, John

    2006-01-01

    .... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...

  6. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  7. War and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    ... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...

  8. Postal censorship of Bosnian public health institutions during the Second World War: The Independent State of Croatia versus Dr. Stanko Sielski.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalas, John A; Tahirović, Husref

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to present evidence of censorship during World War II by the Independent State of Croatia of one of its public health officials, Dr. Stanko Sielski who was a physician trained in epidemiology and public health. During World War II, he directed the Institute for Combating Endemic Syphilis in the Bosnian town Banja Luka. The staff under his direction consisted solely of Jewish physicians. We analyzed two groups of envelopes either sent by or to Dr. Stanko Sielski during the War and found evidence of censorship only in communications with a Jewish physician dated towards the end of the War. Dr. Stanko Sielski would be posthumously recognized for his efforts to shield his Jewish colleagues. The newly available, but still limited data, which we present indicates efforts to censor Dr. Stanko Sielski's postal communications towards the War's end. The censors targeted specifically Dr. Stanko Sielski's correspondences with the Jewish physicians he was protecting. This material highlights the many challenges his public health service experienced during the time of armed conflict. Copyright © 2016 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  9. Explorations on Just War: Has It Ever Existed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    II . C. WORLD WAR II Pope Pius XII, in an address to the United Nations in 1952, said “The enormous violence of modern warfare means that...to the global community, Pope John Paul II cited “conscience of humanity and international humanity law” and claimed that nations and the...Unclassified 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassified 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UL ii

  10. Amalgamation based optical and colorimetric sensing of mercury(II) ions with silver graphene oxide nanocomposite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali, Khosro Zangeneh; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Jayabal, Subramaniam; Huang, Nay Ming; Ramaraj, Ramasamy; Lim, Hong Ngee; Ong, Boon Hoong; Bien, Chia Sheng Daniel; Kee, Yeh Yee

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a facile method for the preparation of a conjugate composed of silver nanoparticles and graphene oxide (Ag GO) via chemical reduction of silver precursors in the presence of graphene oxide (GO) while sonicating the solution. The Ag GO was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The nanocomposite undergoes a color change from yellow to colorless in presence of Hg(II), and this effect is based on the disappearance of the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption of the AgNPs due to the formation of silver-mercury amalgam. The presence of GO, on the other hand, prevents the agglomeration of the AgNPs and enhances the stability of the nanocomposite material in solution. Hence, the probe represents a viable optical probe for the determination of mercury(II) ions in that it can be used to visually detect Hg(II) concentrations as low as 100 μM. The instrumental LOD is 338 nM. (author)

  11. Purity Assessment of Organic Reference Materials with a Mass Balance Method: A Case Study of Endosulfan-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghyun; Lee, Joonhee; Ahn, Seonghee; Song, Youngsin; Kim, Dongkyun; Kim, Byungjoo

    2013-01-01

    A mass balance method established in this laboratory was applied to determine the purity of an endosulfan-II pure substance. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used to measure organic impurities. Total of 10 structurally related organic impurities were detected by GC-FID in the material. Water content was determined to be 0.187% by Karl-Fischer (K-F) coulometry with an oven-drying method. Nonvolatile residual impurities was not detected by Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) within the detection limit of 0.04% (0.7 μg in absolute amount). Residual solvents within the substance were determined to be 0.007% in the Endosulfan-II pure substance by running GC-FID after dissolving it with two solvents. The purity of the endosulfan-II was finally assigned to be (99.17 ± 0.14)%. Details of the mass balance method including interpretation and evaluating uncertainties of results from each individual methods and the finally assayed purity were also described

  12. Flash Spectroscopy: Emission Lines From the Ionized Circumstellar Material Around 10-Day-Old Type II Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazov, D.; Yaron, O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Manulis, I.; Rubin, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Arcavi, I.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Ofek, E. O.; Cao, Y.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra (spectroscopy"), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 SNe II showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18% of SNe II observed at ages <5 days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as "blue/featureless" (BF) those events having a first spectrum that is similar to that of a blackbody, without any emission or absorption signatures. It is possible that some BF events had FI signatures at an earlier phase than observed, or that they lack dense CSM around the progenitor. Within 2 days after explosion, 8 out of 11 SNe in our sample are either BF events or show FI signatures. Interestingly, we found that 19 out of 21 SNe brighter than an absolute magnitude M(sub R) = -18.2 belong to the FI or BF groups, and that all FI events peaked above M(sub R) = -17.6 mag, significantly brighter than average SNe II.

  13. Synthesis and luminescence properties of cinnamide based nanohybrid materials containing Eu (II) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran Kumar, A. B. V.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Cha, Hyeongrae; Chen, Kuangcai; Lim, Jae-Min; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2011-07-01

    In the present work, the cinnamide based organic-inorganic hybrid luminescent materials were prepared by using sol-gel technique, in which both the components are covalently linked via Si-C bonds. The organic precursor N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)cinnamide (Cn-Si) was synthesized by (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane being reacted with cinnamoyal chloride. Finally, novel hybrid materials were prepared successfully through hydrolysis and polycondensation processes between the alkoxide groups of precursors Cn-Si and tetraethylorthosilane (TEOS) in the presence of europium nitrate. We have characterized thoroughly the prepared samples using FT-IR, thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results indicate that these materials exhibit the excellent thermal stability up to 350 °C. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the amorphous nature of the developed materials. The rare-earth doped hybrid materials have exhibited an intense green emission at 530 nm with CIE chromaticity coordinates (0.4801, 0.4669). Whereas, the un-doped one gives some remarkable blue emission properties under UV excitation.

  14. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  15. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  16. Economic evaluation of closure CAP barrier materials Volume I and Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    This study prepared by the Site Geotechnical Services (SGS) and Environmental Restoration (ER) departments of the WSRC evaluates a generic closure cover system for a hazardous waste site, using 10 different surface areas, ranging from 0.1 acre to 80 acres, and 12 barrier materials. This study presents a revision to the previous study (Rev. 0) published in June 1993, under the same title. The objective of this study was to revise the previous study by incorporating four additional site sizes into the evaluation process and identifying the most cost-effective barrier material for a given closure cover system at the SRS

  17. Insights into the crystal-packing effects on the spin crossover of [Fe(II)(1-bpp)](2+)-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Sergi; Novoa, Juan J; Ribas-Arino, Jordi

    2014-12-28

    Iron(II) complexes of the [Fe(II)(1-bpp2)](2+) type (1-bpp = 2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine) have been intensively investigated in the context of crystal engineering of switchable materials because their spin-crossover (SCO) properties dramatically depend on the counterions. Here, by means of DFT + U calculations at the molecular and solid state levels we provide a rationale for the different SCO behaviour of the BF4(-) and ClO4(-) salts of the parent complex; the former features Fe(II) complexes with a regular coordination geometry and undergoes a spin transition, whereas the Fe(II) complexes of the latter adopt a distorted structure and remain in the high-spin state at all temperatures. The different SCO behaviour of both salts can be explained on the basis of a combination of thermodynamic and kinetic effects. The shape of the SCO units at high temperature is thermodynamically controlled by the intermolecular interactions between the SCO units and counterions within the crystal. The spin trapping at low temperatures in the ClO4(-) salt, in turn, is traced back to a kinetic effect because our calculations have revealed the existence of a more stable polymorph having SCO units in their low-spin state that feature a regular structure. From the computational point of view, it is the first time that the U parameter is fine-tuned on the basis of CASPT2 calculations, thereby enabling an accurate description of the energetics of the spin transition at both molecular and solid-state levels.

  18. Development of metal fuel and study of construction materials (I-IV), Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihajlovic, A.

    1965-11-01

    The studies were devoted to problems related to application of metal uranium as fuel in heavy water reactors. Influence of thermal treatment on material texture and recrystallization of cast uranium was investigated. Structural changes of uranium alloys with molybdenum and niobium were tested during different heat treatments. A review of the possibilities for using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors is included

  19. Symposium II: Mechanochemistry in Materials Science, MRS Fall Meeting, Nov 30-Dec 4, 2009, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    30 AM�.1 Mechanochemistry of Carbon Tribo Materials. Michael Moseler, Tribosimulation and Multiscale Modelling, Fraunhofer Institute for...years. These compounds are usually formed by the reaction of mercury salts (some examples are: mercury - nitrate , iodide, chloride or cyanide) with

  20. INTERTRAN-I and INTERTRAN-II, Radiation Exposure from Vehicle Transport of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Dagmar M.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: INTERTRAN calculates the radiological impact from incident-free shipments and from vehicular accidents involving radioactive materials. It also addresses accidents which may occur during handling. The output in the incident-free case is given as annual integrated population dose to various population subgroups from the specified primary and secondary transport mode (road, rail, air, or water). In the accident case, both early and latent health effects are analyzed in the form of early fatalities and mortalities, latent cancer fatalities, and genetic effects. 2 - Method of solution: INTERTRAN is divided into a number of sub-models including: standard shipment, transportation, accident categorization, material dispersibility, atmospheric dispersion, population density, and health effects models. In the standard shipment model, a standard shipment consists of an average shipment of a material transported by a specified transport mode or a combination of two transport modes. The model is used to meet the code's limitation of no more than 200 different shipments per run. The transportation model consists of a traffic pattern, a shipment, and an accident rate sections. In the traffic pattern section the fraction of travel in each of three population zones (rural, suburban, and urban) is specified. These fractions are used in calculating the dose in the incident-free case and in calculating the probability of an accident occurring in the different zones. This section also contains the parameters used to determine the dose during shipment stops and the dose to persons in the vicinity of the transport link. The shipment data section deals with the parameters used to evaluate the dose to crew, handlers, passengers, and flight attendants as well as the dose received while the cargo is stored. The accident rate section calculates the accident rate depending on the severity of the accident and the population zone where it is assumed to