WorldWideScience

Sample records for war era implications

  1. War and peace in the Internet era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Porta Fabregat

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This article looks to find the ideological causes that lead human beings to war or peace nowadays, in the Internet era. This proposal is worthy of study as war is not a need in terms of human nature or history: we are capable of war and peace simultaneously. However, why does war survive if we are able to live in peace? In our opinion, the actual cause of conflict is fanaticism. This phenomenon comes from the perversion of the two bases of our civilisation: liberty and rationality. This twofold perversion leads us to believe that we are the Absolute, or at least its instrument.Since the fall of the Berlin wall, this kind of fanaticism has come from the generalised conviction that we are at the "end of history"; in this light, one can conclude that this irrationality is definitive and, thus, that any efforts to achieve world peace are useless. However, we believe that the formula for peace can only be derived from reflection and the effective extension around the world of a technical medium that makes communication between all men possible. This would be able to resolve all the perversions of liberty and rationality and make people aware of the infinite distance between us and the Absolute. However, this reflection is not enough. For this awareness to triumph, the technical and ideological situation represented by the Internet has to spread over the whole planet: liberty for those taking part, rationality to allow for communication among all those connected and universal access. This is the moral trend for the Internet, which in itself encourages progress towards world peace.

  2. War in the Era of Declining U.S. Global Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Shor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While Clausewitz’s perspective that ‘war is the continuation of politics by other means’ is widely quoted, the full implications of that perspective are rarely explored. What I propose to highlight in this essay is how the imperial political projects of the UnitedStates in the post-Vietnam era unleashed direct and indirect regional war strategies from Latin America to the Middle East. The essay will highlight, in particular, the wide variety of such strategies from covert intervention in Chile to proxy wars in Central America to military intervention in Iraq and Afghanistan. Attempting to re-assert its global hegemony after Vietnam, the U.S. became more committed to perpetrating war as an instrument of its global posture. Of course, relying on war strategies, whether through direct or indirect interventions, complicates, if not confounds, the imposition of global hegemony.

  3. Constructing Citizenship through War in the Human Rights Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy William Waters

    2017-01-01

    it will examine the evidence for war’s continued effect (through means such as differentiation between citizens and alien residents, expulsion of aliens, assimilation of refugee flows, and border changes; then it will advance an argument about how the factual effects of war interact with legal doctrine (such as through selective definition and interpretation of wars, perfection of wartime changes in peace treaties, and novel demographic changes introduced by peace treaties. The article considers the concepts of participation, loyalty, and treason; the evidence and implications of wartime propaganda; the rules and practice governing transfer of populated territory between sovereigns; the incentives that the laws of war create for individuals’ identification with the state; and the accommodation in peace plans of demographic change wrought by war. Principal reference is made to changes in citizenship status following the wars of the former Yugoslavia, the Algerian decolonization, the postwar settlement of Europe, and to the debates about the contours of citizenship in Israel and the Palestinian territories.

  4. ‘Resource Wars’ in the Post-Cold War Era: The Persian Gulf Oil, US, and the Iraq War

    OpenAIRE

    S Naji

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the strategic region of the Persian Gulf and its oil resources, the US energy policy, and the Iraq War as a case in point. It refers to the importance of the Persian Gulf oil in the US policies and the US geopolitical practices to launch conflicts and wars in the post-Cold War era that scholars have categorized as “resource wars.” Reviewing relevant studies has revealed that amongst the natural resources oil as the most vital commodity has always played a major role in ...

  5. 75 FR 54445 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity: Comment Request... assist in VA's efforts to address the health concerns and problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written... of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent Form for Release of Medical Records...

  6. 75 FR 70365 - Agency Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA..., will help VA to assess the health of Gulf War veterans who were exposed to a variety of environmental...

  7. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  8. Health Status of Gulf War and Era Veterans Serving in the US Military in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ben; Long, Kyna; Rull, Rudolph P; Dursa, Erin K

    2018-05-01

    This research describes Gulf War and era veterans enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study, who were sampled from US military personnel serving in 2000, and compares health characteristics of this sample to a Department of Veterans Affairs study sampled from the complete population. Demographics characteristics of this sample were described. Self-reported health characteristics were compared between the two studies. Gulf War and era veterans in the Millennium Cohort were generally healthier than in the VA study; they had fewer medical conditions and mental health disorders and better self-reported health. In both studies, Gulf War veterans had poorer health outcomes than era veterans. The Millennium Cohort Study is a unique resource for examining the long-term health effects of Gulf War deployment, particularly comparing deployed and nondeployed personnel and examining illnesses with long latencies.

  9. The Built Environment of Cold War Era Servicewomen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Dawn A; Enscore, Susan I

    2006-01-01

    ..., training, and workspaces of military women. This reconsideration led to ever-evolving regulations and standard operating procedures throughout the course of the Cold War concerning this matter...

  10. Cognitive Measures of Vietnam-Era Prisoners of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Experience as a prisoner of war (POW) could lead to cognitive impairment because of the injuries, including head trauma, and other stressors endured preceding and during capture, and during incarceration...

  11. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic

  12. America in the Civil War Era: A History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 13, Number 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2008-01-01

    On May 17-18, 2008, FPRI's Wachman Center presented a weekend of discussion on America in the Civil War Era, 1829-77, for 43 teachers selected from across the country, held at and co-sponsored by Carthage College, Kenosha, Wisconsin. Sessions included: (1) Throes of Democracy (Walter A. McDougall); (2) What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of…

  13. Curriculum Evolution at Air Command and Staff College in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, William Robert, II.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a historical research method to eliminate the gap in the historical knowledge of Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) curriculum evolution in the post-Cold War era. This study is the only known analysis of the forces that influenced the ACSC curriculum and the rationale behind curricular change at ACSC in the post-Cold…

  14. 75 FR 54965 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity: Comment Request... needed to assist in VA's efforts to address the health concerns and problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES... use of other forms of information technology. Titles: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War...

  15. Political Evolution at NATO Level in Post Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Cătălin Tomiţă

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the post Cold era sounds like that: „The world has changed dramatically. The Alliance has made an essential contribution. The peoples of North America and the whole of Europe can now join in a community of shared values based on freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. As an agent of change, a source of stability and the indispensable guarantor of its members' security, our Alliance will continue to play a key role in building a new, lasting order of peace in Europe: a Europe of cooperation and prosperity”[1].

  16. Female Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan seeking care from VA specialized PTSD Programs: comparison with male veterans and female war zone veterans of previous eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Alan; Rosenheck, Robert; Desai, Rani

    2010-04-01

    Differences in the characteristics and mental health needs of female veterans of the Iraq/Afghanistan war compared with those of veterans of other wars may have useful implications for VA program and treatment planning. Female veterans reporting service in the Iraq/Afghanistan war were compared with women reporting service in the Persian Gulf and Vietnam wars and to men reporting service in the Iraq/Afghanistan war. Subjects were drawn from VA administrative data on veterans who sought outpatient treatment from specialized posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment programs. A series of analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to control for program site and age. In general, Iraq/Afghanistan and Persian Gulf women had less severe psychopathology and more social supports than did Vietnam women. In turn, Iraq/Afghanistan women had less severe psychopathology than Persian Gulf women and were exposed to less sexual and noncombat nonsexual trauma than their Persian Gulf counterparts. Notable differences were also found between female and male veterans of the Iraq/Afghanistan war. Women had fewer interpersonal and economic supports, had greater exposure to different types of trauma, and had different levels of diverse types of pathology than their male counterparts. There appear to be sufficient differences within women reporting service in different war eras and between women and men receiving treatment in VA specialized treatment programs for PTSD that consideration should be given to program planning and design efforts that address these differences in every program treating female veterans reporting war zone service.

  17. Mitigation of Selected Hanford Site Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Harvey, David W.

    2006-01-01

    This document is the first time that Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts from the Hanford Site have been assembled within a publication. The publication presents photographic and written documentation of a number of Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts that were identified and tagged during assessment walk throughs of historic buildings on the Hanford Site but which could not be curated within the Hanford collection because they were too large for long-term storage and/or exhibit purposes or were radiologically contaminated. The significance of the artifacts in this publication and a proposed future appendix is based not on the individual significance of any single artifact but on their collective contribution to the science and engineering of creating plutonium and advancing nuclear technology in nuclear fuel and power.

  18. Mitigation of Selected Hanford Site Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Ellen P.; Harvey, David W.

    2006-09-08

    This document is the first time that Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts from the Hanford Site have been assembled within a publication. The publication presents photographic and written documentation of a number of Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts that were identified and tagged during assessment walk throughs of historic buildings on the Hanford Site but which could not be curated within the Hanford collection because they were too large for long-term storage and/or exhibit purposes or were radiologically contaminated. The significance of the artifacts in this publication and a proposed future appendix is based not on the individual significance of any single artifact but on their collective contribution to the science and engineering of creating plutonium and advancing nuclear technology in nuclear fuel and power.

  19. Sino­Pakistan Relations and the Challenges of Post-­Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China has emerged as the world’s second largest economy, and the largest exporter of goods with 9.6 per cent of the global share. Moreover, the last two decades have seen China emerging as an international and regional power of the 21st century. Thus, in order to continue with the economic benefits, China wants peace and stability as well as to play an active role on international and regional fronts. On the other hand, Pakistan, the world’s sixth most populous country, is a major power of South Asia. While having a developed infrastructure and vibrant political and security institutions, Pakistan is nevertheless currently facing many challenges on the economic front, including political instability and religious extremism. This paper is an attempt to analyze the challenges faced by both China and Pakistan in the post-Cold War era.

  20. Implications of the War On Terror for Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The US-led War on Terror in Afghanistan conducted for the aim of eliminating Al- Qaeda and Osama-bin-Laden has brought about enormous economic, social and political changes in the region. Pakistan’s role as a front-line state in the War on Terror has had profound implications for its domestic politics and foreign policy. Pakistan not only took a U-turn on its Afghanistan policy, but also had to crack down on internal extremism and terrorism. Several military operations were carried out against the so- called terrorist factions in tribal areas and some other parts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP, renamed as Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KPK under the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of 1973 of Pakistan. With a majority Pashtun population, KPK has been a target of the War on Terror due to its social structure, cultural restraints and the religion of its inhabitants on the boundary with Afghanistan. The socio-cultural similarities and geographical proximity with Afghanistan have made it a sanctuary for Al-Qaeda members. The War on Terror in KPK has had negative political, economic and social repercussions for the region and thus has created hatred among the Pashtuns. This paper is an attempt to analyze the factors which made the Pashtuns of this area prone to militancy. It will analyze the political, economic and social implications of the War on Terror for KPK in general and its Pashtun population in particular.

  1. The First World War and Its Implications for Education in British Museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Gaynor

    1988-01-01

    Examines how the First World War prompted British museums to change their educational functions. Discusses museums in pre-war Britain, wartime exhibitions and educational activities, the outcome of the war experience, and First World War's implications for education in museums. (GEA)

  2. Criminal justice involvement, trauma, and negative affect in Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B; Johnson, Sally C; Newton, Virginia M; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Wagner, H Ryan; Beckham, Jean C

    2012-12-01

    Although criminal behavior in veterans has been cited as a growing problem, little is known about why some veterans are at increased risk for arrest. Theories of criminal behavior postulate that people who have been exposed to stressful environments or traumatic events and who report negative affect such as anger and irritability are at increased risk of antisocial conduct. We hypothesized veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) who report anger/irritability would show higher rates of criminal arrests. To test this, we examined data in a national survey of N = 1,388 Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans. We found that 9% of respondents reported arrests since returning home from military service. Most arrests were associated with nonviolent criminal behavior resulting in incarceration for less than 2 weeks. Unadjusted bivariate analyses revealed that veterans with probable PTSD or TBI who reported anger/irritability were more likely to be arrested than were other veterans. In multivariate analyses, arrests were found to be significantly related to younger age, male gender, having witnessed family violence, prior history of arrest, alcohol/drug misuse, and PTSD with high anger/irritability but were not significantly related to combat exposure or TBI. Findings show that a subset of veterans with PTSD and negative affect may be at increased risk of criminal arrest. Because arrests were more strongly linked to substance abuse and criminal history, clinicians should also consider non-PTSD factors when evaluating and treating veterans with criminal justice involvement.

  3. Does Wartime Captivity Affect Late-life Mental Health? A Study of Vietnam-era Repatriated Prisoners of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A

    2012-01-01

    Our earlier study of U.S. prisoners of war in Vietnam (King et al., 2011) examined personal and military demographics and aspects of the stressful experience of wartime imprisonment as they related to psychological well-being shortly after homecoming in 1973. Research with repatriated prisoners of war (RPWs) from other military eras suggests that the severity of captivity stressors might predict long-term distress. However, the extent to which effects of the captivity experience persisted for Vietnam-era RPWs is unknown. The present study extended our previous analyses by examining the associations of demographic factors, captivity stressors, and repatriation mental health with subsequent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depressive symptoms (measured nearly 30 years later) in a sample of 292 Vietnam-era RPWs. Results indicated that although most of the men in our sample were within normal limits on anxiety and depressive symptoms, a substantial minority reported experiencing clinically significant levels. Levels of PTSD symptoms were generally low, with only a modest proportion demonstrating elevations. Multiple regression analyses showed that age at capture and posttraumatic stress symptoms at repatriation predicted all three long-term mental health outcomes. In addition, physical torture predicted long-term PTSD symptoms. Findings highlight the potential long-term effects of wartime captivity, and also suggest that most Vietnam-era RPWs demonstrate remarkable resilience to extraordinarily stressful life experiences.

  4. Improving Vocational Rehabilitation Access and Return to Work and Career Outcomes among African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War, and Vietnam War Era Veterans with Disabilities: A White Paper Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey L., Ed.: Johnson, Jean E., Ed.; Washington, Andre L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to present documents that discuss issues related to improving access to vocational rehabilitation services and return to work rates of African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War and Vietnam War Era veterans with disabilities. This monograph also includes a review of relevant literature on barriers to employment…

  5. Overview of U.S. Navy Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) Organization During the Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manke, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    ...) conducted by the United States during the Cold War. Books and articles have begun to capture the historic context, the strategic intent, and the operational realization of this important element of the Cold War...

  6. Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``

  7. Past Perspectives on Teaching about the Vietnam War: Implications for Teaching about Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    During the Vietnam War, and the years following the conflict, history teachers were often hesitant to examine the war in the classroom for a variety of reasons. This article explores some of the factors that prohibited the effective teaching of the Vietnam War. Implications regarding how these inhibiting factors might affect teaching about the…

  8. Meta-analysis of self-reported health symptoms in 1990–1991 Gulf War and Gulf War-era veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Alexis L; Janulewicz, Patricia A; Sullivan, Kimberly A; Krengel, Maxine H; Yee, Megan K; McClean, Michael; White, Roberta F

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Across diverse groups of Gulf War (GW) veterans, reports of musculoskeletal pain, cognitive dysfunction, unexplained fatigue, chronic diarrhoea, rashes and respiratory problems are common. GW illness is a condition resulting from GW service in veterans who report a combination of these symptoms. This study integrated the GW literature using meta-analytical methods to characterise the most frequently reported symptoms occurring among veterans who deployed to the 1990–1991 GW and to better understand the magnitude of ill health among GW-deployed veterans compared with non-deployed GW-era veterans. Design Meta-analysis. Methods Literature databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies published from January 1990 to May 2017 reporting health symptom frequencies in GW-deployed veterans and GW-era control veterans. Self-reported health symptom data were extracted from 21 published studies. A binomial-normal meta-analytical model was used to determine pooled prevalence of individual symptoms in GW-deployed veterans and GW-era control veterans and to calculate combined ORs of health symptoms comparing GW-deployed veterans and GW-era control veterans. Results GW-deployed veterans had higher odds of reporting all 56 analysed symptoms compared with GW-era controls. Odds of reporting irritability (OR 3.21, 95% CI 2.28 to 4.52), feeling detached (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.83 to 7.03), muscle weakness (OR 3.19, 95% CI 2.73 to 3.74), diarrhoea (OR 3.24, 95% CI 2.51 to 4.17) and rash (OR 3.18, 95% CI 2.47 to 4.09) were more than three times higher among GW-deployed veterans compared with GW-era controls. Conclusions The higher odds of reporting mood-cognition, fatigue, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms among GW-deployed veterans compared with GW-era controls indicates these symptoms are important when assessing GW veteran health status. PMID:29440208

  9. The Implications of Preemptive and Preventive War Doctrines: A Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    geopolitics, ideology , and personality as combining to produce the fatal brew which resulted in 42 years of nuclear shadowed global menace.26 But...preventive war. 49 1. Preventive war is war, and preventive warfare is warfare. It is not a distinctive genus of war and warfare. The distinguishing

  10. Growing up in wartime: Evidence from the era of two world wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havari, Enkelejda; Peracchi, Franco

    2017-05-01

    We document the association between war-related shocks in childhood and adult outcomes for Europeans born during the first half of the twentieth century. Using a variety of data, at both the macro- and the micro-level, we address the following questions: What are the patterns of mortality among Europeans born during this period? Do war-related shocks in childhood and adolescence help predict adult health, human capital and wellbeing of the survivors? Are there differences by sex, socio-economic status in childhood, and age when the shocks occurred? At the macro-level, we show that the secular trend towards lower mortality was interrupted by dramatic increases in mortality during World War I, the Spanish Flu, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II, and we quantify the size of these mortality shocks. Different patterns characterize these high-mortality episodes, with substantial variation by country, sex and age group. At the micro-level, we show that war-related hardship in childhood or adolescence, in particular exposure to war events and experience of hunger, is associated with worse physical and mental health, education, cognitive ability and subjective wellbeing at older ages. The strength of the association differs by sex and type of hardship, with war exposure being more important for females and experience of hunger for males. We also show that hardships matter more if experienced in childhood, and have stronger consequences if they last longer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An assessment of survey measures used across key epidemiologic studies of United States Gulf War I Era Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, 12 large epidemiologic studies and 2 registries have focused on U.S. veterans of the 1990–1991 Gulf War Era. We conducted a review of these studies’ research tools to identify existing gaps and overlaps of efforts to date, and to advance development of the next generation of Gulf War Era survey tools. Overall, we found that many of the studies used similar instruments. Questions regarding exposures were more similar across studies than other domains, while neurocognitive and psychological tools were the most variable. Many studies focused on self-reported survey results, with a range of validation practices. However, physical exams, biomedical assessments, and specimen storage were not common. This review suggests that while research may be able to pool data from past surveys, future surveys need to consider how their design can yield data comparable with previous surveys. Additionally, data that incorporate recent technologies in specimen and genetic analyses would greatly enhance such survey data. When combined with existing data on deployment-related exposures and post-deployment health conditions, longitudinal follow-up of existing studies within this collaborative framework could represent an important step toward improving the health of veterans. PMID:23302181

  12. Nuclear deterrence in the 21. century. Lessons from the cold war for a new era of strategic piracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Deterrence remains a primary doctrine for dealing with the threat of nuclear weapons in the 21. century. In this book, the author calls for a renewed intellectual effort to address the relevance of the traditional concepts of first strike, escalation, extended deterrence, and other Cold War-era strategies in today's complex world of additional superpowers (e.g., China), smaller nuclear powers (e.g., Pakistan and North Korea), and non-state actors (e.g., terrorists), as well as the extension of defense and security analysis to new domains, such as outer space and cyber-space. The author draws upon the lessons of the bipolar Cold War era to illustrate new concepts of deterrence that properly account for the variety of nuclear actors, the proliferation of missiles and thermonuclear weapons, and the radical ideologies that all are part of the nuclear scene today. Contents: 1- Introduction, 2 - Why Is This Subject Important?, 3 - Concepts, 4 - Lessons from Crises, 5 - The Age of Small Powers, 6 - Ahead of Us: The Big Piracy Game?, 7 - Space and Cyber-deterrence

  13. Deeply discounted medications: Implications of generic prescription drug wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Jessica L; Tjia, Jennifer; Triller, Darren M

    2010-01-01

    To describe the history of generic prescription pricing programs at major pharmacy chains and their potential implications on prescribing, quality of care, and patient safety. Publicly available generic prescription discount program drug lists as of May 1, 2009. Fierce competition among major pharmacy chains such as Walgreens, CVS, and Walmart has led to a generic prescription pricing war with unclear public health implications. Introduced in 2006, currently 7 of the 10 largest pharmacy chains advertise a version of a deeply discounted medication (DDM) program, accounting for more than 25,000 locations nationally. By early 2008, almost 70 million Americans had used these programs. Although DDM programs lower drug costs for many patients, DDM formularies include potentially ineffective or harmful medications, have the potential to influence physician prescribing behavior, and may impair pharmacists' ability to review complete drug-dispensing records. DDMs are widespread but have the potential for unintended consequences on patients, providers, and the health care system. A systematic review of DDMs needs to evaluate the clinical, economic, and system-level implications of such programs.

  14. The psychological study of anxiety in the era of the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The mid-twentieth century in Britain ushered in a new age of anxiety with the development of total war and the aerial bombing of civilians. Rather than trying to chart and quantify levels of anxiety and fear on the British home front during the Blitz, this article's goal is to examine how these emotions were conceptualized by psychological experts immediately prior to and during the war. The essay follows the rising problematization of anxiety and fear as new concepts calling for professional knowledge and management. It emphasizes the contribution of psychoanalysts to this development while pointing to gradual change between the two world wars.

  15. Global Media and Public Affairs Communications in a New Era of Defense: The War Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tasista, Michele

    2002-01-01

    The Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and subsequent conflict in Afghanistan culminated a 30-year escalation of terrorism and efforts to counter it, an undeclared war that has unfolded principally on the information battlefield...

  16. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era?. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  17. Station blackout at nuclear power plants: Radiological implications for nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, C.S.

    1986-12-01

    Recent work on station blackout is reviewed its radiological implications for a nuclear war scenario is explored. The major conclusion is that the effects of radiation from many nuclear weapon detonations in a nuclear war would swamp those from possible reactor accidents that result from station blackout

  18. Determinants and Politics of German Military Transformation in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Cold War. Additionally, the prevalent antimilitarism called for armed forces that had to break with their historic record of authoritarianism and... paternalism ‖ in NATO affairs. In light of these diverging perceptions, the new Strategic Concept (SC 99), approved at the anniversary summit in

  19. Long-term effects of military service on mental health among veterans of the Vietnam War era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew S; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2008-06-01

    Comparing outcomes of veterans who served in Vietnam and those who served elsewhere, we examined treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, treatment of other mental health conditions, psychiatric treatment location, and six mental health well-being measures. The analytic sample consisted of nationally representative data from the 2001 National Survey of Veterans. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression that controlled for sociodemographic characteristics. Of Vietnam War-era veterans in the National Survey of Veterans (N = 7,914), 3,937 served in Vietnam and 3,977 served elsewhere. These veterans were stratified into or = 60 years of age (N = 1,766). Veterans who served in Vietnam had notably poorer mental health than did those who served elsewhere. There were striking mental health differences between younger and older veterans; younger veterans had substantially worse measures of mental health. These results suggest greater resource needs among younger Vietnam War veterans. Clinicians and the Department of Veterans Affairs should focus on mental health services for younger veterans.

  20. Unfolding the Future of the Long War: Motivations, Prospects, and Implications for the U.S. Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pernin, Christopher G; Nichiporuk, Brian; Stahl, Dale; Beck, Justin; Radaelli-Sanchez, Ricky

    2008-01-01

    ... as an extension of the war on terrorism. But while policy makers, military leaders, and scholars have offered numerous definitions of the long war, no consensus has been reached about this term or its implications for the United States...

  1. Microcosms of democracy: imagining the city neighborhood in World War II-era America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches the rise of a Popular Front-inflected vision of the U.S. city neighborhood's meaning and worth, a communitarian ideal that reached its zenith during World War II before receding in the face of cold-war anxieties, postwar suburbanization, and trepidation over creeping blight. During the war years, numerous progressives interpreted the ethnic-accented urban neighborhood as place where national values became most concrete, casting it as a uniquely American rebuff to the fascist drive for purity. Elaborations appeared in the popular press's celebratory cadences, in writings by educators and social scientists such as Rachel DuBois and Louis Wirth, and in novels, plays, and musicals by Sholem Asch, Louis Hazam, Kurt Weill, Langston Hughes, and others. Each offered new ways for making sense of urban space, yet their works reveal contradictions and uncertainties, particularly in an inability to meld competing impulses toward assimilation and particularism. Building on the volume's theme "The Arts in Place," this essay examines these texts as a collective form of imaginative "placemaking." It explores the conflicted mode of liberal nationalism that took the polyglot city neighborhood as emblem. And it outlines the fissures embedded in that vision, which emerged more fully as the provisional wartime consensus dissolved.

  2. Self-report and longitudinal predictors of violence in Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B; Johnson, Sally C; Newton, Virginia M; Fuller, Sara; Wagner, H Ryan; Beckham, Jean C

    2013-10-01

    This study, using a longitudinal design, attempted to identify whether self-reported problems with violence were empirically associated with future violent behavior among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and whether and how collateral informant interviews enhanced the risk assessment process. Data were gathered from N = 300 participants (n = 150 dyads of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and family/friends). The veterans completed baseline and follow-up interviews 3 years later on average, and family/friends provided collateral data on dependent measures at follow-up. Analyses showed that aggression toward others at follow-up was associated with younger age, posttraumatic stress disorder, combat exposure, and a history of having witnessed parental violence growing up. Self-reported problems controlling violence at baseline had robust statistical power in predicting aggression toward others at follow-up. Collateral report enhanced detection of dependent variables: 20% of cases positive for violence toward others would have been missed relying only on self-report. The results identify a subset of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans at higher risk for problematic postdeployment adjustment and indicate that the veterans' self-report of violence was useful in predicting future aggression. Underreporting of violence was not evidenced by most veterans but could be improved upon by obtaining collateral information.

  3. Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Mathúna Dónal P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Discussion Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans. A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Summary Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi

  4. Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2006-03-14

    The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans.A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi era proved destructive to many humans. Their widespread

  5. Revolution or Realism? United States-Iran Relations in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    a onally, psychologically and physically emasculated by the revolution. As the principal group supportimg the monarchy, the armed forces were viewed...12-14 and Patrick 0. Ada.., The Fal of th a S dhah n theLmperid Irainm For erM Air Command and Staff Collge , June, 1983. 96Ir," AwW~aU& _ p. 255. 97Fer...36.40. l2 %U~gdý B. Allmbon, Mutin Aueunen of fth AMi&l East. 19-91-96 Strategi Studwe Iztituse,ý U.S. Army War Collge 1992, p. 34. 1992 p. 26W

  6. Hybrid War and Its Strategic Implications to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bingöl, Oktay

    2017-01-01

    Discussions on the hybrid threats and hybrid wars have begun to gain interest among the securitycommunities around the world since 2000s, and exponentially increased after Russian-Ukraine conflict in 2014. The political and military conflict between Russia and Turkey sinceNovember 2015 has carried the discussion to Turkey. Now it is believed that Turkey is infact in a multi-front hybrid war with some of its neighbors but not just Russia. In this articleit is aimed to fully explore hybrid war ...

  7. Challenges to the Japan-U.S. Security Alliance in the Post-Post Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nodomi, Mistsuru

    2005-01-01

    The Japan-U.S. security alliance experienced the Cold War and post Cold War during the twentieth century, and is now facing a post-post Cold War environment triggered by the September 11 terrorist attacks...

  8. Military westernization and state repression in the post-Cold War era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swed, Ori; Weinreb, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The waves of unrest that have shaken the Arab world since December 2010 have highlighted significant differences in the readiness of the military to intervene in political unrest by forcefully suppressing dissent. We suggest that in the post-Cold War period, this readiness is inversely associated with the level of military westernization, which is a product of the acquisition of arms from western countries. We identify two mechanisms linking the acquisition of arms from western countries to less repressive responses: dependence and conditionality; and a longer-term diffusion of ideologies regarding the proper form of civil-military relations. Empirical support for our hypothesis is found in an analysis of 2523 cases of government response to political unrest in 138 countries in the 1996-2005 period. We find that military westernization mitigates state repression in general, with more pronounced effects in the poorest countries. However, we also identify substantial differences between the pre- and post-9/11 periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychology of change: Models and implications for nuclear plants in an era of deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, W.G.; Stark, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation explores the psychology of change in the implications that it has for nuclear plants during this era of deregulation. The authors analyze models that work, models that have failed in the past, and specific findings and applications based on 2 yr of research, as well as the results regarding the impact of the psychology of change on the Fort Calhoun nuclear station in Nebraska

  10. The 2006 Israeli War on Lebanon: Analysis and Strategic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-23

    movement. This resulted in street confrontations, some armed, taking place on Jan 23 and 25 threatened the possibility of a civil war. Hizbollah’s...by the Author, Al- Akhbar , 12 January 2007 [newspaper on-line]; available from http://www.al-akhbar.com/ar/taxonomy/term/14%2C13061; Internet; accessed

  11. Nuclear war and climatic catastrophe: Some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, C.

    1986-01-01

    Apocalyptic prediction require, to be taken seriously, higher standards of evidence than do assertions on other matters where the stakes are not as great. Since the immediate effects of even a single hermonuclear weapon explosion are so devastating, it is natural to assume - even without considering detailed mechanism - that the more or less simultaneous explosion of 10,000 such weapons all over the Northern Hemisphere might have unpredictable and catastrophic consequences. And yet, while it is widely accepted that a full nuclear war might mean the end of civilization at least in the Northern Hemisphere, claims that nuclear war might imply a reversion of the human population to prehistoric levels, or even the extinction of the human species, have, among some policymakers at least, been dismissed as alarmist or, worse, irrelevant

  12. Historic preservation requirements and the evaluation of cold war era nuclear facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wescott, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    Project design for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of federal facilities must address the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act which includes compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Section 106 of the NHPA requires that Federal agencies consider any effect their activities may have on historic properties. While a cultural property is not usually considered historic until it has reached an age of 50 years or older, special consideration is given to younger properties if they are of exceptional importance in demonstrating unique development in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, or culture. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) D and D program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), site properties are evaluated within the context of the Cold War Era and within themes associated with nuclear technology. Under this program, ANL-E staff have conducted archival research on three nuclear reactor facilities, one accelerator, and one laboratory building. DOE and ANL-E have been working closely with the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency (IHPA) to determine the eligibility of these properties for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1998, in consultation with the IHPA, the DOE determined that the reactor facilities were eligible. Memoranda of Agreement were signed between the DOE and the IHPA stipulating mitigation requirements for the recordation of two of these properties. The laboratory building was recently determined eligible and will likely undergo similar documentation procedures. The accelerator was determined not eligible. Similar studies and determinations will be required for all future D and D projects

  13. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  14. Atuação da OTAN no pós-Guerra Fria: implicações para a segurança internacional e para a ONU NATO's action in the post-Cold War era: implications for international security and for the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bertazzo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Após a Guerra Fria, a Organização do Tratado do Atlântico Norte (OTAN utilizou seus recursos militares pela primeira vez em um conflito. Desde então, ela vem atuando com regularidade, sob mandato da ONU ou não. Este trabalho apresenta a discussão teórica em torno da permanência da OTAN após o fim da Guerra Fria, e analisa sua transformação e seu novo papel em um contexto mundial distinto. As teorias das alianças não explicam a persistência de tal tipo de arranjo. As teorias dos regimes, por sua vez, vislumbram a permanência da OTAN em um contexto diverso, desde que ela consiga se transformar para se adaptar às novas condições. O levantamento de dados realizado sobre a atividade da ONU procura testar a hipótese de que existe um declínio do seu ativismo humanitário no período recente, abrindo espaço para que novos atores atuem no campo da segurança global. A conclusão é de que há um declínio, o qual não é, todavia, significativo em relação ao período da Guerra Fria. Portanto, mais do que uma possível omissão da ONU, a necessidade de justificar a permanência da aliança transatlântica no novo cenário estratégico surge como fator fundamental para que a OTAN assuma este caráter intervencionista e expedicionário, alheio aos seus fundamentos. A questão da legitimidade da OTAN para este tipo de missão é também discutida. São destacados, finalmente, os problemas de ordem legal da atuação da OTAN vis-à-vis a ONU na manutenção da segurança internacional, os quais estão contidos em uma questão maior: a necessidade de revisão dos arranjos globais de segurança coletiva e do Conselho de Segurança, em particular.After the end of the Cold War, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO used its military capabilities for the first time in actual conflict. Since then, it has been acting regularly, either under a United Nations' mandate or not. This work presents the debate in the literature on the

  15. Association of Depressive Symptoms and Heart Rate Variability in Vietnam War-Era Twins: A Longitudinal Twin Difference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minxuan; Shah, Amit; Su, Shaoyong; Goldberg, Jack; Lampert, Rachel J; Levantsevych, Oleksiy M; Shallenberger, Lucy; Pimple, Pratik; Bremner, J Douglas; Vaccarino, Viola

    2018-05-16

    Depressive symptoms are associated with lower heart rate variability (HRV), an index of autonomic dysregulation, but the direction of the association remains unclear. To investigate the temporal association between depression and HRV. A longitudinal, cross-lagged twin difference study, with baseline assessments from March 2002 to March 2006 (visit 1) and a 7-year follow-up (visit 2) at an academic research center with participants recruited from a national twin registry. Twins (n = 166) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, who served in the US military during the Vietnam War, and were discordant for depression at baseline were recruited. At both visits, depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and HRV was measured through 24-hour electrocardiogram monitoring. To assess the direction of the association, within-pair differences in multivariable mixed-effects regression models were examined, and standardized β coefficients for both pathways were calculated. The associations were evaluated separately in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. In the final analytic sample (N = 146), all participants were men, 138 (95%) were white, and the mean (SD) age was 54 (3) years at baseline. Results showed consistent associations between visit 1 HRV and visit 2 BDI score across all HRV domains and models (β coefficients ranging from -0.14 to -0.29), which were not explained by antidepressants or other participant characteristics. The magnitude of the association was similar in the opposite pathway linking visit 1 BDI score to visit 2 HRV, with β coefficients ranging from 0.05 to -0.30, but it was largely explained by antidepressant use. In stratified analysis by zygosity, significant associations were observed in monozygotic and dizygotic twins for the path linking visit 1 HRV to visit 2 BDI score, although the associations were slightly stronger in dizygotic twins. The association between depression and autonomic dysregulation

  16. The Implications of a New ERa in Arms Control -- Perspectives and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Durbin, Karyn R.; Indusi, Joseph P.; Smoot, John L.; Vannoni, Michael G.; Satkowiak, Lawrence J.

    2004-01-01

    On November 13, 2003 the INMM hosted a workshop in Washington, DC entitled 'The Implications of a New Era in Arms Control on Regional Nonproliferation and Nuclear Materials Management'. In this paper we summarize the workshop's highlights and provide our analysis of the dominant themes. Ambassador Linton Brooks, Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA), delivered the keynote address and focused on four points that are key to understanding the new era: (1) The demise of traditional East/West arms control; (2) The new strategic relationship between Russia and the United States; (3) The blurring of the distinction between nonproliferation and counter-terrorism; (4) The growing recognition that the nonproliferation regime is no longer adequate and needs to be strengthened. He issued a set of challenges to the workshop participants: if his premises were right, what should replace the lexicon of arms control? He described a four-part strategy for nuclear materials protection in Russia, and asked if that model should be replicated globally - potentially by leveraging the new relationship with Russia. Should it be through the IAEA, bilaterally, or some other mechanism? Asserting that the old Nonproliferation Treaty regime was inadequate, he asked what should replace it, and how do we bring it about? Three panel discussions were presented: (1) Implications of a New Era in US/Russia Arms Control Agreements; (2) Implications of a New in Arms Control Upon Regional Nuclear Nonproliferation: South Asia/East Asia/Middle East; and (3) Nuclear Materials Management in a New Era of Arms Control In the first panel, Daryl Kimball, Executive Director of the Arms Control Association argued that arms control agreements provided predictability in the reduction of arms, and had been successful in advancing the methods of verification. Lucas Fischer, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Arms Control at the US State Department acknowledged that INF and START provide a basis

  17. Literature and History--A Focus on the Era of the Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, John; Sandmann, Alexa

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography and suggested teaching activities for units on the Great Depression and World War II. The materials support inquiry into the causes of the Great Depression and World War II and how these events transformed U.S. society. The annotated bibliography includes novels, memoirs, biographies, and political studies. (MJP)

  18. From Research to Reality: A Retrospective on the Development and Acquisition of Naval Capabilities During the Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colvard, James

    2002-01-01

    .... Perhaps at no other period in the Navy's history has the adoption of new technology in the Navy been as pronounced and effective as during the Cold War throughout the fifty or so years following the end of World War II...

  19. China's evolving role in global production networks: Implications for Trump's trade war

    OpenAIRE

    Athukorala, Prema-chandra

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines China's evolving role in global production networks and its implications for assessing the potential impact of the "trade war" declared by President Trump. The analysis, which is based on a systematic disaggregation of trade based on global production sharing into components and final assembly, suggests that the Sino-US trade gap is a structural phenomenon driven by the pivotal role played by China within East Asia cantered production networks. The global competitiveness o...

  20. Evaluating and managing Cold War era historic properties : the cultural significance of U.S. Air Force defensive radar systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whorton, M.

    1999-01-20

    Aircraft and later missile radar early warning stations played an important role in the Cold War. They are associated with important technological, social, political, and military themes of the Cold War and are worthy of preservation. The scope and scale of these systems make physical preservation impractical, but the U.S. Air Force program of historical evaluation and documentation of these systems will provide valuable information to future generations studying this historic period.

  1. Intervention in Intrastate Conflict: Implications for the Army in the Post-Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winnefeld, James

    1995-01-01

    .... The United States, while maintaining its accustomed readiness to deal with interstate conflict, also has a keen interest in preparing for a range of possible interventions in intrastate conflict...

  2. Expanding Higher Education: Institutional Responses in Australia from the Post-War Era to the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The history of universities in the twentieth century is, at least from the perspective of growth, a massive success. Australian higher education is no exception. Prior to the Second World War, Australia had six universities and approximately 10,500 students. Now there are in excess of one million students attending 39 institutions. In each phase…

  3. Military Spending and Economic Well-Being in the American States: The Post-Vietnam War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Casey; Wallace, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using growth curve modeling techniques, this research investigates whether military spending improved or worsened the economic well-being of citizens within the American states during the post-Vietnam War period. We empirically test the military Keynesianism claim that military spending improves the economic conditions of citizens through its use…

  4. [Werner Leibbrand, Annemarie Wettley and controversies on "euthanasia" the background of medico-historical and ethical debates in the Post World War II era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Christine; Frewer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists and medical historians Werner Leibbrand (1896 - 1974) and Annemarie Wettley (1913 - 1996) are amongst the most striking figures in the field of history of medicine. Leibbrand was appointed director of the "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" in Erlangen shortly after the war. Fuelled by his own experiences of suppression and persecution during the Nazi era he promised to unearth the crimes and atrocities which had happened under watch of the Nazi regime. He was joined by Annemarie Wettley, who worked as a physician at the hospital and had developed an increasing interest in the history of medicine. In 1946 they published "Um die Menschenrechte der Geisteskranken" ("Human Rights of the Mentally Ill") about the "euthanasia" campaign of the Nazi regime. Although a number of substantial works followed, Leibbrand and Wettley failed to inform in more depth on crimes and atrocities, for instance killings of patients and forced malnutrition. Doubts and charges against Wettley regarding her role in dietary programmes at the Erlangen hospital and against Leibbrand regarding special expert's reports--both had a short-term arrest warrant--might have contributed to stagnation in their efforts. In 1953 Leibbrand accepted the offer of a chair at the University in Munich, Wettley followed and habilitated in history of medicine; in the year 1962 they married. Contacts and exchange amongst medico-historical experts shed light on developments during the post-war era; still, a critical and fundamental review of the crimes within the medical system of the Nazi regime did not take place during this time.

  5. Pyridostigmine bromide and the long-term subjective health status of a sample of over 700 male Reserve Component Gulf War era veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R; Reppert, Earl J; Jurich, Anthony P; Bollman, Stephan R; Webb, Farrell J; Castelo, Carlos S; Stever, James C; Kaufman, Mark; Deng, Liang-Yu; Krehbiel, Michelle; Owens, Barbara L; Hall, Carolyn A; Brown, Beverlyn F Cay; Lash, Jeanne F; Fink, Carol J; Crow, Janet R; Bonjour, Gabriele N

    2002-06-01

    Data from a 1996-1997 survey of approximately 700 Reserve Component male veterans indicate that the consumption of pyridostigmine bromide pills, used as a pretreatment for potential exposure to the nerve agent Soman, was a significant predictor of declines in reported subjective health status after the war, even after controlling for a number of other possible factors. Reported reactions to vaccines and other medications also predicted declines in subjective health. While higher military rank generally predicted better health during and after the war, educational attainment, minority status, number of days in theater, and age generally did not predict changes in subjective health. Although servicemembers were directed to take three pills a day, veterans reported a range of compliance--less than a fourth (24%) followed the medical instructions compared to 61% who took fewer than three pills daily and 6% who took six or more pills a day. Implications for use of pyridostigmine bromide are discussed.

  6. Learning Large Lessons: The Evolving Roles of Ground Power and Air Power in the Post-Cold War Era. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, David E

    2007-01-01

    U.S. post-Cold War military operations have witnessed a shift in the relative roles of ground power and air power in war fighting, but the joint war fighting potential of this shift is not being fully realized...

  7. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called 'waste' is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented

  8. The Atoms for Peace USIS Films: Spreading the Gospel of the "Blessing" of Atomic Energy in the Early Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Tsuchiya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1955, the U.S. Information Service (USIS Tokyo produced a thirty-minute documentary film Blessing of Atomic Energy in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The film introduced how the Japanese government, researchers, and companies were using radioisotopes offered by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory for the “peaceful” purposes in agriculture, medicine, hygiene, industry, and disaster prevention. The film also showed the mechanism of atomic power generation, and explained that it was already put into practice in the U.S. and Europe. The images of Japanese people enjoying the “blessing” of the “peaceful” use of atomic energy, ten years after the traumatic experience of A-bombs, were not only shown all over Japan, but also translated into different languages and shown in many countries, including the UK, Finland, Indonesia, Sudan, and Venezuela. The film was part of some fifty educational and documentary films produced for President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” campaign – a global information dissemination programs on the U.S. leadership in the civilian use of nuclear energy. This paper will explore the roles USIS films played in disseminating information on the “peaceful” use of nuclear energy in the early Cold War era.

  9. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  10. American Naval Thinking in the Post-Cold War Era: The U.S. Navy and the Emergence of a Maritime Strategy, 1989-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    reoccurrence of global depression and world war by establishing regimes soon after the Second World War that addressed the factors that were thought to have...Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 1986), 164. 8 John B. Hattendorf, John R. Wadleigh, and B. Mitchell Simpson, Sailors and Scholars: The Centennial ...Simpson. Sailors and Scholars: The Centennial History of the United States Naval War College. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1984. 387

  11. Implications of Sino-American Strategic Competition on Southeast Asia's Post-Cold War Regional Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suryodipuro, Sidharto

    2003-01-01

    .... The study of international politics after the Cold War has rediscovered the importance of regional interaction as the framework for understanding countries' security strategies and the great powers...

  12. World War II Informational Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…

  13. The US Army in Transition: Implications of the IDF Experience in the Second Lebanon War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel Hezbollah War as a historical case in which a contemporary army had to transition from sustained irregular operations to large-scale...conventional war . The case study shows that the Israeli Defense Force did not make this transition effectively, and it examines factors that contributed to

  14. Characteristics and values of a British military nurse. International implications of War Zone qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Alan; Finnegan, Sara; McKenna, Hugh; McGhee, Stephen; Ricketts, Lynda; McCourt, Kath; Warren, Jem; Thomas, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2014, British military nurses served in Afghanistan caring for both Service personnel and local nationals of all ages. However, there have been few research studies assessing the effectiveness of the military nurses' operational role and no papers naming the core values and characteristics. This paper is from the only qualitative nursing study completed during this period where data was collected in the War Zone. To explore the characteristics and values that are intrinsic to military nurses in undertaking their operational role. A constructivist grounded theory was utilised. The authors designed the interview schedule, and then following a pilot study, conducted and transcribed the discussions. Informed consent and UK Ministry of Defence Research Ethical Committee approval was obtained. Camp Bastion Hospital, Afghanistan, in 2013. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 British Armed Forces nurses. A theoretical model was developed that identifies the intrinsic characteristics and values required to be a military nurse. Nursing care delivered within the operational environment was perceived as outstanding. Nurses consciously detached themselves from any legal processes and treated each casualty as a vulnerable patient, resulting in care, compassion and dignity being provided for all patients, irrespective of their background, beliefs or affiliations. The study findings provide military nurses with a framework for a realistic personal development plan that will allow them to build upon their strengths as well as to identify and ameliorate potential areas of weakness. Placing nurses first, with a model that focusses on the requirements of a good nurse has the potential to lead to better patient care, and improve the quality of the tour for defence nurses. These findings have international implications and have the potential for transferability to any level of military or civilian nursing practice. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by

  15. The British Southern Campaign in the Revolutionary War: Implications for Contemporary Counter Insurgency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clover, Julian P

    2006-01-01

    The British effort in the Southern Campaign (1780-1782) of the Revolutionary War failed because of flawed national strategy and a failure to focus sufficient elements of national power against a background of competing global threats...

  16. A New Era in Geodesy and Cartography: Implications for Landing Site Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, T. C.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) global dataset has ushered in a new era for Mars local and global geodesy and cartography. These data include the global digital terrain model (Digital Terrain Model (DTM) radii), the global digital elevation model (Digital Elevation Model (DEM) elevation with respect to the geoid), and the higher spatial resolution individual MOLA ground tracks. Currently there are about 500,000,000 MOLA points and this number continues to grow as MOLA continues successful operations in orbit about Mars, the combined processing of radiometric X-band Doppler and ranging tracking of MGS together with millions of MOLA orbital crossover points has produced global geodetic and cartographic control having a spatial (latitude/longitude) accuracy of a few meters and a topographic accuracy of less than 1 meter. This means that the position of an individual MOLA point with respect to the center-of-mass of Mars is know to an absolute accuracy of a few meters. The positional accuracy of this point in inertial space over time is controlled by the spin rate uncertainty of Mars which is less than 1 km over 10 years that will be improved significantly with the next landed mission.

  17. The pedagogical implications of Maxwellian electromagnetic models: a case study from Victorian-Era physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Shawn Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the late Victorian Era, a group of British physicists devoted their time to interpreting and extending the work of James Clerk Maxwell. There has been considerable discussion about the ways in which these "Maxwellian" physicists used mechanical models by in the for research purposes; less attention has been paid to the relevance of their mechanical models for pedagogical purposes. Drawing from educational research literature, I begin from the premise that understanding a scientist's self-identity in its historical context is crucial to understanding how she or he enacts particular pedagogical approaches. I aim to extend Bruce Hunt's seminal work on the Maxwellians by providing a pedagogical analysis of one of Sir Oliver Lodge's lectures. In so doing, I claim that Lodge drew on his identity as a Maxwellian as an organizing framework for his lecture and that he attempted to engage his audience in Maxwellian thought by exposing them to many mechanical models. I conclude that Lodge's self-concept as a teacher and his apparent broad appeal as a public educationist were deeply embedded in his life history as a member of the Maxwellians. Sir Oliver Lodge's identities as a Maxwellian and a pedagogue are inextricably linked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparing Potential Senior Army Leaders for the Future: An Assessment of Leader Development Efforts in the Post-Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, David

    2002-01-01

    ... that could prove problematic in future missions. The paper then describes the current institutional training most relevant to developing competencies for such missions and notes its limited attention to the nondoctrinal, other-than-war missions...

  19. Political violence, ethnic conflict, and contemporary wars: broad implications for health and social well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Duncan

    2002-07-01

    Ethnic conflict, political violence and wars that presently shape many parts of world have deep-seated structural causes. In poor and highly indebted countries, economic and environmental decline, asset depletion, and erosion of the subsistence base lead to further impoverishment and food insecurity for vast sectors of the population. Growing ethnic and religious tensions over a shrinking resource base often escort the emergence of predatory practices, rivalry, political violence, and internal wars. The nature of armed conflict has changed substantially over time and most strategic analysts agree that in the second half of the 20th century, contemporary wars are less of a problem of relations between states than a problem within states. Despite the growing number of armed conflicts and wars throughout the world, not enough attention has been paid to the local patterns of distress being experienced and the long-term health impact and psychosocial consequences of the various forms of political violence against individuals, communities, or specific ethnic groups. The short or long-term impact assessment on civilian populations of poor countries affected by war have been scarce, and studies focussing on experiences of collective suffering and trauma-related disorders among survivors are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature. The medicalization of collective suffering and trauma reflects a poor understanding of the relationships among critically important social determinants and the range of possible health outcomes of political violence.

  20. Characterization of TRPS1 and ERAS as oncogenes implicated in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Gonzalez, L.

    2015-07-01

    New high throughput technologies have made possible to identify putative oncogenes in breast cancer. In this project we aim to relate and characterise two novel putative oncogenes, ERAS and TRPS1, in their role in human breast cancer. TRPS1, an atypical GATA factor, modulates cell proliferation and controls cell cycle progression through repression of GATA-regulated genes, therefore acting as a tumour suppressor gene. Conversely, TRPS1 expression has been shown to be significantly elevated in luminal and in a lesser extent in basal breast cancer cells, presenting roles both as an oncogene and as a tumour suppressor gene in breast cancer development. The aim of this project is therefore to determine the characteristics of TRPS1 either as a putative novel human oncogene or as a tumour suppressor gene in breast cancer cells. To this aim, we have cloned a novel isoform of TRPS1 and introduced it into several breast cancer cell lines. Our results show that overexpression of this isoform of TRPS1 results in variations in motility in non-carcinogenic cell lines, as well as in a series of EMT-like changes such as the down-regulation of the EMT marker E-cadherin, both of which can be associated to an increase in malignancy, suggesting an oncogenic behaviour for TRPS1. Furthermore, our results suggest that constitutively active members of the RAS protein family induce the expression of TRPS1, establishing a relationship between both genes. We can conclude that the effects of TRPS1 overexpression are moderate, inducing some changes but not fully transforming the cells. Therefore we cannot confirm that TRPS1 is a putative oncogene in breast cancer. (Author)

  1. Sun Tzu's "The Art of War" and implications for leadership: theoretical discussion:

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovski, Vlado; Đurica, Nina; Ferjan, Marko; Marič, Miha; Uhan, Miha

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the Art of War from a leadership perspective, one in which we make a closer connection to the context of general organization and management. The Art of War written by Sun Tzu is one of those books that could be classified in the genre of pop-culture. Although its content used to be considered as a carefully protected state secret in the past, it is now available to everyone. Its use has in the past century of moved from warfare also to other areas of human activity. Str...

  2. Birth defects in infants born in 1998-2004 to men and women serving in the U.S. military during the 1990-1991 Gulf War era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowinski, Anna T; DeScisciolo, Connie; Conlin, Ava Marie S; K Ryan, Margaret A; Sevick, Carter J; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-09-01

    Concerns about reproductive health persist among U.S. military members who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. This study explores the long-term impact of 1990-1991 Gulf War deployment on the prevalence of birth defects among infants of Gulf War veterans. Health care data from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and demographic and deployment information from the Defense Manpower Data Center were used to identify infants born between 1998 and 2004 to both male and female 1990-1991 Gulf War veterans. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the adjusted odds of any birth defect and eight specific birth defects among infants of deployers versus non-deployers. In addition, birth defects were evaluated among infants born to 1990-1991 Gulf War veterans with deployment-specific exposures. Among 178,766 infants identified for these analyses, 3.4% were diagnosed with a birth defect in the first year of life. Compared to infants of non-deployers, infants of deployers were not at increased odds of being diagnosed with a birth defect, or any of eight specific birth defects, in the first year of life. A slightly increased prevalence of birth defects was observed among infants born to men who deployed to the 1990-1991 Gulf War for 153 to 200 days compared to those who deployed for 1 to 92 days. No other deployment-specific exposures were associated with birth defects in these infants. The 1990-1991 Gulf War deployers, including those with specific exposures of concern, were not found to be at increased risk for having infants with birth defects 7 to 14 years after deployment. Published 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. From the front lines to the home front: a history of the development of psychiatric nursing in the U.S. during the World War II era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Christine M

    2008-07-01

    During World War II, psychiatric nurses learned valuable lessons on how to deal with the traumas of war. Using psychohistorical inquiry, this historian examined primary and secondary sources, beyond the facts and dates associated with historical events, to understand why and how psychiatric nurse pioneers developed therapeutic techniques to address the psychosocial and physical needs of combatants. Not only is the story told about the hardships endured as nurses ministered to soldiers, but their attitudes, beliefs, and emotions, that is, how they felt and what they thought about their circumstances, are explored. In this study the lived experiences of two psychiatric nurses, Votta and Peplau, are contrasted to explicate how knowledge development improved care and how this knowledge had an impact on the home front in nursing practice and education, as well as in mental institutions and society, long after the war was won.

  4. Nuclear arms control in the post-Cold War era. New conditions, new requirements, and nonproliferation (with special emphasis on Japan and East Asia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1994-01-01

    The paper starts with a general survey of post-Cold War nuclear disarmament, pointing out Japan's positions, policies, and problems in the process. The discussion is not Japan-centered, nor is it an explanation of the Japanese view. It is useful, in this context, to recall that during the Cold War period, Japan was firmly in the ''Western Camp'', relying on the protection of the extended nuclear deterrence provided by the United States. This article is written with that history very much in mind, and by an author who for some years was in a position to represent Japan in such a context. (orig./DG)

  5. Pattern of Acquisition of ICT-Based Skills by Student-Teachers: Implications for Teacher Education in Nigeria in This Era of Digitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emesini, Nnenna Orieoma

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the pattern of acquisition of ICT-based skills by student-teachers and its implications for teacher education in Nigeria in this era of digitalization. The study was a survey research type with two research questions guiding it. The population for the study was 1,570, made up of 3rd and 4th year Faculty of Education students of…

  6. Airpower in Hybrid War: Ethical Implications for the Joint Force Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    as Machiavelli wrote in The Prince , is “just” when it is “necessary.” 38 Confederate General William Sherman, in a letter to the mayor of Atlanta...Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War, ed. Robert B. Strassler (New York: Free Press, 1996), Chapter 17. 38 Niccolo Machiavelli , The Prince , 2 nd ed...Journal of Military Ethics 3 no. 3 (2004): 239. Machiavelli , Niccolo. Ed. and trans. by Harvey Claflin Mansfield. The prince . 2nd ed. Chicago, IL

  7. World War II uranium hexafluoride inhalation event with pulmonary implications for today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.H.; Kathren, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two individuals were exposed to massive quantities of airborne uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and its hydrolysis products following a World War II equipment rupture. An excretion pattern for uranium exhibited by these patients is, in light of current knowledge, anomalous. The possible role of pulmonary edema is discussed. Examination of these individuals 38 years later showed no physical changes believed to be related to their uranium exposure and no deposition of uranium could be detected

  8. Hepatitis C virus pharmacogenomics in Latin American populations: implications in the era of direct-acting antivirals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinks J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Julieta Trinks,1,2 Mariela Caputo,2,3 María L Hulaniuk,1 Daniel Corach,2,3 Diego Flichman2,4 1Basic Science and Experimental Medicine Institute (ICBME, University Institute of the Italian Hospital of Buenos Aires, 2Scientific and Technological National Research Council (CONICET, 3Servicio de Huellas Digitales Genéticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, 4Cátedra de Virología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: In recent years, great progress has been made in the field of new therapeutic options for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs represent a great hope for millions of chronically infected individuals because their use may lead to excellent cure rates with fewer side effects. In Latin America, the high prevalence of HCV genotype 1 infection and the significant association of Native American ancestry with risk predictive single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IFNL4 and ITPA genes highlight the need to implement new treatment regimens in these populations. However, the universal accessibility to DAAs is still not a reality in the region as their high cost is one of the major, although not the only, limiting factors for their broad implementation. Therefore, under these circumstances, could the assessment of host genetic markers be a useful tool to prioritize DAA treatment until global access to these new drugs can be achieved? This review will summarize the scientific evidences and the potential implications of HCV pharmacogenomics in this rapidly evolving era of anti-HCV drug development. Keywords: hepatitis C virus, pharmacogenomics, PEG-IFN/RBV, DAAs, Latin America

  9. [25 Years After Re-Unification of Germany: An Overview on Eastern German Psychiatry. Part 1: Post-War Era, Pavlovization, Psychopharmacological Era and Social Psychiatric Reform Movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H

    2016-04-01

    This is the first of a 2-part study on the history of psychiatry in Eastern Germany, i. e. the Soviet Occupied Zone and later German Democratic Republic. It mainly covers the years post World War II up until the beginning of the 1970s. The first post-war years were determined by the new power holders' attempts to overcome National Socialist (Nazi) heritage and to re-organize mental health and care in general. The doctrine of a strict denazifization in East Germany must, however, be regarded as a myth. Promoted by centralized organization, there was an increase in communist party-ideological influence and harassment as well as aligning scientific views and research with Soviet paradigms (Pavlovization) during the 1950s and early 1960s. This, however, led to an enormous rise in exodus of skilled labor to West Germany, which in turn further increased the notorious lack of staff. After the erection of the inner-German wall, this problem was mitigated, yet never fully solved over the 40 years of the existence of the GDR. Despite adverse conditions, East German psychiatrists made major original contributions to the development of psychiatry in general, at least up until the 1960s. Academic psychiatry was mainly based on biological concepts that were further promoted by new somatic and psychopharmacological therapeutic options. In the 1960s, social psychiatric reformist forces emerged, primarily in the large psychiatric hospitals. The improvements achieved by these forces, however, were not implemented on a nation-wide scale, but mainly restricted to one particular or several institutions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanian, Lee E

    1997-01-01

    During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...

  11. Internationalisation of Higher Education in the Era of Globalisation: What Have Been Its Implications in China and Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the internationalisation of higher education in the era of globalisation in China and Japan. It presents the following issues: the relationship between internationalisation and globalisation; major characteristics of the internationalisation of higher education; a comparison between China and Japan; and the results of…

  12. The biomedicalisation of war and military remains: US nuclear worker compensation in the 'post-Cold War'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Shiloh

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent legislation and administration of United States nuclear worker compensation--the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Programme Act (EEOICPA)--in order to show the domestic impacts of war and the social order that has been established to respond to the Cold War legacy of occupational exposures, illness, and death. Examining the epistemological politics and material effects of compensation, an insufficiently analysed aspect of the Cold War, I argue that the system designed to redress the occupational exposures of nuclear workers accomplishes something else: obscuring the ethical problem of misinformation and missing data from the Cold War era; mobilising an industry of knowledge and market-economic opportunities in the arena of biomedical exposure assessment and dose reconstruction for parts of the former US nuclear complex; and, lastly, dematerialising and depoliticising geographies of the Cold War and its differential impacts through an individualistic epidemiological reprocessing of radiation exposures. The paper shows how the general claims procedure, combined with two methods mandated by EEOICPA--dose reconstruction and the probability of causation--effectively de-link workers from each other, and worksites from homes, pin compensation to a cost-benefit logic, implicate genuine scientific complexity and uncertainty in an ongoing denial of the toxic legacies of war, and ethically undermine the social justice aims of the legislation. The article ends by considering some of the ways that US nuclear workers have responded to living as the remains of both US bomb production and the compensation system.

  13. Between Propaganda and Truth: changing patterns in the Polish historiography about the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga GLONDYS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of public and historiographical discourse on the Spanish Civil War in Poland, exploring the post-Stalinist period and current democratic Poland. It explains how, during these two very different eras: the dictatorial, communist past and the capitalist, liberal-democratic present, historical discourse concerning the past has been transformed so as to meet the prevailing political needs and demands of today. The conclusions reached here point to a change of paradigm in historiographical discourse on the Civil War, and encourage reflection on the epistemological and methodological implications that historical processes raise for the historian’s task.

  14. War and Peace in the Amazon: Strategic Implications for the United States and Latin America of the 1995 Ecuador-Peru War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-24

    Agreement and Security," El Comercio (Lima), March 22, 1995, p. A2, as reported in FBIS-LA, April 3, 1995. 19. "Amnesty Law Criticized, Creation of Truth...of National Security and Strategy November 24, 1995 ******* An earlier version of this paper, to be published in the fall 1995 edition of SER en el ...had adjudicated the demarcation of the boundary between Honduras and El Salvador. Because of these considerations, the war in the Amazon headwaters

  15. FRAGMENTATION AND CONFLICT AMONG ISLAMIC POLITICAL PARTIES IN INDONESIA DURING REFORMASI ERA (1998-2009: Anatomy, Factors and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yunanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since independence of the Republic of Indonesia, Muslims, as the majority population, have established diverse Islamic political parties. The nature of such parties has changed from the days of the Old Order to the New Order and Reformasi eras. Despite similar anatomies between Islamic parties of the Old Order and those of Reformasi, Islamic political parties profess different ideological missions. While the beginning of Old Order saw the confederation of Islamic political parties, Masyumi, seeking to promote the establishment of an Islamic State, none of the Islamic political parties which mushroomed during Reformasi era expressly struggled for the establishment of an Islamic state. However, the Islamic political parties had to weather similar problems of internal conflict and fragmentation. Different ideological strands, policy stances and leadership styles are believed to be amongst the pivotal root causes of their domestic troubles. With their popular votes and parliamentary seats significantly reduced, they prove to be no competition to the nationalist political parties.

  16. War and disaster in Sri Lanka: Implications for widows' family adjustment and perception of self-efficacy in caring for one's family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, Alyssa Banford; Lambert, Jessica; Wickrama, Thulitha

    2016-12-12

    The data for this study were collected in 2014 from widows in Eastern Sri Lanka whose spouses died in the civil war, tsunami, or from health-related problems. Conservation of resources (COR) theory was used as a lens to examine the extent to which war and tsunami-related damages and family problems predict variation in social support, family adjustment and a perception of self-efficacy in caring for one's family as reported by widowed women. We also investigated whether social support from the community and social support from family and friends mediated those relationships. Results of a path model fit to the data suggested variation in family adjustment to be negatively predicted by war-related family problems and positively predicted by the social support of friends and family. Additionally, a sense of self-efficacy in caring for one's family was found to be inversely predicted by war-related family problems and tsunami damages. Clinical, social and theoretical implications are discussed as well as directions for further research. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. INTERNAL WARS: RETHINKING PROBLEM AND RESPONSE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manwaring, Max

    2001-01-01

    ...)--are the most pervasive and likely type of conflict in the post-Cold War era. It is almost certain that the United States will become involved directly or indirectly in some of these conflicts...

  18. U.S. Victory in the First Gulf War: Implication for the Future of U.S. Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Year War with Iran was a setback; the need for more oil revenue to pay for the war debt was critical. The second chapter examines the use of...Israel fled from bondage , and wandered for 40 years in the wilderness before they were permitted to enter the Promised Land. Their leader Moses had...a setback; the need for more oil revenue to pay for the war debt was critical. He was a man with a great ego, a man on a mission, and a major threat

  19. Ethical, Political and Societal Implications of the Open Access Journal Movement in the Era of Economic Crisis, with Emphasis on Public Health Pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi

    2013-12-01

    Publication of the research outputs is a vital step of the research processes and a gateway between the laboratory and the global society. Open Access is revolutionizing the dissemination of scientific ideas, particularly in the field of public health pharmacogenomics that examines the ways in which pharmacogenomics impacts health systems and services at a societal level, rather than a narrow bench to bedside model of translation science. This manuscript argues that despite some limitations and drawbacks, open access has profound ethical, political and societal implications especially on underdeveloped and developing countries, and that it provides opportunities for science to grow in these resource-limited countries, particularly in the era of a severe economic and financial crisis that is imposing cuts and restrictions to research.

  20. The Walls Come Tumbling Down: Decontamination and Demolition of 29 Manhattan Project and Cold War-Era Buildings and Structures at Los Alamos National Laboratory-12301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloupka, Allan B.; Finn, Kevin P.; Parsons, Duane A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    When the nation's top scientists and military leaders converged on Los Alamos, New Mexico in the 1943, to work on the Manhattan Project, the facilities they used to conduct their top-secret work were quickly constructed and located in the middle of what eventually became the Los Alamos town site. After one of these early facilities caught on fire, it seemed wise to build labs and production facilities farther away from the homes of the town's residents. They chose to build facilities on what was then known as Delta Prime (DP) Mesa and called it Technical Area 21, or TA-21. With wartime urgency, a number of buildings were built at TA-21, some in as little as a few months. Before long, DP Mesa was populated with several nondescript metal and cinder-block buildings, including what became, immediately following the war, the world's first plutonium production facility. TA-21 also housed labs that used hazardous chemicals and analyzed americium, tritium and plutonium. TA-21 was a bustling center of research and production for the next several decades. Additional buildings were built there in the 1960's, but by the 1990's many of them had reached the end of their service lives. Labs and offices were moved to newer, more modern buildings. When Los Alamos National Laboratory received $212 million in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in July 2009 for environmental cleanup projects, about $73 million of the funds were earmarked to decontaminate and demolish 21 of the old buildings at TA-21. Although some D and D of TA-21 buildings was performed in the 1990's, many of the facilities at DP Site remained relatively untouched for nearly three decades following their final operational use. In 2006, there were over three dozen buildings or structures on the mesa to be removed so that soil cleanup could be completed (and the land made available for transfer and reuse). The total footprint of buildings across the mesa was

  1. To Live Like a Pig and Die Like a Dog: Environmental Implications for World War I in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-03

    territory by looting Zulu grain stores and cattle. As they advanced, however, Shaka fell back before them, taking his herds and grain with him. There...acquiring clan growing in both material wealth and, to a lesser extent, population. In a rather typical episode, Moshoeshoe, King of the Basotho...These wars appear to have been precipitated by the rise of Shaka’s Zulu empire among the coastal Nguni-speaking peoples, which 22 wars against the

  2. ERA-40

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ERA-40 project was to produce and promote the use of a comprehensive set of global analysis describing the state of the atmosphere and land and ocean-wave conditions...

  3. Gunshot Wounds of the South Mrican War*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-10-09

    Oct 9, 1971 ... of the wounds which were to be caused by the Mauser and. Lee-Metford ... Trojan War and at the beginning of the Christian era, when it was written ..... 9 Oktober 1971. The South African War was the first, and probably the.

  4. Leadership in the Era of the Trump Presidency: Implications for the Education of American Indian Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Susan C.

    2018-01-01

    In this manuscript, I outline what I perceive to be the potential implications of the Trump presidency for the education of American Indian children and youth. In doing so, I argue that failure to provide adequate educational programs and services for American Indian children and youth represents an abrogation of the federal government's trust…

  5. Using systematized tacit knowledge to prioritize implementation challenges in existing maternal health programs: implications for the post MDG era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Montekio, Victor; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline; Darney, Blair G; Orozco-Nuñez, Emanuel

    2016-10-01

    Strategic priority setting and implementation of strategies to reduce maternal mortality are key to the post Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2015 agenda. This article highlights the feasibility and the advantages of using a systematized tacit knowledge approach, using data from maternal health program personnel, to identify local challenges to implementing policies and programs to inform the post MDG era. Communities of practice, conceived as groups of people sharing professional interests, experiences and knowledge, were formed with diverse health personnel implementing maternal health programs in Mexico and Nicaragua. Participants attended several workshops and developed different online activities aiming to strengthen their capacities to acquire, analyze, adapt and apply research results and to systematize their experience and knowledge of the actual implementation of these programs. Concept mapping, a general method designed to organize and depict the ideas of a group on a particular topic, was used to manage, discuss and systematize their tacit knowledge about implementation problems of the programs they work in. Using a special online concept mapping platform, participants prioritized implementation problems by sorting them in conceptual clusters and rating their importance and feasibility of solution. Two hundred and thirty-one participants from three communities of practice in each country registered on the online concept mapping platform and 200 people satisfactorily completed the sorting and rating activities. Participants further discussed these results to prioritize the implementation problems of maternal health programs. Our main finding was a great similarity between the Mexican and the Nicaraguan general results highlighting the importance and the feasibility of solution of implementation problems related to the quality of healthcare. The use of rigorously organized tacit knowledge of health personnel proved to be a feasible and useful tool for

  6. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    Simon , Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...

  7. War and Education in the United States: Racial Ideology and Inequality in Three Historical Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.; Darby, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of war on African-American education. This question is considered in three different periods: the eras of the American Revolution, the Civil War and the Second World War. Large-scale conflict, such as these instances of total war, can afford historical moments when oppressed groups are able take steps to improve…

  8. The Pricing Evolution in the Air Transportation Industry. Implication for the Romanian Tourism Sector in the Era of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Marin-Pantelescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The globalization process involves the liberalization of the services and the air transportation industry is responsive to this reality. There is a developing tendency for global alliances and strategies in major airline companies. The globalization implies extending service networks in the whole world. Currently we are witnessing lower prices for domestic and foreign airline flights with benefits for the tourists’ business and leisure activities. The last minute offers and early booking prices provide a win-win situation, for the airline companies on one side and for the customers on the other side. The positive online reviews influence people buying decision because customers are more sensitive than ever to the services prices. Under this condition it is very interesting to see the evolution of pricing in the air transportation industry and the implication for the Romanian tourism sector.

  9. Childhood Trauma Exposure in Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans: Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Adult Functional Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dedert, Eric A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Brancu, Mira; Runnals, Jennifer; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship among childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and adult social support in a large sample of veterans who served in the military after 09/11/2001, with a specific focus on the potential role of the PTSD avoidance and numbing cluster as intervening in the association between…

  10. Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  11. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  12. Mutations of the aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetases SARS and WARS2 are implicated in the etiology of autosomal recessive intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Luciana; Püttmann, Lucia; Kahrizi, Kimia; Garshasbi, Masoud; Hu, Hao; Stehr, Henning; Lipkowitz, Bettina; Otto, Sabine; Jensen, Lars R; Tzschach, Andreas; Jamali, Payman; Wienker, Thomas; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Kuss, Andreas W

    2017-06-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is the hallmark of an extremely heterogeneous group of disorders that comprises a wide variety of syndromic and non-syndromic phenotypes. Here, we report on mutations in two aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that are associated with ID in two unrelated Iranian families. In the first family, we identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.514G>A, p.Asp172Asn) in the cytoplasmic seryl-tRNA synthetase (SARS) gene. The mutation affects the enzymatic core domain of the protein and impairs its enzymatic activity, probably leading to reduced cytoplasmic tRNA Ser concentrations. The mutant protein was predicted to be unstable, which could be substantiated by investigating ectopic mutant SARS in transfected HEK293T cells. In the second family, we found a compound heterozygous genotype of the mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WARS2) gene, comprising a nonsense mutation (c.325delA, p.Ser109Alafs*15), which very likely entails nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and a missense mutation (c.37T>G, p.Trp13Gly). The latter affects the mitochondrial localization signal of WARS2, causing protein mislocalization. Including AIMP1, which we have recently implicated in the etiology of ID, three genes with a role in tRNA-aminoacylation are now associated with this condition. We therefore suggest that the functional integrity of tRNAs in general is an important factor in the development and maintenance of human cognitive functions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pulsar era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewish, A

    1986-12-01

    The discovery of pulsars in 1967 initiated one of the most effervescent phases of astronomy since World War II and opened up a number of important new fields of research. In looking back at the history of this event it is useful to focus on three aspects. These are the prehistory because it reveals a fascinating relationship between theory and observation concerning an entirely new phenomenon - the neutron star; the discovery itself, which was totally unexpected, to see if anything can be learned which might have a bearing on serendipitous discoveries in the future. For example, would pulsars have been found if the sky survey had been recorded digitally and analysed by a computer; the astronomical impact of the discovery as seen eighteen years after the initial excitement.

  14. Gastrointestinal problems in modern wars: clinical features and possible mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei-Feng; Guo, Xiao-Xu; Yang, Yun-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal problems are common during wars, and they have exerted significant adverse effects on the health of service members involved in warfare. The spectrum of digestive diseases has varied during wars of different eras. At the end of the 20th century, new frontiers of military medical research emerged due to the occurrence of high-tech wars such as the Gulf War and the Kosovo War, in which ground combat was no longer the primary method of field operations. The risk to the military ...

  15. Dardanel Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet EYİCİL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the opening of the Dardanel Front was to establish a link between allies and Russia and to push The Ottoman Empire out of the war. In order to reach this cause, upon Churchill’s suggestion, the English War Commitee met on 28 January 1915 and decided to attack the Dardanels on February 19. The allies fleet tried to pass the Dardanels several times but they failed. Their biggest attack for the Straits took place on 18 March, which was failed and the fleet lost one third of its power. After the failure on the sea to pass the Straits the allies landed on Gallipoli to invade İstanbul. Landing took place from April 1 to December 22 the wars on lands lasted more than 8 months, during which Turkish army fought heroic battles. Fierce battles took place on Kabatepe, Seddülbahir, Alçıtepe, Kilitbahir, Anafartalar, Arıburnu. Upon failure on the land the allies started to withdraw from this front on 8 January 1915. The Dardanels wars which was lost by the allies caused the First World War to continue two more years. Tsarist regime was collapsed in Russia and its place Bolshevik regime came. The Turks put aside bad results of the Balkan Wars and became again a heroic nation. Because of his successes Mustafa Kemal became a genious commander. Most importantly Dardanels wars gave its honours to the Turkish army

  16. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  17. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  18. The Vietnam War: History, Learning, and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tricia

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the curriculum entitled "Echoes from the Wall: History, Learning and Leadership through the Lens of the Vietnam War Era." Discusses the purpose of the materials. States that the curriculum incorporates primary resources into the classroom while making history more immediate to students. (CMK)

  19. The Fukushima War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We know that henceforth there will be a 'before' and an 'after' Fukushima, just as there is a before and an after Hiroshima-Nagasaki. However, these two nuclear-related events are quite different in nature, and the characteristics they do share are not those we might expect. Although atomic fission is the common denominator, the consequences of their respective origins diverge - an industrial accident for Fukushima, military attacks for Hiroshima-Nagasaki - even (paradoxically, as we shall see) with respect to radioactivity. Yet their catastrophic proportions and geopolitical implications draw them together. Represented in Japan by well-known numbers that refer to the dates on which they occurred - 3.11 for March 11, 2011; 8.6 and 8.9 for August 6 and 9, 1945 - Fukushima and Hiroshima-Nagasaki are geopolitical markers, each having both a temporal and a spatial dimension. In other words, to quote the late Pierre Gentelle, these are major spatial events generating widespread repercussions, both locally and globally, and affecting political action and ideological discourse in a number of countries. Their geography is fully fledged in that it comprises a physical and geophysical dimension, thus reflecting natural phenomena, nature itself, and the individualized perception that everyone has of it - scientists, individuals, and populations alike. This is also about war. An actual war that ended with Hiroshima and Nagasaki. And a war now being fought against the invisible enemy of radiation at Fukushima and in other areas of Japan, with the country's 'hot spots' (hotto supoto), 'evacuation zones' (hinan kuiki), and other such 'exclusion zones' (haijo kuiki). A war with devastated landscape, theoretically unaffected hinterland, and a division of the land dictated by emerging battlefields; and with its front lines and a population caught in the crossfire or forced to leave. In this war against radiation, the 2011 US military (Japan's occupiers in 1945) limited Operation

  20. An Analysis of the United States-Led Coalition Air Campaign Conducted During the 1991 War with IRAQ: Desert Storm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, John

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of the 1991 United States led coalition Persian Gulf War (DESERT STORM) Air Campaign is performed to measure its adherence to basic principles of war and to determine the potential implications for the future conduct of war...

  1. GPR and ERT detection and characterization of a mass burial, Spanish Civil War, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Melendi, David; Gonzalez-Quirós, Andrés; Roberts, Daniel; García García, María Del Carmen; Caunedo Domínguez, Amaya; Pringle, Jamie K; Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino

    2018-06-01

    Around 27,000 people were killed in the province of Asturias during the Spanish Civil War, with several thousands killed after the war ended. There are currently over 2,000 known mass burial locations throughout Spain, but many more are unknown. Geophysics is a useful tool employed to help in the active attempts to document and improve knowledge about victims from this conflict. This paper details a non-invasive study of the Cementerio de El Salvador, in the city of Oviedo, Northern Spain. Part of the cemetery contains a known mass burial with approximately 1,300 individuals from the Spanish Civil War and post-war repression eras. Multi-frequency near-surface geophysical techniques were undertaken, after permission, to enhance knowledge about which, if any, techniques should be used to detect, delineate and analyse such mass graves. Multi-frequency (250MHz and 500MHz) ground-penetrating radar surveys were acquired together with 2D and 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography datasets. The results have established the limits of the mass grave and improve the knowledge of the internal mass grave structure. The paper also shows the importance of considering the climatic conditions during data acquisition. This has important implications for the successful detection of recent historical mass burials using near-surface geophysics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Long War and America's Relationship With Its Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Field, Kimberly C

    2008-01-01

    The unique characteristics of the "Global War on Terrorism" have implications for the relationship society has with its military, and therefore, for military effectiveness in achieving political ends...

  3. War Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare as a profou......This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare...

  4. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  5. Education, Meritocracy and the Global War for Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phillip; Tannock, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Talk of the rise of a global war for talent and emergence of a new global meritocracy has spread from the literature on human resource management to shape nation-state discourse on managed migration and immigration reform. This article examines the implications that the global war for talent have for education policy. Given that this talent war is…

  6. Strategic Insights, Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2006. Uribe's Second Mandate, the War, and the Implications for Civil-Military Relations in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porch, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    .... However, hardly was the ink dry on the Constitutional Court's decision than hero of the hard line, take-no-prisoners strategy in the war against Colombia's insurgents appeared to reverse course...

  7. Food and War in Herodotus’ Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the way Herodotus relates food and war in his work. In the first part we consider the economic causes of war, those related to populations’ food supplies. In the second part we focus on the role of food in a war scenario. In spite of the great relevance given by Herodotus in the construction of his war narratives to the characters of kings and generals, the Greek historian is perfectly aware of the economic implications the military conflicts usually have throughout the history of mankind.http://dx.doi.org/10.14195/2183-1718_66_7

  8. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  9. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  10. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  11. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    Hills seemed especially urgent. An economic depression hit the country in 1873 followed by the discovery of gold in the Black Hills the next year...University of Oklahoma Press, 1994). 84 Endnotes 1. John S. Gray, “ Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876,” (n.p.: The Old Army Press, 1976) p. 211

  12. Wars and suicides in Israel, 1948-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron Ostre, Israel

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed.

  13. Wars and Suicides in Israel, 1948–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron (Ostre), Israel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:22754482

  14. Revolutionary networks. Women’s political and social activism in Cold War Italy and Yugoslavia (1945-1957)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonfiglioli, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my

  15. Perpetual War?

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, General Wesley; Mann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Michael Mann documents the increasing substitution of war for diplomacy by US policy elites. In part, the substitution has come about because of ideological change but also because the "Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex" maintains a high level of military spending due to the fact that most congressional districts receive some form of military expenditure from bases to munitions production. General Wesley Clark considers foreign policy under the Bush administration. He argues ...

  16. Currency wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs academic 2015-2016 A currency war (also known as the competitive depreciation or a policy of impoverish the neighbor) occurs when a country wants to obtain a competitive advantage which improve its trade balancethrough a series of changes in its currency. With these currency movements exports become cheaper for foreigners while imports become more expensive for residents in the own nation. These advantages produce strong...

  17. Globalizing Contemporary War

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Zisler

    2009-01-01

    There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008).These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ pre...

  18. Military Exercises in Korea: A Provocation or a Deterrent to War?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, John S

    2006-01-01

    The 53-year alliance between the United States and the Republic of Korea (ROK) has been a deterrent to the Stalinist North Korean state along the most heavily militarized zone remaining of the Cold War era...

  19. Climate wars and fat wars: A new role for law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma J. Kroeze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Public trust in science is eroding because of a number of conflicts. In the sphere of climate science and of nutrition science, a basic methodological difference between scientists has escalated into what can be called wars. These wars are the result of influences such as personalities of leading scientists and powerful commercial and political interests. The wars have escalated to such an extent that leading scientists are being threatened with legal action and disciplinary procedures for advocating divergent views. These legal processes are not primarily about the procedural aspects of their actions, but are couched as being ‘about the science’. This means that legal processes are being used to ‘settle’ the science – something that the law has never been required to do. This new role for law has implications for legal education and requires that lawyers become more capable to understand empirical research.

  20. Numbing and Dysphoria Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans: A Review of Findings and Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassija, Christina M.; Jakupcak, Matthew; Gray, Matt J.

    2012-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans experience significant rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other trauma-related mental health conditions. Understanding how specific PTSD symptomatology affects physical health and psychosocial functioning may be useful in improving the conceptualization of PTSD nosology and informing treatment…

  1. Smog wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospodarek, M.P.

    1979-04-12

    International discussions of transboundary pollution, which have not been able to find a way to effect the agreed-upon principle that no nation should have to suffer another nation's pollution, parallel the smog wars across state boundaries. The states, however, can blame the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as each other because of relaxed and unevenly applied standards. Several EPA decisions are cited to illustrate tensions between states and the alienation of the environmental lobby. Of particular concern are the application of smog and ozone standards in rural areas and the effect of offset policy on industrial development.

  2. Nursing typhus victims in the Second World War, 1942-1944: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jane

    2014-07-01

    This article explores the care British nurses provided to victims of typhus during the Second World War. Typhus is associated with poverty and overcrowding. During wars in the pre-antibiotic era, civilians were particularly susceptible to epidemics, which military governments feared would spread to their troops. This discussion paper draws on archival data from three typhus epidemics in the Second World War to examine the expert work of British nurses in caring for victims during these potential public health disasters. The published sources for the paper include material from nursing and medical journals published between 1940-1947. Archival sources come from the National Archives in Kew, the Wellcome Library and the Army Medical Services Museum, between 1943-1945. Of particular interest is the correspondence with Dame Katharine Jones from nurses on active service overseas. Whilst epidemics of typhus are now rare, nurses in the present day may be required to care for the public in environments of extreme poverty and overcrowding, where life-threatening infectious diseases are prevalent. This article has demonstrated that it is possible for expert and compassionate nursing to alleviate suffering and prevent death, even when medical technologies are unavailable. Expert and compassionate care, adequate nutrition and hydration and attention to hygiene needs are crucial when there are limited pharmacological treatments and medical technologies available to treat infectious diseases. The appreciation of this could have implications for nurses working in current global conflicts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Fifth Army War College: Preparing Strategic Leaders to Win in a Complex World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    turn of the century, signed the order. 16 The Root Reform Era between the Spanish -American War and World War I “saw vast changes in the entire... municipal governments, labor unions, media organizations, and other offices whiles visiting New York City each year. 39 Additionally, the College began to

  4. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  5. Peacekeeping without banisters : the need for new practices that go beyond just war theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topolski, A.R.; Forough, M.

    2010-01-01

    While there may be nothing new under the sun in terms of warfare, there are two new trends in the post-Cold war era that are strikingly at odds with each other: the resurgence of just war theory and the increase in UN led peacekeeping operations. On the one hand, there has been an explosion of just

  6. Limited War Under the Nuclear Umbrella: An Analysis of India’s Cold Start Doctrine and Its Implications for Stability on the Subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    coupled with the fog of war could result in Indian forces rolling into an important Pakistani city , only this time it could be Islamabad and not Dacca...capture of the capital of East Pakistan, Dhaka . It was later revealed that a senior Indian general took it upon himself to make the decision.”180 In...disputed northeastern boundary with China was overrun by Chinese military units. Both sides had antagonized each other during the period preceding China’s

  7. ERA`s Ranger uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, W. [Energy Resources of Australia Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Energy Resource of Australia (ERA) is a public company with 68% of its shares owned by the Australian company North Limited. It is currently operating one major production centre - Ranger Mine which is 260 kilometres east of Darwin, extracting and selling uranium from the Ranger Mine in the Northern Territory to nuclear electricity utilities in Japan, South Korea, Europe and North America. The first drum of uranium oxide from Ranger was drummed in August 1981 and operations have continued since that time. ERA is also in the process of working towards obtaining approvals for the development of a second mine - Jabiluka which is located 20 kilometres north of Ranger. The leases of Ranger and Jabiluka adjoin. The Minister for the Environment has advised the Minister for Resources and Energy that there does not appear to be any environmental issue which would prevent the preferred Jabiluka proposal from proceeding. Consent for the development of ERA`s preferred option for the development of Jabiluka is being sought from the Aboriginal Traditional Owners. Ranger is currently the third largest producing uranium mine in the world producing 4,237 tonnes of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the year to June 1997.

  8. Hazard responses in the pre-industrial era: vulnerability and resilience of traditional societies to volcanic disasters and the implications for present-day disaster planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Heather

    2014-05-01

    A major research frontier in the study of natural hazard research involves unravelling the ways in which societies have reacted historically to disasters, and how such responses influence current policies of disaster reduction. For societies it is common to classify responses to natural hazards into: pre-industrial (folk); industrial; and post-industrial (comprehensive) responses. Pre-industrial societies are characterised by: a pre-dominantly rural location; an agricultural economic focus; artisan handicrafts rather than industrial production, parochialism, with people rarely travelling outside their local area and being little affected by external events and a feudal or semi-feudal social structure. In the past, hazard assessment focused on the physical processes that produced extreme and potentially damaging occurrences, however from the middle of the twenty-first century research into natural hazards has been cast within a framework defined by the polarities (or opposites) of vulnerability and resilience, subject to a blend of unique environmental, social, economic and cultural forces in hazardous areas, that either increase or decrease the impact of extreme events on a given society. In the past decade research of this type has been facilitated by a 'revolution' of source materials across a range of languages and in a variety of electronic formats (e.g. official archives; major contemporary and near-contemporary publications - often available as reprints; national and international newspapers of record; newsreel-films; and, photographs) and in the introduction of more reliable translation software (e.g. Systrans) that provides far more scope to the researcher in the study of natural hazards than was the case even a few years ago. Knowledge of hazard responses in the pre-industrial era is, not only important in its own right because it reveals indigenous strategies of coping, but also informs present-day disaster planners about how people have reacted to past

  9. Introduction: the human sciences and Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the history of the human sciences during the Cold War era have proliferated over the past decade--in JHBS and elsewhere. This special issue focuses on the connections between the behavioral sciences and the culture and politics of the Cold War in the United States. In the recent literature, there is a tendency to identify the Cold War human sciences with two main paradigms: that of psychocultural analysis, on the one hand, and of the systems sciences, on the other. The essays in the special issue both extend understanding of each of these interpretive frameworks and help us to grasp their interconnection. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  11. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  12. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2018-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; colonial wars in V.; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various...... culture wars – hippies against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland and Inherent Vice; and the war on terror in Bleeding Edge. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only political or military but also social...... and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order; from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic missiles of the cold war, the irregular engagements of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and the digitalized fall-out of cyber-warfare....

  13. The War Against Terror and Transatlantic Information Sharing: Spillovers of Privacy or Spillovers of Security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tzanou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The EU-US Passenger Name Record (PNR agreement has been among the most controversial instruments in the fight against terrorism that the EU negotiated with the US after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The agreement has been heavily criticised for its implications regarding fundamental rights, in particular the rights to privacy and data protection. Nevertheless, the EU has put forward plans to develop its own PNR programme. The present article aims to examine the new dynamics concerning privacy that arise from the transatlantic fight against terrorism. It argues that, while attempts for the development of a transatlantic privacy protection framework have been made, ‘spillovers’ of security, taking the form of internalisation of external counter-terrorism measures, are prevalent in the era of the war against terror.

  14. US policies on combating proliferation of nuclear weapons after the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaki, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    Combating nuclear proliferation has been one of the top priorities for the international community in the post post-Cold War era, and the United States has been taking initiative for tackling the problems. The current Bush administration has placed value high on the effective and concrete actions - including the use of military forces - for such efforts. It is imperative that such actions should be taken in resolving the nuclear proliferation. However, the United States has been criticized that it has disregarded the existing nuclear non-proliferation regime, and that its non-proliferation policy has given negative implications to the regime. Combating nuclear proliferation should be pursued in balanced approach with legitimacy, in consideration of the discriminately nature of the regime as well as of its three pillars - nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear disarmament and peaceful use of nuclear energy. (author)

  15. Dakwah di Era Digital

    OpenAIRE

    Budiantoro, Wahyu

    2018-01-01

    These days dakwah is not only interpreted as transformation of a pure religious value, but also transformation of a more relevant value including many aspects in digital era. Digital era is when society succumbed into the flow of information causing cultural shock and difficulties on synthesizing meaning from those scattered information. Dakwah on Digital age must accommodate societal needs which tend to move into a mass society. It results in strategy and more humane and innovative dakwah me...

  16. Understanding Political Influence in Modern-Era Conflict:A Qualitative Historical Analysis of Hassan Nasrallah’s Speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Abu-Lughod

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Political Influence in Modern-Era Conflict: A Qualitative Historical Analysis of Hassan Nasrallah’s Speeches 'Abstract' 'This research examines and closely analyzes speeches delivered by Hezbollah’s secretary general and spokesman, Hassan Nasrallah, from a content analysis perspective. We reveal that several significant political phenomena that have occurred in Lebanon were impacted by the intensity of speeches delivered by Nasrallah; these three events being the 2006 War, the Doha Agreement, and the 2008 prisoner exchange. Data has been collected from transcribed speeches and analyzed using a qualitative historical analysis. Furthermore, we use latent analysis to assess Nasrallah’s underlying implications of his speeches and identify the themes he uses to influence his audience.'

  17. Prognostic Value of Molecular Markers and Implication for Molecular Targeted Therapies in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: An Update in an Era of New Targeted Molecules Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mu-Tai; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Huang, Chia-Chun; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of molecular biomarkers which could provide information for more accurate prognostication and development of novel therapeutic strategies for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). NPC is a unique malignant epithelial carcinoma of head and neck region, with an intimate association with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Currently, the prediction of NPC prognosis is mainly based on the clinical TNM staging; however, NPC patients with the same clinical stage often present different clinical outcomes, suggesting that the TNM stage is insufficient to precisely predict the prognosis of this disease. In this review, we give an overview of the prognostic value of molecular markers in NPC and discuss potential strategies of targeted therapies for treatment of NPC. Molecular biomarkers, which play roles in abnormal proliferation signaling pathways (such as Wnt/β-catenin pathway), intracellular mitogenic signal aberration (such as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α), receptor-mediated aberrations (such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)), tumor suppressors (such as p16 and p27 activity), cell cycle aberrations (such as cyclin D1 and cyclin E), cell adhesion aberrations (such as E-cadherin), apoptosis dysregualtion (such as survivin) and centromere aberration (centromere protein H), are prognostic markers for NPC. Plasma EBV DNA concentrations and EBV-encoded latent membrane proteins are also prognostic markers for NPC. Implication of molecular targeted therapies in NPC was discussed. Such therapies could have potential in combination with different cytotoxic agents to combat and eradicate tumor cells. In order to further improve overall survival for patients with loco-regionally advanced NPC, the development of innovative strategies, including prognostic molecular markers and molecular targeted agents is needed.

  18. A THIRD ERA OF MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu NEAMŢU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Management like any social activity through specific stages of development trends from general society. Following these historical trends, this study summarizes the evolution of management at four stages of a full cycle of development, from a informal management to one perfect formalized. These stages of development are found differential represented at the various economic development regions in the world. Evolution increasingly grouped patterns of management and generalization for schools of thought management determines the current global development of worldwide management. For the current stage of evolution may be called as "the third era of management" or "imperial period” in which management pressures on individuals, employers or subordinate, are enormous. Evolution of companies, of markets and national economies also the global economy is driven by the current trend in management, leading to very strong mutations in the relationship of forces. The world economy is in what is called "war of resources" and the alternative that we believe is necessary in this "human management" although speculative trends of concentration of capital are binding on any plans or state regulators global ethical management.

  19. [Georg Friedrich Nicolai: war physician against war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, L

    2017-01-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai was a German professor and heart specialist who was one of the few who protested against the war at the beginning of World War I. As a result, he lost his job and was convicted. After the war, right-wing nationalist students and lack of support from his university superiors made it impossible for him to teach. He left Germany in 1922, never to return. In his book, Die Biologie des Krieges (The Biology of War), which was published in neutral Switzerland in 1917, he contradicted the social Darwinist idea - supported by many physicians as well - that war strengthened humanity, people and races, physically and mentally. On the contrary, he argued, war is biologically counterproductive.

  20. Texture analysis of Napoleonic War Era copper bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Florencia; Northover, Shirley; James, Jon; Northover, Peter; Kelleher, Joe

    2016-04-01

    Neutron diffraction techniques are suitable for volume texture analyses due to high penetration of thermal neutrons in most materials. We have implemented a new data analysis methodology that employed the spatial resolution achievable by a time-of-flight neutron strain scanner to non-destructively determine the crystallographic texture at selected locations within a macroscopic sample. The method is based on defining the orientation distribution function of the crystallites from several incomplete pole figures, and it has been implemented on ENGIN-X, a neutron strain scanner at the Isis Facility in the UK. Here, we demonstrate the application of this new texture analysis methodology in determining the crystallographic texture at selected locations within museum quality archaeological objects up to 1 m in length. The results were verified using samples of similar, but less valuable, objects by comparing the results of applying this method with those obtained using both electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction on their cross sections.

  1. The Built Environment of Cold War Era Servicewomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    offered coeducational classes. Still, in the early part of the 1960s, physical training for women was “viewed as a means to keep the ladies ‘fit and trim...buildings pre- cludes fully integrated, coeducational billeting.” It was further felt that un- til facilities could be constructed that guaranteed...Hillinger, “Women Equal.” ERDC/CERL M-06-2 148 coeducational training except for certain classes such as those related to personal hygiene and

  2. 'LDL-C' = LDL-C + Lp(a)-C: implications of achieved ultra-low LDL-C levels in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 era of potent LDL-C lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeang, Calvin; Witztum, Joseph L; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2015-06-01

    The measurement that is termed 'LDL-cholesterol' (LDL-C) includes the cholesterol content of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)-C], which can contribute approximately 30-45% to measured LDL-C levels as a percentage of its mass. We review the implications of achieved very low LDL-C levels in patients treated with potent LDL-C-lowering agents in the context of varying Lp(a) levels. Combination therapy with statins, ezetimibe, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can lower LDL-C to unprecedentedly low levels. Recent PCSK9 trials have shown that routine achievement of mean LDL-C less than 50 mg/dl is feasible, along with the modest reductions in Lp(a). Many patients will achieve LDL-C less than 25 mg/dl with concomitantly elevated Lp(a) levels that contribute substantially to the measured 'LDL-C'. Therefore, it is possible that some of these patients may have little to no circulating LDL-C. As the new era of ultralow LDL-C levels ensues, it is imperative to understand the contribution of Lp(a)-C to measured LDL-C and the consequences of achieving ultralow or potentially absent LDL-C in the setting of elevated Lp(a) levels and possibly free apo(a). We review this concept and suggest avenues of research, including analyses of existing datasets in current clinical trials and new research studies, to understand its pathophysiological and clinical significance.

  3. "A man's game": cricket, war and masculinity, South Africa, 1899-1902.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    As practitioners of the imperial sport of the Victorian age, cricketers rallied whenever war descended upon England and its colonies. The South African War of 1899-1902 was no different. Adding to existing work on cricket's imperial development within South Africa, this study marks a significant contribution to research on the link between masculinity, war and sport during the Victorian era. A concept emerging from the English public schools of the mid- to late nineteenth century, the masculine ethos of sport and military honour had reached colonial South Africa by the outbreak of war in 1899. In its analysis of cricket and masculinity, this essay examines the events surrounding the war in South Africa and provides an example of the distinct relationship that existed between the military and the masculinity of sport and its organisation during this era.

  4. Commemorating the future in post-war Chernivtsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunchak, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the Second World War and the post-war period, the city of Chernivtsi was transformed from a multiethnic and borderland urban microcosm into a culturally uniform Soviet socialist city. As the Soviets finally took power in this onetime capital of a Hapsburg province in 1944, they not only sponsored further large-scale population transfers but also "repopulated" its history, creating a new urban myth of cultural uniformity. This article examines the connection between war commemoration in Chernivtsi in the era of post-war, state-sponsored anti-Semitism and the formation of collective memory and identities of the city's post-war population. The images of homogeneously Ukrainian Chernivtsi and Bukovina were created through the art of monumental propaganda, promoting public remembrance of certain events and personalities while making sure that others were doomed to oblivion. Selective commemoration of the wartime events was an important tool of drawing the borders of Ukrainian national identity, making it exclusivist and ethnic-based. Through an investigation of the origins of the post-war collective memory in the region, this article addresses the problem of perceived discontinuity between all things Soviet and post-Soviet in Ukraine. It demonstrates that it is, on the contrary, the continuity between Soviet and post-Soviet eras that defines today's dominant culture and state ideology in Ukraine and particularly in its borderlands.

  5. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  6. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  7. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    knowledge and data retrieved from the literature. Finally, the information presented in this opinion was reviewed by experts from the relevant EFSA Panels, European risk assessment bodies and through an open consultation requesting input from stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed to address...... recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  8. On immorality of terrorism and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičovački Predrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The author first analyzes differences and similarities between war and terrorism and then argues that both are deeply immoral. Their differences are far less significant that their similarities, the main one of which consists in the denial of the view that every human life is equally worthy. This denial opens a way for an inhuman and violent treatment of those (enemies, others who are not as valuable as we are, which characterizes both terrorism and war. Besides having such unacceptable moral implications with regards to the treatment of other human beings, a further common and troubling implication of terrorism and war consists in the fact that dehumanization of others leads also to a dehumanization of ourselves. .

  9. Special Issue: War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This special double issue of NORMA explore the mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities, the forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts and the implications for masculinity research. The issues cover a range of historical and current topics, cases and analyt......This special double issue of NORMA explore the mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities, the forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts and the implications for masculinity research. The issues cover a range of historical and current topics, cases...... and analytical approaches. The contributions fall into the following four themes: violent masculine rituals and how contemporary societies cope with extreme violence against women; popular written and visual fiction about war and masculine rationalities; gender relations in social movements of rebellions...

  10. War in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.

    1981-01-01

    War history as a modern historic discipline is by far no longer a mere history of arms technique or a chronicle of battles. It deals with the change of warfare, shows how the wars of the various ages had determined society, and vice versay investigates the influence of social, economic, and -concerning mentality-historical changes on war. With this survey, which covers the period between the Middle Ages and the recent past, the author has presented a small masterpiece of the history of war. A book like this is particularly important and instructive in a time when all depends on the preventing of wars. (orig.) [de

  11. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  12. Focus: new perspectives on science and the Cold War. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyck, Hunter; Kaiser, David

    2010-06-01

    Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Cold War looks ever more like a slice of history rather than a contemporary reality. During those same twenty years, scholarship on science, technology, and the state during the Cold War era has expanded dramatically. Building on major studies of physics in the American context--often couched in terms of "big science"--recent work has broached scientific efforts in other domains as well, scrutinizing Cold War scholarship in increasingly international and comparative frameworks. The essays in this Focus section take stock of current thinking about science and the Cold War, revisiting the question of how best to understand tangled (and sometimes surprising) relationships between government patronage and the world of ideas.

  13. Coercive Diplomacy: Countering War-Threatening Crises and Armed Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays states rarely resort to war to defeat each other or to address war-threatening crises and armed conflicts. Instead, coercive diplomacy has emerged as their strategy of choice when persuasion and other non-military instruments fall short. Coercive diplomacy involves the use of military...... threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...... the strategy of coercive diplomacy and its requirements for success and shows how states have employed it to manage crises and conflicts during the three strategic eras that the world has passed through since the end of the Cold War....

  14. Lebensraum: paradoxically, population growth may eventually end wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J L

    1989-03-01

    Population growth may progressively reduce 1 of the motives for making war. Namely, population growth threatens shortages of resources, and especially land. Impending shortages cause a search for ways to mitigate the shortages. The discoveries eventually produce greater availability of resources than if population growth and pressure on resources had never occurred. The argument runs as follows: 1) Rhetoric about resources scarcity induced by population density has often contributed to international conflict, even if economics has not been the main motive in making war. 2) In the pre-modern era, war to obtain land and other resources may sometimes have been an economically sound policy. 3) Politicians and others in industrially developed nations believe resources may still be a casus belli. 4) Land and other productive resources are no longer worth acquiring at the cost of war.

  15. ERA: Adverse Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Excellence in Research for Australia has a number of limitations: inputs are counted as outputs, time is wasted, disciplinary research is favoured and public engagement is discouraged. Most importantly, by focusing on measurement and emphasising competition, ERA may actually undermine the cooperation and intrinsic motivation that underpin research…

  16. Energy: a new era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Curtis.

    1995-01-01

    The world appears on the verge of a new era of advanced technologies and new fuels. Although such a transformation is unlikely to take place overnight, change is clearly coming. The question is how much and how fast: Will energy transition amount to a technological revolution, or merely an evolution? A detailed evaluation of the various aspects is given. (author). 23 refs

  17. The Intelligence Archipelago: The Community’s Struggle to Reform in the Globalized Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Cambridge University Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen . In fact, the period of globalization preceding World War I was quite similar to the era the world is...end of the Cold War, but the World Wars as well. 271 Amartya Sen , “If It’s Fair, It’s Good: 10 Truths About Globalization,” Canadian Dimension, 14...truth about globalization espoused by Amartya Sen is that global- ization in itself is not a folly: It has enriched the world scientifically and cul

  18. A perspective on the history of health and human rights: from the Cold War to the Gold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Through the end of the Cold War, public health policies were predominantly shaped and implemented by governments and these same governments committed themselves to meet their obligations for health under international and national laws. The post-Cold War era has witnessed the entry of new actors in public health and the sharing of power and influences with non-state actors, in particular the private sector and interest groups. This article examines the emergence of human rights and the rise of health on the international development agenda as the Cold War was ending. It highlights the convergence of health and human rights in academic and public discourse since the end of the Cold War in a context of political and economic shifts linked to the ongoing economic globalization. It describes opportunities and challenges for greater synergy between health and rights and proposes a role for health practitioners.

  19. Cardinals and the War of Ferrara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Fletcher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The bestowal of a red hat can turn even the most humbly born cleric into an ecclesiastical prince, but whereas few cardinals of the modern era have been born princely, most of those created in the Renaissance period could claim to be of noble lineage and a few, from the second half of the fifteenth century onwards, were the sons of ruling princes. Those who were born to fight were obliged to become those who prayed, but where did their allegiances lie when the states of Italy were at war with a belligerent pope such as Sixtus IV? The War of Ferrara (1482–4 presents an opportunity to survey the responses of cardinals from the ruling dynasties of Mantua, Milan, Montferrat, and Naples, together with their counterparts from the republics of Genoa, Siena, and Venice.

  20. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  1. Ford's Fund for the Republic: A 1950s-Era Foundation as Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Historians have recently opened up a reconsideration of the 1950s. Long characterized as a time of stolid conformity and Cold War conservatism, the era is increasingly seen in more variegated terms. Studies exploring a range of institutions, causes, and activities have illuminated ways the intellectual and social soil of postwar America gave root…

  2. Nuclear war nuclear proliferation and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aga Khan, Sadruddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the proceedings of a conference hosted by the Groupe de Bellerive to explore and discuss the implications for humanity of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation and their consequences, Geneva 1985. The conference was divided into five sessions, headed by the subject titles: the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and its future, the spread of nuclear weapons among nations, global effects of a nuclear war, the nuclear arms race and arms control, the NPT and its future. Twenty eight papers were presented in the five sessions. (UK)

  3. ERA's Ranger uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.

    1997-01-01

    Energy Resource of Australia (ERA) is a public company with 68% of its shares owned by the Australian company North Limited. It is currently operating one major production centre - Ranger Mine which is 260 kilometres east of Darwin, extracting and selling uranium from the Ranger Mine in the Northern Territory to nuclear electricity utilities in Japan, South Korea, Europe and North America. The first drum of uranium oxide from Ranger was drummed in August 1981 and operations have continued since that time. ERA is also in the process of working towards obtaining approvals for the development of a second mine - Jabiluka which is located 20 kilometres north of Ranger. The leases of Ranger and Jabiluka adjoin. The Minister for the Environment has advised the Minister for Resources and Energy that there does not appear to be any environmental issue which would prevent the preferred Jabiluka proposal from proceeding. Consent for the development of ERA's preferred option for the development of Jabiluka is being sought from the Aboriginal Traditional Owners. Ranger is currently the third largest producing uranium mine in the world producing 4,237 tonnes of U 3 O 8 in the year to June 1997

  4. The Annual Collins Center Senior Symposium: Aligning the Interagency Process for the War on Terrorism (Center for Strategic Leadership, Volume 11-05, June 2005)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tussing, Bert B; Butts, Kent H

    2005-01-01

    .... That process, developed for the challenges of the Cold War, is characterized by stove pipe operations and resourcing initiatives in an era that demands an efficient integration of efforts for results...

  5. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  6. Arms Diffusion and War

    OpenAIRE

    Bas, Muhammet Ali; Coe, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a model of the relationship between the spread of new military technologies and the occurrence of war. A new technology could shift the balance of power, causing anticipatory war as one side tries to prevent the other from obtaining it. When one side already has it, war is more likely when the shift in power is large, likely, and durable. When neither side has it, war is more likely when the expected shift is asymmetric (e.g., one side is more likely to get it) and when th...

  7. Terminating America's wars : the Gulf War and Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...

  8. The Party's Over: Oil, War And The Fate Of Industrial Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    The world is about to run out of cheap oil and change dramatically. Within the next few years, global production will peak. Thereafter, even if industrial societies begin to switch to alternative energy sources, they will have less net energy each year to do all the work essential to the survival of complex societies. We are entering a new era, as different from the industrial era as the latter was from medieval times. In 'The Party's Over', Richard Heinberg places this momentous transition in historical context, showing how industrialism arose from the harnessing of fossil fuels, how competition to control access to oil shaped the geopolitics of the twentieth century and how contention for dwindling energy resources in the twenty-first century will lead to resource wars in the Middle East, Central Asia and South America. He describes the likely impacts of oil depletion and all of the energy alternatives. Predicting chaos unless the United States-the world's foremost oil consumer-is willing to join with other countries to implement a global program of resource conservation and sharing, he also recommends a 'managed collapse' that might make way for a slower-paced, low-energy, sustainable society in the future. More readable than other accounts of this issue, with fuller discussion of the context, social implications and recommendations for personal, community, national and global action, Heinberg's updated book is a riveting wake-up call for human-kind as the oil era winds down, and a critical tool for understanding and influencing current US foreign policy

  9. GREECE DURING THE EARLY COLD WAR THE VIEW FROM THE WESTERN ARCHIVES:DOCUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Chourchoulis , Dionysios; Christidis , Christos; Kalogrias , Vaios; Karavis , Periklis-Stelios; Koumas , Manolis; Papastamkou , Sofia

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Greece‘s relation with the West during the Cold War era has constantly attracted theattention of Greek and international scholarship. In this relationship, continuities andbreaks become evident. The postwar era was marked by the continuation of theagonizing Greek effort to integrate in the West. Thus, there was an effort to bringrelations with the major Western European states (Britain, France, West Germany,Italy) back to a kind of normalcy. This, as could be expected,...

  10. Thucydides: Theorist of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Karl Marx trumpeted in the nineteenth century and that contributed to the ruthless and mur- derous civil wars characterizing so much of the blood...occurs, in 431 bC, greece is teetering on the brink of a long-awaited war between athens and sparta. the thebans decide to capitalize on that fact to

  11. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  12. America's Holy War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, John

    2006-01-01

    .... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...

  13. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  14. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  15. War and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    ... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...

  16. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  17. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  18. "Daddy's Gone to War": Father Absence and Its Differential Effects on America's Homefront Girls and Boys during the Second World War--and After.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, William M., Jr.

    The absence of fathers during World War II had differing effects on the development of identity in boys and girls. Articles and research of the era discussed boys' separation from their fathers but largely failed to address daughters' loss of paternal influence. Evidence suggests that for both boys and girls, the problem was not primarily the…

  19. Dakwah di Era Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Budiantoro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available These days dakwah is not only interpreted as transformation of a pure religious value, but also transformation of a more relevant value including many aspects in digital era. Digital era is when society succumbed into the flow of information causing cultural shock and difficulties on synthesizing meaning from those scattered information. Dakwah on Digital age must accommodate societal needs which tend to move into a mass society. It results in strategy and more humane and innovative dakwah methods. One of innovative dakwah methods is conducted dakwah activities through digital media,with the consequences of this is that da’i must developed soft skill and technological capabilities. Another beneficial comes from this is that dakwah could become more modern and practical in terms of methods and material. On the other hand, citizen Journalism as a mass cultural product and the results of technological development, gives an opportunity for da’i to able to record the entire activities, including the dynamics of islamic life. In terms of learning curriculum, dakwah in digital format must be included, so then the intellectual and cultural spirit which flourished in pesantren could be adapted and competed in a global world.

  20. Second Nuclear Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.; Spiewak, I.; Barkenbus, J.N.; Livingston, R.S.; Phung, D.L.

    1984-03-01

    The Institute for Energy Analysis with support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has studied the decline of the present nuclear era in the United States and the characteristics of a Second Nuclear Era which might be instrumental in restoring nuclear power to an appropriate place in the energy options of our country. The study has determined that reactors operating today are much safer than they were at the time of the TMI accident. A number of concepts for a supersafe reactor were reviewed and at least two were found that show considerable promise, the PIUS, a Swedish pressurized water design, and a gas-cooled modular design of German and US origin. Although new, safer, incrementally improved, conventional reactors are under study by the nuclear industry, the complete lack of new orders in the United States will slow their introduction and they are likely to be more expensive than present designs. The study recommends that supersafe reactors be taken seriously and that federal and private funds both be used to design and, if feasible, to build a prototype reactor of substantial size. 146 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  1. Rework of the ERA software system: ERA-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, D.; Skripnichenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    The software system that has been powering many products of the IAA during decades has undergone a major rework. ERA has capabilities for: processing tables of observations of different kinds, fitting parameters to observations, integrating equations of motion of the Solar system bodies. ERA comprises a domain-specific language called SLON, tailored for astronomical tasks. SLON provides a convenient syntax for reductions of observations, choosing of IAU standards to use, applying rules for filtering observations or selecting parameters for fitting. Also, ERA includes a table editor and a graph plotter. ERA-8 has a number of improvements over previous versions such as: integration of the Solar system and TT xA1 TDB with arbitrary number of asteroids; option to use different ephemeris (including DE and INPOP); integrator with 80-bit floating point. The code of ERA-8 has been completely rewritten from Pascal to C (for numerical computations) and Racket (for running SLON programs and managing data). ERA-8 is portable across major operating systems. The format of tables in ERA-8 is based on SQLite. The SPICE format has been chosen as the main format for ephemeris in ERA-8.

  2. Aeschylus and War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume brings together a group of interdisciplinary experts who demonstrate that Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes is a text of continuing relevance and value for exploring ancient, contemporary and comparative issues of war and its attendant trauma. The volume features contributions from...... an international cast of experts, as well as a conversation with a retired U.S. Army Lt. Col., giving her perspectives on the blending of reality and fiction in Aeschylus’ war tragedies and on the potential of Greek tragedy to speak to contemporary veterans. This book is a fascinating resource for anyone...... interested in Aeschylus, Greek tragedy and its reception, and war literature....

  3. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  4. Revisiting and renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...... included within humanity. Conversely, focusing on how these techniques are being questioned within the work, I will discuss the resistance potential of what I will refer to as practices of subjectivization. Eventually, I will seek to position the “war-critical” strategy of the work within a broader context...... of the late modern war paradigm....

  5. The pulsar era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewish, A.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of pulsars in 1967 initiated one of the most effervescent phases of astronomy since World War II and opened up a number of important new fields of research. In looking back at the history of this event it is useful to focus on three aspects. These are the prehistory because it reveals a fascinating relationship between theory and observation concerning an entirely new phenomenon - the neutron star; the discovery itself, which was totally unexpected, to see if anything can be learned which might have a bearing on serendipitous discoveries in the future. For example, would pulsars have been found if the sky survey had been recorded digitally and analysed by a computer; the astronomical impact of the discovery as seen eighteen years after the initial excitement. (author)

  6. Nasionalisme di Era Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danu Widhyatmoko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nationalism and nationality of a country life are moving into the new phase. Internet has become a new medium that opens up so many opportunities to create a sense of nationalism for the country. This paper contains a review of nationalism in the age of the Internet. This paper begins with understanding nationalism, the character of the Internet, social media and nationalism in the era of the Internet. Research method used in this paper is literature study, continued with reflective data analysis. With reflective analysis method, the authors analyzed data from the data collection has been carried out for comparison between the existing literature by circumstances or phenomena that occur, so that the conclusions of rational and scientific data can be obtained. 

  7. THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND UKRAINE: HISTORY AND MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVSEEVA G. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Despite the attempts of historians to objectively present the events of the prehistory and history of the war, the opening of new archives and the desire to get rid of ideological stereotypes, are driving the need to once again explore the role of Ukraine in world war II to prevent its recurrence. On the other hand, the deep understanding of the history of the previous generations will provide an opportunity to properly understand the events of today. The analysis of the research. During the years of independence in the national historiography it was a new understanding of the conceptual foundations of the study of war. Over the past decade it was written a large number of scientific studies in which the main direction of new concepts there was an increased attention to the person, separate social groups and society as a whole in situations of conflict and crises. The article aims to analyze the role and place of Ukraine in the events of the Second world war; identify "Ukrainian dimension" of war and its implications for the modern generation, especially the youth. Conclusion. The effects of war for decades identified the complex and contradictory political, economic and social processes in Ukrainian society, affected the moral and psychological qualities of post-war generations. The memory of war – spiritual-historical heritage of our nation, which lays the foundations for self-sufficiency and identity and integrates it seamlessly into a civilizational flow. The modern level of researches of the events of world war II pays special attention to humanitarian problems of the war. For the youth of Ukraine it is important to join the European perception of the war as tragedy, to understand the responsibility for the memory of the past, because it's a chance for the future.

  8. Leo Szilard Award Lecture: Unwinding the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Thomas

    1997-04-01

    Two generations of scientists in the US and the Soviet Union spent their lives in the shadow of the cold war, building the scientific and technical infrastructure and shaping the institutional and policy structures that maintained a stable "balance of terror." The cold war is now over, but the lethal products of it, and the decaying institutions and policies that perpetuated it, are probably more dangerous than ever. At the same time, the loss of cold war imperatives means fewer government resources and less policy attention to the problems of reversing the cold war. Moreover, solving these problems will require that the forces and talents of economics and business be integrated with the technical skill and imagination of physical scientists. Science fundamentally involves skills of problem definition and problem-solving. Both American and Russian scientists and engineers must expand their tool kits and the scope of their imaginations if they are to undo the dangerous legacy of the cold war and find productive new roles in a post-cold war world. This address is intended to illustrate how this can be done, using the past five years' experience in developing and implementing the agreement between the U.S. and Russia to motivate, finance, and institutionalize the destruction of approximately 20,000 Russian nuclear weapons through the commercially-driven recovery and destruction of 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium from those weapons. Such approaches can have benefits much broader than the destruction of weapons, if we can recognize the opportunities and pursue them wisely. Unfortunately, there is a basic lack of imagination and will, one that is further frustrated by bureaucratic inertia and the parochial interests of cold war institutions. The irony is that Russia is more ready to change than the US, but it is the US that is, in principle but perhaps not in practice, most able to help lead the world out of the cold war era.

  9. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  10. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries, African decision makers nonetheless began to reconsider the role and place of military ..... challenged the war—fighting paradigm for armed forces or the 2003 Gulf ..... Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Evans ...

  11. Children of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Roger

    1984-01-01

    Reflects upon two attributes common to children from many countries who have known nothing but war--the absence of revenge and the belief in God. Considers how they differ from the older generation in these respects. (CMG)

  12. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  13. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  14. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  15. Maslow, Needs, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    for individual‟s remains equally true for groups and nations.ŗ Abraham H. Maslow did groundbreaking work on a hierarchy of needs; he identified five...Penguin Press, 1991), 48. 3 Ibid, 49. 4 Abraham H. Maslow , Motivation and Personality, Second Edition. (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 35-58. 5... Maslow , Needs, and War by Lieutenant Colonel John P. Baker United States Air Force United States Army War College

  16. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  17. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Union officer become Supreme Court Justice, spoke of the Civil War’s psychic effect on those who had fought. Determined to act greatly, Holmes and his...than psychic and hardiy limited to those who, like himself, had served in the Union armies. Institutions as well as individuals had emerged from the war...to match unemployed workers with vacant jobs. 39 If by the close of 1918, the government reacted to possible strikes with threatened removal of a

  18. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary......In this article I primarily analyse observational war documentaries in order to deal with how this particular form of documentary contribute to our understanding of how it is to be at war as a soldier or as a civilian in a war zone. I analyse two very different observational war documentaries...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...

  19. From Star Wars to 'turf wars'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.

  20. War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Hannah L F

    2015-01-01

    War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.

  1. The Sixties and the Cold War University: Madison, Wisconsin and the Development of the New Left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…

  2. The First World War in the Literacy-Focused Classroom: Teaching German through Cultural Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmann, Jennifer; Sederberg, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    This article offers approaches to the topic of the First World War at the intermediate and advanced levels of the German curriculum through thematically diverse WWI-era cultural texts. By situating the texts within a multiliteracies framework, the authors demonstrate how this historical and literary content can provide authentic material for…

  3. Dr. North and the Kansas City Newspaper War: Public Health Advocacy Collides with Main Street Respectability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Bill

    A case study examined a 1920 controversy between two newspapers. One of the last vestiges of the era of "yellow journalism" was the editorial "war" between the Kansas City "Star" and the Kansas City "Post" which culminated in a 1921 showdown. The "Star," a champion of main street interests and…

  4. Creating Schools of Peace and Nonviolence in a Time of War and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Tom

    2009-01-01

    In this post 9/11 era Western cultures are focusing on values that support war and violence. In this article an ethnographer explores the impact of these values on schools. These values, seen through the lens of restorative justice, include: (a) punishment, (b) adversarial relationships, (c) monopolization of power, (d) problemization and…

  5. The party's over: oil, war and the fate of industrial societies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heinberg, Richard

    2003-01-01

    ... - a transitional era of dwindling energy supplies, resource wars, and industrial collapse. If societies a century from now have managed to learn how to live peacefully, modestly, and sustainably, it may be at least partly because the advice in this timely book was heeded. - Thom Hartmann, author of The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight and Unequal Protection...

  6. Physical and Mental Health Consequences of War-related Stressors Among Older Adults: An Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Arthritis in Northern Vietnamese War Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Kim; Loebach, Peter; Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan

    2017-10-01

    We examine the impacts of trauma exposures and family stressors associated with the Vietnam War on musculoskeletal health and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) outcomes in elderly Vietnamese who were widely impacted by the war as young adults. Noting that wars' impacts extend beyond male veterans in most survivor populations, we give attention to male and female war survivors placed in a variety of roles vis-a-vis the war. Utilizing data from the 2010 Vietnam Health and Aging Pilot Study (N = 405), we use logistic and Poisson regression models to estimate the effect of wartime trauma exposures and family stressors on disabling arthritis and PTSD symptoms in male and female northern Vietnamese adults aged 55 and older. The odds of experiencing recent PTSD symptoms are greater in respondents who report involvement in killing/causing severe injury and who observed war atrocities. In women, PTSD is positively correlated with war era child death and spousal separation. Arthritis also exhibits a significant, positive association with killing/causing severe injury. Our study provides insights into the burden of conflict upon health among populations of the global south that survived war and are now entering older adulthood. The pattern of results, indicating greatest suffering among those who inflicted or failed to prevent bodily harm or loss of life, is consistent with the concept of moral injury. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Children and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  8. Women at war: implications for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lissa; Grubbs, Kathleen; Greene, Carolyn; Trego, Lori L; McCartin, Tamarin L; Kloezeman, Karen; Morland, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of deployment stressors on the mental health outcomes of women deployed to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. This pilot study examined exposure to combat experiences and military sexual harassment in a sample of 54 active duty women and assessed the impact of these stressors on post-deployment posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and depressive symptoms. Within 3 months of returning from deployment to Iraq, participants completed (a) the Combat Experiences Scale and the Sexual Harassment Scale of the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory, (b) the Primary Care PTSD Screen, and (c) an abbreviated version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Approximately three quarters of the sample endorsed exposure to combat experiences, and more than half of the sample reported experiencing deployment-related sexual harassment, with nearly half of the sample endorsing both stressors. Approximately one third of the sample endorsed clinical or subclinical levels of PTSD symptoms, with 11% screening positive for PTSD and 9% to 14% of the sample endorsing depressive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that combat experiences and sexual harassment jointly accounted for significant variance in post-deployment PTSD symptoms, whereas military sexual harassment was identified as the only unique significant predictor of these symptoms. Findings from the present study lend support to research demonstrating that military sexual trauma may be more highly associated with post-deployment PTSD symptoms than combat exposure among female service members and veterans.

  9. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  10. Forms of War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Bartelt, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate

  11. VALUATION IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL ERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brimer

    16 ..... stem from the pre-constitutional era, and the constitutional framework and its legitimate reform efforts. A decision on what is just ...... Carroll L Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (Digital Scanning Scituate MA. 2007). Dagan 1999 Va L Rev.

  12. Three eras of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul; Toulmin, Camilla

    2006-10-15

    Climate change as a global challenge has evolved through a series of stages in the last few decades. We are now on the brink of a new era which will see the terms of the debate shift once again. The different eras are characterised by the scientific evidence, public perceptions, responses and engagement of different groups to address the problem. In the first era, from the late 1980s to 2000, climate change was seen as an “environmental” problem to do with prevention of future impacts on the planet's climate systems over the next fifty to hundred years, through reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases, known as “mitigation”. The second era can be said to have started around the turn of the millennium, with the recognition that there will be some unavoidable impacts from climate change in the near term (over the next decade or two). These impacts must be coped with through “adaptation”, as well as mitigation, to prevent much more severe and possibly catastrophic impacts in the longer term. It has become clear that many of the impacts of climate change in the near term are likely to fall on the poorest countries and communities. The third era, which we are just about to enter, will see the issue change from tackling an environmental or development problem to a question of “global justice”. It will engage with a much wider array of citizens from around the world than previous eras.

  13. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  14. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  15. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...... the different genres address different parts of our cognition and emotion....

  16. United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

  17. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  18. Two faces of death: fatalities from disease and combat in America's principal wars, 1775 to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Vincent J

    2008-01-01

    Throughout America's first 145 years of war, far more of the country's military personnel perished from infectious diseases than from enemy action. This enduring feature of war was finally reversed in World War II, chiefly as a result of major medical advances in prevention (vaccines) and treatment (antibiotics). Safeguarding the health of a command is indispensable for the success of any campaign. Wars are lost by disease, which causes an enormous drain on the military's resources and affects both strategy and tactics. Disease and combat mortality data from America's principal wars (1775-present) fall into two clearly defined time periods: the Disease Era (1775-1918), during which infectious diseases were the major killer of America's armed forces, and the Trauma Era (1941-present), in which combat-related fatalities predominated. The trend established in World War II continues to the present day. Although there are currently more than 3,400 U.S. military fatalities in Iraq, the disease-death toll is so low that it is exceeded by the number of suicides.

  19. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  20. Nuclear war effects studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.

  1. Conference on the Trend in Income Inequality in the U.S. Part I, Trends in Inequality of Well-Offness in the United States since World War II. Part 2, Conference Overview: Conceptual Issues, Data Issues, and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, Michael K.; Danziger, Sheldon

    The first part of this document summarizes the current state of knowledge on trends in inequality of economic well-being in the United States since World War II. It surveys alternative answers to the often asked question: Has inequality in the U.S. increased, decreased, or remained roughly the same over a period of time? Intelligent laymen, and…

  2. WHY NATIONS GO TO WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Vrey

    This 11th edition of Why nations go to war analyses ten case studies covering major ... of the time (Germany, Russia, Serbia and Austria in particular), Stoessinger depicts ... The section on the war in Vietnam depicts how five consecutive American ... to war. The nuclear option is available to both countries and the strategic.

  3. Iowa and World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…

  4. The Great War: Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  5. Women veterans' healthcare delivery preferences and use by military service era: findings from the National Survey of Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Donna L; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne; Hamilton, Alison B; Cordasco, Kristina M; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2013-07-01

    The number of women Veterans (WVs) utilizing the Veterans Health Administration (VA) has doubled over the past decade, heightening the importance of understanding their healthcare delivery preferences and utilization patterns. Other studies have identified healthcare issues and behaviors of WVs in specific military service eras (e.g., Vietnam), but delivery preferences and utilization have not been examined within and across eras on a population basis. To identify healthcare delivery preferences and healthcare use of WVs by military service era to inform program design and patient-centeredness. Cross-sectional 2008-2009 survey of a nationally representative sample of 3,611 WVs, weighted to the population. Healthcare delivery preferences measured as importance of selected healthcare features; types of healthcare services and number of visits used; use of VA or non-VA; all by military service era. Military service era differences were present in types of healthcare used, with World War II and Korea era WVs using more specialty care, and Vietnam era-to-present WVs using more women's health and mental health care. Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) WVs made more healthcare visits than WVs of earlier military eras. The greatest healthcare delivery concerns were location convenience for Vietnam and earlier WVs, and cost for Gulf War 1 and OEF/OIF/OND WVs. Co-located gynecology with general healthcare was also rated important by a sizable proportion of WVs from all military service eras. Our findings point to the importance of ensuring access to specialty services closer to home for WVs, which may require technology-supported care. Younger WVs' higher mental health care use reinforces the need for integration and coordination of primary care, reproductive health and mental health care.

  6. Commentary: Warring ants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 2. Commentary: Warring ants: Lessons from Lanchester's laws of combat? Renee M Borges. Volume 27 Issue 2 March 2002 pp 75-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/027/02/0075-0078 ...

  7. Castles at War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...

  8. Fighting the Last War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Peter

    Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier....... Many of the German advisors to the Chinese Army had been through the war in the trenches and took the tactics they had honed there with them to Shanghai. This resulted in near-impregnable Chinese defenses in and around the city, and it also manifested itself in the introduction of shock tactics...

  9. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  10. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  11. Education and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people…

  12. Wars of Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    , both political and military, war between the two forms, the post-napoleonic, Fichtean notion of nationality (1807-8) and the historical notion of imperium. “Nationality” entered the political semantics witch such a force and shook the existing political order of empires to the ground because of its...

  13. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  14. Effectiveness and specificity of a classroom-based group intervention in children and adolescents exposed to war in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G; Fayyad, John; Nasser Karam, Aimee; Cordahi Tabet, Caroline; Melhem, Nadine; Mneimneh, Zeina; Dimassi, Hani

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and specificity of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention after war. All students (n=2500) of six villages in Southern Lebanon designated as most heavily exposed to war received a classroom-based intervention delivered by teachers, consisting of cognitive-behavioural and stress inoculation training strategies. A random sample of treated students (n=101) and a matched control group (n=93) were assessed one month post-war and one year later. Mental disorders and psychosocial stressors were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents - Revised with children and parents. War exposure was measured using the War Events Questionnaire. The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined pre-war, one month post-war (pre-intervention), and one year post-war. Specificity of treatment was determined by rating teachers' therapy diaries. The rates of disorders peaked one month post-war and decreased over one year. There was no significant effect of the intervention on the rates of MDD, SAD or PTSD. Post-war MDD, SAD and PTSD were associated with pre-war SAD and PTSD, family violence parameters, financial problems and witnessing war events. These findings have significant policy and public health implications, given current practices of delivering universal interventions immediately post-war.

  15. Post-combat syndromes from the Boer war to the Gulf war: a cluster analysis of their nature and attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edgar; Hodgins-Vermaas, Robert; McCartney, Helen; Everitt, Brian; Beech, Charlotte; Poynter, Denise; Palmer, Ian; Hyams, Kenneth; Wessely, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To discover whether post-combat syndromes have existed after modern wars and what relation they bear to each other. Design Review of medical and military records of servicemen and cluster analysis of symptoms. Data sources Records for 1856 veterans randomly selected from war pension files awarded from 1872 and from the Medical Assessment Programme for Gulf war veterans. Main outcome measures Characteristic patterns of symptom clusters and their relation to dependent variables including war, diagnosis, predisposing physical illness, and exposure to combat; and servicemen's changing attributions for post-combat disorders. Results Three varieties of post-combat disorder were identified—a debility syndrome (associated with the 19th and early 20th centuries), somatic syndrome (related primarily to the first world war), and a neuropsychiatric syndrome (associated with the second world war and the Gulf conflict). The era in which the war occurred was overwhelmingly the best predictor of cluster membership. Conclusions All modern wars have been associated with a syndrome characterised by unexplained medical symptoms. The form that these assume, the terms used to describe them, and the explanations offered by servicemen and doctors seem to be influenced by advances in medical science, changes in the nature of warfare, and underlying cultural forces. What is already known on this topicService in the Gulf war is associated with an increased rate of reported symptoms and worsening subjective healthPost-combat syndromes have been described after most modern conflicts from the US civil war onwardsWhat this study addsThere seems to be no single post-combat syndrome but a number of variations on a themeThe ever changing form of post-combat syndromes seems to be related to advances in medical understanding, the developing nature of warfare, and cultural undercurrentsBecause reported symptoms are subject to bias and changing emphasis related to advances in medical

  16. METODE MUHADDITSIN DI ERA MODERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriansyah Adriansyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available After the era of tadwin, almost all disciplines of knowledge in the Islamic world, including the study of hadith, was considered “running on the spot.” Yet, attention and maintenance of the hadith was still favored by intellectuals. Similarly, in the modern era, the hadith remains the object of criticism by not only Muslim intellectuals but also outsiders, such as the West. Western imperialism against the Islamic world in the past was now the beginning of the history of how Muslims are only able to “survive” rather than “attack.” The emergence of defensive and reactive works against trends of the West in criticizing and blasphemed the hadith, then, such works became trends and supporting methodologies among Muslim observers of the hadith in today’s modern era

  17. Spain, regenerationism and sports during the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Torrebadella Flix

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The First World War (FWW was a turning point in the contemporary era. Its social impact led to the penetration by ideological forces into physical education and sport; and the publicity-related discourse of these forces were marshaled to capitalize on the productive capacity of adolescents and young adults. The current study focuses on analyzing —through the texts of the period—in what manner the events of the FWW influenced sport in Spain, socially and institutionally. The exploration of original texts from the period in question and a critical discourse analysis provides a chronological narrative of events. The study concludes that the impact of the FWW was decisive in enabling sport to appropriate the values of patriotic excitation provoked not by fears of the war itself, but rather by underlying fears of an expanding industrial context that might find itself compromised by the revolutionary conflicts of the workers’ movement.

  18. [The war at home: "war amenorrhea" in the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenbrock, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In 1917, the Göttingen gynaecologist Dietrich published a short article about a phenomenon which he called "war amenorrhea" ("Kriegsamenorrhoe"). The article attracted the attention of his colleagues. While the affected women did not pay much attention to their amenorrhea, the physicians considered the phenomenon a new disease which was mainly caused by the war. This new disease gave the gynaecologists the opportunity to present their specialty as a discipline with high relevance for medicine in times of war. Nevertheless, there was no consensus about the importance, the incidence, the diagnostic criteria, the causes and the appropriate therapy of"war amenorrhea". Although the gynaecologists failed to define a uniform clinical syndrome, they maintained the construction of "war amenorrhea" after the war and subsumed it under well known types of amenorrhea. We can conclude that under the conditions of war a new disease emerged which was not sharply defined.

  19. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  20. A social theory of war: Clausewitz and war reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    of war. I then show how this framework helps us understand some key problems in the political science literature on war and conflict. I attempt to show two main things: (1) that there are different types of wars (and that these differences are not necessarily related to the standing of the actors, i......This article presents a new theory of war that is grounded in the insights of Clausewitz on the social nature of conflict. Clausewitz had argued that war is a political process; he therefore distinguished between ‘war’—understood in political terms—and warfare—understood as fighting. He...... then created a typology covering a spectrum of war ranging from total to limited, the political stakes of a conflict determining where it would fall on the spectrum. I develop and modify this basic framework by arguing that the social organization of the actors has a determining role in predicting the stakes...

  1. Peace and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, A.

    1981-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties, Albert Schweitzer fought for a policy of peace and warned of the dangers of nuclear war in speeches and publications. Reading his appeals again today, we find that they have lost nothing of their uncanny up-to-dateness. Just the opposite: The disaster predicted by Albert Schweitzer is a stronger threat now than it was at his time. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Technology of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1973-01-01

    This Article is the Note of a lecture, which was hold by Engelbert Borda at the Catholic-Theological Faculty of the University of Vienna in 27. 03. 1973. The author describes the development of modern nuclear weapon systems and the resulting war strategies. He is concerned about a possible end of the ‚balance of terror’ and the development in automation of nuclear strike back strategies. (rössner) [de

  3. Australia and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denborough, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume compiles the papers presented in the conference held in May 1983 under the auspices of the Center for Continuing Education at the Australian National University. It also includes some previously unpublished scientific research. The papers range from analyses of the atmospheric and medical consequences of nuclear war to summaries of the efforts of people in all walks of life to prevent a global catastrophe

  4. Military Adaptation in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    war, there was little role for air defense. In a 1924 memorandum, the air staff explicitly stated “as a principle that the bombing squa- drons ...pulling his squa- drons back from southeastern England, if the pressure on them became too great and then redeploying them forward again, if the...minute as more and more British air- craft arrived in the area. Before reality set in, the controllers had scrambled three squa- drons of Hurricanes and

  5. Steam Locomotives: a forgotten era

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The boiler was not armoured as the idea was that it was bullet proof. The locomotives were arranged into groups of five and for each group there was an engine as standby. As far as can be ascertained, locomotive No 537 was never armoured, but did work draw trains and freight trains during the Anglo-Boer War too.

  6. The Great War as a Crucial Point in the History of Russian Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saprykin, Dmitry L

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to one of the most important and, at the same time, relatively unexplored phases in the history of Russian science and technology. The Great War coincided with the beginning of a heyday in science, engineering education, and technology in Russia. It was precisely the time in which Russia's era of "Big Science" was emer- ging. Many Russian and Soviet technical projects and scientific schools were rooted in the time of the Great War. The "engineerization" of science and a "physical-technical" way of thinking had already begun before the war. But it was precisely the war which encouraged a large proportion of the Russian academic community to take part in industrial projects. Academics also played a significant role in developing concepts and implementing strategic plans during the Great War. This article also discusses how the organization of science and the academic community was transformed during, and after, the Great War. And it looks at the impact that war had on Russia's participation in the international scientific community.

  7. Information War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the

  8. Understanding how deployment experiences change over time: Comparison of female and male OEF/OIF and Gulf War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Annie B; Walker, Brian E; Smith, Brian N; King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A; Vogt, Dawne

    2016-03-01

    Despite increased attention to the evolving nature of war, the unique challenges of contemporary deployment, and women's changing role in warfare, few studies have examined differences in deployment stressors across eras of service or evaluated how gender differences in deployment experiences have changed over time. Using data collected from two national survey studies, we examined war cohort and gender differences in veterans' reports of both mission-related and interpersonal stressors during deployment. Although Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans reported more combat experiences and greater preparedness for deployment compared to Gulf War veterans, Gulf War veterans reported higher levels of other mission-related stressors, including difficult living and working environment, perceived threat, and potential exposure to nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Gender differences also emerged, with men reporting greater exposure to mission-related stressors and women reporting higher levels of interpersonal stressors. However, the size and nature of gender differences did not differ significantly when comparing veterans of the two eras. By understanding how risk factors for PTSD differ based on war era and gender, veterans' experiences can be better contextualized. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Survival of Er(a+) red cells in a patient with allo-anti-Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.W.; Skradski, K.J.; Thoreson, J.R.; Polesky, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    51 Chromium-labeled Er(a+) red cells survived nearly normally (T1/2 of 21 days) in a patient with allo-anti-Era. Transfusion of Er(a+) blood was without significant reaction and did not affect the anti-Era titer

  10. The Aftermath of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Siyan; Loayza, Norman V.; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Using an event-study methodology, the article analyzes the aftermath of civil war in a cross-section of countries. It focuses on cases where the end of conflict marks the beginning of relatively lasting peace. The analysis considers 41 countries involved in internal wars over the period 1960--2003. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the aftermath of war, a range of social areas is considered: basic indicators of economic performance, health and education, political development, demograp...

  11. The Party's Over: Oil, War And The Fate Of Industrial Societies; Petrole la fete est finie. Avenir des societes industrielles apres le pic petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinberg, R

    2008-07-01

    The world is about to run out of cheap oil and change dramatically. Within the next few years, global production will peak. Thereafter, even if industrial societies begin to switch to alternative energy sources, they will have less net energy each year to do all the work essential to the survival of complex societies. We are entering a new era, as different from the industrial era as the latter was from medieval times. In 'The Party's Over', Richard Heinberg places this momentous transition in historical context, showing how industrialism arose from the harnessing of fossil fuels, how competition to control access to oil shaped the geopolitics of the twentieth century and how contention for dwindling energy resources in the twenty-first century will lead to resource wars in the Middle East, Central Asia and South America. He describes the likely impacts of oil depletion and all of the energy alternatives. Predicting chaos unless the United States-the world's foremost oil consumer-is willing to join with other countries to implement a global program of resource conservation and sharing, he also recommends a 'managed collapse' that might make way for a slower-paced, low-energy, sustainable society in the future. More readable than other accounts of this issue, with fuller discussion of the context, social implications and recommendations for personal, community, national and global action, Heinberg's updated book is a riveting wake-up call for human-kind as the oil era winds down, and a critical tool for understanding and influencing current US foreign policy.

  12. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, D.S.

    2011-10-26

    Extending from roughly the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-1991, the Cold War period witnessed - among other upheavals - significant conflicts in East Asia and the Middle East, the end of European colonial empires in Africa and Asia, and a remarkable competition between the United States and the Soviet Union across virtually every aspect of endeavor, from economic and cultural activities to military, nuclear, and space capabilities. In this era of great instability scores of new states gained their independence, some great powers lost stature and influence in comparative terms, and millions of people perished in civil and interstate wars and at the hands of repressive governments. Yet it was during this period that the phrase 'strategic stability' gained currency both as an objective and as an apt way of describing four dominant features of the period. First, the United States and the Soviet Union never went to war, although there were several occasions when some observers saw war as a genuine possibility, including the Berlin and Cuban crises, the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the 'war scare' of the early 1980's. Second, neither these powers nor any others detonated nuclear weapons to inflict damage on an enemy, though they relied on them for deterrence, alliance cohesion, and other purposes. Third, the configuration of political alignments in Europe and Northeast Asia was remarkably stable from the mid-1950's to the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991. Fourth, the proliferation of nuclear-weapon states was contained to a much lower level than feared by some observers in the 1950's and 1960's. This paper concentrates on the first of the four elements of strategic stability in the Cold War listed above - the fact that the two superpowers did not engage in a direct 'hot war' with each other. It raises the question, to what extent did U.S. analytical models concerning &apos

  13. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Extending from roughly the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-1991, the Cold War period witnessed - among other upheavals - significant conflicts in East Asia and the Middle East, the end of European colonial empires in Africa and Asia, and a remarkable competition between the United States and the Soviet Union across virtually every aspect of endeavor, from economic and cultural activities to military, nuclear, and space capabilities. In this era of great instability scores of new states gained their independence, some great powers lost stature and influence in comparative terms, and millions of people perished in civil and interstate wars and at the hands of repressive governments. Yet it was during this period that the phrase 'strategic stability' gained currency both as an objective and as an apt way of describing four dominant features of the period. First, the United States and the Soviet Union never went to war, although there were several occasions when some observers saw war as a genuine possibility, including the Berlin and Cuban crises, the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the 'war scare' of the early 1980's. Second, neither these powers nor any others detonated nuclear weapons to inflict damage on an enemy, though they relied on them for deterrence, alliance cohesion, and other purposes. Third, the configuration of political alignments in Europe and Northeast Asia was remarkably stable from the mid-1950's to the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991. Fourth, the proliferation of nuclear-weapon states was contained to a much lower level than feared by some observers in the 1950's and 1960's. This paper concentrates on the first of the four elements of strategic stability in the Cold War listed above - the fact that the two superpowers did not engage in a direct 'hot war' with each other. It raises the question, to what extent did U.S. analytical models concerning 'crisis stability', 'first-strike stability', and 'arms race

  14. War Without Politics: A Critique of Clausewitz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sellers, Robin B

    1997-01-01

    Perhaps no aspect of Carl von Clausewitz's classic "On War" has more continuing relevance for strategists than his assertion that war "is an act of policy" and further that "war is not merely an act...

  15. Airpower in Three Wars (WWII, Korea, Vietnam)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Momyer, William

    2003-01-01

    ... (Operation Allied Force), and the war in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom). It is not my intent to analyze air operations in these wars but to see if there are trends that might be appropriate for another war...

  16. Reexamining Fourth Generation War as a Paradigm for Future War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Charter of the League of Nations and the subsequent Kellogg -Briand Pact “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy.” To demonstrate...twenty-years after the Kellogg -Briand Pact. Although the 1945-1991 period did see a decline in major interstate war relative to the immediately

  17. In search of the kingdom: the social gospel, settlement sociology, and the science of reform in America's progressive era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joyce E; Maclean, Vicky M

    2012-01-01

    This critical narrative history examines the development of sociology in the United States during what has come to be labeled as the Progressive Era, roughly the years from the 1890s to World War I. Despite the label, this era was defined as much by social problems associated with industrialization, urbanization, and immigration as by the growth of its cities and the wealth of its capitalists. We explore the roots of American sociology in the transition of protestant theology from Calvinism to its reformation in the social gospel, the simultaneous development of settlement houses, and the "creation" of sociology as the science of reform. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  19. The Cost of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibey Asthappan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spending almost US$700 billion to combat insurgents in Afghanistan, the U.S. population should be hopeful that they “bought” something of value as the Afghan War concludes. This exploratory study focuses on evaluating operations within Afghanistan by accounting for enemy and civilian losses. Integration of civilian losses offers an opportunity to evaluate operations that represent societal losses to the Afghan people. Regression estimates using zero-inflated negative-binomial models indicate that military operations resulted in more civilian casualties than enemy losses.

  20. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the

  1. Fear of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radil, T.

    1987-01-01

    Problem of psychological consequences of nuclear war threat is considered. Two categories of persons are distinguished: persons who are not decision-making but whose life is threatened, and persons who make decisions but are not responsible for them. An active approach to problems, related to a possible nuclear disaster, appears to be a powerfull socio-political means against nuclear danger and also has both psychotherapeutic and preventive meaning from the viewpoint of at least a partial liberation and protecion of people against the fear of nuclear death. By their effective activity among people, physicians and psychologists can effectively struggle against the fear of nuclear death

  2. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  3. From Just War to Nuclear Pacifism: The Evolution of U.S. Christian Thinking about War in the Nuclear Age, 1946–1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Rock

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War, two basic schools of thought emerged among U.S. Christian leaders and ethicists concerning the implications of the nuclear revolution for the use of force by the United States. The just war thinkers held that nuclear war could in fact be conducted within the bounds of traditional just war principles, particularly those of discrimination and proportionality. Since nuclear weapons could be used in war, it followed that they could and should be developed and produced for that purpose and for the purpose of deterrence. The nuclear pacifists held that nuclear war could not be conducted within the confines of traditional just war principles. Since by its nature nuclear war could not be moral, there was no reason for the development and production of nuclear weapons, except for the purpose of deterrence. And since nuclear deterrence required one to make threats of nuclear destruction that it would not be moral to carry out, and, moreover, carried unacceptable risks of miscalculation and inadvertent or accidental use of nuclear weapons, deterrence itself could not be justified, except perhaps as a temporary way station on the path to nuclear disarmament. Although the just war thinkers initially held sway, over time they became less dominant. By the middle of the 1980s, the U.S. Catholic Church and most of the largest Mainline Protestant denominations had formally adopted a nuclear pacifist position. This essay chronicles the victory of nuclear pacifism in these churches, explains it as a reaction to the nuclear weapons and doctrine advocated by the just war thinkers, and implemented by the U.S. government and military, as well as other events and trends in American society, and inquires as to whether or not the just war thinkers and nuclear pacifists influenced the course of U.S. policy.

  4. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  5. Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, E.; Kramer, I.

    2000-01-01

    Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs

  6. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  7. War, Journalism, and Oral History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

  8. Critique of the War Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    was soldier and prisoner of war from age 15-17, would not write a “Der Krieg der Gesellschaft”. Yet the attempt to narrow this lacuna is indeed a heavy burden and a difficult task, in which, firstly, it is methodologically decisive to get the basic distinctions right about a second order observation of war......, and in social theory and sociology as well, there is a missing link in the lack of a sociology of war. A number of German systems theoreticians use Luhmann’s theory to fulfil that gap (Gertrud Brücher; Krysztof Matuszek; Rasmus Beckmann; Barbara Kuchler; Tobias Kohl; Klaus Dammann) Luhmann (born 1927), who...... as a conflict system – to be distinct from a military organisational system. This, I do initially with a reconceptualization of Carl von Clausewitz’ form analysis and self-description of war from Vom Kriege (1832). The central point, then, is to observe the self-reference of war, or how war became war about war...

  9. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political part...

  10. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations

  11. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  12. Epidemics Don’t Cause Wars, But They Can End ’Em

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    million deaths annually worldwide from infectious diseases. Half of these deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. The litany of resurgent and emerging...Expeditionary Operations, (Department of the Navy, 1998) 123-136. 7 BACKGROUND War, famine, pestilence, and death are the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. The...match on the conventional battlefield, but could fall-prey to pestilence, the third horseman of the Apocalypse, as did legions of bygone eras

  13. Race, Civil War Memory, and Sisterhood in the Woman's Relief Corps

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, John C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the intersections of race and the public remembrances of the American Civil War in the Woman's Relief Corps (WRC), auxiliary to the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR). It specifically examines the role of slavery, emancipation, and sectional reconciliation in the WRC's discourse about the meaning of the conflict, and how Jim Crow-era racial ideology influenced the scope and effectiveness of African American members within the organization. The extent to which the model of bl...

  14. Suicide among War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Rozanov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  15. Suicide among war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its' frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  16. Family Risk and Resilience in the Context of War and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley M.

    2010-01-01

    War and terrorism are exerting increasing force on world affairs, with growing implications for families and the scholars who study them. In this review, I consider the implications of mass violence for families, with particular emphasis on families with members serving in the U.S. military and families around the world who live where mass…

  17. Commemorating a war that never came

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    and activated in the representations stem from cultural memories of the Second World War. In the proccesses of establishing this Cold War cultural memory as a war memory, it has become part of a transcultural passion for memories of traumatic pasts, but the Cold War as cultural memory is a counter-factual war......The Cold War never became the global World War III. It was a war that never broke out. Nevertheless, in some countries like for instance Denmark it is commemorated as exactly that: a war. This is particularly apparent at museums and heritage sites, where the narrative and mnemonic frame works used...... memory. Because the war never broke out, it is a malleable and usable past with a great potential for contestation – and counter-factuality. In Denmark, the Cold War has, moreover, become part of a fierce competition between rivaling memory communities, preventing a common commemoration culture...

  18. Problems associated with substandard and counterfeit drugs in developing countries: a review article on global implications of counterfeit drugs in the era of antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs in a free market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsimba, Stephen E D

    2008-12-01

    To review the global implications associated with the use of substandard and or counterfeit drugs in developing and may be developed countries. The focus of this review is particularly on antiretroviral (ARVs), antimalarials and other drugs. Review of various literatures through Pub-Med, Medline, Google and Internet search to retrieve and download published materials was done by the author of this review paper. When patients receive a counterfeit medicines, they are subjected to multiple risks. They often suffer more than just an inconvenience; as they become victims of fraud medicines and are all put at risk of adverse effects from unprescribed medicines or substandard ingredients. Additionally, patients may lose confidence in health care professionals including their physician and pharmacist, and potentially modern medicine or the pharmaceutical industry in general. Counterfeit or substandard (poor quality) drugs pose threats to society; not only to the individual in terms of the health side effects experienced, but also to the public in terms of trade relations, economic implications, and the effects on global pandemics. It is vital for suppliers, providers, and patients to be aware of current trends in counterfeiting in order to best prepare for encounters with suspicious products. Furthermore, this is an issue that needs to be continually dealt with on national and international policy levels. Developing countries should try their level best to establish good laboratories for monitoring and checking quality of all pharmaceuticals manufactured locally and those imported or donated to these countries. The Ministries of Health and all stakeholders involved in this issue must ensure that all drugs meet the set or established international standards and national standards. Failure to do so will be to misuse the hard earned forex that is normally borrowed from banks for the procurement and distribution of drugs to its people. Indeed sub-standard medications do more

  19. HOLLOW VICTORY? BRITAIN’S PUBLIC DEBT AND THE SEVEN YEARS’ WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Eloranta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the implications of the cost of warfare and the debt burdens that typically arise from conflicts. It examines how much Britain’s public debt rose during and after the Seven Years’ War and the implications of this growth. While it considers the various reasons for the dramatic rise, the primary focus is military spending. The addition of the North American continent as a major theater of war created the need for higher spending and helped double the national debt from the pre-war total. As with modern economic issues, contemporary discussion of the debt crisis became a normal talking point in letters and political debates. Ultimately, this article supports the argument that the Seven Years’ War contributed to the American Revolution via the unexpected fiscal pressures on Great Britain.

  20. [The treatment of wounds during World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2017-06-01

    The First World War was a huge tragedy for mankind, but, paradoxically, it represented a source of significant progress in a broad series of human activities, including medicine, since it forced physicians to improve their knowledge in the treatment of a large number of wounded soldiers. The use of heavy artillery and machine guns, as well as chemical warfare, caused very serious and life-threatening lesions and wounds. The most frequent causes of death were not mainly related to gunshot wounds, but rather to fractures, tetanus and septic complications of infectious diseases. In the first part of this article, we describe the surgical procedures and medical therapies carried out by Italian physicians during the First World War, with the aim of treating wounded soldiers in this pre-antibiotic era. Antibacterial solutions, such as those of Dakin-Carrel and sodium hypochlorite and boric acid, the tincture of iodine as well as the surgical and dressing approaches and techniques used to remove pus from wounds, such as ignipuncture and thermocautery or lamellar drainage are reported in detail. In the second part of the paper, the organization of the Italian military hospitals network, the systems and tools useful to transport wounded soldiers both in the front lines and in the rear is amply discussed. In addition, the number of soldiers enrolling, and those dying, wounded or missing during the Great War on the Italian front is estimated.

  1. Emergency Physicians at War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Andrew E; Givens, Melissa; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Mason, Phillip E; Goolsby, Craig

    2018-05-01

    Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs) fully participated as an integrated part of the military's health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM) training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  2. Atomic war field Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, N.

    1980-01-01

    Progressive atomic weapons, results of a perfect and perfidious technology face each other in the centre of a possible crisis - in Europe. The strategists of the Warszhaw Pact and of Nato seem very optimistic, which they owe to their professions, the population's increasing fear of a war, however, can no longer be denied. Nervous military personnel, political and religions fanatics and perplexed politicians sit at the switches of fear - without a concept and without alternatives. Despite this alarming conditions, Nigel Calder who has investigated in the USA and in the USSR, and in Europe, managed to remain a calm spectator of the imminent apocalypse. Without compromises and clearly he analyses the nearly hopeless consequences resulting from the changed world-political situation, the tremendously fast development of the arms technology, and the crazy strategical doctrines in East and West and in the Third World. (orig./UA) [de

  3. Water and wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  4. Emergency Physicians at War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Givens

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs fully participated as an integrated part of the military’s health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  5. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  6. Storming the servers: a social psychological analysis of the First Internet War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagno, Rosanna E; Cialdini, Robert B; Evron, Gadi

    2010-08-01

    In April 2007, the First Internet War began. Owing to the relocation of a World War II-era Soviet war memorial in Estonia, angry protestors, primarily of Russian descent, engaged in a month-long series of coordinated online attacks on Estonia's Internet infrastructure that disabled it for several days. We analyze this real-world event from a social psychological perspective. Specifically, we review the details surrounding the event and examine why protest manifested in this form of online attack and discuss how it was successfully orchestrated from a framework provided by social psychology, the science of human social interaction. We argue that the psychological principles of loss, relative anonymity of online interaction, group membership and adherence to group norms, social validation, and contagion all contributed to the success of the attacks.

  7. The cultural dimension of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kochetkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present article introduces the concept of the culture wars. Reviewed the features and characteristics of the culture wars. Described the basic methods of the culture wars. Сoncluded that the theoretical design concept of the culture wars can be a uniting point for a number of important areas of the science of international relations.

  8. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  9. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  10. ROSEE cleans up after the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a robot named ROSEE, designed by engineers at the DOE's Hanford site to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to workers cleaning up to residue left by America's manufacture of nuclear weapons. ROSEE is the acronym for Remotely Operated Sediment Extraction Equipment, a robot designed to vacuum sediment and debris from a nuclear fuels storage pool at the Department of Energy's Hanford nuclear waste storage site in Richland, Wash. The task facing ROSEE involves cleaning out the N basin at Hanford. Work is schedules to begin before the fall. The basin houses nuclear fuel refined during 24 years of the Cold War era. This water-filled structure is 24 feet deep, 87 feet long, and 56 feet wide, approximately three times larger than an Olympic-size swimming pool. Nuclear fuel was contained in honeycomb cells mounted 1 inch from the bottom of the pool. The cells rise 10 feet from the bottom of the basin, and each cell is 21 inches deep and 14 inches wide. The cells now hold radioactive residues that must be removed for final safe disposal

  11. The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

  12. The Falkland Islands War: An Image of War in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, J

    1997-01-01

    .... By any reckoning, it was a war that should never have been fought. It was a war unlike any other war in the twentieth century, and since 1945 it was the first war to erupt outside the construct of the Cold War paradigm...

  13. The War on War League: A South African pacifist movement, 1914 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Communist Party. This article however contends that it needs to be understood in its own terms, as a pacifist movement, reflecting a political moment of resistance to the plunge into global war. Keywords: War on War League, South Africa, Pacifism, Anti-War Movement, First World War, Syndicalism, Internationalism, ...

  14. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will... National Park Service (NPS) concerning the Cold War Theme Study. DATES: The teleconference meeting will be...

  15. Wars of Ideas and the War of Ideas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Echevarria, II, Antulio J

    2008-01-01

    ... as such. With that in mind, this monograph offers a brief examination of four common types of wars of ideas, and uses that as a basis for analyzing how the United States and its allies and strategic partners...

  16. Biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons

  17. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...

  18. Mapping the Sorrows of War

    OpenAIRE

    West, Philip; Philip, West

    2007-01-01

    The two keywords in this essay, mapping and sorrows, are used as heuristic devices to explore the sticky problems of reconciliation among former enemies from the Asia Pacific War, 1931-1945, primarily Japan and China, but also Korea and the United States. Sorrows, as a word and concept, offers an innovative approach to healing the wounds of war by countering the powerful influence of war memories in the familiar narratives of self-pity and self-glorification. In the language of politics and d...

  19. Tarbijalepingud rahvusvahelises eraõiguses / Margus Kingisepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kingisepp, Margus, 1969-

    1997-01-01

    Tarbijalepingute reguleerimisest erinevates riikides, 1955. a. Haagi konventsioonist ja 1980. a. Rooma konventsioonist, rahvusvahelisest jurisdiktsioonist tarbijalepingute puhul ning rahvusvahelise eraõiguse sätetest Eesti õiguses

  20. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  1. The New Era of Counterforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Keir

    Nuclear deterrence rests on the survivability of nuclear arsenals. For much of the nuclear age, counterforce disarming attacks those aimed at eliminating nuclear forces were nearly impossible because of the ability of potential victims to hide and protect their weapons. However, technological developments are eroding this foundation of nuclear deterrence. Advances rooted in the computer revolution have made nuclear forces around the world far more vulnerable than before. Specifically, two key approaches that countries have relied on to ensure arsenal survivability since the dawn of the nuclear age hardening and concealment have been undercut by leaps in weapons accuracy and a revolution in remote sensing. Various models, methods, and evidence demonstrate the emergence of new possibilities for counterforce disarming strikes. In short, the task of securing nuclear arsenals against attack is a far greater challenge than it was in the past. The new era of counterforce challenges the basis for confidence in contemporary deterrence stability, raises critical issues for national and international security policy, and sheds light on one of the enduring theoretical puzzles of the nuclear era: why international security competition has endured in the shadow of the nuclear revolution.

  2. Failed catharsis after the Second World War

    OpenAIRE

    Bijelić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugos...

  3. Lessons from World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had any idea of what it would be like. Technology had changed the character of war, but old patterns of thought remained in place. We also examine the roots of the war in industrial and colonial competition, and in an arms race. Finally, parallels with current events, and the important lessons for today’s world are discussed.

  4. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Turco, Richard P. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  5. Religious ethics, Christianity, and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Syse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses elements within Christian ethics and anthropology that have ramifications for the ethics and laws of war. The author argues that several distinctively Christian conceptions of morality and of human beings contribute importantly to the idea of just war, namely the Christian (and more specifically Augustinian view of history, the Christian view of killing, and the Christian view of sin and grace. While other religious and philosophical traditions also offer significant contributions to a normative discussion about armed force, it remains a fact that Christian thought, historically speaking, has furnished much of the groundwork of what we today know as the ethics and laws of war, and that the experience of being a Christian in the world has important ramifications for thinking about war and the use of armed force.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1708

  6. Clausewitz Nuclear War and Deterrence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barr, Alan W

    1991-01-01

    .... The advent of nuclear weapons and their role in the evolving east-west struggle following the second world war created a situation, however, unforeseen by Clausewitz, where the most basic political...

  7. The Justice of Preventive War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephenson, Henry

    2004-01-01

    In response to the 9/11 attacks and continuing threats of mass-casualty terrorism, the United States has adopted a new security strategy that emphasizes anticipatory actions, including preventive war...

  8. Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry

    1995-01-01

    .... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...

  9. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  10. Cyber-Physical War Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Sullivan, D. T.; Kott, A

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents general strategies for cyber war gaming of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) that are used for cyber security research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL). Since Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and other CPSs are operational systems, it is difficult or impossible to perform security experiments on actual systems. The authors describe how table-top strategy sessions and realistic, live CPS war games are conducted at ARL. They also discuss how the recorde...

  11. New trends in science and technology implications for international peace and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In December 1988, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to follow future scientific and technological developments, especially those with potential military applications, and to evaluate their impact on international security. In resolution 43/77 A it also requested the Secretary-General to report to it at its forty-fifth session. The broad fields in which scientific and technological developments are taking place were identified as: information technology, biotechnology, materials technology, nuclear technology and space technology. These assessments were discussed by a wider group of experts at a high-level conference on ''New trends in science and technology: implications for international peace and security'', held in April 1990 in the city of Sendai, Japan. The Conference, which was attended by nearly 100 participants from over 20 countries, addressed issues of technological change and global security, new technologies and the search for security in the post-cold-war era, and national policy-making and international diplomacy in an era of rapid technological change. General approaches to technology assessment and technology trends in selected areas were also discussed. The positions taken by Member States on the subject of establishing a mechanism for technology assessment were also taken into account. The highlights of the report are summarized

  12. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  13. Three wars that never happened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, W M S

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses three serious wars that were averted and the three men who averted them. In 1478-79, Pope Sixtus IV's hatred of the Medici culminated in aggressive war against Florence, supported by his powerful ally King Ferrante of Naples. The initial stags of this war were indecisive, but it was about to become much more serious, probably involving all the Italian states and possibly meaning the total destruction of Florence. Lorenzo il Magnifico sailed to Naples, convinced Ferrante this more serious war was against his interests and obtained a generous peace. In 1861, the British Government responded to the boarding of a British ship by a vessel of the American North with a peremptory letter. Albert, Prince Consort, though dying of typhoid fever amended the letter to save Lincoln's face and thus averted war with the North. From 1871 to 1890, Otto von Bismarck worked for a stable peace between the European powers to be attained by arranging meetings of most or all of them to accustom them to solving disputes by negotiation. Two such meetings in Berlin secured 36 years of peace between the powers, despite many disputes, and in particular averted war for possessions in Africa, which could have involved them all.

  14. War Remembered, Revolution Forgotten: Recasting the Sino-North Korean Alliance in China’s Post-Socialist Media State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From October 1950 to July 1953, the nascent Chinese state entered into a strategic alliance with North Korea; hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers shed blood on the Korean peninsula in defense of the socialist homeland and advancing Communist internationalism. But since the end of the Korean War, China has moved from revolutionary idealism and political radicalism in Mao’s era to the current post-socialist pragmatism and materialism. As the ideological winds shift, China’s contemporary propaganda apparatus must redefine the Korean War in order to reconcile the complexity of the war and wartime alliance with contemporary political concerns and popular views. By focusing on a documentary film, The Unforgettable Victory, produced by China’s leading state-run film studio in 2013, this article explores the ways in which the official media of the post-socialist era presents the past revolutionary war. The new film celebrates the splendid valor of Chinese soldiers, civilians’ heroic sacrifices, and the war’s nationalist legacy; however, it purposefully forgets the revolutionary fervor and internationalist sentiments that once forged the Sino–North Korean alliance and empowered wartime mobilization. This article examines the process of remembering and forgetting, and reveals government propaganda’s latest efforts to demobilize contemporary viewers while infusing the past revolutionary war with ideological clarity and political certainty in post-socialist China.

  15. The Application of Hermeneutical Analysis to Research on the Cold War in Soviet Animation Media Texts from the Second Half of the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Cold War era, which spawned a mutual ideological confrontation between communist and capitalist countries, left its mark on all categories of media texts, including cartoons and animations. Cartoons were used by the authorities as tools for delivering the necessary confrontational ideological content in an attractive folkloric, fairy-tale…

  16. Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0382 TITLE: Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0382 5b. GRANT...of the 1990-1991 Gulf War are affected by Gulf War illness (GWI), the chronic condition currently defined only by veterans’ self-reported symptoms

  17. The Just War or Just a War? A Proposal for Ethical Joint Doctrine of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, Sarah J

    2005-01-01

    .... It is the foundation of joint professional military education and training, forming the basis for how the warfighter will prosecute a war, and is a reflection of the judgments of senior military leadership...

  18. Innominate artery war injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Radoje

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A case is reported of successfully surgically treated explosive war injury to the innominate artery. Case report. A 26 - year-old soldier was injured in combat by a fragment of mortar shell. In the field hospital, the wound gauze packing was applied, followed by orotracheal intubation and thoracic drainage. The soldier was admitted to MMA six hours later. Physical examination, on admission, revealed huge swelling of the neck, the absence of pulse in the right arm and the right common carotid artery. Chest x-ray revealed hemopneumothorax of the right side and the foreign metal body in the projection of the right sternoclavicular joint. Due to the suspicion of large vessel injury, a median sternotomy was immediately performed. Surgery revealed disrupted bifurcation of the right innominate artery, so the ligation was performed. Aortography was performed postoperatively, followed by the reconstruction of innominate bifurcation with synthetic grafts. Control aortography showed good graft patency, and the patient was discharged from the hospital in good general condition with palpable pulses and mild anisocoria as a sole neurological sequela. Conclusion. A rare and life-threatening injury was successfully managed, mainly due to the rational treatment carried out in the field hospital that helped the injured to survive and arrive to the institution capable of performing the most sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  19. Prevention of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  20. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death

  1. Entrepreneurship in the Digital Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Achmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know about the entrepreneurship as one of the key issues related to many aspects, including its relevance to the economic, business and employment. The researches on entrepreneurship are the references to identify the success factors which supported the entrepreneurial success. The internet development in the digital age indirectly influenced the entrepreneurial ethos. It is not only influenced by the market potential and product innovation, but also by the commitments to entrepreneurship education and training model. Therefore, the studies on entrepreneurship in the industrial and developing countries are attractive. It is relevant to the internet era which provided opportunities for the development of entrepreneurial ethos, especially for the younger generation.

  2. TANTANGAN DAKWAH DI ERA POSMODERNISME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elya Munfarida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a criticism to modemism, posmodemism has created new cultural realities different from the previous. Through its political acts and strategies, postmodernism has constructed cultural hypereality and complexity. This change becomes a chance and also threat that we need to be critical to anticipate the negative effects. One of its strategies is cultural deconstruction, which denies transcendental signs, meanings, and values, represents one of its negative effects. It will eliminate religious values which by contrast place transcendental values as its principle. For that reason, we need to contextualize Islamic teachings in order not to make postmodernism eliminate Muslims’ sense of religiousity. Da’wa, as a means of communication and transformation of Islamic values, plays a significantrole in this postmodernism era. Consequently, reconstruction of contextual da’wa strategy should be committed to balance the domination of postmodernism cultures.

  3. War of Images and Images of War: Rape and Sacrifice in the Iraq War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Rial

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses one of the great issues about which global media remains silent: the rape of Muslim women by U.S. soldiers in Iraq. Contemporary mediascape is prolix. But some silences remain, such as the issue of rape during war. With an anthropological approach to the meaning of war and through the analysis of images, the article focuses on the participation of women in this male space.

  4. For or against gender equality? Evaluating the post-cold war 'Rule of Law' reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nyamu-Musembi, Celestine

    2005-01-01

    The central question explored in this paper is: has the post-Cold-War rule of law (ROL) reform agenda in sub-Saharan Africa enhanced or impeded gender equality? Rule of law (ROL) reforms are seen as indispensable to establishing a market economy and democratic rule, the two prongs of the neo-liberal project. In sub-Saharan Africa, legal and institutional reforms that originated with the 'second wave' of political reform in the immediate post-Cold-War era have been justified in terms of these ...

  5. On ‘war task’ and ‘peace work’. The Dutch East Indies Red Cross between the colonial wars and the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Bergen, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After the wars against Atjeh (1873-1907 finished, Dutch rule over the Dutch East India was total. The Dutch East Indies Red Cross (DEIRC awaited a new task, preparing to give aid in the case of a foreign invasion. The problem was that the end of the wars against the autochthonous “rebellions” also meant the end of Red Cross visibility and in the minds of many, the end to Red Cross urgency. Aid in wars against a real opponent is from a point of public relations much more important than the preparation of aid against an unknown opponent. “Work in times of peace” had to be the answer to this problem, but this work was only in name, and not de facto different from preparation of aid in times of war. Through “peace work” the DEIRC prepared itself for the war-task. To be able to fulfil the war-task the Red Cross had to have enough doctors, nurses, and stretcher-bearers. Visible peace-work had to provide for that. It enlarged the Red Cross’ popularity and trained its volunteers. However, at the beginning of 1942, when the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies, it turned out to be too little, too late.Tras el fin de las guerras contra Aceh (1873-1907, el dominio holandés sobre la India Oriental Holandesa fue total. La Cruz Roja de las Indias Orientales Holandesas (DEIRC quedaba a la espera de una nueva tarea: prepararse para proporcionar ayuda en caso de una invasión extranjera. El problema era que el final de las guerras contra las “rebeliones” autóctonas también significaba el fin de la visibilidad de la Cruz Roja y, a juicio de muchos, el final de la perentoriedad de la Cruz Roja. El socorro en guerras contra un adversario real era desde el punto de vista de las relaciones públicas mucho más importante que los preparativos de socorro contra un enemigo desconocido. El “trabajo en tiempo de paz” debía ser la respuesta a este problema, si bien resultó diferente solo de palabra, no de hecho, en relación a los preparativos

  6. The Russian Aviation in the First World War: the Features of Artillery Fire Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Karataev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses theregulations and combat use of the Russian aviation during the First World War. The attention is paid to the implementation of the exploration and correction of artillery fire from the airplane. The authors have selected as sources the documents of the Central state historical archive of Georgia, in which there are reflected the materials governing the use of airplanes on the fronts of the First World War. The authors used the general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, concretization, generalization, as well as the traditional methods of historical analysis. The authors used the historical-situational method, which involves the study of historical facts in the context of the studied era in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. At the conclusion of the study, it should be noted that the use of aircraft has passed a long way of developmentduring the First World War. There were expanded the spectra of the use of aircraft in war, from intelligence and reconnaissance and adjustment to using the airplanes as fighters and bombers. The change of the functional responsibilities required the establishment of clear and implemented quickly regulations in a combat situation, and such instructions governing the actions of the crew were created during the war.

  7. "A Prostitution Alike of Matter and Spirit": Anti-War Discourses in Children's Literature and Childhood Culture before and during World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kimberley

    2013-01-01

    Histories of the First World War have regularly implicated children's literature in boys' eagerness to enlist in the first two years of that conflict. While undoubtedly the majority of children's books, comics and magazines did espouse nationalistic, jingoistic and martial attitudes, there were alternative stories and environments. Looking at the…

  8. A Lyrical War: Gallipoli War through Poetry in Anzac Diaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Çelikel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the First World War, Dardanelles witnessed one of the fiercest clashes in history between the British and the Turkish forces. This eight-month-war caused the settlement of British army that included Australian and New Zealand Army Corps known as Anzacs on particularly the Gallipoli Peninsula. The Australian and New Zealander soldiers and officers constantly kept diaries and wrote letters that in a sense recorded history from the personal perspective contributing to history with individual observation. If Anzac diaries kept during the Gallipoli clashes in 1915 function as secondary historical sources, they also do function as reminiscences of military officers who found consolation in expressing themselves lyrically during harsh conflicts. Some Anzac officers quote poems in their diaries and some write their own poetry to cope with the violence of war using the aestheticism of poetry. Their poems, on the other hand, remain not only as the lyrical reflections of a deadly reality but also as even more painful portrayals of war. This paper aims to read poems either quoted or written in the diaries of Anzac soldiers and officers in order to analyse the emotional effects of war on individuals. The poems will be analysed through the perspective of cultural landscape and question the influence of landscape on the perception of war in the minds of the Anzacs. From the new historicist perspective, the diaries bearing poetry will be read not as the sources of historical information but as the texts that use history as the material for poetry. The paper will also question whether or not the individual observations change the perception of official history that does not become the main impulse behind the writing of poetry but turns merely into one of its sources.

  9. American growth and Napoleonic Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the French Revolution, in 1793 a series of wars among France and other major powers of Europe began and they lasted until 1815. There is disagreement among economic historians about the effects of these wars on the trend of US economic growth. This paper aims to answer the following question. Did America as a neutral nation take advantage of economic possibilities caused by Europe at war through trade? To put it differently, this paper questions whether there was an export-led growth due to the war. To answer this question, we re-examined the export-led growth hypothesis for the period 1790-1860 using the ARDL methodology. Based on this methodology, a cointegrated relationship is found among the variables of real GDP, labor, exports and exchange rates. The results suggest that the economic growth of the US was not export-driven. In addition, parallel to the results of unit root tests with structural breaks, the coefficient of the dummy variable was statistically significant in the long run, implying that the war did have a significant effect on the economic growth trend of the US.

  10. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  11. War Gamers Handbook: A Guide for Professional War Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    by McCarty Little in 1912 continues today. Others have also contributed to war gaming scholarship. McHugh (1966), a NWC war gamer from the mid-1930s...select areas of particular interest to the sponsor ( McHugh , 1966). The game-specific purposes, more recently referred to as objectives, are discrete...no intent to try to win. Such a design is used mainly to promote participant learning ( McHugh , 1966). Scenario A game scenario is the scenic

  12. Early Tests of Piagetian Theory Through World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beins, Bernard C

    2016-01-01

    Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.

  13. Nuclear energy and the new era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, F.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of the utilization of nuclear energy is not only technical but also has important social, economic, political and ethical ramifications. Therefore, to discuss nuclear energy for the future, a vision of the new era needs to be identified. A model for the new era, as a natural consequence of growing interdependence among nations and the process of human evolution is described. The problems of inherent and passive safety, waste disposal, ecology, proliferation, economy and regulatory institutions in the new era are discussed. The particular role of small nuclear power reactors and their potential advantages are described. (author). 12 refs

  14. El lenguaje en la era digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vergara Silva

    1998-02-01

    Con base en la interrelación entre lenguaje y pensamiento se plantea el papel fundamental que el lenguaje ocupa en el modelo económico, educativo y cultural generado por la aparición de la era digital o era del conocimiento. en este artículo se evidencian los retos que genera una era marcada por un esquema digital en el desarrollo y uso de habilidades comunicativas tanto en la docencia superior como en el ejercicio profesional eficiente.

  15. Genetic consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the aftermath of a nuclear war, genetic effects may appear trivial in comparison with the enormity of the catastrophic development in the survivors' health and the environment. Gross effects are immediately or subtly demonstrable on the basis of diverse war scenarios. On the other hand, in a great number of organisms, genetic effects of radiation have been shown to occur according to a no-threshold dose-effect curve, thus implying that effects may be found even in situations and population groups where other direct effects are small. The discussions on the effects of nuclear war have indicated that whatever sector of effects is focused on, closer examination has, in each case - be it treatment of casualties, effects on climate, or effects on world trade - led to a picture of possible and often probable catastrophic collapse

  16. Possible consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Speeches of Soviet and foreign scientists at the Second Section of 2d All-UNION conference of scientists on problems of peace and prevention of nuclear war related to possible consequences of nuclear war have been considered. It is noted that production of a large amount of aerosol particles, dust, smoke and combustion products due to forest-fires, fires in cities, which change considerably atmosphere properties, will be the greatest effect of nuclear strike from the point of view of global consequencies. ''Nuclear winter'', photosynthesis suppression, plant bioproductivity weakening, long-term climate changes, ozone layer disturbance, mass and irreversible degeneration of all biosphere on the whole are great consequencies of nuclear conflict. Attention is paid to medical service, industrial accidents, radioactive fallouts consequence of radiation and other harmful factors for people in nuclear war

  17. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...... outcomes and information on deployment history was studied using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until April 27, 2014. RESULTS: As the main finding, no difference was found between veterans...

  18. Nuclear War. The moral dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Child, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

  19. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  20. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  2. Former Prisoner of War Statistical Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Former Prisoner of War (POW) Statistical Tracking System database is a registry designed to comply with Public Law 97-37, the Former Prisoner of War Benefits Act...

  3. The World of WarsRisky systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have....... The "extreme 20th century" will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be more extreme and its temporal bindings easier to observe. The much celebrated revolutions in military affairs will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away. Kantian convergences may appear....

  4. The War in Afghanistan: A Strategic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herring, G

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a strategic analysis of the war in Afghanistan. It begins by articulating the United States' strategic objectives for the war, the approaches taken to achieve those objectives, and the resources employed in each approach...

  5. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  6. Failed catharsis after the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugoslavs’ examples, where ethnic violence in after war period was overshadowed by general suffering from foreign occupants and local traitors in the Second World War. Instead of reassessment of existing ethnic and national identities, the process of reconciliation between Croatian and Serbian community after the Second World War was exhilarated with radical changes of collective identities.

  7. Patterns of War Termination: A Statistical Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, II, Paul D

    2007-01-01

    .... Specifically, this thesis addressed questions concerning the most relevant factors toward predicting both the outcomes of interstate wars and the winners of intrastate and extra-systemic wars, within...

  8. Periodistas para la era digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Villalobos G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La formación de los periodistas del siglo XXI en la era digital se concibe como un reto y el mayor desafío. Los medios digitales demandan especialización y dominio de las nuevas tecnologías. Las universidades, principales gestores de este cambio, en la sociedad del conocimiento, requieren trabajar en la reformulación de nuevos pensum y en tres terrenos fundamentales: el perfil del egresado, el estilo pedagógico y el nuevo modo de relacionarse con el mundo exterior. Se necesita de una oferta académica referida al ciberperiodismo y a la cibercomunicación. La profesión periodística, y específicamente la formación de los comunicadores registra cambios importantes debido a las nuevas tecnologías, ahora el aula es el mundo globalizado e interconectado por la gran autopista de la información, por ello, la formación del comunicador social, demanda renovadas prácticas educativas. Las universidades deben repensar el papel que están obligadas a desempeñar, reformular los pensum académicos y ofertar la cibercomunicación y el ciberperiodismo para estar al día de las grandes transformaciones.

  9. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  10. Nuclear war as false memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Timberlake

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Timberlake outlines aspects of his creative practice as an artist, explaining his fascination for the ‘fictions of nuclear war’ – a war that never happened and so became the subject of ‘false memory’. Highlighting discontinued historical trajectories, the author shows how the cultural legacy of Britain’s nuclear test programme of the 1950s and ’60s may be explored meaningfully in paintings and photography resulting from his archival research at the Imperial War Museum in London.

  11. 17. The Thirty Years War

    OpenAIRE

    Blamires, David

    2013-01-01

    Without any question the period of the Thirty Years War, from 1618 to 1648, was one of the most horrifying in the history of Germany. Not only were huge numbers of soldiers killed in battle in virtually every part of the Holy Roman Empire, but even greater numbers of the civilian population died in the conflict or through starvation or disease. Houses, churches, villages and towns were burnt and destroyed, and by the end of the war the population had been reduced from about sixteen millions t...

  12. War and Peace: an Economic Liberalist Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. HUNG

    2009-01-01

    In a simple formal model of two-country, two-good with an elementary Conflict Technology, we use a rudimentary game theoretics to study the matter of war and peace, where under peace, cooperative exchange takes place, and where, in case of war, the winner takes all through appropriation of the whole endowment left after payment of armament expenditures. We provide conditions under which war is inevitable, then go on to characterize situations where war, still probable, is not necessarily the ...

  13. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  14. Economic Origins of War and Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Why do wars happen, and what do societies fight over? Why are international relations sometimes fearful and aggressive and other times harmonious? I show that these questions can be fruitfully explored by importing some basic economic theory into the existing bargaining theory of war. A separate essay analyzes the interactions between the United States and countries that may be pursuing nuclear weapons. "Costly Peace: A New Rationalist Explanation for War" posits a new explanation for war: so...

  15. The Effect of War on the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan, Li; Lu, Wang

    2008-01-01

    Since 1991 the Gulf war occurred, global concern on human being health and environmental damages has continued to increase. This project assesses the damages caused by the war to environment. Wars started by countries could bring infinite damages to the natural environment; in this project we intend to discuss and clarify our viewpoint that” the impacts of war on the environment most have negative effects”. We also focus on the fundamental information for understanding the further developing ...

  16. War and reconstruction in northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Bruck

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses some of the economic effects of war in northern Mozambique. It indicates how the historical and structural features of the economy of northern Mozambique restricted post-war reconstruction and post-war poverty alleviation. These features include the dominance of only a few cash crops for export, the absence of much rural trading, poor communication infrastructure, and weak political and state institutions. The specific nature of the internal war further weakened the stat...

  17. North Dalmatian Outline Of War Ethnology

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, Jadran

    2016-01-01

    The text presents the anthropological, ethnological and ethnographic interests in the war, problematizes them within the borders of North Dalmatia and suggests possible future disciplinary interests. The war ethnography is a type of text which can be useful in the local communities which are still recovering from the effects of the war. Compared with the global practice of dealing with these topics, it can be assumed that the corpus of the war ethnography would have cultural, social and scien...

  18. The State, War, and the State of War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts to offer an understanding of the relationship between war making and state creation in the world have been undertaken by many international relations and strategic studies scholars. In most of these attempts attention has been focused on how state making in Europe differed from that in other parts of the world.

  19. The Unprincipled War: Looking at the War on Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-18

    Unidad Movid de Patrullaje Rural iv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Drug war - reality or rhetoric? Drugs from Latin America kill an estimated 10,000...PiP), the Peruvian equivalent to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Unidad Movil de Patrullaje Rural (UMOPR), the agency charged exclusively

  20. Penetrating abdominal war injuries among the war victims at Lacor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hospital for prompt and appropriate treatment. All cases of such injuries should have exploratory laparotomy as soon as possible. Introduction. Penetrating abdominal injuries among the war wounded present a challenge in its management especially in a situation with limited human and financial resources such as ours.

  1. Epidemiologic evidence of health effects from long-distance transit of chemical weapons fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Robert W; Tuite, James J

    2013-01-01

    Military intelligence data published in a companion paper explain how chemical fallout from US and Coalition bombing of Iraqi chemical weapons facilities early in the air campaign transited long distance, triggering nerve agent alarms and exposing US troops. We report the findings of a population-based survey designed to test competing hypotheses on the impact on chronic Gulf War illness of nerve agent from early-war bombing versus post-war demolition. The US Military Health Survey performed computer-assisted telephone interviews of a stratified random sample of Gulf War-era veterans (n = 8,020). Early-war exposure was measured by having heard nerve agent alarms and post-war exposure, by the computer-generated plume from the Khamisiyah demolition. Gulf War illness was measured by two widely published case definitions. The OR (95% CI) for the association of alarms with the Factor case definition was 4.13 (95% CI 2.51-6.80) compared with 1.21 (95% CI 0.86-1.69) for the Khamisiyah plume. There was a dose-related trend for the number of alarms (p(trend) war demolition. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The Performing Arts in a New Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    The Pew Charitable Trust commissioned The Performing Arts in a New Era from RAND in 1999 as part of a broad initiative aimed at increasing policy and financial support for nonprofit culture in the United States...

  3. MEMAKNAI SUMPAH PEMUDA DI ERA REFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutejo K. Widodo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The moment of Sumpah Pemuda (Young Man Oath took place 84 years ago, reflecting the spirit of nationalism that is still very important in this Reformation era. This paper endeavors to dig deeper meaning of Sumpah Pemuda in its pre-independence era and applying it to our contemporary situation. The method used here is historical research using literature resources, such as articles, books, and other readings in internet. It is then concluded that the spirit of Sumpah Pemuda should be our contemplative materials and valuable Iesson so that Reformation era may succeed in achieving national goals stated in the Constitution, a society that is fair, prosperous, and democratic. Keywords: Sumpah Pemuda, Reformation era, nationalism.

  4. Technology: A New Era in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William G.

    1977-01-01

    Teachers and technologists have lived apart, with much doubt on both sides. The author suggests that collaboration, mutual trust, and respect, will usher in a new era for effective education. (Editor)

  5. Effect of war on the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoun, Antoine B; Nassar, Anwar H; Usta, Ihab M; Zreik, Tony G; Abu Musa, Antoine A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of a short period of war on the menstrual cycles of exposed women. Six months after a 16-day war, women in exposed villages aged 15-45 years were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to their menstrual history at the beginning, 3 months after, and 6 months after the war. A control group, not exposed to war, was also interviewed. The data collected were analyzed to estimate the effect of war on three groups of women: those who stayed in the war zone for 3-16 days (Group A), those who were displaced within 2 days to safer areas (Group B), and women not exposed to war or displacement (Group C-control). More than 35% of women in Group A and 10.5% in Group B had menstrual aberrations 3 months after the cessation of the war. These percentages were significantly different from each other and from that in Group C (2.6%). Six months after the war most women regained their regular menstrual cycles with the exception of 18.6% in Group A. We found a short period of war, acting like an acute stressful condition, resulted in menstrual abnormalities in 10-35% of women and is probably related to the duration of exposure to war. This might last beyond the war time and for more than one or two cycles. In most women the irregular cycles reversed without any medical intervention. II.

  6. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  7. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  8. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  9. Churches, chaplains and the Great War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    When in 1914 the European nations mobilised for war, the churches followed suit. Notwithstanding pre-war church peace conferences and close international cooperation, most churches and churchmen immediately and whole-heartedly supported their nation’s participation in war and provided the religious

  10. Climatic Change, Wars and Dynastic Cycles in China Over the Last Millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.D.; Jim, C.Y.; Lin, G.C.S.; Wang, J.J.; Lee, H.F. [Department of Geography, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); He, Yuan-Qing [CAREERI, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000 (China)

    2006-06-15

    In recent years, the phenomenon of global warming and its implications for the future of the human race have been intensively studied. In contrast, few quantitative studies have been attempted on the notable effects of past climatic changes upon human societies. This study explored the relationship between climatic change and war in China by comparing high-resolution paleo-climatic reconstructions with known war incidences in China in the last millennium. War frequencies showed a cyclic pattern that closely followed the global paleo-temperature changes. Strong and significant correlations were found between climatic change, war occurrence, harvest level, population size and dynastic transition. During cold phases, China suffered more often from frequent wars, population decline and dynastic changes. The quantitative analyses suggested that the reduction of thermal energy input during a cold phase would lower the land carrying capacity in the traditional agrarian society, and the population size, with significant accretions accrued in the previous warm phase, could not be sustained by the shrinking resource base. The stressed human-nature relationship generated a 'push force', leading to more frequent wars between states, regions and tribes, which could lead to the collapse of dynasties and collapses of human population size. War frequencies varied according to geographical locations (North, Central and South China) due to spatial variations in the physical environment and hence differential response to climatic change. Moreover, war occurrences demonstrated an obvious time lag after an episode of temperature fall, and the three geographical regions experienced different length of time lags. This research also shows that human population increases and collapses were correlated with the climatic phases and the social instabilities that were induced by climate changes during the last millennium. The findings proposed a new interpretation of human

  11. European Military and Political Environment in a Post Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    security issues. The embryo for such a system is already seen and indicated they would guide American policy. These standards in the consultations between...control over based on nationalist grounds; in this respect the their own destinies than the citizens of other socialist Milosevic and Tudjman phenomena

  12. DEMOLISHING A COLD-WAR-ERA FULE-STORAGE BASIN SUPERSTRUCTURE LADEN WITH ASBESTOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLOYD, E.R.; STEVENS, J.M.; DAGAN, E.B.; ORGILL, T.K.; GREEN, M.A.; LARSON, C.H.; ZINSLI, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    The K East (KE) Basin facilities are located near the north end of the Hanford Site's 100 K area. The facilities were built in 1950 as part of the KE Reactor complex and constructed within 400 meters of the Columbia River, which is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest and by volume the fourth largest river in the United States. The basin, located adjacent to the reactor, was used for the underwater storage of irradiated nuclear fuel discharged from the reactor. The basin was covered by a superstructure comprising steel columns and beams, concrete, and cement asbestos board (CAB) siding. The project's mission was to complete demolition of the structure over the KE Basin within six months of turnover from facility deactivation activities. The demolition project team applied open-air demolition techniques to bring the facility to slab-on-grade. Several innovative techniques were used to control contamination and maintain contamination control within the confines of the demolition exclusion zone. The techniques, which focused on a defense-in-depth approach, included spraying fixatives on interior and exterior surfaces before demolition began; applying fixatives during the demolition; misting using a fine spray of water during demolition; and demolishing the facility systematically. Another innovative approach that made demolition easier was to demolish the building with the non-friable CAB remaining in place. The CAB siding covered the exterior of the building and portions of the interior walls, and was an integral part of the multiple-layered roof. The project evaluated the risks involved in removing the CAB material in a radiologically contaminated environment and determined that radiological dose rates and exposure to radiological contamination and industrial hazards would be significantly reduced by using heavy equipment to remove the CAB during demolition. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without spreading contamination (radiological or asbestos) demonstrates that contaminated structures can be torn down successfully using similar open-air demolition techniques

  13. Criminal Justice Involvement, Trauma, and Negative Affect in Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B.; Johnson, Sally C.; Newton, Virginia M.; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although criminal behavior in veterans has been cited as a growing problem, little is known about why some veterans are at increased risk for arrest. Theories of criminal behavior postulate that people who have been exposed to stressful environments or traumatic events and who report negative affect such as anger and irritability are at…

  14. The Role of Small States in the Post-Cold War Era: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    between the two countries continued: In June 2002, a Day of Iranian Cinema took place in Belarus, and an exhibition of Iranian goods took place in Minsk...with which Iran closely cooperates,113 but by some segments of the French elite, who are not averse to Iran as a nuclear power.114 Former French ...President Jacques Chirac stated that he saw no prob- lem in Iran having a couple of nuclear bombs. Later, French officials said the President was

  15. Limited War in the Precision Engagement Era: The Balance Between Dominant Maneuver and Precision Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hedstrom, Marvin

    2001-01-01

    .... German historian Hans Delbruck's two strategies of warfare: annihilation and exhaustion, and American military theorist Robert Leonhard's concepts of attrition and maneuver are examined to establish the relationship...

  16. Reconstructing Southern Sudan in the post-war era : challenges and prospects of 'Quick Impact Programmes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2004-01-01

    This report gives a personal assessment of the local needs of the Southern Sudanese population in the period of societal reconstruction envisaged in the likely event of a meaningful peace agreement being realized in 2004 between the SPLM/A and the government of Sudan. In particular, the report

  17. New technologies and the search for security: Prospects for a post-cold-war era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Technology alone will not solve our many environmental, economic and military problems. The search for peace and security must be based on a concept of international security that extends beyond the bounds of military concerns and into the realm of environmental and economic matters. In our efforts to understand how science and technology fit within this security context, we should not look simply at emerging technologies, even those that are sustainable and stabilizing, as being the principal candidates for drastic improvements in peace and security on our planet. One must keep in mind that security for as many as one fourth to one half of the world's inhabitants would be revolutionized if they had access to some of the most basic existing technologies of our times. Equitable access to resources and technology is an age-old problem. Today it must be faced on a global basis. It demands creating a new world economic order that combines the best that the capitalist and socialist economies can offer. We must declare today that a secure global society cannot exist which is half in slavery to poverty and deprived of opportunity, and half free to develop its potential and achieve its dreams

  18. New technologies and the search for security: Prospects for a post-cold-war era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovsky, V.

    1990-01-01

    New technologies are setting a fast pace in our world. Through science and technology we are able to make our world better, richer and more liveable to everyone. However, the new technologies have brought new mans of destruction and have confronted the world with a real prospect of self destruction. This is one of the main challenges of our age. Greater mutual confidence, openness and, if necessary, checks on how scientific and technological co-operation is used must bring down the existing barriers un the area of technological exchanges. The first results are already evident, for instance in the nuclear field. In our age, science and technology are becoming an inherent element in the comprehensive search for a new, post-confrontational system of peace, security and co-operation. United nations, together with its family of specialized agencies, is called upon to play a major positive role in finding approaches in this area. Scientific and technological progress, especially on the eve of a new millennium in the history of mankind, must serve only to enhance international peace and security and, enable everyone to live a full and worthy life

  19. New technologies and the search for security: Prospects for a post-cold-war era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jr, G E

    1991-12-31

    Technology alone will not solve our many environmental, economic and military problems. The search for peace and security must be based on a concept of international security that extends beyond the bounds of military concerns and into the realm of environmental and economic matters. In our efforts to understand how science and technology fit within this security context, we should not look simply at emerging technologies, even those that are sustainable and stabilizing, as being the principal candidates for drastic improvements in peace and security on our planet. One must keep in mind that security for as many as one fourth to one half of the world`s inhabitants would be revolutionized if they had access to some of the most basic existing technologies of our times. Equitable access to resources and technology is an age-old problem. Today it must be faced on a global basis. It demands creating a new world economic order that combines the best that the capitalist and socialist economies can offer. We must declare today that a secure global society cannot exist which is half in slavery to poverty and deprived of opportunity, and half free to develop its potential and achieve its dreams

  20. U.S. Policy Regarding Iran in the Post-Gulf War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rains, Roger A

    1991-01-01

    .... A crisis conclusion consistent with the goals of United Nations Resolution 678 will inevitably increase Iran's already significant weight in the regional power equation and, thereby, force U.S...

  1. A Re-Examination of Neuropsychological Functioning in Persian Gulf War Era Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    headache, numbness, dizziness), musculoskeletal (joint pain, backache, neck ache), dermatologic (skin rash, eczema , skin allergies), and gastrointestinal...as well as the influence of exposure on emotional and personality bol Digit Modalities, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, WAIS-I1I Digit functioning...another study (Axelrod & Milner, 1997) 80 White were reanalyzed considering " emotional factors" such When comparing performance on olfactory tests among

  2. Southeast Asian Perceptions of U.S. Security Policy in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    personnel to be stationed in Singapore. Alimin’s statement came the day following Malaysia’s Defense Minister Najib Tun Razak had also declared Kuala Lumpur’s...military concerns. Malaysian Defense Minister Datuk Sri Mohamed Najib Razak has said: "The question of security should not be viewed from a narrow...region."" In November 1991, Defense Minister Najib Razak offered the use of the Royal Malaysian Naval Base in Lumut as a maintenance and repair depot for

  3. The Mediating Effects of Hardiness on Resilience in Repatriated Vietnam-Era Prisoners of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    analysis and refinement of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD- RISC ): Validation of a 10-item measure of resilience. Journal of Traumatic...Davidson, J.R.T. (2003). Development of new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD- RISC ). Depression and Anxiety, 18, 76-82

  4. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva; Erke Kartabayeva; Nurzipa Alpysbayeva

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  5. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  6. Space View of the 1991 Gulf War Kuwaiti Oil Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Larko, D.

    2014-12-01

    During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, over 700 oil wells in Kuwait were set ablaze by the withdrawing Iraqi army with the apparent intent of hindering satellite reconnaissance and intelligence gathering activities by the coalition of forces repelling Iraq from occupied Kuwait. The oil fires that burned for an estimated 10 months, created a huge smoke plume whose spatial extent went at times beyond the Persian Gulf region, mobilized across the Saharan Desert reaching as far west as the North Atlantic Ocean. The Nimbus-7 TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, in operation from October 1978 to May 1993, measured the near UV radiances that in the mid-1990's became the input in the calculation of the well know Absorbing Aerosol Index that represented a major breakthrough in satellite-based aerosol remote sensing. Thus, unknowingly to the world, the N7-TOMS sensor was collecting in 1991 an unprecedented daily record of what can be considered the worst environmental catastrophe affecting the atmosphere since the beginning of the era of space-based remote sensing in the 1970's. An overview of the temporal and spatial extent of the synoptic scale 1991 Gulf War smoke plume as seen by the Nimbus-7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index will be presented.

  7. After the War: Women in Physics in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Ruth H.; Herzenberg, Caroline L.

    2015-12-01

    This book examines the lives and contributions of American women physicists who were active in the years following World War II, during the middle decades of the 20th century. It covers the strategies they used to survive and thrive in a time where their gender was against them. The percentage of woman taking PhDs in physics has risen from 6% in 1983 to 20% in 2012 (an all-time high for women). By understanding the history of women in physics, these gains can continue. It discusses two major classes of women physicists; those who worked on military projects, and those who worked in industrial laboratories and at universities largely in the late 1940s and 1950s. While it includes minimal discussion of physics and physicists in the 1960s and later, this book focuses on the challenges and successes of women physicists in the years immediately following World War II and before the eras of affirmative actions and the use of the personal computer.

  8. British battleships of world war one new revised edition

    CERN Document Server

    Burt, R A

    2012-01-01

    This superb reference book achieved the status of 'classic' soon after its first publication in 1986; it was soon out of print and is now one of the most sought-after naval reference books on the secondhand market.
It presents, in one superb volume, the complete technical history of British capital ship design and construction during the dreadnought era. One hundred years ago at Jutland, Dogger Bank, Heligoland Bight and the first battle for the Falklands, might squadrons of these great armoured ships fought their German counterparts for command of the seas. Beginning with Dreadnought, the book continues to the end of the First World War, and all of the fifty dreadnoughts, 'super-dreadnoughts' and battlecruisers that served the Royal Navy during this era are described and superbly illustrated with photographs and line drawings. 
Each class of ship is described in detail so that design origins, and technical and operational factors, are discussed alongside characteristics, with special emphasis on armament...

  9. Nuclear Issues in the Post-September 11 era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Lewis; Wheeler, Michael; May, Michael; Pikayev, Alexander; Wolfstahl, Jon; Roberts, Brad; Tertrais, Bruno; Umbach, Frank

    2003-03-01

    In the fall of 2002, the Foundation for Strategic Research convened a small group of high-level experts on nuclear policy issues to discuss the consequences of September 11 and of the 'war on terrorism' for nuclear debates. Participants met in Paris on September 26-27, 2002, and later provided papers which are reproduced here. This project was sponsored by the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Contents: 1 - Nuclear Issues in the Post-September 11 era: emerging Trends (Bruno Tertrais); 2 - Nuclear energy Issues: Global Dimensions and Security Challenges (Frank Umbach); 3 - Proliferation and Non-Proliferation: What's Changed-What Hasn't? (Jon B. Wolfstahl); 4 - Non-Proliferation: Possible New Trends after September 11 (Alexander A. Pikayev); 5 - Nuclear Deterrence Issues in the Post-September 11 World: An American Perspective (Michael O. Wheeler); 6 - The Nuclear Balance of Terror and September 11 (Brad Roberts); 7 - Nuclear Weapons after September 11 (Lewis A. Dunn); 8 - September 11 and the Need for International Nuclear Agreements (Michael May)

  10. A new era of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theadore, Jason C

    2011-01-01

    Many of my family, friends, and colleagues would describe me as competitive and that at times I overuse this skill with a win-at-all-costs attitude. I would tend to agree. I love to win. Yet for me winning is not about me, it is as our coaches suggest, about others. I was recently asked by a new clinical leader if I missed taking care of patients. Without thinking, my response was that I take part in the care (add value) of every patient as a leader. Every decision we make as leaders (coaches) impacts many others regardless of the magnitude of our decision and, at times, our direct involvement. Operational excellence, in any field, is about winning. We all have different definitions of winning, defined by the strategic vision for our organizations. An organization's managers, supervisors, and employees all play an important role in the team to achieve the vision of the organization. As some elite coaches have suggested, winning starts with each of us being our best. Today's environment requires consistent change. Yet many in the radiology field change the wrong things for the wrong reasons. Many organizations and individuals look for instant gratification, specifically in this new era of competitiveness. Many evaluate what their competitors are doing in the market, what cars their neighbors are buying, or become jealous over a friend's success. Focusing on others and not improving yourself takes your focus away from what is important-you and the team you lead. Keeping your focus on your operations and what you can control may very well help you coach a winning team.

  11. The Civil War and Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  12. Simulating the Fog of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    along with death , is what distinguishes war from peace, yet commercial board wargames have traditionally made no morc effort to impose the former upon the...shiny paper map. Burnside would have had no bridge named after him if he had ordered a single horseman to ride into the easily fordable Antietam Creek

  13. boer war (1899–1902)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    André Wessels, a professor of history at the University of the Free State in. Bloemfontein, South Africa, and currently also a Visiting Fellow in the School of. Humanities and Social Sciences, University of New South Wales, at the Australian. Defence Force Academy in Canberra, is an established Anglo-Boer War historian. In.

  14. Scientists study 'cold war' fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the epidemiological studies being carried out to determine radiation doses to the public from intentional and accidental releases of radioactive compounds during the Cold War. These studies at present are focused on Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Fernald, with studies beginning at Rocky Flats and Savannah

  15. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  16. The Politics of Star Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  17. The Operational Level of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Lessons from the Russo-Japanese War." United Service Magazine 30 (October 1904-March 1905):112+. Caemmerer, Rudolf von. The Development of Strategical...over the German operational plan for the western offensive, 1940.] Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1957. This is the best work on the subject. Kissel

  18. The Arabic Language Fog of War: Exploring Iraq War Veterans’ Motivations to Study Arabic Language and Culture Post-Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jennifer Nichols

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes research into Iraq War Veterans studying Arabic at the college level post-deployment. What is it about their exposure to the language and culture that motivates them to study the language after serving in Iraq? Few research studies exist in the area of Veterans’ education, a federally recognized minority. The study’s purpose was to explore Iraq war veterans’ language learning motivations and described their experiences, through the use of qualitative research methodology and the development of case study narratives. Results indicate that understanding the Veteran experience can foster a diversity-friendly, inclusive environment in the critical language classroom. There are broader implications for veteran higher education, other Less Commonly Taught Languages, alternative pedagogies, non-traditional student education, K-12, foreign language education policy, foreign relations, diversity & equity in the classroom, and national security.

  19. Malnutrition and subsequent ischemic heart disease in former prisoners of war of World War II and the Korean conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W F; Ostfeld, A M

    1994-12-01

    The harsh treatment of former prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean conflict resulted in severe malnutrition. Although rarely linked to specific long-term medical problems, a specific marker of malnutrition, self-reported lower limb edema (presumably due to a vitamin B deficiency) was associated with a three-fold increase in subsequent death attributed to ischemic heart disease (IHD) during the follow-up period from 1967 through 1975. Although there is at present no medical basis for linking edema, which is perhaps a marker for some unmeasured risk factor, to subsequent IHD, this finding may nonetheless have medical implications for the group of former POWs and other populations with severe dietary deficiency. It also suggests there may be a need to reexamine currently held theories on malnutrition and subsequent chronic disease.

  20. John Dumbrell, Rethinking the Vietnam War.

    OpenAIRE

    Gratale, Joseph Michael

    2015-01-01

    Since the conclusion of the Vietnam War in the early 1970s, the USA has been involved in a number of wars and military interventions throughout the world.  From the US invasion of Grenada in 1983 and the Persian Gulf War of 1991, to the US wars in Afghanistan and Iraq in the early 21st century, the USA has found a variety of justifications and rationales in pursuing its national interests through the implementation of war.  In spite of the frequency and impacts of US military interventions ov...

  1. Political theology and eschatological war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griško Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to describe the antagonism that constitutes the eschatological position, i.e., the inseparability of eschatology from a concept of eschatological war, through 1 the political theology of Carl Schmitt, 2 Orthodox Christological anthropology and 3 the nomadology of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Schmitt's political theology can be understood as a theory of eschatological war. The theological character of Schimtt's work entails that 'the secularisation of theological concepts' is constitutive of the eschatological concept of cosmological finitude. Moreover, Schmitt's distinction between friend and enemy, which informs his concept of politics as the 'political', aims to identify the primary antagonism of eschatological history. For Schmitt, the liberal end of history is the absolutisation of the enemy, as liberalism denies the fundamental distinction of the political, namely, liberalism maintains that war is over on the basis of its claim to immanent historical truth. From the position of Orthodox Christological anthropology, liberalism also contains a clear eschatological element. The anthropology of liberalism is consistent with the gnomic will, which, according to St. Maximus the Confessor, is the fallen definition of human freedom, i.e., freedom as choice. Freedom as the natural will, in contrast, determines the ethical mission of man as the soteriological deification of cosmos. The lines of eschatological war can be further illustrated through the work of Deleuze and Guattari as well as Heinz Von Foerster, whose concepts of diagram/ abstract machine and trivial/non-trivial machine may contribute to an understanding of how a concept of war informs the transformative cosmology which belongs to the eschatological logic of cosmic finitude and deification, theosis.

  2. Food availability after nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of acute-phase food shortage vulnerabilities for 15 countries clearly indicates that in many countries massive levels of malnutrition and starvation are a possible outcome of a major nuclear war. The principal direct cause of such food shortages would be the climatic disturbances and societal disruptions during the initial post-war year. Even without climatic disturbances, import-dependent countries could suffer food shortages. Many of the countries with the highest levels of agricultural production and storage would probably be targets of nuclear weapons. It seems unlikely that food exports would continue from severely damaged countries, thus propagating effects to non-combatant countries. A similar analysis of food storage vulnerability in 130 countries indicates that a majority of people live in countries with inadequate food stores for such major perturbations. This is true even if consumption rates of 1,000 kcal . person/sup -1/ . day/sup -1/ are assumed rather than 1,500 kcal . person/sup -1/ . day/sup -1/. This vulnerability is particularly severe in Africa, and South America. Even though most of the countries of these continents have no nuclear weapons and are not likely to be targeted, the human consequences of a major nuclear war could be nearly as severe as in the principal combatant countries. Few countries would have sufficient food stores for their entire population and massive mortality would result if only pre-harvest levels were available. These conclusions represent an aspect of nuclear war that has only been recently realized. The possibility of climatic disturbances following a large nuclear war has introduced a new element to the global consequences expected. Not only are the populations of the major combatant countries at risk in a nuclear exchange, but also most of the global human population

  3. Hakim Mohammad: A Persian Military Surgeon in Safavid Era (1501-1736 CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaie, S-Ali; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Zargaran, Arman; Naseri, Mohsen

    2017-12-31

    Wars and injuries have accompanied mankind throughout history. Physicians and surgeons from various civilizations made difficult attempts to manage wounds and injuries. Among various civilizations, the Persian Empires had great armies which were well equipped. One of the most important organizations in Persian troops was the military surgery. This study presents a brief biography of Hakim Mohammad (a military surgeon in Safavid era) and introduces his book, Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. Safavid kings (1501-1736 CE) with unifying all of Persian regions and provinces reconstructed the Persian Empire. Great scholars and physicians were raised in this era. It seems that Persian physicians and surgeons were well trained in Safavid era and many of them were even employed by other countries like Ottoman Empire and India. Hakim Mohammad as a military surgeon was one of such physicians who served in Ottoman Empire for some time. He gathered his surgical experiences and others in the book of Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. This book was written in Persian. He has mainly written about the management of wounds and practical techniques. Later, he came back to his homeland and dedicated his book to the king of Persia.

  4. Nuclear Winter: Uncertainties Surround the Long-Term Effects of Nuclear War. Report to the Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Nuclear winter, a term used to describe potential long-term climate and environmental effects of nuclear war, has been a subject of debate and controversy. This report examines and presents scientific and policy implications of nuclear winter. Contents include: (1) an executive summary (highlighting previous and current studies on the topic); (2)…

  5. The Nordic Trade Union Movement and Transnational Anti-Communist Networks in the Early Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Dino Knudsen investigates how the American trade union movement, including figures such as Jay Lovestone and Irving Brown, established anti-Communist networks among the Nordic Non-Communist Left during the early Cold War. What were the implications of these networks, in the context of the Marshall...

  6. The long-term environmental and medical effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    Part 1 describes the physical structure of the atmosphere and reviews recent studies which have considered the atmospheric perturbations which could follow a nuclear war according to various scenarios. Part 2 describes the biological consequences of predicted atmospheric and climatic changes, concentrating on the long term implications for health and human well- being. Part 3 outlines some policy implications arising out of these environmental consequences and includes the conclusions and a summary of the report. (author)

  7. The history of Finnish nuclear non-proliferation policy during the cold war. What did the Finns know about nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahosniemi, A.

    2004-03-01

    This article is a summary of the Finnish historical survey during the Cold War. In the article, I try to show how the Finnish Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy during the Cold War is linked to the broader context of the Finnish foreign and security policy. In the research report I have focused on several questions. One of the most important is the following: What did the Finns know about nuclear weapons during the Cold War? And in this context scientific knowledge is meant by knowing something about nuclear weapons. Basically, the Finnish national based survey of nuclear non-proliferation policy attempted to investigate issues like the kind of research concerning Nuclear Technology in general, Nuclear weapons, and Nuclear weapon policies of super powers in Finland during the Cold War era. (author)

  8. Ukrainian Hybrid War – Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotărescu Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known for a long time, hybrid war taken place in Ukraine under the umbrella of Russian Federation surprised the whole world and produced the greatest worry for humankind’s fate since the World War II. The political and military analysts appreciate if the World War III does not come will at least follow a long time of a new cold war. Remembering the hybrid war is not declared, can be prolonged in time and the adversary is unknown, thus neither the aggressor state, it is hard to settle which are the countermeasures and how should be act when this clever adversary attacks you using hostile propaganda, to the limit of trick and war perfidy (the first is allowed as method of war, the latter is not, influences the political decision-makers by blackmail, military, economic and energetic deterrence or nuclear bombardments and undergoes subversive, clandestine actions and particularly it is hard to predict their consequences.

  9. Era Transmídia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Dias Arnaut

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A abordagem transmídia se mostra cada vez mais atual e interessante por integrar todos os conceitos de produção de conteúdos em uma única metodologia e processo de criação e distribuição. Atualmente, e cada vez mais, as pessoas, o público em geral é um potencial produtor de conteúdo nas novas mídias, seja através de uma simples câmera fotográfica, um telefone celular, um PC ou mesmo do mais sofisticado tablet. Nesta nova dinâmica, o mercado (conjunto de: audiência, mídia, concorrência e demais agentes apresenta novas plataformas de comuni-cação que, devido a sua abertura e amplo acesso, trazem consigo uma grande perda de controle do que é publi-cado e do próprio contexto originalmente planejado, pois a mídia espontânea e a interpretação do público criam novos caminhos para a história principal do projeto.A necessidade do mercado em estreitar relacionamento com seus clientes ou públicos (cada segmento de mercado é considerado um público diferente passa por uma grande transformação, que se implementada de forma impul-siva e despreparada, no que diz respeito à análise do público-alvo, aos formatos de distribuição e à mensagem enviada, pode acarretar na perda de oportunidades e propostas de comunicação. O foco dos projetos transmídia é utilizar  metodologias e  processos mais completos e abrangentes, do ponto de vista das áreas de criação de con-teúdo, tecnologia, marketing e outras, utilizando as melhores plataformas de mídia para o sucesso do projeto. De forma resumida o grupo de estudos em transmídia, #EraTransmídia, irá apresentar seus conceitos com o objetivo de proporcionar o engajamento social multiplataforma para resultados positivos.

  10. A New Era of Courtship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Dix

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The central purpose of this study was to determine whether a single interpersonal communication event could influence perceptions of physical attractiveness in a dating environment. A total of 104 undergraduate students at a large United States university engaged in speed-dating in order to examine the effects of both positive communication and negative communication. Speed-dating was incorporated into the present research because this round-robin method of dating offered an efficient means for investigating attraction and analyzing the effects of a single conversation. It was upon arrival at the event that participants completed a pre-test measure, engaged in a series of three minute speed-dates, and then completed a post-test measure. Results produced evidence of an interaction. Perceptions of physical attractiveness increased from pre-test to post-test in the positive communication condition while perceptions of physical attractiveness decreased from pre-test to post-test in the negative communication condition. Additional findings illustrated that three minutes of non-neutral social interaction had differing effects on women and men. One of the central conclusions from the present research was that females can strategically use interpersonal communication as a tool for enhancing their physical appearance. The results from this study also yielded practical implications that are relevant to casual dating as well as theoretical implications that are germane to communication theory.

  11. Literary Depictions i n Ghazavâtnâmahs That Adress the Crimean War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat Şamil ŞAHİN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean War that started in 1853 between the Ottoman Empire and Russia lasted until 1856. It ended with the defeat of the Russians as England and France sided with the Ottoman Empire. A great number of work has been written then and since about this war which deeply affect our social and politica l life. Among these, there are ghazavâtnâmahs that describe what happened down - to - line, usually by the pen of the poets and writers who closely witnessed the war. The causes of war, the preparations, what happened at the time of expedition and measures tha t were taken, the outcome of the events during the war and afterwards are all brought into sharp relief in most of these works. Whether in verse, prose or mixed typed, these works of art have gradually increased after 15 th century in Turkish literature. Th is genre has decreased by the Ottoman Empire began to decline and the raids were scarce; and it totally disappeared after the tradition of ghaza were ceased. In this study the literary depictions in - the last examples of the genre - Salih Hayri’s Kırım Zafe rnamesi (Hayrâbât, Ahmed Rızâ Trabzonî’s Manzume - i Sivastopol and Süleyman Şâdî’s Muzaffernâme are presented. There are not many studies that focus on literary depictions in ghazavâtnâmahs, particularly on literary war depictions. The characteristics of t hese literary depictions are tried to be explained with reference to ghazavâtnâmahs belonging to the Empire's last era.

  12. Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    after his return.432 Seventy- five Gulf War personnel were hospitalized for chicken pox during deployment.1431 Only a few cases of viral hepatitis were...and independent of circulating uranium levels. Of particular interest are findings from an ongoing study at the University of New Mexico indicating that...periods, can produce chronic neurological or behavioral effects. The New Mexico study is an important example of a particularly relevant approach

  13. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region: Beyond the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung-Joon Ahn

    1995-01-01

    Linked inexorably by geopolitics and geo-economics, Asia and North America are facing a number of common challenges in the aftermath of the Cold War. The prospects of a North Korea armed with nuclear weapons and medium-range ballistic missiles, and of China becoming another superpower, are impelling both Asia and America, and the US, Japan, and South Korea in particular, to strengthen their partnership for security, interdependence, and democracy. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region are at a crossroads, facing a new era of post-Cold War uncertainty. This chapter addresses the major trends emerging in the region in terms of changing national and international perspectives. It is important to examine what these changes imply for a new security and economic framework in Asia and the Pacific. The gravity of the world's political economy is shifting to this region

  14. Problems of deontology in the assessment of psychological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.; Chinkina, O.V.

    1987-01-01

    A person's psychological reactions, conditioned by nuclear bombardment of the Japanese cities in 1945 and subsequent era of constant threat of nuclear disaster recurrence, as well as the reactions of population social community are considered. Occurence of various psychical and psychophathological distruction in people who have directly overcome a nuclear blast, as well as among the population of the region, involved into a nuclear conflict, is referred to indirect effects of nuclear war. These consequences will as well take place among the population of states, which have not directly participated in the nucelar conflict. In this connection, the struggle against the nuclear war threat appears to be the professional duty of physicians in their struggle for physical, psychical health of contemporary and future generations

  15. The role of sexual assault on the risk of PTSD among Gulf War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han; Dalager, Nancy; Mahan, Clare; Ishii, Erick

    2005-03-01

    The 1991 Gulf War was the first major military deployment where female troops were integrated into almost every military unit, except for combat ground units. We evaluated the impact of reported sexual trauma during this deployment on the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the war. A nested case-control analysis was conducted using the data collected in a population-based health survey of 30,000 Gulf War era veterans. A total of 1381 Gulf War veterans with current PTSD were compared with 10,060 Gulf veteran controls without PTSD for self-reported in-theater experiences of sexual harassment/assault and combat exposure. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for PTSD associated with a report of sexual assault was 5.41 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.19-9.17) in female veterans and 6.21 (95% CI, 2.26-17.04) in male veterans. The aOR for PTSD associated with "high" combat exposure was also statistically significant (aOR, 4.03 [95% CI, 1.97-8.23] for females; aOR, 4.45 [95% CI, 3.54-5.60] for males). Notwithstanding a possibility of recall bias of combat and sexual trauma, for both men and women, sexual trauma as well as combat exposure appear to be strong risk factors for PTSD.

  16. The lab and the land: overcoming the Arctic in Cold War Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farish, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The militarization of Alaska during and after World War II created an extraordinary set of new facilities. But it also reshaped the imaginative role of Alaska as a hostile environment, where an antagonistic form of nature could be defeated with the appropriate combination of technology and training. One of the crucial sites for this reformulation was the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, based at Ladd Air Force Base in Fairbanks. In the first two decades of the Cold War, its employees conducted numerous experiments on acclimatization and survival. The laboratory is now best known for an infamous set of tests involving the application of radioactive tracers to indigenous Alaskans--experiments publicized by post-Cold War panels established to evaluate the tragic history of atomic-era human subject research. But little else has been written about the laboratory's relationship with the populations and landscapes that it targeted for study. This essay presents the laboratory as critical to Alaska's history and the history of the Cold War sciences. A consideration of the laboratory's various projects also reveals a consistent fascination with race. Alaskan Natives were enrolled in experiments because their bodies were understood to hold clues to the mysteries of northern nature. A scientific solution would aid American military campaigns not only in Alaska, but in cold climates everywhere.

  17. Global climate change, war, and population decline in recent human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David D; Brecke, Peter; Lee, Harry F; He, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Jane

    2007-12-04

    Although scientists have warned of possible social perils resulting from climate change, the impacts of long-term climate change on social unrest and population collapse have not been quantitatively investigated. In this study, high-resolution paleo-climatic data have been used to explore at a macroscale the effects of climate change on the outbreak of war and population decline in the preindustrial era. We show that long-term fluctuations of war frequency and population changes followed the cycles of temperature change. Further analyses show that cooling impeded agricultural production, which brought about a series of serious social problems, including price inflation, then successively war outbreak, famine, and population decline successively. The findings suggest that worldwide and synchronistic war-peace, population, and price cycles in recent centuries have been driven mainly by long-term climate change. The findings also imply that social mechanisms that might mitigate the impact of climate change were not significantly effective during the study period. Climate change may thus have played a more important role and imposed a wider ranging effect on human civilization than has so far been suggested. Findings of this research may lend an additional dimension to the classic concepts of Malthusianism and Darwinism.

  18. Moral Crisis, Pragmatism, and the Lessons of the Library War Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T.F. Burgess

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1917, the leadership of the American Library Association (ALA developed the Library War Service program. This program was designed to collect funds and distribute books to American soldiers who were in training or deployed for World War I. The war effort provided an opportunity to regain status for the profession that had been lost as a result of policy decisions during the progressive era in librarianship. This search for external validation resulted in a return to culturally authoritarian practices such as the censorship of German language material, denial of access to pacifist organizations, and the institution of mandatory loyalty oaths among library employees. This paper presents an examination of how resolving the moral crisis in American librarianship that occurred as part of the Library War Service eventually led to the establishment of some of the major ethical codes used by the ALA. It makes the case that this resolution promoted closer integration of the profession’s identity and its behaviour. It argues as well that this integration has led members of the ALA to develop expertise in defending the public’s intellectual freedoms, which is a significant contribution to society. Attention is given to the pragmatic nature of historical and contemporary progressive policy decisions and to the risks to the status of public libraries posed by moral crises that result from seeking external validation for the worth of the library profession.

  19. Implications of a North Korean Nuclear Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-07-01

    The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is one of the Cold War`s last remaining totalitarian regimes. Rarely has any society been as closed to outside influences and so distant from political, economic, and military developments around the globe. In 1991 and in 1992, however, this dictatorship took a number of political steps which increased Pyongyang`s interaction with the outside world. Although North Korea`s style of engagement with the broader international community involved frequent pauses and numerous steps backward, many observers believed that North Korea was finally moving to end its isolated, outlaw status. As the end of 1992 approached, however, delay and obstruction by Pyongyang became intense as accumulating evidence suggested that the DPRK, in violation of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), was seeking to develop nuclear weapons. On March 12, 1993, North Korea announced that it would not accept additional inspections proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to resolve concerns about possible violations and instead would withdraw from the Treaty. Pyongyang`s action raised the specter that, instead of a last act of the Cold War, North Korea`s diplomatic maneuvering would unravel the international norms that were to be the basis of stability and peace in the post-Cold War era. Indeed, the discovery that North Korea was approaching the capability to produce nuclear weapons suggested that the nuclear threat, which had been successfully managed throughout the Cold War era, could increase in the post-Cold War era.

  20. Commentary from Westminster. Medical effects of nuclear war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, R

    1983-03-12

    A British Medical Association report on the medical consequences of nuclear war, scheduled for commercial publication in April 1983, could damage the Government's arguments for maintaining a nuclear deterrent. The gist of the BMA's findings is that Britain could not possibly cope with the aftermath of nuclear attack. Although Prime Minister Thatcher has made no comment, both the Home Office and the Department of Health and Social Security have criticized the report's negative conclusions. The BMA is expected to take up the issue at its annual meeting, and the Labour party has called for a Parliamentary debate on the report and its implications.

  1. Gulf war illness--better, worse, or just the same? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotopf, Matthew; David, Anthony S; Hull, Lisa; Nikalaou, Vasilis; Unwin, Catherine; Wessely, Simon

    2003-12-13

    Firstly, to describe changes in the health of Gulf war veterans studied in a previous occupational cohort study and to compare outcome with comparable non-deployed military personnel. Secondly, to determine whether differences in prevalence between Gulf veterans and controls at follow up can be explained by greater persistence or greater incidence of disorders. Occupational cohort study in the form of a postal survey. Military personnel who served in the 1991 Persian Gulf war; personnel who served on peacekeeping duties to Bosnia; military personnel who were deployed elsewhere ("Era" controls). All participants had responded to a previous survey. United Kingdom. Self reported fatigue measured on the Chalder fatigue scale; psychological distress measured on the general health questionnaire, physical functioning and health perception on the SF-36; and a count of physical symptoms. Gulf war veterans experienced a modest reduction in prevalence of fatigue (48.8% at stage 1, 43.4% at stage 2) and psychological distress (40.0% stage 1, 37.1% stage 2) but a slight worsening of physical functioning on the SF-36 (90.3 stage 1, 88.7 stage 2). Compared with the other cohorts Gulf veterans continued to experience poorer health on all outcomes, although physical functioning also declined in Bosnia veterans. Era controls showed both lower incidence of fatigue than Gulf veterans, and both comparison groups showed less persistence of fatigue compared with Gulf veterans. Gulf war veterans remain a group with many symptoms of ill health. The excess of illness at follow up is explained by both higher incidence and greater persistence of symptoms.

  2. From Goya to Afghanistan--an essay on the ratio and ethics of medical war pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo; de Mare, Heidi; Meijman, Frans J

    2010-01-01

    For centuries pictures of the dead and wounded have been part and parcel of war communications. Often the intentions were clear, ranging from medical instructions to anti-war protests. The public's response could coincide with or diverge from the publisher's intention. Following the invention of photography in the nineteenth century, and the subsequent claim of realism, the veracity of medical war images became more complex. Analysing and understanding such photographs have become an ethical obligation with democratic implications. We performed a multidisciplinary analysis of War Surgery (2008), a book containing harsh, full-colour photographs of mutilated soldiers from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Our analysis shows that, within the medical context, this book is a major step forward in medical war communication and documentation. In the military context the book can be conceived as an attempt to put matters right given the enormous sacrifice some individuals have suffered. For the public, the relationship between the 'reality' and 'truth' of such photographs is ambiguous, because only looking at the photographs without reading the medical context is limiting. If the observer is not familiar with medical practice, it is difficult for him to fully assess, signify and acknowledge the value and relevance of this book. We therefore assert the importance of the role of professionals and those in the humanities in particular in educating the public and initiating debate.

  3. [Endovascular surgery in the war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, V A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical technologies has led to implementation of endovascular methods of diagnosis and treatment into rapidly developing battlefield surgery. This work based on analysing all available current publications generalizes the data on using endovascular surgery in combat vascular injury. During the Korean war (1950-1953) American surgeons for the first time performed endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta - the first intravascular intervention carried out in a zone of combat operations. Half a century thereafter, with the beginning of the war in Afghanistan (2001) and in Iraq (2003) surgeons of central hospitals of the USA Armed Forces began performing delayed endovascular operations to the wounded. The development of technologies, advent of mobile angiographs made it possible to later on implement high-tech endovascular interventions in a zone of combat operations. At first, more often they performed implantation of cava filters, somewhat afterward - angioembolization of damaged accessory vessels, stenting and endovascular repair of major arteries. The first in the theatre of war endovascular prosthetic repair of the thoracic aorta for severe closed injury was performed in 2008. Russian experience of using endovascular surgery in combat injuries is limited to diagnostic angiography and regional intraarterial perfusion. Despite the advent of stationary angiographs in large hospitals of the RF Ministry of Defence in the early 1990s, endovascular operations for combat vascular injury are casuistic. Foreign experience in active implementation of endovascular technologies to treatment of war-time injuries has substantiated feasibility of using intravascular interventions in tertiary care military hospitals. Carrying out basic training courses on endovascular surgery should become an organic part of preparing multimodality general battlefield surgeons rendering care on the theatre of combat operations.

  4. The evolving war on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Daniel A; Gray, Nathanael S; Baselga, Jose

    2011-04-01

    Building on years of basic scientific discovery, recent advances in the fields of cancer genetics and medicinal chemistry are now converging to revolutionize the treatment of cancer. Starting with serendipitous observations in rare subsets of cancer, a paradigm shift in clinical research is poised to ensure that new molecular insights are rapidly applied to shape emerging cancer therapies. Could this mark a turning point in the "War on Cancer"? Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling Cyber Physical War Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    games share similar constructs. We also provide a game-theoretic approach to mathematically analyze attacker and defender strategies in cyber war...Military Practice of Course-of-Action Analysis 4 2. Game-Theoretic Method 7 2.1 Mathematical Model 7 2.2 Strategy Selection 10 2.2.1 Pure...officers, hundreds of combat and support vehicles, helicopters, sophisticated intelligence and communication equipment and specialists , artillery and

  6. Japanese physicist during the war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Nambu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The japanese interest for the science is comparatively recent and one of the first japanese physicist is Hantoro Nagaoka with an atomic model in 1903. During the war the physicist take refuge in the theory and two universities proper in spite of difficult working conditions. This paper goes over the historical aspects of the japanese scientific research and contributions to the nucleus physic. (A.L.B.)

  7. War Termination: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    UA25 .L342 2009) Mandel, Robert . The Meaning of Military Victory. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006. 190pp. (U163 .M266 2006) Marshall, Monty G., and...Ted Robert Gurr. Peace and Conflict 2005: A Global Survey of Armed Conflicts, Self-Determination Movements, and Democracy. College Park: Center for...18pp. (AD-A468-990) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA468990 Raymer , James H. In Search of Lasting Results: Military War Termination Doctrine. Fort

  8. The Nature of War Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    of Positivism , 1848, Auguste Comte presents the Hierarchy of Science that is in general use today. Mathematics is at the top of Comte‟s hierarchy of...as those of September 11, 2001, should be punitive or legal and should not provoke full altruistic war. The final insight is that the Information...and the absence of a role for external agents in domestic governance. It is characterized by a state‟s right of political self-determination, legal

  9. Recent Reanalysis Activities at ECMWF: Results from ERA-20C and Plans for ERA5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragani, R.; Hersbach, H.; Poli, P.; Pebeuy, C.; Hirahara, S.; Simmons, A.; Dee, D.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the most recent reanalysis activities performed at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). A pilot reanalysis of the 20th-century (ERA-20C) has recently been completed. Funded through the European FP7 collaborative project ERA-CLIM, ERA-20C is part of a suite of experiments that also includes a model-only integration (ERA-20CM) and a land-surface reanalysis (ERA-20CL). Its data assimilation system is constrained by only surface observations obtained from ISPD (3.2.6) and ICOADS (2.5.1). Surface boundary conditions are provided by the Hadley Centre (HadISST2.1.0.0) and radiative forcing follows CMIP5 recommended data sets. First-guess uncertainty estimates are based on a 10-member ensemble of Data Assimilations, ERA-20C ensemble, run prior to ERA-20C using ten SST and sea-ice realizations from the Hadley Centre. In November 2014, the European Commission entrusted ECMWF to run on its behalf the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) aiming at producing quality-assured information about the past, current and future states of the climate at both European and global scales. Reanalysis will be one of the main components of the C3S portfolio and the first one to be produced is a global modern era reanalysis (ERA5) covering the period from 1979 onwards. Based on a recent version of the ECMWF data assimilation system, ERA5 will replace the widely used ERA-Interim dataset. This new production will benefit from a much improved model, and better characterized and exploited observations compared to its predecessor. The first part of the presentation will focus on the ERA-20C production, provide an overview of its main characteristics and discuss some of the key results from its assessment. The second part of the talk will give an overview of ERA5, and briefly discuss some of its challenges.

  10. Communicating mathematics in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Borwein, Jonathan; Rodrigues, Jose Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The digital era has dramatically changed the ways that researchers search, produce, publish, and disseminate their scientific work. These processes are still rapidly evolving due to improvements in information science, new achievements in computer science technologies, and initiatives such as DML and open access journals, digitization projects, scientific reference catalogs, and digital repositories. These changes have prompted many mathematicians to play an active part in the developments of the digital era, and have led mathematicians to promote and discuss new ideas with colleagues from other fields, such as technology developers and publishers. This book is a collection of contributions by key leaders in the field, offering the paradigms and mechanisms for producing, searching, and exploiting scientific and technical scholarship in mathematics in the digital era.

  11. Climatic effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent findings by this group confirmed by workers in Europe, the US and the USSR, suggest that the long-term climatic effects of a major nuclear war are likely to be much severer and farther-reaching than had been supposed. In the aftermath of such a war vast areas of the earth could be subjected to prolonged darkness, abnormally low temperatures, violent windstorms, toxic smog and persistent radioactive fallout - in short, the combination of conditions that has come to be known as nuclear winter. In brief, the authors' initial results, published in Science in December, 1983, showed that the potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war...are serious. Significant hemispherical attenuation of the solar radiation flux and subfreezing land temperatures may be caused by fine dust raised in high-yield nuclear surface bursts and by smoke from city and forest fires ignited by airbursts of all yields. Subsequent studies, based on more powerful models of the general circulation of the earth's atmosphere, have tended to confirm both the validity of the authors' investgative approach and the main thrust of their findings. Most of this article is devoted to reviewing the current state of knowledge on this vital issue

  12. Climatic effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covey, C.

    1985-01-01

    Global climatic consequences of a nuclear war have, until recently, been assumed to be insignificant compared with the obviously devastating direct effects from blast, heat, and short-term fallout. But a number of investigations carried out over the past few years indicate that climatic impact could actually be severe enough to threaten the global ecosystem significantly, including regions that may not have been directly involved in the war. This change in perception comes as researchers realize that the fires ignited by nuclear explosions would generate so much smoke that, even spread over a large portion of Earth's surface, densities could be high enough to block most of the sunlight normally reaching the ground. As a result, temperatures could decrease below freezing in a nuclear winter lasting weeks to months. Smoke from fires is what would make nuclear winter so severe. Of necessity, theoretical models are relied upon to estimate the climatic impact of nuclear war. The models incorporate many uncertain assumptions, particularly regarding the small-scale details of smoke production by fires

  13. Post Gulf War oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    One of the spin-offs from the Gulf War will be a change in the old order within OPEC. With Iraq and Kuwait production stopped because of the war, output from OPEC countries is around 23.5 million barrels per day compared with about 20 million last August before the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. It is reported that there are some 225 to 235 million barrels of oil in inventory, worldwide, above normal levels. As seen in the accompanying graph, oil prices have drifted back to about the same level as in March 1990 from the wartime high of nearly $40/bbl. Before the invasion, Saudi Arabia's quota was 5.4 million bbls per day. Since then, Saudi has pumped at 7.7 to 7.9 bbls per day with plans to reactivate shut-in wells which will bring production capability to 10 million bbls per day. Other OPEC countries are at maximum capacity and some, Venezuela, for example, are also in the process of expanding production. This article discusses the effect of the war on the future oil supply, other countries' response to Iraq oil production, and prediction of possible oil price response

  14. The new front in the war on doping: Amateur athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, April D; Dimeo, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The war on drugs is usually associated with criminal policies aimed at stemming consumption of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and cannabis, less so with enhancement drugs like those used in sport. As drug use in sport, or doping, has become more visibly widespread, policies aimed at combating the issue have become more restrictive, intrusive, and harsh. In this article we draw new comparisons between the wider war on drugs and recent developments in sports anti-doping. We identify a growing trend towards criminalisation of traffickers and users, and associate that with another growing trend: the testing of amateur athletes. This article reviews the current anti-doping system, including the recent amateur policies, then considers of the results of one such program in amateur cycling. We then shift to consider the possible implications for amateurs of criminal doping laws and the recent debates about allowing medical exemptions for therapeutic use of banned substances. We show that drug use in sport can be understood as a new front in the war on drugs, with some extreme measures and many negative unintended consequences. To remedy this, we argue that amateur athletes require a separate anti-doping policy focused on minimising harms of use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chinese librarianship in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Conghui

    2013-01-01

    The library in China has been transformed by rapid socioeconomic development, and the proliferation of the Internet. The issues faced by Chinese libraries andlibrarians are those faced by library practitioners more globally, however, China also has its own unique set of issues in the digital era, including developmental imbalance between East and West, urban and rural areas, and availability of skilled practitioners. Chinese Librarianship in the Digital Era is the first book on Chinese libraries responding to these issues, and more.The first part of the book places discussion in historical con

  16. Science, ethics and war: a pacifist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    This article considers the ethical aspects of the question: should a scientist engage in war-related research, particularly use-inspired or applied research directed at the development of the means for the better waging of war? Because scientists are simultaneously professionals, citizens of a particular country, and human beings, they are subject to conflicting moral and practical demands. There are three major philosophical views concerning the morality of war that are relevant to this discussion: realism, just war theory and pacifism. In addition, the requirements of professional codes of ethics and common morality contribute to an ethical analysis of the involvement of scientists and engineers in war-related research and technology. Because modern total warfare, which is facilitated by the work of scientists and engineers, results in the inevitable killing of innocents, it follows that most, if not all, war-related research should be considered at least as morally suspect and probably as morally prohibited.

  17. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  18. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  19. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  20. The War of Ideas: An Abandoned Front in the Global War on Terror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allegretti, Joseph A

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the United States is losing the "war of ideas." The U.S. Department of State is the lead agency for strategic communications in the war of ideas, as distinguished from the U.S...

  1. The 1967 Arab-Israeli Six-Day War: An Analysis Using the Principles of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glazer, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The 1967 Arab-Israeli Six-Day War provides the operational commander with an excellent opportunity to examine the importance of the application, or misapplication, of the principles of war in a conflict...

  2. The Relation between Hollywood and the New Threat Perception of the USA after the End of the Cold War from the Perspective of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Deger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available After the end of Cold War, the USA became the only super power and there was no threat perception from outside, in other words no enemy anymore. In fact, throughout history the USA faced different threats, that is to say, enemies. The terrorist events experienced in America after the end of Cold War brought about that the new enemy was Middle Easterners. Accordingly, the place of cinema in postmodernism is very significant as it becomes the reflection of the zeitgeist and the mindset of the era in which the film is shot.

  3. The myth of nuclear deterrence: The lessons of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro

    1997-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has provided a great opportunity and an urgent need for recasting a long-range policy for nuclear weapons. At the moment, however, there is not much prospect of nuclear disarmament by the United States and Russia beyond START II, and no prospect of nuclear disarmament by the other states, while the chances of nuclear proliferation remain high. This paper explores the implications of the Cold War for further nuclear disarmament and preventing future nuclear proliferation, focusing on the notion of nuclear deterrence and the 'crystal ball effect' of nuclear weapons

  4. The physicians and the nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    This paper shows that a lot of physicians in the world are worried about a new nuclear war and they created the International Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War. The main objectives of the IPPNNW are to amplify the public or people knowledge of the medical aspects of the nuclear war and promote and coordinate researches about the medical and psychological effects of the nuclear weapon race. (author)

  5. What is New in New Wars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    it is appropriate to briefly summarize classical war theory. Many theorists and practitioners have studied war. Plato , Thucydides, Sun Tzu, Jomini and... rational purpose, where pride reigns, where emotions are paramount and where instinct is king.13 War is also a place where we are prevented from...be associated with the existence of societies or states, of state interests and of rational and irrational calculation on how they may be achieved

  6. If war is "just," so is abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  7. Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0480 TITLE: Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D...Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0480 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ashok K...biodegradable polymer nanosystems (nCUR) for alleviating cognitive, memory and mood impairments in a rat model of gulf war illness (GWI). Specific

  8. Hybrid Wars: Israel’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Grachikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to summarize the experience of Israel in the fight against non-traditional threats, which escalated into a hybrid war. Feature of these wars lies in the fact that they are usually conducted between Western and non-Western countries in the border and poorly controlled space. West opponents favor alliances and associations of non-Western countries and non-state actors. In this case, to justify the war, the norms of international law are used.

  9. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the head...

  10. Russian deserters of World War I

    OpenAIRE

    Os'kin Maksim

    2014-01-01

    Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conflicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion sca...

  11. America’s Longest War – the War on Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrwisz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The problem of using illicit drugs in the United States, which is the largest drug consumer in the world, is an important and controversial subject. The prohibition, which aimed to eliminate alcohol from the American society, ended in a failure. In the case of federal drug legislation, the first acts appeared exactly one hundred years ago. The next, intense phase began in 1970 during the presidency of Richard Nixon, when the war on drugs has been declared. Until this day, the number of acts a...

  12. Privacy in the Genomic Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Ayday, Erman; Clayton, Ellen W; Fellay, Jacques; Gunter, Carl A; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Malin, Bradley A; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Genome sequencing technology has advanced at a rapid pace and it is now possible to generate highly-detailed genotypes inexpensively. The collection and analysis of such data has the potential to support various applications, including personalized medical services. While the benefits of the genomics revolution are trumpeted by the biomedical community, the increased availability of such data has major implications for personal privacy; notably because the genome has certain essential features, which include (but are not limited to) (i) an association with traits and certain diseases, (ii) identification capability (e.g., forensics), and (iii) revelation of family relationships. Moreover, direct-to-consumer DNA testing increases the likelihood that genome data will be made available in less regulated environments, such as the Internet and for-profit companies. The problem of genome data privacy thus resides at the crossroads of computer science, medicine, and public policy. While the computer scientists have addressed data privacy for various data types, there has been less attention dedicated to genomic data. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematization of knowledge for the computer science community. In doing so, we address some of the (sometimes erroneous) beliefs of this field and we report on a survey we conducted about genome data privacy with biomedical specialists. Then, after characterizing the genome privacy problem, we review the state-of-the-art regarding privacy attacks on genomic data and strategies for mitigating such attacks, as well as contextualizing these attacks from the perspective of medicine and public policy. This paper concludes with an enumeration of the challenges for genome data privacy and presents a framework to systematize the analysis of threats and the design of countermeasures as the field moves forward.

  13. Privacy in the Genomic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAVEED, MUHAMMAD; AYDAY, ERMAN; CLAYTON, ELLEN W.; FELLAY, JACQUES; GUNTER, CARL A.; HUBAUX, JEAN-PIERRE; MALIN, BRADLEY A.; WANG, XIAOFENG

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequencing technology has advanced at a rapid pace and it is now possible to generate highly-detailed genotypes inexpensively. The collection and analysis of such data has the potential to support various applications, including personalized medical services. While the benefits of the genomics revolution are trumpeted by the biomedical community, the increased availability of such data has major implications for personal privacy; notably because the genome has certain essential features, which include (but are not limited to) (i) an association with traits and certain diseases, (ii) identification capability (e.g., forensics), and (iii) revelation of family relationships. Moreover, direct-to-consumer DNA testing increases the likelihood that genome data will be made available in less regulated environments, such as the Internet and for-profit companies. The problem of genome data privacy thus resides at the crossroads of computer science, medicine, and public policy. While the computer scientists have addressed data privacy for various data types, there has been less attention dedicated to genomic data. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematization of knowledge for the computer science community. In doing so, we address some of the (sometimes erroneous) beliefs of this field and we report on a survey we conducted about genome data privacy with biomedical specialists. Then, after characterizing the genome privacy problem, we review the state-of-the-art regarding privacy attacks on genomic data and strategies for mitigating such attacks, as well as contextualizing these attacks from the perspective of medicine and public policy. This paper concludes with an enumeration of the challenges for genome data privacy and presents a framework to systematize the analysis of threats and the design of countermeasures as the field moves forward. PMID:26640318

  14. The Quotidianisation of the War in Everyday Life at German Schools during the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Joachim; Berdelmann, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of the First World War had a powerful impact on German schools. Undoubtedly, schools were institutions of socialisation that did offer support to the war. Indeed, research has shown that a specific "war pedagogy" made an aggressive propaganda possible in the classroom. This research usually emphasises the enthusiasm for war…

  15. “The War Took Its Origins in a Mistake”: The Third War of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The early colonial wars on the Cape Colony's eastern borderlands and western Xhosaland, such as the 1799–1803 war, have not received as much attention from military historians as the later wars. This is unexpected since this lengthy conflict was the first time the British army fought indigenous people in southern Africa.

  16. "The Masters of War": Finding Ways to Talk about the First World War Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This article sets out to challenge conventional descriptions and explanations of war and teaching about war. It draws on raw data from three qualitative arts-based projects to illustrate the complexity of cognitive and affective understandings of the place of war, past, present and future, through the jarring dissonance of "mash-up"--a…

  17. Family Health in an Era of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes major findings of a national survey, "The General Mills American Family Report 1978/79: Family Health in an Era of Stress," conducted by Yankelovich, Skelly and White. Topics covered include attitudes toward medical costs, mental illness, and good health practices, as well as expressed interest in health information. (SJL)

  18. Biotechnology: An Era of Hopes and Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Fall 2016 23 Biotechnology An Era of Hopes and Fears LTC Douglas R. Lewis, PhD, US Army Abstract Biotechnology ......ignored. The idea of advances in biotechnology increasing the biological weapons threat is not new. In 2003 an analysis of gene sequencing and

  19. Time Management in the Digital Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Nan

    2013-01-01

    School business officials can strike a balance between setting a long-term strategy and responding to short-term situations by implementing time management strategies. This article presents tips for time management that could help boost productivity and save time in this digital era. Tips include decreasing meeting times via Skype or…

  20. Aplikasi Citizen Journalism di Era Konvergensi Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Edi Irawan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Citizen journalism has now become one of the most developed television program concepts. If the concept was initially more widely used in radio and online media, this time with easier and cheaper technology coverage and delivery of images, it is a concept that provides a place for people to become amateur journalist that can also be easily applied in the medium of television. Research raised the issue on how the concept and implementation of citizen journalism on television in the era of media convergence. The purpose of this study is to explain concepts and demonstrate the implementation of citizen journalism on television in the era of media convergence. Research used qualitative method in which data were obtained using literature study. Results of the study showed that the implementation of citizen journalism on television is also increasingly facilitated by the entry of the television in the era of media convergence, or different media mingle, such as television with printed, radio, and Internet media. The era of media convergence makes the concept of citizen journalism can be more developed, because the platform or media distribution is also increasingly varied for amateur journalist. However, the system equipment that must be provided, human resources that must be owned, as well as huge capital to be owned make a few television stations open a lot of platforms to provide space for amateur journalist in citizen journalism. 

  1. Rethinking Education in an Era of Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article reflects on the historic tensions of education under capitalism, arguing that they have been exacerbated in our era of neo-liberal globalisation. Government drives for greater "accountability" and "effectiveness" are a blinkered response to the threefold global crisis we face: poverty and debt; a collapse of the…

  2. Global Learning in a New Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaley, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Our nation's colleges and universities frequently adapt their approach to education in response to the reality of social, economic and environmental challenges. Today the reality is that we are increasingly interconnected on a global scale. This new era of globalization impacts every facet of society, and it offers both an exciting blend of…

  3. Scandinavian neuroscience during the Nazi era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Hansen, Klaus; Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    Although Scandinavian neuroscience has a proud history, its status during the Nazi era has been overlooked. In fact, prominent neuroscientists in German-occupied Denmark and Norway, as well as in neutral Sweden, were directly affected. Mogens Fog, Poul Thygesen (Denmark) and Haakon Sæthre (Norway...

  4. Family Therapy in the Postmodern Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Steven D.; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses theoretical and clinical developments that have accompanied family therapy's entry into the postmodern era. Clinical trends, including use of reflecting teams, self-of-the-therapist issues, increased therapist self-disclosure, and postmodern supervision are examined. Feminist critiques, health-care reform, and increasing collaboration…

  5. Faculty Recruitment in an Era of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Marilyn; Schimpf, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Faculty recruitment is a challenge for administration and departments, especially in an era of change in the academy. This article builds on information from an interactive conference panel session that focused on faculty recruitment best practices. The article addresses faculty recruitment strategies that focus on the optimization of search…

  6. Multiscale computing in the exascale era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alowayyed, S.; Groen, D.; Coveney, P.V.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    We expect that multiscale simulations will be one of the main high performance computing workloads in the exascale era. We propose multiscale computing patterns as a generic vehicle to realise load balanced, fault tolerant and energy aware high performance multiscale computing. Multiscale computing

  7. Clinical Evaluation of a Proposed New Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levine, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Thus far, studies on Gulf War veterans have not defined any syndrome specific to deployed Gulf War veterans, but have only suggested that Persian Gulf War veterans have a higher frequency of a number...

  8. Women of Valor in the American Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heimerman, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    .... At the outset of the war, more women were forced into working in factories or for the government, not only to support the war effort but also to provide for the family when the husband was at war...

  9. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  10. Scientific Education in the Post-Corporate University Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhor, S. H.

    2008-12-01

    The emergence of electronic journals, online databases and online educational tools has provided our civilization with a plethora of opportunities to expand the impact of our educational system. Nonetheless, structures that were borne out of the post-World War II era remain firmly entrenched and, though they have undergone some transformation, continue to underperform the potential that is now attainable via a full- fledged incorporation of information technology into pedagogy even in the earliest stages of learning. The induction of talented, self-motivated individuals, irrespective of their financial background, should be at the forefront of any new approach to pedagogy as many of our talented youth with the potential for success have underappreciated capacities for independent learning. A more liberal system, which we call the "Open University," may encourage many such individuals to pursue a scientific career, save them the often prohibitive cost of attending prestigious universities, reduce the costs of operating universities and pave a fast-track to intellectual development for the most talented high-school students. This system may be implemented in tandem without detriment to our current system provided that educators take it upon themselves to reach out and collaborate with high-school teachers, and university bureaucracies begin to allow degree certification on the basis of standardized competency examinations and panel reviews of published work as opposed to the completion of a rigid set of cost-bearing requirements. In addition to the history and concepts outlined above, this work presents a model for a School for Rapid Intellectual Development (SFRID) which may be implemented at a minimal cost in developing countries and, thereby, can maximize the scope and extent of the Open University approach. Hopefully, this model will be tested in practice in the near future and, if successful, can be cloned both overseas and in North America.

  11. Gulf war depleted uranium risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C

    2008-01-01

    US and British forces used depleted uranium (DU) in armor-piercing rounds to disable enemy tanks during the Gulf and Balkan Wars. Uranium particulate is generated by DU shell impact and particulate entrained in air may be inhaled or ingested by troops and nearby civilian populations. As uranium is slightly radioactive and chemically toxic, a number of critics have asserted that DU exposure has resulted in a variety of adverse health effects for exposed veterans and nearby civilian populations. The study described in this paper used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to DU during the 1991 Gulf War for both US troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. The analysis indicated that only a few ( approximately 5) US veterans in vehicles accidentally targeted by US tanks received significant exposure levels, resulting in about a 1.4% lifetime risk of DU radiation-induced fatal cancer (compared with about a 24% risk of a fatal cancer from all other causes). These veterans may have also experienced temporary kidney damage. Iraqi children playing for 500 h in DU-destroyed vehicles are predicted to incur a cancer risk of about 0.4%. In vitro and animal tests suggest the possibility of chemically induced health effects from DU internalization, such as immune system impairment. Further study is needed to determine the applicability of these findings for Gulf War exposure to DU. Veterans and civilians who did not occupy DU-contaminated vehicles are unlikely to have internalized quantities of DU significantly in excess of normal internalization of natural uranium from the environment.

  12. Polemological Paradigm of Hybrid War Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Dodonov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the methodological problems and manipulative mechanisms of hybrid warfare. Owing to the polemological (from πολέμιος — war and λόγος — study approach the authors managed to systematize and summarize the theories of war and peace, clarify contemporary western concepts of warfare, outline the specifi cs of the Russian view on the hybrid war concept, assess the signifi cance of information and manipulation technologies for hybrid wars, analyze a number of geopolitical and socio-cultural dimensions of modern hybrid wars. The polemology is a branch of science, which studies the nature of armed confl icts and wars, their role in time and space, cycles, intensity, scope, scale, and causative relations and their classifi cation. Polemology deals with the wars and armed confl icts of the past, present and future. Novel hybrid wars take a respective place among them. They involve using all available warfare, regular and irregular, cyber and those allowing for the use of weapons of mass destruction, and also information, psychological and propaganda war using the latest information and media technologies. According to the classical approach, the state is the only subject of military actions, but today its role has changed dramatically under the infl uence of other political and economic supranational and trans-border factors. For the purpose of studying wars and armed confl icts from the polemological perspective it means the need to focus on social changes in all the areas of human life, on considering various elements of the political, economic or even technological context, which infl uence the war as a social phenomenon.

  13. Medicine and nuclear war - helpless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    At the end of the ''2nd Medical Congress for the Prevention of Nuclear War'' attention is again drawn to the fact that erroneous or intended use of nuclear weapons can kill hundreds of millions and make the earth unlivable. What physicians are refusing here is not to give whatever help they can or are obliged to. They are on strike against politicians and journalists who ascribe them an ability they do not possess. They refuse to be the objects of false praise pretending that they could be helpers or rescuers in the, unfortunately, not only possible but probable nuclear catastrophe. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Icons and Emoticons: Screen Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Duerfahrd, Lance

    2015-01-01

    The cinema is being upstaged by a device paradoxically meant (in part) to transmit it: the iPhone. How do films change, how is their impact altered, when viewed on these devices? What aspects of the movie screen (and subsequently our movie experience) are lost or threatened when they are displaced by this new technological format? This is not an abstract war: it is going on (in the dark) every time we attend a screening. My paper will explore what is at stake in our decision to illuminate our...

  15. When War Rigs the Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of intrastate conflict on electoral manipulation. Using a rationalist bargaining model, it produces a hypothesis stating that actors in post-conflict elections will have increased incentive to reallocate seats through manipulation. To test this causal claim a new...... % seat threshold critical for obtaining absolute majority, the intensity of intrastate conflict before each election exhibits a large, positive jump right at the cut-off. This is interpreted as evidence of conflict having a substantial, manipulation-inducing effect on the largest parties in parliament...... – in the aftermath of war they tend to tamper with election results in order to gain absolute majority....

  16. The threat of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report aims to describe the present threat of nuclear war, with particular reference to New Zealand, and the increasing concern felt by many scientists, from a scientific viewpoint but in non-technical language. It surveys what is known about nuclear weapons and the consequences of their use, and attention is drawn to the importance of penetrating the language and examining the assumptions made in the propaganda about n uclear deterrence . The tasks involved in maintaining the present peace and attempting to establish an agreed disarmament is examined. The report pays particular attention to the roles of scientists in these endeavours

  17. Atoms for war or peace?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forland, A.

    1988-01-01

    The first nuclear reactor built in Norway was a 100 kW experimental reactor which was put into operation at Kjeller in 1951. After the Ministry of Defence had granted 5 millions Nkr for the purpose of building a small research reactor, Institutt for atomenergi was established in 1947. The planning of the project took place at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. The main purpose of this study is to explain why a small power like Norway went ahead with a nuclear reactor project at the outset of the post-war period: How was it possible for Norway to undertake nuclear energy research, and what were the reasons for doing it?

  18. The Second Schleswig War 1864. Prelude, Events and Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Ole; Adriansen, Inge

    The Second Schleswig War 1864 offers a reader-friendly overview of the prelude to the war, the events of the war itself, and its wide-ranging, long-lasting consequences.......The Second Schleswig War 1864 offers a reader-friendly overview of the prelude to the war, the events of the war itself, and its wide-ranging, long-lasting consequences....

  19. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Suzy Kim

    2015-01-01

    While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran) during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. T...

  20. Radical Islam in Britain: Implications for the War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donalds, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    .... As opposed to the terrorists who attacked the United States in September 2001, the perpetrators of the London transit bombings in July 2005 were born and raised in the country which they attacked...