WorldWideScience

Sample records for war era nuclear

  1. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era?. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  2. Tactical Nuclear Weapons in the Post Cold War Era: Implications for the Operational Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    the Nerval War Coll~ In. ~ a]satisfaction of the requi 6rlent" Cf A Dartrent ol Op ~at~a. T*crt ~f- Pu- a Pam ef1ec ~ perscrlal views a a-e not...Longman Publishing Group, 1991, p.67. 6. Ibid., p.67. 7. Ibid., pp. 67-69. 8. Gerald M. Steinberg, "Towards Real Arms Control In the Middle East...Report for Congress. June 5, 1992. Steinberg, Gerald M., "Towards Real Arms Control In the Middle East". Issues in Science and Technology. Vol. IV, Summer

  3. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  4. Second Nuclear Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.M.; Spiewak, I.; Barkenbus, J.N.; Livingston, R.S.; Phung, D.L.

    1984-03-01

    The Institute for Energy Analysis with support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has studied the decline of the present nuclear era in the United States and the characteristics of a Second Nuclear Era which might be instrumental in restoring nuclear power to an appropriate place in the energy options of our country. The study has determined that reactors operating today are much safer than they were at the time of the TMI accident. A number of concepts for a supersafe reactor were reviewed and at least two were found that show considerable promise, the PIUS, a Swedish pressurized water design, and a gas-cooled modular design of German and US origin. Although new, safer, incrementally improved, conventional reactors are under study by the nuclear industry, the complete lack of new orders in the United States will slow their introduction and they are likely to be more expensive than present designs. The study recommends that supersafe reactors be taken seriously and that federal and private funds both be used to design and, if feasible, to build a prototype reactor of substantial size. 146 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  6. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  7. Nuclear War. The moral dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Child, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

  8. War and peace in the Internet era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Porta Fabregat

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This article looks to find the ideological causes that lead human beings to war or peace nowadays, in the Internet era. This proposal is worthy of study as war is not a need in terms of human nature or history: we are capable of war and peace simultaneously. However, why does war survive if we are able to live in peace? In our opinion, the actual cause of conflict is fanaticism. This phenomenon comes from the perversion of the two bases of our civilisation: liberty and rationality. This twofold perversion leads us to believe that we are the Absolute, or at least its instrument.Since the fall of the Berlin wall, this kind of fanaticism has come from the generalised conviction that we are at the "end of history"; in this light, one can conclude that this irrationality is definitive and, thus, that any efforts to achieve world peace are useless. However, we believe that the formula for peace can only be derived from reflection and the effective extension around the world of a technical medium that makes communication between all men possible. This would be able to resolve all the perversions of liberty and rationality and make people aware of the infinite distance between us and the Absolute. However, this reflection is not enough. For this awareness to triumph, the technical and ideological situation represented by the Internet has to spread over the whole planet: liberty for those taking part, rationality to allow for communication among all those connected and universal access. This is the moral trend for the Internet, which in itself encourages progress towards world peace.

  9. Nuclear war as false memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Timberlake

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Timberlake outlines aspects of his creative practice as an artist, explaining his fascination for the ‘fictions of nuclear war’ – a war that never happened and so became the subject of ‘false memory’. Highlighting discontinued historical trajectories, the author shows how the cultural legacy of Britain’s nuclear test programme of the 1950s and ’60s may be explored meaningfully in paintings and photography resulting from his archival research at the Imperial War Museum in London.

  10. Rethinking Themes for Teaching the Era of the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Norman L.; Rosenberg, Emily S.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that the "tried and true" strategies for teaching about the early Cold War years highlight the U.S. response to Soviet expansionism. Identifies four other focus themes: (1) debates over mass culture and youth culture; (2) gender and sexuality; (3) the civil rights era; and (4) rethinking the cold war itself. (CFR)

  11. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  12. Teaching About Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Accuses the National Education Association (NEA) of encouraging its teacher-members to indoctrinate children on the benefits of a nuclear freeze. Holds that a new study guide, produced by the Union of Concerned Scientists in conjunction with the NEA, is political propaganda. (GC)

  13. Deterrence and Engagement: U.S. and North Korean Interactions over Nuclear Weapons since the End of the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Solingen, “The Domestic Sources of Nuclear Postures: Influencing ‘Fence-Sitters’ in the Post- Cold War Era,” IGCC Policy Papers (October 1994). 30...Sources of Nuclear Postures: Influencing ‘Fence-Sitters’ in the Post-Cold War Era.” IGCC Policy Papers, October 1994. 110 Solomon, Jay. “Money

  14. Mitigation of Selected Hanford Site Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Ellen P.; Harvey, David W.

    2006-09-08

    This document is the first time that Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts from the Hanford Site have been assembled within a publication. The publication presents photographic and written documentation of a number of Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts that were identified and tagged during assessment walk throughs of historic buildings on the Hanford Site but which could not be curated within the Hanford collection because they were too large for long-term storage and/or exhibit purposes or were radiologically contaminated. The significance of the artifacts in this publication and a proposed future appendix is based not on the individual significance of any single artifact but on their collective contribution to the science and engineering of creating plutonium and advancing nuclear technology in nuclear fuel and power.

  15. Nuclear War from a Cosmic Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Tegmark, Max

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the impact of computer progress on nuclear war policy, both by enabling more accurate nuclear winter simulations and by affecting the probability of war starting accidentally. I argue that from a cosmic perspective, humanity's track record of risk mitigation is inexcusably pathetic, jeopardizing the potential for life to flourish for billions of years.

  16. From Brothers War to Border War. Conduct of an Interstate War in the Post-Cold War Era: Ethiopia-Eritrea (1998-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Alexandra Magnólia

    2016-01-01

    Interstate wars are not one of the most salient features of current World Politics. Indeed, the prevailing patterns of contemporary armed conflict show an increasing trend in intrastate wars that spill over borders. The paper aims to provide insights from an interstate war in the post-Cold War era to the debate on the transformation of warfare (Old vs. New Wars and their conduct). Beyond the continuities with the 30 years civil war, namely in the relations between the two former insurgent mov...

  17. The environmental effects of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1988-09-01

    Substantial environmental disruption will significantly add to the disastrous consequences caused by the direct thermal, blast, and radiological effects brought on by a major nuclear war. Local fallout could cover several percent of the Northern Hemisphere with potentially lethal doses. Smoke from post-nuclear fires could darken the skies and induce temperature decreases of tens of degrees in continental interiors. Stratospheric ozone could be significantly reduced due to nitric oxide injections and smoke-induced circulation changes. The environmental effects spread the consequences of a nuclear war to the world population, adding to the potentially large disruptive effects a further reason to avoid such a catastrophe. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Nuclear astrophysics: a new era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiescher, Michael; Aprahamian, Ani [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame (United States); Regan, Paddy [Department of Physics, University of Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2002-02-01

    The latest generation of radioactive-ion-beam facilities promises to shed light on the complex nuclear processes that control the evolution of stars and stellar explosions. The most fundamental question in nature is where do we come from, or, put another way, what are we made of? The late Carl Sagan poetically said that we are all made of stardust, but the origin of the elements has fascinated scientists for thousands of years. Many of the greatest medieval and renaissance scientists dabbled in alchemy, trying to create the elements that make up the cosmos, but we had to wait until the early 20th century to recognize that elements are really defined by the number of protons in the nucleus. According to our current understanding, after the big bang most of the normal or baryonic material in the universe consisted of the lightest two elements, hydrogen and helium, with only trace amounts of lithium and beryllium. All the heavier elements that occur naturally on Earth were created from this original material via a series of nuclear reactions in the cores of stars or in stellar explosions. Over the last decade, ground-based telescopes and satellite-based Observatories have opened new windows on the stars across the electromagnetic spectrum, from infrared to gamma radiation. New technology now makes it possible to observe and analyse short-lived stellar explosions. Indeed, the distribution of elements in 'planetary nebula' and in the ejecta of supernovae and novae give a direct glimpse of individual nucleosynthesis processes. In the February issue of Physics World, Michael Wiescher, Paddy Regan and Ani Aprahamian describe how sate-of-the-art facilities are set to plug many of the gaps in our understanding of nuclear astrophysics. (U.K.)

  19. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Turco, Richard P. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  20. The biomedicalisation of war and military remains: US nuclear worker compensation in the 'post-Cold War'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Shiloh

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent legislation and administration of United States nuclear worker compensation--the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Programme Act (EEOICPA)--in order to show the domestic impacts of war and the social order that has been established to respond to the Cold War legacy of occupational exposures, illness, and death. Examining the epistemological politics and material effects of compensation, an insufficiently analysed aspect of the Cold War, I argue that the system designed to redress the occupational exposures of nuclear workers accomplishes something else: obscuring the ethical problem of misinformation and missing data from the Cold War era; mobilising an industry of knowledge and market-economic opportunities in the arena of biomedical exposure assessment and dose reconstruction for parts of the former US nuclear complex; and, lastly, dematerialising and depoliticising geographies of the Cold War and its differential impacts through an individualistic epidemiological reprocessing of radiation exposures. The paper shows how the general claims procedure, combined with two methods mandated by EEOICPA--dose reconstruction and the probability of causation--effectively de-link workers from each other, and worksites from homes, pin compensation to a cost-benefit logic, implicate genuine scientific complexity and uncertainty in an ongoing denial of the toxic legacies of war, and ethically undermine the social justice aims of the legislation. The article ends by considering some of the ways that US nuclear workers have responded to living as the remains of both US bomb production and the compensation system.

  1. Star Wars in a nuclear world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuckerman, L.

    1987-01-01

    Lord Zuckerman is a world authority on the rivalries and politics of the nuclear age. Few scientists distinguished in their own right have had as much experience as he has of both the national and international corridors of power. During World War Two he was Strategic Planning Adviser to Air Marshal Tedder and General Eisenhower. From 1960 to 1971 he was Chief Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Defence and to the British Government as a whole. He is an unrelenting critic of the Star Wars programme introduced by President Reagan in 1983. He writes, ''Had anyone other than the American President ever invited scientists to try to render 'nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete' the suggestion would probably have attracted no more attention than had they been asked to square the circle or solve the problem of perpetual motion. But it happened to be the President, and he spelled out his vision of a future over which the nuclear bomb no longer casts a shadow in such homely terms that it all sounded real. How could the message fail to appeal.'' Lord Zuckerman is critical not only of Star Wars but also of the futility of the nuclear arms race. ''The arms-race has absorbed enormous resources. The nuclear arsenals of East and West have continued to grow. But, paradoxically, national security seems to have lessened everywhere.

  2. Nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and their consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanruddin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium convened by the Groupe de Bellerive offers the contributions of Carl Sagan, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kenneth Galbraith, Pierre Trudeau, Edward Kennedy, and other eminent scientists, politicians, and strategists on the subject of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry and its potential ramifications.

  3. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1995-03-01

    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  4. Nuclear holocausts: Atomic war in fiction, 1895-1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brians, P.

    1987-01-01

    This study looks at the history and criticism of literary works that depict nuclear war or its aftermath. It provides a historical survey of the development of the nuclear war theme and a study of the causes and effects of nuclear war in literature. The author considers the failure of some works to confront the issue and the success of others as educational tools and examines the cultural attitudes toward the dangers posed by the reality of nuclear weapons.

  5. Global Famine after a Regional Nuclear War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.; Xia, L.; Mills, M. J.; Stenke, A.; Helfand, I.

    2014-12-01

    A regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan, using 100 15-kt atomic bombs, could inject 5 Tg of soot into the upper troposphere from fires started in urban and industrial areas. Simulations by three different general circulation models, GISS ModelE, WACCM, and SOCOL, all agree that global surface temperature would decrease by 1 to 2°C for 5 to 10 years, and have major impacts on precipitation and solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Local summer climate changes over land would be larger. Using the DSSAT crop simulation model forced by these three global climate model simulations, we investigate the impacts on agricultural production in China, the largest grain producer in the world. In the first year after the regional nuclear war, a cooler, drier, and darker environment would reduce annual rice production by 23 Mt (24%), maize production by 41 Mt (23%), and wheat production by 23 Mt (50%). This reduction of food availability would continue, with gradually decreasing amplitude, for more than a decade. Results from simulations in other major grain producing regions produce similar results. Thus a nuclear war using much less than 1% of the current global arsenal could produce a global food crisis and put a billion people at risk of famine.

  6. The peace and nuclear war dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S.R. (North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States))

    1989-01-01

    The Peace and Nuclear War Dictionary is organized so that entries and supplementary data can be located easily and quickly. Items are arranged alphabetically throughout, rather than grouped into chapters. When doubtful about how to locate an entry, consult the general index. Page numbers for terms appear in the index in heavy black type; subsidiary concepts discussed within entries can be found in the index, identified by page numbers in regular type. For study purposes, numerous entries have also been subsumed under major topical headings in the index, affording the reader access to broad classes of related information. The reader can also fully explore a topic by employing the extensive cross-references included in all entries. Many entries can be found as subsidiary terms, but in each case the concept is related to the main entry. The author has adopted the format of this book to provide the reader a variety of useful applications. These include its use as a dictionary and ready reference guide to the global language of peace and nuclear war; a study guide for introductory courses in Nuclear War and Peace of International Relations, or for any specialized course in the area; a supplement to a textbook or a group of paperback monographs adopted for use in these courses; a source of review material for the political science major enrolled in advanced courses; and a social science aid for use in business, education, government, policy sciences, and journalism.

  7. Psychology and the prevention of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about our ways of thinking and about how they need to be and can be changed. It is not about the ''unparalleled catastrophe.'' By now many of us know much about that, and unless we an see clear, acceptable, and practical ways to prevent it, our minds recoil from the whole horrible subject. Therefore, the book is about the prevention of nuclear war and nothing else. At least, that is its purpose. Yet its method is primarily descriptive and analytical rather than action-oriented. It explores from different perspectives the possible causes of a world war that could be at the outset, or become, nuclear, with a special focus on the often-neglected psychological aspects of those causes. It is diagnosis more than prescription. In fact, it might be described as a many-sided effort to understand the nature and roots of the ''madness'' of our present drift toward a great war that each side is urgently-desperately-anxious to avoid. In so doing it draws on some of the insights of psychiatry (from the psychiatrists Robert Jay Lifton, John E. Mack, Jerome D. Frank, and Erich Fromm), as well as on the three disciplines that provide the chief foundation for the book: history, political science, and social psychology.

  8. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  9. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  10. Climatic Effects of Regional Nuclear War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Luke D.

    2011-01-01

    We use a modern climate model and new estimates of smoke generated by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the response of the climate system to a regional nuclear war between emerging third world nuclear powers using 100 Hiroshima-size bombs (less than 0.03% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal) on cities in the subtropics. We find significant cooling and reductions of precipitation lasting years, which would impact the global food supply. The climate changes are large and longlasting because the fuel loadings in modern cities are quite high and the subtropical solar insolation heats the resulting smoke cloud and lofts it into the high stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow. While the climate changes are less dramatic than found in previous "nuclear winter" simulations of a massive nuclear exchange between the superpowers, because less smoke is emitted, the changes seem to be more persistent because of improvements in representing aerosol processes and microphysical/dynamical interactions, including radiative heating effects, in newer global climate system models. The assumptions and calculations that go into these conclusions will be described.

  11. How Nuclear South Asia is Like Cold War Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom states that the stability-instability paradox does not explain the effect of nuclear proliferation on the conflict propensity of South Asia and that nuclear weapons have had a different and more dangerous impact in South Asia than Cold War Europe. I argue that the paradox...... explains nuclear South Asia, that the similarities between nuclear South Asia and Cold War Europe are strong, and that conventional instability does not cause revisionist challenges in the long run. I develop and probe a psychological causal mechanism that explains the impact of nuclear weapons on Cold War......-instability paradox explains Cold War Europe and nuclear South Asia and will, conditional on Iranian and North Korean revisionism, predict the impact of nuclear weapons development on these states’ conflict propensities....

  12. Cold War Axioms in the Post-Vietnam ERa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-25

    34 World Politics, XII (January 1960), 155-164; J. Lawton Collina, War In Peacetime; The History and-Lessons of Korea (Boston: Houghton Mifflin 1969... tablas , one because it is less directly relevant to the ccld war axioms, the other because of an ambiguity in wording. 11. Procedures used in

  13. Nuclear era. L'ere nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a guide in the space and in the time, along the nuclear energy history and through all the industrial installations such as nuclear power plants and the associated plants. The main points developed in this book are the following ones: the nuclear energy in its historic perspective, the variety of reactors, safety and environment, architecture and large engineering, installation of the reactor components and associated machines, nuclear fuels, and the nuclear energy in the electricity service.

  14. War in the Era of Declining U.S. Global Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Shor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While Clausewitz’s perspective that ‘war is the continuation of politics by other means’ is widely quoted, the full implications of that perspective are rarely explored. What I propose to highlight in this essay is how the imperial political projects of the UnitedStates in the post-Vietnam era unleashed direct and indirect regional war strategies from Latin America to the Middle East. The essay will highlight, in particular, the wide variety of such strategies from covert intervention in Chile to proxy wars in Central America to military intervention in Iraq and Afghanistan. Attempting to re-assert its global hegemony after Vietnam, the U.S. became more committed to perpetrating war as an instrument of its global posture. Of course, relying on war strategies, whether through direct or indirect interventions, complicates, if not confounds, the imposition of global hegemony.

  15. Station blackout at nuclear power plants: Radiological implications for nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.S.

    1986-12-01

    Recent work on station blackout is reviewed its radiological implications for a nuclear war scenario is explored. The major conclusion is that the effects of radiation from many nuclear weapon detonations in a nuclear war would swamp those from possible reactor accidents that result from station blackout.

  16. Curriculum Evolution at Air Command and Staff College in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, William Robert, II.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a historical research method to eliminate the gap in the historical knowledge of Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) curriculum evolution in the post-Cold War era. This study is the only known analysis of the forces that influenced the ACSC curriculum and the rationale behind curricular change at ACSC in the post-Cold…

  17. On the Post-Cold War NATO Nuclear Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia; Liping; Sun; Chongwen

    2014-01-01

    After the end of the Cold War, NATO’s nuclear strategy has undergone a process of evolution, so far can be divided into three phases: dissuasion strategy stage, deter war strategy stage and linkage strategy stage and similar to nuclear strategy of other nuclear-weapon states. The NATO nuclear strategy has five specific policy components: policy on statement, policy on development, policy on deployment, policy on using nuclear arms and policies on nuclear arms control. Factors impacting NATO’s nuclear strategy is multifaceted, in which strategic environment faced by NATO and NATO‘s internal debate on its major nuclear strategy are most influential, and besides the United States plays a leading role in the development of NATO’s nuclear strategy.

  18. Political Evolution at NATO Level in Post Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Cătălin Tomiţă

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the post Cold era sounds like that: „The world has changed dramatically. The Alliance has made an essential contribution. The peoples of North America and the whole of Europe can now join in a community of shared values based on freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. As an agent of change, a source of stability and the indispensable guarantor of its members' security, our Alliance will continue to play a key role in building a new, lasting order of peace in Europe: a Europe of cooperation and prosperity”[1].

  19. [Refugee movements in the post-Cold War era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loescher, G

    1994-01-01

    "This article briefly describes the scope and dimensions of contemporary refugee movements by analyzing some of the forces which shape these flows. Democratization, problems of nationality and minority rights, and structural, political, economic, environmental and social changes in the post-Cold War world (especially in large parts of the developing world and in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), are likely to result in growing numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons in the years ahead. Refugees and asylum seekers are increasingly regarded not only as a major humanitarian challenge but as a political problem and a threat to the national security of Western states. Refugee policy involves much more than defining or adjudicating claims for asylum, safe haven and refugee status for those who seek to enter or stay in the West. It is now apparent that an effective response to these issues will have to involve major Western foreign policy and international actions." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. Inherently safe reactors and a second nuclear era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, A M; Spiewak, I

    1984-06-29

    The Swedish PIUS reactor and the German-American small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor are inherently safe-that is, their safety relies not upon intervention of humans or of electromechanical devices but on immutable principles of physics and chemistry. A second nuclear era may require commercialization and deployment of such inherently safe reactors, even though existing light-water reactors appear to be as safe as other well-accepted sources of central electricity, particularly hydroelectric dams.

  1. The possibility of nuclear war: Appraisal, coping and emotional response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanofsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses.

  2. Impacts of Geoengineering and Nuclear War on Chinese Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops under different climate scenarios. Here we consider two situations: stratospheric sulfate geoengineering and nuclear war. Although we certainly do not advocate either scenario, we cannot exclude the possibilities: if global warming is getting worse, we might have to deliberately manipulate global temperature; if nuclear weapons still exist, we might face a nuclear war catastrophe. Since in both scenarios there would be reductions of temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which are three controlling factors on crop growth, it is important to study food supply changes under the two cases. We conducted our simulations for China, because it has the highest population and crop production in the world and it is under the strong influence of the summer monsoon, which would be altered in geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering and nuclear war on Chinese agriculture, we use the DSSAT crop model. We first evaluate the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for all the provinces in China, and compare the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (middle season rice, winter wheat, and maize). Then we perturbed observed weather data using climate anomalies for geoengineering and nuclear war simulations using NASA GISS ModelE. For stratospheric geoengineering, we consider the injection of 5 Tg SO2 per year into the tropical lower stratosphere. For the nuclear war scenario, we consider the effects of 5 Tg of soot that could be injected into the upper troposphere by a war between India and Pakistan using only 100 Hiroshima-size atomic bombs dropped on cities. We perturbed each year of the 31-year climate record with anomalies from each year of

  3. Nuclear Engineering Technologists in the Nuclear Power Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes manpower needs in nuclear engineering in the areas of research and development, architectural engineering and construction supervision, power reactor operations, and regulatory tasks. Outlines a suitable curriculum to prepare students for the tasks related to construction and operation of power reactors. (GS)

  4. Post Cold War Nuclear Weapons Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    in a nuclear exchange: both sides will suffer unacceptable damage. Historian Gerard J. DeGroot described “MAD” by saying, “If you want a stable...Macmillan, 2003), 47. 2 Ibid., 48. 3 Ibid., 49. 4 Ibid., 53. 5 Ibid., 62. 6 Gerard J. DeGroot , The Bomb, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University

  5. The Nuclear War Age Barrier within the Nuclear Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Stephen C.; And Others

    This document notes that the literature addressing children's nuclear fears suggests that children are introduced to the nuclear threat by ways that do not provide dialogue and without regard to the age appropriate needs of the child, and that parents seem to be protecting their children from the horror of a holocaust by not talking about the…

  6. Sino­Pakistan Relations and the Challenges of Post-­Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China has emerged as the world’s second largest economy, and the largest exporter of goods with 9.6 per cent of the global share. Moreover, the last two decades have seen China emerging as an international and regional power of the 21st century. Thus, in order to continue with the economic benefits, China wants peace and stability as well as to play an active role on international and regional fronts. On the other hand, Pakistan, the world’s sixth most populous country, is a major power of South Asia. While having a developed infrastructure and vibrant political and security institutions, Pakistan is nevertheless currently facing many challenges on the economic front, including political instability and religious extremism. This paper is an attempt to analyze the challenges faced by both China and Pakistan in the post-Cold War era.

  7. The Old Army in War and Peace: West Pointers and the Civil War Era, 1814-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    genre of Civil War tactical history, see Mark Grimsley, "Review Essay: The Continuing Battle of Gettysburg," Civil War History 49, no. 2 (2003): 185...both nations over military affairs tended to be marked by a romantic conception of war: charges on horse and foot, cold steel flashing right-and

  8. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  9. Summary Proceedings of the Congress of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (2nd, Cambridge, England, April, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Inc., Boston, MA.

    This conference was held to alert physicians worldwide of the mortal peril of nuclear war to public health, with the hope that they will help educate their communities about the effects of nuclear war. Summary papers prepared during the conference include: medical consequences of nuclear war with special reference to Europe--immediate problems for…

  10. "Our Bruised Arms Hung Up as Monuments": Nuclear Iconography in Post-Cold War Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that communication scholars have traditionally examined nuclear discourse at the expense of nuclear images. Develops a nuclear-critical iconology, one sensitive to the role of images in creating and disrupting popular consent to the production of nuclear weapons. Examines three aesthetics in post-Cold War iconography for their significance…

  11. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L.A

    2001-07-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  12. Nuclear freedom and students' sense of efficacy about prevention of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, P. (Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand))

    1990-10-01

    Questionnaire and interview responses of young New Zealanders, living in a nuclear-free zone, reveal general concerns about nuclear war but relatively little personal, subjective worry. Their sense of citizen and national efficacy is stronger than that reported by youngsters in other countries, but is not reflected in feelings of self-efficacy. Responses are compared to those reported in North American and European research, and the importance of adult role models in facilitating children's belief in the efficacy of antinuclear activities is highlighted.

  13. Improving Vocational Rehabilitation Access and Return to Work and Career Outcomes among African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War, and Vietnam War Era Veterans with Disabilities: A White Paper Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey L., Ed.: Johnson, Jean E., Ed.; Washington, Andre L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to present documents that discuss issues related to improving access to vocational rehabilitation services and return to work rates of African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War and Vietnam War Era veterans with disabilities. This monograph also includes a review of relevant literature on barriers to employment…

  14. Slavery, the Civil War Era, and African American Representation in U.S. History: An Analysis of Four States' Academic Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl B.; Metzger, Scott Alan

    2011-01-01

    This study is a mixed-methods text analysis of African American representation within K-12 U.S. History content standards treating the revolutionary era, the early U.S. republic, the Civil War era, and Reconstruction. The states included in the analysis are Michigan, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Virginia. The analysis finds that the reviewed…

  15. The First Real World War and the Emerging Nuclear Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discute la problemática de la Auténtica Primera Guerra Mundial (APGM a la luz del emergente holocausto nuclear. La discusión comienza con una sinopsis de la novela de ciencia-ficción de Warren W. Wagars A Short History of Future y relacionado con esto el período de transición de cincuenta años dentro del análisis de sistema-mundo concebido como una gran bifurcación por Immanuel Wallerstein. Sostenemos que puede ser posible reconstruir la dinámica de la historia, de la actualidad y el futuro y anticipar lo venidero, posiblemente sin un holocausto nuclear y terminando la APGM sin consecuencias negativas que pudieran dar lugar a una Auténtica Segunda Guerra Mundial. Nuestro mundo también se afirma está experimentando una transición de un amplio contexto histórico basado en la globalización eurocéntrica a otra no eurocéntrica, que puede ser no capitalista.______________________ABSTRACT:In this article the problematic of the First Real World War (FRWW is discussed in the light of Emerging Nuclear Holocaust. This discussion begins with an overview of Warren W. Wagars science-faction novel A Short History of Future and related some fifty years transition period conceived within world-systems analysis and as that of a major bifurcation by Immanuel Wallerstein. It may thus be possible to pass into the future sooner than anticipated and reconstruct the passage of history, actuality and future in actuality and nearer than anticipated future, possibly without a Nuclear Holocaust and it may be possible to end the FRWW without further negative regressions into the past and without a Second Real World War. Our common world is also experiencing a transition from a broad historical context of Eurocentric globalization into a non-Eurocentric one, which may also be non-capitalistic.  

  16. Planning London for the Post-War Era 1945-1960

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marmaras, Emmanuel V

    2015-01-01

    The book deals with the formation of the post-Second World War reconstruction and planning machinery in Great Britain and with the re-planning efforts undertaken in post-war London and in particular...

  17. Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``

  18. Ground Penetrating Radar at Alcatraz Island: Imaging Civil-War Era Fortifications Beneath the Recreation Yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; de Smet, T. S.; Warden, R.; Komas, T.; Hagin, J.

    2013-12-01

    As part of a cultural resources assessment and historical preservation project supported by the U.S. National Park Service, GPR surveys using 200 MHz antennas, with ~3.0 m depth of penetration and ~0.1 m lateral and vertical resolution, were conducted by our team in June 2012 over the recreation yard and parade ground at historic Alcatraz Island in order to image the underlying buried Civil War-era fortifications. The recreation yard at the Alcatraz high-security federal penitentiary served as a secure outdoor facility where the prisoners could take exercise. The facility, enclosed by a high perimeter wall and sentry walk, included basketball courts, a baseball diamond, and bleacher-style seating. The site previously consisted of coastal batteries built by the U.S. Army in the early to mid 1850's. As the need for harbor defense diminished, the island was converted into a military prison during the 1860's. In 1933, the military prison was transferred to federal control leading to the establishment of the high-security penitentiary. The rec yard was constructed in 1908-1913 directly over existing earthen fortifications, namely a trio of embankments known as 'traverses I, J, and K.' These mounds of earth, connected by tunnels, were in turn built over concrete and brick magazines. The processed GPR sections show good correlations between radar reflection events and the locations of the buried fortification structures derived from historical map analysis. A 3-D data cube was constructed and two of the cut-away perspective views show that traverse K, in particular, has a strong radar signature.

  19. Setting the Future Course of the United States Nuclear Stockpile Through Just War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    Maintain the Nuclear Triad?” Air and Space Power Journal 24, No 2: 23-29. 31. Henderson. 32. Karimi , Nasser and Adam Schreck, “Iran Test Fires Long...2009. Johnson, James Turner. Just War Tradition and the Restraint of War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981. Karimi , Nasser and

  20. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  1. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  2. Reevaluating nuclear safety and security in a post 9/11 era.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Paul M.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    This report has the following topics: (1) Changing perspectives on nuclear safety and security; (2) Evolving needs in a post-9/11 era; (3) Nuclear Weapons--An attractive terrorist target; (4) The case for increased safety; (5) Evolution of current nuclear weapons safety and security; (6) Integrated surety; (7) The role of safety and security in enabling responsiveness; (8) Advances in surety technologies; and (9) Reevaluating safety.

  3. The appraisal, emotion, and coping responses to the threat of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panos-Savicky, B.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate adults' responses to the threat of nuclear war and to investigate the interrelationships between adults' appraisal, emotion and coping responses to this environmental stressor. It was hypothesized that high threat appraisals of nuclear war would relate to high feelings of anxiety and helplessness about nuclear war. In turn, high feelings of anxiety and helplessness were hypothesized to relate to the use of passive forms of coping in relation to this potential danger. Moderate feelings of anxiety about nuclear war were hypothesized to relate to the use of action oriented coping in regard to this external threat. In addition, it was hypothesized that trait personality characteristics would contribute to adults' responses to the threat of nuclear war. The sample of this study was comprised of ninety-five parents who were members of Parent-Teacher Associations (PTA) in Suffolk County, New York. Six self-report questionnaires were distributed to PTA members. Correlation coefficients, multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. The findings confirmed the hypotheses of this study in that statistically significant relationships were found between the variables in each hypothesis. However, trait personality factors, for the most part, did not contribute to adults' responses to the threat of nuclear war. Implications for social work practice address the importance of these findings for clinical practice, social policy, education and research.

  4. FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC WARS IN THE ERA OF THE NETWORKED WORLD ORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Vikulov S. F.; Konovalov V. B.; Khrustalev E. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The article based on factual historical data identifies and analyzes the characteristics of modern wars and armed conflicts. It is shown that in different periods the concept of "war" has been interpreted by politicians and military experts on-to a miscellaneous. However, regardless of its determination to warfare took huge human, financial and other resources, and their amounts increased steadily up to the present day. The specificity of modern war is that to achieve aggressive goals do not ...

  5. International Conference Nuclear Theory in the Supercomputing Era 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The conference focuses on forefront challenges in physics, namely the fundamentals of nuclear structure and reactions, the origin of the strong inter-nucleon interactions from QCD, and computational nuclear physics with leadership class computer facilities to provide forefront simulations leading to new discoveries.This is the fourth in the series of NTSE-HITES conferences aimed to bring together nuclear theorists, computer scientists and applied mathematicians.

  6. Nuclear Physics in the SciDAC Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Edwards

    2009-08-01

    Lattice QCD currently provides our only means of solving QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics) -- the theory of the strong nuclear force -- in the low-energy regime, and thus of crucial importance for theoretical and experimental research programs in High Energy and Nuclear Physics. Under the SciDAC program, a software infrastructure has been developed for lattice QCD that effectively utilize the capabilities of the INCITE facilities. These developments have enabled a new generation of Nuclear Physics calculations investigating the spectrum and structure of matter, such as the origin of mass and spin. This software infrastructure is described and recent results are reviewed.

  7. The psychological study of anxiety in the era of the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The mid-twentieth century in Britain ushered in a new age of anxiety with the development of total war and the aerial bombing of civilians. Rather than trying to chart and quantify levels of anxiety and fear on the British home front during the Blitz, this article's goal is to examine how these emotions were conceptualized by psychological experts immediately prior to and during the war. The essay follows the rising problematization of anxiety and fear as new concepts calling for professional knowledge and management. It emphasizes the contribution of psychoanalysts to this development while pointing to gradual change between the two world wars.

  8. The Atoms for Peace USIS Films: Spreading the Gospel of the "Blessing" of Atomic Energy in the Early Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Tsuchiya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1955, the U.S. Information Service (USIS Tokyo produced a thirty-minute documentary film Blessing of Atomic Energy in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The film introduced how the Japanese government, researchers, and companies were using radioisotopes offered by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory for the “peaceful” purposes in agriculture, medicine, hygiene, industry, and disaster prevention. The film also showed the mechanism of atomic power generation, and explained that it was already put into practice in the U.S. and Europe. The images of Japanese people enjoying the “blessing” of the “peaceful” use of atomic energy, ten years after the traumatic experience of A-bombs, were not only shown all over Japan, but also translated into different languages and shown in many countries, including the UK, Finland, Indonesia, Sudan, and Venezuela. The film was part of some fifty educational and documentary films produced for President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” campaign – a global information dissemination programs on the U.S. leadership in the civilian use of nuclear energy. This paper will explore the roles USIS films played in disseminating information on the “peaceful” use of nuclear energy in the early Cold War era.

  9. Slave to Working-Class Women:Black Women in the Civil War Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欢

    2014-01-01

    It seems the civil war brought some improvement and new opportunity to black women. Their social identity changes from slave to working- class women. However it is difficult for them to lead a real y equal and free life.

  10. Symbolic Immortality in Ordinary Contexts: Impediments to the Nuclear Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Raymond L.

    1982-01-01

    Lifton's writings indicate that fear of nuclear holocaust has severely impaired and threatens to negate traditional modes of symbolic immortality in America. Lifton's research, however, has been limited to extreme contexts. Data were triangulated in four distinctive American contexts. Found substantial negative evidence of Lifton's suspicions in…

  11. Nuclear PDFs in the beginning of the LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Paukkunen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    The status of the global fits of nuclear parton distributions (nPDFs) is reviewed. In addition to comparing the contemporary analyses of nPDFs, difficulties and controversies posed by the neutrino-nucleus deeply inelastic scattering data is overviewed. At the end, the first dijet data from the LHC proton+lead collisions is briefly discussed.

  12. Nuclear PDFs in the beginning of the LHC era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paukkunen, Hannu, E-mail: hannu.paukkunen@jyu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 (Finland)

    2014-06-15

    The status of the global fits of nuclear parton distributions (nPDFs) is reviewed. In addition to comparing the contemporary analyses of nPDFs, difficulties and controversies posed by the neutrino–nucleus deeply inelastic scattering data is overviewed. At the end, the first dijet data from the LHC proton+lead collisions are briefly discussed.

  13. Japan's anti-nuclear weapons policy misses its target, even in the war on terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    While actively working to promote the abolition of all nuclear weapons from the world since the end of the cold war, Japan's disarmament policies are not without problems. Promoting the elimination of nuclear weapons as Japan remains under the US nuclear umbrella creates a major credibility problem for Tokyo, since this decision maintains a Japanese deterrence policy at the same time that officials push for disarmament. Tokyo also advocates a gradual approach to the abolition of nuclear weapons, a decision that has had no effect on those countries that have been conducting sub-critical nuclear testing, nor stopped India and Pakistan from carrying out nuclear tests. Consistent with Article 9 of the Constitution, the Japanese war-renouncing constitutional clause, Tokyo toughened Japan's sizeable Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme in the early 1990s. Because of the anti-military guidelines included in Japan's ODA programme, Tokyo stopped new grant and loan aid to India and Pakistan in 1998 after these countries conducted nuclear tests. However, because of the criticism Japan faced from its failure to participate in the 1991 Gulf War, Tokyo has been seeking a new Japanese role in international security during the post-cold war period. Deepening its commitment to the security alliance with the US, Tokyo has become increasingly influenced by Washington's global polices, including the American war on terrorism. After Washington decided that Pakistan would be a key player in the US war on terrorism, Tokyo restored grant and loan aid to both Islamabad and New Delhi, despite the unequivocal restrictions of Japan's ODA programme.

  14. Nuclear Renaissance in an Era of Anthropogenic Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, John [Bruce Power, Box 3000 B06, Tiverton, Ontario N0G 2T0 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper substantiates the anthropogenic origin of climate change, demonstrates the resulting consequences, and thereby establishes the need for a nuclear renaissance over the next thirty years. First, the mechanisms behind the natural cycles in global warming, specifically, cycles of precession and eccentricity in Earth's orbit, as measured in ice cores, are compared to the mechanisms of anthropogenic warming, revealing the scientific basis for the observed correlation between carbon dioxide and temperature. Second, the resulting climate change is exemplified by key results from experiments performed by the author in the Arctic and at the South Geographic Pole, and the author's experience of Switzerland's costliest natural catastrophe - the flash flood of 2005. Third, although facing barriers such as research and development requirements, political will and public acceptance, the potential for nuclear power to triple to 1,000 GWe by 2050 would mitigate climate change by holding carbon dioxide concentration below 500 ppm, thereby challenging the younger nuclear generation to contribute to the most important issue facing humanity. (authors)

  15. Nuclear War as a Source of Adolescent Worry: Relationships with Age, Gender, Trait Emotionality, and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compares the extent to which adolescents worry about nuclear war to their frequency of worry about other issues. Looks at the empirical relationships among worry and grade level, gender, trait emotionality, and drug use. Results indicate that adolescents worry more often about school performance and social interactions than about nuclear war.…

  16. Nuclear War as a Source of Adolescent Worry: Relationships with Age, Gender, Trait Emotionality, and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compares the extent to which adolescents worry about nuclear war to their frequency of worry about other issues. Looks at the empirical relationships among worry and grade level, gender, trait emotionality, and drug use. Results indicate that adolescents worry more often about school performance and social interactions than about nuclear war.…

  17. Sex and Drugs and Nuclear War: Secular, Developmental and Type A Influences upon Adolescents' Fears of the Nuclear Threat, AIDS and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Robert; Lewis, Charlie

    1993-01-01

    Examined fear of nuclear war among 3,556 secondary school students. Results suggest that such concern is expressed differently according to age and sex and that subjects who expressed concern about nuclear war and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome were more likely to show significantly higher Type A identification. (Author/NB)

  18. Sex and Drugs and Nuclear War: Secular, Developmental and Type A Influences upon Adolescents' Fears of the Nuclear Threat, AIDS and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Robert; Lewis, Charlie

    1993-01-01

    Examined fear of nuclear war among 3,556 secondary school students. Results suggest that such concern is expressed differently according to age and sex and that subjects who expressed concern about nuclear war and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome were more likely to show significantly higher Type A identification. (Author/NB)

  19. European Military and Political Environment in a Post Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    34Banque mondiale et FMI en Tunisie : Une Liberalization in the Middle East, eds. Ilya Harik and Denis evolution sur trente ans." Annuaire de l’Afrique du...Monthly. (Spring 1991). Burgat, Francois. L’Islamisme au Maghreb: La voix du Sud . Vandewalle, Dirk. "From the New State to the New Era: Paris

  20. Microcosms of democracy: imagining the city neighborhood in World War II-era America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches the rise of a Popular Front-inflected vision of the U.S. city neighborhood's meaning and worth, a communitarian ideal that reached its zenith during World War II before receding in the face of cold-war anxieties, postwar suburbanization, and trepidation over creeping blight. During the war years, numerous progressives interpreted the ethnic-accented urban neighborhood as place where national values became most concrete, casting it as a uniquely American rebuff to the fascist drive for purity. Elaborations appeared in the popular press's celebratory cadences, in writings by educators and social scientists such as Rachel DuBois and Louis Wirth, and in novels, plays, and musicals by Sholem Asch, Louis Hazam, Kurt Weill, Langston Hughes, and others. Each offered new ways for making sense of urban space, yet their works reveal contradictions and uncertainties, particularly in an inability to meld competing impulses toward assimilation and particularism. Building on the volume's theme "The Arts in Place," this essay examines these texts as a collective form of imaginative "placemaking." It explores the conflicted mode of liberal nationalism that took the polyglot city neighborhood as emblem. And it outlines the fissures embedded in that vision, which emerged more fully as the provisional wartime consensus dissolved.

  1. The meaning of nuclear war to adult men: A developmental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The study investigated the contextual and thematic meaning of nuclear war. Age-related differences were also investigated by sampling 36 male subjects in three age groups (20-27, 40-50, and above 60). Contextual meaning was measured by asking subjects to rate the meaning of nuclear war and three other threats (personal death, earthquake, and economic depression) on two questionnaires designed to explore personal meaning. Thematic meaning was measured by asking subjects to answer two open-ended questions. In terms of contextual meaning, the study found that, when compared to all other threats, nuclear war has a more extreme emotional meaning. In addition, meaning of nuclear war was found to shift across the adult lift span. In terms of thematic meaning, the study identified five themes describing causation and five themes describing effects. Age differences were found in thematic meaning. Oldest subjects emphasized rational causation, while middle-aged and younger subjects emphasized hopelessness and the impact on either inter-generational or intra-generational relationships. Age differences in meaning are discussed in terms of Eriksonian theory of adult development.

  2. Soviet concepts and capabilities for limited nuclear war: What we know and how we know it. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, E.L.

    1989-02-01

    This note analyzes the evolution of Soviet concepts of and capabilities for limited nuclear war, Western assessments of these concepts and capabilities, and the basis on which the assessments were made. It covers the period from 1954, when the Soviets first began to adapt their military strategy to the nuclear age, to the present. Soviet doctrinal commentary indicates an interest in limiting nuclear use for various military and political reasons; yet the Soviets reject the idea that nuclear war could be fought in a highly limited manner. In addition, their operational doctrine retains a strong preemptive predisposition, particularly with regard to war in Europe, where they are determined to be the first to use nuclear weapons with a potentially decisive military effect. However, given their nuclear strike capabilities and command-and-control arrangements that provide tight control over initial nuclear release, the Soviets could employ their nuclear attack forces with a wide range of self-imposed constraints.

  3. Farming the Desert: agriculture in the World War II-era Japanese-American relocation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillquist, Karl

    2010-01-01

    In 1942 over 110,000 Japanese Americans were evacuated from the West Coast to ten inland, barbed wire-enclosed relocation centers in the name of national security. Agriculture was a key component of the eight arid to semi-arid centers located in the western United States. Each center's agricultural program included produce for human consumption, feed crops, and livestock. Some centers also grew seed, ornamental, and war crops. Evacuees raised and consumed five types of livestock and sixty-one produce varieties, including many traditional foods. Seasonal surpluses were preserved, shipped to other centers, or sold on the open market. Short growing seasons, poor soils, initially undeveloped lands, pests, equipment shortages, and labor issues hampered operations. However, imprisoned evacuee farmers proved that diverse agricultural programs could succeed in the harsh settings primarily because of labor-intensive farming methods, ingenuity, and the large markets provided by the centers. These agricultural programs played major roles in feeding, providing meaningful employment, and preparing evacuees for life outside the centers, and readied lands for post-war "homesteaders."

  4. Brazil-United States Military Relations in the Early Post-World War II Era Brazil-United States Military Relations in the Early Post-World War II Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny Davis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As estreitas relações militares entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos deterioraram-se no período imediatamente após à II Guerra Mundial. As divisões associadas à Guerra Fria criaram pressões nacionais e internacionais que levaram a um relacionamento menos preciso e sempre reativo entre os dois gigantes do hemisfério. Quando havia uma convergência de metas, as relações militares refletiam a cooperação amistosa anterior. Quando divergências políticas e institucionais sobre questões bilaterais emergiam, o Brasil recusava-se a seguir a liderança norte-americana. Em larga medida, a política externa no pós-guerra obrigou o Brasil a desenvolver confiança e habilidade para acabar com a prática tradicional de agir como subordinado de um poderoso protetor. O processo começou com a assistência norte-americana para a criação da Escola Superior de Guerra e culminou em 1977 com o fim das relações militares com os EUA (com a denúncia do acordo militar com os EUA. Dessa forma, o Brasil conquistou parte do seu antigo desejo de grandeza.The close military relations between the Brazil and the United States underwent strains in the early post-war era. Cold War divisions created national and international pressures that led to a less precise and often reactive relationship between the hemisphere giants. When there was a convergence of goals, military relations reflected the previous smooth cooperation. When political and institutional divisiveness emerged in the officer corps over bilateral issues, Brazil refused to follow the U.S. lead. To a large degree, the post-war foreign policy forced Brazil and its military establishment to develop the confidence and ability to end the traditional practice of acting as a surrogate for a more powerful patron. The process began with U.S. assistance in creating the Escola Superior de Guerra and culminated in 1977 with the end of formal military relations with the United States. In so doing, Brazil

  5. The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrekus, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

  6. Military westernization and state repression in the post-Cold War era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swed, Ori; Weinreb, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The waves of unrest that have shaken the Arab world since December 2010 have highlighted significant differences in the readiness of the military to intervene in political unrest by forcefully suppressing dissent. We suggest that in the post-Cold War period, this readiness is inversely associated with the level of military westernization, which is a product of the acquisition of arms from western countries. We identify two mechanisms linking the acquisition of arms from western countries to less repressive responses: dependence and conditionality; and a longer-term diffusion of ideologies regarding the proper form of civil-military relations. Empirical support for our hypothesis is found in an analysis of 2523 cases of government response to political unrest in 138 countries in the 1996-2005 period. We find that military westernization mitigates state repression in general, with more pronounced effects in the poorest countries. However, we also identify substantial differences between the pre- and post-9/11 periods.

  7. Application of Just War principles to nuclear war and deterrence in three contemporary theorists: Michael Walzer, Paul Ramsey, and William V. O'Brien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichol, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show that the Just War tradition remains applicable in the nuclear age; three contemporary just war theorists have been selected to show that this is the case: Michael Walzer, political theorist; Paul Ramsey, theologian, and William V. O'Brien, professor of international law. Each is also influenced by his Jewish, Protestant and Roman catholic tradition respectively. The focus is on the principles of proportionality and discrimination, showing how the three theorists define, validate, and apply these principles to the conduct of war as compared to the concepts of the classic Just War theorists and to those expressed in the 1983 US Catholic Bishops' Statement. This Statement reflects the influence of the three secular theorists and also of contemporary moral theory. Just War principles are applied to the uses of nuclear weapons in war-fighting and deterrence and to actual public policy. Just War principles provide policy makers with a moral basis to move beyond national egoism by directing them to be concerned about the needs of the person and about the interdependence among states principles whose validity has often been assumed but whose application has never been so necessary.

  8. The Role of Small States in the Post-Cold War Era: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    forces; • Regional strategic appraisals; • The nature of land warfare; • Matters affecting the Army’s future; • The concepts, philosophy, and theory ...misunderstood. But the statement could be a sort of Freudian slip; it indicates that some segments of the European elite see a nuclear Iran as a

  9. Uranium wars the scientific rivalry that created the nuclear age

    CERN Document Server

    Aczel, Amir D

    2009-01-01

    The author of Fermat's Last Theorem tackles the cause of the last century's most destructive event - the discovery of nuclear power. Aczel presents the fascinating story of the rival scientists who uncovered uranium's potential and reveals the ongoing tale of an element that is never far from today's headlines.

  10. The Fight for Fusion: A Modern Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam; Sereda, David

    1992-01-01

    Describes the work of Bogdan Maglich with helium-based fusion and barriers to its development resulting from lack of government support, competition for funding, and political pet projects. Compares tritium-based to helium-based fusion and the potential for nonradioactive nuclear power to supply the world's energy requirements with no negative…

  11. Nuclear dawn F. E. Simon and the race for atomic weapons in World War II

    CERN Document Server

    McRae, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a rounded biography of Franz (later Sir Francis) Simon, his early life in Germany, his move to Oxford in 1933, and his experimental contributions to low temperature physics approximating absolute zero. After 1939 he switched his research to nuclear physics, and is credited with solving the problem of uranium isotope separation by gaseous diffusion for the British nuclear programme Tube Alloys. The volume is distinctive for its inclusion of source materials not available to previous researchers, such as Simon's diary and his correspondence with his wife, and for a fresh, well-informed insider voice on the five-power nuclear rivalry of the war years. The work also draws on a relatively mature nuclear literature to attempt a comparison and evaluation of the five nuclear rivals in wider political and military context, and to identify the factors, or groups of factors, that can explain the results.

  12. The Pontecorvo Affair A Cold War Defection and Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Turchetti, Simone

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1950, newspapers around the world reported that the Italian-born nuclear physicist Bruno Pontecorvo and his family had mysteriously disappeared while returning to Britain from a holiday trip. Because Pontecorvo was known to be an expert working for the UK Atomic Energy Research Establishment, this raised immediate concern for the safety of atomic secrets, especially when it became known in the following months that he had defected to the Soviet Union. Was Pontecorvo a spy? Did he know and pass sensitive information about the bomb to Soviet experts? At the time, nuclear scientist , security personnel, Western government officials, and journalists assessed the case, but their efforts were inconclusive and speculations quickly turned to silence. In the years since, some have downplayed Pontecorvo’s knowledge of atomic weaponry, while others have claimed him as part of a spy ring that infiltrated the Manhattan Project.

  13. Impacts on Chinese Agriculture of Geoengineering and Smoke from Fires Ignited by Nuclear War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops under different climate scenarios. Here we consider two situations: stratospheric sulfate geoengineering and nuclear war. Although we certainly do not advocate either scenario, we cannot exclude the possibilities: if global warming is getting worse, society might consider deliberately manipulating global temperature; if nuclear weapons still exist, we might face a nuclear war catastrophe. Since in both scenarios there would be reductions of temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which are three controlling factors on crop growth, it is important to study food supply changes under the two cases. We conducted our simulations for China, because it has the highest population and crop production in the world and it is under the strong influence of the summer monsoon, which would be altered in geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering and nuclear war on Chinese agriculture, we use the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. We first evaluated the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for 24 provinces in China, and compared the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (middle season rice, winter wheat, and maize). Then we perturbed observed weather data using climate anomalies for geoengineering and nuclear war simulations. For geoengineering, we consider the G2 scenario of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), which prescribes an insolation reduction to balance a 1% per year increase in CO2 concentration (1pctCO2). We used results from ten climate models participating in G2. For the nuclear war scenario, we consider the effects of 5 Tg of soot that could be injected into the upper

  14. A Nuclear Dilemma--Korean War Deja Vu

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-08

    steady hand of Lt. Gen. Curtis E. LeMay, Commander, Strategic Air Command (SAC), Air Force nuclear-related plans and preparations were in fact showing...Strategic Air Command Commander, General Curtis LeMay was ordered on 8 July, to repeat, in effect, the Berlin Blockade B-29 feint of 1948.51 Within...the conflict. On the return trip, 24 during a strategy session on the ship Helena , Eisenhower and his staff used the time to plan the broad strategy

  15. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  16. Another Inconvenient Truth: Even a Small Nuclear War Could be Much Worse Than you Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.

    2008-05-01

    The number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986. However, the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races, and for a significant expansion in the number of nuclear weapons states. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build weapons if they so desire. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in "megacities", which are ideal targets for nuclear weapons. Based upon observations of the damage caused by nuclear explosions in World War II and in nuclear tests, a group of researchers has estimated the area that might be consumed in firestorms following a regional war between the smallest current nuclear states involving 100, 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal). Based upon observations of large forest fires these firestorms should inject smoke into the upper troposphere. Using estimates of the mass of flammable material in the areas that would burn we find that 5x1012 g of elemental carbon could be injected into the upper troposphere in a regional nuclear war. A suite of numerical models show that this upper tropospheric soot will be transported due to solar heating into the stratosphere and will rise to altitudes above 40 km. The elemental carbon will absorb sunlight, heating the stratosphere and cooling the ground. The heating of the stratosphere could cause column ozone losses in excess of 20% globally, 25-45% at mid-latitudes, and 50- 70% at northern high latitudes persisting for 5 years, with substantial losses continuing for 5 additional years. Column ozone amounts would remain near or below 220 Dobson units at all latitudes even after three years, constituting an extra-tropical "ozone hole". The cooling at the ground would reduce precipitation globally by about 10%, create lower

  17. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  18. Climate effects of a hypothetical regional nuclear war: Sensitivity to emission duration and particle composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Lindvall, Jenny; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Svensson, Gunilla

    2016-11-01

    Here, we use a coupled atmospheric-ocean-aerosol model to investigate the plume development and climate effects of the smoke generated by fires following a regional nuclear war between emerging third-world nuclear powers. We simulate a standard scenario where 5 Tg of black carbon (BC) is emitted over 1 day in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere. However, it is likely that the emissions from the fires ignited by bomb detonations include a substantial amount of particulate organic matter (POM) and that they last more than 1 day. We therefore test the sensitivity of the aerosol plume and climate system to the BC/POM ratio (1:3, 1:9) and to the emission length (1 day, 1 week, 1 month). We find that in general, an emission length of 1 month substantially reduces the cooling compared to the 1-day case, whereas taking into account POM emissions notably increases the cooling and the reduction of precipitation associated with the nuclear war during the first year following the detonation. Accounting for POM emissions increases the particle size in the short-emission-length scenarios (1 day/1 week), reducing the residence time of the injected particle. While the initial cooling is more intense when including POM emission, the long-lasting effects, while still large, may be less extreme compared to the BC-only case. Our study highlights that the emission altitude reached by the plume is sensitive to both the particle type emitted by the fires and the emission duration. Consequently, the climate effects of a nuclear war are strongly dependent on these parameters.

  19. Strategic Stability Reconsidered: Prospects for Escalation and Nuclear War in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.A.

    2009-07-01

    This paper addresses the prospect that nuclear weapons could be used in the Middle East - breaking the so-called 'taboo' against the use of these weapons since the United States dropped a nuclear bomb on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945 and which remained unbroken throughout the Cold War and continues to endure. It argues that unstable dynamics of the coercive bargaining framework surrounding Iran's nuclear program may be pushing the world closer toward the use of nuclear weapons than is generally realized - perhaps closer than any time since the Cuban missile crisis - and proposes a number of near- and longer-term scenarios to illustrate the ways in which structural uncertainties in the regional interstate bargaining framework could result in the use of nuclear weapons. In itself, the 'taboo' against nuclear use is unlikely to prevent regional states and/or non-state actors from using these weapons to protect themselves and to secure their vital interests. While the very use of the word 'taboo' in connection with nuclear weapons offers an attractive metaphor, it has little use as a meaningful term to describe the policies and attitudes of states' and non-state actors toward the use of nuclear weapons. It is difficult to argue that any country has ever obtained nuclear weapons with the idea that the weapons would not be used. A case in point is the United States, for example, which, while embracing the concept of nuclear deterrence, has made a point of not forswearing the first use of nuclear weapons, and has repeatedly articulated a range of plausible conditions under which the weapons would be used. The paper agrees with political scientist Michael Mandelbaum, who declared more than a decade ago that: '..like all taboos, this one will be violated under necessity. Individuals will eat forbidden foods, even one another, if the alternative is starvation; nations will acquire and use forbidden weapons if they deem it necessary

  20. The bishops and nuclear weapons: The catholic pastoral letter on war and peace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    This is a contribution to the Catholic debate over nuclear weapons, by an international relations scholar who teaches at a Catholic college. Dougherty is critical of the 1983 pastoral letter, arguing that it focuses too much on the dangers of nuclear war and the inadequacies of deterrence while giving insufficient attention to Soviet expansionism and the need for stable deterrence through a judicious mixture of military modernization and arms control. He is concerned by an increase in ''Catholic nuclear pacifism,'' fearing that the pastoral letter could become a theological rationalization for neo-isolationism in the United States. The European bishops, he notes, take a more moderate view.

  1. Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War. Papers Based on a Symposium of the Forum on Physics and Society of the American Physical Society, (Washington, D.C., April 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Philip; And Others

    Three papers on nuclear weapons and nuclear war, based on talks given by distinguished physicists during an American Physical Society-sponsored symposium, are provided in this booklet. They include "Caught Between Asymptotes" (Philip Morrison), "We are not Inferior to the Soviets" (Hans A. Bethe), and "MAD vs. NUTS" (Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky).…

  2. American Physicists, Nuclear Weapons in World War II, and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2005-06-01

    Social responsibility in science has a centuries-long history, but it was such a minor thread that most scientists were unaware of the concept. Even toward the conclusion of the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapons, only a handful of its participants had some reservations about use of a weapon of mass destruction. But the explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki not only made society more aware of the importance of science, they made scientists more aware of their responsibility to society. I describe the development of the concept of social responsibility and its appearance among American scientists both before and after the end of World War II.

  3. Literature and History--A Focus on the Era of the Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, John; Sandmann, Alexa

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography and suggested teaching activities for units on the Great Depression and World War II. The materials support inquiry into the causes of the Great Depression and World War II and how these events transformed U.S. society. The annotated bibliography includes novels, memoirs, biographies, and political studies. (MJP)

  4. Summary Proceedings of the Congress of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (1st, Airlie, Virginia, March 20-25, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Inc., Boston, MA.

    Physicians charged with the responsibility for the lives of their patients and the health of the community must begin to explore a new province of prevention medicine, the prevention of nuclear war. This conference was held to alert these physicians worldwide, of the mortal peril to public health which could result from nuclear war. The hope is…

  5. Summary Proceedings of the Congress of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (1st, Airlie, Virginia, March 20-25, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Inc., Boston, MA.

    Physicians charged with the responsibility for the lives of their patients and the health of the community must begin to explore a new province of prevention medicine, the prevention of nuclear war. This conference was held to alert these physicians worldwide, of the mortal peril to public health which could result from nuclear war. The hope is…

  6. Evaluating and managing Cold War era historic properties : the cultural significance of U.S. Air Force defensive radar systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whorton, M.

    1999-01-20

    Aircraft and later missile radar early warning stations played an important role in the Cold War. They are associated with important technological, social, political, and military themes of the Cold War and are worthy of preservation. The scope and scale of these systems make physical preservation impractical, but the U.S. Air Force program of historical evaluation and documentation of these systems will provide valuable information to future generations studying this historic period.

  7. 试析战后日本围绕“战后体制”的斗争%An Analysis of the Struggle for Postwar Regime in the Post-war Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔世广

    2015-01-01

    战后70年来,日本的战后体制一直受到统治阶级和保守势力的挑战,前后产生过三次大的企图否定战后体制、终结“战后”的动向,并引发了围绕战后体制的激烈斗争。第一次否定战后体制所追求的目标是“独立自主”,第二次追求的目标是“政治大国”,第三次追求的目标则是在坚持日美同盟前提下的“军事大国”。因此,战后日本围绕“战后体制”的斗争,实质上是日本要走一条什么样的道路的斗争。%In 70 years after the end of World War II, the ruling class and the conservative force have always been challenging the post-war regime. As a result, it has formed three obvious trends that attempt to deny post-war regime and end the post-war era, and triggered fierce struggles around the post-war regime. The first goal pursued is Japan as an independent country, the second goal is Japan as a political giant, and the third one is Japan as a military power that should be under the premise of the Japan-US Alliance. The struggle for the post-war regime in post-war era means essentially the fight against Japan’s development direction. The post-war era which Japan has gone through for 70 years, now is facing great challenges.

  8. Adult Public Education for Nuclear Terrorism: An Analysis of Cold War and War on Terror Preparedness Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear terrorist threat is far greater today than ever before, but the United States is unprepared to respond to the aftermath of a nuclear attack, whether perpetrated by rogue nuclear countries or the terrorist groups they support. Following the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND), citizens, not government personnel, become the…

  9. Adult Public Education for Nuclear Terrorism: An Analysis of Cold War and War on Terror Preparedness Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear terrorist threat is far greater today than ever before, but the United States is unprepared to respond to the aftermath of a nuclear attack, whether perpetrated by rogue nuclear countries or the terrorist groups they support. Following the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND), citizens, not government personnel, become the…

  10. New AgMIP Scenarios: Impacts of Volcanic Eruptions, Geoengineering, or Nuclear War on Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.; Xia, L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops in response to different climate forcings. Previous studies mainly focus on the impact from global warming. Here we propose that the AgMIP community also study the impacts of stratospheric aerosols on agriculture. While nature can load the stratosphere with sulfate aerosols for several years from large volcanic eruptions, humans could also put sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere on purpose through geoengineering or soot as a result of the fires from a nuclear war. Stratospheric aerosols would change the temperature, precipitation, total insolation, and fraction of diffuse radiation due to their radiative impacts, and could produce more ultraviolet radiation by ozone destruction. Surface ozone concentration could also change by changed transport from the stratosphere as well as changed tropospheric chemistry. As a demonstration of these effects, using the crop model in the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM-crop), we have studied sulfate injection geoengineering and nuclear war impacts on global agriculture in response to temperature, precipitation and radiation changes, and found significant changes in patterns of global food production. With the new ozone module in CLM-crop, we simulated how surface ozone concentration change under sulfate injection geoengineering would change the agriculture response. Agriculture would benefit from less surface ozone concentration associated with the specific geoengineering scenario comparing with the global warming scenario. Here, we would like to encourage more crop modelers to improve crop models in terms of crop responses to ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and diffuse radiation. We also invite more global crop modeling groups to use the climate forcing we would be happy to provide to gain a better understanding of global agriculture responses

  11. [Werner Leibbrand, Annemarie Wettley and controversies on "euthanasia" the background of medico-historical and ethical debates in the Post World War II era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Christine; Frewer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists and medical historians Werner Leibbrand (1896 - 1974) and Annemarie Wettley (1913 - 1996) are amongst the most striking figures in the field of history of medicine. Leibbrand was appointed director of the "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" in Erlangen shortly after the war. Fuelled by his own experiences of suppression and persecution during the Nazi era he promised to unearth the crimes and atrocities which had happened under watch of the Nazi regime. He was joined by Annemarie Wettley, who worked as a physician at the hospital and had developed an increasing interest in the history of medicine. In 1946 they published "Um die Menschenrechte der Geisteskranken" ("Human Rights of the Mentally Ill") about the "euthanasia" campaign of the Nazi regime. Although a number of substantial works followed, Leibbrand and Wettley failed to inform in more depth on crimes and atrocities, for instance killings of patients and forced malnutrition. Doubts and charges against Wettley regarding her role in dietary programmes at the Erlangen hospital and against Leibbrand regarding special expert's reports--both had a short-term arrest warrant--might have contributed to stagnation in their efforts. In 1953 Leibbrand accepted the offer of a chair at the University in Munich, Wettley followed and habilitated in history of medicine; in the year 1962 they married. Contacts and exchange amongst medico-historical experts shed light on developments during the post-war era; still, a critical and fundamental review of the crimes within the medical system of the Nazi regime did not take place during this time.

  12. Military Spending and Economic Well-Being in the American States: The Post-Vietnam War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Casey; Wallace, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using growth curve modeling techniques, this research investigates whether military spending improved or worsened the economic well-being of citizens within the American states during the post-Vietnam War period. We empirically test the military Keynesianism claim that military spending improves the economic conditions of citizens through its use…

  13. The United States, Russia, Europe, and Security: How to Address the Unfinished Business of the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    disappointment and disbelief on the part of the most moderate Allies, who were long supporters of NATO-Russia cooperation, but they served as justification for...engage Moscow. The suspension of political dialogue and military cooperation between Russia and NATO resulted in polarized positions within the Al- liance...States, the Czech Republic, and Great Brit- ain advocated a strong response to the war, including the suspension of security cooperation with Moscow

  14. Elephants for Mr. Lincoln: American Civil War-Era Diplomacy in Southeast Asia, William Strobridge & Anita Hibler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Baer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This curious book, which begins with events in the 1810s, emphasizes Burma and Siam but undervalues other parts of Southeast Asia. The title refers to the offer by the king of Siam to send elephants to the United States to help President Lincoln win the Civil War. The book rightly discusses commerce, diplomats, and military actions in Southeast Asia. Missionaries are, for unclear reasons, also given prominence; in fact, much of the authors’ information comes from Protestant missionary sources...

  15. The Politics of Forgetting: Otto Hahn and the German Nuclear-Fission Project in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2012-03-01

    As the co-discoverer of nuclear fission and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, Otto Hahn (1879-1968) took part in Germany`s nuclear-fission project throughout the Second World War. I outline Hahn's efforts to mobilize his institute for military-related research; his inclusion in high-level scientific structures of the military and the state; and his institute's research programs in neutron physics, isotope separation, transuranium elements, and fission products, all of potential military importance for a bomb or a reactor and almost all of it secret. These activities are contrasted with Hahn's deliberate misrepresentations after the war, when he claimed that his wartime work had been nothing but "purely scientific" fundamental research that was openly published and of no military relevance.

  16. International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies : 46th Session : The Role of Science in the Third Millennium

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of the 46th Session of the International Seminars on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies held in "E. Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture, Erice, Sicily. This Seminar has again gathered, in 2013, over 100 scientists from 43 countries in an interdisciplinary effort that has been going on for the last 32 years, to examine and analyze planetary problems which had been followed up, all year long, by the World Federation of Scientists' Permanent Monitoring Panels.

  17. The nuclear era: what can we do?; L'age nucleaire: que faire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Vega, A. [Centre d' Etudes Transdisciplinaire, Sociologie, Anthropologie, Histoire, EHESS/CNRS, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    This article reports an interview of Michele Rivasi who is a member of the French parliament and a co-founder member of Crii-rad (independent research commission on radioactivity). M.Rivasi thinks that the nuclear lobby has too much power in France, and that this power is a direct consequence of the importance of nuclear energy for France, trade unions support nuclear energy because this activity represents a large job pool. M.Rivasi fears that a real debate about nuclear energy never happens because it would imply a counter-power able to make counter-evaluations whereas most nuclear experts belong to the nuclear lobby. (A.C.)

  18. The political economics of the permanent war and the political economics of the nuclear war. Strategic approaches for Latin America; La economia politica de la guerra permanente y la economia politica de la guerra nuclear. Aproximaciones estrategicas para America Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez L, I.I

    2005-07-01

    This work treats on the hypothesis that the American imperialism uses its nuclear arsenal for reforming geographical spaces that allow him to impel its economic development in the context of the progressive exhaustion of the natural resources of the planet and of the ferocious dispute for market niches and investment destinations, and like the political and military decisions crawl to the different scenarios of economic competition. In the chapter 1 it is insinuated like has been reproduced the Warlike-industrial Complex (CBI) American from the second world postwar period until the present time in the idea of explaining like it is that it is valorized to the capital in scale enlarged starting from the denominated sector producing of destruction means and understanding that the system specifically capitalist is a system where continually the is destroyed previously taken place to manufacture a new merchandise in a luck of creative destruction. In the chapter 2, the topic of the specific contradictions of the CBI is approached that disable him to be the tip of lance of the world imperialism. The chapter 3 try on the productive linkages in the production of nuclear bombs, as well as in the production of the vectors of nuclear transportation and on the implications derived for the world security of the different industries associated to the nuclear energy (as the petroleum, the electricity, the natural gas) and to the transportation vectors of these locating which you/they are the different States where the world supremacy is disputed and that they have like one of its so many negotiation-confrontation letters its nuclear strategic arsenals. What is looked for in a thermonuclear war is the enemy's total elimination, from their offensive capacity, their defensive capacity, until their supplies, their reservations, etc., with the result that the chapters 4 and 5 of this thesis are presented to offer a better understanding that they mean the nuclear arsenals in the

  19. Driving to Zero: Defining Credible Nuclear Deterrence in an Era of Disarmament

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    in the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review emphasized a renewed focus on reducing the U.S. nuclear arsenal with a long-term goal of global nuclear...stockpile and stature as a global superpower, remains a leader for this issue. U.S. leadership has long stated a policy towards nuclear disarmament...Rather proposals should be analyzed within the larger context of a chronological continuum with New START as the initial point and global zero as the

  20. Accidental nuclear war: Modifications to superpower arsenals and to procedures for handling them could substantially reduce the risk of unintended Armageddon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, B.G.; Kendall, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    If nuclear war breaks out in the coming decade or two, it will probably be by accident. The threat of a cold-blooded, calculated first strike is vanishing, but beneath the calm surface of constructive diplomacy among the traditional nuclear rivals lurks the danger of unpremeditated use of nuclear weapons. The accidental, unauthorized or inadvertent use of these weapons has become the most plausible path to nuclear war. Both superpowers, as well as France, Great Britain and China - long-standing members of the nuclear club - are potential sources of accidental missile launch. The emergence of fledgling nuclear powers such as India, Pakistan and Israel - some armed with ballistic missiles - pushes nuclear safeguards even closer to the top of the international security agenda. The chances of unwanted nuclear war would be reduced significantly if tamper proof, coded locks were installed on all nuclear weapons and if methods were put in place to disarm nuclear forces even after launch. In addition, the US and the Soviet Union should reduce their reliance on the dangerous policy of launch on warning and reduce the launch readiness of their nuclear forces. The social and political upheavals in the Soviet Union underscore fears of unintended nuclear war. Civil turmoil raises the possibility that rebellious ethnic groups or splinter organizations could capture nuclear weapons. Other, deeper fault lines run through the whole of Soviet society and may be capable of cracking the foundations of its nuclear command system. Although the US faces no such civil unrest, the country's system of nuclear command carries some risk that nuclear weapons might be used contrary to the intentions of legitimate authorities.

  1. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  2. Everyday Wars of Position Social Movements and the Caracas Barrios in a Chávez Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Fernandes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the ways that urban social movements in Caracas have sought to engage the hybrid state during the presidency of radical leftist leader Hugo Chávez. Chávez's election has created avenues for previously disenfranchised groups to participate in gover-nance and decision-making. The structures and discourses of exclusion are being contested in multiple arenas since Chávez has come to power. But, what lines of conflict are emerging as barrio-based movements demand inclusion in the state? In this article, I argue that as urban movements engage with the political arena, they come up against the instrumental rationalities—both liberal and neoliberal—of state administrators. Barrio-based social movements counter the utilitarian logics of technocrats with alternative visions based in "lo cotidiano" (the everyday, local culture and historical memory. We need to combine Foucault's insights about the operation of power through governmentality with Gramsci's insistence on practical politics, in order to account more fully for the contested nature of power. In this article, I suggest the reframing of a Gramscian notion of hegemony in a positive sense as "everyday wars of position," to think about the quotidian and subterranean spaces where technocrats are confronted with alternative visions from below. I use the example of com-munity media in Caracas to illustrate the ways that social movements engage with the state.

  3. Clinical applications of exercise nuclear cardiology studies in the era of healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, D S; Kiat, H; Friedman, J D; Diamond, G

    1995-04-13

    The challenge for nuclear cardiology is to demonstrate that it can provide more information than competitive modalities at comparable or lower cost. In considering patients for nuclear cardiology procedures, presentations can be divided into 9 subsets: within each subset, nuclear cardiology tests should be employed where incremental information is provided over the information available without performing the test. (1) Patients with no known coronary artery disease (CAD); for diagnosis, nuclear imaging is useful in patients with intermediate probability of CAD. For prognosis, assessment is based on extent of ischemia, where we have shown that nuclear testing provides incremental information, especially in patients with a high likelihood of CAD, such as those with typical angina. In the remaining categories (2-9), nuclear cardiology studies are predominantly used for purposes of risk stratification. Here the greatest value is in patients deemed to be at intermediate risk before nuclear testing. (2) Postmyocardial infarction: stress nuclear imaging provides an alternative to angiography for risk assessment of clinically uncomplicated patients. (3) Poor ventricular function: Nuclear testing is particularly useful for differentiating patients with hibernating myocardium (the defect is reversible), with stunned myocardium (no defect is present), or with myocardial infarction (the defect is persistent). (4) Unstable angina: Following current federal guidelines, nuclear imaging in medically stabilized low-to-intermediate risk patients with unstable angina is likely to increase. (5) Postcatheterization patients: Nuclear imaging is useful when there is uncertainty regarding the choice of medical management or revascularization. (6) Pre-noncardiac surgery patients: Nuclear imaging is clearly helpful in patients with intermediate clinical risk and may provide useful information in clinically high-risk patients. (7) Post-PTCA patients: Due to the intermediate likelihood of

  4. How WANO is tackling the realities of a new nuclear era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-07-15

    Rapid new build initiatives and post-Fukushima safety concerns mean the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) is dealing with the prospect of a considerable increase in the demand for its services. Chief executive officer Peter Prozesky spoke to NucNet about the critical work the organisation is facing. Ten of the 12 projects established by WANO following the Fukushima-Daiichi accident have already progressed to the point where WANO was comfortable with closing them down. Two projects concerning design safety fundamentals and emergency support to remain open. WANO is an independent nuclear oversight organisation and has no remit to promote nuclear power.

  5. Superpower nuclear minimalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in building weapons -- now it seems like America and Russia are competing to get rid of them the fastest. The lengthy process of formal arms control has been replaced by exchanges of unilateral force reductions and proposals for reciprocal reductions not necessarily codified by treaty. Should superpower nuclear strategies change along with force postures President Bush has yet to make a formal pronouncement on post-Cold War American nuclear strategy, and it is uncertain if the Soviet/Russian doctrine of reasonable sufficiency formulated in the Gorbachev era actually heralds a change in strategy. Some of the provisions in the most recent round of unilateral proposals put forth by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin in January 1992 are compatible with a change in strategy. Whether such a change has actually occurred remains to be seen. With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, mutual assured destruction (MAD) which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war- fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  6. Nuclear nations explore 'new era' of possibilities in trade talks with Tehran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    After years of being in the international wilderness, amid suspicion and concern about the true nature of its nuclear power programme, Iran is emerging from the cold and the world has a new business landscape to explore following the lifting of many economic sanctions.

  7. A new era for Nuclear Medicine neuroimaging in Spain: Where do we start from in Spain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, M A; Camacho, V; Garrastachu, P; García-Solís, D; Gómez-Río, M; Rubí, S; Setoain, X; Arbizu, J

    To determine the status of neuroimaging studies of Nuclear Medicine in Spain during 2013 and first quarter of 2014, in order to define the activities of the neuroimaging group of the Spanish Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SEMNIM). A questionnaire of 14 questions was designed, divided into 3 parts: characteristics of the departments (equipment and professionals involved); type of scans and clinical indications; and evaluation methods. The questionnaire was sent to 166 Nuclear Medicine departments. A total of 54 departments distributed among all regions completed the questionnaire. Most departments performed between 300 and 800 neuroimaging examinations per year, representing more than 25 scans per month. The average pieces of equipment were three; half of the departments had a PET/CT scanner and SPECT/CT equipment. Scans performed more frequently were brain SPECT with (123)I-FP-CIT, followed by brain perfusion SPECT and PET with (18)F-FDG. The most frequent clinical indications were cognitive impairment followed by movement disorders. For evaluation of the images most sites used only visual assessment, and for the quantitative assessment the most used was quantification by region of interest. These results reflect the clinical activity of 2013 and first quarter of 2014. The main indications of the studies were cognitive impairment and movement disorders. Variability in the evaluation of the studies is among the challenges that will be faced in the coming years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospects for precision measurements in nuclear beta decay at the LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    González-Alonso, Martín

    2013-01-01

    Precision measurements in nuclear beta decay offer a sensitive window to search for new physics beyond the standard electroweak model and allow also the determination of the fundamental weak vector coupling in processes involving the lightest quarks. Searches for new physics are also a strong motivation for experiments carried out at the high energy frontier reached at the most powerful particle colliders. It is instructive to confront results from the low energy and the high energy frontiers in order to look for possible complementarities and orient new avenues for experiments at low energies. We review here the status of constraints on new physics obtained from nuclear and neutron decays and compare them to those from other semi-leptonic processes and from the LHC. We stress the requirements of new precision experiments in beta decay in order to impact the search for new physics at the light of current and projected LHC results. We describe recent experimental results and ongoing developments in nuclear and...

  9. Reagan and the Nuclear Freeze: "Stars Wars" as a Rhetorical Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Rebecca S.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the interaction between nuclear freeze activists and proponents of a Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Argues that SDI strengthens Reagan's rhetorical position concerning nuclear weapons policy because it reduces the argumentative ground of the freeze movement by envisioning a defensive weapons system that would nullify nuclear weapons.…

  10. Collateral Damage and Communicable Disease with Particular Reference to Tactical Nuclear War in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-31

    assess the impact of wartime disruption on the frequency of disease outbreaks . Given the poor state of pre- dictability of epidemiology for peacetime...34since the end of World War II, there has not been a single outbreak of the classical com- municable diseases in Europe, Canada and the United States...former scourges, such as cholera, smallpox, plague and typhus fever. Scarlet fever, infectious hepatitis and salmonellosis are the diseases with the

  11. Learning Large Lessons: The Evolving Roles of Ground Power and Air Power in the Post-Cold War Era. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    33, III-34. 21 Carl R. Pivarsky, Jr., Airpower in the Context of a Dysfunctional Joint Doctrine, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Air War College...Airpower in the Context of a Dysfunctional Joint Doctrine, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Air War College, Maxwell Paper No. 7, 1997. Plummer, Anne, “Army

  12. Fear of nuclear war increases the risk of common mental disorders among young adults: a five-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulio-Henriksson Annamari

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on the relation between fear of war and mental health is insufficient. We carried out a prospective cohort study to find out whether fear of nuclear war is related to increased risk of common mental disorders. Methods Within two months preceding the outbreak of Persian Gulf War in January 1991, 1518 adolescents [mean age 16.8 years, SD 0.9] filled in a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 1493 respondents, 47% gave their written informed consent to participate in the follow-up study. There were no material differences between those who chose to respond anonymously and those who volunteered to give their name and address for the follow-up study. In 1995, the response to the follow-up questionnaire was 92%. Common mental disorders were assessed by 36-item version of the General Health Questionnaire [GHQ]. A score 5 or higher was considered to indicate caseness. We excluded 23 cases which had used mental health services in the year 1991 or earlier and two cases with deficient responses to GHQ. This left 626 subjects for analysis [400 women]. Results After adjusting for significant mental health risk factors in logistic regression analysis, the risk for common mental disorders was found to be significantly related to the increasing frequency of fear for nuclear war, high scores of trait anxiety and high scores of immature defense style. Elevated risk was confined to the group reporting fear of nuclear war once a week or more often [odds ratio 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.29–3.27]. Conclusion Frequent fear of nuclear war in adolescents seems to be an indicator for an increased risk for common mental disorders and deserves serious attention.

  13. Hope, connectedness, and action: responses of adolescents and young adults to the threat of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernald, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    This study undertook to assess the degree to which a person's sense of interconnectedness with others may have a mediating effect on whether one reacts to the consciousness of nuclear threat with feelings of despair (helplessness and hopelessness) or with a sense of empowerment (hope, efficacy, and action for change). Subjects included 119 public high school students and 14 Friends' school students, ranging from 12-18 years of age; 58 university students ranging from 18-25 years of age; and 24 parents of public school students, 10 adult Friends, and 38 members of Physicians for Social Responsibility, ranging from 20-83 years of age. A self-rating questionnaire was administered to assess subjects' conscious level of concern about nuclear issues, feelings of connectedness with others in general and about nuclear concerns, feelings of hope and efficacy in general and with regard to nuclear issues, and participation in activities reflecting concerns about nuclear threat. Correlational analyses (multiple regression, Spearman Rho, Kendall's Tau) showed that general feelings of hope, level of activity, and feelings of connectedness about nuclear concerns were the best predictors of hope about nuclear concerns. Conscious level of concern and feelings of connectedness about nuclear concerns, along with age and SES were the best predictors of an active response to nuclear threat; additionally, parents' level of concern about nuclear issues was predictive of their children's degree of activity in response to nuclear threat. Adolescents' level of concern and degree of connectedness with others was predicted by their parents' degree of connectedness.

  14. MARs Wars: heterogeneity and clustering of DNA-binding domains in the nuclear matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioudinkova E. S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. CO326 is a chicken nuclear scaffold/matrix attachment region (MAR associated with the nuclear matrix in several types of chicken cells. It contains a binding site for a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, F326. We have studied its interaction with the nuclear matrix. Methods. We have used an in vitro MAR assay with isolated matrices from chicken HD3 cells. Results. We have found that an oligonucleotide binding site for the F326 inhibits binding of the CO326 to the nuclear matrix. At the same time, the binding of heterologous MARs is enhanced. Conclusions. Taken together, these data suggest that there exist several classes of MARs and MAR-binding domains and that the MAR-binding proteins may be clustered in the nuclear matrix.

  15. Nuclear weapons, scientists, and the post-Cold War challenge selected papers on arms control

    CERN Document Server

    Drell, Sidney D

    2007-01-01

    This volume includes a representative selection of Sidney Drell's recent writings and speeches (circa 1993 to the present) on public policy issues with substantial scientific components. Most of the writings deal with national security, nuclear weapons, and arms control and reflect the author's personal involvement in such issues dating back to 1960. Fifteen years after the demise of the Soviet Union, the gravest danger presented by nuclear weapons is the spread of advanced technology that may result in the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Of most concern would be their acquisition by hostile governments and terrorists who are unconstrained by accepted norms of civilized behavior. The current challenges are to prevent this from happening and, at the same time, to pursue aggressively the opportunity to escape from an outdated nuclear deterrence trap.

  16. The Memory of Era and the Eternal Monumental Work---On Anti-Japanese War Poetry%时代的记忆永恒的丰碑--抗战诗歌刍论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹帅

    2015-01-01

    抗战文学作为历史的化石记载了中华民族在灾难岁月中的创痛与希望,抗战诗歌,以其灵活性、丰富性和战斗性的优势成为抗战文学中最为活跃的一部分。分别从历时性角度纵向梳理抗战诗歌的发展脉络,从共时性角度横向铺排抗战诗歌的地域性风格差异,同时着重介绍了较为突出的抗战诗人和诗人团体,从审美价值追求、大众化倾向和多种艺术形式的探索、新诗的丰碑和时代记忆的角度探讨抗战诗歌的艺术价值。%Anti-Japanese War literature as fossil records the trauma and hope of the Chinese in the disaster years. Poetry of the war of resistance against Japan with its advantages of flexibility,richness and militancy has become the most active part of the Anti-Japanese War literature. This article respectively combs the develop-ment of Anti-Japanese War poetry, arrangement poetry style of regional differences, at the same time, intro-duces the outstanding poet and the poet groups. in the end this article discusses the poetry art value from the following aspects such as the pursuit of aesthetic value,popular tendency and a variety of art forms to explore, and the new poem monument and era memory.

  17. From Confrontation to Cooperation: 8th International Seminar on Nuclear War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichichi, A.; Dardo, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * OPENING SESSION * A. Zichichi: Opening Statements * R. Nicolosi: Opening Statements * MESSAGES * CONTRIBUTIONS * "The Contribution of the Erice Seminars in East-West-North-South Scientific Relations" * 1. LASER TECHNOLOGY * "Progress in laser technology" * "Progress in laboratory high gain ICF: prospects for the future" * "Applications of laser in metallurgy" * "Laser tissue interactions in medicine and surgery" * "Laser fusion" * "Compact X-ray lasers in the laboratory" * "Alternative method for inertial confinement" * "Laser technology in China" * 2. NUCLEAR AND CHEMICAL SAFETY * "Reactor safety and reactor design" * "Thereotical analysis and numerical modelling of heat transfer and fuel migration in underlying soils and constructive elements of nuclear plants during an accident release from the core" * "How really to attain reactor safely" * "The problem of chemical weapons" * "Long terms genetic effects of nuclear and chemical accidents" * "Features of the brain which are of importance in understanding the mode of operation of toxic substances and of radiation" * "CO2 and ultra safe reactors" * 3. USE OF MISSILES * "How to convert INF technology for peaceful scientific purposes" * "Beating words into plowshares: a proposal for the peaceful uses of retired nuclear warheads" * "Some thoughts on the peaceful use of retired nuclear warheads" * "Status of the HEFEST project" * 4. OZONE * "Status of the ozone layer problem" * 5. CONVENTIONAL AND NUCLEAR FORCE RESTRUCTURING IN EUROPE * 6. CONFLICT AVOIDANCE MODEL * 7. GENERAL DISCUSSION OF THE WORLD LAB PROJECTS * "East-West-North-South Collaboration in Subnuclear Physics" * "Status of the World Lab in the USSR" * CLOSING SESSION

  18. The nuclear borderlands the Manhattan project in post-cold war New Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Masco, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Borderlands explores the sociocultural fallout of twentieth-century America's premier technoscientific project--the atomic bomb. Joseph Masco offers the first anthropological study of the long-term consequences of the Manhattan Project for the people that live in and around Los Alamos, New Mexico, where the first atomic bomb, and the majority of weapons in the current U.S. nuclear arsenal, were designed. Masco examines how diverse groups--weapons scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory, neighboring Pueblo Indian Nations and Nuevomexicano communities, and antinuclear activist

  19. Two Nations Underground: Building Schools to Survive Nuclear War and Desegregation in the 1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John

    2017-01-01

    In the 1960s federal agencies in the US encouraged the building of protected schools designed to survive a nuclear attack. A number of designs, including underground schools, were constructed. In order to promote the building of protected schools, the US government produced a number of propaganda films for school boards and governors. In addition…

  20. Two Nations Underground: Building Schools to Survive Nuclear War and Desegregation in the 1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John

    2017-01-01

    In the 1960s federal agencies in the US encouraged the building of protected schools designed to survive a nuclear attack. A number of designs, including underground schools, were constructed. In order to promote the building of protected schools, the US government produced a number of propaganda films for school boards and governors. In addition…

  1. From the front lines to the home front: a history of the development of psychiatric nursing in the U.S. during the World War II era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Christine M

    2008-07-01

    During World War II, psychiatric nurses learned valuable lessons on how to deal with the traumas of war. Using psychohistorical inquiry, this historian examined primary and secondary sources, beyond the facts and dates associated with historical events, to understand why and how psychiatric nurse pioneers developed therapeutic techniques to address the psychosocial and physical needs of combatants. Not only is the story told about the hardships endured as nurses ministered to soldiers, but their attitudes, beliefs, and emotions, that is, how they felt and what they thought about their circumstances, are explored. In this study the lived experiences of two psychiatric nurses, Votta and Peplau, are contrasted to explicate how knowledge development improved care and how this knowledge had an impact on the home front in nursing practice and education, as well as in mental institutions and society, long after the war was won.

  2. The Hanford Nuclear Reservation (1943-1987): a case study of the interface between physics and biology during the cold war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macuglia, Daniele [Fishbein Center for the History of Science and Medicine, University of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    During its active period (1943-1987) the Hanford Nuclear Reservation shaped the history of US nuclear research. It also constitutes an interesting case study of the interface between physics, biology and the politics of Cold War society. Although supposed to turn the US into a stronger military force during the Cold War, the remarkable biological consequences of the nuclear research carried out in the facility ended up overshadowing its original political purpose. The high-level of radioactive waste harmed thousands of people living in the area, causing relevant environmental disasters which make the site the most contaminated area in the US even today. Nuclear research is uniquely dangerous since radiation can cause severe consequences both in terms of lives injured and environmental damage. I address various ways in which nuclear physics and biology were used - and abused - at the Hanford Site to combine the needs of politics with the needs of a healthy society. This paper further investigates the moral responsibility of science to society and the way in which biological research informed nuclear physics about the deleterious consequences of radiation on environment and on the human body.

  3. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The nuclear shield in the 'thirty-year war' of physicists against ignorant criticism of modern physical theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizgin, Vladimir P.

    1999-12-01

    This article deals with the almost 'thirty-year war' led by physicists against the authorities' incompetent philosophical and ideological interference with science. The 'war' is shown to have been related to the history of Soviet nuclear weapons. Theoretical milestones of 20th century physics, to wit, theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, suffered endless 'attacks on philosophical grounds'. The theories were proclaimed idealistic as well as unduly abstract and out of touch with practice; their authors and followers were labelled 'physical idealists', and later, in the 1940s and 1950s, even 'cosmopolitans without kith or kin'. Meanwhile, quantum and relativistic theories, as is widely known, had become the basis of nuclear physics and of the means of studying the atomic nucleus (charged particle accelerators, for instance). The two theories thus served, to a great extent, as a basis for both peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy, made possible by the discovery of uranium nuclear fission under the action of neutrons. In the first part, the article recounts how prominent physicists led the way to resisting philosophical and ideological pressure and standing up for relativity, quantum theories and nuclear physics, thus enabling the launch of the atomic project. The second part contains extensive material proving the point that physicists effectively used the 'nuclear shield' in the 1940s and 1950s against the 'philosophical-cosmopolitan' pressure, indeed saving physics from a tragic fate as that of biology at the Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) session in 1948.

  4. French nuclear dissuasion after the cold war: continuity, ruptures, questions; La dissuasion nucleaire francaise apres la guerre froide: continuite, ruptures, interrogations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B

    2000-07-01

    Nuclear dissuasion is a slow and permanent process of adjustment to the strategic environment. French dissuasion adaptation to the new international environment covers a full decade, starting in the 1989-1992 era with a re-evaluation of defense programs. It has been followed by the 1994 defense white book which opens up the European perspective and reaches its peak in 1996 with a series of major decisions: renouncement of surface-to-surface missiles, launching of the M51 program, end of nuclear tests and shift towards simulation, dismantling of fissile materials production facilities etc. This process shows up two logics: the one of continuity with the confirmation of the bases of the French nuclear doctrine, and the one of discontinuity with significant changes in the general domain of the French nuclear policy. It also opens up questions about the field of application of dissuasion and the future of the nuclear consensus. (J.S.)

  5. Deterring War or Courting Disaster: An Analysis of Nuclear Weapons in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    first strike less likely. As long as a preemptive strike could destroy the enemy’s entire nuclear force before the enemy could respond, or at least...strategy is that submarine-based deterrent assets stabilize deterrent relationships by providing an assured second- strike capability. As India...stabilize deterrent relationships by providing an assured second- strike capability. As India progresses toward an operational sea-based deterrent

  6. Long-term environmental and medical effects of nuclear war. Report of the the British Medical Association Board of Science and Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Part 1 describes the physical structure of the atmosphere and reviews recent studies which have considered the atmospheric perturbations which could follow a nuclear war according to various scenarios. Part 2 describes the biological consequences of predicted atmospheric and climatic changes, concentrating on the long term implications for health and human well- being. Part 3 outlines some policy implications arising out of these environmental consequences and includes the conclusions and a summary of the report.

  7. A Comparison between the Knight of the Dark Ages and the Hanger- on of an Aristocrat of the Warring States Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程丽恒

    2007-01-01

    @@ At the beginning of seven century B. C, as the conflicts between vassals were getting fierce, a bodyguard with force and courage was needed by the monarch of feudal China. Then stabber - the first type of the hanger - on of an aristocrat appeared. They served and protected their master. At the state of war they could lead soldiers to fight.At zero hour, they even threw themselves into the breach to save their master.

  8. Priorities for modeling biological processes in climates altered by nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detling, J.K.; Kercher, J.R.; Post, W.M.; Cowles, S.W.; Harwell, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes research that has been accomplished or currently models the effects of reduced light and temperature on terrestrial systems. We shall divide the systems to be studied into cultivated lands and uncultivated lands. The cultivated class consists of monoculture systems in which the individual plants belong to the same age and size class. The systems in the uncultivated class consist of uneven age, multi-species assemblies of interacting plants and animals. The uncultivated class ranges from minimally managed systems, e.g., rangelands and some forests, to completely unmanaged wildlands. For the cultivated case, the variable of concern is the annual yield of the crop under consideration. The models should be able to estimate percent yield loss as a function of reductions of light and temperature. The models should be accurate for the range of environments predicted for the growing season immediately following or during which the hypothetical nuclear exchange occurs. The models should be able to estimate yield loss in any subsequent year for which climatic conditions still differ significantly from normal. For the uncultivated case, the modelling program needs to be able to predict the effects on individual plants much the same as in the cultivated case; but in addition, the modelling program will have the task of estimating the effect that these changes in individual organisms will have at higher levels of organization, i.e., on populations, communities, and regional distributions of species. 25 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Nuclear deterrence in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, D.T. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Did India and Pakistan nearly fight a nuclear war in 1990? In a provocative 1993 article, Seymour M. Hersh claims that they did. During a crisis with India over the rapidly escalating insurgency in Kashmir, Pakistan openly deployed its main armored tank units along the Indian border and, in secret, placed its nuclear-weapons arsenal on alert. As a result, the Bush Administration became convinced that the world was on the edge of a nuclear exchange between Pakistan and India. Universe of cases is admittedly small, but my argument is supported by recent research indicating that preemptive attacks of any kind have been historically rarer than conventionally believed. The nuclear era has seen two instances of preventive attacks against nuclear facilities-the 1981 Israeli bombing of Iraq`s Osirak nuclear facility and the allied coalition`s 1991 air war against Iraq-but both of these actions were taken without fear of nuclear reprisal. In situations where nuclear retaliation has been a possibility, no leader of nuclear weapon state has chosen to launch a preemptive first strike. 97 refs.

  10. Obstacles to the nuclear technology development in Brazil: from the beginning of atomic age to the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement; Entraves ao desenvolvimento da tecnologia nuclear no Brasil: dos primordios da era atomica ao Acordo Nuclear Brasil-Alemanha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Tharsila Reis de

    2005-07-01

    This paper intends to comprehend the Brazilian social actors' efforts applied to the nuclear energy control, from the beginning of Atomic Age to Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement. It tries to demonstrate that the limits of The Brazilian nuclear development in this period derive from the capitalist development dynamics in Brazil and from the absence of continuity on the motivations of its nuclear policy. (author)

  11. Drug Control and the U. S. Diplomatic Priority in the "Cold War" Era%“冷战”时期之禁毒与美国外交取舍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓萍

    2016-01-01

    “冷战”时期,以美国为代表的西方社会,以联合国为舞台,借助新闻媒介之手,曾经展开过一场禁毒遏共外交活动。这既是当时特殊的“冷战”背景下美国遏制与孤立新中国的产物,更是美国对外政策实施过程中以话语权优势制衡对手的惯有手法,而由此助长了东南亚“金三角”毒品源地的坐大,则显然是以意识形态为标尺的“冷战”背景下禁毒外交取舍不当之“苦果”。唯有摒弃意识形态领域的偏见,保持禁毒的初衷不变,国际禁毒事业方能得以长足发展。%During the"Cold War" Era, the United States, as the representative of the Western Society, taking the United Nations as a stage and with the help of the media, had carried out an anti-communist drug diplomatic movement, which on one hand resulted from the containment and isolation upon China by the U. S. under that par-ticular circumstance of "Cold War" Era, and on the other hand was a conventional manipulation deployed by the U. S. when she intended to counterbalance her opponents in the process of implementing her foreign policy. Obvi-ously , the development of the drug source"The Golden Triangle" located at Southeast Asia was a disastrous conse-quence due to the U. S. diplomatic priority in drug policy based on ideological imagination. The cause of interna-tional drug control can achieve leaps and bounds only if the bias in realm of ideology be abandoned and the orienta-tion of drug control be maintained.

  12. Implications of a North Korean Nuclear Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-07-01

    The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is one of the Cold War`s last remaining totalitarian regimes. Rarely has any society been as closed to outside influences and so distant from political, economic, and military developments around the globe. In 1991 and in 1992, however, this dictatorship took a number of political steps which increased Pyongyang`s interaction with the outside world. Although North Korea`s style of engagement with the broader international community involved frequent pauses and numerous steps backward, many observers believed that North Korea was finally moving to end its isolated, outlaw status. As the end of 1992 approached, however, delay and obstruction by Pyongyang became intense as accumulating evidence suggested that the DPRK, in violation of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), was seeking to develop nuclear weapons. On March 12, 1993, North Korea announced that it would not accept additional inspections proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to resolve concerns about possible violations and instead would withdraw from the Treaty. Pyongyang`s action raised the specter that, instead of a last act of the Cold War, North Korea`s diplomatic maneuvering would unravel the international norms that were to be the basis of stability and peace in the post-Cold War era. Indeed, the discovery that North Korea was approaching the capability to produce nuclear weapons suggested that the nuclear threat, which had been successfully managed throughout the Cold War era, could increase in the post-Cold War era.

  13. Sauvons les Bébés: child health and U.S. humanitarian aid in the First World War era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Julia F

    2012-01-01

    From 1917 to 1923, the American Red Cross organized an array of long-term child health projects in Europe as part of its larger wartime and post-war humanitarian efforts. Across the continent, the organization established child health clinics, better baby shows, playgrounds, fresh air camps, and courses for women on infant and child hygiene. Hundreds of U.S. doctors, nurses, and other child welfare professionals traveled to Europe to administer these programs. These activities call attention to American efforts to reform the health of European youth and, in so doing, to reshape European medicine and European society more broadly. Moreover, they suggest the importance of child-centered medical relief-and the history of medicine more broadly-to the history of U.S. foreign relations.

  14. Treze passos para o juízo final: a nova era do desarmamento nuclear dos Estados Unidos e da Rússia Thirteen steps to judgement day: the new era of Russian and North American nuclear disarmament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santos Vieira de Jesus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura explicar por que os líderes dos EUA e da Rússia não implementaram total e efetivamente o plano de ação de treze pontos práticos para o desarmamento nuclear, estabelecido na Conferência de Revisão do Tratado de Não-Proliferação Nuclear em 2000. As decisões relacionadas aos treze pontos, tomadas pelos membros dos Executivos das duas maiores potências nucleares, são vistas como resultado da conciliação de imperativos internos e externos por esses indivíduos, que enfrentam oportunidades e dilemas estratégicos distintos simultaneamente nos âmbitos doméstico e internacional. São consideradas as escolhas políticas de membros dos Executivos nacionais e estrangeiros, Legislativos e principais grupos de interesse desses países, bem como a distribuição de poder sobre a formulação da decisão nacional, estabelecida pelas instituições políticas domésticas. As hipóteses apontam que os membros dos Executivos desses países - apoiados por grande parte dos membros dos Legislativos e dos principais grupos de interesse envolvidos, como as Forças Armadas - procuraram garantir autonomia para definir a estrutura e a composição de forças estratégicas e táticas, modernizar arsenais atômicos e operar uma força capaz de lidar com contingências que envolvam não apenas potências nucleares tradicionais, mas principalmente novos Estados detentores de armas de destruição em massa e organizações terroristas.This article aims to explain why U.S. and Russian leaders have not implemented totally and effectively the thirteen practical-step plan of action on nuclear disarmament agreed at the 2000 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. The decisions with regard to the thirteen steps, taken by members of U.S. and Russian Executives, are seen as the result of the conciliation of internal and external imperatives by those individuals, who face distinctive strategic opportunities and dilemmas simultaneously

  15. Strategic Analysis of the Asia-Pacific Region: Is a Forward-Based Aircraft Carrier Required in the Post-Cold War Era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-07

    nuclear weapons and global environment Crisis inlpose objectlve limits on the possIbilitles 56 for class confrontation and general antagonism in the...conflict. 36 Tbid. 37 FM 100-20/AFP 3-20, iv. 38 Ibid. 39 Ibid., 1-6. 40 Watkins, 5, 6. Actual ter.ninoiogy used is Peacetime Presence, Crisis Response...its worth as it is pursued.ř Additionally, regional states have :.nterests which may compete or conflict with U.S. interests. it is critica . 74 to

  16. Lesson Plan for "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Provides discussion questions, activity suggestions and sample quotes to provoke further examination of the Cold War era values evidenced in the baseball subculture (see SO 515 377, "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values). (JDH)

  17. War and Education in the United States: Racial Ideology and Inequality in Three Historical Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.; Darby, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of war on African-American education. This question is considered in three different periods: the eras of the American Revolution, the Civil War and the Second World War. Large-scale conflict, such as these instances of total war, can afford historical moments when oppressed groups are able take steps to improve…

  18. India`s nuclear weapons posture: The end of ambiguity. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis examines the future of India`s nuclear weapons posture. Since testing a nuclear device in 1974, India been able to produce weapons material within its civilian nuclear power program. Despite having this nuclear weapons capability, India prefers to maintain an ambiguous nuclear posture. New pressures in the post-cold war era -- the loss of the Soviet Union as a strategic ally, the indefinite extension of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty, the rise of Hindu nationalism, and India`s growing participation in the global economy -- have the potential to derail India`s current nuclear policy. This thesis identifies the domestic and international pressures on India, and assesses the prospects for India to retain its ambiguous policy, renounce the nuclear option, or assemble an overt nuclear arsenal.

  19. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism in the post-9/11 world

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2016-01-01

    This book fills a clear gap in the literature for a technically-focused book covering nuclear proliferation and related issues post-9/11. Using a concept-led approach which serves a broad readership, it provides detailed overview of nuclear weapons, nuclear proliferation and international nuclear policy. The author addresses topics including offensive and defensive missile systems, command and control, verification, weapon effects, and nuclear testing. A chronology of nuclear arms is presented including detailed discussion of the Cold War, proliferation, and arms control treaties. The book is tailored to courses on nuclear proliferation, and the general reader will also find it a fascinating introduction to the science and strategy behind international nuclear policy in the modern era. “Finally, a spritely, accessible overview of the nuclear world in historical context from someone who has both seen it from the U.S. State Department and Congressional policy trenches and taught it for 43 years. A gift to bot...

  20. ERA-40

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ERA-40 project was to produce and promote the use of a comprehensive set of global analysis describing the state of the atmosphere and land and ocean-wave conditions...

  1. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, D.S.

    2011-10-26

    Extending from roughly the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-1991, the Cold War period witnessed - among other upheavals - significant conflicts in East Asia and the Middle East, the end of European colonial empires in Africa and Asia, and a remarkable competition between the United States and the Soviet Union across virtually every aspect of endeavor, from economic and cultural activities to military, nuclear, and space capabilities. In this era of great instability scores of new states gained their independence, some great powers lost stature and influence in comparative terms, and millions of people perished in civil and interstate wars and at the hands of repressive governments. Yet it was during this period that the phrase 'strategic stability' gained currency both as an objective and as an apt way of describing four dominant features of the period. First, the United States and the Soviet Union never went to war, although there were several occasions when some observers saw war as a genuine possibility, including the Berlin and Cuban crises, the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the 'war scare' of the early 1980's. Second, neither these powers nor any others detonated nuclear weapons to inflict damage on an enemy, though they relied on them for deterrence, alliance cohesion, and other purposes. Third, the configuration of political alignments in Europe and Northeast Asia was remarkably stable from the mid-1950's to the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991. Fourth, the proliferation of nuclear-weapon states was contained to a much lower level than feared by some observers in the 1950's and 1960's. This paper concentrates on the first of the four elements of strategic stability in the Cold War listed above - the fact that the two superpowers did not engage in a direct 'hot war' with each other. It raises the question, to what extent did U.S. analytical models concerning &apos

  2. AN EVALUATION NARRATIVE OF WARS ON HISTORY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür AKTAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to investigate how the phenomenon of war was studied at the history books of secondary education. The method of the research depends on document analysis. For that reason, the history course books were investigated and the wars told in the books were determined. In the course book of Modern Turkish and World History, you can find wars and treaties. Establishment of Bolshevist regime led to new wars in the political history. In this book, it is likely to see something about World War II as well. Following the World War II, the cold war between Soviets Union and the USA had a great impact on era. The civil wars told in the Modern World History mostly intensified in the African countries. As for the twenty first century, the wars have mostly been realized as the civil wars and terrorism.

  3. Modernization of US Nuclear Forces: Costs in Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia-Jimenez, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-12

    This short research paper addresses two topics that have emerged in the debate about whether, when, and how to modernize U.S. nuclear forces.1 The first topic relates to the size and scale of the planned nuclear force, with some critics of the modernization plan arguing that the United States is simply replicating the Cold War force for a very different era. The second topic relates to the cost of the modernization effort, with some critics arguing that the cost is unaffordable.2 This paper begins with a review of the changes in the size and scale of U.S. nuclear forces since the Cold War. It then examines the expected costs of modernization in a comparative perspective.

  4. Physicists in times of war

    CERN Document Server

    Schrör, B

    2006-01-01

    Though the majority of physicists would probably not support preemptive wars, nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction would not exist without their contributions. Einstein's anti-militaristic position has been well-documented and the present essay recalls the role of some contemporary and past physicists on this issue. The idea that the rationality of scientific thought is a reliable antidote against supporting wars in order to achieve political or ideological aims was neither correct in the past nor is it presently valid. In the physics community there always existed a minority of supporters of wars of domination or regime change. The ``preemptive'' war for the US hegemony in the middle east has given the problem of ``physicists in times of war'' new actuality. One of the most perplexing appologists of the agressive war of Nazi-Germany against ``the Bolshevist peril'' has been Pascual Jordan whose interesting scientific and controversial political biography is the main isue of this essay.

  5. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated by Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jack; Palumbo, Anthony

    2008-07-01

    A Workshop on Accelerating Development of Practical Field-Scale Bioremediation Models; An Online Meeting, 23 January to 20 February 2008; A Web-based workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (DOE/ERSP) was organized in early 2008 to assess the state of the science and knowledge gaps associated with the use of computer models to facilitate remediation of groundwater contaminated by wastes from Cold War era nuclear weapons development and production. Microbially mediated biological reactions offer a potentially efficient means to treat these sites, but considerable uncertainty exists in the coupled biological, chemical, and physical processes and their mathematical representation.

  6. CRIMEAN WAR OTTTOMAN COMMEMORATIVE AND MILITARY MEDALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Hakan Tekin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medals are symbols to honor people and also to increase their loyalty to the state. States have revealed forces through medals in a symbolic sense. Although the Ottoman Empire met with the tradition of medal in the period of Sultan Mehmed II, medals became important with Sultan Mahmud I. Commemorative and military medals were pressed by the Ottoman Empire at the end of the Crimean War. The Ottomans used medals as a reflection of not only awards for those showing usefulness in the war but also as a souvenir to commemorate this important battle. Even allied forces and defeated Russia had made medals for Crimean War. In our study, information will be given about Crimean War commemorative and military medals in Ottoman era of the Crimean War. Mecidi Crimean War badges were not included in the study due to the scope of the research.

  7. Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Maintaining that baseball presents a view of American society in microcosm, this article reviews the Cold War history of American baseball, showing how the statements and concerns of the players and managers reflected popular values of that era. (JDH)

  8. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... the possibilities of re-appropriating digital software, game engines, and other tools available in digital media. The machinima film scenes demonstrate how war-related stories resemiotize, such as how meaning-making transforms from a story in a war game context to a film context. Thereby, machinima exemplifies how...

  9. Impact of Iraq War on Bangladesh Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Debapriya Bhattacharya; Mustafizur Rahman; Ananya Raihan

    2003-01-01

    The paper is aimed at providing an early assessment of the anticipated consequences of Iraq war and its possible impacts on Bangladesh economy. Critical insights and fact-based information on possible changes in several areas including oil price, flow of remittance, volume of export and import, migration of labour force etc., and how these will reshape the country’s economic settings in the post-war era, have been presented in the paper.

  10. Nueva Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Mancilla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda la problemática de la interpretación de las nuevas religiones a través del caso del estudio de la Nueva Era. Se aborda en principio la cuestión de la definición de la Nueva Era, y la necesidad de tomar en cuenta los diferentes puntos de vista por parte de los diversos actores que contribuyen a su construcción como objeto de análisis sociológico. Enseguida, se trata la problemática del análisis sobre el terreno con algunos puntos de particular interés para el análisis de la experiencia religiosa: la subjetividad y la reflexividad en el análisis etnográfico, la postura del ateísmo metodológico y la exclusión epistemológica con respecto a los informantes. Por último, se presentan algunos de los problemas a superar para la realización un análisis cuantitativo de la Nueva Era.

  11. THE TRANSFORMATION OF WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Mnyandu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available "A ghost is stalking the corridors of general staffs and defence departments all over the 'developed' world - the fear of military impotence, even irrelevance. ...As new forms of armed conflict multiply and spread, they will cause the lines between public and private, government and people, military and civilian to become as blurred as they were before 1648. ...One very important way in which men can attain joy, freedom, happiness is (through war." (Van Creveld, 1991: 1,226,227 These are the words that open and conclude this book whose stated objective is to provide a non-Clausewitzian perspective to 'modern' warfare (p ix. In the first two chapters, Van Creveld perceptively addresses the bankruptcy of nuclear weapons and strategy, the declining utility of conventional armed forces and the resurgence of low intensity conflict as well as the resounding political outcomes accrued through such conflicts. Acknowledging Karl von Clausewitz as an outstanding military theoretician, Van Creveld not only delineates the historical context in which Clausewitz's writings were most relevant, but goes on to evoke the works of Colmar von der Goltz (Das Volk in Waffen, 1883 and Erich Ludendorf (Der Totale Krieg, 1936 in order to clearly distinguish the concept of a trinitarian war in comparison to those of a total war and nontrinitarian war (p 35, 42, 45, 49. "Involving the surgical separation of the state, society and the military, the trinitarian war is compatible with the Clausewitzian prescription and primary notion of war as a continuation of politics" (p 63. While total war appears to be an extreme and perverted form of trinitarian war - it plays a vital role in as far as it nearly obliterated society, facilitated the rise of totalitarian governments and even precipitated the Second World War. This openened the flood gates for the resurgence of nontrinitarian conflict in which individuals and individual societies (not established armies acting on behalf

  12. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille...

  13. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.

  14. Discussion on Nuclear Power Project Supplier Management Quality Assurance Measures in Post-Fukushima Era%后福岛时代核电项目供方管理质量保证措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春颖

    2013-01-01

      2011年3月31日的日本福岛核事故引起了全世界的关注,对全球核能的发展产生了深刻的影响。本文概述了福岛核事故前国内核电项目供方管理质量保证状况,及福岛核事故后总结经验,吸取教训,并对改进措施进行探讨,以提高供方管理质量保证措施的有效性,真正确保后福岛时代的核安全“万无一失”。%Japanese fukushima nuclear accident has caught the world's attention on March 31, 2011, which has a profound impact on the development of global nuclear power. This paper summarizes the status and experience of Japanese nuclear power project supplier management quality assurance before and after fukushima nuclear accident, to draw lessons, and discuss improvement measures, in order to improve the effectiveness of the supplier management quality assurance measures, to ensure the absolutely safe of nuclear safety in post-Fukushima era.

  15. Some Possible Effects of World War II on the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Murry R.

    1986-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of professional literature, curriculum guides, textbook advertisements, and newspaper articles from World War II era in order to assess response of social studies educators to crisis of World War II and effect of the war on the social studies curriculum. Concludes that rapid curriculum change resulted in response to the…

  16. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  17. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  18. Value Proposition of China's Legislation on Nuclear Energy in the Post-Fukushima Era%后福岛时代中国核能法律制度定位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志琼

    2014-01-01

    In the Post-Fukushima era, large energy-consuming countries in Europe and America and Asia relaunched the nuclear industry to various degrees so as to meet the continuously increasing rigid demand of energy .China has many difficulties to relaunch the nuclear industry, since the nuclear panic still exists and the basic laws on nuclear energy have not been devel-oped.Based on the analysis of pursuit of values of common laws and department laws , the legal system of nuclear energy pursues the values of freedom, safety, equality and harmony with safety at the core.Therefore, it is suggested that China should establish the legal system of nuclear energy with safety at the core.%后福岛时代,欧美、亚洲能源消费大国为应对不断增长的能源刚性需求,不同程度地展开核能工业重启步伐。中国核能工业的重启困难重重,核恐慌依然笼罩,核能基本法依然难产。从一般法律、部门法的价值追求分析可见,核能法律制度的价值追求包括自由、安全、公平、和谐等方面,其中又以安全价值最为核心,因此建议中国应构建以安全为核心的核能法律制度。

  19. Different People, Different Views on Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yuanlun; He Nan

    2010-01-01

    History can be divided into various segments based on the various .developing stages. We call these segments eras. The era issue has been raised to discuss time and time again, which is often associated with the major transition of political system, economic system and ideology in world life, and sometimes also linked with a number of far-reaching historical events. In the recent 15-20 years, we have many important issues that prompt people to rethink of the era issues, like the East and West economic restructuring, the collapse of the former Soviet Union, the war in Iraq and the former Yugoslavia, the "9 -11" event and the war in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as all aspects of major global changes resulting from the process of globalization. It should be pointed out that in the West's political, academic and business circle, there are very few articles totally devoted to the clef'tuition of era; most of people only mention the word "era" or such kind of expression here and there in their political speeches or writings.

  20. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    I Foreign Ministry on Algerian Nuclear Reactor [ZHONGGUO XINWEN SHE] .............................. I...Nuclear Facilities Urged [Seoul YONHAP] .................................................... 5 WPK’s ’Anti- War , Anti-Nuke’ Policy Viewed [KCNA...34 JPRS-TND-91-008 31 May 1991 CHINA 1 Algerian Nuclear Reactor Algeria signed a protocol on nuclear cooperation, in which China agreed

  1. Stephen Jay Gould and the Value of Neutrality of Science During the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a paleontologist and scientific celebrity at the close of the twentieth century, most famous for his popular writings on evolution and his role in the American creationist controversies of that era. In the early 1980s, Gould was drawn into the "nuclear winter" episode through his friendship with Carl Sagan, an astronomer and popular science celebrity. Sagan helped develop the theory of nuclear winter and subsequently used the theory as evidence to petition the United States government to scale back its nuclear armament. The theory of nuclear winter claimed that even a small nuclear exchange could result in a atmospheric blackening akin to the extinction event of the late Cretaceous. Gould was not a climate scientist but he testified before the U.S. House of Representatives as an expert on historical extinction events. Gould's insistence on the value-neutrality of nuclear winter reveals much about the moral politics of science in late Cold War America. Coming at the heels of leftist scientific activism of the 1980s, the nuclear winter episode demonstrates how value-neutrality emerged the salient feature of scientific involvement in American politics in this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Limited War Under the Nuclear Umbrella: An Analysis of India’s Cold Start Doctrine and Its Implications for Stability on the Subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    similar to that of Mahatma Gandhi , resulted in a stunted military policy.217 However, events such as the 1947 Kashmir War and growing tensions... Gandhi was “fascinated” by the “bigness” of such an operation and wanted to “strike a heroic posture and impress the neighbors.” See Kanti P. Bajpai and...Following the 1965 War, the new Indian Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi , moved to bolster India’s military status on the subcontinent. Whereas Prime Minister

  3. End of the nuclear energy era? From Fukushima to the energy policy turnaround; Ende des Atomzeitalters? Von Fukushima in die Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepenbrink, Johannes (comp.)

    2012-07-01

    Due to a violent earthquake and the resulting tsunami, a core melt down resulted at the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Thus, at 30th June, 2011, the Federal Government decided to complete the utilization of the nuclear power in Germany. Is this the end of the atomic age? Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration consists of the following nine contributions: (1) Why is the ''energy policy turnaround'' a social question? (Harald Welzer); (2) Tsunami in the living room: Catastrophes facilitated by the media (Joerg R. Bergmann); (3) Learning from the catastrophe (Manfred Buerger); (4) Perspectives of the nuclear power in Europe and globally (Lutz Mez); (5) Outsider or leader? The 'model Germany' and the European energy policy (Severin Fischer); (6) 'Energy policy turnaround': Quo vadis? (Hardo Bruhns); (7) Energy policy turnarounds in Germany: Motifs and impacts for the European electricity market (Hans-Jochen Luhmann); (8) A short story of the German anti-nuclear movement (Joachim Radkau); (9) Popularity of the apocalypse: Reflections on the cultural history of the fear against nuclear accidents since 1945 (Philipp Gassert).

  4. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    F286. RG 109, NA. Thanks to Dr. Boyd Switzer, Professor of Nutrition at UNC Medical School, who assisted me here. Lee’s men consumed about 35 to 40...cigarettes, soap bars, and chocolate in. 200 Interviewer Talk to me a little bit, just as a final question, about the impact of the coming Cold War

  5. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  6. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  7. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  8. Effects of a didactic and guided-imagery intervention regarding horrendous death by nuclear war upon fear of death, health locus of control, and social responsibility in health education college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    This investigation studied the effects of a videotaped lecture explaining horrendous death theory, with a guided imagery component describing horrendous death of a beloved other, upon action toward anti-nuclearism and three individual difference variables. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a videotaped lecture on college students' fear of death, health locus of control, and social responsibility. A second purpose was to determine whether participants who viewed the videotape were likely to sign a petition against nuclear war, in support of the Physicians for Social Responsibility's position against nuclearism. One hundred fifty-two (152) college students participated in this study; approximately 55% were female and 50% were seniors. No significant differences were found regarding individual difference variables, except concerning fear of death of self between death education and non-death education experimental groups. Although an interaction effect was found, the hypothesis that experimental groups would be more likely to sign the petition against nuclear was not confirmed.

  9. Revolutionary networks. Women’s political and social activism in Cold War Italy and Yugoslavia (1945-1957)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonfiglioli, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my disse

  10. Revolutionary networks. Women’s political and social activism in Cold War Italy and Yugoslavia (1945-1957)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonfiglioli, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my disse

  11. Liberal democracy and nuclear despotism: two ethical foreign policy dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Doyle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.

  12. VERSES AND SCREAMS: POETIC MEMORY OF THE COLONIAL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Calafate Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the poetic memory of the experience of Colonial Wars identifying disparate expressions of poetic: a sort of poems of documentary value; poetry of the era that integrates Colonial War and also exposes the theme on the protest song; and poetry from poets of the Colonial War. The poetic archive made by the Anthology of Poetic Memory Poetics of Colonial Wars, organized by the authors of this article, shows that only the adverb Ainda/ Still –, one with which Manuel Alegre closes a voyage without return – shows how the war of continues inside the words, inside of the verses. It shows the depth inscription of the Colonial Wars in the Portuguese present time.

  13. The First World War and perceptions of Catholicism in England

    OpenAIRE

    Soane, A. (Andrew)

    2014-01-01

    After the First World War there was a changed, more positive, attitude in England towards Catholicism in England. It was perceived to have risen to the test of the War where other forms of religion had failed. The newly acquired optimism of Catholics found expression in the apologetics of the era. New doubts about Protestantism – tainted by imaginary association with Germany - gave Catholic apologists the opportunity to mount a largely successful polemic against the hitherto accepted biased ...

  14. 战后七十年日本神道的历史变迁%On the Evolution of Shinto in the Post-World War II Era (1945-2015)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵刚

    2015-01-01

    作为研究日本战后社会宗教信仰变化的一部分,本论以战后70年为历史轴线,围绕日本神道宗教在走下战前国家神道体制祭坛后的历史变迁,分析神道在战后日本宗教以及社会发展过程中的历史地位、影响以及神道本身所发生的变化。为完成上述研究目的,本文以国家神道、靖国神社、教派神道为主题,对上述三个研究对象在战后70年间各自所发生的变化、神道的现状以及实际影响力在进行客观分析的基础上加以综合阐述。着重围绕日本战后在GHQ指令的督导下被迫实施政教分离国策后,神道宗教在日本社会选择国家政体、重新确定价值取向、右翼保守历史观的形成过程中所发挥的作用,探讨战后教派神道本身发生的变化对传统文化所带来的冲击,并且就神道宗教对当代日本人行为意识以及宗教信仰的影响进行分析。%As part of a study on the change in Japanese religious belief after WWII, this paper intends to analyze the historical role of Shinto in post-war Japanese religious and social development, its influencne and the change in itself since it was removed from the national worship shrine after the War. To achieve this end, the paper takes the state Shinto, the Yasukuni Shrine, and the sect Shinto as subjects, focusing on the separate changes of the three subjects, the current state of Shinto, and its actual influence to see the effect Shinto has on the selection of state system, the re-orientation of values, and the formation of the historical views of the right wings after the separation of state and religion under the guidance of GHQ. The paper also studies the influence of sect Shinto on traditional Japanese culture and the influence of Shinto religion on Japanese behavior consciousness and religious belief.

  15. Soviet Perceptions of War and Peace,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    holding such views" to be B. Russell, C. Lamont, D. Fleming, L. Pauling , and J.P. Sartre . Zemskov then stated that if a nuclear war does begin, "it...Portugal, 153 Detente. 182 - - U -. ’*1 Index Potsdam Conference, 44 Sartre , Jean P., 103 Power centers, See Multipolarity; Savkin. Y. E., 19-23...London. Routledge and Kegan Paul . 1977). p 3 Chapter Three Origins of the Cold War The Soviet View Dallas C. Brown, Jr. The Cold War, a presumably mortal

  16. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  17. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  18. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  19. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  20. What Are We Fighting for Over There? Perspectives of the Great War. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Scott; Lincoln, Margaret

    The Great War of 1914-1918 significantly shaped the course of the 20th century, both at home and abroad. How can this pivotal event be personalized and brought to life for students in the new millennium? Few survivors of the World War I era are alive today to directly share their recollections of this historical time. Yet, by delving into the…

  1. 冷战时期美国对东南亚区域合作的政策选择--从东约(SEATO)到东盟(ASEAN)%U. S. Policy Choice to the Regional Cooperation of Southeast Asia during the Cold War Era-From SEATO to ASEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻常森

    2014-01-01

    受冷战的影响,20世纪50-70年代的东南亚区域合作经历了由外源型向内生型的方式转换。外来因素不仅塑造了东南亚区域主义基本样式,决定了区域合作的性质,而且极大地影响了区域合作的发展进程和方向。在众多的外部因素中,域外大国,尤其是西方阵营的主导性国家———美国的外交政策发挥着关键作用。冷战时期,美国对东南亚区域合作的政策也经历了由积极介入、强力主导到施加间接影响的转变,主要体现在对东约( SEATO)和东盟( ASEAN)这两个不同性质的区域合作组织采取不同的政策。本文即选取这两个区域组织为案例,通过对史料的解读,分析冷战时期美国对东南亚不同类型的区域组织采取不同政策的原因和政策实施效果。%Regional cooperation of Southeast Asia has experiences conversion from exogenous to inwars suring the Cols War Era from 1950s-1970s. External factors not only have shapes the basic style of regionalism in Southeast Asia,setermines the nature of the regional cooperation,but also greatly influences the sevelopment process of re-gional cooperation ans sirection. Among those external factors,the sominate power of the international orser ans the leaser of the Western coalition,especialk U. S. playes the key role. During the Cols War,U. S. foreign poli-cies to the regional cooperation in Southeast Asia has also experiences from the seeply of involvement to sominate in just exert an insirect effect. This paper chooses the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization( SEATO)ans the Asso-ciation of Southeast Asian Nations( ASEAN)as two cases,to analyze the causes ans implementation effects of the sifferent policies asoptes by U. S. American.

  2. Photographic Histories of the Civil War and the First World War and Rebirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Meigs

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article compares The Photographic History of the Civil War published in 1912, with A Photographic History of the First World War, published in 1933. The author is looking for similarities in the reworking of interpretations of war photography after the war and discovers that the photographs in conjunction with their editing can be made to cover up as much as they reveal. The Photographic History of the Civil War, published at the height of the Jim Crow era, with its hugely elaborate editorial structure, manages to deny the importance of slavery to the war and the importance of freed slaves afterwards. Even photographs of the dead of Gettysburg take on a meaning more appropriate to 1912 than to the event that produced them. The comparatively direct A Photographic History of the First World War, manages loyalty only to the thought of the author at the moment of its publication. Other interpretations were possible at other times as the author editor followed literary fashion and history.

  3. Introduction: the human sciences and Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the history of the human sciences during the Cold War era have proliferated over the past decade--in JHBS and elsewhere. This special issue focuses on the connections between the behavioral sciences and the culture and politics of the Cold War in the United States. In the recent literature, there is a tendency to identify the Cold War human sciences with two main paradigms: that of psychocultural analysis, on the one hand, and of the systems sciences, on the other. The essays in the special issue both extend understanding of each of these interpretive frameworks and help us to grasp their interconnection. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effectiveness of the Geneva Convention Relative to American POW’s (Prisoner of War)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    without ransom, thus ending the era of widespread enslavement of prisoners of war. In 1748 Montesquieu , the French philosopher, stated that "the only... Montesquieu and Rousseau were very influential on the treatment of prisoners of war. Montesquieu maintained that, "War gives no other right over prisoner than...Geneva Conventions. The World owes a great deal of gratitude to men like Montesquieu , Jean Jacques Rousseau, Professor Lieber, and Henry Dunant for

  5. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes ...

  6. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  7. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  8. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  9. The Relationship between Nuclear Disarmament and Nuclear Nonproliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Xiangli

    2015-01-01

    The history of nuclear weapons development since the end of World War II is also one of nuclear arms control.There are two major aspects that represent the global efforts of nuclear arms control,which include limiting on nuclear weapon development in quantities and qualities,and limiting on the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the relevant research and development technologies.The limitation on the nuclear weapons development constitute

  10. Cold War America, 1946 to 1990. Almanacs of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ross

    This book offers an in-depth look at U.S. culture during a 45-year period when the threat of nuclear war loomed over millions worldwide, and post-World War II ideological tensions took form as an ever-deepening chasm separating two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The book finds that the national and global societies that…

  11. Higher Education and World War II. IHE Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    The January 1994 issue of "The Annals" of the American Academy of Political and Social Science provides an overview of thought and discussion concerning the role of colleges and universities during World War II and in the postwar era. Edited by T. R. McConnell and Malcolm Willey, the issue contained articles by educators, most of whom became more…

  12. Public perspectives on nuclear security. US national security surveys, 1993--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). UNM Inst. for Public Policy

    1998-08-01

    This is the third report in a series of studies to examine how US attitudes about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era and to identify trends in public perceptions and preferences relevant to the evolution of US nuclear security policy. It presents findings from three surveys: a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public; a written survey of randomly selected members of American Men and Women of Science; and a written survey of randomly selected state legislators from all fifty US states. Key areas of investigation included nuclear security, cooperation between US and Russian scientists about nuclear issues, vulnerabilities of critical US infrastructures and responsibilities for their protection, and broad areas of US national science policy. While international and US national security were seen to be slowly improving, the primary nuclear threat to the US was perceived to have shifted from Russia to China. Support was found for nuclear arms control measures, including mutual reductions in stockpiles. However, respondents were pessimistic about eliminating nuclear armaments, and nuclear deterrence continued to be highly values. Participants favored decreasing funding f/or developing and testing new nuclear weapons, but supported increased investments in nuclear weapons infrastructure. Strong concerns were expressed about nuclear proliferation and the potential for nuclear terrorism. Support was evident for US scientific cooperation with Russia to strengthen security of Russian nuclear assets. Elite and general public perceptions of external and domestic nuclear weapons risks and external and domestic nuclear weapons benefits were statistically significantly related to nuclear weapons policy options and investment preferences. Demographic variables and individual belief systems were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and to policy and spending preferences.

  13. UFOs and nukes. Extraordinary encounters at nuclear weapons sites; UFOs und Atomwaffen. Unheimliche Begegnungen in der Naehe von Nuklearwaffendepots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Robert L.

    2015-07-01

    Everyone knows about the reported recovery of a crashed alien spaceship near Roswell, New Mexico in July 1947. However, most people are unaware that, at the time of the incident, Roswell Army Airfield was home to the world's only atomic bomber squadron, the 509th Bomb Group. Was this merely a coincidence? During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union built thousands of the far more destructive hydrogen bombs, some of them a thousand times as destructive as the first atomic bombs dropped on Japan. If the nuclear standoff between the superpowers had erupted into World War III, human civilization - and perhaps the very survival of our species - would have been at risk. Did this ominous state of affairs come to the attention of outside observers? Was there a connection between the atomic bomber squadron based at Roswell and the reported crash of a UFO nearby? Did those who pilot the UFOs monitor the superpowers' nuclear arms race during the dangerous Cold War era? Do they scrutinize American and Russian weapons sites even now? UFOs and Nukes provides the startling and sometimes shocking answers to these questions. Veteran researcher Robert Hastings has investigated nuclear weapons-related UFO incidents for more than three decades and has interviewed more than 120 ex-US Air Force personnel, from former Airmen to retired Colonels, who witnessed extraordinary UFO encounters at nuclear weapons sites. Their amazing stories are presented here.

  14. Emerging High-Frequency (HF) and Related Radio Communications Concepts for Enduring C(3)I Roles in a Nuclear War Environment: Critical Issues in Nuclear Weapons Effects on Propagation. (Sanitized)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    System, EDL-M723, 1 September 1964. 10. R. W. Hendrick, Jr., Nuclear Detonation Degradation of Over-the-Horizon Radars G. E. TEMPO, 67 TEMPO- 8...specified mode structures (b) Raytracing techniques without limiting the mode structure (3) Noise model (a) Worldwide noise maps (b) Calculated noise...search Institute, Menlo Park, CA (March 1974), 21. G. H. Smith, "An Introduction to OTH Radar Performance in a Nuclear Environment P," DNA 3736T

  15. Swedish nuclear power. A review of the legislation in the nuclear energy field from the second world war til the new millennium; Svensk kaernenergi. En expose oever lagstiftningen paa kaernenergiomraadet fraan andra vaerldskriget till millennieskiftet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomstrand, Edward [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Faculty of Law

    2005-02-01

    This thesis covers the history of the legislation regarding the production of nuclear energy in Sweden. When the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, it became apparent that enormous amounts of energy could be harnessed from uranium nuclei. Among the first Swedish laws written regarding nuclear energy was one enabling the Government to take control of the abundant uranium deposits in Sweden, using a licence-based system. Thereafter, the Government tried to direct what type of nuclear technology should be developed by means of political decisions. However, this objective was not realized for reasons beyond the Government's control. Sweden passed the Atomic Energy Act in 1956. This act was also licence based. Twelve commercial reactors were constructed, making Sweden one of the world's largest producers of nuclear energy per capita. Until the 1970s, there was little political disagreement about nuclear reactors. This changed drastically and after the Three-Mile-Island incident, a referendum concerning nuclear energy was held. The results were and remain difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, certain political decisions were made based on these results leading to legislation prohibiting the Government from licensing new reactors, and even criminalizing preparations for new reactors in Sweden. The struggle then turned to when and how Sweden's nuclear reactors should be phased-out. A law regarding this issue was implemented in 1997 which resulted in the first shutdown of a commercial reactor, Barsebaeck 1, in 1999. It has been argued that this case, RAa 1999 ref. 76, regarding the legality of the shutdown might be the most controversial and comprehensive of the century in Sweden.

  16. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  17. Health belief systems and the psychobiology of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgee, N J

    1984-06-01

    Belief systems overlie powerful biological and psychological forces that are root causes of war. Much as in medicine where an appreciation of health belief systems is necessary in the control of illness and disease, so the paths to the control of war may lie in an understanding of belief systems and ways to circumvent them. Such understanding gives strong theoretical support to many time-honored but underutilized international initiative and educational ventures. The effort of the medical community to educate the public about biomedical aspects of nuclear war should gain more balance and sophistication with an appreciation of belief systems in the psychobiology of war.

  18. Die Koue Oorlog: Die Wêreld se Langste Oorlog? / The Cold War: The World's Longest War?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Kapp

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cold War is a war that was never declared and never terminated. Historians differ rather seriously on when, how and where it began. They do not, however, differ on the fact that it simply faded away at the end of the eighties, but they assign different events as the turning point in the process. It lasted for almost fifty years and historians will one day have to assign it its rightful place in the history of the twentieth century. Although a number of local conventional wars are generally regarded as in some way or the other associated with the Cold War, a direct military confrontation between the two beligerent superpowers never occurred. In spite of the constant threat of a nuclear war, the atomic bomb was never again used after Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The Cold War also represents the longest peace period in the modern history of Europe. It is also the period of the most intensive arms race and military threats in the history of the world. On several occasions heightened international tension brought the world on the brink of war. These contrasts and its significance for the different interpretations of the Cold War, forms the subject of this article.

  19. "A man's game": cricket, war and masculinity, South Africa, 1899-1902.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    As practitioners of the imperial sport of the Victorian age, cricketers rallied whenever war descended upon England and its colonies. The South African War of 1899-1902 was no different. Adding to existing work on cricket's imperial development within South Africa, this study marks a significant contribution to research on the link between masculinity, war and sport during the Victorian era. A concept emerging from the English public schools of the mid- to late nineteenth century, the masculine ethos of sport and military honour had reached colonial South Africa by the outbreak of war in 1899. In its analysis of cricket and masculinity, this essay examines the events surrounding the war in South Africa and provides an example of the distinct relationship that existed between the military and the masculinity of sport and its organisation during this era.

  20. Commemorating the future in post-war Chernivtsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunchak, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the Second World War and the post-war period, the city of Chernivtsi was transformed from a multiethnic and borderland urban microcosm into a culturally uniform Soviet socialist city. As the Soviets finally took power in this onetime capital of a Hapsburg province in 1944, they not only sponsored further large-scale population transfers but also "repopulated" its history, creating a new urban myth of cultural uniformity. This article examines the connection between war commemoration in Chernivtsi in the era of post-war, state-sponsored anti-Semitism and the formation of collective memory and identities of the city's post-war population. The images of homogeneously Ukrainian Chernivtsi and Bukovina were created through the art of monumental propaganda, promoting public remembrance of certain events and personalities while making sure that others were doomed to oblivion. Selective commemoration of the wartime events was an important tool of drawing the borders of Ukrainian national identity, making it exclusivist and ethnic-based. Through an investigation of the origins of the post-war collective memory in the region, this article addresses the problem of perceived discontinuity between all things Soviet and post-Soviet in Ukraine. It demonstrates that it is, on the contrary, the continuity between Soviet and post-Soviet eras that defines today's dominant culture and state ideology in Ukraine and particularly in its borderlands.

  1. A Steampunk History of the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    JEFFREY LEWIS

    2013-01-01

    ... embarking on a massive arms buildup. His model implies an alternate history of the Cold War that could not be stranger if it were steampunk. Sechser and Fuhrmann, for example, wonder about Kroenig's data set, which suggests U.S. nuclear superiority enabled the United States to ferry 545 Belgian paratroopers into Congo over Soviet objections in 1964. I, too...

  2. Cold war historic properties of the 21st Space Wing Air Force Space Command

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffecker, J.F.; Whorton, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Buechler, C.R. [Peterson, AFB, CO (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A Legacy-funded inventory and evaluation of facilities dating to the Cold War era was conducted for the USAF 21{sup ST} Space Wing (AFSPC). The mission of the Wing includes early warning of missile launches and detection and tracking of space objects. The political and military strategic context for these facilities was developed through an overview of Cold War history, subdivided into four major periods: (1) origins of the conflict, (2) confrontation and crisis, (3) sustained superpower balance based on mutual deterrence, and (4) renewed confrontation and collapse of the Soviet Union. The enormous importance of early warning systems in maintaining the balance of power between the USA and the Soviet Union is discussed in more detail as a subset of the general context of the Cold War history to provide additional background for evaluating the 21{sup ST} Space Wing systems. In addition, a history of each installation was prepared and placed in the context of the broader history of the Cold War. For instance, the effort to develop a credible nuclear threat in the early 1950s is represented by the construction of Thule AB as a forward bomber base in 1951. The growing concern with a Soviet ICBM threat in the late 1950s is reflected in the construction of BMEWS at Thule AB and Clear AS during 1958-1961. Development of an antiballistic missile (ABM) system, subsequently abandoned during the 1970s, is represented by the Safeguard System at Cavalier AS. The U.S. response to the Soviet submarine-launched missile capability during the 1970s is embodied in the deployment of phased-array radar systems to cover the ocean flanks of North America at Cape Cod AS (and later at Eldorado AS). The establishment of AFSPC at Peterson AFB in 1982 reflects the increased strategic importance of space in the later phases of the Cold War. A set of recommendations regarding NRHP eligibility and management of Cold War historic properties was developed as part of the inventory.

  3. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  4. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Iraq War has done the United States more harm than good the removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War,which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century.

  5. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN WENLIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War, which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century. Although there remain quite a few uncertainties, an honest review shows the war is a failure for the United States.

  6. A THIRD ERA OF MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu NEAMŢU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Management like any social activity through specific stages of development trends from general society. Following these historical trends, this study summarizes the evolution of management at four stages of a full cycle of development, from a informal management to one perfect formalized. These stages of development are found differential represented at the various economic development regions in the world. Evolution increasingly grouped patterns of management and generalization for schools of thought management determines the current global development of worldwide management. For the current stage of evolution may be called as "the third era of management" or "imperial period” in which management pressures on individuals, employers or subordinate, are enormous. Evolution of companies, of markets and national economies also the global economy is driven by the current trend in management, leading to very strong mutations in the relationship of forces. The world economy is in what is called "war of resources" and the alternative that we believe is necessary in this "human management" although speculative trends of concentration of capital are binding on any plans or state regulators global ethical management.

  7. Understanding the Global Cold War Legacy: Narrating through Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Klein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War brought the shrinking and dismantling of vast nuclear weapons complexes. As a result, some landscape architects will find themselves reclaiming a new, very specific type of Cold War landscape: those degraded by nuclear arms testing, production and waste storage. Nuclear landscapes pose multiple and complex challenges. Before designing nuclear reclamations, one must ask: what are the issues? If designers misunderstand the nuclear landscape 'problem', it will be 'solved' in the wrong way. My position is based on the assumption that society desires these landscapes to be reclaimed safely and in ways that allow them to educate the public. Landscape architects can find ways to reclaim nuclear landscapes safely while leaving narratives for generations to come. Perhaps it is too early to describe how nuclear reclamations will look. It is not too early to discuss what designs for nuclear reclamations should accomplish. This paper raises questions critical to the design of nuclear reclamations, both globally and locally. Near precedents - past reclamations that narrate other types of degraded landscapes - are discussed, and it is noted how we can learn from them when considering nuclear landscape reclamation. This paper does not articulate a specific design theory or solution to Cold War nuclear landscapes, but rather, it seeks to pose critical questions that designers should ask. These questions will be broad because we consider nuclear landscapes globally. The questions will require in-depth investigation of local issues as each unique nuclear landscape is considered.

  8. Let us learn nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Wan Sang

    2006-08-15

    This book teach us nuclear power through nine chapters with recommendation and a prolog. The contents of this book are how did Formi become a scientist? what does atom look like? discover of neutron, what is an isotope?, power in the nuclear, various radiation, artificial nuclear transformation, nuclear fission and clinging atomic nucleus. It also has an appendix on SF story ; an atom bomb war. It explains basic nuclear physic in easy way with pictures.

  9. Proliferación Nuclear y Estado de Excepción (Nuclear Proliferation and State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Carlo Delgado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el 11.09, es observable un recrudecimiento de las medidas y acciones en la denominada "guerra contra el terrorismo". La concentración de poderes por parte del ejecutivo estadounidense, la erogación o suspensión de diversas Leyes son indicativos, entre otros, de la instauración de facto de un Estado de Excepción que, además se encuentra empantanado en una dinámica de guerra altamente desestabilizadora, sobre todo en términos de la seguridad internacional. Es un contexto en el que la carrera armamentista se viene acelerando, incluyendo su variable nuclear –en parte estimulada por el animado empuje a la nucleoelectricidad como supuesta alternativa viable al cambio climático. En flagrante violación a diversos acuerdos internacionales, pero sobre todo, en este caso, del “Tratado de No Proliferación Nuclear”, Estados Unido viene jugando la carta nuclear de tal modo que ya muchos consideran que, de seguir esta tendencia, estamos en camino hacia una eventual "nueva era nuclear". Y es que debido a la diversidad de actores, variables e intereses involucrados, tanto a nivel global como regional, el orden de probabilidades de una confrontación con armas nucleares cada vez más se incrementa; en especial cuando las posturas de diversos países, pero fundamentalmente de EUA, se tornan cada vez más totalitarias. El reloj del juicio final no en vano ha sido recientemente ajustado dos minutos más cerca de una guerra general termonuclear. Since 11.09, it is observable an upsurge on the measures and actions meant for the progress of the so called “war on terrorism”. The concentration of power in the US Executive, the derogation of diverse laws or the suspension of civil rights, are aspects, among others, that indicate that in fact an State of Exception has been established. One that, what's more, it´s trapped in a highly and increasingly destabilizing dynamic of (petrowar in the Middle East which affects not only international

  10. Proliferación Nuclear y Estado de Excepción (Nuclear Proliferation and State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Carlo Delgado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el 11.09, es observable un recrudecimiento de las medidas y acciones en la denominada "guerra contra el terrorismo". La concentración de poderes por parte del ejecutivo estadounidense, la erogación o suspensión de diversas Leyes son indicativos, entre otros, de la instauración de facto de un Estado de Excepción que, además se encuentra empantanado en una dinámica de guerra altamente desestabilizadora, sobre todo en términos de la seguridad internacional. Es un contexto en el que la carrera armamentista se viene acelerando, incluyendo su variable nuclear –en parte estimulada por el animado empuje a la nucleoelectricidad como supuesta alternativa viable al cambio climático. En flagrante violación a diversos acuerdos internacionales, pero sobre todo, en este caso, del “Tratado de No Proliferación Nuclear”, Estados Unido viene jugando la carta nuclear de tal modo que ya muchos consideran que, de seguir esta tendencia, estamos en camino hacia una eventual "nueva era nuclear". Y es que debido a la diversidad de  actores, variables e intereses involucrados, tanto a nivel global como regional, el orden de probabilidades de una confrontación con armas nucleares cada vez más se incrementa; en especial cuando las posturas de diversos países, pero fundamentalmente de EUA, se tornan cada vez más totalitarias. El reloj del juicio final no en vano ha sido recientemente ajustado dos minutos más cerca de una guerra general termonuclear. Since 11.09, it is observable an upsurge on the measures and actions meant for the progress of the so called “war on terrorism”. The concentration of power in the US Executive, the derogation of diverse laws or the suspension of civil rights, are aspects, among others, that indicate that in fact an State of Exception has been established. One that, what's more, it´s trapped in a highly and increasingly destabilizing dynamic of (petrowar in the Middle East which affects not only international

  11. Focus: new perspectives on science and the Cold War. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyck, Hunter; Kaiser, David

    2010-06-01

    Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Cold War looks ever more like a slice of history rather than a contemporary reality. During those same twenty years, scholarship on science, technology, and the state during the Cold War era has expanded dramatically. Building on major studies of physics in the American context--often couched in terms of "big science"--recent work has broached scientific efforts in other domains as well, scrutinizing Cold War scholarship in increasingly international and comparative frameworks. The essays in this Focus section take stock of current thinking about science and the Cold War, revisiting the question of how best to understand tangled (and sometimes surprising) relationships between government patronage and the world of ideas.

  12. Coercive Diplomacy: Countering War-Threatening Crises and Armed Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays states rarely resort to war to defeat each other or to address war-threatening crises and armed conflicts. Instead, coercive diplomacy has emerged as their strategy of choice when persuasion and other non-military instruments fall short. Coercive diplomacy involves the use of military...... threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...... the strategy of coercive diplomacy and its requirements for success and shows how states have employed it to manage crises and conflicts during the three strategic eras that the world has passed through since the end of the Cold War....

  13. Texture analysis of Napoleonic War Era copper bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Florencia; Northover, Shirley; James, Jon; Northover, Peter; Kelleher, Joe

    2016-04-01

    Neutron diffraction techniques are suitable for volume texture analyses due to high penetration of thermal neutrons in most materials. We have implemented a new data analysis methodology that employed the spatial resolution achievable by a time-of-flight neutron strain scanner to non-destructively determine the crystallographic texture at selected locations within a macroscopic sample. The method is based on defining the orientation distribution function of the crystallites from several incomplete pole figures, and it has been implemented on ENGIN-X, a neutron strain scanner at the Isis Facility in the UK. Here, we demonstrate the application of this new texture analysis methodology in determining the crystallographic texture at selected locations within museum quality archaeological objects up to 1 m in length. The results were verified using samples of similar, but less valuable, objects by comparing the results of applying this method with those obtained using both electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction on their cross sections.

  14. Evolution of NATO in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    digital-internacional. “El negocio con España se dispara.” S. Hernández, 25 Nov. 1996. Internet address: http://www.elpais.es 13 Ministerio de Defensa...Udvalg. Dansk og Europæisk Sikkerhed. Copenhagen, Det Sikkerheds- og Nedrustningspolitiske Udvalg, 1995. “El negocio con España se dispara.” S

  15. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  16. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various culture wars – hippies...... political or military but also social and psychological, economic and technological, cultural and imaginative. Using as its exemplar Pynchon’s treatment of world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow, this essay explores one key modulation in the nature of warfare: from the armed conflicts characteristic...... of an imperial order to the struggles for security – not just physical but also ideological and discursive, conceptual and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order. Through the personal identities and historical trajectories of a number of the novel’s representative figures...

  17. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  18. A perspective on the history of health and human rights: from the Cold War to the Gold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Through the end of the Cold War, public health policies were predominantly shaped and implemented by governments and these same governments committed themselves to meet their obligations for health under international and national laws. The post-Cold War era has witnessed the entry of new actors in public health and the sharing of power and influences with non-state actors, in particular the private sector and interest groups. This article examines the emergence of human rights and the rise of health on the international development agenda as the Cold War was ending. It highlights the convergence of health and human rights in academic and public discourse since the end of the Cold War in a context of political and economic shifts linked to the ongoing economic globalization. It describes opportunities and challenges for greater synergy between health and rights and proposes a role for health practitioners.

  19. How World War 1 changed global attitudes to war and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2014-11-08

    World War 1 was a key transition point towards scientific medicine. Medical officers incorporated Louis Pasteur's discoveries into their understanding of microorganisms as the cause of infectious diseases, which were therefore susceptible to rational control and treatment measures even in the pre-antibiotic era. Typhoid vaccination led to the successful evasion of the disastrous epidemics of previous wars. The incidence of tetanus was probably decreased by giving millions of doses of horse antitoxin to wounded soldiers. Quinine treated but could not control malaria; its use required mass compulsion. Tuberculosis was not a great military problem during World War 1, although mortality in civilian populations increased substantially. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections remained a matter of aversive conditioning, with invasive antiseptics used in the absence of antibiotics. Pandemic influenza in 1918-19 killed more people than died during the entire war, showing how much remained beyond the capability of the scientists and doctors who fought infectious diseases during World War 1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stephen Graham Ed., Cities, War, and Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.V. Savitch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities, War, and Terrorism, edited by Stephen Graham is a compendium of essays on the intersection of urbanity and violent conflict.  In an era where urban areas have become prime targets for political and religious violence this volume is both relevant and timely. It is also heavily ideological and unforgivably one sided. The volume is premised on the existence of a conspiracy by “neo imperial” nations (led by the United States to destroy and subjugate under-developed nations.  The “evidenc...

  1. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF TURKISH NATIONAL AND MILITARY CULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF KOREAN WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Sığrı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze Turkish national and military culture in the context of Korean War. The Korean War is the first international military contribution of modern Turkish Republic and Turkish Armed Forces. This was the first contact with other countries’ and cultures’ armies since the foundation of the modern republic. Following the war Turkey joined to NATO and became a certain member of western block of cold war era. Turkish troops’ efforts and involvement in the Korean War did not only contribute to independence of Korea but also contributed to the world peace. Turkish military has a cultural background, which mainly stems from sociological and managerial characteristics of Turkish national culture. In this study an analysis of Turkish military culture is made within scope of Korean War according to Hofstede’s (1980 four cultural dimensions

  3. Quantitative Analysis of the Civilian Bilateral Cooperation in Front-End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Viet Phuong; Yim, Man-Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A substantial part of such cooperation is related to the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which encompasses the processes that help manufacturing nuclear fuel, including mining and milling of natural uranium, refining and chemical conversion, enrichment (in case of fuels for Pressurized Water Reactor PWR), and fuel fabrication. Traditionally, the supply of natural uranium was dominated by Canada and Australia, whereas enrichment services have been mostly provided by companies from Western states or Russia, which are also the main customers of such services. However, Kazakhstan and African countries like Niger, Namibia, and Malawi have emerged as important suppliers in the international uranium market and recent forecasts show that China will soon become a major player in the front-end market as both consumer and service provider. In this paper, the correlation between bilateral civil nuclear cooperation in front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and the political and economic relationship among countries was examined through a dataset of bilateral nuclear cooperation in the post-Cold War era, from 1990 to 2011. Such finding has implication on not only the nonproliferation research but also the necessary reinforcement of export control regimes like such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Further improvement of this dataset and the regression method are also needed in order to increase the robustness of the findings as well as to cover the whole scope of the nuclear fuel cycle, including both front-end and back-end activities.

  4. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... ecological recovery for any assessed products, and invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. This framework proposes an integrative approach based on well-defined specific protection goals, scientific knowledge derived by means of experimentation, modelling and monitoring, and the selection...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  5. Lessons from the Ottoman Harem on Culture, Religion, and Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Iyigun

    2013-01-01

    The Ottoman Empire had a profound impact in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa at the apogee of its power, covering the era between 1453 and 1699. In this article, I exploit the empire's unique culture and institutions to examine the roles of ethnicity and religion in conflict and war. Using comprehensive data on Ottoman wars and conflicts covering the reigns of 31 Ottoman sultans between 1400 and 1909, I document that the ethnic background of the Valide Sultan (queen mother) was an im...

  6. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    -international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil......This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  7. Ford's Fund for the Republic: A 1950s-Era Foundation as Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Historians have recently opened up a reconsideration of the 1950s. Long characterized as a time of stolid conformity and Cold War conservatism, the era is increasingly seen in more variegated terms. Studies exploring a range of institutions, causes, and activities have illuminated ways the intellectual and social soil of postwar America gave root…

  8. Chemical warfare and medical response during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gerard J

    2008-04-01

    The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914-1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist's war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations.

  9. Precision laboratory measurements in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, M. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2000-07-01

    After reviewing some of the basic concepts, nomenclatures and parametrizations of astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and nuclear physics, we introduce a few central problems in nuclear astrophysics, including the hot-CNO cycle, helium burning and solar neutrinos. We demonstrate that in this new era of precision nuclear astrophysics secondary or radioactive nuclear beams allow for progress. (orig.)

  10. Policy Jolts in U.S. Arms Transfers: The Post Cold War Security Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Misheloff, Jane

    1999-01-01

    Policy Jolts in U.S. Arms Transfers: The Post-Cold War Security Environment Jane Misheloff (ABSTRACT) This research addresses the subject of conventional arms transfers in the Post Cold War Era. ("Conventional arms" herein are defined as high cost, state-of-the-art weapons systems in aerospace, land vehicles, missiles and naval vessels. ") The rapid and startling changes in the international political environment that took place in the late 1980's forced the U.S. and her Wes...

  11. Assinatura da deposição atmosférica de testes nucleares em sedimentos da costa brasileira (240+239Pu e 137Cs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Sanders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to take a look at Cold War era nuclear tests signatures found in Brazilian coastal sediments. Both137Cs and 240+239Pu signatures have been documented in mangrove, coastal mudflats and continental shelf sediments, associated with above ground nuclear tests beginning in the 1950's. The dates associated to the anthropogenic radionuclide signatures 137Cs and 240+239Pu along sediment columns are confirmed by 210Pb geochronology in many of the studies highlighted in this review. The results outlined in this review characterize the extent to which nuclear fallout products reach the Brazilian coast in quantities sufficient for detection, allowing the use of these radioisotopes as geochronometers.

  12. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  13. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  14. War and Comics (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Comics played a very important role in the total mobilization in Italy. Firstly in the cities and then in the trenches, they were a new propaganda tool and explanation of the war for children and soldiers with low literacy. At the same time, the war changed the history of comics and the magazine market for children and youth

  15. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  16. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  17. The Kawousan War reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimba, I.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    The Kawousan War (1916-1920) was one of the longest periods of resistance known in Niger and through it the local people - Tuareg, Hausa and others - fought to free their society from French colonial domination. Unlike other interpretations, this chapter looks at the structural causes of the war rel

  18. Building State Capacity to Achieve Government Victory during Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    inception as a Spanish colony into the current era. However, Kline fails to detail Colombia’s crucial civil war--La Violencia --occurring between...1948 and 1965, which is critical for illustrating the link between rule of law development and stable governance. James L. Zackrison’s “La Violencia in...78Ibid., 9-11. 79Ibid., 12-13. 80James L. Zackrison, “La Violencia in Colombia: An Anomaly in Terrorism

  19. Mass and Elite Views on Nuclear Security: US National Security Surveys 1993-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERRON,KERRY G.; JENKINS-SMITH,HANK C.; HUGHES,SCOTT D.

    2000-06-01

    This is the fourth report in an ongoing series of studies examining how US perspectives about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era. In Volume 1 the authors present findings from a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public conducted from 13 September to 14 October 1999. Results are compared to findings from previous surveys in this series conducted in 1993, 1995, and 1997, and trends are analyzed. Key areas of investigation reported in Volume 1 include evolving perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits, preferences for related policy and spending issues, and views about three emerging issue areas: deterrent utility of precision guided munitions; response options to attacks in which mass casualty weapons are used; and expectations about national missile defenses. In this volume they relate respondent beliefs about nuclear security to perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits and to policy preferences. They develop causal models to partially explain key preferences, and they employ cluster analysis to group respondents into four policy relevant clusters characterized by similar views and preferences about nuclear security within each cluster. Systematic links are found among respondent demographic characteristics, perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits, policy beliefs, and security policy and spending preferences. In Volume 2 they provide analysis of in-depth interviews with fifty members of the US security policy community.

  20. Prolonged Wars: A Post-Nuclear Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Garcia Marquez , Cuba in Angola: Operation Carlota (New York: Cuba Update), 128. Ian Grieg suggests that the USSR’s reasons for becoming involved in...specific groups. This political orientation was exemplified by the failure of the Parti Progressite Tchadien (PPT) (formed by Gabriel Lisette) to emerge as...1989), 18. 10.- Gabriel Lisette, a black colonial administrator of Guadeloupian descent, was elected to represent Chad in the French National Assembly

  1. Los inicios del programa nuclear colombiano 1955-1965. Diplomacia y ayuda internacional en la formación de una comunidad científica del Tercer Mundo durante la era del desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Andrés León Gómez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo de grado elaborado entre 2002 y 2003 reconstruye los primeros años del programa nuclear colombiano. Está basado en fuentes primarias del extinto Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares y del Archivo General de la Nación, analizadas desde el punto de vista de los estudios sociales de la ciencia.

  2. Myths of the Great War

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We review some "myths" of the Great War of 1914 to 1918: that the war broke out inadvertently, that the western front saw needless slaughter, that the Allies used the food weapon to strangle Germany, and that the peace treaty that ended the war caused the rise of Hitler and the still greater war that followed.\\ud

  3. Somatic hypotheses of war syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Vries, M. de; Bergen, L.F.J.M. van; Galama, J.M.D.; Keyser, A.J.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of the American Civil War, unexplained symptoms in military personnel arising after a war or peace mission have frequently been described. The pattern of symptoms is highly similar for all of the various war syndromes although the conditions of each war or peace mission are widely diff

  4. WHY NATIONS GO TO WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Vrey

    The narratives commence with World War I and conclude with the wars in .... The section on the war in Vietnam depicts how five consecutive American .... as his thesis that leaders should exploit all opportunities to avoid war as it is people,.

  5. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  6. War No Longer Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    understanding that industrial ability decides a war…”58 Russell Wrigley , in his famous book “The American Way of War,” argues that America...2003, 82, no.4, 41. 60 Colin S Gray, “The American Way of War: Critique and Implications,” Rethinking the Principles of War,” Anthony D. McIvor...12, 2012). 91 Anthony H. Cordesman, “The New US Defense Strategy and the Priorities and Changes in FY2013 Budget,” Center for Strategic and

  7. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  8. Studying Stepfamilies: Four Eras of Family Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn

    2017-07-23

    Historically, there have always been stepfamilies, but until the early 1970s, they remained largely unnoticed by social scientists. Research interest in stepfamilies followed shortly after divorce became the primary precursor to stepfamily formation. Because stepfamilies are structurally diverse and much more complex than nuclear families, they have created considerable challenges for both researchers and clinicians. This article examines four eras of stepfamily scholarship, tracing the development of research questions, study designs and methods, and conceptual frameworks from the mid-1970s to the present and drawing implications for the current state of the field. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  9. Impact of World War I on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Mention chemistry and the Great "War to End all Wars" in the same sentence, and nearly everybody who ever had a history class will nod sorrowfully and say,"Yes, poison gases." True enough, and Fritz Haber, who led the development of them for the Central Powers, was the one German scientist whom Rutherford never forgave or spoke to again. Such substances (not all really gaseous, and something like 50 have been tried) were used by both sides from 1915 onward, killed about 90,000 people (about 1% of the total), maimed many more, and arguably loosened constraints on future uses of chemical weapons in other wars, prison camps, and terrorist actions. But the war was not determined by them and could have been fought without them. On the other hand, the sudden blockading of ports and termination of most international trade forced Germany (etc) to expand very quickly processes for fixing nitrogen for explosives and for fertilizers in lieu of Chilean guano (yes there is also a Haber process for that). They needed in addition to find domestic replacements for rubber (for tires, hoses, and gas masks) and liquid fuels for tanks and aircraft. The Allies, for their part, had been heavily dependent on German dyestuffs, optical-quality glass for binoculars, and phosphates (fertilizer again). Production facilities for derivatives of coal tars, cottonseed oil, etc. were of necessity scaled up rapidly. And once people have learned to do these things, there is no way to have them be forgotten. The same is, of course, true of the nuclear weapons of World War II and of whatever biological and/or cybernetic entities prove to be essential in the next war.

  10. Compensating for cold war cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, Mark J

    2002-07-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, thousands of workers involved in nuclear weapons production are still living with the adverse health effects of working with radioactive materials, beryllium, and silica. After a series of court battles, the U.S. government passed the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Act in October 2000 to financially assist workers whose health has been compromised by these occupational exposures. Now work is underway to set out guidelines for determining which workers will be compensated. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has been assigned the task of developing a model that can scientifically make these determinations, a heavy task considering the controversies that lie in estimating low-level radiation risks and the inadequate worker exposure records kept at many of the plants.

  11. Climatic Consequences of Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2011-12-01

    A nuclear war between Russia and the United States could still produce nuclear winter, even using the reduced arsenals of about 4000 total nuclear weapons that will result by 2017 in response to the New START treaty. A nuclear war between India and Pakistan, with each country using 50 Hiroshima-sized atom bombs as airbursts on urban areas, could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history. This scenario, using much less than 1% of the explosive power of the current global nuclear arsenal, would produce so much smoke from the resulting fires that it would plunge the planet to temperatures colder than those of the Little Ice Age of the 16th to 19th centuries, shortening the growing season around the world and threatening the global food supply. Crop model studies of agriculture in the U.S. and China show massive crop losses, even for this regional nuclear war scenario. Furthermore, there would be massive ozone depletion with enhanced ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface. These surprising conclusions are the result of recent research (see URL) by a team of scientists including those who produced the pioneering work on nuclear winter in the 1980s, using the NASA GISS ModelE and NCAR WACCM GCMs. The soot is self-lofted into the stratosphere, and the effects of regional and global nuclear war would last for more than a decade, much longer than previously thought. Nuclear proliferation continues, with nine nuclear states now, and more working to develop or acquire nuclear weapons. The continued environmental threat of the use of even a small number of nuclear weapons must be considered in nuclear policy deliberations in Russia, the U.S., and the rest of the world.

  12. Sustaining the U.S. Air Force Nuclear Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    see Owen B. Toon, Alan Robock, and Richard P. Turco , “Environmental Con- sequences of Nuclear War,” Physics Today, December 2008, pp. 37–42, for a...Owen B., Alan Robock, and Richard P. Turco , “Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War,” Physics Today, December 2008, pp. 37–42. U.S. Air Force

  13. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  14. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the military contribution to terminate wars on the African strategic landscape is dependent upon a military leadership that is able to interface political ...... leadership. A further obstacle resides in the costs of adjusting military forces.

  15. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  16. How Wars Begin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Stevenson family was having dinner. The family atewithout talking for several minutes, then Tom said, "Daddy,do you know how wars begin? " Mr. Stevenson thought for a moment, then he said, "Yes,I think so.

  17. Nuclear power renaissance or demise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossani, Umair

    2010-09-15

    Nuclear power is going through a renaissance or demise is widely debated around the world keeping in mind the facts that there are risks related to nuclear technology and at the same time that is it environmentally friendly. My part of the argument is that there is no better alternative than Nuclear power. Firstly Nuclear Power in comparison to all other alternative fuels is environmentally sustainable. Second Nuclear power at present is at the dawn of a new era with new designs and technologies. Third part of the debate is renovation in the nuclear fuel production, reprocessing and disposal.

  18. Bob H. Reinhardt: The End of A Global Pox. America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era : The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2015, 268 pp., Hard cover, Illustrated, Figure, Maps, Table, Notes, Bibliography, Index., $39.95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2017-04-01

    This review examines in detail Bob H. Reinhardt's meticulous analyses of smallpox eradication within the broad context of American liberalism, Cold War politics, and the exercise of technological, medical, and political power on the part of the United States. As a result, his book provides a unique perspective on the eradication of smallpox.

  19. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  20. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    government.""’ 3 On the other hand, a change in political theory -also prompted by the war-provided the intellectual justification for a stronger national...individual Americans to behave as virtuous, self- sacrificing citizens led in two directions. The Radicals, who rested their political theories on the...values. From that perspective, the war suggested that Europeans had gone berserk, denying their civilization and its values. In a Freudian sense, they were

  1. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    customs. War, they have also asserted, draws two related political dangers in its train. An ambitious President (or one of his successful generals ) might... general questions about war’s intluence upon the economy. political institutions, and society’s constituent groups. This book takes a preliminary step... millennial task. As a consequence. political theorists and statesmen re- placed clergymen as the leaders of American thought, and politics supplanted

  2. Preventing a Currency War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ On the global economic recovery's already unpredictable road, the latest threat comes from the possibility of a currency war. Although worries about the war have recently been alleviated,as G20 financial officials vowed to "refrain from competitive devaluation of currencies" at their meeting in Gyeongju, South Korea, on October 21-23, more than just words and promises are necessary to avert a currency showdown.

  3. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse, M.J.; Schene, A.; Koch, K.

    1983-06-18

    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered.

  4. The Sixties and the Cold War University: Madison, Wisconsin and the Development of the New Left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…

  5. The First World War in the Literacy-Focused Classroom: Teaching German through Cultural Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmann, Jennifer; Sederberg, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    This article offers approaches to the topic of the First World War at the intermediate and advanced levels of the German curriculum through thematically diverse WWI-era cultural texts. By situating the texts within a multiliteracies framework, the authors demonstrate how this historical and literary content can provide authentic material for…

  6. Six Opinion Magazines' Coverage of Conscientious Objectors to the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Stuart W.

    Six opinion magazines ("Christian Century,""Commonweal,""Christianity Today,""Nation,""National Review," and "New Republic") were analyzed for their treatment of legally recognized conscientious objectors during the Vietnam War era, 1964-72. The purpose of the study was to find how these…

  7. The Sixties and the Cold War University: Madison, Wisconsin and the Development of the New Left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…

  8. The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship After the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    rescheduled visit to South Korea) left the two nations in a twilight zone between the Cold War and a new era of cooperation. The Chinese Threat. After Russia...production of high-tech military systems. The latter was, after all, what the Japan Air Self-Defense Force UASDF) wanted at the begin- ning of the FSX saga

  9. An Era of Persistent Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    predictions of how outside nations would behave in the event of war.‖26 He argues that each factor ―can promote either peace or war,‖ with their...Plans White House Banquet , Pomp for Chinese Leader‘s Visit to Improve Tone of Relationship,‖ ABC News Online, http://abcnews.go.com/Business

  10. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  11. Nasionalisme di Era Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danu Widhyatmoko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nationalism and nationality of a country life are moving into the new phase. Internet has become a new medium that opens up so many opportunities to create a sense of nationalism for the country. This paper contains a review of nationalism in the age of the Internet. This paper begins with understanding nationalism, the character of the Internet, social media and nationalism in the era of the Internet. Research method used in this paper is literature study, continued with reflective data analysis. With reflective analysis method, the authors analyzed data from the data collection has been carried out for comparison between the existing literature by circumstances or phenomena that occur, so that the conclusions of rational and scientific data can be obtained.

  12. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  13. Ronald Reagan's "Star Wars" Address: Mythic Containment of Technical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker

    1986-01-01

    Views Reagan's "Star Wars" address as part of the culturally evolving myth of the New Frontier. Discusses how the speech creates the illusion of both preserving and transcending science by (1) subordinating technical reasoning to prevent nuclear holocaust and (2) using technoscience to rescript history and remove temporal and spacial…

  14. War and Peace: Education for Survival, Sustainability, and Flourishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Madhu Suri

    1990-01-01

    Discusses competing conceptions of culture and prescriptions for education concerning war and peace. Reviews following books: London's "Armageddon in the Classroom: An Examination of Nuclear Education"; Reardon's "Comprehensive Peace Education: Education for Global Responsibility"; Reardon's "Education for Global Responsibility: Teacher Designed…

  15. History of Nuclear India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  16. The Technological Culture of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on…

  17. Iowa and World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…

  18. The Great War: Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  19. The Great War: Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  20. The Great War. [Teaching Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Broadcasting Service, Washington, DC.

    This package of teaching materials is intended to accompany an eight-part film series entitled "The Great War" (i.e., World War I), produced for public television. The package consists of a "teacher's guide,""video segment index,""student resource" materials, and approximately 40 large photographs. The video series is not a war story of battles,…

  1. The Technological Culture of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on…

  2. 'War neurosis' during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Olga

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the incidence and treatment of war neurosis in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. First, the scientific papers published on war neurosis during and after the war are examined. Then the work of Gregorio Bermann (1894-1972), a member of the International Brigades who organized the frontline Neuropsychiatric Service at the Hospital de Chamartín de La Rosa (Madrid), is analysed. Las neurosis en la guerra, published in 1941, which recounts Bermann's personal experience in the care of war neurosis in Spain, is also discussed.

  3. Farewell to „eternal peace“? New wars and their moral and legal challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborowski Holger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay first discusses modern wars and the idea of „eternal peace“ as developed in modernity. It shows how in the 20th century the reality of war (as well as the concept of peace was already transformed due to the development of new technologies such as the nuclear bomb. Now, peace was replaced by a „cold war“. The essay then goes on to introduce the concept of post-national wars (as opposed to modern national wars. It argues that this concept fails fully to describe contemporary warfare. What is needed is a deeper analysis that considers most recent technological developments such as the world wide web or drone technology and the way these technologies paradigmatically change the concept and reality of war (and of peace, too. The essay concludes by arguing that the moral and legal challenges of this kind of war deserve more attention than they are getting in the current discussion.

  4. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts. ...

  5. Castles at War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...

  6. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  7. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  8. The War Against Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  9. Cities of War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAOTIANBI; LUOYUANJUN

    2005-01-01

    Shanghai of the 1930s had particular appeal for Japan, being a large international metropolis in its immediate vicinity. After World War I, Japan concentrated all its China trade, shipping and manufacturing in Shanghai, and by 1930, 30,000 of the 50,000 foreigners living in Shanghai were Japanese.

  10. Cold War Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  11. Airpower in Modern War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    uncommitted elements of enemy armed forces, key agricultural areas, and other such target systems.7 By the late Cold War, AirLand Battle had come to dominate...perhaps even inexpensive drones because fighter or bomber aircraft are just too complex and expensive to operate. With these imprecise terror

  12. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  13. The War Against Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  14. LESSONS FROM THE BOER WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. De Jong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Jay Stone and Erwin A. Schmidl, The Boer War and Military reforms, Volume 28 of the series "War and Society of East Central Europe", University Press of America, Lanham: New York - London, 1988, 345 pp. Numerous studies exist of the lessons to be learnt from the Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902 by students of 20th Century Warfare. These studies date back from the days of that war up to the present. In many cases these studies are titled "Lessons from the Boer War". In the book under review Jay Stone examines the War's impact on Britain and Erwin Schmidl its effect in Austria-Hungary. I shall confine this review to Stone's findings. According to him Britain entered the war full of self-confidence in the hope of terminating the conflict within a few weeks, but was totally unprepared. The reason was that the last war she waged against a European power was as long ago as 1855-56. That was the Crimean War against Russia. Thereafter she had fought only local, colonial wars against badly drilled, little disciplined and primitively armed non-European armies. Some of these used to attack in large hordes and were shot or ridden down en masse. This had happened recently at Omdurman in 1898 where Kitchener defeated the Sudanese. The British ultimately were victorious in all the colonial wars.

  15. War and the Mythological Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Das

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an interesting ambiguity that marks any discussion on war in much of modern political theory. While it is acknowledged that war entails enormous human suffering, considerable latitude is conceded for moral judgements about the right to wage war, on the grounds that the suffering imposed upon self and others due to war, is an unfortunate necessity for the future good of a national community. The legality (as distinct from the legitimacy of modern wars is directly tied to the notion of contractual violence, such that state entities are granted the right to declare war and to conduct it within the constraints (in theory if not in practice of agreed covenants that place restrictions on what is justifiable violence in war and against whom it may be directed.

  16. Three eras of planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The number of known exoplanets rose from zero to one in the mid-1990s, and has been doubling approximately every two years ever since. Although this can justifiably be called the beginning of an era, an earlier era began in the 1960s when humankind began exploring the Solar System with spacecraft. Even earlier than that, the era of modern scientific study of the Solar System began with Copernicus, Galileo, Brahe, Kepler and Newton. These eras overlap in time, and many individuals have worked across all three. This Review explores what the past can tell us about the future and what the exploration of the Solar System can teach us about exoplanets, and vice versa. We consider two primary examples: the history of water on Venus and Mars; and the study of Jupiter, including its water, with the Juno spacecraft.

  17. International health, the early cold war and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a panoramic vision of the development of international health in Latin America during the late 1940s and the 1950s, when a series of bilateral and multilateral institutions, such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF, were founded and reshaped. The language, policies, and activities of these new institutional actors were heavily influenced by the context of the early Cold War between the era's superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. Vertical campaigns against yaws and malaria--implemented under the leadership of Fred L. Soper, director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau--symbolized international health's technical orientation, as well as its contribution to the modernization of the countries of the region. The Cold War period has received little attention by historians of medicine, though it bears certain similarities to historiographical discussions of the relationship between tropical medicine and imperialism in the early 20th century.

  18. Spain, regenerationism and sports during the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Torrebadella Flix

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The First World War (FWW was a turning point in the contemporary era. Its social impact led to the penetration by ideological forces into physical education and sport; and the publicity-related discourse of these forces were marshaled to capitalize on the productive capacity of adolescents and young adults. The current study focuses on analyzing —through the texts of the period—in what manner the events of the FWW influenced sport in Spain, socially and institutionally. The exploration of original texts from the period in question and a critical discourse analysis provides a chronological narrative of events. The study concludes that the impact of the FWW was decisive in enabling sport to appropriate the values of patriotic excitation provoked not by fears of the war itself, but rather by underlying fears of an expanding industrial context that might find itself compromised by the revolutionary conflicts of the workers’ movement.

  19. [Hospitals in the New Spain during the Independence war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viesca-Treviño, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In 1810 Mexico had more than a hundred hospitals scattered throughout its wide territory. Some buildings were big with the possibility to accept 600 patients or more, and some very small, as those seen in Arizpe, Sonora, or the small missions in Michoacan or la Sierra Gorda where only three or four patients could be placed. Their origins were diverse; some of them were founded by eminent or pious men like Cortés, Zumárraga, Pedro López, Núñez de Haro or Alcalde; others by religious orders and laboral guilds, some were only for the military. All of them knew good and bad eras, and being the year 1810 bad one. The political and economical crisis, derived from the Napoleonic wars and the invasion of Spain and the Independence war in Mexico affected strongly the hospitals management and function. Also the changes in medical science development and patients attention made most of them outdated.

  20. Three eras of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul; Toulmin, Camilla

    2006-10-15

    Climate change as a global challenge has evolved through a series of stages in the last few decades. We are now on the brink of a new era which will see the terms of the debate shift once again. The different eras are characterised by the scientific evidence, public perceptions, responses and engagement of different groups to address the problem. In the first era, from the late 1980s to 2000, climate change was seen as an “environmental” problem to do with prevention of future impacts on the planet's climate systems over the next fifty to hundred years, through reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases, known as “mitigation”. The second era can be said to have started around the turn of the millennium, with the recognition that there will be some unavoidable impacts from climate change in the near term (over the next decade or two). These impacts must be coped with through “adaptation”, as well as mitigation, to prevent much more severe and possibly catastrophic impacts in the longer term. It has become clear that many of the impacts of climate change in the near term are likely to fall on the poorest countries and communities. The third era, which we are just about to enter, will see the issue change from tackling an environmental or development problem to a question of “global justice”. It will engage with a much wider array of citizens from around the world than previous eras.

  1. A History of Intravenous Anesthesia in War (1656-1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew; Jagdish, S

    2016-01-01

    The practice of anesthesia in war places significant restraints on the choice of anesthetic technique used; these include, but are not limited to, safety, simplicity, and portability. Ever since intravenous anesthesia became a practical alternative, there have been military doctors who felt that this technique was particularly suited to this environment. The challenge, as in civilian practice, has been to find the appropriate drugs as well as simple and safe delivery systems. The urgency of war has always stimulated innovation in medicine to counteract the ongoing development of weapons of war and their effects on the human body and to achieve improved survival as public expectations rise. This article traces the development of and the use of intravenous anesthesia by military physicians for battle casualties. The story starts long before the era of modern anesthesia, and the discussion concludes in the dog days of the cold war. The rapidly increasing interest in intravenous anesthesia in both civilian and military practice since the early 1990s is left for other authors to examine.

  2. High School Seniors' Styles of Coping with the Nuclear Threat, 1975-1984: Reconciling Theories, Taxonomies, and Empirical Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Gregory; Bachman, Jerald G.

    As awareness of the threat of nuclear war has increased over the past decade (1975-1984), young people have learned to cope with the possibility of unimaginable catastrophe. This paper accordingly begins by reviewing literature on how people cope with the threat of nuclear war, in order to reconcile general theories of coping with nuclear anxiety…

  3. Hitler's scientists science, war and the devil's pact

    CERN Document Server

    Cornwell, John

    2003-01-01

    In a rich and fascinating history John Cornwell tells the epic story of Germany's scientists from the First World War to the collapse of Hitler's Reich. He shows how Germany became the world's Mecca for inventive genius, taking the lion's share of Nobel awards, before Hitler's regime hijacked science for wars of conquest and genocidal racism. Cornwell gives a dramatic account of the wide ranging Nazi research projects, from rockets to nuclear weapons; the pursuit of advanced technology for irrational ends, concluding with with penetrating relevance for today: the inherent dangers of science without conscience.

  4. Code wars 10 years of P2P software litigation

    CERN Document Server

    Giblin, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Code Wars recounts the legal and technological history of the first decade of the P2P file sharing era, focusing on the innovative and anarchic ways in which P2P technologies evolved in response to decisions reached by courts with regard to their predecessors. With reference to US, UK, Canadian and Australian secondary liability regimes, this insightful book develops a compelling new theory to explain why a decade of ostensibly successful litigation failed to reduce the number, variety or availability of P2P file sharing applications - and highlights ways the law might need to change if it is

  5. "Miniature Cold War?"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fu: Relations between America and Russia are one of the most important bilateral ties that could affect the trend of world situation.What's the matter with U. S. -Russia ties? What's wrong with their bilateral relations? People tend to ask these days. Some observers on both sides suggest that post 9/11 honeymoon has turned sour when joint effort against challenges from nontraditional security issues failed to remove original bilateral contradictions over traditional security concerns.Japanese Jiji News Agency saw "a miniature Cold War" evolving and the British Guardian even bluntly pronounced "a new Cold War" on January 3, asserting that disintegration of the former Soviet Union did not terminate bilateral contention, which has only been performed on an international stage more complicated than ever before, with covert scheming against each other replacing overt, direct confrontation. How about starting our discussion with those comments?

  6. Teaching about Nuclear Disarmament. Fastback 229.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, James, M.

    Background information to help educators teach about nuclear disarmament is presented. There are six sections. The first section, "Nuclear Arms Education: Avoiding the Final Catastrophe," discusses the national priority of preparing for war, militarism as a value, and the mushroom cloud and spaceship earth as symbols of a global age. The second…

  7. ASSESSING THE UNCERTAINTY OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-22

    unlimited. Abstract Nuclear deterrence theory in its many forms arose as a theoretical architecture with the goal of preventing rather than winning a nuclear...failing. For example, despite the clear latent power advantage enjoyed by the United States, Japan initiated war with its attack on Pearl Harbor. In

  8. Historical memory and historical responsibility: against the falsification of the history of the Second world war history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Valeriy Ivanovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problems, associated with the attempts of falsification of the main factors and prerequisites of the Second World War and the role of individual States in its completion. The author stresses the inadmissibility of equating the policy of Hitler’s Germany and the Soviet Union, so characteristic of many modern researchers of the era in the West.

  9. Mexican-American War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    which were exchanged at Lima on the 31st of October, 1846. The Attorney -General of the United States early in August last completed the... Bolivia , Guatemala, and Ecuador. The manifest importance of cultivating the most friendly relations with all the independent States upon this continent...shall be considered as annulling or suspending the solemn covenant contained in this article. On the contrary, the state of war is precisely that for

  10. Edit wars in Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Sumi, Róbert; Rung, András; Kornai, András; Kertész, János

    2011-01-01

    We present a new, efficient method for automatically detecting severe conflicts `edit wars' in Wikipedia and evaluate this method on six different language WPs. We discuss how the number of edits, reverts, the length of discussions, the burstiness of edits and reverts deviate in such pages from those following the general workflow, and argue that earlier work has significantly over-estimated the contentiousness of the Wikipedia editing process.

  11. Military Adaptation in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    the Germans believed they had won the war. General Alfred Jodl, the OKW’s (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, the Armed Forces High Command) chief of staff...was soon in the hands of Britain’s political and military leaders: “OPERATION ADLER [EAGLE]. Within a short period you will wipe out the British air...in Airpower and Warfare, Proceedings of the Eighth Military History Symposium, ed. by Colonel Alfred F. Hurley and Major Robert C. Ehrhart

  12. Suicide among War Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Vsevolod Rozanov; Vladimir Carli

    2012-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to ex...

  13. [From memories about war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, B A

    2010-04-01

    The article presents publication of memories of a military physician Spivak B.A., finished the First Kiev medical institute in 1941. The author held rank: from August 1941--chief of sanitary service of a separated battalion, April 1942-June 1945--chief of operation-bandaging unit of 246 SMSB SD. After war served in military treatment institutes on ranks of surgical profile, finished the military service in the rank of chief of surgical unit of Kovel garrison hospital in 1964.

  14. Firepower in Limited War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    utmost nerve and skill for pilots to weave their planes between mountain peaks as they tried to fly under the weather. 86 The French had hoped to lessen...the open k The Second mndochina War 73 meadow that came to be known as LZ Albany. Artillerymen only a short distance away listened to the frenzied ...principally tanks. Firing cannon and rockets as close as 10 to 20 meters from friendlies takes great skill and nerve , and to be used effectively and

  15. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  16. Nuclear Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Habs, D; Jentschel, M; Thirolf, P G

    2012-01-01

    With new gamma-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest with 10^13 g/s and a bandwidth of Delta E_g/E_g ~10^-3, a new era of g-beams with energies <=20 MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIGS facility (Duke Univ., USA) with 10^8 g/s and Delta E_g/E_g~0.03. Even a seeded quantum FEL for g-beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused g-beams. We describe a new experiment at the g-beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for g-beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for g-beams are being developed. Thus we have to optimize the system of the g-beam facility, the g-beam optics and g-detectors. We can trade g-intensity for band width, going down to Delta E_g/E_g ~ 10^-6 and address individual nuclear levels. 'Nuclear pho...

  17. Decisions in the Nuclear Renaissance; Decisiones ante el Renacimiento Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelli, J.

    2007-07-01

    Taking into consideration the existing revitalization of nuclear projects, the author highlights some of the barriers that the industry will face in the initial phases of the new era. There are some issues such as the many different requirements imposed for a design to be licensed country by country, or the bottlenecks that may appear in this globalized industry. Thus, it is advisable that the Utilities make decisions in the long term, in order to assure their position in the Nuclear renaissance. (Author)

  18. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...... the link between the Vietnam War, the Afghanistan War, the Iraq War, and the background for the financial crisis that began in 2008....

  19. The justice of preventive war

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Henry Alan

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In response to the 9/11 attacks and continuing threats of mass-casualty terrorism, the United States has adopted a new security strategy that emphasizes anticipatory actions including preventive war. Prevention, undertaken in the absence of an act of aggression or an imminent threat, is prohibited by modern conceptions of just war and international law. Many critics of the strategy fear that any legitimization of preventive war would e...

  20. From old wars to new wars and global terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, N; Restrepo, J; Bohorquez, J; Suárez, N; Restrepo, E; Zarama, R

    2005-01-01

    Even before 9/11 there were claims that the nature of war had changed fundamentally. The 9/11 attacks created an urgent need to understand contemporary wars and their relationship to older conventional and terrorist wars, both of which exhibit remarkable regularities. The frequency-intensity distribution of fatalities in "old wars", 1816-1980, is a power-law with exponent 1.80. Global terrorist attacks, 1968-present, also follow a power-law with exponent 1.71 for G7 countries and 2.5 for non-G7 countries. Here we analyze two ongoing, high-profile wars on opposite sides of the globe - Colombia and Iraq. Our analysis uses our own unique dataset for killings and injuries in Colombia, plus publicly available data for civilians killed in Iraq. We show strong evidence for power-law behavior within each war. Despite substantial differences in contexts and data coverage, the power-law coefficients for both wars are tending toward 2.5, which is a value characteristic of non-G7 terrorism as opposed to old wars. We prop...

  1. Nuclear photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  2. The Iran Nuclear Issue and China’s Diplomatic Choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003, the Iran nuclear issue has attracted worldwide attention. This is the world’s most protracted and most influential confrontation between a superpower and a big Islamic country since the end of the Cold War. As the Iran nuclear issue has a bearing on the maintenance of the international nuclear non-proliferation system, the United Nations, the International

  3. The Citizen-Soldier in the American Imagination: Traces of the Myths of World War II in the "Army Strong" Recruitment Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The myth of the citizen-soldier resonates strongly in the American imagination and helps (re)construct America the nation. The construction of this myth in the historical context of World War II is especially prominent in contemporary American culture. The myth of the World War II citizen-soldier functions as an individualized discursive formation with specific rules of formation. I contextualize the construction of this individualized discursive formation within the historical era of World W...

  4. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  5. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  6. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...... the different genres address different parts of our cognition and emotion....

  7. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  8. Moving Towards a New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Liru

    2006-01-01

    @@ The aftermath and effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks differs from what occurred after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the Gulf War. Nevertheless, for the United States, September 11 is an event with considerable historical significance.

  9. An Era of Persistent Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    Endeavor, the NATO Intervention Force in Bosnia. 44 Sixteen deployments were in support of humanitarian aide or disaster relief such as Operation Atlas ... Prometheus Books, 2005. Brimley, Shawn. "Mediating Between Crusaders and Conservatives." Small Wars Journal. 2008. www.smallwarsjournal.com

  10. Soviet Style in War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    dominant position over the Donas... cutting off all the enemy’s escape routes out of the Donbas ." For the "victorious repoM that had been coming in...avoid battle in the Donbas and reach the western bank of the Dnepr as soon as possible. .... Vatutin, in command of the Southwestern Front... believed...Izdat Donbas , 1971. Erickson, 3., The Road to Stalingrad. Stalin’s War with Germany. Vol. 1, New York- Harper and Row, 1975. Eresthausen, A. V

  11. LEGO STAR WARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    去年有一款游戏以惊人的销量。让人们印象深刻,它就是《乐高星球大战》,经过一番传言过后,LucasArts终于发表了《乐高星球大战》的续作《乐高星球大战2:首部曲》(Lego Star Wars Ⅱ:The Original Trilog),而且登陆的平台还包括了任天堂的DS和GBA主机。

  12. Revisiting and Renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Anri Sala’s film 1395 Days Without Red (2011) provides a kind of reenactment of an accidental day during the 1992-95 siege of Sarajevo. Shot in today’s Sarajevo, the film revisits and embodies some of the widely circulated images of the siege, such as inhabitants sprinting across so-called Sniper...... Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...

  13. Exception in Cold War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the Cold War, India mainly focused its Southeast Asia Strategy on preserving the regional peace and stability, fearing that changes in Southeast Asia would impact India. Generally speaking, India would like to see a relatively strong, stable and independent Southeast Asia, which would guarantee the stability of its east wing. However, fettered by its limited power, its non-alignment policy and its special relation with Soviet Union, India's policy toward Southeast Asia remained relatively passive and its relation with Southeast Asia was, to some extent, trapped in a historical "intermission."

  14. German War Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    director be freed from some rules, though not in assessing the effects of fire .51 He was not ready to make a complete break with the rigid style of...small game was conducted to test the effect of the fire of units, down to the smallest it was possible to evaluate. The forces were limited to four to...Darstellung von Gefechtsbildern mit Berück- sichtigung der Wirkung der jetzt gebräuch- lichen Waffen [Introduction to the Use of War Game Apparatus

  15. From Socialist Showcase to Mezzogiorno? Lessons on the Role of Technical Change from East Germany's Post-World War II Growth Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Keller

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we emphasize the contribution of technical change, broadly defined, towards productivity growth in explaining the relative East Germany-West Germany performance during the post-World War II era. We argue that previous work was excessively focused on physical capital investments determining productivity differentials, which consequently led to an overestimation of the East German performance during the Socialist era, and an overly pessimistic assessment of the East German prospec...

  16. A nuclear third way in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkovich, G. (W. Alton Jones Foundation, Charlottesville, VA (United States))

    The threat posed by nuclear weapons has shifted dramatically in the aftermath of the Cold War. The long-standing prospect of Armageddon has all but disappeared, while the change of local nuclear conflict among undeclared nuclear weapons has grown. The danger is especially acute in South Asia, which, in strategic terms, embraces the subcontinent and parts of China, Central Asia, and the Middle East. The situation with regards to India and Pakistan is discussed at length.

  17. Agriculture Impacts of Regional Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Mills, Michael; Toon, Owen Brian

    2013-04-01

    One of the major consequences of nuclear war would be climate change due to massive smoke injection into the atmosphere. Smoke from burning cities can be lofted into the stratosphere where it will have an e-folding lifetime more than 5 years. The climate changes include significant cooling, reduction of solar radiation, and reduction of precipitation. Each of these changes can affect agricultural productivity. To investigate the response from a regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan, we used the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer agricultural simulation model. We first evaluated the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices in China and the USA for rice, maize, wheat, and soybeans. Then we perturbed observed weather data using monthly climate anomalies for a 10-year period due to a simulated 5 Tg soot injection that could result from a regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan, using a total of 100 15 kt atomic bombs, much less than 1% of the current global nuclear arsenal. We computed anomalies using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE and NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). We perturbed each year of the observations with anomalies from each year of the 10-year nuclear war simulations. We found that different regions respond differently to a regional nuclear war; southern regions show slight increases of crop yields while in northern regions crop yields drop significantly. Sensitivity tests show that temperature changes due to nuclear war are more important than precipitation and solar radiation changes in affecting crop yields in the regions we studied. In total, crop production in China and the USA would decrease 15-50% averaged over the 10 years using both models' output. Simulations forced by ModelE output show smaller impacts than simulations forced by WACCM output at the end of the 10 year period because of the different temperature responses in the two models.

  18. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  19. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  20. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the C

  1. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  2. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  3. A century of influence: part 3. The modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Chris

    2015-11-01

    The story of orthodontics during the first 100 years of Journal publication can be told through the people who lived it. As part of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics Centennial Celebration, we present 100 people who most influenced the specialty during the last 100 years. Part 3 concludes with "The Modern Era" and describes those born in 1920 or later. They came of age near or after the end of World War II. Proprietary orthodontic schools and preceptorship training were giving way to expanding postgraduate university programs. The graduates of these rigorous programs fanned out across the country, making orthodontic specialty education available to an ever-widening circle of students and orthodontic treatment to new generations of patients. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Advances in the diagnosis of shock, its assessment and resuscitation during the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullingham, A G P

    2016-07-01

    The Great War of 1914-1918 ushered in a new era of technology on the battlefield resulting in casualties on an unprecedented scale. There had been progress in many related areas of medicine before the outbreak of hostilities but these had not been applied or fully developed in clinical practice. This is particularly true for the management of haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. This article discusses the history and development of medical treatment of shock and trauma patients during the conflict.

  5. Between West and East: A Social History of Business Journalism in Cold War Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vaara, Eero; Tienari, Janne; Ainamo, Antti

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War era was characterized by ideological struggles that had a major impact on economic decision-making, and also on management practice. To date, however, these ideological struggles have received little attention from management and organizational scholars. To partially fill this research gap, we focus on the role of the media in these ideological struggles. Our starting point is that the media both reflect more general societal debates but also act as an agency promoting specific k...

  6. The Changing Strategic Context of Nuclear Weapons and Its Implications for the New Nuclear World Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the nuclear bombing at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, nuclear weapons have become one of the defining elements in shaping the world strategic situation for better or worse. The end of the Cold War has led to dramatic changes in the world security landscape. The international

  7. Data on Vietnam Era Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration, Washington, DC. Office of the Controller.

    Statistical data are presented on Vietnam era veterans for the following topics: employment status, medical status, compensation and pension, education, housing assistance, expenditures, and demographic information. The estimated number and age of veterans in civil life, categorized by sex and state, and the educational attainment of veterans at…

  8. In search of the kingdom: the social gospel, settlement sociology, and the science of reform in America's progressive era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joyce E; Maclean, Vicky M

    2012-01-01

    This critical narrative history examines the development of sociology in the United States during what has come to be labeled as the Progressive Era, roughly the years from the 1890s to World War I. Despite the label, this era was defined as much by social problems associated with industrialization, urbanization, and immigration as by the growth of its cities and the wealth of its capitalists. We explore the roots of American sociology in the transition of protestant theology from Calvinism to its reformation in the social gospel, the simultaneous development of settlement houses, and the "creation" of sociology as the science of reform. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nuclear power - the glittering prizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, C.C.

    The paper on the benefits of nuclear power is based on a lecture given for the Institution of Nuclear Engineers, London, 1986. Suggestions for short term benefits include a clean environment and a cheap energy source, whereas suggestions for long term benefits include freedom from want in the world and avoidance of 'energy wars'. These benefits are discussed along with alternative energy sources, the financial savings to be saved from nuclear power, world energy wealth, depletion of world energy reserves, and risks due to radiation exposure.

  10. Marshal Ogarkov on Modern War: 1977-1985. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    minded person can understand, without any particular difficulty, that to realize this in practice--that is, to confine nuclear war within some kind of...military affairs, Marshal Ogarkov has thus not diverged from mainstream Soviet thought. If Soviet military doctrine in the person of Marshal Ogarkov has been...pp., Mar 1985 Horowitz, Stanely A., and Angier, Bruce N. Costo and Bcrnfit.3 of Training and Experience, 18 pp., Jan 1985. (Presented at the PP 438

  11. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive ... NIBIB-funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that ...

  12. Atuação da OTAN no pós-Guerra Fria: implicações para a segurança internacional e para a ONU NATO's action in the post-Cold War era: implications for international security and for the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bertazzo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Após a Guerra Fria, a Organização do Tratado do Atlântico Norte (OTAN utilizou seus recursos militares pela primeira vez em um conflito. Desde então, ela vem atuando com regularidade, sob mandato da ONU ou não. Este trabalho apresenta a discussão teórica em torno da permanência da OTAN após o fim da Guerra Fria, e analisa sua transformação e seu novo papel em um contexto mundial distinto. As teorias das alianças não explicam a persistência de tal tipo de arranjo. As teorias dos regimes, por sua vez, vislumbram a permanência da OTAN em um contexto diverso, desde que ela consiga se transformar para se adaptar às novas condições. O levantamento de dados realizado sobre a atividade da ONU procura testar a hipótese de que existe um declínio do seu ativismo humanitário no período recente, abrindo espaço para que novos atores atuem no campo da segurança global. A conclusão é de que há um declínio, o qual não é, todavia, significativo em relação ao período da Guerra Fria. Portanto, mais do que uma possível omissão da ONU, a necessidade de justificar a permanência da aliança transatlântica no novo cenário estratégico surge como fator fundamental para que a OTAN assuma este caráter intervencionista e expedicionário, alheio aos seus fundamentos. A questão da legitimidade da OTAN para este tipo de missão é também discutida. São destacados, finalmente, os problemas de ordem legal da atuação da OTAN vis-à-vis a ONU na manutenção da segurança internacional, os quais estão contidos em uma questão maior: a necessidade de revisão dos arranjos globais de segurança coletiva e do Conselho de Segurança, em particular.After the end of the Cold War, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO used its military capabilities for the first time in actual conflict. Since then, it has been acting regularly, either under a United Nations' mandate or not. This work presents the debate in the literature on the

  13. Nuclear Deterrence in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Gareth Evans

    2014-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region includes six of the world’s nine nuclear-armed states, and in all of them relevant policymakers, still caught in a Cold War mindset, continue to believe in nuclear deterrence as a force for peace and stability, perceiving nuclear disarmament to be not only unachievable, but undesirable. But — whether the context is major powers seeking to neutralise threats from each other (United States, Russia, China and India), non-nuclear allies seeking nuclear protection from ...

  14. International Context during and after World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Protopopov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the international context of the Soviet Union and today's Russia during and after the World War II. Relations between the allies (the USSR, the US and the UK shortly after the end of World War II «gave a crack». Particular attention is paid to the development of the American nuclear program in an international context and objectives of the nuclear bombing of Japan, the expansion of NATO. The author concludes that the problem of military and economic development in the post-war period were largely dictated by the difficult international situation at that time. The Soviet Union was forced not only to establish a peaceful life, but also to take steps to create its own nuclear weapons and their means of delivery, strengthening the country's defense. After the troubled times of the second half of the 1980s and 1990s, in the XXI century Russia again began to strengthen its international position. The author proves the need for a consistent foreign policy.

  15. [The treatment of wounds during World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2017-06-01

    The First World War was a huge tragedy for mankind, but, paradoxically, it represented a source of significant progress in a broad series of human activities, including medicine, since it forced physicians to improve their knowledge in the treatment of a large number of wounded soldiers. The use of heavy artillery and machine guns, as well as chemical warfare, caused very serious and life-threatening lesions and wounds. The most frequent causes of death were not mainly related to gunshot wounds, but rather to fractures, tetanus and septic complications of infectious diseases. In the first part of this article, we describe the surgical procedures and medical therapies carried out by Italian physicians during the First World War, with the aim of treating wounded soldiers in this pre-antibiotic era. Antibacterial solutions, such as those of Dakin-Carrel and sodium hypochlorite and boric acid, the tincture of iodine as well as the surgical and dressing approaches and techniques used to remove pus from wounds, such as ignipuncture and thermocautery or lamellar drainage are reported in detail. In the second part of the paper, the organization of the Italian military hospitals network, the systems and tools useful to transport wounded soldiers both in the front lines and in the rear is amply discussed. In addition, the number of soldiers enrolling, and those dying, wounded or missing during the Great War on the Italian front is estimated.

  16. Some aerodynamic discoveries and related NACA/NASA research programs following World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The World War 2 time period ushered in a new era in aeronautical research and development. The air conflict during the war highlighted the need of aircraft with agility, high speed, long range, large payload capability, and in addition, introduced a new concept in air warfare through the use of guided missiles. Following the war, the influx of foreign technology, primarily German, led to rapid advances in jet propulsion and speed, and a host of new problem areas associated with high-speed flight designs were revealed. The resolution of these problems led to a rash of new design concepts and many of the lessons learned, in principle, are still effective today. In addition to the technical lessons learned related to aircraft development programs, it might also be noted that some lessons involving the political and philosophical nature of aircraft development programs are worth attention.

  17. ["Simulanten des Irrsinns auf dem Vortragspult": dada, war and psychiatry--'active dynamics of trauma'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This paper relates stage performances of dada artists to war neurosis and shell shock as sociocultural phenomena. The leitmotif of this investigation is the notion of simulation, as dada artists were referred to as malingerers (simulators) of madness by the press at the time. I hypothesize that the performers imitate/simulate with drums, shouting and 'bruitist' sound poems, the noises of war, staging themselves as war neurotics in a kind of shocking clinical demonstration. Both discourses intersect in the fact that many dadaists try to dodge the draft by simulating madness. The scandalizing anti-art of dada will be understood as contagious anti-pedagogy, trying to vaccinate against the madness of the era.

  18. The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

  19. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  20. Just war and the problem of evil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schott, Robin May

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, Robin May Schott criticizes leading proponents of just war theory and introduces the notion of justifiable but illegitimate violence. Instead of legitimating some wars as just, it is better to acknowledge that both the situation of war and moral judgments about war are ambiguous...

  1. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  2. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  3. [Nursing figures in the Great War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    The three Red Cross associations worked hard in France before the First World War to prepare nurses to serve during a war. When war broke out, these nurses stepped up to the plate. They supported every phase of the war and demonstrated their high levels of creativity to overcome the difficult conditions related to the fighting.

  4. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  5. Nursing education and the nuclear age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, S.

    1989-05-01

    As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.

  6. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  7. Water and wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  8. War: Origins and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Piepers, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The International System is a self-organized system and shows emergent behavior. During the timeframe (1495 - 1945), a finite-time singularity and four accompanying accelerating log-periodic cycles shaped the dynamics of the International System. The accelerated growth of the connectivity of the regulatory network of the International System, in combination with its anarchistic structure, produce and shape the war dynamics of the system. Accelerated growth of the connectivity of the International system is fed by population growth and the need for social systems to fulfill basic requirements. The finite-time singularity and accompanying log-periodic oscillations were instrumental in the periodic reorganization of the regulatory network of the International System, and contributed to a long-term process of social expansion and integration in Europa. The singularity dynamic produced a series of organizational innovations. At the critical time of the singularity (1939) the connectivity of the system reached a cr...

  9. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  10. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    and cultural renewal. Through an analysis of different cultural productions - media, art, literature, film, posters and architecture - the author shows how the recollection and reconstruction of political and sectarian violence that took place during the war have helped in Lebanon's healing process. He also......From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political...

  11. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...

  12. On the South China Sea Disputes in the Conflict of Sino-US Sea Power in the Post-Cold War Era%论后冷战时代中美海权矛盾中的南海问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨震; 周云亨; 朱漪

    2015-01-01

    After the Cold War,China’s geopolitical situation experiences enormous and far-reaching changes. Due to the changes of security,economic and other factors,China pursues the status of sea power and gradually but firmly began to show its sea power potential.The South China Sea,as the largest sea surrounding China,is the key area to China’s development of sea power.In order to maintain its hegemonic,geo-strategic,and mili-tary interests,the United States strengthens its constraints on the development of China’s sea power in the South China Sea.China should adopt countermeasures to stop American containment as the region of the South China Sea is becoming increasingly important both strategically and economically.Ultimately,the conflict between Chinese and US sea powers in the South China Sea is between the hegemon’s control and emerging powers carry-ing out countermeasures.%冷战结束后,中国的地缘政治形势发生了巨大而影响深远的变化。由于安全、经济以及其他因素的变化,作为世界上最大的陆海复合型国家的中国开始缓慢而坚定地释放其海权潜力,并将建设海洋强国作为其战略目标。作为中国周边四大海域中面积最为辽阔的南海是中国发展海权的重点区域。区域外大国美国出于霸权护持、地缘战略以及军事等各方面的考虑,在南海问题上加强了对中国发展海权的制约。鉴于南海的战略地位非常重要且其重要性与日俱增,其资源、航运价值以及军事价值对中国的发展不可或缺,中国必须对此进行反制。中美南海海权矛盾从根本上来说是霸权国进行控制与新兴大国进行反制之间的矛盾。

  13. Strategy: The Logic of War and Peace rev. and enlarged ed. by Edward N. Luttwak Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001 / Book Review

    OpenAIRE

    Wirtz, James J.

    2003-01-01

    In the 1980s scholars in the ªelds of history and political science rediscovered the work of Carl von Clausewitz, the Prussian philosopher of war. This renewed interest sparked a brief revival of the study of war and strategy (the latter of which encompasses efforts to exploit war’s dialectic to achieve military and political victory). After relying for decades on operations research to minimize the likelihood of nuclear war by bolstering deterrence—an approach that largely eli...

  14. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  15. Patterns of War Termination: A Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    inadequately fit. The five observations were from the Italo -Libyan War of 1920, the Indonesian War of 1945, and the Western Saharan War of 1975. Their...observations were identified by these covariate patterns: Italian participation in the Italo -Libyan War of 1920, British participation in the Indonesian...to predict the winner of a 20th Century extra-systemic war. It is possible that other unidentified conditions existed within both the Italo -Libyan

  16. Vaccinology in the genome era

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaudo, C. Daniela; Telford, John L.; Rappuoli, Rino; Seib, Kate L.

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination has played a significant role in controlling and eliminating life-threatening infectious diseases throughout the world, and yet currently licensed vaccines represent only the tip of the iceberg in terms of controlling human pathogens. However, as we discuss in this Review, the arrival of the genome era has revolutionized vaccine development and catalyzed a shift from conventional culture-based approaches to genome-based vaccinology. The availability of complete bacterial genomes h...

  17. Manajemen Pendidikan dalam Era Reformasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Mantja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning, Organizing, actuating, and controlling are the functions of educational management of all kinds of fields of management. The differences between educational management and others are in the components of its substances. Educational management components include instructional, personnel, student, facilitation, financial, include and school public relation management. The educational managers in the reform era require a competence and managerial skills to perform their jobs as professional managers

  18. The Era of Super Capitalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The world has entered the "super capitalism" era when one third of its economic activities are controlled by less than 3 percent of global financial capital. This year,a global economic recession,triggered by the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis,seems unavoidable. To tackle international financial problems,Tao Dong,Chief Economist for Asia at Credit Suisse First Boston in Hong Kong,shared his insights with China Business Journal. Excerpts follow.

  19. The War on War League: A South African Pacifist Movement, 1914 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colgate University

    Keywords: War on War League, South Africa, Pacifism, Anti-War Movement, ... cannot therefore be seen as simply a stepping stone to the future communist ... epidemic disease, the destruction of farms and herds and massive social disruption.

  20. Lessons from World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had any idea of what it would be like. Technology had changed the character of war, but old patterns of thought remained in place. We also examine the roots of the war in industrial and colonial competition, and in an arms race. Finally, parallels with current events, and the important lessons for today’s world are discussed.

  1. Rockets in World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  2. Women, Gender, and the War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffords, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Examines the representation of women in Vietnam War literature and films within a context of changing gender relationships in American society. Argues that critical attention needs to be given to the structure of masculinity and its relationship to warfare. (MS)

  3. The Principles of War Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    sharpen his own theoretical skills (Paret, “The Genesis of On War,” On War, p. 10). Peter Paret presented Clausewitz’s approach in this way: 26 If... Peter Paret (Ed), Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986, p. 612). The very idea of ‘air attacks,’ that Fuller mentioned, can be interpreted as...restoring small and handy armies, bring back art, leadership, ‘gentlemanliness,’ and the real warrior spirit into warfare” (General von Blomberg

  4. Apache Wars: A Constabulary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    to create an acceptable level of violence. The Second Apache Insurgency: Mexico In September 1810, Padre Miguel Hidalgo called for Mexican...just as it did in Southwest America after the Treaty of Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico. These occupations are similar in that the US Army sought... Hidalgo ending the war in 1848, it gained the better part of nine current states, land that also came with many Indian tribes. One associated group of

  5. Critique of the War Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    . Conflict is basically a problem of essentially contested communication. Once this historical self-reference was established around the 17th century, war, thirdly, became delimited by its structural couplings to religion, mass media (propaganda), finance, welfare for victims and veterans, law, politics...... and other functional systems. The costs of war increased, reconstituted and transformed modern society in a way that has formed a range of risks and – of course – neglected blind spots....

  6. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  7. War Remembered, Revolution Forgotten: Recasting the Sino-North Korean Alliance in China’s Post-Socialist Media State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From October 1950 to July 1953, the nascent Chinese state entered into a strategic alliance with North Korea; hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers shed blood on the Korean peninsula in defense of the socialist homeland and advancing Communist internationalism. But since the end of the Korean War, China has moved from revolutionary idealism and political radicalism in Mao’s era to the current post-socialist pragmatism and materialism. As the ideological winds shift, China’s contemporary propaganda apparatus must redefine the Korean War in order to reconcile the complexity of the war and wartime alliance with contemporary political concerns and popular views. By focusing on a documentary film, The Unforgettable Victory, produced by China’s leading state-run film studio in 2013, this article explores the ways in which the official media of the post-socialist era presents the past revolutionary war. The new film celebrates the splendid valor of Chinese soldiers, civilians’ heroic sacrifices, and the war’s nationalist legacy; however, it purposefully forgets the revolutionary fervor and internationalist sentiments that once forged the Sino–North Korean alliance and empowered wartime mobilization. This article examines the process of remembering and forgetting, and reveals government propaganda’s latest efforts to demobilize contemporary viewers while infusing the past revolutionary war with ideological clarity and political certainty in post-socialist China.

  8. The Application of Hermeneutical Analysis to Research on the Cold War in Soviet Animation Media Texts from the Second Half of the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Cold War era, which spawned a mutual ideological confrontation between communist and capitalist countries, left its mark on all categories of media texts, including cartoons and animations. Cartoons were used by the authorities as tools for delivering the necessary confrontational ideological content in an attractive folkloric, fairy-tale…

  9. Recommendations on legislative and regulatory framework and regulatory body of nuclear security in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Jilong; LI Xiaoyan

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the definition of nuclear security that has been changing from the cold war age to the post-911 period, and clarifies the close relationship and yet a clear distinction between nuclear security, nuclear safety and nuclear safeguard. Based on analyses of the current state of nuclear security activities in China as well as the requirements and the law infrastructure, a legislative and regulatory framework of nuclear security and the mandate of a regulatory body in China are recommended.

  10. Exploring Greenland: science and technology in Cold War settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Matthias; Knudsen, Henrik; Lolck, Maiken L; Nielsen, Henry; Nielsen, Kristian H; Ries, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a vacant spot in the Cold War history of science: the development of research activities in the physical environmental sciences and in nuclear science and technology in Greenland. In the post-war period, scientific exploration of the polar areas became a strategically important element in American and Soviet defence policy. Particularly geophysical fields like meteorology, geology, seismology, oceanography, and others profited greatly from military interest. While Denmark maintained formal sovereignty over Greenland, research activities were strongly dominated by U.S. military interests. This paper sets out to summarize the limited current state of knowledge about activities in the environmental physical sciences in Greenland and their entanglement with military, geopolitical, and colonial interests of both the USA and Denmark. We describe geophysical research in the Cold War in Greenland as a multidimensional colonial endeavour. In a period of decolonization after World War II, Greenland, being a Danish colony, became additionally colonized by the American military. Concurrently, in a period of emerging scientific internationalism, the U.S. military "colonized" geophysical research in the Arctic, which increasingly became subject to military directions, culture, and rules.

  11. Interaksi Guru dengan Orang Tua Siswa Era Perang dan Damai di Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifuddin Saifuddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze social interactions between teachers and parents during the era of war and peace in Aceh. This study employs qualitative method. During the war, the educational institution was one of the institutions which was affected badly. Social integration was so weak that interactions among parents of students, teachers and students were unstable. Within the war situation, social interactions were badly influenced hatred, suspicion, and revenge. The social interaction outside the school was contagious to that inside the school. But when the peace memorandum was signed on August 15, 2005, between the Indonesian government and Independence Aceh Movement (GAM, social interactions in schools began to show significant changes. When the war ended, people began to interact and socialize in good faith. Social interactions involving parents of students and teachers were also changing towards social stability and harmony so that they could inter-act without the feelings of fear, suspicion and revenge. Peace accord means that the enmity has significantly reduced. Hence, the teachers are effectively playing their fundamental role in teaching and socializing the younger generation of Acehnese.

  12. Just War Theory v/s Unconventional Weapon. An Analysis from Ethical Moral and Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Vijaya Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Just war theory deals withthe justification of how and why wars are fought. Thejustification can be either theoretical or historical. The theoretical aspect is concerned with ethicallyjustifying war and the forms that warfare may or may not take. The historical aspect, or the “just wartradition,” deals with the historical body of rules or agreements that have applied in various warsacross the ages. For instance, international agreements such as the Geneva and Hague conventions arehistorical rules aimed at limiting certain kinds of warfare which lawyers may refer to in prosecutingtransgressors, but it is the role of ethics to examine these institutional agreements for theirphilosophical coherence as well as to inquire into whether aspects of the conventions ought to bechanged. The just war tradition may also consider the thoughts of various philosophers and lawyersthrough the ages and examine both their philosophical visions of war’s ethical limits (or absence ofand whether their thoughts have contributed to the body of conventions that have evolved to guidewar, especially nuclear warfare which is an unconventional weapon. The seriousness of suchprohibited weapon was a debatable issue not only in the contemporary law of armed conflict but, alsoin the ancient law of war. This paper shall try to evaluate the essence of just war theory in a newdimension interlinking it with ethics and moral value to judge the use of unconventional weapon andcondemn it as inhuman and against the theory of just war.

  13. Us vs. Them: Cultural Encounters in Warzones through Reading American War Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Poljak Rehlicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, Samuel Huntington argued that the end of the Cold War Era marked the end of global instability based on ideological and economic differences and preferences. However, he did not predict any kind of a peaceful future for humankind but maintained that future conflicts will arise from cultural differences. The clashes are inevitable, he claims, as long as one side (usually the West insists on imposing universalism to other civilizations whose cultural awareness is on the rise. Ever since the Vietnam War, American military tacticians have believed that the knowledge and understanding of the enemy’s culture will lead to victory, and American military academies and schools are dedicating more attention to cultural studies within their general strategy. This paper is based on the reading and analysis of several American fiction and non-fiction novels from the Vietnam and the Iraq Wars. Since all of these works are first-hand accounts of war experience and soldiers’ cultural encounters with their ‘adversaries’, the research is focused on the (impossibility of soldiers’ true understanding and appreciation of different cultures/civilizations during wartime. It also suggests that knowing the enemy is to no avail if wars are fought with the goal of Westernizing other cultures.

  14. The Russian Aviation in the First World War: the Features of Artillery Fire Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Karataev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses theregulations and combat use of the Russian aviation during the First World War. The attention is paid to the implementation of the exploration and correction of artillery fire from the airplane. The authors have selected as sources the documents of the Central state historical archive of Georgia, in which there are reflected the materials governing the use of airplanes on the fronts of the First World War. The authors used the general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, concretization, generalization, as well as the traditional methods of historical analysis. The authors used the historical-situational method, which involves the study of historical facts in the context of the studied era in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. At the conclusion of the study, it should be noted that the use of aircraft has passed a long way of developmentduring the First World War. There were expanded the spectra of the use of aircraft in war, from intelligence and reconnaissance and adjustment to using the airplanes as fighters and bombers. The change of the functional responsibilities required the establishment of clear and implemented quickly regulations in a combat situation, and such instructions governing the actions of the crew were created during the war.

  15. World War I: an air war of consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallion, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war.

  16. Nuclear Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident provides valuable lessons for China national nuclear Corp.as it continues to expand its operations AS Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis sparks a global debate over nuclear safety,China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC),the country’s largest nuclear plant operator, comes under the spotlight.

  17. Superintelligence, Humans, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    necessary to manufacture and produce the first nuclear weapons. Inventors and scientists were then able to weaponize the technology in a timely...N. Minsky, Rochester, and C. Shannon, "A PROPOSAL FOR THE DARTMOUTH SUMMER RESEARCH PROJECT ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE," August 31, 1955, http:// www ...PROPOSAL FOR THE DARTMOUTH SUMMER RESEARCH PROJECT ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE." August 31, 1955. http:// www - formal.stanford.edu/jmc/history

  18. Theater Level War Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-02

    14 4. The Hierarchical Concepto f Army Models. . . . . ..... 19 5. Basic Structural ocept of Lah-up . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 6. Aruy Models...analysis including nuclear weapon use, interdiction, sensor systems, and command and control. The battle area is laid out on a hexagonal coordinate system...commander) on each side being presented with information from represen- tations of sensor systems and from status reports on his own forces. The ground

  19. Tactical Nuclear Weapons and NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    about whether U.S. promises would be bankable in times of war. Those European allies who believe that they are most at risk have therefore...superpowers. The Soviets were unlikely to believe that the President would risk New York and Chicago for the people of Europe, which was the cen- tral...serious enough to transform it into, or continue it, as a nuclear conflict, and so, unavoid- ably, to risk possible escalation to a strategic level.2

  20. On ‘war task’ and ‘peace work’. The Dutch East Indies Red Cross between the colonial wars and the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Bergen, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After the wars against Atjeh (1873-1907 finished, Dutch rule over the Dutch East India was total. The Dutch East Indies Red Cross (DEIRC awaited a new task, preparing to give aid in the case of a foreign invasion. The problem was that the end of the wars against the autochthonous “rebellions” also meant the end of Red Cross visibility and in the minds of many, the end to Red Cross urgency. Aid in wars against a real opponent is from a point of public relations much more important than the preparation of aid against an unknown opponent. “Work in times of peace” had to be the answer to this problem, but this work was only in name, and not de facto different from preparation of aid in times of war. Through “peace work” the DEIRC prepared itself for the war-task. To be able to fulfil the war-task the Red Cross had to have enough doctors, nurses, and stretcher-bearers. Visible peace-work had to provide for that. It enlarged the Red Cross’ popularity and trained its volunteers. However, at the beginning of 1942, when the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies, it turned out to be too little, too late.Tras el fin de las guerras contra Aceh (1873-1907, el dominio holandés sobre la India Oriental Holandesa fue total. La Cruz Roja de las Indias Orientales Holandesas (DEIRC quedaba a la espera de una nueva tarea: prepararse para proporcionar ayuda en caso de una invasión extranjera. El problema era que el final de las guerras contra las “rebeliones” autóctonas también significaba el fin de la visibilidad de la Cruz Roja y, a juicio de muchos, el final de la perentoriedad de la Cruz Roja. El socorro en guerras contra un adversario real era desde el punto de vista de las relaciones públicas mucho más importante que los preparativos de socorro contra un enemigo desconocido. El “trabajo en tiempo de paz” debía ser la respuesta a este problema, si bien resultó diferente solo de palabra, no de hecho, en relación a los preparativos

  1. Building China-Japan Relations in the New Era: From Thinking to Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Some unprecedented special features mark China-Japan relations in the new era. Based on mutually beneficial strategic interests, they spell economic inter-dependence and political mutual trust-a corner stone for building a just international economic and political order. Three phases characterize such relations. The 1990s saw the initial period of post-Cold War transition. Then came the intervening stage of collision since the advent of the new century up until the present. Hopefully, a long-awaited day will dawn when both sides join hands in building a desired bond. However, uncertainty still remains in confirming its arrival.

  2. Galactoseismology in the GAIA Era

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    The GAIA satellite will provide unprecedented phase-space information for our Galaxy and enable a new era of Galactic dynamics. We may soon see successful realizations of Galactoseismology, i.e., inferring the characteristics of the Galactic potential and sub-structure from a dynamical analysis of observed perturbations in the gas or stellar disk of the Milky Way. Here, we argue that to maximally take advantage of the GAIA data and other complementary surveys, it is necessary to build comprehensive models for both the stars and the gas. We outline several key morphological puzzles of the Galactic disk and proposed solutions that may soon be tested.

  3. On the U.S.-Russian Tactical Nuclear Weapons Cut as a Path toward a Nuclear-free World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi; Jianbin

    2015-01-01

    Complete destruction of nuclear weapons and realization of a world free from nuclear weapons are the common aspiration of mankind in the atomic era.To achieve the goal,the international community has proposed a series of steps and measures,which include calling for a deep reduction of the U.S.and Russian nuclear arsenals,promoting ratification of the CTBT,initiating negotiation of the FMCT,reducing the role of nuclear weapons

  4. Tarbijalepingud rahvusvahelises eraõiguses / Margus Kingisepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kingisepp, Margus, 1969-

    1997-01-01

    Tarbijalepingute reguleerimisest erinevates riikides, 1955. a. Haagi konventsioonist ja 1980. a. Rooma konventsioonist, rahvusvahelisest jurisdiktsioonist tarbijalepingute puhul ning rahvusvahelise eraõiguse sätetest Eesti õiguses

  5. Tarbijalepingud rahvusvahelises eraõiguses / Margus Kingisepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kingisepp, Margus, 1969-

    1997-01-01

    Tarbijalepingute reguleerimisest erinevates riikides, 1955. a. Haagi konventsioonist ja 1980. a. Rooma konventsioonist, rahvusvahelisest jurisdiktsioonist tarbijalepingute puhul ning rahvusvahelise eraõiguse sätetest Eesti õiguses

  6. Nuclear Winter Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, David W.

    A “major nuclear exchange” between the United States and the Soviet Union could inject enough smoke and dust into the atmosphere to cause significant temperature drops over the northern temperate zone that could last from weeks to months, according to a new study by the National Research Council (NRC).The results of the NRC study are “consistent with the results that came out of the TTAPS study” released late in 1983, according to George Carrier, chairman of the NRC study committee. The TTAPS study—named for authors R. P. Turco, O. B. Toon, T. P. Ackerman, J. B. Pollack, and Carl Sagan—investigated the potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war.

  7. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  8. American growth and Napoleonic Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the French Revolution, in 1793 a series of wars among France and other major powers of Europe began and they lasted until 1815. There is disagreement among economic historians about the effects of these wars on the trend of US economic growth. This paper aims to answer the following question. Did America as a neutral nation take advantage of economic possibilities caused by Europe at war through trade? To put it differently, this paper questions whether there was an export-led growth due to the war. To answer this question, we re-examined the export-led growth hypothesis for the period 1790-1860 using the ARDL methodology. Based on this methodology, a cointegrated relationship is found among the variables of real GDP, labor, exports and exchange rates. The results suggest that the economic growth of the US was not export-driven. In addition, parallel to the results of unit root tests with structural breaks, the coefficient of the dummy variable was statistically significant in the long run, implying that the war did have a significant effect on the economic growth trend of the US.

  9. Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-09-01

    Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

  10. On Teaching Horizontal Nuclear Proliferation: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleg, Milton; Totten, Samuel

    1990-01-01

    Recommends that the study of global issues be grounded in the study of war and peace, and urges teaching students that citizens can play an active part in public policy change. Provides nine questions as a basis for an instructional unit and includes a chronology chart and nuclear history of the five major nuclear powers. (NL)

  11. Changing Our Ways of Thinking: Health Professionals and Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Mary

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the issues raised by health professionals concerned about the threat of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, including epidemics, civil defense, arms costs, psychosocial aspects, and ethical responsibility. Appendixes include lists of antinuclear organizations, medical professional associations, and 160 references. (SK)

  12. Baku paper reports Armenian role in Iran's nuclear program

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "The war in Iraq has made the subject of nuclear research in countries of the third world a matter of current interest. Talk at this time is mostly about Iran, which has oil, and American experts believe, will in the next 3-4 years be perfectly capable of making a nuclear bomb" (1 page).

  13. Early Tests of Piagetian Theory Through World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beins, Bernard C

    2016-01-01

    Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.

  14. International Library Program to Prevent Nuclear Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Martin H.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that International Federation of Library Associations act as agent of UNESCO and arrange through its member national library associations to hold lectures and teach-ins, organize discussion groups, and publish and distribute pamphlets dealing with danger of nuclear holocaust. Suggested war-preventive activities, program structures, and…

  15. Managing nuclear weapons in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.

    1993-03-16

    This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

  16. Deterrence with China: Avoiding Nuclear Miscalculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    primordial violence, hatred, and enmity,”38 and conclusions extrapolated from previous wars cannot completely inform American policymakers in their...leaders might feel compelled to use all of the Nation’s capabilities to eliminate China’s ability to launch any further nuclear attacks. An important

  17. Otto Hahn (1944). Discovery of nuclear fission

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Otto Hahn (Frankfurt-on-Main, 1879-Gotinga, 1968) is the discoverer of nuclear fission, which awarded him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944. After leaving Germany during the Second World War to settle in the United Kingdom, he returned to this country as a renown figure.

  18. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Gulf War Veterans Gulf War ... and be at least 10 percent disabling. About Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS is an unexplained, severe and ...

  19. Former Prisoner of War Statistical Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Former Prisoner of War (POW) Statistical Tracking System database is a registry designed to comply with Public Law 97-37, the Former Prisoner of War Benefits Act...

  20. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  1. Thinking war in the 21st century: Introducing non-state actors in Just war theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorda, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    “Thinking War in the 21st Century” develops a theory of war applicable to conflicts with non-state actors such as the “Islamic State”. Just war theory traditionally focuses on states as actors in war. This book moves beyond this narrow lens, arguing that active individual members of organized collec

  2. A War Within a War: Mizo rebels and the Bangladesh liberation struggle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, W.

    2015-01-01

    In 1971 a war led to the creation of Bangladesh. Instantly three narratives sprang up: the war as a national triumph, the war as betrayal and shame, and the war as a glorious campaign. Today more layered interpretations are superseding these ‘first-generation narratives’. Taking the case of

  3. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will conduct a teleconference meeting on August 3, 2012. Members of the...

  4. Nuclear safeguards; Salvaguardias nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurron, O.

    2015-07-01

    Safeguards control at the Juzbado Plant is implemented through the joint IAEA/EURATOM partnership approach in force within the European Union for all nuclear facilities. this verification agreement is designed to minimize burden on the operators whilst ensuring that both inspectorate achieve the objectives related to their respective safeguards regimes. This paper outlines the safeguards approaches followed by the inspectorate and the particularities of the Juzbado Plants nuclear material accountancy and control system. (Authors)

  5. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  6. Pirates of the Nuclear Age: The Role of U.S. Submarines in Modern Trade Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    the Department of the Navy. Signature: _____________________ 14 July 2016 ii Contents Page...World War II ,” (U.S. Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Submarine Warfare Division, 1999). 2 Geoffrey Till, “A Changing Focus for the...escalation to nuclear war or a major conventional war such as the forcible reunification of Taiwan via a cross-strait invasion. If U.S. national strategic

  7. Parameters, Journal of the US Army War College, Volume 14, Number 4, Winter 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Pa.: US Army War College, Strategic Studies In- 31. A Energia Nuclear no Brasil (Rio de Janeiro: stitute, 1979), p. 17. Biblioteca do Exercito Editors...security factors exist. These would be Monetary Fund officials. "Balance of Payments," in Annual US-Mexican relationships, moral renovation , demographic

  8. Brave nuclear world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pockley, P

    1999-05-01

    Two announcements have confirmed that the current Australian government intends to realize the unfulfilled dream of the Menzies era for Australia to become a `nuclear nation` by approving a new `research reactor` and a new uranium mine. Meanwhile, the government is working hard to overturn UNESCO`s recommendation to stop the development of the Jabiluka uranium mine. And, an international proposal to store in Australia stockpiles of high level waste from the world`s power stations and decommissioned nuclear weapons has finally come into the open with the revelation that Pangea Resources Australia Pty Ltd has presented a summary proposal to the government. Though rejected, the plan remains active. Central to the rush to capitalise on Australia`s uranium resources is Environment Minister, Senator Robert Hill, whose formal approvals for the reactor and the mine have been legally essential

  9. Nuclear Deterrence in the Age of Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J

    2009-01-21

    The fallacy of zero nuclear weapons, even as a virtual goal, is discussed. Because the complete abolition of nuclear weapons is not verifiable, nuclear weapons will always play a role in the calculus of assure, dissuade, deter and defeat (ADDD). However, the relative contribution of nuclear weapons to international security has diminished. To reconstitute the Cold War nuclear capability, with respect to both the nuclear weapons capability and their associated delivery systems, is fiscally daunting and not warranted due to competing budgetary pressures and their relative contribution to international security and nonproliferation. A proposed pathway to a sustainable nuclear weapons capability end-state is suggested which provides enough ADDD; a Dyad composed of fewer delivery and weapon systems, with trickle production at the National Laboratories and private sector to maintain capability and guard against technological surprise.

  10. Operational Lessons Learned in the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    South Korea - and the Marines - From Extinction (NY, NY: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2009), 28-9. 49 Michael Hickey, The Korean War (Woodstock & New...Untold Story of the Most Daring Covert Mission of the Korean War. NY, NY: Putnam Books, 2003. Malcom, Ben S. White Tigers : My Secret War in Korea...and the Marines - From Extinction . NY, NY: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2009. Spurr, Russell. Enter the Dragon: China’s Undeclared War Against the

  11. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  12. War and reconstruction in northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses some of the economic effects of war in northern Mozambique. It indicates how the historical and structural features of the economy of northern Mozambique restricted post-war reconstruction and post-war poverty alleviation. These features include the dominance of only a few cash crops for export, the absence of much rural trading, poor communication infrastructure, and weak political and state institutions. The specific nature of the internal war further weakened the stat...

  13. Future Indonesia-East Timor Relations: An Analysis of the Regional Security Practices in the Cold War and After

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Indonesia In the fourteenth century, long before the arrival of Dutch and Portuguese colonizers, the era of Majapahit rule the old Javanese Hindu...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR...from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR RELATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY PRACTICES IN THE COLD WAR

  14. Artists in Times of War

    OpenAIRE

    Zinn, Howard

    2007-01-01

    In his article, "Artists in Times of War," Howard Zinn examines the role of the artist during war time and finds that the transcendent nature of art not only shows us the beauty of everyday life, but can also go beyond everyday politics and media hype to critically address the problems of the day. In fact, Zinn suggests that it is the job of artists to "to think outside the boundaries of permissible thought and dare to say things that no one else will say." For Zinn, this is especially import...

  15. In an Era of Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smith Rotabi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Intercountry adoption (ICA is a relatively common practice. Since its contemporary conception during the Second World War, approximately one million children have been adopted internationally. Controversy surrounding ICA includes ideas about human rights and notions of child rescue in the context of major reform to prevent child sales and abduction under the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption. Social work, as a discipline, is a central player in ICA practices, and at least, one historian asserts that social work academic literature is scant on the topic of problematic practice and reforms. A review of the social work literature was conducted, and four thematic areas emerged in the 87 manuscripts reviewed: (a social policy; (b exploitation, social justice, ethics, and human rights; (c clinical perspectives to include identity, child development, and family transition; and (d child welfare practices. Results indicate a small but robust body of social work literature, and highlights are presented as well as analysis indicating methodical trends.

  16. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  17. Trauma and suicidality in war affected communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, J.; Bremner, S.; Bogic, M.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Priebe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to assess whether experiences of war trauma remain directly associated with suicidality in war affected communities when other risk factors are considered. Materials and methods: In the main sample 3313 participants from former Yugoslavia who experienced war trauma were

  18. Suicide Prevention in the Pacific War (WWII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Peter T.

    1991-01-01

    During war against Japan, there were two facets of U.S. program to prevent suicide among the Japanese: research component in Foreign Morale Analysis Division of Office of War Information and a suicide prevention program itself put into effect toward the end of the war in battles of Saipan and Okinawa and undertaken by U.S. GIs. (Author/NB)

  19. Trauma and suicidality in war affected communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Jankovic; S. Bremner; M. Bogic; D. Lecic-Tosevski; D. Ajdukovic; T. Franciskovic; G.M. Galeazzi; A. Kucukalic; N. Morina; M. Popovski; M. Schützwohl; S. Priebe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to assess whether experiences of war trauma remain directly associated with suicidality in war affected communities when other risk factors are considered. Materials and methods: In the main sample 3313 participants from former Yugoslavia who experienced war trauma were recruite

  20. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  1. Churches, chaplains and the Great War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314571507

    2015-01-01

    When in 1914 the European nations mobilised for war, the churches followed suit. Notwithstanding pre-war church peace conferences and close international cooperation, most churches and churchmen immediately and whole-heartedly supported their nation’s participation in war and provided the religious

  2. [Psychiatric aid during the Great Patriotic War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The article presents an observe of questions of organization of psychiatric aid during the Great Patriotic War, main disadvantages of the first period of war, their dependence from circumstances of prewar period, ignoring of experience of last war. There was marked the role of famous native psychiatrists in organization of psychiatric aid to military servicemen in theatre of combat actions.

  3. Peace-keeping Forces: YA War Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe Chris

    2000-01-01

    Argues that good young adult books about war can help teenagers appreciate the blessings of peace and the horrors of war, and perhaps may inspire them to do what they can to preserve peace. Describes briefly 71 young adult war books worth reading. (SR)

  4. The Transformation of War:New Wars and The Case of Syrian Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    EKER, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The dramatic transformation of war phenomenon has leaded to some conceptual seekings in line with the globalization process and the end of Cold War. From 1990 onwards, the “new wars” debate provided multidimensional perspective for the war’s definiton, its actors, strategies and states’ position. Objects and motivations behind wars concluded with significant transformations: Privatization of state’s monopoly over use of force, replacing the inter-state wars by intra-state wars, and the emerge...

  5. Nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, David (Bishop Luffa Comprehensive School, Chichester (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Physics covers the aspects of radioactivity and nuclear physics dealt with in the syllabuses of all the A-level examination boards; in particular, it provides detailed coverage of the Joint Matriculation Board option in nuclear physics. It deals with the discovery of the atomic nucleus, the physics of nuclear processes, and nuclear technology. (author).

  6. Government: Nuclear Safety in Doubt a Year after Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ember, Lois R.

    1980-01-01

    A year after the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), the signals transmitted to the public are still confused. Industry says that nuclear power is safe and that the aftermath of TMI ushers in a new era of safety. Antinuclear activists say TMI sounded nuclear power's death knell. (Author/RE)

  7. North Korea’s 2009 Nuclear Test: Containment, Monitoring, Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    50 years of the nuclear weapons era, radiochemistry techniques were developed and used to determine the characteristics (such as yield, materials...meet national needs. Similarly, Congress, in P.L. 111-140, Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act, found, “The number of radiochemistry programs and

  8. Nuclear ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  9. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  10. 二战期间美国国家战略转变与核观念的初步形成——美国研制原子弹的准备过程%U.S.Military Strategy Shift and the Initial Shape of the Nuclear Conception in World War Ⅱ——On the Preparation for the Development of the Atomic Bomb in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晶

    2011-01-01

    Making process for the development of the A-bomb reflected the initial Shape of the U.S.nuclear conception and a shift in the U.S.strategy.With the development of the war,in order to compete with Nazi Germany in the nuclear arms race,after much consideration,Roosevelt decided to cooperate with Britain at last.The development of nucleonics in 1930's,the worry of"enemy alien" and the urgency of warfare provided conditions for the U.S.-Britain joint development of the A-bomb.%原子弹的研制反映了美国核观念的初步确立和战略的转变,是美国军事战略的重要组成部分。随着战争形势的发展,罗斯福经过反复斟酌最终决定联合英国与德国法西斯在军事科学领域展开"核军备竞赛"。20世纪30年代核物理学的发展,"敌国侨民"的担忧和战事的紧迫为美英合研制原子弹提供了条件。

  11. An Update of Soviet Research on and Exploitation of ’Nuclear Winter,’ 1984-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-16

    34The World After Nuclear War" the impresion was given that the Soviet scientists would become important actiie participants in the international nuc...would be capable of triggering a "nuclear winter." Stenchikov of the CCAS presented a paper "On 3D Nuclear Winter Modeling," in which he and

  12. Implanting a Discipline: The Academic Trajectory of Nuclear Engineering in the USA and UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear engineer emerged as a new form of recognised technical professional between 1940 and the early 1960s as nuclear fission, the chain reaction and their applications were explored. The institutionalization of nuclear engineering--channelled into new national laboratories and corporate design offices during the decade after the war, and…

  13. The Politics of Star Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  14. The Neural Web of War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to gain more insight in the neural network alterations that may underlie PTSD and trauma-focused therapy outcome. To investigate TheNeural Web of War brain scans of healthy civilians (n=26), and veterans with (n=58) and without (n=29) PTSD were assessed. Structural and fun

  15. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  16. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...

  17. Crafting forgiveness accounts after war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Obika, Julaina; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2014-01-01

    After two decades of conflict and internment in camps for Internally Displaced Persons (IDP), the Acholi people have returned to their homes and are trying to heal their wounds after the long war in northern Uganda. Bilateral and multilateral donors, NGOs, cultural organizations, and religious...

  18. Images of the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    1989-01-01

    The conventional U.S. picture traces the Cold War to Soviet violation of wartime agreements, while the U.S.S.R. defends its actions as responses to American violations and foreign adventurism. An understanding of how ideology is shaped by national self-interest will help students see beyond propaganda and myth in interpreting past and current…

  19. Gulf War Illness Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    neurofibromato- sis; autism ; and other areas with military health interests including psychological health, traumatic brain injury, and Gulf War Illness (GWI...the national news headlines, it has not dimmed our hope that treatments and cures for GWI are waiting to be discovered and brought to bear against

  20. No Winner in Currency War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Maorong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Recently,the weakening US dollar has forced many economies into measures for intervening in the foreign reserve market to curb a fast appreciation of their own currencies.A great clamor has arisen around currency war amidst hype from western media.

  1. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    States that have been frozen since the Korean War .29 Removal from the U.S. list of state sponsors of terrorism will end the requirement that U.S...normalization of relationships, a permanent peace regime [to replace the 1953 Korean War armistice] and significant energy and economic assistance.” Such a...Iranian nuclear facilities at Natanz and Irak . It issued a report in February 2008 that gave reputed details of North Korean-Iranian collaboration in

  2. The World of WarsRisky systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have...... the systems we have. They have their own path dependencies, their temporal bindings and their own stories to tell. In the worst case, they stick to an imaginary of almighty power - and then they lose. We tend to forget that our present past will be experienced and told differently in the future past...

  3. War in Contemporary Danish Children's Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    War in Contemporary Danish Children’s Literature In this paper, I have charted the depiction of war in contemporary Danish children’s literature. In the last decade several children’s books have been published about the war in Afghanistan and other ongoing military conflicts. These books...... are in various genres from novels to non-fiction picture books, and they are made with several purposes from entertainment to classroom reading. They depict war in many ways and they address child readers at different levels. What they have in common is an ambition of realism and sharing of knowledge (or...... education) about war. My key question is how childhood is created and constructed in these books. What and how do contemporary authors and illustrators of Danish children’s books tell about war? How is the child reader confronted with extreme situations and the crucial consequences of war? What...

  4. Flaws in the Concept of Nuclear Deterrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of nuclear deterrence is seriously flawed, and it violates the fundamental ethical principles of all major religions. Besides being morally unacceptable, nuclear weapons are also illegal according to a historic 1996 decision of the International Court of Justice, a ruling that reflects the opinion of the vast majority of the worldʼs peoples. Even a small nuclear war would be an ecological catastrophe, not only killing civilian populations indiscriminately in both belligerent and neutral countries, but also severely damaging global agriculture and making large areas of the earth permanently uninhabitable through radioactive contamination. The danger of accidental nuclear war continues to be very great today, and the danger of nuclear terrorism is increasing. In this perilous situation, it is necessary for the nuclear nations to acknowledge that the concept of deterrence has been a mistake, which is threatening the lives of all human beings as well as threatening devastation of the biosphere. Acknowledging that the policy of nuclear deterrence has been a grave error can reduce risk of nuclear weapons proliferation.

  5. Multidecadal global cooling and unprecedented ozone loss following a regional nuclear conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael J Mills; Owen B Toon; Julia Lee-Taylor; Alan Robock

    2014-01-01

      We present the first study of the global impacts of a regional nuclear war with an Earth system model including atmospheric chemistry, ocean dynamics, and interactive sea ice and land components...

  6. Out of gas: Tenneco in the era of natural gas regulation, 1938--1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, David

    2011-12-01

    overshadowed its former core business. The 1970s brought a renewed interest in natural gas and other energy resources as the nation faced chronic energy shortages. As the FPC loosened its low rate policy in the early 1970s to encourage production, Tenneco once again invested heavily in new pipelines and gas exploration, as well as more speculative ventures in Arctic gas, liquefied natural gas, synthetic fuels, and nuclear energy. By 1978, growing public and political support led to deregulation of natural gas, plunging Tenneco into a new era where market forces, not FPC oversight, impacted the gas industry. The deregulation of natural gas in 1978 removed the guaranteed rate of return from Tenneco's bottom line and exposed the weakness of Tenneco's conglomeration---the profitable pipeline had long been used to prop-up weaker businesses. The 1980s and 1990s were characterized by a gradual dissolution of Tenneco.

  7. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  8. Literary Depictions i n Ghazavâtnâmahs That Adress the Crimean War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat Şamil ŞAHİN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean War that started in 1853 between the Ottoman Empire and Russia lasted until 1856. It ended with the defeat of the Russians as England and France sided with the Ottoman Empire. A great number of work has been written then and since about this war which deeply affect our social and politica l life. Among these, there are ghazavâtnâmahs that describe what happened down - to - line, usually by the pen of the poets and writers who closely witnessed the war. The causes of war, the preparations, what happened at the time of expedition and measures tha t were taken, the outcome of the events during the war and afterwards are all brought into sharp relief in most of these works. Whether in verse, prose or mixed typed, these works of art have gradually increased after 15 th century in Turkish literature. Th is genre has decreased by the Ottoman Empire began to decline and the raids were scarce; and it totally disappeared after the tradition of ghaza were ceased. In this study the literary depictions in - the last examples of the genre - Salih Hayri’s Kırım Zafe rnamesi (Hayrâbât, Ahmed Rızâ Trabzonî’s Manzume - i Sivastopol and Süleyman Şâdî’s Muzaffernâme are presented. There are not many studies that focus on literary depictions in ghazavâtnâmahs, particularly on literary war depictions. The characteristics of t hese literary depictions are tried to be explained with reference to ghazavâtnâmahs belonging to the Empire's last era.

  9. ERA [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    ALTERACIONES NATURALES A CAUSA DE LA COLONIZACION VEGETAL EN EL INTERIOR DE LA ERA. PRESENTA AUSENCIA DE ALGUNAS LAJAS. ASCENDEMOS POR LA CARRETERA QUE DISCURRE POR EL FONDO DEL BARRANCO HASTA LLEGAR A LA ZONA DENOMINADA CUEVA BERMEJA, JUNTO AL RESTAURANTE "EL CENTRO" Y LA ERMITA. LA ERA SE ENCUENTRAL LADO DEL COLEGIO. Antiguedad: SIGLO XX Calificación del suelo: RÚSTICO DE PROTECCIÓN DE ENTORNOS Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No ERA DE PLANTA CIRCULAR RODE...

  10. El lenguaje en la era digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vergara Silva

    1998-02-01

    Con base en la interrelación entre lenguaje y pensamiento se plantea el papel fundamental que el lenguaje ocupa en el modelo económico, educativo y cultural generado por la aparición de la era digital o era del conocimiento. en este artículo se evidencian los retos que genera una era marcada por un esquema digital en el desarrollo y uso de habilidades comunicativas tanto en la docencia superior como en el ejercicio profesional eficiente.

  11. Otto Hahn (1944). Discovery of nuclear fission; Otto Hahn (1944). Descubrimiento de la fision nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Otto Hahn (Frankfurt-on-Main, 1879-Gotinga, 1968) is the discoverer of nuclear fission, which awarded him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944. After leaving Germany during the Second World War to settle in the United Kingdom, he returned to this country as a renown figure.

  12. A new era of thromboelastometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochemore, Tomaz; Piza, Felipe Maia de Toledo; Rodrigues, Roseny Dos Reis; Guerra, João Carlos de Campos; Ferraz, Leonardo José Rolim; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos

    2017-06-12

    Severe hemorrhage with necessity of allogeneic blood transfusion is common complication in intensive care unit and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Prompt recognition and treatment of bleeding causes becomes essential for the effective control of hemorrhage, rationalizing the use of allogeneic blood components, and in this way, preventing an occurrence of their potential adverse effects. Conventional coagulation tests such as prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time present limitations in predicting bleeding and guiding transfusion therapy in critically ill patients. Viscoelastic tests such as thromboelastography and rotational thromboelastometry allow rapid detection of coagulopathy and goal-directed therapy with specific hemostatic drugs. The new era of thromboelastometry relies on its efficacy, practicality, reproducibility and cost-effectiveness to establish itself as the main diagnostic tool and transfusion guide in patients with severe active bleeding. RESUMO A hemorragia grave com necessidade de transfusão de sangue e componentes é uma complicação frequente na unidade de terapia intensiva e está associada ao aumento da morbidade e da mortalidade. A identificação adequada e o tratamento precoce da causa específica da coagulopatia tornam-se fundamentais para o controle efetivo da hemorragia, racionalizando a utilização de sangue e componentes, e desta forma, prevenindo a ocorrência de efeitos adversos. Testes convencionais da coagulação (tempo de ativação de protrombina e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada) apresentam limitações para prever sangramento e guiar a terapia transfusional em pacientes graves. Testes viscoelásticos como a tromboelastografia e tromboelastometria rotacional permitem a rápida detecção da coagulopatia e orientam a terapia de forma individualizada, alvo dirigida com drogas hemostáticas específicas. A nova era da tromboelastometria confia na sua eficácia, praticidade

  13. Farm Hall and the German atomic project of World War II a dramatic history

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David C

    2017-01-01

    This gripping book brings back to life the events surrounding the internment of ten German Nuclear Scientists immediately after World War II. It is also an "eye-witness" account of the dawning of the nuclear age, with the dialogue and narrative spanning the period before, during and after atomic bombs were dropped on Japan at the end of the war. This pivotal historical episode is conveyed, along with the emotions as well as the facts, through drama, historical narrative, and photographs of the captive German nuclear scientists - who included Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn, and Max von Laue. The unique story that unfolds in the play is based on secretly recorded transcripts of the scientists’ actual conversations at Farm Hall, together with related documents and photographs.

  14. On the cultural legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US educational exchange (1949-1990)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990.During those years,preparation for educational exchanges,personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges.However,even though the relationship had developed very fast,it was by no means smooth sailing.These exchanges served as a political barometer and also acted as a conduit between the two when diplomatic relations were non-existent.It eased the tension when the relationship between the two countries had problems.The 40 years of exchanges were a win-win situation for both sides and one of the valuable cultural legacies that came out of the Cold War era.

  15. The lab and the land: overcoming the Arctic in Cold War Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farish, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The militarization of Alaska during and after World War II created an extraordinary set of new facilities. But it also reshaped the imaginative role of Alaska as a hostile environment, where an antagonistic form of nature could be defeated with the appropriate combination of technology and training. One of the crucial sites for this reformulation was the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, based at Ladd Air Force Base in Fairbanks. In the first two decades of the Cold War, its employees conducted numerous experiments on acclimatization and survival. The laboratory is now best known for an infamous set of tests involving the application of radioactive tracers to indigenous Alaskans--experiments publicized by post-Cold War panels established to evaluate the tragic history of atomic-era human subject research. But little else has been written about the laboratory's relationship with the populations and landscapes that it targeted for study. This essay presents the laboratory as critical to Alaska's history and the history of the Cold War sciences. A consideration of the laboratory's various projects also reveals a consistent fascination with race. Alaskan Natives were enrolled in experiments because their bodies were understood to hold clues to the mysteries of northern nature. A scientific solution would aid American military campaigns not only in Alaska, but in cold climates everywhere.

  16. Moral Crisis, Pragmatism, and the Lessons of the Library War Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T.F. Burgess

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1917, the leadership of the American Library Association (ALA developed the Library War Service program. This program was designed to collect funds and distribute books to American soldiers who were in training or deployed for World War I. The war effort provided an opportunity to regain status for the profession that had been lost as a result of policy decisions during the progressive era in librarianship. This search for external validation resulted in a return to culturally authoritarian practices such as the censorship of German language material, denial of access to pacifist organizations, and the institution of mandatory loyalty oaths among library employees. This paper presents an examination of how resolving the moral crisis in American librarianship that occurred as part of the Library War Service eventually led to the establishment of some of the major ethical codes used by the ALA. It makes the case that this resolution promoted closer integration of the profession’s identity and its behaviour. It argues as well that this integration has led members of the ALA to develop expertise in defending the public’s intellectual freedoms, which is a significant contribution to society. Attention is given to the pragmatic nature of historical and contemporary progressive policy decisions and to the risks to the status of public libraries posed by moral crises that result from seeking external validation for the worth of the library profession.

  17. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  18. [War casualty triage during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Lefort, Hugues; Tabbagh, Xavier; Pons, François

    2014-06-01

    Along with the front hospitals (HOE), the action of sorting out the injured was one of the most important innovations of the Great War. Progressively, it was implemented and codified on each level of the evacuating chain, with variations due to the different phases of the conflict, such as in Verdun or in the Somme. From 1917 onwards, specific sorting centers, managed by experimented soldiers, were set up in the evacuating hospitals.

  19. Two Wars: Overseas Contingency Operations and the War on Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    Sudan . These actions by the Clinton administration however, were reactive rather than proactive and, furthermore, proved ineffective in deterring...America, which remained a cash crop up until the Civil War.16 One scholar, Edward Brecher, notes that at the end of the nineteenth century America had...Sheriff Reymundo Guerra , who later pleaded guilty to a drug trafficking charge for accepting thousands of dollars in exchange for passing information

  20. A Guerilla War At Sea: The Sri Lankan Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    additional assistance for the LTTE.102 In 1997 a seaborne shipment of mortar shells bound for the Sri Lankan Army was intercepted. This prize restocked the...hundred nautical miles from Sri Lanka to attack a LTTE Sea Pigeon convoy located off the coast of Indonesia near the Cocoa Islands. Three Sea Pigeons were...artillery shells and mortar rounds. As the war progressed, this caused an additional loss of LTTE combat power even as the number of cadre members